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THE KNOWLEDGE YOU NEED
ining FROM THE INDUSTRY EXPERTS
André du Preez, MD of the Horne Group, on their global success
ROUNDTABLE Zero harm on the menu
Tenacity is the name of the game
you’re on C3’s intelligent security system
Waste not, want not
Sorting and screening SA’s mineral wealth ISSN 1999-8872 • R30.00 (incl. VAT) • Vol. 4 • No. 6 • September/October 2011
T H E K N O W L E D G E YO U N E E D
FROM THE INDUSTRY EXPERTS www. insidemining .co.za
Winner of the 2010 PICA Winne Cover of the Year - B2B Publishing MEDIA
THE KNOWLEDGE YOU NEED
ining FROM THE INDUSTRY EXPERTS
Zero harm on the menu
Tenacity is the name of the game
Smile, you’re on C3’s intelligent security system. With security systems from C3SS, criminals can run but they can’t hide P4
André du Preez, MD of the Horne Group, on their global success
ON THE COVER
you’re on C3’s intelligent security system
Waste not, want not
Sorting and screening SA’s mineral wealth ISSN 1999-8872 • R30.00 (incl. VAT) • Vol. 4 • No. 6 • September/October 2011
3 Risky business
8 The top mining stories making the news in the past month REGIONAL FOCUS
12 DRC – There is more gold in those hills (and copper and a few other things)
16 Gold – The global boom in modular process plants FINANCE
18 Risk management – No risk, no reward 22 Investment – Putting your money where your future is 25 Sustainability – One planet, one chance SHEQ
27 Roundtable – Is ‘zero harm’ a pipe dream? 31 Health – Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation annihilates TB 33 Waste management - Rising from the ashes 34 Environment – Race against time to tackle AMD 37 Waste management – New technology makes AMD pay HOT SEAT
38 Horne Group – Locally engineered solutions for global conveyance safety
41 Even when dumped, it’s a girl’s best friend 42 The proof is in the pudding 44 The come-back kid TECHNOLOGY: SCREENING
46 The money or the box 46 You couldn’t hear a pin drop 48 Size counts 49 A drive for innovation CETERUM CENSEO
51 Africa is still not for sissies! Inside Mining 09.10/11
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Risky business This issue of Inside Mining has risk as its theme - security risk, political risk, health and safety risk, environmental risk and financial risk. All of these, ultimately, affect the sustainability of the mining industry. According to Grant Thornton International’s Government Intervention Report, increasing and unpredictable government intervention across the globe is adding further complexity to a sector that is already heavily laden with risk. For the most part, these interventions are motivated by financial and political pressures. Governments looking to increase revenue – whether to fund developing or indebted economies, recover from the financial crisis or simply top up the coffers – are targeting what they see as a thriving, profitable income source. With global demand creating high commodity prices, government taxes, royalties and other sector-targeted revenue-boosting measures are on the rise, particularly in Asia. On the political front, governments are responding to growing pressure from environmental interest groups and the public. In the face of devastating and very visible incidents, like the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, governments have increased environmental legislation with numerous regulatory frameworks being developed around the world. The growing calls for nationalisation and indigenisation of mining assets and resources threaten the very existence of some mining companies. Organisations that have ‘jumped ship’ from their home tax jurisdiction looking for a more relaxed set of rules must now contend with an uncertain future, particularly in Africa. Without clarity over the type and extent of government interventions, the development of the sector is in danger of stagnating and, ultimately, threatening global economic growth. According to the above mentioned report, the three key intervention areas are taxation, nationalisation or indigenisation and the environment. With regards to taxation, the tipping point can be reasonably estimated as the point where the government’s aggregate ‘take’ – corporate taxes, sales taxes, payroll taxes, royalties and special costs associated with doing business in a particular jurisdiction – exceeds 50% of profits. Nationalisation, the takeover of a private company’s assets or operations by the state, and indigenisation, increasing local participation in
Your intrepid editor takes a major risk at this year’s Noshcon event
or ownership of company assets, are forms of government intervention related in scope but with varying implications and perceptions. In
The development of the sector is in danger of stagnating and, ultimately, threatening global economic growth extreme cases of nationalisation or indigenisation, third-party investor interest could be wiped out. Even if measures don’t ultimately come to pass, interest will be highly limited as long as uncertainty remains. Lastly but, to coin a cliché, by no means least, governments around the world remain acutely aware that the green agenda is increasingly important and that legislation of the mining sector is a political necessity as well as an ethical imperative. Although global governments are working to achieve common regulatory ground, the current global landscape remains diverse. Though interventionist policies may successfully meet some governments’ short-term fiscal requirements, they may ultimately hinder overall global financial recovery. The report concludes that this will distort the cost of commodities and capital and affect the viability of numerous international exploration and extraction projects.
Inside Mining 09.10/11
COVER STORY SECURITY
You can run but you can’t hide Africa isn’t for sissies and, if it was up to C3, it also wouldn’t be a place fit for criminals.
hen you produce 373 900 tonnes of copper and 193 288 ounces of gold, and generate US$1.9 billion (approximately R13.45 billion) revenue per annum, you tend to become rather particular about your security. This is exactly the position First Quantum Minerals Ltd (FQML), a British Columbia-based mining and metals company, found itself in last year. The solution? FQML appointed South African company, C3 Shared Services (C3SS), to design and install a tailormade, state-of-the-art ‘intelligent’ security surveillance system to protect the highly sensitive areas at the company’s Zambian Copperbelt mine Kansanshi – the eighth largest copper mine in the world, which also happens to produce gold. C3SS, a specialist in intelligent video and perimeter security solutions, designed and installed a unique solution incorporating CCD cameras, high-speed domes and image-intelligent video analytics to protect the perimeter and to monitor all processes within the plant effectively. Theuns Claasen, security manager for the mine, says, “C3SS was chosen after a due diligence process was carried out on a group of suppliers bidding for our contract to install a CCTV monitoring system. The decision to appoint C3SS was unanimous in terms of their superior product and after-sales service. Pre-installation was conducted professionally in terms of product packaging and care for the long delivery trip and the installation process was extremely professional.” The intelligent video analytics are programmed to detect and alert the control room operators to any intrusions on the perimeter, while the high-speed domes allow for the finer details within the plant to be monitored. “This particular surveillance system has a very high probability of detection
Inside Mining 09.10/11
with a very low false alarm rate,” says Gary Egan, senior technical consultant for C3SS. He adds: “C3’s custom-designed solution offers FQML the ability not only to monitor all security-sensitive areas from a single control room in real time, but to be notified automatically in the event of a security breach.” C3SS was tasked with not only protecting the perimeter and internal processes of the gold plant, but also providing superior surveillance at the external main gate and the plant gate. Security at these entrances is integrated with the advanced video management system situated in the control room. The control room, also designed by C3SS, is the heart of the security system. Operators in this stateof-the-art control room have access to all the cameras on the perimeter, as well as the internal cameras. The intelligent video analytics automatically alert the operators to the exact location of any at-
The solution is a fullyintegrated IP open-based platform, allowing for expansion and growth tempted breaches on the perimeter. This automated intelligent ability prevents operators from getting fatigued by having to watch numerous cameras as they can confidently rely on the analytics to monitor the perimeter effectively. C3SS’s tailor-made intelligent surveillance solution will provide FQML with a future-proof security system and a high return on investment. The solution is a fully integrated IP open-based platform, allowing for expansion and growth and for the integration of future cameras, access control systems, etc.
Nick Grange, technical director of C3SS, summarises the project as follows: “C3 managed to comply with all customer requirements, while offering better than expected results. Our emphasis was on providing the client with a working solution
and not just a security surveillance system. C3SS not only successfully completed the project but were able to complete the project three weeks ahead of schedule.”
Turnkey security solutions A large part of C3SS’s success can be attributed to the company’s knowledge of and investment in the latest and most advanced security technology on offer. The company’s client list includes an impressive number of blue-chip companies such as the Gautrain project, SA’s National Keypoints, gold and copper mines, precious metal refineries, power stations, as well as up-market residential and golfing estates. C3SS is a pioneer in South Africa, providing robust and effective military grade intrusion detection systems that provide clients
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COVER STORY with instant visual verification of the exact cause and location of any perimeter breach, even in total darkness. The company’s directors have been involved in providing integrated electronic solutions for more than two decades; and as a result bring both a comprehensive and extensive wealth of knowledge in providing effective and working perimeter security solutions for high risk and high value areas. C3SS provide turnkey intelligent video and perimeter security solutions tailor made to suit a client’s individual needs with the primary focus being on the
implementation of intelligent video analytics and thermal cameras - perimeters are equally secure day and night. To illustrate, C3SS has formed a business partnership with Opgal Optronics Industries, a leading global manufacturer of innovative thermal imaging safety systems and infrared cameras. The latter launched its latest superior EYESEC™ continuous zoom thermal camera earlier this year. The new EYESEC™ uncooled thermal camera offers continuous zoom capabilities, as well as superb performance, with crisp-clear images, and is the first of its kind in the world. It is available in South Africa through C3SS. The company has been installing Opgal’s thermal cameras combined with intelligent video analytics as part of its security offering for the past four years. Brendon Cowley, C3 director, says, “Previously, the continuous
Some of the additional benefits of the camera include: • superb performance using advanced image enhancement algorithms • remote-controlled focus on demand • zoom capabilities – continuous digital zoom • rugged design – sealed against water, sand and dust • easy integration using Pelco-D • continuous Optical Zoom from 40 degree field of view down to 6.2 degree • high resolution up to 640 x 480 – 17 μm pitch • IP 66.
zoom capabilities were only available in the expensive cooled thermal cameras but now, thanks to Opgal’s very sophisticated R & D, they are offering this same technology in a more affordable uncooled camera. This continuous zoom function with auto-focus allows for unmatched ease of use by the control
Intelligent security control room
Inside Mining 09.10/11
COVER STORY LEFT An intruder detected at 450 m running behind a diamond mesh fence
to switch optics, as was done in the past, and is available in an array of options to suit all applications. The top-ofthe-range unit is based on a detector of 640 x 480, with a sensitivity of 17 μm pitch. This sensitivity allows for the detection and recognition of objects at further distances. One needs to see the
The camera provides a clear thermal video image in total darkness, light fog or smoke room operators, combined with superior detection capabilities. We are very excited to be able to offer this new and innovative superior thermal camera to our current and future potential clients.” Yoav Gross, director of security sales for Opgal, explains the motivation behind the development of such a unique thermal camera. “We wanted to give the control room operators the same ‘feel’
and convenience as that of conventional CCTV high-speed domes and pan and tilt devices, but with the thermal capabilities advantage. Not only have we succeeded in achieving this, but we have surpassed all expectations with the development of the new EYESEC™ camera.” Grange expands on this: “This camera allows the operator to zoom from 15 mm to 100 mm optic without having A thermal image
quality of image as well as ease of use to understand the effectiveness of this technology, both day and night.” The new EYESEC™ offers night and day, civilian and paramilitary surveillance for sites such as nuclear plants, mines, petrochemical installations, warehouses, national borders, airports, railroads, pipelines, oil terminals, electrical power plants, communication transmitters and prisons. The camera provides a clear thermal video image in total darkness, light fog or smoke. Grange notes that the thermal imaging is especially suitable for African mines as the general range of the camera can be set to exclude animals. If uncertain whether it is a human or game crossing the site, the operator can simply verify the nature of the intruder by video. He adds that if you use thermal on mines you need only mount one camera very high to cover the entire site. “But it is important to note that we don’t sell a system; we sell a solution. The technology mentioned above is very expensive and a single camera can cost upwards of R90 000. However, one of the new thermal cameras can replace nine of the old types of camera and it requires no maintenance or lights and works off solar power, so it does work out to be a cheaper integrated solution,” Grange concludes.
Contact C3 Shared Services Brendon Cowley Business development director email@example.com t 011 312 2041 www.c3ss.com
Inside Mining 09.10/11
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MINING NEWS www.miningne.ws
The top The top m mining ining sstories tories m making aking tthe he n news ews iin n tthe he p past ast m month o nt h
compiled by Ameerah Griffin
| AFRICA | SOUTH AFRICA Anglo American to divest minority interest in Palabora Source: miningne.ws
Anglo American announced that it will participate in the sale process initiated by Rio Tinto to dispose of both companies’ interests in Palabora Mining Company Limited. Anglo American currently holds a 16.8%
LESOTHO effective interest and Rio Tinto an effective 57.7%. Palabora’s principal asset is a copper mine in South Africa that also produces vermiculite and magnetite and, while studies are underway for a potential extension to the copper
Burkina Faso’s first zinc mine to start up
A new zinc mine in West Africa is due to start up in mid-2012, just as some of the world’s largest deposits are winding down, creating the first window in years for new suppliers in a chronically over-supplied market. The Glencore International-controlled Perkoa zinc mine in Burkina Faso will start shipments of concentrate by June 2012, rapidly building to an annual rate of 90 000 t of contained metal. Blackthorn MD Scott Lowe said start-up of the mine, following an A$80 million cash injection by Glencore, would track the closure of bigger zinc mines in Australia and North America, which is threatening to create a supply gap for the metal. For now, analysts believe there is an over-supply of zinc of between 500 000 and 750 000 t, if global demand remains at around 13.5 million tonnes.
Inside Mining 09.10/11
mine’s life from 2016 to 2030, the operation is no longer of a sufficient scale to suit Anglo American’s investment strategy. Palabora owns a magnetite stockpile and the future value creation at Palabora is likely to involve the on-site processing and beneficiation of magnetite, an opportunity that Anglo American believes will be best developed under new ownership.
