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The official journal of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

Promoting integrated resources management

Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

The WasteCon Issue

Sustainable Landfills Market-leading innovation



Turning waste into worth

Green Buildings

Recycling polystyrene for walls

H o l d i n g s

Waste bins that work

In the Hot Seat

ISSN 1680-4902 R50.00 (incl VAT) • Vol. 18, No. 4, August 2016

We want to achieve a circular economy. That doesn’t entail only dealing with waste – we need to develop the whole recycling supply chain.” Stacey Davidson Director, REDISA

is printed on 100% recycled paper

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CONTENTS www.3smedia.co.za ISSN 1680-4902, Volume 18, No.4, August 2016 The official journal of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

Promoting integrated resources management

Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

The WasteCon Issue

Sustainable Landfills Market leading innovation


Waste to Energy

Turning waste into worth

Green buildings

Recycling polystyrene for walls

The ReSource team stands firmly behind environmental preservation. As such, ReSource is printed on 100% recycled paper and uses no dyes or varnishes. The magazine is saddle stitched to ensure that no glues are required in the binding process.


WasteCon Preview


Industry Insight




Cleaner Production


Waste bins that work


On the Cover

ISSN 1680-4902 R50.00 (incl VAT) • Vol 18, No 4, August 2016

We want to achieve a circular economy and that doesn’t only entail dealing with waste but developing the whole recycling supply chain.” Stacey Davidson, REDISA Director

is printed on 100% recycled paper

Choosing the right industrial waste bin to manage, transport and recycle waste. P6

ReSource offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a cover story and a cover picture to promote their products and services to an appropriate audience. Please call Tazz Porter on +27 (0)11 465 5452 or +27 (0)82 318 9308 to secure your booking.

Regulars 3 5 64

President’s Comment Editor’s Comment Events

WasteCon 8

Conference preview

Hot Seat 10


Industry Insight 14


Waste-to-Energy Turning waste into worth

End-to-end lamp recycling e-Waste job creation

Separating the facts Healthcare waste training Separation at source

Hazardous Waste 17

41 45 47


Cleaner Production Top 10 temperature technologies



Landfills Solving an unusual problem


Celebrating African cities

in association with

infrastructure news

36 37

Green Buildings Unconventional materials

Urban solutions for clean cities



Waste Management Mine waste disposal

Local waste equipment 24 Cashing in on the circular economy 27

Lighting & e-Waste

Stacey Davidson, REDISA

Tyre initiative on a roll

Waste Vehicles & Equipment





ReSource August 2016 – 1


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President's Comment

Celebrating 40 years of excellence The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) celebrates its 40th birthday in September this year. This remarkable achievement does not mean that the institute will, like humans, enter a mid-life crisis. Not at all, since the institute, fortunately, is not limited to a single human lifespan.


his may be the start of a new term of office for myself as president, Jonathan Shamrock as the newly elected vice-president and for the newly elected chairpersons of the branch committees, but, in the bigger picture, it is just another term of office. The IWMSA has survived and grown for 40 years because of the continuity created by the head office personnel and the branch managers and, above all, the dedication and support of its members. Thank you and congratulations to all of you for these past 40 years. The core focus of the IWMSA is still the same as it was in 1976 and, although major advances have been made with national legislation, education, training programmes and networking opportunities over the decades, it still remains a work in progress.

Future vision It is quite normal, at the beginning of a new term, to be asked what your “vision” for the next two years is. Although that is a question for National Council, the focus, in general, will be to continue to improve the benefits of being a member of the IWMSA, to create more plentiful and relevant opportunities for the waste management industry to network, share successes and learn from failures, and to increase and expand education and training opportunities. Waste management

training, whether academic qualifications or technical training, still remains a significant need in our industry and the IWMSA and its members will continue to be major stakeholders in this regard. The IWMSA has also, in the past two years, communicated with individuals, chapters and institutes in other Southern African countries and these communications and cooperation will continue in order to increase the knowledge and skills of responsible waste management in our region.

NEWS FLASH Announcing the election of Jan Palm to the position of IWMSA president for the next term from 2016 to 2018. Johnathan Shamrock is the vice-president and ReSource welcomes and congratulates them both. Also, sincere thanks to former president Prof Suzan Oelofse for her valuable insights and contributions. Jan Palm, president, IWMSA

WasteCon update One of the IWMSA’s major networking events, WasteCon, will take place at Emperors Palace from 17-21 October 2016. This is a not-to-be-missed conference and will provide members, and everyone else with an interest in waste management, with a perfect opportunity to listen to excellent papers, debate points of concern, learn from case studies, ponder the impacts of legislation or simply chill and chat with friends, old and new. In closing, and on a personal note, I would like to thank Suzan Oelofse for her enormous efforts in steering the IWMSA over the past three years as president and especially in the gracious manner in which she has done so. I am honoured to have served with her.

Patron members of the IWMSA

ReSource August 2016 – 3

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Editor'sCover Comment strap Publisher: Elizabeth Shorten Managing editor: Alastair Currie Editor: Frances Ringwood Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Head of design: Beren Bauermeister Designer: Ramon Chinian Chief sub-editor: Tristan Snijders Sub-editor: Morgan Carter Contributors: Keith Anderson, Rolene Ecroignard, Constance Mokhoantle, Anton Nahman, Jan Palm, Tony Stone, Marilize Worst Client services & production manager: Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator: Jacqueline Modise Financial manager: Andrew Lobban Marketing & digital manager: Philip Rosenberg Distribution manager: Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator: Asha Pursotham Administrator: Tonya Hebenton Printers: United Litho Johannesburg Tel: +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales: Tazz Porter Tel: +27 (0)11 465 5452 Cell: +27 (0)82 318 3908 tazz@connect.co.za

Publisher: No.9, 3rd Avenue Rivonia, 2191 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 www.3smedia.co.za Annual subscription: subs@3smedia.co.za R200.00 (incl VAT) South Africa ISSN 1680-4902 The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 675 3462 Email: iwmsa@telkomsa.net All material herein is copyright-protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views and opinions expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher, editor or The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa, but those of the author or other contributors under whose name contributions may appear, unless a contributor expresses a viewpoint or opinion in his or her capacity as an elected office bearer of a company, group or association. © Copyright 2016. All rights reserved.

ReSource is endorsed by:

Making the circular economy meaningful


eturning to the ReSource editor’s chair, after being away on maternity leave, would have been daunting if not for the incredible support the industr y has shown me and the rest of the team ahead of this, the biennial WasteCon edition. I’d like to say a special thank you to former IWMSA president Prof Suzan Oelofse, for her many insightful editorial submissions and for providing thoroughgoing suppor t and guidance for the past two years. And, here’s a warm welcome to new IWMSA president Jan Palm – a leader in the industr y and pillar of the institute.

Circular economy One ar ticle dealing with the circular economy is Stacey Davidson’s discussion of how REDISA is establishing a product testing institute that would assist tyre manufacturers to implement cleaner production technologies. This would prompt feedstock suppliers to pursue their own energy reduction and “net zero energy” strategies. Read more about the legal framework suppor ting such a suggestion on page 10. Another circular economy piece is Marilize Worst’s ar ticle on lowering emissions by applying a systems approach across the supply chain, on page 27. What both circular economy ar ticles have in common is a focus beyond recycling, looking at cleaner production throughout the supply chain as an end goal to the concept of a circular economy. Ultimately, a system such as this, properly implemented across multiple waste streams, could see billions of rands pumped into the economy, thousands of new jobs being created and a cleaner environment as an added bonus. But, it will take the commitment of the whole waste management industr y to push for these goals.

Technical input Readers with an interest in more technical subjects are sure to get a lot out if this edition, but I’d like to recommend two ar ticles that stood out for me: the first being Leon Grobbelaar and Colin de Bruyn’s discussion on installing a floating landfill liner weighing 10 tonnes at Inter waste’s Midrand FG landfill (page 20), and the second being Candice Landie’s ar ticle on using anaerobic digestion to create power for use by local plants and supplying surplus power back into the national grid (page 30). These are the kinds of stories with the potential to bring about positive change in the local industr y – to inspire us all to find better solutions, share successes and challenges openly, and make those changes to the face of waste management that are so necessar y to keeping the industr y vital – promoting greater compliance and transparency. Compliance, transparency and the legal framework necessar y for implementation goals look to be high on the agenda for WasteCon this year and I look for ward to seeing you all there on 17 to 21 October at Emperors Palace in Johannesburg.

Frances Ringwood

ReSource August 2016 – 5

Cover Story

Waste bins that work

Rapidly escalating waste volumes will create serious consequences for an already intractable problem for towns and cities worldwide, both physically and fiscally. Getting the right industrial waste bin to manage, transport and recycle waste is crucial to starting to tackle the problem.


ore than 1.8 trillion kilograms of rubbish will be generated around the world this year, weighing about the same as 7 000 Empire State Buildings. In fact, the waste from the world’s cities alone is enough to fill a 5 000 km long line of waste collection vehicles every day. The trash problem’s global cost amounts to more than US$205 billion per year in 2010 – a cost estimated to rise to $375 billion by 2025. These massive costs and volumes hold serious consequences for public services government administration and city planners. Additionally, landfill space within cities is running out, with the logistical costs of building landfills outside city borders being exorbitant. Already, dump sites in Mexico City and Shanghai are receiving more than 10 000 tonnes of waste per day, each. Then there is also the air pollution caused by landfills and their incinerators, adding to the already serious problem of global warming. One of the major mitigating factors turning landfill sites into healthier neighbours is the

6 – ReSource August 2016

extensive use of industrial waste storage bins. These solutions offer waste management professionals an ideal method for storage, separation and transport, enhancing recycling rates and managing hazardous materials in an environmentally sustainable manner. Beyond that, these bins also make the entire waste handling process more convenient and cost-effective. JIT Holdings is a local industrial waste bin original equipment manufacturer (OEM), based in Benoni, Gauteng. Over the past seven years, the company has expanded its product offering and manufacturing capability to provide market-leading solutions. John Nieuwenhuizen, managing director, JIT, discusses how his business is able to provide the right solution, affordably, at the right time.

OEM growth “Everything we supply is manufactured in-house. We’ve been at our Benoni property for the past two years. Prior to that, we were located at a smaller property in

Jet Park but were forced to move since demand was outstripping our manufacturing capacity. The old premises was a 200 m2 workshop-come-office, while the new one is sited on more than five acres of land – giving us much greater stock-holding capacity and the ability to serve our clients more efficiently through faster turnaround times,” adds Nieuwenhuizen. Some of JIT’s products that cater specifically to the waste management sector include: • rear-end loader (REL) skips • front-end loader (FEL) skips • mini skips • tipping hoppers • mobi bins • hook lifts (roro bins) • scow backs (tractor bin) • load bodies and trailers for trucks. “Our industrial waste bin offering includes small units like our hoppers and mini skips, going up to skips with large cubic capacities. Our largest container is a 30 cube Hooklift bin and we also provide a service where clients can rent skips from us on a short- or

Cover Story long-term basis,” says Nieuwenhuizen. The company’s products are in high demand in the construction, mining, scrap metals, spill response and engineering sectors, with its scow backs having proved particularly popular for certain remote municipalities. JIT Holdings manufactures quality commercial truck bodies, commercial truck trailers and recreational trailers. Customised requirements are

also catered for. The company is registered with the Department of Roads and Transport, and the NRCS.

Specialist solutions The needs of clients are largely dependent on the types of jobs or projects they are undertaking. A product with standard applications is often most appropriate for the task, while other jobs may require something more specialised. JIT has experience in providing both standard and specialist solutions. “Our ‘off-the-shelf’ load bodies are typically made using the industry standard – mild steel – however, for hazardous waste applications, we use other, more specialist material (depending on what’s being transported) such as a 3CR12 steel – which is a more durable type of stainless steel. We would also typically apply sealants on the inside of the container, preventing incidents such as leakage into groundwater and other environmental hazards,” explains Nieuwenhuizen. Of JIT’s more niche product options, the company also supplies a unit specifically tailored to the needs of the oil recycling industry. “Our oil skip is also a specialised solution that has a lot more involved in its construction than a standard bin. It needs to hold six tonnes of liquid without allowing any leaks or spills; so, again, we

use different, purpose-made sealants and a unique internal configuration to minimise sloshing,” says Nieuwenhuizen.

More than 1.8 trillion kilograms of rubbish, weighing about the same as 7 000 Empire State Buildings, will be generated around the world this year

Client-centric service Service is where JIT differentiates itself in the local market, not only by putting the needs of clients first, in terms of timing, but also due to the company’s willingness

to create custom-built load bodies and tailormade solutions. “If clients are in need of specialist solutions, we have the in-house skills and capacity to fabricate a product to their specific requirements. We often receive drawings from clients at engineering shops and then make up our products according to these exact specifications,” explains Nieuwenhuizen.

Recent case study “One of our many happy customers is NonFerrous Metal Works in Durban, who ordered eight 5.5 cube REL waste bins, and the delivery was made the day following the order– delivering in Durban from our Benoni facility,” says Nieuwenhuizen. That’s just one of many examples of satisfied customers. “We are also busy putting together orders for the Waste Group and Sappi, as well as several clients in Botswana, where we perceive growing market needs. We also have many happy municipal clients, such as Nongoma, St Lucia and Mtubatuba,” he adds.

1 2 3 4

The JIT Holdings workshop Waste skips ready for delivery JIT prioritises fast delivery Hoppers stacked and ready for the client

market through our service, the quality of our product and our competitive pricing. I believe that we compare very favourably with similar market offerings,” says Nieuwenhuizen. JIT Holdings has received an enthusiastic response to its products from the local market, which has spurred on the company’s owners to continually reinvest in JIT’s technology and capacity. The waste bin specialist is also expanding into other parts of subSaharan Africa. “Our major growth area is our cross-border business and we’ve had recent business from Botswana, Namibia and Mozambique,” concludes Nieuwenhuizen.

Africa expansion “Our industrial waste bins meet the needs of both local and African markets through their robust quality. The product is internationally specified and we really stand out in the local


ReSource August 2016 – 7

WasteCon Preview

Changing the waste management landscape South Africa’s waste management industry is in a transformative state. With the country’s well-established waste management regulations, the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) encourages organisations to comply with legislation.

“It all comes down to implementation. The waste landscape is changing; we are moving towards a green industry that complies with waste legislation and regulations.” Suzan Oelofse, former president, IWMSA

Recycling exhibitors will often decorate their stands with artwork made from recycled goods

8 – ReSource August 2016

WasteCon Preview


uring the past two years, South Africa’s waste management industry has witnessed updates to the National Environmental Management: Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008). Proper and professional waste management practices are advocated, and the implementation of environmentally conscious waste management operations is required of all organisations dealing with waste, including municipalities. The national industry body for waste management, IWMSA, has a close working relationship with the South African government and fully supports and encourages compliance with waste legislation in the country. Prof Suzan Oelofse, former president, IWMSA, says, “It all comes down to implementation. The waste landscape is changing; we are moving towards a green industry that complies with waste legislation and regulations.”

