IMIESA October 2018

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IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

infrastructure development • Maintenance • service delivery



Commercialising wastewater for a sustainable future

Flowtite Technology builds lasting infrastructure Bantu Mselana

Managing Director, Flowtite South Africa


Managing recharge performance

Partners in Infrastructure

DBO opportunities explored

Dams & Reservoirs Water and municipal economies

IN THE HOT SEAT As civil engineers, we have a social responsibility to build lasting infrastructure. Those of us who’re also entrepreneurs have an additional obligation to assist developing SMME consulting and contracting companies.” Dinesh Chaithoo Managing Director, Chaithoo ISSN 0257 1978

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Suite 1, Park 2000, 10 Kyalami Road, Westmead, Durban, 3610, South Africa Tel: +27 31 700 2500, Fax: +27 31 700 2550,

volume 43 no. 10 October 2018

IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa



Commercialising wastewater for a sustainable future

Flowtite Technology builds lasting infrastructure Bantu Mselana

Managing Director, Flowtite South Africa


Managing recharge performance

Partners in Infrastructure

DBO opportunities explored


Dams & Reservoirs Water and municipal economies

As civil engineers, we have a social responsibility to build lasting infrastructure. Those of us who’re also entrepreneurs have an additional obligation to assist developing SMME consulting and contracting companies.” Dinesh Chaithoo Managing Director, Chaithoo

IN THE HOT SEAT Dinesh Chaithoo, MD of Chaithoo, speaks about the company’s expanding business model, which includes a growing footprint in Africa for a range of solutions founded on civil engineering design and construction, contract law, and project management. P10

V o l u m e 4 3 N o . 1 0 • O c t o b e r 2 0 1 8 • R 5 0 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT )

ERWAT’s O&M systems are among the better ones within wastewater treatment plants in South Africa. With a strategic vision to collaborate with municipal entities locally and across the developing world, ERWAT already provides outsourced O&M solutions for private industry and municipalities other than Ekurhuleni. P6

CESA Awards

Regulars Editor’s comment


President’s comment


A concrete masterpiece


CESA’s young company of the year 29

Index to advertisers


A trenchless innovation

Cover Story

Roads & Bridges

Commercialising wastewater for a sustainable future

Precision depends on data


Hot Seat The game changer


Municipal Focus: Nelson Mandela Bay Under pressure


Industry Insight Flowtite Technology builds lasting infrastructure


Partners in Infrastructure Future guaranteed


The answer to infrastructure delivery 18

23 27 30

Perfecting asphalt designs: a user guide


Creating safer work zones


Never a bridge too far for Sanral


A world first in road safety


Ensuring safer roads for all


Geotechnical Engineering Innovative drainage solution


Piling in complex geology


Water & Wastewater Ways to manage recharge performance


A case for submerged UF membranes



Bolstering SA’s treatment capacity 50

Sabita member listing


The O&M approach works best


ROADS & BRIDGES Ensuring safer roads for all

Covering the full water cycle


Driving efficiency


The benefits of magnetic drive


Improving pump suction


Dams & Water Storage Water: the Achilles heel of the municipal economy


Quality storage solutions


Trenchless Technology Securing power supply in West Africa


Overcoming barriers to SME development


Human Settlements Ensuring quality housing


Waste Management 33

Integrating municipal operations

CESA Awards A concrete masterpiece

Nelson Mandela Bay

Contractor Development

CESA Awards 2018: The best in engineering

Africa round-up

Municipal Focus

Meters, Pumps & Valves


ISSN 0257 1978




Navigating landfill closure


Medical waste auto tracker launched 73

Cement & Concrete Building solutions that last


Driving innovation in service delivery 75 Steep slope stability maintained


Unmatched structural integrity


Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment Real-time rental management


Perfecting floor finishes


Double up on power




14 Flowtite South Africa’s managing director, Bantu Mselana, shares the company’s strategic vision for resurgent growth in glass fibre reinforced pipe usage in key sectors that include water, sanitation and gas pipeline delivery.


Spending wisely on infrastructure

Publisher Elizabeth Shorten MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie SENIOR JOURNALIST Danielle Petterson JOURNALIST Liesl Frankson Head OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister Chief SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders SUB-EDITOR Morgan Carter ContributorS Gavin Clunnie, Robert McCutcheon, Mokgosi Mokgosi, Peter Townsend CLIENT SERVICES & PRODUCTION MANAGER Jayshree Maharaj Production COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise financial Director Andrew Lobban DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS Printers United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________


Advertising Sales Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 Email: ___________________________________________________

150 Rivonia Road, Morningside, 2196 Publisher PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 Annual subscription: R600.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2018. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: Ingrid Botton P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: Website: BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 Email: EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Fax: +27 (0)41 585 1066 Email: KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Ingrid Botton Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax:+27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: NORTHERN PROVINCE Secretary: Rona Fourie Tel: +27 (0)82 742 6364 Fax: +27 (0)86 634 5644 Email: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Fax: +27 (0)86 629 7490 Email: WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Fax: +27 (0)86 628 0468 Email: All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.