Financing agreement lifts Namakwa Diamonds Source: www.sharecast.com
Shares in Namakwa Diamonds sparkled after it announced it had reached an agreement with Javirne, the investment vehicle of Ukrainian industrialist Eduard Prutnik, to become a strategic investor in the stricken southern Africafocused miner. The investment will secure the immediate funding needs of Namakwa’s kimberlite mining project in Lesotho. Namakwa announced earlier this month that a previously announced $30 million loan facility was no longer available on the terms discussed. Namakwa has entered into definitive agreements with Javirne for a $40 million twoyear loan facility, of which $23 million will be made available between now and November. The agreement involves the issue of 61.75
million shares to Javirne. The remaining $17 million will be conditional on the issue of a second tranche of shares to Javirne. Following the issue of the first tranche of shares, Javirne will hold 28.45% of Namakwa.
NIGERIA Nigeria sees first iron ore output in 2012 Source: www.reuters.com
Nigeria expects the first significant iron ore production next year from its Itakpe iron ore deposits as it looks to reduce its dependence on oil and gas revenues. “Unfortunately, once we found oil, all the attention went to oil and we neglected (other areas)... mining is one of the key areas that we want to diversify into,” said Olusegun Aganga, the minister of trade and investment. The West African country, which gets nearly 80% of its revenues from oil and gas production, will start receiving revenue from iron ore production next year, he added. The Itakpe iron ore deposit contains 3 billion tonnes of iron ore reserves, according to the minister. He said initial production from the mine is expected to be 2 million tonnes per year, ramping up to 20 million tonnes annually in five years, a development that will help Nigeria
MINING NEWS www.miningne.ws
SA awaits shale gas assessment outcome
South Africa has very limited gas reserves and the Department of Energy is awaiting the outcome of the assessment of shale gas potential, which is currently estimated to be around 485 trillion cubic feet, the department’s deputy director-general for Hydrocarbon, Tseliso Maqubela, said. The department noted efforts by the Petroleum Agency of South Africa (PASA) in the promotion of gas exploration, while the national oil company, PetroSA, was busy with efforts to source gas for its gas-to-liquids facility in Mossel Bay. “There are also projects afoot to explore the potential of importing natural gas, as both liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG), to meet our country’s energy demands,” said Maqubela. South Africa’s IRP2010 energy plan aims to improve the country’s global competitiveness as well as to support job creation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Under the plan, imported gas is expected to make up 6% of all new electricity generation, hydro power 6%, open cycle gas turbines 9%, coal 15% and nuclear 23%.
Makgato-Malesu, said the suspension of licensing allowed the government to “go back to the drawing board, come up with a roadmap that is more strategic, more focused, more thought through, as it were, and aligned to the national vision and national strategy of diversifying”. Botswana must also diversify from its diamond sector, which generates half of the country’s revenue and a third of gross domestic product, she added. Botswana believes that its coal and gas reserves have the potential to grow into an industry as big as the diamond industry.
| AMERICAS | USA Two coal mines receive PPOV notices from MSHA Source: www.emoneydaily.com
establish a track record in the mining industry and allow it to attract more investors.
BOTSWANA Botswana to lift coallicence moratorium Source: www.iol.co.za
Botswana will lift a moratorium on new
prospecting licences for coal, coal-bed methane and related minerals by the end of September, a government official said. The southern African nation suspended new licences in June, pending finalisation of a new strategy for the coal sector. Botswana’s trade and industry minister, Dorcas
The US Department of Labour’s Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has issued notices of a potential pattern of violations (PPOV) to Randolph Mine operated by Inman Energy and Justice No. 1 Mine operated by Independence Coal Co. Inc. Both are underground coal mines in Boone County, West Virginia, which were formerly owned by Massey Energy.
Massey Energy mine
The two mines did not receive PPOV notices during the last screening round in November 2010, but along with three other mines then owned by Massey Energy and two owned by Peabody Energy, were the subject of audits to determine whether they had failed to report injuries that would have affected their selection under the existing criteria. Both Massey Energy and Peabody Energy refused to turn over accident, injury and illness data to MSHA.
| AUSTRALIA | Rio Tinto invests US$310 million in water project Source: www.miningne.ws
Rio Tinto will invest US$310 million to assure a sustainable water supply for its iron ore operations in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, ensuring a sufficient resource to accommodate the expansion of annual production capacity up to the planned 333 Mt/a. The coastal water supply project, which involves
Massey Energy mine
Inside Mining 09.10/11
MINING NEWS www.miningne.ws
the construction of a new borefield and pipeline system, will be completed by mid-2013, coinciding with the first ore from the planned increase in production capacity to 283 Mt/a. Rio Tinto will build, own and operate the new borefield, located in the lower Bungaroo Valley, 35
km south-east of the town of Pannawonica, with an annual capacity of 10 Gℓ/a. Under the proposal, Rio Tinto will surrender its existing priority entitlements to the Millstream water supply; in return, the government has agreed to amendments to secondary processing obligations.
Pilbara water project
2015 start for Carrapateena construction
Source: www. ninemsn.com.au
OZ Minerals bought Carrapateena in May for $US250 million (A$235.8m) from parties including famed Adelaide-based prospector, Rudy Gomez, and the Australian arm of Canadian mining giant, Teck. The miner is studying options for mining Carrapateena, including the low-cost but sometimes risky block-caving method, which involves digging a grid of tunnels under an ore body and allowing rock to collapse to the ground – in a controlled fashion – where it is collected and removed from the mine for processing. OZ Minerals said in a presentation that construction could start mid-2015, assuming results from a feasibility study are favourable. Studies on the mining style will continue through to early 2013. The cashed-up OZ Minerals also said it continued to seek copper and gold opportunities, potentially joint ventures, in low- to medium-risk countries.
Inside Mining 09.10/11
| CANADA | First new Southeast copper mine since 1998 Source: www. castlegarsource.com
Having started production in June 2011, Copper Mountain is the third-largest copper mine in Canada and the first major-metals mine to open in British Columbia since 1998. The 7 285 ha (18 000 acre) site is located 20 km south of the town of Princeton and is expected to produce approximately 2.27 billion kilograms (five billion pounds) of copper over its life. The mine life is estimated to be about 17 years, although ongoing explorations are yielding positive results that may ultimately extend that time. When fully operating, the mine will provide about 270 mining jobs in the Princeton area. The BC mining sector hit $7.9 billion in gross revenues in 2010, returning to 2008 historic levels after rebounding in recent years.
The main Ring of Fire structure hosts a number of chromite deposits as well as nickel-copper-PGE MMS and copper-zinc-lead VMS deposits presently undergoing economic mining studies by their owners. The eight drill targets being tested by Rencore with approximately 1 200 m of drilling are the highest priority anomalies resulting from an electromagnetic and magnetometer VTEM airborne survey carried out over the mining claims and surrounding area during 2010 by GeoTech Ltd of Aurora, Ontario.
| EUROPE | NV Gold to acquire exploration permit in Switzerland Source: www.marketwatch.com
First new Southeast copper mine
Rencore starts drilling in the Ring of Fire area Source: www.marketwire.com
Rencore Resources’ first diamond drilling programme commenced on its wholly owned mining claims in the James Bay Lowlands of Northeastern Ontario (‘Ring of Fire’ area) within the Webequie First Nation Traditional Lands. This initial programme tests approximately one half of the high-priority drill targets; the other half of the drill targets are within the Kasabonika Lake First Nation Traditional Lands.
NV Gold Corporation has entered into an agreement to acquire an exploration permit for gold and precious metals covering a total area of approximately 136 km2 in the Commune of Medel/Lucmagn in the Canton of Graubunden in southeastern Switzerland. The property is located in the Alps in a sparsely populated area. The Medel permit encompasses a large portion of the Gotthard Massif, made up of pre-Variscan basement rocks of the Central Swiss Alps. Dr Quinton Hennigh, a director of the company, stated: “Gold mineralisation is associated with a unit of quartz-sericitepyrite schist occurring along an east-west-trending belt over 6 km long. Thickness of this schist horizon ranges from a few metres to approximately 200 m.”
MINING NEWS www.miningne.ws
New rules for safety in coal mines
| ASIA | India, Iran and Canada bid for Afghan iron ore Source: www.bloomberg.com
Afghanistan’s richest iron ore deposit drew bids from an Indian governmentbacked group, two Iranian contenders and Canada’s Kilo Goldmines Ltd (KGL). Afghanistan’s mines ministry opened the bids for the estimated 1.8 billion tonnes of ore at Hajigak, 100 km (60 miles) west of Kabul, said Abdul Jalil Jumriany, a
ministry director-general. The tender is the biggest on offer in a country that the US government estimated last year holds $1 trillion in untapped minerals. Seven Indian steel and mining companies, led by state-owned Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) and NMDC Ltd, offered a bid that is part of an effort by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s government for a bigger role in a nearby country whose stability it calls essential.
China’s top workplace safety regulator is introducing national standards for safety technologies used in the country’s accidentplagued coal mines. A set of four standards on polymeric materials used for coal mining safety will take effect on 1 December, according to the State Administration of Work Safety (SAWS). The standards are related to the prevention of coal mine accidents, including methane gas blasts, underground floods and shaft collapses, by using high-technology polymeric materials, Jiang Zhimin, the secretary-general of the China National Coal Association, said.
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REGIONAL FOCUS DRC
There is more gold in those hills (and copper and a few other things)
Many people will tell you that it is terribly tough to do business in the Congo, yet both big and small players (with the required cojones) manage to bring successful projects to life there. BY DR WILLEM SMUTS
Inside Mining 09.10/11
any junior miners are finding the country both challenging and exhilarating. “We have quite a different view of working in this country, where we have found people eager to leave the troubled past behind them and build a future characterised by economic opportunity, social development and political stability,” notes Martin Jones, chairman of the Banro Foundation. In my book, Anvil Mining, what must be one of the DRC’s recent success stories involves how Bill Turner pounded the Kinshasa pavements and the jungle for many a month chasing a dream in order to turn his minnow into a mid-tier copper producer. In the early days, Turner lived out of a suitcase and the ministry officials would laugh at him as he walked, sweating under the tropical sun, to their offices to save the cab fare which he would rather spend on moving Anvil towards that first live project in Dikulushi. Many thought the ‘whiteboy’ was nuts. That is not to say that doing business in the DRC is easy. It is not. There are many challenges that meet new arrivals, such as governmental red tape, poor infrastructure and lack of logistical support. The latter two have long since been addressed and the first continues to improve. Ultimately, the primary ingredient towards making it, not just in the DRC but all over Africa, is tenacity. That tenacity that enables the likes of Anvil, Banro and Tiger Resources, to name but a few, to go exploring and eventually make that difficult transition from explorer to producer. A close second to tenacity would be vision.
sensitivity, and follow through fully on commitments. 3. Mining companies wishing to work in the DRC must have a strategic and comprehensive commitment to community development. 4. Transparency is critical. 5. Job creation and on-the-job training must be the top commitment.
There’s a tiger in my jungle Tiger Resources Limited (ASX/TSX: TGS) is a producing copper/cobalt company that only recently made the transition from explorer to producer. Tiger started production at its flagship Kipoi Project in April 2011 and will have an annual production of 35 000 tonnes of copper. The first shipments of copper concentrate produced at Kipoi were transported from site on 15 June 2011 and the company expects sales to continue steadily as production is increased to achieve planned plant operating levels over coming months. Tiger has an Indicated resource of 3.1 Mt at 1.6% Cu containing 49 000 tonnes of copper and an Inferred resource of 11.6 Mt at 1.3% Cu containing 151 000 tonnes of copper at Sase Central, a
ABOVE Mineralisation on Kipoi North is predominantly hosted by malachite in deeply oxidised and weathered siltstones and dolomites which are part of the Lower Roan Mine Series Credit: Tiger Resources
THE BIG END
Construction activities on the approximately $2 billion initial development project at Tenke Fungurume are complete and production of copper and cobalt is underway. Production of copper cathode commenced in March 2009 and achieved targeted rates in September 2009. The cobalt plant and sulphuric acid plant were commissioned in the third quarter of 2009. Based on the 10-year average of current design operations, Tenke Fungurume expects to produce 250 million pounds of copper and 18 million pounds of cobalt per year. Tenke’s ownership currently stands as: Freeport-McMoRan, 56%; Lundin Mining Corp., 24% and Gecamines, 20%. This ownership structure was agreed to by FCX, Lundin Mining Corp. and Gécamines in October 2010 and is being incorporated into related agreements. Tenke Fungurume Mining has paid more than US$290 million in taxes, duties and other payments to the government of the DRC since construction began in 2006 and more than 50% of the economic benefits of the project will remain in the DRC through taxes, royalties and dividends. Including the provision of local services, more than two thirds of the project’s benefits will remain in the country.
Lessons learnt Martin Jones lists a number of critical lessons learnt in operating in the DRC: 1. On-going consultation and dialogue at all levels of society is absolutely critical to success in the DRC. 2. Along with consultation comes the obligation to listen, with great OPPOSITE DRC is slowly retaking its prime position among the world’s largest copper producers
ABOVE About 180 km northwest of Lubumbashi in the Katanga Province lies Freeport-McMoRan’s $2 billion investment in copper and cobalt. Annual production of 250 million pounds of copper and 18 million pounds of cobalt is envisaged
Credit: Freeport McMoRan
Inside Mining 09.10/11
Banro Corporation is a Canadian-based gold exploration and development company focused on the development of four major, wholly-owned gold projects, each with mining licenses. The company controls most of the 210 km-long Twangiza-Namoya gold belt in the South Kivu and Maniema provinces of the DRC. Banro is constructing Phase 1 of its flagship Twangiza project. Banro’s strategy is to unlock shareholder value by increasing and developing its significant gold assets in a socially and environmentally responsible manner has been executed since the early days of exploration through the building of schools, a hospital and the upgrading of roads in the region. This work is carried out through its Banro Foundation.