WasteCon 2016 On IWMSA’s agenda for this year is the 23rd biennial waste management conference and exhibition, WasteCon 2016. The industry body’s flagship conference will delve into ‘The Changing Face of Waste Management’ from 17 to 21 October 2016 at Emperors Palace in Johannesburg. “Industry professionals will come together to discuss pertinent issues that South Africa and Africa as a whole are faced with in waste management,” explains Oelofse. Jonathan Shamrock, chairman, WasteCon 2016, adds, “South Africa’s waste management field is not without its challenges. Implementation on ground level is needed and all parties need to comply with and abide by the ethics of the industry – all of which will be discussed at WasteCon 2016.”

What to expect The WasteCon 2016 keynote speaker address from Torben Kristiansen, vice-president: Waste and Contaminated Sites, COWI A/S, based in Denmark, will shed light on European advances in waste management and the relevance for South Africa. “Kristiansen will discuss the current status of the waste management industry, legislation and Exhibitors enjoy the camaraderie and networking opportunities provided by the WasteCon exhibition space

practice in Europe, as well as SOCIAL MEDIA its governing policies. He will Conference attendees have the opportunity to also focus on South Africa, find out what’s happening throughout WasteCon 2016 by exploring the conference hashtag on the recent policy and legislasocial media: “#WasteCon2016”. tive changes, and problems faced on ground level by local government in improving service delivery,” comments Shamrock. The conference will have three main parallel sessions. These sessions will cover the streams of recycling, waste management and landfill/leaPanel discussions provide the ideal platform to gain chate. Delegates can look fora more in-depth understanding on a particular issue ward to an e-waste workshop as well as a workshop by the • Awareness campaigns on waste – Department of Environmental Affairs. Other Sharing the message and methods topics that will be addressed at the important forum include: healthcare-risk • Job creation opportunities and initiatives – waste, integrated waste manWhat is the industry doing? agement plans, legislation • Reporting research findings on and waste-to-energy. waste-related studies • Innovation in waste collection and Networking, exhibition transport systems and themes • Viability of establishing alternative A fun-filled social prowaste treatment technologies gramme is planned, aimed • Reverse logistics as a means to at providing delegates, speaksupport recycling ers, exhibitors and guests with • Innovation in recycling of waste world-class networking and benchmark• Waste-to-energy ing opportunities. • State-of-the-art landfill design, construction and rehabilitation. The social programme also provides a perfect platform to meet up with old friends and Conclusion make new ones. In addition, the all-important exhibition floor will showcase the many Oelofse concludes by saying that conferences such as WasteCon 2016 are imperanew and not-so-new innovative products and tive in the waste management field: “We services that service providers to the industry have to offer. The exhibition will also be will see government and industry convene open to the public. to discuss these pertinent issues affecting proper waste management. We encourThe theme, ‘The Changing Face of Waste age everyone operating in the industry to Management’, encompasses a myriad of attend and to move towards a legal and ethitopics, such as: cally run industry.” • Alternative waste treatment technologies • Markets and recycling – How is a downward cycle affecting this market? •R  eclaimers and community-based waste collection – What is the impact? •D  iversion versus minimisation – What should we be driving? • Integrated waste facilities – Is it a way forward? • Waste management and innovation • The role of waste in the circular economy • Changing behaviour; up the awareness • Municipality experiences implementing reWith so many new technologies to explore, cycling initiatives it can be difficult for WasteCon delegates to • Industry experiences implementing the know where to start new waste regulations

ReSource August 2016 – 9

Hot Seat

Tyre industry initiative on a roll REDISA has achieved much with regard to developing the tyre recycling industry, even winning the Circular Economy Governments, Cities and Regions Award at Davos earlier this year. But the story doesn’t end there. Stacey Davidson, director, REDISA, reveals what’s in store for the future. How is REDISA working with government to create a sustainable funding model for tyre recycling? SD Our work with government is collaborative in that the entire REDISA model and plan were developed by the private sector. We also based our funding model on a preexisting legal concept called extended producer responsibility (EPR). What that means is that manufacturers are responsible for their products’ end of life. There are parallels between product EPR and mining. If a mining house digs a pit, they know they’ll have to rehabilitate that site once the pit is closed. Likewise, each product creates its own “pit” – which is like a resource debt – and these need to be remediated at the end of the product’s useful life. REDISA’s core business is tyres. With about 225 000 tonnes of tyres being generated in South Africa per annum, these will eventually result in so many “pits” that need to be remediated and that process has a monetary cost. However, private sector manufacturers’ core business is to manufacture and retail their products. Asking these manufacturers to be responsible for their products’ end of life is like asking a gourmet chef to become involved in sewage treatment plant processes: it’s About 225 000 tonnes of tyre waste is being generated in South Africa per annum

10 – ReSource August 2016

not their core area of expertise. That’s where this collaboration comes in between the private and public sectors. The private sector has a problem in that industry has a liability that needs to be dealt with – which is the environmental impact of its product. REDISA is a private sector institution and a non-profit organisation. We go to the tyre industry and say: “If you subscribe to our plan and enter into the deed of adherence, we’ve determined that it will cost about R2.30 per kilo for us to deal with your tyres.” Once the tyre manufacturer pays this fee, they receive the necessary services to manage their risk in terms of the EPR concept.

Can you explain why REDISA’s model is the success that it is? It’s a forgone conclusion that industry members will investigate the cheapest solutions first and this won’t necessarily be what’s best for the environment or the economy. The Waste Tyre Regulations require that all tyre manufacturers deal with their waste to prevent environmental damage, and REDISA has provided a mechanism to allow for the industry to comply with this requirement. The benefit of our funding model is that, by taking on all product end-of-life responsibilities, we become accountable and government can now rate us on how successful we are at building this industry. Essentially, we allow the manufacturing sector to continue producing without the headache of having to become recycling experts.

Stacey Davidson, director, REDISA

There are many parallels between the REDISA model and stipulations in the new Waste Amendment Act (No. 26 of 2014). What accounts for these parallels? As I understand it, the Act looks at facilitating and fast-tracking the EPR process. Our model is a pioneering model – it’s never been implemented anywhere else in the world and the implementation of this model has done the groundwork for other models. Government is also talking about a yet-to-be-published pricing strategy. The version of this that we’ve seen and commented on makes provision for an EPR organisation, such as ourselves, to continue with the fee-collection model. I cannot yet comment on how these legislative changes will affect REDISA, but I can say that the original plan we had gazetted is still in full force and governs our entire operations. Also, the Act allows for transitional arrangements if there are any that need to be made once the pricing strategy is published.

How do you interpret the Amendment Act’s effect on job creation and where does REDISA stand? The Amendment Act does not impact negatively on job creation. We believe it’s important to understand the context of waste and the benefits of the circular economy in South Africa, where we have a high unemployment rate. Couple that with a low skills base and the fact that the country’s economic growth rate is under 1% and its clear there’s a need to stimulate the economy

Cover Hot strap Seat “In just three and a half years, we’ve taken the recycling rate of tyres from a baseline of 4% in 2012 to 23% at the end of 2015. We’ve also improved the collection and diversion from landfills rate from 4% to 70%.” and create jobs. Also remember that various environmental impacts can negatively affect economic growth. Look at those facts and then take into account that South Africa generates 108 million tonnes of waste per annum. According to the CSIR’s ‘National Waste Research, R&D and Innovation Roadmap for SA’ report, if you were to recycle only 13 of the 38 waste streams identified in South Africa, an industry worth R25 billion could be created. However, if the waste industry is ever to reach that potential, it requires proper regulation. For example, South Africa’s financial services sector has a Financial Services Board (FSB), which has a regulatory framework in place. That framework equips new entrepreneurs entering the sector with the knowledge of exactly what they need to get started, regarding licensing, audit requirements, solvency rates/liquidity and so on. The National Environmental Management: Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008) provides for such a framework through the creation of a waste management bureau. What we at

REDISA would like to see is for that body to become the equivalent of the FSB. Having such a body in place would encourage new market entrants, providing a way to create jobs in the recycling sector. Since the majority of jobs in this sector are in waste collection, a low skills base is required, meaning that job creation is targeted at the population segment that needs it most.

REDISA recently won an international award as a result of its success. How does REDISA’s model place the organisation in a leadership role? In just three and a half years, we’ve taken the recycling rate of tyres from a baseline of 4% in 2012 to 23% at the end of 2015. We’ve also improved the collection and diversion from landfills rate from 4% to 70%. In order to achieve this, we’ve established over 220 businesses already, creating over 3 000 jobs in the process. Additionally, we’ve imposed good governance principles internally regarding our solvency rates, looking at our contingent liabilities, establishing remediation reserves, having governance processes, and establishing a board with committees – including audit committees – so that we can ensure that these governance principles are in place. We’re servicing the fledgling tyre recycling industry in a transparent manner and managing our funding prudently.

What can we expect from REDISA in the future? Within the next year and a half, we aim to drive the implementation of an environmental rating system. We want to achieve a circular economy and that doesn’t only entail dealing with waste but developing the whole recycling supply chain and ensuring clean production processes. The broader principle of circular economies means there is also a responsibility for REDISA to encourage producers of tyres to develop cradle-to-cradle technologies for tyre production. Such technologies help ensure no waste. REDISA has been setting up a product testing institute (PTI) to help achieve this purpose. The PTI will develop regulatory standards to environmentally certify tyres. Those tyres that are better environmentally rated will incur a lower waste management fee. Therefore, a differentiated waste tyre fee structure will need to be introduced once the PTI is operational and the standards developed. The intention of this model is that the waste management fee can be eliminated once a tyre manufacturer is producing tyres in a manner that is fully cradle-tocradle certified.


Tyre recycling creates jobs, primarily for collectors

ReSource August 2016 – 11

Waste Management

Mine waste disposal South African mines produce megatonnes of solid waste, and megalitres of liquid and gaseous waste. The question is, what do they do with it, or what can they do with it? By Tony Stone


ith seven main categories of mine waste, which vary in physical and chemical composition, the potential for and reality of environmental contamination is significant – with acid mine drainage (AMD) being one example. How mine waste is managed at mines is critically important. As of 24 July 2015, mines are now required to comply with the new National Environmental Management: Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008) (NEM: WA), which supersedes all previous legislation. This legislation reforms previous laws regulating mine waste management in order to protect the health of communities and the environment by providing reasonable measures for the prevention of pollution and ecological degradation, and for securing ecologically sustainable development. Under the NEM: WA, a waste management licence is now required for the establishment and maintenance of any form of residue stockpile. Applicants must conduct an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in accordance with the National Environmental Management Act (No. 107 of 1998). For prospecting and waste generated by prospecting, only a basic EIA is required. But, for mining and production rights, full scoping and environmental assessment are mandatory. This means that the mining industry will now have to pay for more detailed and stringent EIA processes involving considerably more public participation than was previously the case under Regulation 73 of the Mineral

12 – ReSource August 2016

and Petroleum Resources Development Regulations. In terms of the Mining Residue Regulations, stockpile design must now be done by a civil or mining engineer, registered under the Engineering Profession of South Africa Act (No. 114 of 1990), and no longer a “competent person”, who could be anybody. Stockpiles must also comply with the National Norms and Standards for the Assessment of Waste for Landfill Disposal, 2013, and the National Norms and Standards for Disposal of Waste to Landfill, 2013.

The seven types of waste Mining operations produce large volumes of waste, which is expensive to manage. Frequently regarded as obstacles in environmental sustainability in mining, the industry, of necessity and legislation, plays a leading role in waste management, and is one of few industries that does a lot to recycle its own waste. • Overburden: To get to ore deposits, open-pit mines first need to remove the overburden that covers the ore, to varying depths. This comprises soil and rock, which is usually piled to one side on the surface where it will not impede further expansion of the mining operation. Overburden generally has a low potential for environmental contamination, and is used at mine sites for landscape contouring and revegetation during mine closure, as required by law.

Residents of Johannesburg and surrounding communities live among an estimated 600 000 tonnes of uranium buried in huge mounds of waste material hauled up in the mining process, according to Dr Frank Winde, of North-West University. On windy days, areas near the dumps can be coated in a toxic dust (Photo: Tony Stone)

• Waste rock: Shaft sinking, tunnelling and mine operations produce waste rock, which is often stored in large piles. At times, if this contains a lot of sulfide minerals and has a high potential for AMD formation, it may be stored underwater with tailings. In cases where mineral prices increase or improvements in extraction technology occur, waste rock can be reprocessed. However, waste rock piles are generally covered with soil and revegetated following mine closure, but these can also be used as backfill, landscaping material, as an aggregate in road construction or feedstock for cement and concrete. • Tailings: In mineral processing, ore is finely ground and then treated with an array of chemicals in an extraction process to recover the minerals. To achieve this, the ore

Sadly, the kids don’t understand what they are swimming in (Photo: Kevin Crowley, Federation for a Sustainable Environment)

Waste Management

In talking about the crisis in Mpumalanga, Tracey Davies of the Centre for Environmental Rights asks why nobody is listening (Photo: Mpumalanga Tourism & Parks Agency)

is ground into powder, which, once processed, becomes the mineral waste called tailings. This waste contains leftover processing chemicals, and is usually deposited in the form of a water-based slurry into tailings ponds (sedimentation lagoons enclosed by dams built to capture and store the tailings), or more commonly known as mine dumps. Bauxite red mud tailings is a solid alkaline waste produced in aluminium refineries. Red mud has been used as a soil amender, in wastewater treatment, and as a raw material for glass, ceramics and bricks. Clay-rich tailings have been used for making bricks, floor tiles and cement. Manganese tailings have been used in agro-forestry, buildings and construction materials, coatings, resin, glass and glazes.

produce particulate matter, such as dust and sulfur oxides (SOX), such as sulfur dioxide, which dissolves easily in water to form sulfuric acid, which in turn is a major component of acid rain. Environmental control technologies such as gravity collectors, cyclones and electrostatic precipitators are capable of removing up to 99.7% of dust and fumes, and wet scrubbers typically remove 80% to 95% of SOX emissions. Many smelters have installed acid plants to convert sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid, to be used or sold as an industrial chemical. The impact of untreated mine waste on people and the environment can be deadly. With science and technology now at an advanced level, mine owners can no longer claim ignorance and must now take full responsibility for, and carry the cost of, treating their waste. It’s a case of taking something that is malignant and making it benign. If not, the law will take its course. Gaseous waste produced from burning fossil fuels causes acid rain and human disease (Photo: Bryan Walsh)

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• Slag: This is a non-metallic by-product from metal smelting. Slag is largely environmentally benign. Slag is often used in road construction, as an aggregate in concrete and cement production. • Mine water: Mine water is produced in a number of ways at mine sites, and can vary in its quality and its potential for environmental contamination. Water at mine sites is frequently monitored and various water management strategies have been developed to reduce the amount of mine water produced, and treat the water before it is discharged to the environment. Mine water can be used for dust suppression, mineral processing, industrial and agricultural uses, as a coolant, and as a source of drinking water. • Water treatment sludge: Water with a high concentration of solids, such as fissure water and water pumped out of a mine from collection points, produces sludge at active water treatment plants. This sludge consists of solids that have been removed from the water as well as any chemicals that have been added to improve the efficiency of the process, and other chemicals that may or may not be present. Although ways of recycling the sludge are being explored, the majority of sludge has little economic value and is handled as waste. Disposal of water treatment residues in underground mine workings is the least expensive option, where it is permitted, and is environmentally safe. In extreme cases, as in AMD, where the sludge is rich in cadmium, arsenic or other chemicals, it will be classified as hazardous waste and require special handling and disposal. Sludge from AMD treatment, which is high in iron, has been sold commercially for use in pigments. • Gaseous wastes: Gases produced from the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and petroleum, and the smelting of mineral ores, such as aluminium, copper, zinc, lead and iron, that contain sulfur

Do the right thing!