BOOT opportunities

he launch of the South Africa Infrastructure Fund (SAIF) forms part of the economic stimulus and recovery plan, announced recently by cabinet, with an emphasis on job creation and the revitalisation of a lagging economy. Some R400 billion has been set aside for the SAIF component and the approach being taken is to reprioritise projects, which includes temporarily parking underperforming programmes. That’s a good thing. As we’ve seen from the South African Auditor General reports on municipal performance over the past three years, improved financial management and programme execution were two of the key areas highlighted as hampering service delivery. In terms of the SAIF proposal, an Infrastructure Execution Team will be appointed to ensure that projects are completed on time and within budget. That’s a critical element in minimising wastage and ensuring meaningful and quantifiable results. Key areas identified include human settlements, public transport, national and provincial roads, water infrastructure, and public transport. Fifty-seven priority pilot municipalities have been identified for interventions that include sanitation, electrification and waste management. Reprioritised funding will also be set aside for three regional and 26 township industrial parks. Across the broad, there will be an emphasis on creating labour-intensive opportunities that act as a catalyst for social upliftment. Rather than operating in isolation, a major part of SAIF’s success will hinge on the extent to which private funds swing in to support it. These potential cash injections will come via the local and international banking sector, development agencies, and the JSE. The industry’s appetite for public-private partnerships and build, own, operate and transfer (BOOT) projects will also be an important factor.

There are some sterling BOOT examples locally, like Veolia Water Technologies’ operation for KwaZulu-Natal’s utility, Umgeni Water. This BOOT plant at Durban Water Recycling has been running successfully for 18 years, with some 24 months left to run on the current agreement. In the end, it all comes down to expert planning, optimum technology selection, and world-class implementation. BOOT operators take on all the risks. Additionally, operations and maintenance savings are shared between the operator and client. So it’s a win-win situation, as long as the end users continue to pay for the services provided. For all industries, there’s a need to refocus on efficiencies and new opportunities as the macroeconomic climate hardens and emerging markets compete harder to retain and attract investors. Financial forecasting and modelling now definitely have to be standard practice in any project decision-making process. The recent announcement that South African Airways is effectively bankrupt underscores this point: despite repeated interventions, the situation has worsened and placed a heavy burden on the economy. In future, we need to jump in and fix problems long before the wheels come off. Budgets allocated for specific public projects also need to be ring-fenced and monitored in real time to ensure that anticipated returns on investment are achieved.

Alastair To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.

struc www.infra



magazine The official of the Institute l Engineer ing of Municipa Africa of Southern






Y IND US TR T GH INSI builds e Techno logy

isin g Com mer cial for a was tew aterfutu re sust aina ble

Flowtit ucture lasting infrastr a Bantu Mselan Flowtite South Africa Managing Director,

Hydr ogeo logy

rge Managing recha e performanc

Part ners in Infra struc ture explored

DBO opportuniti


rvoirs Dams & Rese ipal and munic

Cover opportunity

In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings, contact Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223.

Water economies


lasting infrast SEAT ion to assist sibility to build nal obligat social respon IN THE HOT we have a reneurs have an additio nies.” engineers, compa entrep As civil contracting who’re also Those of us SMME consulting and o Director, Chaitho developing oo Managing 3 No.10 Vo l u m e 4 Dinesh Chaith 8 0257 197 ISSN

Infrastructure News


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IMIESA October 2018



83RD IMESA Conference Durban ICC 02-04 October 2019 Conquering Municipal Challenges





President’s comment


Shaping our future together October 2018 marks the last month of my two-year term as president of IMESA. It’s been an amazing journey and one that has taken place during a challenging trading period for South African construction.


hile these last two years have undoubtedly been challenging for the industry, and our country, there have been some positives. Infrastructure gains were seen in key sectors such as roads, water and sanitation, but more needs to be done to effect the change we all want to see. A special word of thanks goes to IMESA’s dedicated team of office bearers, the exco, council and our head office staff. Your contribution builds on the future success of the Institute and the proactive role it plays in the municipal engineering space. In this respect, our ties with the South African Local Government Association are being strengthened and I’d like to take this opportunity to thank their representatives for endorsing our 82nd IMESA Conference. We hope that the initiatives that our proposed MoU and strategic partnership intends to drive will have a notable impact on our infrastructure and service delivery nationally. Now, more than ever, our country needs unique and innovative solutions to the many problems our municipalities face, be they ageing infrastructure, a lack of operating funds, a lack of technical staff, or environmental issues, such as drought and rising sea levels. Community issues, such as access to housing, are overriding objectives given spiralling urban migration numbers.