ABOVE Kibiswa Primary School – then and now! Credit:: Banro
Inside Mining 09.10/11
ABOVE This mine with a view was completed two months ahead of schedule with a total of 1.2 million tonnes of earth being excavated Credit: Banro
deposit within its 100%-owned Lupoto Copper Project.
Twangiza Phase I entering cold commissioning – production in Q4 Banro Corporation’s construction of its wholly-owned Twangiza Phase 1 gold project in South Kivu Province, DRC, is proceeding on schedule, with gold production expected to begin in Q4 2011. ‘Cold commissioning’ - a test run of fluids through the ore processing plant - commenced mid-August with mechanical commissioning that will proceed to ‘hot commissioning’ - a test run of low grade ore material through the plant - by mid-September. Twangiza’s Q4 gold pour will represent the first new commercial gold mine in the DRC in over half a century. “We are fast approaching a significant milestone for both Banro and South Kivu province in the DRC,” commented Simon Village, CEO. “Since Banro’s board made the decision to
proceed with development and construction of the Twangiza Mine in the summer of 2009, we have worked diligently and to a tight schedule, which has allowed our company to pour its first gold in two years and, with weeks to go, we remain on schedule. This event will also signal a tremendous
week of August with the testing of the conveyer belts in the crushing circuit. The construction of the tailings management facility is on schedule. Some 350 000 tonnes of earth was excavated in the construction of the foundation for the tailings dam wall and, to date, 1.1 million tonnes of earth have been
Co-operation between the community, government and industry was necessary for this undertaking achievement for the South Kivu province as it will be the first new commercial gold mine in the DRC for over half a century - and a testament to co-operation between the community, government and industry, which was necessary for this undertaking.”
Phase 1 construction update The successful activation of this 1.3 million tonne per year capacity gold production facility follows 24 months of achieving strict deadlines, starting with the plant site and construction camp civil excavation works that were completed two months ahead of schedule and with a total of 1.2 million tonnes of earth being excavated. The capacity of this plant is to be increased to 1.7 million tonnes per year by mid-2012. Plant civil construction works are virtually complete, while the structural, mechanical, electrical, instrumentation and piping is 93% complete. The Aggreko power plant - the diesel-powered generation system with a design capacity of 7 MW - is 90% complete and a source of raw water for the processing plant has been secured. Cold commissioning commenced the first
placed in the wall, which will have sufficient capacity to commence operations as per our mining schedule. Grade control drilling for the initial mining has been completed, confirming the resource model’s evaluation and, based on this data, an optimised mine plan has been finalised. Pre-strip, which was minimal owing to the outcrop of reserves at surface, has been completed and mining production is expected to commence towards the end of August. The mine planning is designed to optimise revenue by careful management of the cut off/cut over relationships of the ore body. Currently, the mine is on schedule to pour gold in Q4 2011 and ramp up to full production of around 10 000 ounces per month early in 2012.
BELOW Cathode copper awaiting shipment from Anvil Mining’s Kinsevere SXEW plant near Lubumbashi. All provisional copper cathode assays received from an independent laboratory since the start of production confirm that all metal produced conforms to LME grade A specifications. The company will be seeking LME registration for its Kinsevere cathode Credit: Anvil
The global boom in modular process plants The mining sector, and the gold mining industry in particular, is booming, and so is the demand for modular process plants.
ppropriate Process Technologies (APT), a South Africanbased modular process plant supplier, has a full order book, with many more orders in the wings. “Gold is the flavour of the day and with the boom having no foreseeable end in sight the emphasis is on simple implementation and operation parameters, along with maximum recovery in low-energy format,” says MD Kevin Woods. Plants are designed to arrive in simple modular units that can be combined in remote, inaccessible areas. Start-up is usually one to six days, depending on the size of the plant. Constant interaction with mining process operators on the ground is undertaken to ensure ongoing upgrades are implemented at all stages, Woods explains.
Inside Mining 09.10/11
Three RG scrubbing plants, one in South America and the other two in Central Africa, have been commissioned recently. These plants are for processing gold: two being for alluvial plays and the other an alluvial/hard rock combination. “The South American plant was a logistical challenge as it was in a remote jungle site. This RG scrubber was implemented to rehabilitate existing riverbed material while simultaneously incorporating recovery. There was heavy rain – approximately 18 hours a day – and a new road had to be remade using an excavator to get the plant in place. Once there, it was a wet and sticky few days to get it up and running,” says Woods. An order has been received from West Africa for multiple RG scrubbing plants – both alluvial and hard rock
alluvial combo plants. Woods notes that this is in fact the first phase of a three-part phased build for 11 plants in total, to be delivered over the next eight months, including two RG800s (80 t/h) and five RG200s (20 t/h). The configurations include pure hard rock, alluvial and hard rock/alluvial combination modules. All of these plants incorporate the latest RG designs and will include Knelson concentrators to recover the gold. In addition, a South American miner has commissioned APT to build an SG200 plant. The all-new SG200 is a plant with a screen rather than a scrubbing drum to accept loose sand that does not require tumbling to predisintegrate the feed. The SG200 plant is equipped with a scavenger cyclone in closed circuit with a Knelson concentrator to target particularly fine gold that has escaped the traditional sluice processing methods used to date. This simple new plant introduces an unprecedented low capex entry level in a simple, easy-to-operate package fed by a gravel pump. “What is really exciting is that the plant is also specifically designed to recover mercury and thus decontaminate polluted areas,” Woods enthuses. The Knelson concentrator used in this plant has a special feature to enable the capture of mercury to a separate
COMMODITIES OPPOSITE AND RIGHT Modular plants in use in the field
container. The South American mining company has also opted for a traditional RG200 scrubber with the same mercury recovery system. An IC30 hard rock plant has been built and is now in production in Central Africa. “This is a very neat impact crusher and screen arrangement in a space frame with an integral GoldKacha concentrator. The entire plant, including concentrates upgrade table and internal water pumps, runs off a 40 kVA generator. The IC30, at 3t/h feed (-150 mm), is the baby brother to the IC120, which handles 10t/h (the IC120 is combined with a Knelson concentrator). “The impact crusher up front acts as a primary and secondary/tertiary crusher in one pass,” Woods elaborates. “The wellfragmented and fine product produced by the high-impact blow-bar enhanced crushing system within the crushers ensures that gold is released in what is termed as ‘early liberation’ for easy concentration by gravity downstream.
The mining company using the IC30 in this instance has begun negotiations to swarm more of the same plants in high yielding areas and they are keen to get their hands on an IC120!” Closer to home, an order has been completed for the supply of a new-style MK2 RG200 Scrubber – a low-slung,
wide-bellied scrubber rated at 20 t/h feed. “This machine will be installed in Mozambique shortly, along with a double-deck poly-screen to process bauxite. This is a repeat order for APT, with the bauxite mine already having run a RG200 on bauxite successfully for the last five years,” concludes Woods.
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Inside Mining 09.10/11
Political turbulence, violence and change have been making headlines across the globe over the past year. Tersia Booyzen speaks to the experts about the concomitant risks to companies doing business in Africa.
he Terrorism and Political Violence Map for 2011, released by Aon Risk Solutions, perfectly illustrates the significant increase in political violence risk on the African continent. The map, which acts as a gauge for the intensity of terrorism and political risk to international business in each country, has named Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Egypt and Libya, among others in Africa, as countries with the most severe risk levels in the world. South Africa’s country level risk is rated as medium, on par with countries such as Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Cambodia. Nico Bianco, executive head of risk consulting at Aon South Africa, says that South African businesses that have commercial interests in Africa need to be vigilant of this increase in political risks. “The map integrates an increase in risks that are not only exclusive to terrorism. Businesses also face threats associated with sustainability, business continuity and future growth from political violence, strikes, riots and civil war. In this regard, coup risk and rebellions in Africa reflect a continent that presents a significant political violence risk.” Bianco says the map highlights the need for businesses to be well informed on the current trends developing rapidly across the world in order to protect their business interests. “The reality of the situation is that threats to commercial success exist in a variety of forms and the updated map seeks not to undermine the incidence or severity of terrorist threats, but to promote a more holistic approach to risk management services in Africa,” says Bianco. He notes that companies should develop contingency plans to avert the possibility of suffering a discontinuation of business operations by identifying the threats they face and
implementing a comprehensive risk management programme to protect their employees, physical assets and profitability. Russell Davis, principal broker, Corporate Risk Services at Aon South Africa, notes that some of the major risks include skills shortages due to persons not wanting to work in those countries, environmental risks caused by ,or following, violent actions, commodity and exchange rate risks, and legislation risks that follow from less investment due to the deemed instability of a country. “We need, however, to distinguish between insurable and non-insurable risks,” Davis says. “With insurable risks, the company needs to ensure that they look after the well-being of their employees because these risks can result in injuries, death and medical exposures, including psychological treatment, etc. With regard to the operation, you could have damages to
South African companies with commercial interests abroad should adhere to the following guidelines: • Conduct risk management audits via a reputable risk management provider. • Keep abreast of the socio-political sphere of the country of interest. • Make use of accurate and up-to-date country risk analysis reports. • Develop and regularly update a business continuity process. • Implement a check-in service with a designated local contact to provide ‘on-the-ground’ situational updates for satellite offices potentially at risk. • Implement an escalation process using local personnel and/or associates if employees become unreachable during elevated risk situations. • Provide risk management training seminars for employees based in highrisk countries.
people and could result in injuries and death while at work and even outside the work environment. Some other
The map highlights the need for businesses to be well informed on trends developing across the world assets including consequential losses, such as interruption in business, which is normally a far greater risk than the replacement cost of the asset. “In a politically driven environment, there are other large risks such as economic changes (changes in exchange rates, overseas investments, etc.) which would not necessarily be insurable, although trade credit policies can take some of the risk away from the company,” Davis adds.
What are the major threats to employees and other assets in a volatile political situation? Davis explains that a political/militant/terrorist uprising can impact all
risks exist, including kidnap and ransom or extortion – especially for key persons in the operation. “With assets, the impact is usually damage to property and, following this, the company faces a period of business interruption. Interruption in the business could even happen if no damage is caused to the property and, in some cases, this is not insurable. Furthermore, accidental-type environmental impacts could also be a result,” Davis elaborates. He notes that these risks can impact any business. “However, it is easy to understand that the mining industry is an easy target for these risks. The minerals and resources being mined
Inside Mining 09.10/11
Inside Mining 09.10/11
Insurrection, Revolution, Rebellion, Mutiny, Coup d'Etat, Civil War and War
Strikes, Riots, Civil Commotion and Malicious Damage
Terrorism and Sabotage
Strikes and/or Riots and/ or Civil Commotion 'SRCC'
Insurrection, Revolution and Rebellion
Mutiny and/or Coup d’Etat
War and/or Civil War
PUERTO RICO (US)
VIRGIN ISLANDS (US)
FRENCH GUIANA (FR) SURINAME
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
Falkland Islands (UK)
ANTIGUA & BARBUDA ST. KITTS & NEVIS Guadeloupe (Fr) DOMINICA ANGUILLA ST. LUCIA Netherlands BARBADOS Antilles (NL) ST. VINCENT GRENADA
S O U TH AFRIC A
f f o
Reunion Islands (Fr)
Bay of Bengal
Terrorism: most afﬂicted countries 2010-2011
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
SAO TOME & PRINCIPE
COTE D'IVOIRE GHANA
St. Helena (UK)
Ascension Island (UK)
K A Z A K H S TA N
© Copyright Aon Group, Inc. 2011. All rights reserved. Published by Aon Global Corporate Marketing and Communications.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Sea of Okhotsk
South China Sea
HONG KONG MACAU
East China Sea
Aon’s unique approach to terrorism and political violence risk management combines threat assessment, impact analysis and crisis management consulting with individually structured insurance programmes to ensure you have the most appropriate solution in place. For further information please speak to your Aon broker, or visit www.aon.com
Aon's Terrorism & Political Violence insurance products
The peril icons represent the forms of political violence that are most likely to be encountered by businesses. They relate closely to Aon’s terrorism and political violence insurance products, which cover a spectrum of political violence risks on a cumulative basis. FRENCH
LEBANON PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES
Line of Control
Cayman Islands (UK)
Symbols illustrating signiﬁcant perils
ite Se rran a ea
WESTERN SAHARA (Morocco)
Gibraltar (UK) Ceuta (Sp)
UNITED NETHERLANDS KINGDOM
The colour coded ranking of each country represents the intensity of the risk i.e. the frequency and severity of violent activity that could affect business interests. The ratings are based on the Terrorism Tracker and WorldAware databases.
Hawaiian Islands (USA)
Gulf of Mexico
Nor wegian Sea
Country risk level
U N I T E D S TAT E S O F A M E R I C A
C A N A D A
G R E E N L A N D
KEY TO SYMBOLS
2011 Terrorism & Political Violence Map
New Caledonia (Fr)
East Siberian Sea
FINANCE belong to the country or the people of that country, so they want to make sure that they are remunerated as, if they are not, this could lead to an uprising which will impact the country, the business and its people. Also, some minerals are scarce and others will fight to get hold of them. This industry generally also has employees belonging to a union, which increases political risks such as riots and strikes.”