Sealing and capping with Envirobent is an extreamly cost efficient and effective method of preventing seepage loss and ground water contamination. The product is ideal for waste disposal facilities, slimes dams, etc.

THE ENVIRONMENT’S SELECTED CHOICE For more information maureenv@gwminerals.co.za | Tel: +27 (0)11 878 0366/71

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Certified according to: ISO 9001 | ISO 14001 | OHSAS 18001 | ISO 50001

www.gwminerals.co.za Subsidiary of the Zimco Group (Pty) Ltd

Industry Insight

One company – one customer experience Dean Thompson has been CEO at EnviroServ for seven months. This is not the only thing to have changed at the company in recent months; with the introduction of the new CEO, there is a new leadership team, a fresh strategy and an overall renewed enthusiasm. How would you describe your management style? DT My management style fits perfectly with EnviroServ’s corporate culture. It is collaborative, results oriented and aligned with the company values. Through regular business updates, I engage with everyone at EnviroServ and ensure that the set organisational objectives are clearly explained to all levels of staff and, more importantly, that each employee understands their individual roles in assisting the company to reach its objectives. I have endeavoured, since January this year, to openly share the company’s strategy – thus empowering the entire EnviroServ team to raise the waste game. Each and every employee is encouraged to contribute and share their ideas. On numerous occasions and through various channels, I have reiterated that it is all of our responsibility to ensure that there is a singular customer experience across the different teams, regions, and countries. Our motto is “one company – one customer experience.” Additionally, I would like to believe that I am a strong advocate for ethics and doing things right. I like to lead by example.

What are your thoughts on the waste management industry in sub-Saharan Africa? The waste management industry offers an essential service – it is a critical industry. South Africa and most of the countries in which we operate face challenges, like

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any other industry. A lot of countries face very similar conditions, as they have a dependence on the oil and gas, and mining industries. Unfortunately, these sectors are under pressure and are presently severely impacted by the economic downturn. This

Dean Thompson, CEO, EnviroServ

We offer peace of mind to our customers. I have witnessed a mindset shift at EnviroServ; our people are thinking out of the box and looking for new, compliant ways of doing business that will benefit customers. This is, perhaps, just what the waste management industry needs.

What is your future strategy?

has proved to be a challenge for the waste industry, with customers calling on the industry to lower costs. At EnviroServ, we see this as an opportunity to find new, innovative ways of doing business. Due to these pressures, we have had to embrace this period as a unique opportunity to find new ways to offer cost-effective waste management services to customers. Our industry is highly regulated and EnviroServ, at all times, offers compliant solutions.

Our mission, at EnviroServ, is to: • offer effective and economically viable waste solutions • focus on enhancing customer sustainability • provide environmental peace of mind • develop innovative waste solutions. The EnviroServ strategy is a well-thought-out plan that has been influenced by relevant legislation, customers’ waste solutions needs, our brand promise and government’s waste strategy. We are committed to maintaining and growing our leadership position in Africa through a diversified service offering. EnviroServ’s key enablers to the strategy are: • motivated and informed staff • exceptional customer service • transformation • innovative product and service offerings • cost-effective and agile operations.

What can customers look forward to? Customers can look forward to a new, diversified product and service offering that

Industry Insight FIGURE 1 EnviroServ’s integrated service offering

Technical Waste Management Support Minimise Waste to Landfill Waste Recycling and Onsite Waste Management Contaminayed Land & Legacy Stockpile Management Waste Collection Services Hazardous Waste Services Municipal Waste Services Waste Treatment & Disposal Landfill Management has recently been launched. It also aligns nicely with the waste hierarchy. I am also excited by the renewed commitment from

“Due to economic pressures, we have had to embrace this period as a unique opportunity to find new ways to offer cost-effective waste management services to customers.”

Least preferred option employees to assist customers. We will continually launch new innovations that will benefit our customers. Thompson is further supported by a newly transformed board. He sits on the Chemical and Allied Industries’ Association board and regularly attends association meetings. www.enviroserv.co.za

If you scratch below the surface of a well-run landfill site you should find waste analysed under the SANAS system. The waste should be classified for the chosen site. The site should have a functioning Monitoring Committee with relevant external stakeholders. As leaders in responsible waste management we encourage you to scratch below the surface before you choose a landfill site. For the answers you should get go to www.enviroserv.co.za and win peace of mind.


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environmentally responsible


The A-Thermal chemical division is able to treat the following hazardous waste through thermal destruction: laboratory waste chemicals pesticides expired pure organo-chloride and organosulphide waste permanent destruction of persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) cyanide waste decontamination of containers used in the chemical and pesticides industry sludges and wastewater/liquids contaminated with organo-chlorides heavymetal contaminated waste such as mercury waste

safe thermal treatment of hazardous and toxic waste

Pharmaceutical Division

The A-Thermal pharmaceutical division specialises in permanent, secure destruction of pharmaceuticals. Waste treated includes: finished pharmaceutical products (expired and discontinued) intermediate products raw materials quality assurance retention samples natural, homeopathic or complimentary medicine clinical trials laboratories in pharmaceutical industries medical devices cosmetic industries schedule 5 – 6 drugs (overseen by full-time on-site pharmacist)


28 Keramiek Street | Clayville | Olifantsfontein | 1665 t +27 (11)316 1800 | f +27 11 316 4999 | e info@athermal.co.za


Hazardous CoverWaste strap

Urban solutions for clean cities Metropolitan municipalities need to rely on skilled, trustworthy contractors to ensure hazardous waste is properly managed, preventing long-term contamination. Frances Ringwood looks at factors determining reliable hazardous waste management.


anaging the cumulative sum of human waste products that pollute cities is set to become one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Municipalities will often need to draw on the specialist skills of experienced hazardous waste management contractors to assist them to mitigate and manage the long-term effects of particular pollutants that wreak their most devastating effects in the dense living spaces common to urban environments. The need to develop targeted technology to assist in waste management and pollution minimisation was highlighted in May this year when South Africa’s Minister of Environmental Affairs, Edna Molewa, said, “There is a need to explore practical solutions to coordinate waste management initiatives, primarily through technological innovation.” She added, “Sound waste management practices are key to government’s service delivery agenda.” Major sources for contamination include landfills where hazardous waste has not been properly separated from other waste streams, illegally dumped medical waste

and acid mine drainage. Further, air pollution is a particularly difficult pollutant to mitigate and one that causes some of the most visible effects in city environments.

Clean cities Clean cities are attractive cities, stimulating tourism, economic growth, infrastructure development and fostering community members’ participation in further investment in their neighbourhoods. An important, yet often overlooked and undervalued, factor in the ‘clean cities–tourism–investment–economic growth’ cycle is the proper management of solid and liquid hazardous waste streams. At the recent African Capital Cities Sustainability Forum, held at the CSIR International Convention Centre in Pretoria, Tshwane’s executive mayor, Kgosientso Ramokgopa, alluded to the importance of clean cities when he said, “We face innumerable challenges resulting from 21st century industrialisation, with regard to social, economic, developmental and ecological imperatives facing cities as the predominant form of human settlements.” He went on to list major outcomes reached

at last year’s forum, which were to form the platform for the basis of future discussions. These included the current global challenges that threaten economic growth and development in African cities, “especially those relating to climate change, the global economic slowdown, trade facilitation and land degradation”. The discipline of hazardous waste management and its consequences with regard to urban development can be related to all of these issues. First, improper separation of non-household waste from hazardous waste leads to excessive emission levels from incinerators – carbon dioxide, methane and volatile organic compounds released from this process contribute towards climate change. Second, the global economic slowdown has led private companies to cut corners, resulting in persistent cases of illegal dumping of hazardous waste. Third, the development of talented entrepreneurs in

TOP When hazardous waste is illegally dumped in South Africa, the results are particularly detrimental for waste pickers

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Hazardous Waste the waste management field specialising in hazardous waste imparts a set of skills South Africa has the capacity to foster and eventually export. Finally, land degradation – including water contamination – is a direct result of improperly managed pollutants. Proper hazardous waste management is essential to the sustainable development of cities. This is particularly the case for African cities, where a legacy of colonialism and its structures has frequently resulted in long-term, expensive-to-manage pollutants like AMD and mountains of mining spoil containing poisonous heavy metals.

Broad skills base According to Jan Labuschagne, managing director, Wasteman, one of South Africa’s largest waste management firms and owned by global giant Averda, “Hazardous waste needs to be approached comprehensively.” That’s why a large company with diverse divisions, such as Wasteman and Averda, offers some of the most effective solutions. Rather than simply dealing with one aspect of waste, a selection of complementary services covering the related fields of recycling, cleaning, collection, sorting, composting, thermal treatment, refusederived fuel and landfilling will offer a more holistic approach. An added advantage of working with a company with deep institutional knowledge is that it will often be able to offer forwardthinking solutions as and when the need arises. For example, Wasteman recently opened a new hazardous landfill site in the Vaal Triangle, at Vlakfontein. The siting of the landfill is significant because it’s ideally positioned to handle the increase in waste volumes arising from an increase in the region’s industrial development and expansion from local industrial and mining activities. Labuschagne fur ther explains how Wasteman’s holistic approach contributes towards making this site a worldclass facility. “Waste streams that can be diverted from the landfill for recycling (or recovery) are subject to our strict processes; any non-recyclable or hazardous portions of these streams, following suitable screening, can be disposed of at the

Contaminated water and dust from unrehabilitated mine sites is a problematic form of hazardous waste with long-term effects (Source: Federation for a Sustainable Environment)

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Vlakfontein site.”Additionally, the company is in the process of implementing environmental programmes in the area, including the development of vegetation and the introduction of wildlife – as well as investment into the local community, through education and recycling programmes. “We hope to one day be able to take school children on tours of the facility to expose them to the many careers available to them in waste management. The hope is that it will expand their horizons with regard to what can be done with chemistry or engineering degrees, growing the local skills base and feeding back into fostering professional excellence in waste management,” he adds.

AMD and recycling In Southern Africa, it’s no secret that mining activities are one of the biggest contributors to hazardous waste. Since the local mining industry has a less-thanstellar reputation for its effects on local ecologies, extraction companies such as Mintek have evolved to incorporate sustainability into their central business model. Sunny Zhang, sales representative, Mintek, explains some of the sustainability initiatives promoted by the company, “Mintek endeavours to incorporate the idea of the circular economy and resource recyclability in everything it does. “They even polish slag and set it in unused copper to make jewellery. This is just one of the company’s many initiatives that incorporate upcycling as part of sustainable thinking. Mintek has also developed a number of solutions for treating AMD. The company continuously carries out improvements on this technology to improve capital costs.”

“There is a need to explore practical solutions to coordinate waste management initiatives, primarily through technological innovation.” Minister of Environmental Affairs Edna Molewa

Conclusion Hazardous waste is not just an issue affecting city outskirts. It should be a central concern given that it has the potential to bring about lasting health consequences for nearby communities. The types of challenges presented by hazardous waste are complex and specific, which is why the selection of reliable contractors is necessary. However, municipal intervention alone is not enough and private companies need to invest in caring for the environments in which they operate as a core concern rather than a peripheral one. This is set to become a growing trend in the coming decade. Also worth considering is that hazardous waste isn’t just about challenges; it also creates opportunities, particularly in terms of the creation of jobs for skilled professionals. These jobs range from sustainability consultants to scientists, engineers and contractors. By building capacities in these areas, African cities enhance their technological offerings in the waste management sector, allowing for a positive spiral in the creation of cleaner and healthier urban centres.


Johannesburg Water (SOC Ltd), a water and sanitation utility owned by the City of Johannesburg invites all bulk water customers who might be interested in using treated wastewater/effluent or reclaimed water for non-potable purposes to express their non-binding interest .The expression of interest must include an indication of the likely quantity and quality requirements, intended use and period over which they are likely to require the water. Such indication must include necessary pre-requisites/conditions for taking up the service, reliability requirements and any other pertinent details. All submissions,including enquiries should be directed to the contact person below in person or by email preferably before the 31st August 2016. Address : 5th Floor,84 Main street, Marshalltown Contact Person : Mthokozisi Ncube Email : Mthokozisi.ncube@jwater.co.za Telephone : 011 688 1604 follow us :


Johannesburg Water


Market-leading landfill innovation Landfill management is a science – one that takes years of experience, technical know-how and a commitment to continued environmental compliance. As such, it is critical that waste management businesses find innovative solutions to negate any potential or existing issues that arise within the landfill space.



his is the case with Inter waste and Gundle, who have collaborated to develop a floating cover made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) – a market first and leading innovation in managing changing waste management situations. “From time to time, given the changing nature of waste, we are required to come up with new solutions to treat issues that we may not have experienced previously and, as leaders in the waste management sector, we are committed to such processes”, says Leon Grobbelaar, Director: Landfills, Inter waste. “Being a business committed to environmental compliance and meeting the requests of the communities in which

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we operate, when we found that one of our leachate dams star ted turning anaerobic, and required a dynamic solution, we consulted a leachate exper t in the UK, who suggested that the only way to make progress was to treat the leachate with a hydrogen peroxide mix. Once the blend had been mixed, the leachate could be transpor ted to a sewage plant for treatment,” says Grobbelaar. “However, this would be a time-consuming process where we would have to transpor t 12 000 m3 of leachate from the site over six months. Beyond this, the sewage plant provider could only accommodate 150 m3 per day. As such, we needed to find another solution – a fast, but solid, workable solution.”