Is there a recommended risk management programme specific to the mining industry? According to Davis, every country and every company has its own specific risks and needs a programme that is aligned with these. “Major mining groups already have good risk management programmes that are enterprise wide – meaning that they do not only relate to assets and people, but to all fields, such as infrastructure, IT, HR, finance, etc., and this is essential to maintaining
the profitability of the company,” says Davis. He advises companies to asses all the risks before entering countries. “Companies normally carry out an analysis of poltical risks and they try to mitigate/minimise these risks as far as possible. Outside specialists and resources are crucial in the planning and
of physical assets (such as buildings and other infrastructure) and ensuring that comprehensive response procedures are in place to deal with lowfrequency, but high-impact, events.” We don’t have to travel far from home to see the impact of the risk mentioned above. “In recent times we have seen news reports on comments from
A strike in a particular industry can have a devastating effect on that sector and the country as a whole risk assessment phase because of the wider knowledge base they provide.” Bianco adds that each business will have different requirements when it comes to risk management and should seek professional advice. “Risk management programmes will involve a mix of both insurance and risk mitigation measures, such as implementing and educating staff on personal security policies; improving security
political parties in South Africa wanting ownership of mining, and even steel, companies. We also see that a strike in a particular industry can have a devastating effect on that sector and the country as a whole,” says Davis. “These are some of the risks faced just inside the borders of South Africa, so you can imagine that other countries would have similar and different risks,” Davis concludes.
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Putting your money where your future is South Africa’s first Green Index has been launched by Nedbank Capital as a benchmark for environmentally conscious investors. Tersia Booyzen is happy to report that three of the top 10 companies are directly involved in mining.
Environmental considerations in investing
ccording to Jacoleen Simpson, senior transactor at Nedbank Capital, the index has the potential to become the industry standard in measuring the performance of companies with environmentally sustainable business practices. The index tracks the performance of companies selected primarily on environmental criteria, including carbon and climate change risks and opportunities. The index has been developed by Nedbank Capital in line with its green
Inside Mining 09.10/11
Managing environmental risks and opportunities affects financial outcomes. In particular, climate change will result in a radically different operating environment for companies – from both a regulatory and a physical perspective. Companies that are better able to mitigate their environmental risks and adapt to these changes are better positioned and more likely to outperform their peers. Investing in companies with strong environmental credentials incentivises companies to behave responsibly and allow investors to act on their environmental convictions. Both the recently launched Code for Responsible Investing in South Africa (CRISA) and the redrafted Regulation 28 for Pension Funds encourage investors to take environmental considerations into account in their investment decisions. The Nedbank Green Index provides a benchmarking and passive investment tool for this purpose.
principles and commitment to preserving the environment, and in response to the increased demand from environmentally conscious investors. The index consists of a selection of stocks from the
top 100 largest South African companies listed on the JSE. Simpson says, “We are proud to be able to launch South Africa’s first Green Index, which demonstrates our
commitment as a bank to delivering innovative products in the green space. Furthermore, our work on the Nedbank Green Index has shown that taking the environment into account in investing can also make sense from a financial perspective. Investing responsibly does not have to come at a cost in performance for the investor.” The index is rules based, with a clear, transparent methodology based on objective and independent data. The index will be verified by an independent calculation agent on an ongoing basis, with daily values published on data service providers such as Inet, Bloomberg and Reuters. To ensure its objectivity, the index is built on the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) database and the UN register of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in South Africa. The CDP is an gan a isaindependent not-for-profit organisagdom, tion, based in the United Kingdom, ase s of which holds the largest database tm ment corporate climate change commitment Ph as and action in the world. The CDP has naa551 institutional investors as signal-tories, representing over $71 trillion in assets under management.. CDM projects based in South Africa are also incorporated into the rules-based methodology as these represent demonstrable commitments from companies to reducingg ngg their carbon impact and growing the green economy. virronThe index combines these environcrreenmental credentials with liquidity screenn ex. ing criteria to create an investable ind index. ess curUnlike other South African indices rently available, it uses environmental along with liquidity criteria to select constituents and weights these constituents according to environmental performance. This distinguishes it from the JSE’s SRI Index, which selects constituents based on environmental, social and governance criteria and thereafter weights constituents based on their market capitalisation. The index is rebalanced in line with the quarterly review of the FTSE/JSE Africa Index Series. Constituent selection based on the CDM is also assessed quarterly and changes resulting from the CDP are reviewed after the release of every new report. The index
Top 10 holdings in the Nedbank Green Index with comparative index weights in other indices (%) Company
SRI (J100) ALSI (J203)
SWIX40 (J400) 1.3
is calculated independently by RisCura Analytics daily. The premise for the index is that companies who are better positioned for a changing environment are better suited to sustaining their future performance
SECTOR ALLOCATION Inner circle: FTSE/JSE All Share Index Outer circle: Nedbank Green Index
and should, in the long run, outperform their peers. Back-testing of the index has shown that it can outperform the market, as it has done for the past three years – by more than 20%.
While the performance of the Nedbank Green Index in relation to the market may vary in the future, what this demonstrates is that investing based on environmental criteria does not have to cost investors in performance. In a single stroke, investors can confidently invest for their own futures and that of our planet. The index will provide a platform for companies to show off their green credentials and hopefully it will encourage other companies to implement more environmentally sustainable business practices. At present, the index can be freely utilised as a benchmark for environmentally conscious investors and it can be directly invested in by local and international institutional investors through segregated portfolios managed by Nedgroup Securities. Nedbank is also in the process of gaining the necessary approvals to list an Exchange Traded Fund (ETF), which will provide easy, low-cost access for retail and institutional investors. The ETF will be the second to be launched in the BettaBeta ETF series. Simpson concludes, “By launching this index, we hope to expand the investment landscape in South Africa for green products and allow everyone to invest in the future – environmental as well as financial.”
Risk and return metrics for different indices since June 2008 (p.a.) Green_IX
Total return (%)
Risk – standard deviation (%)
Inside Mining 09.10/11
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One planet, one chance... “Waste not, want not”, or so the adage goes. Yet, year after year, people carry on regardless of the negative consequences their careless behaviour has for our natural resources. BY TERRY BOOYSEN AND SIMON GEAR
he persistent abuse, pollution and over-exploitation of natural resources is pushing humankind closer and closer to the brink of extinction. The predictions made in the WWF’s Living Planet Report 2010 are unsettling - at the current rate of consumption of natural resources, mankind will need two planets by 2030 in order to sustain itself. According to the report, humans are using thirty percent more resources than is sustainable. Half a century ago, most countries thin the limits of their consumed within ources. Figures shows ecological resources. that, today, three-quarters of the ation live in countries world’s population habitants consume rewhere the inhabitants te faster than they sources at a rate ished. Moreocan be replenished. ver, there is ongoing pollution of air and water, deforestation, degrale soils dation of arable and worryingg declines in the numes of bers of species a. flora and fauna. nds Humanity finds uch itself very much wanting, as inmodcreasing sees ernisation more and more opting countries adopting nsumpwasteful, consumphe questive habits. The tion is: what happens ources after to all the resources consumption? ies that cater All activities eds – which range to human needs from those in the home to the largetion within industries scale production
– generate waste. There is an evergrowing demand for a variety of resources, including space to dispose of this waste. This is particularly true for the carbon dioxide that results from burning fossil fuels and the dumpsites that are increasingly being filled with discarded materials.
Mankind will need two planets by 2030 in order to sustain itself
Due to the fact that humans have shown scant regard for the manner in which they use natural resources, there is an inevitable security threat as supply shows signs of failing to keep up with demand. The link between environmental policy and security is undeniable. A lack of resources - be it as a result of overuse, pollution or wastefulness - will destabilise populations as people grow desperate to fulfil their basic need to survive. If we faced an anarchist plot to poison water supplies or release poison into the air, there would would, no doubt, be swift action in response. Sadly, a more insidi subtle, but no less insidious, threat to i growing day environmental security is contin by day. Society continues to poison natural resources w with pollution and disposal of waste. Whilst scientists and environmentalists hav have raised this alarm for many years, response and remedy from government, busine business and civil societ has genersociety ally b been lacking in decis decisiveness. We only have one planet and our actions need to be informed by fa that we are the fact ‘borrow ‘borrowing’ natural res resources from future generations. We need to ensure that we leav leave future generations an eearth that can sustain them. sustain them. Within this conte context, the South African government ha has passed the National Environmental Management
Inside Mining 09.10/11
FINANCE Waste Act (Act 59 of 2008), or NEMWA. NEMWA entrenches international waste management best practice and espouses an environmentally responsible and sustainable approach.
R10 million or imprisonment of up to 10 years for certain offences. Moreover, directors need to ensure that their companies are compliant with this legislation or they risk being prosecuted
NEMWA gives effect to the Constitutional right of all South Africans to an environment that is not harmful to their health It is one attempt to respond to the growing threat of contamination and dwindling resources. NEMWA follows the National Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998), or NEMA, which was developed to integrate environmental management on a nationwide scale. NEMWA gives effect to the Constitutional right of all South Africans to an environment that is not harmful to their health. The key aspects of the new legislation include: • decreasing the consumption of natural resources • minimising waste generation • recycling • appropriate and sustainable waste disposal • preventing pollution • promoting effective waste services • remedying land degradation • achieving an efficient integrated waste-management reporting and planning regime. The NEMWA provides comprehensive and integrated waste management legislation for waste throughout its life cycle. Companies must be familiar, and compliant, with the legislation as NEMWA introduces criminal liability for directors and companies and an offender may receive a fine of up to
by the Department of Environmental Affairs’ Enforcement Directorate and its dedicated environmental team, known as the ‘Green Scorpions’. As legislative requirements become more rigorous and the costs associated with the treatment and disposal of waste increase, so more companies are becoming aware of the need to improve their waste management solutions. Additionally, the costs associated with the treatment or disposal of waste are on the rise, which in turn impacts upon a company’s financial performance. The private sector has to act on the need to have improved and integrated waste management systems in place, and waste generation must be examined and reduced in all phases of a product’s life cycle. In line with the philosophy of ‘waste not, want not’; the issue of waste management speaks to the efficient use of resources and a reduction in waste generation. While the generation of waste can be limited, it cannot be avoided entirely. This may be seen as both a challenge and an opportunity. Any component of waste, once it has been re-used, recycled and recovered, ceases to be waste. Companies may gain revenue by selling recyclables, and recycling is a way to extract value from the waste stream. The other benefits include
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creating opportunities for small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs) and, in the process, creating jobs. The challenge around waste and waste management is therefore twofold: reduce the amount of waste that is generated and, of the waste that remains, try to re-use it for another purpose. Waste management strategies need to be informed by sound environmental practises, as espoused in the King Report for Corporate Governance (King III). These practises must be sustainable in the economic and environmental sense and will form a critical component of a company’s integrated reporting. The methods used need to promote the effective use of valuable resources, support the reduction of waste generation and encourage resource conservation and recovery. The risk to human health and the degradation of the environment may be reduced through the implementation of systems that help to prevent pollution and promote a cleaner, ‘greener’ environment. This will ensure that the different types of waste are separated, that waste is collected regularly, transported and stored safely, appropriately treated and – as a last resort – disposed of. What remains to be seen is which companies will rise to combat this growing threat and play a more active role in effectively championing, as one key area, sustainable and integrated waste management.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS Terry Booysen is the CEO of the CGF Research Institute and Simon Gear is a Kijani Green Energy director
Is ‘zero harm’ a pipe dream? Globally, mining has always been a high-risk industry, with one of the highest injury and fatality rates, which seemingly increases concomitantly with commodity prices.
ersia Booyzen asked a number of experts for their views on occupational health and safety (OHS) in the mining industry. The panel consisted of Dorian Emmett, head of safety and sustainable development, Anglo American plc; Vaughn van der Merwe, group general manager, Safety Smart (Pty) Ltd; Michael Feldon, managing director, DoseTech (Pty) Ltd and Guy Kimble, managing director, Metrofile (Pty) Ltd.
What do you consider to be the biggest health and safety risks in the mining industry? Emmett: There are numerous health and safety challenges facing the industry – insufficient capacity building, lengthy and impractical standard operating procedures, lack of leadership and accountability at various levels, tuberculosis, HIV/Aids and poor working and living conditions. All of these contribute in some way or another to poor health and safety performance. However, the issue that poses the biggest risk is the lack of stakeholder engagement and collaboration on best practice. Health and safety is a pre-competitive issue and we should be engaging openly and frankly among our peers. It is unfortunate that some industry players still have a tendency to revert to a blame culture when incidents occur – management may blame labour, labour may blame government and government may blame management. While stakeholders are busy blaming one another, the same kind of fatalities continue to occur and there is still a high number of mining employees being infected with HIV/Aids and TB. There is a mindset that ‘zero harm’ is not possible – this is one of the root causes of incidents as you cannot strive for something that you do not believe is achievable. The predominant attitude
that mining is a dangerous industry and we should therefore expect fatalities to happen in the line of duty is seriously flawed. Relationships founded on mutual trust and genuine care and respect can go a long way towards achieving zero harm. It is for this reason that Anglo American is a partner in the Anglo American Tripartite Health and Safety Initiative – a collaborative effort between the global mining company, the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) and labour unions. Van der Merwe: The biggest health and safety risks in the mining industry are fall of ground, fire, ventilation, foot and hand injuries and, of course, head injuries. Feldon: Complacency is by far the biggest risk. Kimble: Poor or non-existent records management, which mitigates the possibility of instantaneous retrieval of records pertaining to mine workers on duty and relevant safety check reports during emergency situations. Should an accident occur, mining companies will need to prove that proper safety measures were in place and provide critical information, such as which employees were involved, in order to mitigate legal and financial ramifications.
Are there risks specific to South Africa or are these risks global? Emmett: Each operation – whether local or abroad – has its own unique risks. However, on our Tripartite study tour, during which we visited a number of local and international mining and industrial sites, we observed that there are risks that occur on a global scale. Some companies with far greater risks than the South African mining industry have excellent safety records. In February this year, a small delegation from the International Federation
of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers’ Unions (ICEM) shared their experiences of the Australian mining industry’s challenges and, from these engagements, it was clear that, although they had possibly advanced further, there were definitely some challenges that were similar to ours. Van der Merwe: The risks are global. Kimble: The risks are global. Every mine in every country should ensure that they have effective records management systems in place in order to mitigate legal and financial repercussions.
How can these risks best be managed? Emmett: There were a number of key learnings from the study tour that shaped our understanding of what areas of focus should form part of our journey, including connectedness and relationship building, standards, belief and motivation, capacity building and contractor integration. The Declared Future in turn saw the foundation of the initial four work streams – capacity building, stakeholder engagement, extended visible felt leadership (EVFL) and aligned approach to standards. A fifth work stream, health and wellness, was added in January 2010. Van der Merwe: Risks can be managed by effective procedures and worker education. Feldon: Constant reminders about the risk. Kimble: Risks can be managed through the implementation of effective and reliable records management processes and procedures, or a dedicated records manager.
Do you think that zero harm in the workplace is an achievable target? Emmett: Zero harm is undoubtedly achievable and this is an area that Anglo American has, for a long time, been
Inside Mining 09.10/11
SHEQ concerned about. In fact, it is for this reason that safety is the first guiding value by which we operate. We are of the belief that zero harm is attainable and that all injuries are preventable – by working together, we can make safety a way of life, whether it be at home or at the workplace. Secondly, enlightened leadership is important in the process – the Tripartite was catalysed by the three most senior leaders in each sector: Anglo American chief executive, Cynthia Carroll; president of NUM, Senzeni Zokwana and Buyelwa Sonjica, the then minister of minerals and energy. By agreeing to work in partnership, they set the direction for engagement on how a more connected approach could be followed. The third success factor is this concept of mutual control, with each Tripartite partner being jointly involved from day one, in terms of both planning and undertaking the first summit and managing the outcomes and work streams that emerged from it. It is not an easy task to follow this process – it requires respect, maturity and cooperation from all stakeholders. Van der Merwe: In reality, due to the human factor, as well as the nature of the industry, zero harm in the mining industry is not 100% assured. However, a strong programme of education and the implementation of a well-thoughtout ‘standard operating procedure’ will certainly reduce the inherent risk of this industry. Feldon: Yes, if you practise and preach zero, then zero is achievable Kimble: Not really, because mining as a profession is associated with many risks due to the very nature of the work, which involves travelling and working under the earth’s surface in abnormal conditions. However, keeping current records of all mine workers on duty and ensuring that regular safety checks are conducted and recorded can assist greatly in the event of an emergency situation. This assists in knowing which miners have been involved and can help narrow down the cause of the accident.
Who is responsible for health and safety compliance in an organisation? Emmett: For Anglo American, the health and safety challenges should be tackled jointly and collaboratively. Furthermore, the mining industry needs to go beyond compliance if it is to achieve its goal of zero harm. Van der Merwe: Line management,
Inside Mining 09.10/11
SHE managers, individual workers, trade unions and the Department of Labour. Feldon: Individual workers. Kimble: The CEO.
Who should be held legally responsible for any workplace-related fatalities, injuries or health issues? Van der Merwe: Line management, SHE managers and individual workers. Feldon: The individual is responsible, but all other departments should also be held responsible if they have not ensured that the individual has all the tools, equipment and training to ensure that they do not get hurt. Kimble: The CEO.
Are there any specific products or services that you believe can make a marked difference to the health and safety of workers in the mining industry? Emmett: The Tripartite continually seeks opportunities to contribute to a healthier and safer workplace through the activities of the work streams. The stakeholder engagement work stream has coordinated a number of engagement and awareness events, such as International Health and Safety Day, Transport Safety Day and World Aids Day – and, most recently, a Fighting Fatigue awareness workshop. The stakeholder engagement work stream is also looking into the process of cascading tripartite activities to all levels of the organisation. The Visible Felt Leadership (VFL) site visits, facilitated by the EVFL team, are an ideal way of connecting with the union leaders, mine management and regional inspectorate at the operational level. The EVFL team has also developed a comprehensive VFL standard for Anglo American and a VFL toolkit has been produced as a pocket-sized guide to be used at operations. There have also been efforts from the Tripartite to entrench the belief that zero harm is possible through the capacity building programme called the Trainthe-Trainer Zero Harm orientation programme aimed at safety representatives. This programme, which was designed to build on the industry accredited safety representatives’ programme focusing on knowledge and skills, addresses the ‘hearts and minds’ aspect of effective leadership in safety and that the leaders themselves require a profound belief in and commitment to zero harm. To date,
45 full-time occupational health and safety representatives and 2 890 safety representatives have been trained. Operating standards have been a key focus of the aligned approach to standards work stream that has developed a ‘standard for standards’ to help make standard operating procedures simple and practical. This team has also been concerned with fall of ground management and reviewing protocols around safe and timely withdrawals from unsafe working areas. The newer work stream, health and wellness, has successfully completed a local study tour from which they have identified five priority areas of focus – disease management’s occupational hygiene and exposure, rehabilitation, compensation and aftercare, living conditions and labour-sending areas. The team has developed a set of key deliverables, short- and long-term, and is in the process of developing clear action plans. Van der Merwe: There are a multitude of products and services which could make a difference to the health and safety of workers in the mining industry; however, it must be borne in mind that many of these products/services are not cost-effective, as well as being difficult and inefficient to implement. Feldon: I was introduced to the ‘Loss prevention system’ by James D Bennett, which is a life-changing programme in which you are constantly asking yourself the simple questions, including loss prevention self-analysis and do I have the skill, knowledge and tools to do this task safely. Obviously, there is a lot involved to get this to work and it includes the CEO and extends to the coal face. Kimble: Local mining houses have various options for effective records management and storage, including the management of the original documents, which are indexed at file level and stored in archive boxes in purpose-built storage facilities. The advantage of storing the original documents is that the intrinsic value of the original is retained and, legally, it will be accepted as the best evidence available. Alternatively, mines can implement an electronic records management (ERM) system where paper documents are converted to electronic format through a scanning process. ERM is becoming increasingly popular globally due to benefits such as ease of filing, access, sharing, instant retrieval and digital backup options.
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Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation annihilates TB Mining houses need to take a proactive approach to managing risks that threaten the health and well-being of workers, especially in the case of TB.
rotecting workers’ health is especially important in high-risk tuberculosis (TB) areas such as living quarters and transport vehicles such as buses, and appropriate measures can dramatically reduce the rates of morbidity and fatalities as a result of TB infections. Mine workers and clinic staff run a higher risk of contracting TB as a result of frequent and prolonged exposure to people with undiagnosed, untreated and potentially contagious TB disease. The rate of infection and recovery is further exacerbated by the fact that the HIV prevalence rate in TB cases is 44%. “Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a proven and cost-effective means of killing off viruses and bacteria. More proactive institutions and companies are investing in the UVGI systems as a means of dramatically reducing the spread of diseases, with clinical trials showing reductions of up to 99%,” explains Hylton Cowie, commercial director of Technilamp, a leading supplier of UVGI systems to the mining and healthcare sectors. “The UVGI systems are effective against virtually all communicable viruses and bacteria and are being deployed in a number of South African mines in the fight against TB in particular. South Africa has the fourth highest epidemic of TB in the world after India, China and Indonesia, with disease rates double that of any other country in the world.” Cowie continues: “The only technology inexpensive and effective enough to be considered for the purpose of disinfecting airborne pathogens is UVGII. TB is transmitted by the airborne route caused by inhalation of infected airborne droplets produced by infected and undiagnosed individuals while coughing and sneezing. Transmission of TB occurs in
situations where infected persons come into close contact with others, such as in hospital and clinic environments and overcrowded living and transport facilities such as in mine hostels, taxis and buses, correctional facilities and so on.”. Exacerbating the problem in Southern Africa is the fact that TB acts synergistically with HIV and increases the risk of primary TB infection developing into the active disease by a hundredfold. The seriousness of the situation is compounded by the emergence of new strains of multiple-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), with case fatality rates of up to 93% being recorded from MDRTB. The ever-present potential for the transmission of MDR-TB to workers is very serious. The reality of today’s modern lifestyle is that indoor air is much more polluted than outdoor air, and even more so in the winter months when closed windows and doors dramatically reduce ventilation. Indoor air is trapped, 80% re-circulated and full of contaminants such as bacteria and viruses. “UVGI lamps are proving highly effective in reducing the number of new infections as well as the rate of transmission. Placed in areas such as living
quarters, lifts, buses and mining communes, the use of UVGI is both an affordable and highly effective solution in the management of communicable diseases in high-risk environments,” says Hylton. In a study by Dr Edward Nardel of the Harvard Medical School, comparing the efficacy of fans, filters and rays in the fight against TB, he noted that health-care workers live in the corridors of hospitals, which are also important conduits of air and patients. The study concluded that the only technology inexpensive and potentially effective enough to be considered for the purpose of disinfecting air in corridors, waiting areas, emergency and isolation rooms is UVGI. “Medical professionals have used ultraviolet irradiation in operating theatres and general wards around the world since 1937. Clinical tests conducted in general wards proved that the overall infection rates declined by more than 78% with the introduction of UVGI. These tests are in accordance with a study recently published that stated that ultraviolet lights could reduce the spread of TB in hospitals and waiting rooms by up to 70%,” concludes Cowie.
Inside Mining 09.10/11
SHEQ WASTE MANAGEMENT
Rising from the ashes One man’s waste can, with a little innovative research and development, become another’s profitable and environmentally friendly product.
ost of South Africa’s electricity is generated by thermal power stations fuelled by coal. Lethabo Power Station is no exception and at peak operation it burns 50 000 t of coal every day. Giant grinding mills pulverise the coal to a very fine powder, which will burn as quickly as gas. Because Lethabo is supplied by the Free State coal fields, the coal is of a very low quality and leaves a huge amount of ash residue. Almost 90% of the ash produced in the generation process is called fly ash or pulverised fuel ash. The fly ash is removed from the flue gas stream by means of electrostatic precipitators or bag filter systems. While the ash used to be stacked on dumps or in slurry damns, a much greener alternative has now seen the light. Approximately 1.2 million tonnes of ash is sold per year for use by, among others, the cement industry. Ash Resources is one of the companies turning this environmental waste into a viable product.
At Lethabo, Ash Resource’s production process is fully integrated with the Eskom power plant. An air classifier is used in the particle separation process to monitor the fineness, quality and other specifications of the fly ash. Daniel Pettersson, MD of Ash Resources, told us during a recent site visit that this classification of the fly ash is the key differentiator in its products from those of other suppliers. Approximately 95% of the fly ash is used in the cement and concrete industry and the quality of the cement isn’t compromised but enhanced.