Finding a solution Inter waste then approached Colin de Bruyn, General Manager and Director: Sales, Gundle Geosynthetics, to assist in finding a way to cover a 100 m x 100 m dam, using an appropriate liner that would take into account the chemical characteristics of the leachate and the physical placement of the aerators. “De Bruyn provided a number of alternatives, using case studies from around the world. Suggestions included hexene liners and dark plastic balls to crowd the sur face to prevent odours from being emitted. However, we needed an urgent solution and, knowing Inter waste is always up for a challenge, convinced De Bruyn to tr y something new and

Cover strap Landfills

2 different – a floating cover for the dam,” continues Grobbelaar. “We indicated to Inter waste that we had never done a floating cover on this scale before, but that we would apply our  exper tise. In fact, the only time I’ve ever come across a similar project, on a much smaller scale, was installing floating covers on pig manure farms where gasses would star t building up inside the liner. This could then be extracted, conver ted to electricity and sold on or gridtied,” explains De Bruyn. Gundle’s maximum installation sizes had only been

3 20 m x 20 m or 40 m x 40 m, but never 100 m x 100 m – which is the size of the leachate dam for which it was required. “Once the decision was taken to go ahead, careful consideration around the type of liner material had to be taken, given that liner material used as floating covers needs to take into account whether the liner will prevent or allow for rainwater ingress. So, while hexene seemed to be the logical choice, timing was again a concern. These materials are only manufactured in Europe, take up to eight weeks to be

4 1 70 workmen pulling the liner across the leachate dam 2 Early progress on a floating cover installation at Interwaste’s FG landfill in Midrand

3 The fully installed liner 4 Methane bubbles under the liner

delivered, and are relatively expensive,” adds De Bruyn. TPO materials were then considered, which are available in South Africa, but don’t carr y a sufficient warranty, and had shown to not last longer than six months before collapsing. As such, the material that eventually won out

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for strength, durability and affordability was HDPE liner. Such liners typically weigh about 280 g/m2 and are approximately 40% the price of a TPO option. “So, with this solution in place – as per our exper tise within the landfill space – we removed the aerators and pumped the leachate out to a depth of about half a metre to facilitate installation. Gundle then brought in rolls of material where, over just one week of ongoing welding and pulling, the entire dam was covered. In fact, given the liners’ weight, as many as 70 people were needed to install the 10 tonne liner across the dam – all wearing the correct PPE,” explains Grobbelaar.

Full print area: 105mm x 297 (Bleed: 6mm)

At Interwaste we pride ourselves in being the most innovative waste management company in the SADC region. With regards to our FG Landfill Site we have reason to once again boast about how in doing the right thing we have risen to the occasion and surpassed expectations. Our FG Landfill Site is currently flaring on average 480 cubic meters of landfill gas which operates in line with the National Standards for Extraction, Flaring or Recovery of Landfill Gas, in addition to that, the FG Landfill site is the only landfill facility in South Africa to hold the T.U.V Accreditation alongside the OSHAS 18001 Certification, a title we are very honoured to embrace.

“In fact, given the liner’s weight, as many as 70 people were needed to install the 10 tonne liner across the dam - all wearing the correct PPE.”

Conclusion The outcome and solution proved to be a success. The HDPE liner provided an interim solution so the dam could be drained, with the leachate sent to a sewage treatment plant, while also ser ving as a long-term solution to prevent any possible odour emissions from the dam for many years to come. “In addition, we’re currently flaring the methane collected from the dam. However, we are investigating the potential of conver ting the methane to electricity and selling it at a profit to one of the industries nearby,” concludes Grobbelaar.

Completed installation of the 10 tonne floating HDPE liner, which provided both a long- and short-term solution


+27 11 323 7300 info@interwaste.co.za www.interwaste.co.za ISO 18001 www.tuv.com ID 9105079610

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Sustainable waste solutions Waste Vehicles and Equipment When selecting a waste vehicle and an equipment service provider, it's important to view them as extensions of the business. Reasonable questions to ask include, "Do they contribute towards the overall environmental sustainability of the business?" and, "What cleaner production intiatives do they have in place?" Also worth considering is how the service provider is investing in R&D to make your service offering stronger.

McNeilus Rear End Loader




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Waste Vehicles & Equipment Cover strap

Waste equipment made locally About three decades ago, J&J Fabrications started repairing waste bins and, as part of a broader market offering, Skip Truck Traders (STT) was born. This exposed the company to the various challenges and issues that waste companies experience related to waste handling equipment and transport. In response to resounding market demand, STT evolved into a business with its own designs, and now manufactures and distributes some of the strongest and most durable waste handling equipment available in Southern Africa.


kip Truck Traders’ range of 9, 13 and 16 tonne skip loaders are locally manufactured to the highest standards. Its range of imported Unilift hooklifts and McNeilus rear-end loaders (RELs) provide reliable waste management solutions that respond to local market needs while guaranteeing superior quality and reliability. “We have spent a significant amount on redesigning our products so as to make their functionality compatible with

Skip Truck Traders’ OEM four-tonne hooklift

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local conditions. Moreover, we have invested in high-value capital equipment in a way that makes us stand out as a market leader,” explains John Edwards, owner of STT.

Quality guarantee As part of its client service, STT guarantees its waste products 100%. “We have a fleet of 14 waste handling equipment trucks – including skip loaders, hooklifts and REL units – to underpin this

guarantee, insofar as we will undertake to loan a unit out if any defects are found in the manufacture of our products and until all repairs have been completed. “These vehicles are also available to be hired out to clients when they have breakdowns, or even to assist for short periods of time while waiting for new equipment to be manufactured. Through these measures we provide the backend support to minimise downtime to our clients’ productivity,” says Edwards.

Waste Vehicles & Equipment Four-tonne hooklifts

number of clients. “We asked STT’s latest product is a four-tonne hook- one of our clients to test lift, which was designed in-house to be this product to its absofitted on a four-tonne truck, with the unit lute limit. They found weighing one tonne. It meets the needs they could transport of the local recycling market, transporting 7.5 tonnes (more than 26 m3 of product, which is three times the double the unit’s capacity) for three months before volume of the bakkie system. Recycling companies in particular benefit it started to show signs of from this invention, since the profit mar- wear on one of the members. As gins on the transport of recyclable prod- a result, we’ve modified and strengthened ucts are low and innovations that contrib- the unit’s members and also replaced the ute towards cost-effective transport are client’s hooklift with a brand-new unit as crucial to the sustainability of the sector. compensation for their participation in “People try to save money by implement- these trials. Since the product requires ing a bakkie system, which is a false econ- only a small truck, savings are further omy. The reason we developed our unique achieved through vehicle maintenance, rehooklift was to assist small recyclers in duced wear and tear on tyres and greater making a profit. They can now transport a fuel efficiency. much larger payload using a vehicle that costs less than a bakkie, yet has similar McNeilus REL range “In July 2015, we were approached to be running costs,” says Edwards. Currently, there is no other product quite a distributor for REL compactors and we like STT’s four-tonne hooklift anywhere took over the agency for McNeilus, which else in the world. That’s because it was is owned by Oshkosh Corporation Company in America. The designed to meet specific market conditions deal was signed in Currently, there is no for the African market. December 2015. other product quite “Wanting to import a We are now busy like Skip Truck Traders’ importing the units solution, I travelled four-tonne hooklift to Europe and there after doing a lot I found that the Euroof groundwork to anywhere else in pean standard equipinfiltrate the marthe world ment did not suit the ketplace and, as a local market in terms result, we have imof volumes and weight loading,” Edwards ported a number of units to keep in stock, explains. In Europe, hooklifts need to com- to meet anticipated marketplace deply with the DIN standards, which have a mand,” says Edwards. The McNeilus prodhook height of 900 mm. That limits local uct range comprises three different sizes recyclers to using smaller bins with a car- of REL: the Metropak, the M2 and the rying volume of 14 m3 and weighing only Heavy Duty unit. The Metropak is ideal for two tonnes, thus under-utilising the truck's capacity by 30%. By making the hook height 1 200 mm, along with a few other 16-tonne skiploader proprietary modifications, STT’s hooklift is 3 able to carry up to 26 m at a weight of three tonnes. “These hooklifts maximise all possible avenues for efficiency – with maximum overhang, maximum loading on the back axle of the truck and maximum volume. Moreover, if you compare the performance of the bakkie system to our roll-on unit, our system is more economical” explains Edwards. Locally manufactured Supraform 550 high-strength steel is used throughout the whole of the four-tonne hooklift body. The product has been stress tested on a computer simulation, and physically by a

John Edwards, owner, Skip Truck Traders

Image please

light industrial work, such as waste from small retail centres and light industrial sites. The M2 is popular in the municipal space as it can be used for larger volumes, especially household waste. One of the most popular units is the Heavy Duty REL, used in the private sector as well as some of the larger municipalities. These units can go up to 21 m3 in size.

Conclusion STT not only stands for market reliability, but also product innovation and being responsive to market needs, “Any business that does not constantly invest in R&D, may not survive today’s market volatility,” says Edwards. As part of the company’s ongoing investment in continual improvement, members of the team regularly attend the premier global environmental management event, IFAT, which is held in Munich, Germany, every second year. STT plans to promote its product range at the show in 2018 so that it can become the leading manufacturer and supplier of waste handling equipment in Africa. “We’ve spent over R250 000 on computer software to test our four-tonne hooklifts and plan to have the unit SABS certified by 2017. This is just one of the innovative products we have tested with local market conditions in mind. We have many more such innovations in the pipeline and look forward to revealing more to ReSource readers soon,” he concludes.

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Waste Vehicles & Equipment

Cashing in on the circular economy A growing understanding of waste management as a vital part of corporate resource management is prompting a rethink about good waste handling throughout the supply chain. By Marilize Worst


ithin many companies around the world, there is a growing understanding and awareness of the value of waste. Instead of a mere hassle, waste is being viewed as an important resource – particularly among the larger and more established corporates. Indeed, the shift from considering waste management as a cost-saving exercise to a value-add to the bottom line is slowly infiltrating strategic business thinking worldwide. This new approach requires reconceptualising waste – seeing it as an integral component of a corporate supply chain. As research has shown, it is a positive development cycle that preserves and enhances natural capital, optimises resource yields and minimises system risks. It is often referred to nowadays as a circular

economy and closed-loop approach, which optimises value throughout the life cycle of products. Business leaders need to apply circular design thinking in order to truly leverage and benefit from this previously undermined resource.

Long-term gains The application of circular-design thinking to waste management operations (and subsequently and consequently to various areas within the supply chain) has the potential to add various values and long-term business advantages. These include financial benefits, better information and reporting, increased competitiveness and brand protection – to name a few. Importantly, this approach also enhances customer loyalty in the long term and strengthens company

identity. In addition, the target of zero waste to landfill has prompted rapid development in waste minimisation and beneficiation technologies – and subsequent achievements in Marilize Worst waste reduction targets is the managing are reported in an- director of nual performance and SmartMatta, a Barloworld sustainability reports. Logistics company However, despite all the progress made to reduce waste and its impact on the environment along the value chain of some businesses, waste Corporations are more conscious than ever of the need to ensure waste is resourcefully managed within their supply chains

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Waste Vehicles & Equipment management is still predominately operationally implemented as a separate leg in the supply chain. This is problematic because procurement strategies do not look through the entire cost of a product. For example, marketing often decides on a specific packaging material for the product but doesn’t necessarily evaluate its recyclability– so the packaging ultimately ends up costing the company more in terms of disposal during production runs and at general consumer disposal. Also, sustainability is sometimes not involved in – or integrated with – the operational elements of a business, which creates a misalignment of objectives and inefficiencies across the business. Essentially, there is a general misunderstanding of the ability to really create an environmentally economic solution (and commercially viable opportunity) for a business.

Adopting a systems approach In our view, a systems approach provides benefits in the reduction of transpor t

costs, the generation of added value chain. They must also understand what the through waste handling optimisation, and waste is made up of, the volume of waste the integration of infrastructure. Together, and what is creating it. Second, compathese benefits translate into a decrease nies must understand what the baseline looks like, and create a in energy consumption and, consequentbaseline of waste off of In order to create ly, carbon emissions. which to measure future shared value for In order to create improvements. Then, shared value for all clear goals need to be set all stakeholders, stakeholders, the from a sustainability and the target of zero target of zero waste efficiency perspective, to waste must be must be incorporated reduce waste across the incorporated in in the design and imvalue chain. plementation of the Leaders should also the design and supply chain strategy. identify key stakeholdimplementation ers in the value chain A clear understandof the supply ing of the technology and collaborate with chain strategy and operational rethem to reduce waste quirements to deviwhere appropriate. ate waste from landToday, there are a varifill must be clearly unpacked, and form ety of powerful technology platforms and par t of the design of the closed-loop tools available to model supply chains, supply chain. manage waste, track it, and measure the For companies, the first step is to assess commercial impact in both the short and the waste and where it sits in the value long term.

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Elgin Fruit Juices case study

Turning waste to worth

Anaerobic digestion, a technology involving the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste, is gaining popularity in the waste management industry, with the advantages ranging from economic to agronomic and environmental – not forgetting the production of biogas. And at the Elgin Fruit Juices plant in the Western Cape, anaerobic digestion is king.



ith climate change and global warming threatening our ecosystems, the advantages of anaerobic digestion in the waste sector are paramount. Not only does anaerobic digestion work independently of weather conditions and reduce the amount of waste to landfill through the sustainable management of organic waste, but the biogas resulting from anaerobic digestion is a source of renewable energy. Add to this the reduction of manure purchase thanks to the valorisation of digested sludge, and you have yourself a winning formula. “Anaerobic digestion is not yet common in South Africa, but it makes so much

30 – ReSource August 2016

sense,” says Tarik Höppener, managing director, re-energise Africa. Elgin Fruit Juices (EFJ) has a Siloxa biogas treatment system integrated in its biogas plant on-site, of which re-energise Africa is a local supplier. In biogas production plants, the optimal environmental conditions for microbiological processes are created to optimise the conversion efficiency of organic material through bacteria. The process is adapted from the natural digestion process in human and animal stomachs, hence making it quite natural. But, like with most processes, anaerobic digestion is not without its disadvantages. These include high investment costs because the concept is not widely

used in South Africa. It is also less stable than aerobic digestion and, in the case of EFJ, there are operational difficulties. According to Höppener, operation and maintenance is a challenge, as operational after-sales service support by the biogas plant supplier is not widely available, and broad-based process and operational management knowledge transfer still remains a crucial duty in South Africa. “Practical partnerships between the private sector and South African universities and other educational institutions, as well

1 The primary business of EFJ is the production of apple and pear concentrates




as the transfer of skills from international A major drawback is trying to get a grid companies are important to overcome licence to supply surplus green electricity these challenges. into the Eskom grid. So far, EFJ is making progress and the good news is that Good examples include re-energise Africa’s the City of Cape Town (CoCT) has set its partnership with the University of the Free sights on becoming an energy State, and the South African Renewable Energy Technical Centre’s creator due to the instability of Eskom’s power initiative to develop and implement biogas operator sources. The CoCT The process is training, supported by has set a target adapted from the international company of sourcing up to digestion process in GIZ, the South African 20% of its energy National Energy Develneeds from renewhuman and animal opment Institute, the able sources by stomachs, making it Department of Energy the year 2020. “I’m quite natural and other organisations excited that this that promote the biogas inconcept is taking off dustry,” he emphasises. quite steadily, although

4 2 The City of Cape Town has set its sights on becoming an energy creator due to the instability of Eskom’s power sources

3 The Siloxa biogas system is supplied locally by re-energise Africa

4 The digester at EFJ has a volume of 2 400 m3, is 6 m high and 24 m in diameter

I still feel we lack skilled operators. I try to maintain a healthy digester and ensure everything is up and running smoothly. My team consists of a supervisor and four operators who are required to work shifts because the plant is run 24/7. Additionally, a casual worker is needed to ensure that the plant is clean. For the most part, we

ReSource August 2016 – 31

ReSource February 2016 – 31


5 also handle our own logistics and implement a gate fee,” explains Dr Dunesha Naicker, manager: anaerobic digester plant, EFJ.