The science Fly ash is a pozzolan, which means it reacts with water and lime liberated during cement hydration to form cementitious hydrates, helping to reduce permeability. Used as a partial replacement for cement, classified fly ash improves the properties of concrete both in its plastic (fresh) and hardened state. The difference between fly ash and cement is best seen under a microscope. Fly ash particles are predominantly spherical in shape, in contrast to cement
particles, which are angular. The spherical shape enables fly ash to flow and blend easily in a concrete mix. Fly ash concrete is resistant to sulphate attack and chloride ingress. It also has a low heat of hydration, reducing the risk of thermal cracking. Chemically, the same elements exist in fly ash and cement; the major difference between the two is the relative quantities of the different oxides. Recent construction projects using fly ash include Soccer City, the Gautrain, the Medupi and Kusile power stations, the De Hoop Dam and Grootegeluk Coal Mine. There is also the potential to widen the market scope for fly ash to include areas such as mine rehabilitation, waste stabilisation, agriculture, soil stabilisation and asphalt production. The best news is that for every tonne of fly ash used as a cementitious binder, a tonne of carbon emissions is saved. The current figure in terms of reduced equivalent tonnes of CO2 is 200 million tonnes per annum. BELOW The conveyor belt that integrates the processes at Lethabo
Inside Mining 09.10/11
Race against time to tackle AMD The Department of Water Affairs is racing against the clock to put out tender documents for the construction and upgrading of water treatment plants to tackle acid mine drainage.
n a report-back to the National Assembly’s Portfolio Committee on Water and Environmental Affairs at the beginning of September, the department and the Trans-Caledon Tunnel Authority (TCTA) outlined several steps they have been taking to treat affected water that is now decanting from the Western Basin. They also outlined what they have done to stop rising water in two other basins, which might reach the surface as early as August next year if action isn’t taken. The department, through TCTA – which was given a directive by the minister of water affairs, Edna Molewa, in April to tackle acid mine drainage (AMD) – was to start with an immediate solution for the Western Basin between November and December by upgrading Rand Uranium’s existing treatment
Inside Mining 09.10/11
plant so that the amount of treated water could be trebled to 36 Mℓ. Rand Uranium has agreed to fund a third of the operating costs. Once heavy metals are removed from the water and the acidity of the water lowered, the water will be discharged in the Tweelopiespruit. But committee chairperson Johnny de Lange expressed concern that the department might not be able to meet its timeline of awarding tenders for the building or upgrading of treatment plants and pipes for the three basins, as any decision on awarding the contracts may have to go to Cabinet because the costs for the work will run into billions of rand. The immediate costs of upgrading and constructing new sludge plants and laying pipes for the three affected basins
will amount to R924 million, while a further R385 million per year will be needed to operate the four solutions, TCTA’s executive manager of projects and implementation, Johann Claassens, said. A request for funding of R924 million has already been submitted by the department to the National Treasury. However, Claassens said that to speed things up, the agency will also request that Molewa exempt the agency from some of the requirements of the National Water Act, as the processes that need to be followed could take up to two years – time the country doesn’t have if it is to tackle AMD successfully. BELOW Water treatment plants are needed yesterday
SHEQ Marius Keet, the department’s acting director of institutional establishment for Gauteng, said the TCTA concluded a due diligence review for all three basins on 7 July and had conceptualised a short-term treatment for each basin. This included the setting up of high-density sludge plants and pipelines. He said the department has already engaged with several mines in the central basin that have expressed interest in using treated AMD water. The department has also put in place a monitoring team to track AMD. At the time the affected AMD water in the central basin was 415 m from the surface and is expected to reach the surface between August next year and March 2013. Affected water in the eastern basin was 628 m from the surface and will reach the surface in December 2013. Claassens said the plan to tackle AMD in the short term will see the TCTA sinking submersible pumps and concrete pipes into the three basins to stem the rising water. The aim is to pump enough water out of the respective basins so that it is at a
safe distance below the surface, which is 165 m below the surface for the Western Basin, 186 m for the Central Basin and 290 m for the Eastern Basin. Claassens said that to tackle AMD on the Western Basin, a new highdensity sludge plant is expected to be commissioned in August next year in Randfontein East. The plant is expected to process between 25 and 30 Mℓ/d, which will reduce the water to a safe depth by June 2013. The treated water will be piped to Tweelopiespruit, ensuring less seepage than the channel currently proposed for the immediate solution. To deal with the impending threat of AMD on the Central Basin, a new highdensity sludge plant will be commissioned by August next year, at the South West Vertical Shaft, with a capacity to process 84 Mℓ/d. Treated water will be piped to Eslburgspruit. On the Eastern Basin, a new highdensity sludge plant to be set up next to Grootvlei No 3 shaft – with treated water piped to the Blesbokspruit – is planned to come online in June 2014.
Keet said the department has rejected the WUC proposal because of concerns that any subsidy paid to an entity will raise audit concerns if it isn’t put out to tender. He said the other problem is that between 60 and 70% of the mining area on the Western Basin, to which Western Utilities Corporation’s proposal is focused, is ownerless and could therefore raise concerns that the department is unfairly favouring the company, which is a subsidiary of Watermark Global. De Lange also laid into a departmental official for failing to renew directives that expired at the end of last year, which the department uses to hold mines responsible for AMD. However, Keet said the challenge is that if the department issues mines with directives, they may refuse to assist the government in tackling AMD while the matter is brought to court. He singled out a recent directive issued by the department against Mogale Gold over AMD, where, after receiving the directive, the mine stopped pumping affected water.
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SHEQ WASTE MANAGEMENT
New technology makes AMD pay The need for scarce energy sources is just as dependent on the effective utilisation of currently available energy resources as it is on the development of new renewable energy sources.
oal as an energy source has negative environmental impacts associated with its production, such as acid mine drainage (AMD), large footprint operations affecting biodiversity and extensive consumption of Africa’s scarcest natural resource –water. AMD is defined as the release of dissolved metals into the environment as a result of sulphide minerals, typically iron pyrite, being exposed to the atmosphere and water effectively generating an acidic environment. The dissolved metallic oxides have a major negative impact on the environment and aquatic resources. During coal mining and milling operations, a large amount of coal fines (-150 micron material) are produced. The coal fines are unavoidable and form part of standard coal production operations. Until recently these fines could not be economically beneficiated in South Africa and mining operations were forced to pump the fines to slimes dams. However, only a small fraction of this acidic water can be re-circulated and reused in the plant, while the remaining water is evaporated and some spills into the surrounding environment. In an effort to reduce the environmental impact associated with the production of coal, it becomes important
to apply technologies that can reduce or eliminate the negative consequences associated with coal production. A zero effluent plant is the ultimate goal. Zero effluent means that an operation does not produce any water/slurry byproduct. This can be achieved by filtering the fines produced, and the filtered product can then be discarded in an environmentally friendly method. The filter filtrate (clean water) stream can be recirculated back to the plant, effectively creating a zero effluent plant and eliminating the need for a slurry dam (and all the negative impacts associated with it). At the 2011 South African Coal Processing Conference held in Secunda, South Africa, Environmental and Process Technologies (Enprotec) presented a paper titled ‘Coal Flotation: A Case Study of Dual Cell Performance’. During the presentation a new technology, namely the Dual Cell, which is currently operational at Anglo Goedehoop Colliery, was discussed in terms of process performance. The technology is based on the process of froth flotation, which turns the fine waste material into a saleable product by means of exploiting differences in mineral surface characteristics. The Dual Cell incorporates unique methods with regard to energy transfer, aeration and reagent dosage, to achieve
a high yield and extremely efficient flotation cell. The performance investigation proved that up to 66 % of the waste stream is recovered at a product quality of 28.2 MJ/ kg, which is export quality. The product from the flotation process is then filtered and blended with another coarse export product stream ready to be exported. The major advantages that can be realised by employing this Dual Cell flotation technology are: • Generating an income from a waste stream previously discarded with associated direct operations cost, meaning double impact on the bottom line of the coal mine. • Recovering a valuable energy source from a waste stream, and so improving the efficiency of coal as an energy source. • Eliminating the need for slimes dams so the risk associated with negative environmental impacts, such as AMD, dust, water pollution, impact on biodiversity and groundwater contamination are eliminated – no more AMD! • Reducing the water consumption of the coal operation by up to 50%, so reducing the environmental footprint of the mine, saving on costs associated with water pumping and saving our scares natural resource (water).
Inside Mining 09.10/11
HOT SEAT HORNE GROUP
Locally engineered solutions for global conveyance safety When Chinese companies import South African-designed and manufactured products, you know that the quality and innovation must be exceptional. Tersia Booyzen catches up with Horne Group’s management to discover how it’s done.
hen I saw that the Horne Group reported mid-year sales of R12 million to Canada’s mining sector, my curiosity was stirred, to say the
least. Upon contacting the company I learnt that this was the result of a focus by Barrie-based Canadian subsidiary, Horne Conveyance Safety, on selling the Levelok and Technogrid
product lines into the global market – with Canada being only the tip of the proverbial iceberg. A conference call is promptly arranged from Horne’s local HQ to Canada with André du Preez, group managing director at Horne, Eric Bruggeman, consultant, and I on one side of the world and Mark Andersen and Steve Hill on the other side.
The technology Before we get down to global business, Du Preez and Bruggeman explain the technology that is taking the world’s mines by storm. The Levelok system is used purely in deep mines and has cage, skip and emergency braking options that all counter the problems associated with rope stretch or failure during the loading or unloading of rock, men and material. The system basically comprises clamps and a power pack, which hold the conveyance steady during loading and unloading. The secret lies in the decompression system: after loading or unloading is complete, the rope stretch is taken up in a controlled manner. The other product, Technogrid, is a strain energy device that absorbs the kinetic or potential energy of a moving object by deforming a metal grid of known design and characteristics through a stroke deformation of predictable value. It consists of a series of multi-bar units connected in a staggered grid shape. On impact, the grid bars will yield and deform under double curvature bending. The yielding of the bars allows the units to open up and LEFT Horne Group managing director, André du Preez
Inside Mining 09.10/11
HOT SEAT Levelok power pack
stroke with the strain hardening of the material absorbing the impact energy. Technogrid is used in the following applications: • Arresting a falling conveyor belt counterweight • Arresting a conveyance in the event of overwind • Stopping or preventing underground track-bound equipment from falling down the shaft • Controlling any impact of known value “The systems were originally designed by a hydraulics engineer with many years of experience in the South African mining industry. All the products are 100% South African, including the design, manufacturing, components, steel, labour, etc. There is not a single item that’s imported,” Du Preez says proudly.
Getting back to Canada Andersen and Hill join the conversation and elaborate on the R12 million Canadian sales, which include two group firsts. At Vale Inco’s Totten Mine in Ontario, two Levelok systems, one for skip-clamping and one for cageclamping, have been installed for the first time worldwide on a single mine shaft conveyance. Du Preez explains that the Totten Mine installation involves a dual Levelok system that will allow a single conveyance to be clamped in position at multiple levels for the on- and offfloading of mine personnel, and the same conveyance to be clamped in position at the single skip level. “For use on a cage, the clamps are mounted on the conveyance to grip guide steelwork running vertically down the shaft. The clamps are activated by a power pack installed on the conveyance. “Conversely, for skipping, during which ore is removed from a single level only, the clamps are mounted on the shaft steelwork and grip the conveyance itself. They are activated by an electric power pack installed at the skip level and
automatically controlled by the mine’s PLCs,” Du Preez explains. At Rocanville Mine in Saskatchewan, the first sale of Technogrid into a Canadian over-wind application has taken place against a competitive product priced at 70% below the Technogrid tag. Regarding the over-wind Technogrid, Du Preez says that although this particular installation was a first because of the application, there had been steady sales over the years of Technogrid into Canadian conveyor systems, where the product acts as a counterweight arrestor in the event of conveyor failure. “This contrasts sharply with slow sales into the same market locally. In Canada, more than 250 units have been installed to arrest counterweights in the event of conveyor belt failure, whereas in South Africa less than 30 have been sold into this market,” he notes, and adds that these are by no means cheap systems and both successes can be attributed to the technical superiority of the products involved.
Global expansion Any country in the world that has deep mines is a potential client for Horne. Interest has already been expressed from mining houses in South Africa, the rest of Africa, Inner Mongolia, Russia, the US, South America and Australia. “South American countries such as Mexico, Ecuador, Argentina and Chile are moving away from surface or openpit mining to deep-level mining for ecological reasons,” Bruggeman says. “Most of Horne’s exports are through the Canadian office as Toronto has displaced Johannesburg over the past few decades as the mining capital of the world,” Hill notes. “Canada offers us a safe place to parachute out of and expand into the rest of the world. There isn’t a problem marketing South African products to the rest of the world as there is generally a healthy respect for LEFT Levelok clamp
the country’s mining expertise. The only exception is the US, where South Africa is downplayed as they can be insular and not understand the difference between South Africa and the rest of Africa.” “In large countries such as Canada and the US, the source is less relevant than the service,” Andersen adds. “Through our Canadian office we can offer local service and back-up support.” Du Preez explains that Horne has an agreement with FKC Lake Shore, a manufacturer of hoisting, elevator and vertical conveyance systems, to supply the necessary back-up support in North America. “Most of the mines don’t have the infrastructure to deal with individual suppliers; they look at turnkey solutions where a single supplier offers a total solution. Our partnership with FKC has given us more credibility but it has given them a competitive edge in the marketplace, too. “Horne Conveyance Safety is taking off and right now the boom in mining worldwide creates a global market. Safety is no longer a grudge purchase and at a mine in Inner Mongolia in China we were even asked for information on Nosa’s five-star rating. For the group as a whole, I estimate substantial growth in the local market and a further up-tick of export sales over the coming year. “Our sales were R14 million in 2010 and in 2011 they should be R40 million; we’re looking at selling approximately 16 systems this year in the range of R500 000 to R15 million per system, depending on the requirements. We are expanding our factory in Spartan in line with the anticipated growth and might have to look at bigger premises soon,” Du Preez concludes. Now we can only hope that the Sprinboks perform as well in their global onslaught!
Inside Mining 09.10/11
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Even when dumped, it’s a girl’s best friend With the new technology incorporated into portable X-ray sorters you can virtually drive from dump to dump across Africa and recover Type IIa diamonds.
mpulelo Technologies pioneered the introduction of Bourevestnik X-ray sorters from the Russian Federation to the local diamond mining industry and launched a range of 14 Bourevestnik X-ray sorting models at the 2010 Electra Mining Africa exhibition. The first large-capacity sorter (LS-2005-2N) from Bourevestnik was containerised and successfully tested over a three-month period at Letšeng Diamond Mine in Lesotho early this year. Every specification of the sorter was verified and tested to maximum levels. Excellent results were obtained and in some cases the specifications were found to be very moderate. Type IIa diamonds were found among those diamonds recovered during the test period. Using a highly portable bench-top Bourevestnik sorter, a number of audits were performed on tailing dump gravels throughout South Africa and Botswana and rendered excellent results, with the most significant factor being the ability of these sorters to recover Type IIa diamonds. These diamonds are difficult to recover with conventional X-ray sorters. Trans Hex Group was the first to buy a Bourevestnik sorter, fully containerised with all integrated services and ready for use on its Baken Mine operation on the West Coast. In total, five such containerised Bourevestnik sorters have been sold to local diamond mines since the launch 10 months ago. A number of feasibility studies are currently being performed by potential clients, with Bourevestnik sorters included in the designs. The Bourevestnik sorting machines are designed to process wet diamondbearing ore. The factors that make these products superior to current available diamond sorters are: The ore throughput capability of the sorters eliminates the requirement of upfront dense medium separators (DMSs), without compromising
diamond recovery efficiency when processing -75 +5 mm diamond-bearing ore: a long-time ambition of metallurgists that will result in significant process cost savings. Most important is the discrimination technique used during ore processing. This technique makes use of the pulsed excitation of diamond luminescence and several criteria applied during the digital processing stage of the luminescent signal, including peak and kinetic characteristic analysis, which allow for the highly effective identification of diamonds over accompanying minerals. This enhanced selectivity technique therefore enables the recovery of diamonds only and limits the extraction of other problematic minerals that behave very similarly to diamonds when exposed to X-ray radiation. This in turn results in guaranteed throughput rates and recovery efficiencies of the sorters. The discrimination techniques used in these X-ray sorters are the most efficient seen so far in diamond sorting machines, since this technology has also proven to recover type IIa diamonds.
This groundbreaking technology from Bourevestnik, capable of sorting runof-mine (ROM) ore directly, is central to Impulelo’s plans to offer the best available diamond sorting equipment to customers at affordable prices, while complementing its existing range of sorting machines. Pieter Wolmarans, MD of Impulelo Technologies, says that a complete final recovery system utilising Bourevestnic sorters offers the best sorter productivity per unit of floor area, to achieve significant opex and capex savings. “Vested in these products are 50 years of research and optimisation of X-ray sorting equipment, rendering full mature and industrialised products,” Wolmarans explains. “Impulelo engineers and technicians have received intensive training on the products. “Through its association and partnering with local companies, Impulelo offers a one-stop solution in containerised recovery plants and conventional recovery plant systems,” he concludes. BELOW The sorter can be seamlessly integrated into existing operations
Inside Mining 09.10/11
The proof is in the pudding It is easy to make unsubstantiated claims, but a revolutionary new coal sorting technology has gotten a major boost from on-the-ground test results.
xtensive tests undertaken by CommodasUltrasort, Coaltech, Isambane and Exxaro of CommodasUltrasort’s dual-energy X-ray transmission (DE-XRT) sorter at Arnot Colliery have proven that X-ray sorting is a viable dry-process technique for the destoning of coarse raw coal, says Lütke von Ketelhodt, CommodasUltrasort South Africa’s general manager. “We have shown that CommodasUltrasort’s PRO Secondary XRT sorter is capable of processing up to 150 t/h of coarse raw coal and effectively removing the bulk of the contaminant stone, resulting in a significant improvement in the quality of the coal. This means, inter alia, reduced ash content, an improved abrasive index (AI) of the coal and reduced sulphur content,” elaborates von Ketelhodt. He adds that Coaltech is currently investigating technologies that can be used to beneficiate dry coal and that the XRT sensor technology developed by CommodasUltrasort offers significant potential in this regard. “Previous X-ray sorter tests conducted at Mintek using the first-generation X-tract 1200 belt sorting machine showed that the technique was effective
Inside Mining 09.10/11
but that the throughput rate of the sorter was too low for application in coal processing. But at Arnot we have shown that our next-generation X-ray sorter, the PRO Secondary XRT, can process coal at acceptable throughput rates and is thus a viable option,” Von Ketelhodt says. X-ray sorting of coal is a revolutionary technology that is increasingly gaining ground over more conventional coal processing techniques. In conventional coal processing, the density difference between coal and shale or stone is used to separate the coal from the unwanted contaminants, while X-ray sorters are able to distinguish lighter coal from heavier minerals based on the differences in atomic density. “In an X-ray sorter, coal is radiated with X-rays and the amount of radiation that passes through the coal is measured. More radiation is absorbed by stone than by coal
and hence it becomes possible to distinguish between coal and shale using this technique,” Von Ketelhodt explains. He adds that the technology employed to sort coal from shale requires that the coal be presented to the X-ray source on a particle-by-particle basis in order to allow each particle to be scanned and classified as either coal or shale. “Once the classification has been made, if the particle is accepted as coal it is allowed to fall onto the product conveyor. If it is classified as shale it is rejected by applying a pulse of compressed air that blows the particle over a divider onto the reject conveyor,” he says. Coal is a high-tonnage business and for X-ray sorting to be viable in the coal BELOW CommodasUltrasort’s PRO Secondary XRT unit and X-ray source
TECHNOLOGY processing industry, relatively high tonnage rates must be made possible by the sorting equipment so it is only with the advent of modern high-speed computers that X-ray sorting of coal on a practical tonnage basis has become possible. In modern X-ray sorters, two X-ray sensors, measuring the radiation from a broad-band X-ray source at different energy levels, are applied. This technique, DE-XRT sorting, makes it possible to differentiate between coal and shale of differing particle sizes. From a practical perspective, the coal is presented to the sorter via a vibrating feeder, which feeds it into a chute as a single particle layer. In the time taken for the coal to fall through approximately 250 mm in the chute, the individual particles are scanned as they pass through the X-ray beam. The transmitted X-rays are detected using a line scan sensor and high- and low-energy images of each particle are constructed. At this stage the images are in shades of grey, being a function of the intensity of the transmitted energies from the high- and low-energy channels.
Next, an algorithm is applied to the images to convert them to colour-coded images where every pixel in the image of each particle is assigned a colour: red if the specific part of the image corresponds to a low-density zone or blue if it is a highdensity zone. A calibration curve is then used to assign these pixel values, with the relative proportion of red and blue pixels in the image finally being used to classify the particle as either coal or reject, based on a pre-determined set of criteria.
Arnot Colliery tests The central test at Arnot was run on a production basis, with the CommodasUltrasort’s PRO Secondary XRT sorting unit in operation for 12 hours per day. The aim of the operation was to supply cleaned coal to Arnot Power Station while proving that DE-XRT sorting can be used for this purpose. During the test, raw coal from the Mooifontein Opencast Mine was the primary coal used, but raw coals from other mines were also tested. The coal was crushed to nominally - 120 mm and was then screened at 30 mm. The coarse
coal was fed to the X-ray sorter while the fines were stockpiled separately and later mixed back with the clean coal from the sorter. Three separate test series at different ‘cut-point density’ settings, ‘high’, ‘medium’ and ‘low’, were run. On average, the results obtained showed that a raw coal with an average ash of 32.7% was reduced to 27% by the sorter, the ash content of the discard was high at 65.5% and the AI of the feed coal was high at 1 200 units, while the AI of the product was somewhat lower at 969. “The high AI (3 781 units) of the discard proves that the X-ray sorter is capable of removing very abrasive stone from the raw coal,” Von Ketelhodt says. He adds that the results obtained from the Arnot test are significant in terms of the potential of XRT sorting for coal mines. “We proved that our PRO Secondary XRT sorter is capable of processing up to 150 t/h of coarse raw coal and effectively removing the bulk of the contaminant stone in the raw coal. I believe this technology will become standard on all coal mines in Southern Africa,” he concludes.
The many years of operation and design improvements of the Thomas “Simplicity” dredge pump, have resulted in a pump which will give you the lowest operating cost of any pump in the industry when handling abrasive materials. The rugged wet-end parts are designed to feature extra heavy metal sections at points in performance and low maintenance cost.
the wide range of wear-resistant alloys as provided by Metso. Matching the correct the best performance and lowest cost.
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The come-back kid You just can’t keep a good man or machine down and in mining it’s very possible for a popular, hard-working, tried-and-tested classic to make a comeback.
ccording to Osborn marketing director, Martin Botha, the robust machine that cannot be kept down because it is the best machine for the job - is the rotary breaker. “This product is coming back into favour in the coal industry because customers are, once again, recognising its value and the fact that its simplicity makes it, quite simply, the machine of choice for this application.” Bulk materials handling and minerals processing specialist Osborn has seen rotary breaker orders increasing in the last year, with a number of machines sold in the past 12 months. “The rotary breaker has proved to be the most efficient machine for use in ‘dirty’ coal mining environments,” says Botha, explaining that ‘dirty’ refers to coal mining where there is a lot of rock in the run-of-mine material.
Inside Mining 09.10/11
“The rotary breaker has the dual function of reducing the feed size, while, at the same time, removing some of the rock from the coal stream,” he states. “This is very important as the rock reduces the calorific value of the coal.” Explaining the operating process of Osborn’s rotary breaker, Botha says that coal is continuously fed into the breaker feed chute and is repeatedly raised by lifters and dropped until it is broken to size and falls through the grids or screen plates. Large harder pieces, mainly rocks, are discharged through the outlet end by a scoop assembly. The company supplies two types of rotary breakers: the Osborn unit with chain drive and the Hadfields unit driven by conventional girth gear and pinion, as used on grinding mills.
“Whichever model a customer chooses, however, they can be assured that all Osborn rotary breakers are robustly constructed for 24-hour operation,” he stresses. “The breakers are supported on four steel rollers with alloy steel tyres, which ensure maximum life and trouble-free operation. Screen plates can be cast with circular holes or the Hadfields patented fabricated type, manufactured from a variety of abrasion resistant materials. These fabricated plates give maximum open area, high impact and coal breaking efficiency.” The Osborn Rotary Breaker’s drive unit is manufactured in three different diameters, with approximate throughputs ranging from 500 to 1 600 tph. Dust housings are supplied with all units. BELOW The Osborn rotary beaker
You couldn’t hear a pin drop A revolutionary pinless screen panel fastening system is gaining worldwide interest.
ultotec’s polyurethane Saddle Top screen frame system has evolved rapidly from an initial innovative design that made it possible to replace only the
screen panel fastening holes on conventional runners – instead of replacing the complete runner – to a unique and revolutionary pinless panel fastening system that is growing in demand worldwide.
The Multotec P3 pinless fastening system, the third-generation offering in the company’s Saddle Top range and the result of ongoing panel design innovation, allows quick and
The money or the box Modular crushing and screening plants are becoming increasingly popular throughout Africa owing to the affordability and ease of use of these plug-and-play kits.
eflecting the growing demand for its new locally designed and built modular crushing and screening plants, Johannesburgbased Osborn has secured an order for a modular primary crushing tip that will be employed in the tough platinum industry, reports marketing director Martin Botha. “Customers are increasingly seeking equipment that is easier to transport, and our new plants offer an affordable solution that fits this bill,” he says. A further order – for a modular primary crushing plant for a Lesotho diamond mine – is in the pipeline, while Botha adds that a number of secondary crushing and screening plants have also been sold since the company launched this modular offering last year. “Our aim is to have these plants available to buy ‘off the shelf’, but they are selling so quickly we haven’t been able to build up stock. Most of the plants we
Inside Mining 09.10/11
manufacture are sold before they are even finished.” He adds that the modular plants are ideal for plant expansion. “All that a customer needs to do is put down a concrete slab, unpack their new modular plant, and their expansion is done. They immediately have the desired capacity.” Although they are not mobile, the plants are easily transportable. Dubbed Osborn’s ‘Kit in a Box’, three options are available: the modular jaw crushing plant, modular cone crushing plant and modular screening plant. Different jaw crusher models are offered, including small jaw crushers for smaller plants. The components are broken down to fit into two standard 40 ft (12 m) opentop shipping containers, with enough space for some spare parts, Botha explains. “They can be easily transported anywhere in the world and only a mobile crane is required for onsite erection. This
is essentially a ‘plug-and-play’ plant,” he quips. The ‘kit’ comes complete with modular conveyors, all electrics, all fasteners and a service manual for the machines. All the standard equipment is supported by Osborn’s 24/7/365 service and spares are readily available from Osborn’s Elandsfontein facility, he adds. Botha notes that Osborn’s offering is robust and long wearing. “We try to remain on the heavier side of equipment supply. We have built our plants for strength and longevity. They are perfectly suited to the most arduous applications – including platinum ore and truck dump material. They are also safe and serviceable, with improved access for servicing the units.” “The modular plant is fast becoming a sought-after addition to Osborn’s line-up of tough, high-quality machines, which includes apron feeders, screens and an expansive range of crushers for the mining and quarrying industries,” Botha concludes. BELOW LEFT Osborn modular screening plant BELOW RIGHT Osborn modular jaw crusher plant
TECHNOLOGY simple panel maintenance, but also significantly reduces the wear of the rail system. Multotec P3 has evolved from the original round pin and sleeve approach to the H-pins and H-sleeves that delivered superior downward forces to hold panels together, and then to the Hsystem pinless fastening. This system builds on the H-sleeve concept and is compatible with existing tooling. It delivers effective hold-down forces and offers optimised installation and removal capabilities. “Wear is reduced to such an extent that rail systems incorporating our pinless fastening system can last up to five years, an achievement previously unheard of in the industry,” Multot e c ’s
Anthony Yell says. “Although the initial investment in this proprietary system is more than that for conventional systems, the savings achieved in the long term greatly offset this outlay. The P3 combines all the benefits of the established Multotec Saddle Top system, including replaceable screen support surfaces, quick change-outs and interchangeability between existing and traditional fastening systems.” With the P3 system, only the panel and compatible saddle are required to fasten the screen to the deck. Fewer operations ensure more efficient maintenance and improved operator safety. “The P3 system ensures reliable operations in the field, building on the benefits of the established H-Pinning system,
whereby adjacent panels are locked together to prevent gaps forming between panels,” Yell says. “This prevents the intrusion of damaging particles.” All Multotec modular 305 mm square panels are compatible with P3 pinning. The full range of apertures is available in Hi-Flow and standard configurations. Panels can be manufactured with skid bars, retarder bars, weir bars and deflectors. The Multotec Saddle Top rail system is an engineered system that is purpose designed to suit the specific screening machine and screening application in question. The Multotec P3 panel with the Saddle Top rail system
The Marley Infrastructure Solution for the Mining Industry Mine-Wall presents a quality high impact mPVC pressure pipe range designed specifically for underground applications in mining. Our commitment to quality and safety ensures that Mine-Wall is designed to adhere to best practice and stringent safety standards, and consistently provides optimum performance under demanding mining conditions. Benefits: Quick and easy maintenance – no need for thrust blocks No corrosion – does not corrode in acid water Low mass – higher rates of installation and productivity Flammability – prevents the spread of fire Smooth bore – high flow rates at low friction levels Flexibility – allows pipes to follow curves without additional fittings Impact resistance – high resistance to impact damage Accreditation – carries the SABS mark for SANS 1283 Marley also offers a range of fittings and accessories to provide the full solution for your piping needs. For more information on the latest product offerings from Marley Infrastructure visit www.marleypipesystems.co.za or call 0861-MARLEY
Size counts Whether your calculations are based on microns or millions, Ludowici Meshcape is convinced it will measure up.