Plant overview The primary business of EFJ is the production of apple and pear concentrates. Waste apples from the production plant are brought to the biogas site, including apples and fruit from neighbouring orchards in Grabouw and Elgin, not excluding waste food and vegetables. “We also accept waste from In2Food, a supplier of EFJ’s food waste. Our plant used to accept food waste from the Cape Town Market but we subsequently stopped as we had



What’s in a number? 1 000 tonnes: The amount of waste generated at EFJ per year 2 800 tonnes: The amount of waste fruit and vegetables received from outside sources per year 2 hours: The time it takes to pasteurise blood and abattoir waste at the plant 2.5 million tonnes: Cape Town’s total waste per year (2011)

5 Operation and maintenance is a challenge, and broad-based process and operational management knowledge transfer still remains a crucial duty in South Africa

6 EFJ’s team consists of a supervisor and four operators who are required to work shifts because the plant is run 24/7

7 With regard to the digestate, the plant too much non-organic waste coming through, such as plastics and polystyrene, which we don’t handle,” Naicker says. Hazardous meat products such as blood and abattoir material

is currently in collaboration with the University of Stellenbosch, which has erected a pilot dryer on-site

8 EFJ has a Siloxa biogas treatment system integrated in its biogas plant on-site

32 – ReSource August 2016

Mills & Otten cc Johannesburg Tel: (011) 486 0062 Fax: (086) 554 6573 Contact: Charles Mills / Kirstin Otten • • •

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Waste-to-Energy cleaning. One of the remarkable features of the biogas plant at EFJ is that no waste is generated. The hot exhaust gas from the generator is used to power a boiler where the steam generated is used in the production facility. The hot water from the generator is also used to heat up the reactor as well as in the pasteurisation of the animal waste. The digester at EFJ has four different feeders, namely: 1. Slurry feeder for waste fruit: waste fruit is tipped in and then macerated using a hammer mill, which creates slurry. From there, it enters the reactor. 2. Dry feeder for pomace, waste vegetables and food, and manure: the dry feeder is essentially a big chute where waste is tipped in. The waste is stirred using a collector screw and then makes its way up through the vertical screw before entering the fermenter screw. 3. Retenate (pulp from the fruit after ultrafiltration): pulp is pumped from production to two 10 000 litre tanks, and is then pumped into the reactor periodically.

Suppliers on the project • • • • • • •

EFJ engineers Bau Africa Architecture Francois Marais Construction Siloxa (gas dryer and conditioner) Union Instruments NewTainer (compact belt dryer) Jenbacher (gas engine)

are also accepted at EFJ. “Our primary source of abattoir waste is Groenland Abattoirs and Elgin Free Range Chickens. Currently, we also receive processed meat from Anchor Foods and Britos,” she continues.

Digester feeders The digester at EFJ is 6 m high and 24 m in diameter. It produces approximately 2 800 Nm3/day of biogas, which fuels an installed combined heat and power (CHP) generator with an electric capacity of 520 kW. Before the biogas can be fed into the CHP generator, it needs to be treated in three steps: drying, pressure conditioning and

8 4. Feeder for blood and abattoir matter: blood and meat waste are delivered in flow bins and are gravity fed. Because it is classified as hazardous waste, the meat and blood must be pasteurised at 70°C. This is done as a precautionary measure to kill any bugs that may be

ReSource August 2016 – 33

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Landfills found in the blood as a result of, for example, a diseased cow. “In order to grow the local biogas industry, great effort is required from all market players to improve the price competitiveness by reducing the capital requirements for complete biogas plants, while enhancing the service offering for operational support and maintenance,” says Höppener. “At re-energise Africa, with our partner Siloxa for gas treatment solutions, we are constantly working on increasing the local share in terms of value-added services within our supply chain.”

Nutritional value

Waste apples from production plants are brought to the site, including apples and fruit from neighbouring orchards in Grabouw and Elgin, as well as waste food and vegetables

But the digester and its feeders are not all that make the plant interesting. Another important component is the digestate produced. The digestate is the remaining mate- it being blown away. Thus far, this is workrial and can substitute mineral chemical fer- ing well for the digestate,” she explains. “I tiliser. This means that the organic nutrients currently try to sell the digestate to compostare not destroyed in the anaerobic process ing companies but there is a lack of interbut rather remain in the digestate as a by- est due to a lack of knowledge. Compostproduct for agricultural use. ing companies require remuneration for the “Essentially, the nutrients taken out of the digestate, which doesn’t become viable to soil during agricultural us since digestate is a production are returned One of the remarkable commodity in the waste to the soil via the difeatures of the biogas management industry!” gestate and as such, EFJ has a piece of plant at EFJ is that no land as mineral fertiliser situated about waste is generated replacement – which 2 km from the plant and is an external source there are plans to start brought into the regional ecologic system its own composting additive using the diges– can be eliminated. This ensures a closed tate, which will, in turn, be used directly in nutritional loop with a balanced impact on EFJ’s orchards. the environment,” explains Höppener. “The plant operates seasonally, from With regard to the digestate, the plant is January to June. Once the season is over, I currently in collaboration with the University will focus on marketing this digestate,” Naiof Stellenbosch, which has erected a pilot cker  adds. She admits that trying to get dryer for digestate on-site. “We have tri- rid of the digestate from her plant is proballed and used the dryer because it has a ably the biggest challenge at the moment screw press. We tried to remove up to 40% and many industries don’t understand its of the moisture content from the digestate value just yet – a value that should not be before use in our apple and pear orchards,” underestimated, especially when it comes says Naicker. to agricultural production. Höppener further “The digestate was then trialled at our or- states that challenges have been identified chards and we found that the water retention in the regulatory classification of digestate was quite good. However, due to the heavy as a fertiliser, and creating awareness winds in Cape Town, as the digestate be- around the nutritional value of digestate is gins to dry, the top layer starts to blow off. one of the six key working areas towards But all we had to do was ensure that the improving the biogas business framework material was more moist, so as to prevent in  South Africa.

ReSource August 2016 – 35

ReSource February 2016 – 35

Lighting & e-Waste

End-to-end lamp recycling first for Africa There are many components that go into making a lightbulb but never before has every by-product been recyclable. With eWaste Africa boasting a world first in lamp recycling, managing director Pravashen Naidoo, tells ReSource more. What recent innovation has propelled eWaste Africa to the international forefront of lamp recycling? PN eWaste Africa brought the first African commercial lamp recycling plant to South Africa in 2014, which, at the time, consisted of the MP8000 lamp recycler. With the recent closure of the only phosphor processing plant in France two months ago, eWaste Africa – in conjunction with eWaste Beneficiation and Rare Earths Recycling – has become the first company in Africa and the only company in the world to provide a complete end-to-end solution for the safe recovery and reuse of all by-products extracted from hazardous light bulbs – including luminophorous powder.

Additionally, although the mercury in bulbs has reduced considerably over the years, the fact is that today’s compact fluorescent lamps and bulbs (CFL or energy savers, as they are commonly called) still contain a few milligrams of mercury per bulb. Even though these products have a lower mercury content than before, there are still millions in circulation and disposed of each year.

What are the dangers associated with disposing of lamps at an ordinary landfill site?

Our estimation is that only 15% of light bulbs in South Africa are handled in a safe and controlled manner. This means that 85% of our country does not understand the dangers concerning these mercury-containing bulbs. While most businesses are aware of the environmental impact of waste gas discharge lamps (mercury and sodium lamps and bulbs), many households still do not realise that these lamps contain mercury.

There are currently many different types of light bulbs in South Africa, spanning hundreds of variations. The most common light bulbs in the market are considered the most dangerous; namely CFLs, fluorescent tubes (linear, circular or u-tubes) and mercury vapours. Landfill sites are not designed to handle mercury and this, ultimately, leads to mercury entering our water supplies. According to the WHO, elemental and methylmercury are toxic to the central and peripheral nervous systems. The inhalation of mercury vapour can produce harmful effects on the nervous, digestive and immune systems, lungs and kidneys, and may be fatal. Also, mercury’s inorganic salts are corrosive to the skin, eyes and gastrointestinal tract, and may induce kidney toxicity, if ingested.

Rare earth oxide extracted at a recovery plant

What are the major industries that require your services and how will you

Are the dangers of improper lamp disposal widely known in South Africa?

assist with the impending ban on bulbs to landfill? With the official ban of all hazardous bulbs to landfill from August this year, all facilities using light bulbs are in need of our services. Recycling light bulbs ensures that your corporates, government entities, parastatals and other organisations: • lower their hazardous waste environmental footprint • assist in achieving zero-waste-to-landfill targets • allow their organisation to comply with legislation, i.e.: – National Environmental Management: Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008) – National Consumer Protection Act, regarding suppliermanufacturer responsibilities alignment with the coming extended producer responsibility programme • comply with the ban of all bulbs to landfill as of August 2016. Moreover, eWaste Africa provides a feasible, environmentally friendly, cost-effective and sustainable alternative to the dumping and landfill disposal of light bulbs.

Where are your recycling facilities sited and how do these facilities stand out? We offer collection services in Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape. Our recycling facility is based in KZN and we are able to handle all bulbs, with a capacity to handle 30 million bulbs yearly at our facilities. The MP8000 technology at our facility won the Queen’s Innovation Award in the UK.

“Two years since launching Africa’s first commercially active light bulb recycling plant, we have innovated again, becoming the only company in the world to provide a complete end-to-end solution for the safe recovery and reuse of all by-products extracted from hazardous fluorescent light bulbs.”

36 – ReSource August 2016

strap Lighting Cover & e-Waste Electrical and electronic waste is currently the fastest growing waste stream worldwide. It also has the highest potential for job creation, with particular potential in the automotive sector. By Rolene Ecroignard and Keith Anderson*


Job creation in the automotive sector W ith much research having been done, e-waste (electrical and electronic waste) is no longer the new kid on the block in the recycling industry. It represents one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world and, with our collective hunger for newer and ever-evolving electronics and gadgets, there is no end in sight. Numerous studies have been conducted on the harmful effects of e-waste on the natural environment and people. Approaching e-waste from a job creation perspective has drawn less attention. In South Africa, it is estimated that currently only about 13% of available e-waste is collected, indicating an industry with much opportunity for employment growth and much work to be done to continue raising awareness and collection figures in the country. According to StEP’s e-waste world map, 9.94 kg of electric and electronic equipment is on the market per person, while 6.63 kg of e-waste is generated per person. This translates to 339 310 tonnes of e-waste generated nationally.

Challenges and opportunities e-Waste is both hazardous and valuable, posing unique collection and recycling challenges. While handling e-waste in an

environmentally sound manner poses little risk, mismanagement can have adverse effects on human health and the environment. Heavy metals and chemicals such as lead (solder, CRT glass, lead-acid batteries), mercury (compact fluorescent lamps, flat screens, thermostats), cadmium (resistors, batteries), polychlorinated biphenyls (capacitors, resistors) and arsenic (LEDs) can lead to health problems for e-waste workers when not handled properly and cause heavy metal contamination of soil and water if landfilled or treated in backyard e-waste recycling operations, as found in China. Many of the metals are considered carcinogens and adverse health effects include lung cancer (beryllium), skin infections (arsenic), brain swelling (barium), hormonal disorders (dioxins), kidney damage (cadmium), DNA damage (chromium) and lead poisoning. On the flip side, copper (wiring, cables, circuit boards), gold (circuit boards), aluminium (capacitors) and iron (fixings, cases) have high value when recovered. Rare earth metals such as scandium (aerospace components), yttrium (spark plugs) and lanthanum (camera lenses) can also be recovered. In a world where resources are dwindling, the recovery of valuable resources will continue to grow in importance.

According to DTI statistics, 34 jobs can be created in the sector for every 1 100 tonnes of e-waste

Already, some applications of urban mining can be less cost intensive than traditional mining operations.

Automotive industry The automotive industry in South Africa is well developed, with vehicle and component manufacturers having production plants in South Africa. The sector is well placed for investment and has shown growth in the last few years. The sector contributes 6% to the country’s GDP and represents 12% of manufacturing exports. New-vehicle dealerships are also members of their respective dealer councils, which set standards, policies and best practice guidelines, among others, for their members. These dealer councils, we believe, will play a pivotal role in the success of launching an e-waste initiative in the automotive sector, particularly if a national roll-out is envisaged. Used car dealers, motor repair facilities (non-franchised) and motor spares dealers belong to the Retail Motor Industry Federation, which is made up of some 15 ancillary associations representing a vast array of businesses that make up the total supply

ReSource August 2016 – 37

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Lighting & e-Waste Wiring On board computer systems PWBs

FIGURE 1 Automotive e-waste accepted at e-waste management companies Capacitors Transistors Lead acid batteries



Electric vehicle batteries



Uthuimlon batteries Car sound equipment


Car radios GPS

11% 3%

Alarm systems


5% 3%



chain in the automotive sector. Furthermore, some of the franchised workshops, such as Bosch, have their own dealer council, which operates on a similar basis to new-vehicle dealer councils. Likewise, they are an important stakeholder in the proposed e-waste collection model. More than 28 000 people are directly employed in automotive manufacturing, with 65 000 employed in the component manufacturing industry. About 200 000 are employed in retail and aftermarket activities, with 6 600 employed in the tyre manufacturing industry.

Automotive e-waste There are a growing number of electronic components in modern cars and other vehicles. Components such as entertainment systems, alarm systems and GPS units are already finding their way to e-waste management companies. In addition to the systems pictured above, most cars contain sensors (microphones, optical imaging, oxygen sensors) and actuators (spark plugs, motors, airbag inflators) that can be considered e-waste. As technology advances, electronic components in vehicles are growing and changing to adapt to the needs and wants of drivers. Even the most basic cars now have some electronic systems, with central locking, alarm systems and electric windows coming standard. Electronic components in vehicles contain metals (aluminium, platinum, nickel, copper, palladium, rhodium), PC boards, batteries, capacitors and many other items that are familiar in e-waste management.

Where does it go?

Already, some applications of urban mining can be less cost-intensive than traditional mining operations

Table 1 StEP e-waste map for SA

Subject EEE put on market e-Waste generated

Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa Unit Year Amount (kg per inhabitant) 2012 9.94 (total in kilotonnes) (kg per inhabitant) (total in kilotonnes)

with a legal requirement that you could only exchange a battery on a one-for-one basis. Should you not return a battery, you must pay the mandated levy at point of sale. In other words, consumers have to return the old battery to get a new one. The levy ranges from R20 for motorbike batteries to R173 for car batteries, and is administered by the Battery Manufacturers Association. It appears that some of the end-of-life electronic components are sent back to mother companies outside the country for recycling, while some scrap metal dealers indicated that second-hand dealers strip the valuable e-waste components before sending the bodywork to the scrap yards. However, most of the e-waste companies surveyed confirmed that they receive automotive e-waste, including wiring that scrap metal dealers indicated are often left in the bodywork and deemed not worth their while to strip out. According to RASA, its members won’t accept automotive e-waste, since it can contaminate their materials, and prefer to refer collectors to e-waste management companies. Wiring and lead-acid batteries are accepted by all, and managed accordingly. The copper inside wiring no doubt has enough value and poses no challenge in scrap metal recycling processes. At landfill sites, which the consultant visited to ascertain if automotive e-waste ended up on the sites and was collected by informal waste pickers, there were only a few e-waste pickers and they Source UNU (Jaco Huisman) were not prepared to share information. While it is difficult UNU (Jaco Huisman) UNU (Jaco Huisman) to guess why people were UNU (Jaco Huisman) reluctant to talk, it could be

While the scrap metal recycling sector is well developed and organised with the Metal Recyclers Association and the Recycling Association of South Africa (RASA), most scrap metal dealers only deal with scrap bodywork of vehicles (steel recycling in South Africa is estimated at 90%) and it seems that not much e-waste ends up in this channel. In our surveys, we found that most scrap metal dealers did, in fact, receive large household appliances and occasionally other e-waste items. Many reported redirecting people to e-waste management companies. When vehicles are serviced at new and second-hand car dealerships around the country, workshop staff hand the parts that were replaced to the customer who then has to dispose of it. In practice, much of this waste will end up in landfill sites or storage. For new vehicles serviced under warranty, dealerships report sending faulty parts back to head office. Under the Consumer Protection Act (No. 68 of 2008), dealerships will be required to take hazardous waste back, as soon as e-waste is no longer accepted at landfill (in 2018). This could be used as an incentive to get dealerships on-board with a collection initiative. South African battery manufacturers collect 90% of lead-acid batteries for recycling at their plants. The take-back system for lead-acid batteries was initiated in 1942,

2012 2012 2012

508.74 6.63 339.31

ReSource August 2016 – 39

Lighting & e-Waste FIGURE 2 Automotive e-waste

for fear of losing an income or admitting to a perceived crime. It could be as simple as distrust in a person who is not known to the waste pickers.

Collection channel In discussions with new and second-hand car dealers in eThekwini, there is a clear willingness to have e-waste collection bins in workshops as an alternative to giving the old parts to the customer. These bins would be collected by e-waste collection companies and taken for sorting, dismantling and recycling. In the feasibility study, we discuss a pilot collection scheme that could be expanded nationwide to collect the fractions of automotive and other e-waste that appears to be falling through the cracks at the moment. There are a number of scrapyard dealerships around eThekwini and they all accept various e-waste components for a number of different makes of cars. Some are reselling these parts to various consumers in and outside eThekwini as second-hand goods. In the process flow of stripping some cars for resale, there are other components used for recycling where a number of metals are recovered. Discussions with car dealers indicate

40 – ReSource August 2016

that new vehicle parts are sent back to head office while parts that were replaced during services are, in general, handed back to the customer as proof that it was indeed replaced. Much of these parts probably end up in general landfill. e-waste companies report receiving automotive e-waste. It is difficult to estimate the volumes that will be collected at the moment, but these will become clear when we initiate a pilot. The pilot could be extended to dealerships nationwide, once we see what works best.

Financial feasibility A preliminary costing for a pilot e-waste collection system in eThekwini is based on the use of 240 litre wheelie bins that are serviced by existing e-waste management companies. Depending on the volumes, the initiative could create between one and two jobs per collection point, provided each point is permanently manned by someone to assist with the sorting and transport of e-waste. The pilot programme should provide clarity on real numbers and collection points. With existing automotive dealerships willing to participate in a collection initiative, automotive e-waste could easily be collected

to feed into the existing, formal e-waste collection system. Depending on volumes, a social enterprise or cooperative to prepare e-waste for formal recycling (manual dismantling and sorting) could be established, since the Hammarsdale facility is not yet up and running. This would have to be discussed with existing NGOs and social enterprises, should the need arise. For the duration of the pilot, it is foreseen that existing e-waste management companies will be able to process the additional e-waste collected at the collection points.

Conclusion There is clear opportunity to expand e-waste collection to an industry with relatively low awareness of local recycling opportunities for the e-waste that it generates. A pilot programme could be initiated at relatively low cost and expanded countrywide with the possibility of expanding the existing e-waste collection network. *Rolene Ecroignard and Keith Anderson work at eWASA, a non-profit that works towards sustainable e-waste management systems. For a full list of sources and acknowledgements, please email frances@3smedia.co.za.


Separating the facts Everyone’s heard how the next world wars will be fought over water and that one litre of used oil can pollute one million litres of fresh water. Those are facts. But how easy is it to separate used oil from water, and what are the costs involved? By Frances Ringwood


il that is improperly disposed of has only one way to go – down into precious surface- or groundwater reserves, which it then contaminates. The latter is particularly concerning in countries like South Africa, where the Department of Water and Sanitation reports state that up to 98% of the country’s water reserves are already subscribed (some sources indicate that the figure may be as high as 100%). In a nutshell, water-stressed countries like South Africa simply cannot afford to have their water reserves contaminated by used oil. The effects of water shortages have already been felt in the economy, as is demonstrated by recent news that Q1 GDP growth in the country was down due to a slowdown in agricultural production caused by the recent drought (according to the Fitch Ratings agency).

Economic viewpoint Whether oil enters water resources on a small scale, in drips and drops from motor oil run-off on roads, or in large-scale spills, the results cost. A UNEP study on different industries using oil shows that motoring consumes a massive 56% of the market, followed by hydraulic oil (13%) and process oil (10%). In South Africa, the amount of oil that is collectable

Raj Lochan, CEO, Recycling Oil Saves the Environment (ROSE) Foundation

as used oil is about 45% of new oil sold. Moreover, on the African continent, based on studies conducted in four of the more developed countries, the amount of collectable used oil is closer to about 33%. “The reason for lower levels of collectable used oil on the African continent is the fact that there are more old cars on the road and they leak oil,” comments Raj Lochan , CEO, ROSE Foundation. In the grand scheme of things, motor oil is the most intractable problem because hydrocarbons enter stormwater run-off systems unavoidably. Although hydrocarbons can have serious health impacts on fish and – further up the food chain – humans, dilution rates are usually high enough that this remains a relatively long-term problem to solve. The reason for used motor oil’s potency is that it contains degraded additives and contaminants. However, used oil can be usefully recycled to the financial advantage of the recycler, creating jobs to boost the local economy and providing meaningful employment in the recycling sector. Lochan comments, “Recycling waste oil as re-refined oil has economic benefits. It also helps to conserve non-renewable crude oil. Waste oil can be processed and converted to fuel oil, which enables the creation of a low-grade industrial fuel that can be used as an alternative to paraffin or diesel for heating  purposes.” “Additionally, regarding job creation, the model we have in South Africa is to encourage micro-businesses to operate

on their own in collecting oil from motor garages and factories – they in turn sell it to a recycler factory or processor that meets the required legislative standards,” adds Lochan. These jobs are perfect for low-skilled, new market entrants and function as micro-enterprises. “They’re selfemployed and, on their behalf, the ROSE Foundation manages the environmental value chain for safe disposal and recycling,” explains Lochan.

Environmental legislation Since oil pollution’s effects have such wide-ranging consequences, its management and control are strictly legislated and controlled. For example, cross-border movement between countries is controlled under the Basel Convention protocol. “SADC countries adhere to this convention and used oil does move across the borders of these countries,” says Lochan. Locally, waste oil responsibility falls under the National Environmental Management: Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008), which entrenches the “polluter pays” principle – meaning that the person or organisation responsible for generating

Used oil can be usefully recycled to the financial advantage of the recycler, creating jobs to boost the local economy and providing meaningful employment in the recycling sector

ReSource August 2016 – 41

Funded by: RFRESDDO2015

Recycling WESSA-ROSE Competition

• This year, the ROSE Foundation and the Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA) are launching a used oil and resource programme and competition that aims to improve knowledge and understanding around used oil and the threat it poses to the environment. • The two organisations hope to reach 240 eco-schools in the Western Cape to educate learners and their family members about the safe disposal of lubricating oil. • The contest was announced at an award ceremony where WESSA recognised the ROSE Foundation for its promotion and encouragement of environmentally responsible oil management in 2015.

the waste oil is ultimately responsible for its clean-up and recycling. Other important laws and regulations support these laws. “When they passed the encompassing Act, a number of regulations were subsequently passed to complement the Act for implementation purposes. One of these includes the Waste Classification and Management of Hazardous Waste Regulation, referred to as GN634, passed in August 2013. This governs how to comply in terms of managing hazardous waste,” explains Lochan.

FIGURE 1 Global use of different lubricants by percentage

13% 10% 11% 5% 3%



Technologies A number of technologies and processes have been found useful for preventing oil from contaminating water supplies. These include: • Oil-water separators: These can efficiently remove gasoline, diesel fuel, and crude, vegetable and almost any other type of oil that is heavier than water. Properly designed, installed, and operated, oilwater separators protect sewer systems by preventing an unacceptable level of contaminants from entering a country’s water sources.

Recycling used oil creates skilled and unskilled jobs, boosting the local enconomy while providing meaningful work

• Reconditioning: This is a chemical process, usually once off, which relies on the use of chemical additives to stabilise and prolong the life of used oil. The endproduct is not recommended for use in motor vehicles and is typically used to generate heat, although by-products can be harmful. •R  e-refining: This is a complex, mechanical (and usually also chemical) process that can return oil to a state equal to or better than virgin oil. It generally requires the processes of vacuum distillation, combined with clay treatment, chemical treatment or hydrogen pretreatment. Producers of used motor oil can contact the ROSE Foundation directly to find out more about affordable storage and removal of used oil for recycling and re-refining.

ReSource August 2016 – 43


Wising up to healthcare waste The rising costs of healthcare waste management in South Africa and the rest of the world are forcing hospitals and clinics to rethink the way in which they deal with their healthcare waste.


his is the opinion of Delanie Be- wide variety of new materials, such as shoe zuidenhout, CEO, Southern African soles, pipes, hoses, door mats, gum boots Vinyls Association (SAVA), who, in and traffic cones. partnership with Adcock Ingram According to Bezuidenhout, the healthCritical Care, recently launched an innovative care environment uses large volumes of idea for implementing a polyvinyl chloride safe, high-performance PVC that is highly (PVC) recycling programme that separates recyclable. “Many of these products never non-hazardous PVC waste from healthcare- even make contact with patients, but are risk waste. As part of its drive to imple- thrown away indiscriminately because of ment a PVC recycling over-cautious practices initiative at hospitals Inflatable splints, blister that were introduced and healthcare faciliin the 1980s. This packs for medicines, ties around South Afwas when HIV/Aids and flooring are all PVC was peaking in public rica, SAVA has recently products and most of awareness, but little trained close to 1 000 hospital staff over a these can be diverted was understood about period of 53 hours from landfill or recycled the spreading of the about the ins and outs disease at the time,” into a wide variety of of PVC recycling. she says. new materials SAVA advocates that PVC recycling there are numerous PVC is a versatile polymer that is widely advantages for hospitals wanting to pursue used in the healthcare environment for a this course of action, such as contributing wide range of different applications – rang- towards the overall environmental compliing from rigid PVC used in piping, to soft ap- ance for the facility, enhancing community plications such as IV bags, tubing and oxy- relationships, avoiding long-term liability, gen masks in hospitals. Inflatable splints, increasing staff morale, as well as various blister packs for medicines, and flooring specific economic benefits. are all PVC products and most of these can “Hospital waste management processes be diverted from landfill or recycled into a have significantly improved over the last

decade and our own experience and results of similar projects implemented successfully elsewhere in the world have proved that the recycling of non-hazardous medical waste has the potential to be successfully implemented in healthcare settings, thereby contributing to the efficient use of resources, while improving costefficiency (or even being cost neutral) for hospitals,” Bezuidenhout says.

Navigating obstacles There are various challenges to any recovery operation and SAVA has found that one of the biggest issues with this specific project was the lack of suitable storage space for waste bins, while the logistics of moving waste was also seen to be a prominent challenge that needed to be overcome. “We are proud to report that we have managed to successfully navigate these obstacles in our various pilot projects launched in the Western Cape and, more recently, in Gauteng. Through good planning, ongoing education and constant liaison with the waste management team, and by having a project champion on-site, these challenges can be overcome,” Bezuidenhout concludes.

Training of hospital staff about PVC recycling at Unitas Hospital in Pretoria

ReSource August 2016 – 45

46 – ReSource August 2016


Solving the separationat-source puzzle The CSIR’s latest innovation is a new decision support tool to assist municipalities in implementing separation at source. The benefits of this tool will include improved household waste recycling, greater landfill space availability and a significant contribution to the country’s green economy. By Anton Nahman


any South African municiconditions of informal collectors, and spur palities face a range of sociolocal industrial development, particularly economic, health and environthrough small businesses and cooperamental problems related to tives. This will increase the contribution of increasing waste volumes, dwindling landfill the waste sector to the green economy. airspace, scavenging at landfill sites, and Separation at source unemployment. In addition, at a national level, the disposal of recyclable waste to landThe separation of waste at source is fill represents a significant loss of critical to achieving the aboveThe valuable resources from the mentioned aims. As such, focus of the South African economy. the NWMS sets targets model is currently The National Environfor metros, secondon post-consumer paper mental Management: ary cities and large and packaging waste Waste Act (No. 59 of towns to implement from households, although separation-at-source 2008) and the supit will be expanded porting National Waste programmes. to incorporate other Management Strategy However, there is waste streams, such (NWMS) call for the inlimited information on creased diversion of waste the costs of implementas organics ing source separation at the from landfill towards reuse, municipal level, as compared recycling and recovery – in line to the potential benefits in terms of airwith the waste management hierarchy. Government’s aim is to reduce the quantities space savings, reduced disposal costs and of waste sent to landfill, create jobs and potential income from the sale of recyclable business opportunities in the waste and materials. In addition, there are various options for the collection of source-separated recycling industries, improve the working

recyclables, each with their own costs and benefits. In turn, the costs and benefits of each option will differ between municipalities, and even between areas within Anton Nahman is a the same municipality, senior researcher depending on the local for environmental economics at context. As such, it is the CSIR unlikely that a one-sizefits-all approach will be appropriate for all municipalities. The CSIR has, therefore, identified the need to provide decision support to municipalities in assessing the costs and benefits of alternative systems for implementing source separation, within their specific context.