n August, global mineral processing equipment manufacturer Ludowici officially announced its acquisition of leading South African screening media manufacturer Meshcape, as part of the company’s overall commitment to serving the African market better. David Sibley, previously MD of Meshcape and now MD of the newly created Ludowici Meshcape, says the company decided to retain the name Meshcape due to its excellent reputation in the marketplace. “Meshcape is well established across Africa and is known for the quality of its products, while Ludowici is known as a very innovative brand globally. Ludowici wanted to expand into Africa and Meshcape was a very good vehicle. “Meshcape’s range of screening media perfectly complements Ludowici’s internationally recognised line of mineral processing equipment. The acquisition will enable both companies to expand their overall product offering, while improving responsiveness to customers’ needs,” he says. The Ludowici Group’s current turnover in
Africa is around R65 million per annum and with the acquisition of Meshcape, this is expected to increase to R210 million per annum. It therefore comes as no surprise when Ludowici Africa’s general manager, Fanie Swart, stresses that the current Meshcape business model will not be modified as a result of the acquisition. Sibley notes that the Ludowici acquisition will bring significant capital investment to Meshcape, in addition to advanced technology and internationally renowned expertise. “Ludowici has a global footprint and support structure, with worldwide revenue of more than A$220 million (R1.59 billion). Investment from an internationally recognised and listed company will ensure that Ludowici Meshcape has access to increased capital for expansion,” he continues. Swart points out that Meshcape was chosen as the ideal investment for Ludowici as the company’s products are recognised as the best in the country. “The Meshcape range of screening media is not marketed solely on pricing, but rather process efficiency and consistency of quality. Ludowici Meshcape will benefit the African markets by being able to provide process equipment in its entirety LEFT David Sibley, MD of Ludowici Meshcape BELOW Fanie Swarth, general manager of Ludowici Africa
Inside Mining 09.10/11
ABOVE Fabrication of engineered products - size no problem
– without having to rely on other suppliers – supplying superior-designed and engineered products at competitive prices. This will provide better process value for money for clients, in addition to providing increased support to local manufacturers,” he explains. “What’s more, the new entity will benefit from a reduction in overhead costs as both companies will operate under one roof.” Ludowici manufactures four main product ranges, namely: vibrating equipment such as screening machinery used to sort mined materials, mineral processing equipment such as centrifuges, reflux classifiers and cyclones, engineering consumable products such as ceramic wear materials and pneumatic and hydraulic seals, which are manufactured from rubber and polyurethane materials. Swart continues: “At present, the most recognised Ludowici products in the local market are the centrifuges and feeders – which are predominantly used in the coal mining sector. Meshcape’s ranges of screening products serve as the ideal add on to these products, thereby offering a complete and comprehensive all-in-one solution to the client.” It is envisaged that, in addition to the manufacturing of screening media products, including woven wire mesh, woven screens, wire conveyor belts, perforated material and polyurethane screens, the company will add the manufacturing of a complete range of vibrating screening machines to its South African operations. “This is an exciting time for Ludowici Meshcape, which now forms part of a well-respected global company that provides equipment and services to the mining and general industries,” Sibley concludes.
A drive for innovation Just because it isn’t necessary to reinvent the wheel doesn’t mean we should be content with two rocks stuck on either side of a tree trunk.
aver & Boecker recently introduced the Niagara T-Class® with a newly designed drive system, offering more amplitude/rotational speed combinations than before. This in turn allows for small cut sizes, as well as difficult classifying jobs with large cut sizes, to be realised. The machine is also equipped with a newly developed wear-protection system that decreases the replacement time of worn elements, in this way reducing downtime. Within the scope of the Niagara TClass concept, screening machines with widths starting at 2.4 m were built in the first phase of development. Since the introduction of a time and cost-saving modular construction system, machines with screen decks of almost twice the width (i.e. up to 4.2 m) can be built at the plant in Münster. A recently built 3.5-deck model D180 3000 x 7200 machine of this type was sold to German engineering and plant designer Hazemag in Dülmen. It separates 450 t/h of limestone at 25/15/8 and 4 mm. The dimensions of this screening machine are 3 x 7.2 m, the total screening surface amounts to 72 m² and it weighs about 25 000 kg.
ABOVE The HAVER & BOECKER team with a NIAGARA T-Class screening machine built at the plant in Muenster, Germany
In order to achieve the throughput and cut sizes requested by the customer, the Niagara T-Class is equipped with two shaft and bearing sets and powered by a 75 kW drive unit. The screening machine is easy to access and maintain, as the screen deck spacing is generously dimensioned, which provides ideal working conditions for the operating personnel. The screen frame of the HSG machines is engineered in a traverse design. The deck structure is clamped onto the frame with a patented retaining bracket and without welded seams. The brackets form the mounting area for the screen panel support system and through the positioning of the brackets the spacing of the longitudinal supports can be varied. Thanks to bracket shapes with horizontal and vertical mounting areas, this concept can be applied equally well to modular or side- or end-tensioned screen media. At the same time, these brackets also support a newly developed wear protection system (Haver Snap Guard) of modular structure and that allows easy replacement.
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Africa is still not for sissies! The indigenisation circus in Zimbabwe is still in full swing. The week before the Zimbabwe Mining Indaba, our man the Minister of Indigenisation, Empowerment and Youth Development, Saviour Kasukuwere, of the former ruling party Zanu PF, told Zimplats bosses that their operating licence had been withdrawn because their
mining companies over the implementation of the indigenisation law. He insisted that negotiations are ongoing with some parties and that no licence has been cancelled.
On the sunny side of the street I have personally seen more than one approved ‘certificate of indigenisation’ that makes
The drums bring news that Zimbabwe is seeking to reform its diamond mining policy indigenisation plans had been “rejected”. Meanwhile, mines minister, Obert Mpofu, said his department has “no intention” of canceling mining licences in connection with ongoing negotiations between the government and
President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe
a lot of business sense without squeezing the living daylights out of the companies involved clearly it can work.
Light a candle with your neighbours perhaps? The drums bring news that Zimbabwe is seeking to reform its diamond mining policy and establish an official diamond exploration company. Newswires quoted President Robert Mugabe as saying that work has already begun on legislation to found the Zimbabwe Mining Exploration Company (ZMEC), which is intended to be a joint venture between the public and private sectors, and said that the government was already attempting to recruit partners and investors. A good place to go take advice on this might just be Botswana or Namibia? In terms of real practicalities, the government has reportedly
put out a very large multimillion dollar tender for airborne electromagnetic exploration in eastern Zimbabwe. Any such project would include the Marange diamond fields as well as diamond deposits in the Masvingo province and in northern Zimbabwe – now this is seriously overdue and a great step in the right direction! Spending money on these kinds of activities will ensure it comes back in multiples to government through renewed exploration efforts and results. Of course it also means that you have to issue exploration companies their licences so they can get on with what they do best.
Lest we forget … from shovel boy to CEO The first African gold company that successfully listed on the New York stock exchange was not from the ‘South’, as 99%
BY WILLEM SMUTS of people claim when I ask this question. It was Ashanti Gold and an African was at the helm – and Sam E. Jonah KBE was not trying to beat freebies out of mining companies, he got there by sheer hard work and tenacity. In my opinion, Kusukuwere is doing his country-men a disservice by effectively implying that Zimbabweans are not capable of competing on an even playing field. It is easy to be all poor together – I would rather we all work at being better off together!
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Anglo American Appropriate Process Technology Barloworld Bavaria Safety Footwear Bell Equipment BME C3 Shared Services (Pty) Ltd Commodas Ultrasort Dosetech Horne SA Impulelo Technologies Komatsu Southern Africa Ludowici Meshcape Marley Pipe Systems Metrofile Holdings Metso Minerals Osborn Engineered Products SA (Pty) Ltd SB Media (Mining Indaba) Schneider Electric Technilamp Transnet Freight Rail ex Spoornet Weir Minerals Zest
29 17 36 52, IBC 49 15 OFC, 4-5 35 26 38-39 40 24 IFC 47 30 43 45 2 7 32 11 OBC 21
Inside Mining 09.10/11
EXCEL - 7727
Bronx - the brand for modern performance safety footwear that excels all expectations. Smooth grain leather upper. Oil and acid resistant. Dual density sole with steel midsole as standard at no extra cost. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Mens and Ladies sizes: 3 - 13. Colour: Black
IGNITE - 7728
Bronx the brand for modern durable safety footwear that will ignite your performance requirements. Smooth grain leather upper. Oil and acid resistant. Dual density sole with steel midsole as standard at no extra cost. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Mens and Ladies sizes: 3 - 13.
HIKER LOW - 6127
Designed by Bronx for men and women with an eye for fashion, combined with safety to provide quality protection. Using a top quality smooth full grain leather and a two colour, double density, polyurethane sole which is acid and oil resistant. Suitable for mens and ladies - all sizes available - from 3 to 13. Antistatic for maximum protection. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Colour: Black.
HIKER - 6128
Designed by Bronx for men and women with an eye for fashion, combined with safety to provide quality protection. Using a top quality smooth full grain leather and a two colour, double density, polyurethane sole which is acid and oil resistant. Antistatic for maximum protection. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Suitable for mens and ladies- all sizes available from 3 to 13. Colour: Black.
HIKER LOW - 6127
Designed by Bronx for men and women with an eye for fashion, combined with safety to provide quality protection. Using a top quality smooth full grain leather and a two colour, double density, polyurethane sole which is acid and oil resistant. Suitable for mens and ladies - all sizes available - from 3 to 13. Antistatic for maximum protection. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Colour: Choc.
HIKER - 6128
Designed by Bronx for men and women with an eye for fashion, combined with safety to provide quality protection. Using a top quality smooth full grain leather and a two colour, double density, polyurethane sole which is acid and oil resistant. Antistatic for maximum protection. Suitable for mens and ladies- all sizes available from 3 to 13. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Colour: Choc.
VOLCANO LOW - 6190
VOLCANO - 6189
Engineered Bronx outdoor active design - Mens and Ladies Designed for comfort with a combination of technical features. Top quality smooth crazy horse water repellant leather. Double density, polyurethane sole which is acid and oil resistant. Antistatic for maximum protection. Steel toe cap 200 Joules assured. Mens & Ladies sizes: 3 - 13. Colour: Burnt Chestnut.
Engineered Bronx outdoor active design - Mens and Ladies. Designed for comfort with a combination of technical features. Top quality smooth crazy horse water repellant leather. Double density, polyurethane sole. Antistatic for maximum protection. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Oil and acid resistant. Mens and Ladies sizes: 3 - 13. Colour: Burnt Chestnut.
AEON - 6201
Bronx design for men and ladies working in the fast lane where style is paramount. Sporty fashion and world class safety combined to provide quality protection. Antistatic for maximum protection. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Suede leather upper and overlays. Two tone rubber sole which is acid and oil resistant. Mens and Ladies sizes: 3 - 13. Colour: Navy, grey & black.
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SNIPER - 6999
A security and safety boot for smart and efficient security teams. International design for safety and quality protection. Smooth and supple full grain leather with panels of strong nylon mesh. Double density, polyurethane sole which is acid and oil resistant. Antistatic for maximum protection. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Mens and Ladies sizes: 3 - 13. Colour: Black.
CHELSEA - 6191
Bronx engineering for fashionable men and women spending time on their feet. Maximum ankle support and comfort with easy grip tags for quick fitting. Water repellent crazy horse quality leather. Double density, polyurethane sole which is acid and oil resistant. Antistatic for maximum protection. Steel toe cap - 200 Joules assured. Mens and Ladies sizes: 3 - 13. Colour: Burnt Chestnut.
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ISOGATE® Slurry Valves Lower your operational costs with the Weir Minerals Solution
Expertise where it counts
Weir Minerals is committed to delivering market leading products and services which meet the technical and commercial challenges across the full spectrum of mineral processing and power & industrial applications. Robust design and rugged heavy-duty construction, the Isogate® slurry knife gate valve ensures long life and high reliability. Isogate® valves now also include Autoball™ 3 way check valves, swing check valves, and a diverse range of mechanical and pneumatic pinch valves. For more information contact us on: +27 (0)11 9292600 www.weirminerals.com