The Sascost model The CSIR has developed a model that can be used by municipalities (or their service providers) to assess and compare the costs and benefits of different options for the collection of source-separated recyclables, based on each municipality’s unique

ReSource August 2016 – 47


National norms and standards call for separation at source – but many municipalities struggle with the question of how to achieve this

context. It can assist municipalities in identifying the most cost-effective option for implementing separation at source, evaluating tenders for kerbside collections and materials recovery facilities (MRFs), and in motivating for funding for implementation (e.g. through tariffs or subsidies from national government or industry). The model has a number of further benefits. For example, it can be used by any local municipality or metro in South Africa, irrespective of size, previous experience with source separation, or data availability. Additionally, it contains GIS (geographical information systems) data for each suburb of every municipality in South Africa, in order to allow for detailed suburb-specific costing of kerbside collection of separated waste. It also contains a comprehensive set of default values and, therefore, has minimal requirements for input data. As such, where data is lacking, users can make use of the default values built into the model. At the same time, users can override the default values with their own data, where available. Another benefit is the tool’s userfriendliness; users can change numerous field values – e.g. different collection areas, income levels, collection systems, vehicle types, etc. – to see how the results are affected. Users can also exclude certain costs or benefits that are not relevant to their costing (e.g. MRF costs, or income from the sale of recyclables).

48 – ReSource August 2016

Benefits summary The focus of the model is currently on postconsumer paper and packaging waste from households, although it will be expanded in future to incorporate other waste streams, such as organics. The scenarios considered in the model include: 1 Collection of source-separated recyclables in a separate vehicle. 2 Collection in a multicompartment vehicle or truck and trailer. 3 Post-separation at a dirty MRF. 4 The ‘rich bag’ option. This is when households separate recyclables into a separate (easily identifiable) bag, which is then easily accessible to informal collectors; or is otherwise collected in the normal waste collection vehicle with other waste, and is

then post-separated at an MRF, where it is, again, easily identifiable and not contaminated by other waste. We are also working on a fifth, “split-compartment vehicle” scenario – where vehicles have separate compartments so that recyclables can be sorted and baled at an MRF facility, with the rest of the waste transported to landfill. We hope to include this option in a future version of the model but cannot do so yet due to a lack of information on costs (although we are working with a local service provider to secure that information). An additional feature we hope to build into future iterations will be the model’s expansion to incorporate the costs and benefits of other options as well, such as incorporating the informal sector in collection; alternative options for processing, such as an integrated MBT (mechanical biological treatment) plant; and downstream technology options for the various waste streams, such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling. At present, the model focuses on direct financial costs and benefits to municipalities, such as marketing and communication costs, costs of providing bags, collection costs, and costs of sorting at an MRF. The benefits include savings in terms of reduced disposal to landfill, and income from the sale of recyclables. The model is currently also being expanded to incorporate a wider range of costs and benefits, including the broader socioeconomic and environmental impacts of the different scenarios, so that the full sustainability implications of each option can be By encouraging household waste separation, more waste is diverted from landfill and value is created through recovering valuable raw material for manufacturing

Recycling compared. A draft, spreadsheet-based version of the model has been developed, and subsequently revised and updated in light of initial feedback received. At the same time, we are developing a more user-friendly web interface, to enable greater accessibility and usability.

The separation of waste at source is critical to achieving the aims of the National Waste Management Strategy

What’s next? The next phase in developing the model will involve external testing with a number of municipality case studies, in order to obtain an understanding of: the effectiveness of the tool in practice; its user-friendliness; the validity of the assumptions, formulae, parameters and default values built into the model; the accuracy of the results obtained; the sensitivity of results to changes in options selected; and other useful parameters. Thereafter, the model will be revised in light of the feedback received. The model will also be expanded and updated to address existing gaps and limitations. The current model should, therefore, be seen as a first version, with significant potential for further

expansion. While we already have a number of municipalities participating in a trialphase of Version 1, we are still looking for more municipalities to expand our sample

size and create useful data for a broader set of local government environments. Any municipal representative wanting to participate can email anahman@csir.co.za.

ReSource0816-RecyPlants-Kahl_ReSource-Tyres 28.04.16 10:42 Seite 1

ReSource August 2016 – 49

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Green Buildings

Unconventional materials, fantastic results


ne of the latest trends set to impact the human settlements construction market is the use of recycled polystyrene packaging in a concrete-like product that has exceeded all relevant standards in the structural, load, fire and acoustic test categories. The product, developed by a non-profit organisation called the Mobile Education and Training Trust (METT), uses a patented mixture containing all grades and colours of recycled polystyrene, combined with nine different chemicals and cement. This mixture is then poured into slabs and left for seven days, resulting in strong, lightweight, durable, tile-like blocks for wall construction.

Polystyrene innovation According to Adri Spangenberg, director, Polystyrene Packaging Council (PSPC), the product represents a significant step forward in polystyrene recycling. “Until a few years ago, only clear, colourless or white polystyrene was considered to have recycling value. As a result, waste management and recycling companies preferred to only collect and recycle unpigmented containers, while the coloured and black material offered the same excellent insulation qualities and was readily available, but had no viable end market,” he comments. With the advent of METT’s blocks, however, now all types of polystyrene waste can

A transverse section of one of the solid walls

Government plans to build four factories per province as well as 68% of all schools, clinics and lowincome houses with materials diverted from landfill by 2018. Incentives such as this are inspiring new, worldleading green technologies. Edited by Frances Ringwood

Published with the permission of the Polystyrene Packaging Council ABOVE Now all types of polystyrene, not just unpigmented products, have reuse value

be reused – from fast-food trays and takeaway cups to trays used to package meat and fresh fruit. METT and PSPC are working in partnership to ensure a sustainable supply of waste materials. “The PSPC plays a facilitation role between end users of recycled polystyrene and waste management companies to ensure a continued supply of material that will keep up with the demand. Each week, large quantities of polystyrene are delivered to site,” explains Hennie Snyman, director, METT. “We recycle about 720 kg of polystyrene to build a 68 m2 accommodation. Last year alone, we recycled and diverted more than 613 tonnes of polystyrene away from landfill using our unique method. Not only does our solid wall system greatly reduce the use of cement and concrete, but it also reduces the overall cost of building by up to 40%,” he adds.

Government applications Since overheads for construction materials are drastically reduced, the solid wall system has presented itself as an ideal solution for government, including gap-market and RDP houses. “However, the material is not only suitable for low-cost applications; we’ve also recently provided materials for a 1 600 m2 home in Bela-Bela, as well as a series of designer, three-storey

ReSource August 2016 – 51

Green Buildings

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Green Buildings

The Village of Hope opened in January this year

build. “This is an affordable construction option that enables government to provide the poorest of the poor with houses.

units in Four ways,” adds Snyman. As a result of the product having received the relevant health and safety ratings from the SABS, CSIR and various other international and local standards authorities, METT has been appointed as a preferred government supplier. “Our buildings have gone through every conceivable test, ranging from structural and load-impact tests, to rain-penetration resistance and the so-called ‘knock test’ to determine if the walls have a hollow sound. In each test, the product far exceeded the minimum requirements. “Its fire rating is obviously a very important consideration for low-cost housing in South Africa, where far too many tragic deaths result from paraffin fires and the use of cheap, flammable building materials in townships. During a recent four-and-ahalf-hour burn test in a furnace of 1 800°C, the fire only penetrated 1 cm into the walls, giving our product one of the best fire ratings in the world,” explains Snyman. Snyman adds that the design of the first 32 m² pensioner’s house has just been approved, costing as little as R28 000 to

Village of Hope

The R285 million Village of Hope, in the North West, opened its doors in January this year and was built entirely using a new building material that uses recycled polystyrene

One of the first significant community projects to be built using the new material is the R285 million Village of Hope, built in Kosmos in the North West. Based on the same principles as Tich and Joan Smith’s LIV Village, established in KwaZulu-Natal in 2001, this new 20 850 m² village is situated on 285 ha of land overlooking the Hartebeespoort Dam, and is built entirely using METT’s system. “Like the LIV village, the Village of Hope will exist to raise the next generation of leaders in South Africa by placing orphaned and vulnerable children into a family environment, with a trained foster mother to love them, a school to educate them, and where all their physical needs are met,” says Snyman. The village opened in January this year and has the capacity to accommodate 1 000 students. Structures on-site include a fully equipped nursery school, early childhood development centre, primary school, high school, and various onthe-job training facilities for agriculture. Other buildings include an outreach clinic, internet

The care facility has the capacity to accommodate 1 000 students

cafe, safe haven for abused women and children, and a satellite police station. It will also incorporate sporting grounds, 10 ha of gardens designed by leading landscape architects, and a special agricultural training centre for emerging black farmers.

Conclusion Products such as the solid wall system meet a critical environmental and social need in developing countries such as South Africa, where housing shortages are an issue. “It is clear that this composite product offers great potential and will be the solution for all housing and social needs in our country. This is the ideal product that not only addresses the concept of green building, by using material from the waste stream, and reduces the amount of litter that is sent to our landfills, but it also increases unskilled employment, provides affordable construction costs and offers an answer to the housing backlog by virtue of its short construction time,” concludes Spangenberg.

With the advent of these blocks, all types of polystyrene waste can be reused – from fast-food trays and takeaway cups to trays used to package meat and fresh fruit

ReSource August 2016 – 53

Cleaner Production

Industrial symbiosis

One man’s trash is another man’s treasure Last year, AJ Policycling attended the Gauteng Industrial Symbiosis Programme and formed partnerships with Lancet Laboratories, Nampak and EnviroServ. Through these partnerships, 190 tonnes of waste has been diverted from landfill and R326 400 in raw materials has been saved. By Constance Mokhoantle, NCPC-SA


J Policycling found the true value of polystyrene and polypropylene by diverting non-biodegradable waste that sits on landfill sites for hundreds of years,” says Henry Nuwarinda, project manager, National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA).

Industrial symbiosis The newly established South African industrial symbiosis (IS) programmes currently operational in Gauteng, KwaZuluNatal (KISP) and the Western Cape (WISP) are off to a good start. Over the last seven months, the Gauteng Industrial Symbiosis Programme (GISP) has registered 2 558 resources from 243 companies, with seven waste exchanges having taken place thus far. These interactions have resulted in cost savings of R1 406 400, in 10 companies, and a reduction of 235 000 tonnes of virgin resources. Nuwarinda says that IS works and is beneficial to companies because it is a resource-efficiency approach where unused or residual resources (material, energy, water, waste, assets, logistics, expertise, etc.) of one company are used by another, which results in mutual economic, social and environmental benefits.

Henry Nuwarinda, project manager, NCPC-SA

in essence, we ran two workshops in one,” says Nuwarinda. In the KISP workshop, 26 companies attended, 130 resources were identified and 228 potential synergies   were captured. James Woodcock, international manager, International Synergies, encourages companies to take part in the IS programme workshops, as they provide an opportunity for companies to innovate and contribute towards “regional development, as we continue to find new ways of extracting the maximum value from our resources, decoupling production from consumption.”

GISP 2016 GISP is funded by the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development

did you

know T


he NCPC-SA will be running a GISP workshop on 21 September 2016 and a KISP workshop on 28 September 2016. For more information, and to sign up for the event, visit:


BELOW The Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal industrial symbiosis programme workshops will be held in September this year

and the Gauteng Department of Economic Development. KISP is funded by Trade and Investment KZN and the KZN Department of Economic Development, Tourism and Environmental Affairs. Both GISP and KISP are delivered by NCPC-SA, and WISP by Green Cape.

Workshops Last year, 68 companies participated in the GISP workshop, 330 resources were identified and a record 718 potential synergies captured. “This workshop was unique, as twice the number of delegates attended;

ReSource August 2016 – 55

Cleaner Production

Top 10 temperature technologies Commercial and industrial buildings and factories can significantly lower their energy bills and increase worker comfort, productivity and staff retention by using energyefficient heating and cooling solutions. ReSource rounds up its top 10 energy-saving HVAC solutions.

1. Variable refrigerant flow technology Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) is a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology invented in Japan by Daikin company in 1982. It works by using invertor drive compressors capable of heating and cooling simultaneously with vir tually no duct loss. According to Marco Ferdinandi, marketing director, Mitsubishi Air Conditioning Systems, “This has been one of the most energy-efficient technologies available in South Africa over the last 10 to 15 years. There definitely needs to be more information available to landlords and commercial developers about how it works and what savings can be achieved through the implementation of VRF. We find it’s most popular and effective for our clients in the medical sector, where wards need to be cooled down while, at the same time, systems like hot water tanks require energy for heating.”

2. Inverter drives Inver ter drives have already been mentioned as an indispensable component of VRF technology but they can be used in multiple other HVAC units and in a wide range of other electronic applications. Also called variable-speed drives (VSDs), these technologies are probably the single biggest innovation contributing towards

56 – ReSource August 2016

energy efficiency today. Gordon Potts, head: HVAC Sales, Danfoss, explains how VSDs are changing the market: “About 20 years ago, Danfoss was probably the main company leading the VSD trend in HVAC. We’ve worked on numerous jobs, from big demand-side management initiatives piloted by Eskom, to installing the technology in coolers at retail centres.” Potts explains that most HVAC systems are designed for the 10 hottest days of the year and, at other times, these systems are often over-designed. “A VSD allows for automated control of how much energy is needed and used, depending on how much cooling is needed. As you can imagine, the energy savings realised by installing these units can be quite impressive, especially if you consider that a 20% drop in workload for a given HVAC unit equates to a 50% drop in electricity consumption.”

HVAC is one of the most productive areas in which to implement energy savings

“Ver y briefly, how EC fans work is: the motor receives a signal from an electronic controller rather than from an AC current. That microcontroller is basically a small brain that determines the fan’s most efficient operation. The fan itself uses normal AC input but the motor runs on DC current,” explains Alain van der Westhuizen, EC specialist, ebm-papst. EC motors’ DC current operation is fur ther optimised using a secondar y magnetic field – a practice becoming more widely used in energyefficient smar t technology.

Electronically commutated fans represent an energy saving of 29% on a typical heat-exchanger with six fans

3. Electronically commutated fans Electronically commutated (EC) fans represent an energy saving of 29% on a typical heat exchanger with six fans. They can also be used for refrigeration, air conditioning and other air-handling applications.

4. Free-cooling air-conditioning system Free cooling is an affordable way to lower outside temperatures to chill water, which can then be used for industrial process, or green air-conditioning systems. According to Leon Kleyn, mechanical engineer, Rowan Mechanical Consultants, “Free-cooling air-conditioning systems can be extremely efficient but it’s a case of horses for courses, and whether free

Cleaner Production cooling is the best option will depend ver y much on the intended installation site.” “For example, in atmospheres with high humidity or where there are a lot of freefloating par ticles, like a data centre, filters and air-filtering technology can become ver y expensive, negating the energy savings achieved through saving on the utility bill,” he adds. Whether free-cooling air conditioning is the right solution for a given building will depend largely on the ambient temperature desired by the client and also whether indirect free cooling might also be an option. “Free cooling works best in winter and in the evenings, when temperature levels outside are low and can more effectively cool the inside of structures,” says Kleyn.

5. Energy-efficient air conditioners There are a number of ways that air conditioners can be made more energy efficient. The most energy-hungr y component in an air conditioner is the compressor, which pumps out gas for heating or cooling.

EC fans use the latest developments in secondary magnetic field technology to lower energy consumption

According to Myron Sukha, CEO, HiRef, “At our company, we are continuously conducting research and development into how to make our air conditioners more energy efficient. The newest technology to become available on the South African market, which is already widely used in Europe, is the use of DC inver ters to drive the compressor. These compressors are called

brushless decelerating current (BLDC) units. AC inver ters use a lot more current and, so, the BLDC compressors have a much higher efficiency.”

6. Evaporative coolers As the name suggests, an evaporative cooler lowers air temperature by evaporating water. The method uses less electricity ReSource August 2016 – 57

Specialist Waste Management Consultants


Tel: +27 21 982 6570



Jan Palm Consulting Engineers cc converted to JPCE (Pty) Ltd

Cleaner Production BELOW Variable refrigerant flow technology offers a smaller footprint and greater  efficiencies to users

than refrigeration technology and can improve the breathability of air in buildings. Leading local supplier of evaporative cooler technology Cool Breeze describes the process as follows: “An ordinar y thermometer reads the actual air temperature and this is referred to as a dr y bulb temperature. On the other hand, wet bulb temperature is the lowest temperature that air can be cooled to by the evaporation of water. It is the temperature that the air would be when reaching 100% humidity or saturation. “This is what people ‘feel’ the temperature to be, and which is influenced by air movement over the body. It should not be confused with dr y bulb temperature. When sitting in a breeze, people feel cooler because air blowing on a person increases the rate of evaporation of moisture from their skin. Heat for this process is gained from the air but, more impor tantly, it is also gained

from the person’s skin. The person feels cooler, even though the dr y bulb temperature of the air remains the same.” An evaporative air-conditioning system offsets the effects of hot weather by cooling buildings’ walls from the inside. Cool walls radically reduce the need for other more energy-intensive cooling technologies.

7. Controllers Controllers, like VSDs, are not only useful in HVAC applications but have also been used widely in HVAC to great effect. Maurice Robinson, national sales manager for energy-efficiency HVAC specialist company Carel, explains, “A controller is basically a machine for handling inputs and outputs. We have a model, for example, which relies on pre-programmed algorithms to attain cer tain energy-efficiency outputs.” Other controller options available through Carel and other controller manufacturers are parametic controllers – where a specific set of parameters for a given company, factor y or site can be pre-programmed into the unit based on site parameters. Standard

programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are also available.

8. Electronic expansion valves Used in air-conditioning applications, electronic expansion valves (EEV) use a stepper motor to control the valve aper ture, and that, in turn, is controlled by smar t technology in the EEV head (the top par t that looks a lot like a solenoid valve head). The motor synchronises the operation of the variable displacement AC compressor and the EEV to maintain constant pressures in the air-conditioning unit, which optimises efficiency. Even greater efficiencies can be achieved when the technology is combined with BLDC compressors and controller technology. Robinson adds, “EEV prevents energy wastage in the evaporator while also allowing condensation at lower ambient conditions – depending on the ambient conditions. Companies that install EEVs can expect savings of around 14% annually.”

9. Building management systems A building management system (BMS) is usually used for managing a variety of systems for large commercial and industrial applications – they can also be used at

FIGURE 1 The energy hierarchy


Switch off Eliminate waste


Better appliances Lower energy losses


Sustainable energy production


Low carbon generation Carbon capture


Sources of last resort Offset to compensate

58 – ReSource August 2016

Cleaner Production housing estates or shopping malls. A BMS integrates with other HVAC technologies, as well as buildings’ electrical, and plumbing systems. BMS energy savings are estimated to be 40% and, if lighting is added, this number can climb as high as 70%. BMSs are computer-based systems that are harnessed to controls and monitor a given building’s systems, providing a total efficiency solution. These systems run software, usually running standard protocols such as C-Bus and Profibus. The language that different electrical components use to communicate with one another in South Africa is usually ModBus.

10. No-volt relay switch A no-volt relay switch installed on the airconditioning unit’s control panel allows hotel managers to switch air-conditioning units off and room occupants, if they feel the need, to switch them back on. “Energy costs, which include HVAC, can account for up to 40% of facility costs. As energy costs continue to rise in South

Africa, energy efficiency is becoming a priority target for management. With ongoing load-shedding, more owners and managers are becoming conscious of the need to do their par t to lower stress on the grid. “The implementation of a simple energy-efficient solution, like the no-volt relay switch, can help control rising energy costs, reduce environmental footprints, and increase the value and competitiveness of buildings – and guest offers,” comments Neil Cameron, general manager, Johnson Controls Systems and Service South Africa.

Conclusion The above technologies are not rated in any par ticular order: how much money and energy one par ticular component saves will largely depend on the type and scale of the application where it is installed and how it is maintained, among other

While variable-speed drives are not used exclusively in HVAC applications, their contribution towards energy efficiency in temperature, as well as other industries, is impressive

factors. Two trends emerge starkly from the above list. The first is the increasing use of microcomputers to assist in creating more energy-efficient technologies and the second is the increasing capability that machines have to communicate with one another. In the industr y, this is called machine-to-machine communication and is a growing trend worldwide. ReSource August 2016 – 59

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Celebrating African cities At this year’s Sustainability Week, collocated with the African Capital Cities and Sustainability Forum, mayors from around the African continent gathered to recommit themselves to forging new paths in sustainable urban development. By Frances Ringwood


ttended by mayors from 25 African countries, African Sustainability Week 2016, hosted by the City of Tshwane and the CSIR Convention Centre in Pretoria from 31 May to 2 June, served as a platform for city leaders from around the continent to commit to plans made at last year’s event towards fostering sustainable urban development for the continent with the fastest growing urban population across the globe. A number

ABOVE Mayor of Tshwane Kgosientso Ramokgopa

60 – ReSource August 2016

of notable dignitaries were in attendance, including Subesh Pillay, MMC: Economic Development in the City of Tshwane; Bene M’Poko, ambassador of the DRC; Parks Tau, executive mayor of the City of Johannesburg; Kgosientso Ramokgopa, executive mayor of Tshwane; and Andries Nel, deputy minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CoGta). The conference looked at Afri-Cities trends, the rise of mega-cities as well as the need to establish appropriate policies towards urban growth. Sustainability Week 2016, in essence, created a platform for a continent-wide response to

the injunction that is contained within the African Union Agenda 2063, which says we must develop “an African approach to development and transformation, learning from the diverse, unique and shared experiences and best practices of various countries and regions as a basis for forging an African approach to transformation”. Transformation here refers to the economic upliftment of the continent, which will ultimately express itself through the growth and stability of urban centres.

Urban expansion context The world is urbanising rapidly. According to the UN, 54% of the global population reside in urban areas. By 2050, it is estimated this will

Sustainability LEFT Mayors from 25 African cities gathered outside the CSIR International Convention Centre

increase to 66%. For context, in 1950, only 3 in 10 people lived in urban areas. Continuing population growth combined with urbanisation will add 2.5 billion people to the world’s urban population by 2050. 90% of those 2.5 billion people will live in Asia, India and Africa. In fact, according to the UN, Africa is expected to be the fastest urbanising region between 2020 and 2050. By 2050, most of the world’s urban population will be concentrated in Asia (52%) and Africa (21%). Currently, Africa has three megacities – i.e. cities with more than 10 million inhabitants: Cairo, Kishasa and Lagos. It’s projected that, by 2030, three more megacities will be added to that number: Johannesburg, Luanda and Dar es Salaam. Worth noting is that most of the fastest growing cities in Africa are those with a population of less than 1 million. Closer to home, in South Africa, 63% of South Africans already live in urban areas. That figure is expected to rise to 71% in 2030 and, by 2050, 8 out of every 10 South Africans will be living in urban areas. The challenge for Africa’s mayors, city planners and policy-makers, then, is to unleash the potential of cities and towns while at the same time reversing the legacy of anti-social and non-development-oriented architectures, often inflected by practices such as colonialism and exclusion.

Tshwane Declaration in action “At the end of last year’s Sustainability Week 2015, following intense deliberations, we adopted the Tshwane Declaration 2015, which, among other imperatives, noted:

1.  Current global challenges threaten economic growth and development in our cities, especially those related to climate change, the global economic slowdown, trade facilitation, connectivity, land degradation caused by mining activities and water shortages. 2. The centrality of partnerships in the implementation of sustainability programmes in enabling capital cities to realise their unique role in providing leadership to other local utilities within Africa’s borders. 3. The urgent need to design and implement sustainable urban development solutions to address and take advantage of the increasing wave of urbanisation in African cities. On that basis, we committed ourselves to convene annually to evaluate progress and processes towards the realisation of a series of developmental undertakings to place African Capital Cities at the vanguard of an upward developmental thrust,” explained Ramokgopa. Just moments after Ramokgopa addressed assembled dignitaries, Kobie Brand, director

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Deputy Minister of CoGta Andries Neil

of local-government-for-sustainability organisation ICEI Africa, broke the news that the City of Tshwane had won the most measurable gains from Earth Hour out of any other African – and by extension South African – city. Earth Hour is an initiative whereby everyone from around the world is encouraged to turn off their lights to save electricity. This is the second year in a row that Tshwane has won South Africa’s leading Earth Hour City award. Tshwane was also judged to be among the top 13 Earth Hour electricity saving municipalities in the world and the winner will be announced at the next major gathering of African leaders in urban development at UN Habitat III, later this year in October.

Integrated Urban Development Framework Following news of Tshwane’s success, Deputy Minister Nel spoke on the need to turn talk into action and ensure that those

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ReSource August 2016 – 61


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Sustainability promisesmade in the past will go towards concrete policy formation and active implementation for the upliftment of African cities. “There’s no reason why African cities can’t rank among the world’s most liveable cities. This conference takes place at an opportune time for this conversation, internationally, continentally and nationally. The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) recognise the importance of urban areas. Goal 11 of the 17 SDGs is making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. In October, UN Habitat III will consider the new urban agenda. The African Union agenda 2063 recognises that cities and other human settlements are hubs of cultural and other economic activities, with modernised infrastructure where people have access to affordable and decent housing, including housing finance, together with all the basic

necessities of life, such as water, sanitation, energy, public transport and ICT. Further, it pursues a key objective of providing opportunities for all Africans to have access to decent and affordable housing in clean, secure and well-planned environments,” said Nel. He added that South Africa’s National Development Plan (NDP) 2030 devotes chapter 8 to transforming human settlements and the national space economy. It sets out the vision that, “By 2030, South Africa should observe meaningful, measurable progress in reviving rural areas and in creating more functional, integrated and balanced urban settlements. “In pursuit of this vision, South Africa has adopted an integrated urban development framework (IUDF) – cabinet approved this important policy on 26 April 2016 and it was announced by the president on 27 April, which is South African Freedom Day,” said

According to the UN, 54% of the global population reside in urban areas. By 2050, it is estimated this will increase to 66%

Nel. “The IUDF marks a new deal for South Africa’s cities and towns, it will steer urban growth towards a sustainable model of towns and cities that are compact, connected and coordinated. The IUDF provides a roadmap to implement the NDP’s vision for spatial transformation, creating liveable, inclusive and resilient towns and cities while reversing apartheid’s spatial legacies,” he added.

Conclusion Three main themes that emerged from talks were: peer learning and collaboration among cities; Africans, as the people of the continent, are at the centre of future growth; an affirmation that Africa is on the rise and that a sustainable future will require a special kind of leader to take advantage of the opportunities. Inclusivity, accountability and synergistic leadership will be essential in overcoming urban architectures, which were never designed to accommodate current rates of population growth and expansion, in such a way that urban development becomes more dynamic, adaptable and – ultimately – sustainable. ReSource August 2016 – 63


Round-up Clean-up and Recycle Week SA

WasteCon 2016

The first International Coastal Cleanup was held in 1996, as an initiative of the plastics industry and KZN Wildlife, to remove the most visible plastics litter from the coastal area. Since then, it has become an annual, countrywide event – supported by dozens of private companies and thousands of private citizens – to pick up many tonnes of trash that would otherwise pollute the ocean. Clean-up and Recycle Week SA goes beyond that and encourages a holistic, ‘berg2beach’ approach.

With the recent waste management policy and legislative changes in South Africa, the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa’s (IWMSA) flagship biennial conference, WasteCon, will set the stage for healthy debate and knowledge sharing. Africa’s largest and most prestigious waste management conference is set to feature a fantastic line-up of sessions and exhibitions.

Date: 12-17 September 2016 Venue: Inland and coastal areas in South Africa Website: www.recyclingday-sa.co.za

International Coastal Cleanup 2016 Date: 17 September 2016 Venue: Global Website: www.oceanconservancy.org

Ocean trash is a serious pollution problem that affects the health of people, wildlife and local economies. Trash in our waters and on the shore can kill marine animals, injure swimmers and beachgoers, and ensnare boat propellers. For nearly three decades, volunteers with Ocean Conservancy’s International Coastal Cleanup have picked up everything imaginable along the world’s shorelines. This year, beachgoers will once again participate by picking up trash at their local beaches.

Date: 17-21 October 2016 Venue: Emperors Palace, Gauteng Website: www.wastecon.co.za

4th Going Green Conference (GGC2016) Date: 18-20 October 2016 Venue: Strand Tower Hotel, Cape Town Website: www.ggc2016.greenbdg.org

The Going Green Conferences (GGCs) started in Cape Town, South Africa, as a platform to enable industry experts to discuss practical green design solutions that can be adopted by professionals working within the public health sector's infrastructural services and maintenance departments. The GGCs have evolved to focus on the broader infrastructural portfolio that comprises healthcare and school facilities, owing to the growing needs of this emerging sector in South Africa.

Index to Advertisers A-Thermal Retort Technologies 16

Plastics|SA 46 44 Interwaste 22 POLYCO 50 Averda OBC Jan Palm Consulting Engineers 57 Polystyrene Packaging Council re -energise Africa 31 Barloworld Equipment 29 JIT Holdings OFC REDISA 10 Desco Electronic Recyclers 38 Johannesburg Water 19 Resource Sustainability Projects IFC East African Power Industry Convention 62 Kaytech 4 ROSE Foundation 42 EnviroServ Waste Management 14 Maccaferri Africa 33 ROSE Foundation NORA-SA 2 Envitech Solutions 35 Mills & Otten 32 Sanitech 61 eWaste Africa IBC National Cleaner Production Centre SA 54 Skip Truck Traders 23 Fountain Civil Engineering 34 Oil & Gas Africa 2016 63 Totally Construction East Africa 59 28 G & W Mineral Resources 13 Otto Waste Systems 26 WasteCon 2016 Amandus Kahl Hamburg 49

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Monitor latest developments in waste management and cleaner production through the official magazine of the Institute of Waste Management of...

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Monitor latest developments in waste management and cleaner production through the official magazine of the Institute of Waste Management of...

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