Branch initiatives During my tenure, I’ve been deeply encouraged by the work achieved by IMESA branches

nationally. My branch visits took me to the Northern Provinces, KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape, Southern Cape Karoo, Eastern Cape and Border. Many of these coincided with annual general meetings and educational seminars attended by public and private sector stakeholders. They also served as forums for proactive engagement. These meetings are equally important initiatives in adding new members that will form the future vision and leadership of IMESA. As an institute, education and training remain our primary drivers, through a combination of bursary programmes, professional candidate mentorship, and CPD-accredited workshops and conferences. Where we have the capacity, we are making a real difference. Our alliance with key stakeholders will accelerate this process.

IFME board meetings A highlight for every incoming IMESA president is the opportunity to exchange ideas and compare global best practices as the South African representative of the International Federation of Municipal Engineering (IFME). It was certainly an honour to serve on this international body and be allowed the privilege by IMESA to attend these meetings. In April 2018, I attended the Infrastructure Symposium in Suva, Fiji, which coincided with an IFME board meeting. Eight member countries were represented this year, namely the Fiji Islands, Australia, Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Canada, the USA and South Africa.

IMESA president Gavin Clunnie

I was honoured to meet His Excellency Major-General (retired) Jioji Konousi Konrote, president of the Fiji Islands, and Dr Marlene Kanga, president of the World Federation of Engineering Organisations. The challenges and opportunities covered at the symposium were common to all countries present and included discussion on anti-corruption; planning, management and maintenance strategies; integrated infrastructure asset management and financial management reporting; public-private partnerships; and enhanced infrastructure sustainability through technical standards. There’s a lot we can learn by applying intercountry best practices. That’s why ‘Innovative infrastructure solutions’ is the theme for this year’s annual conference. Our quest is to find the right balance between cost constraints and the best technological interventions that deliver lasting results. That has always been IMESA’s and my shared vision as the incumbent president.

IMIESA October 2018


Cover story

Commercialising wastewater for a sustainable future ERWAT’s operations and maintenance (O&M) systems are among the better ones within wastewater treatment plants in South Africa. With a strategic vision to collaborate with municipal entities locally and across the developing world, ERWAT’s expanding business model already provides outsourced O&M solutions for private industr y and other municipalities.


hrough managing the wastewater needs of the City of Ekurhuleni, the East Rand Water Care Company (ERWAT) is the sole provider of this essential service to a community that now numbers close to four million. Within the mix are key industries like agriculture, manufacturing and mining, which collectively make a major contribution to South Africa’s GDP performance. ERWAT currently has 19 plants, a number of which are operating beyond their design capacity: some of these facilities date back to the 1950s and all of them were designed to operate independently to service dedicated towns and their industries. However, thanks to an effective and efficient O&M regime, these critical works remain compliant. In the meantime, detailed plans are in place to meet medium- and longer-term demand projections and, in the process, consolidate, upgrade and reengineer a select number of these facilities to meet ERWAT’s forward strategy, working with consulting engineers and specialist contractors as part of the construction mix. The end result is that the current decentralised set-up will transition to a centralised network with fewer plants, which are scaled up to meet socio-economic priorities via pipeline


IMIESA October 2018

and intelligent ICT infrastructure. That will also entail the rationalisation of approximately 136 existing wastewater pump stations. “In terms of both current and future operations, achieving the right balance between capex and opex costs is the key,” explains Fortune Mabunda, executive manager: Operations. “For now, we need to stretch our efficiencies; in this respect, ERWAT has performed exceptionally well thanks to our expert knowledge and experience. Despite escalating cost pressures and budget constraints, we’ve been able to cover capex gaps through improved processes, without a shortfall in wastewater outcomes. On top of this, most of our plants remain compliant and meet local and international standards.” Achieving the best efficiencies depends on investing in the right technologies. These include NEREDA® at the Hartebeesfontein facility, HYBACS® at Tsakane, and micro tertiary filtration systems at the Jan Smuts plant.

(WWTWs) as well as private industry, nationally. In the latter respect, ERWAT already provides O&M services for key private FMCG clients in the Gauteng region, including Heineken and Nestlé. Further afield, ERWAT is planning to expand its business model in Africa and already has expressions of interest from public utilities in Kenya and Uganda, where the intention is to set up ERWAT laboratories and introducing its O&M framework. On the global front, ERWAT was a returning stakeholder and part of the South African Water Sector Pavilion at the 2018 World Water Week summit in Sweden. “It’s encouraging to see that South Africa is aligned internationally in terms of the policies and strategies outlined in the UN Sustainable Development Goals. As in many parts of the world, the challenge locally is implementation, which requires cooperation and input from the private and public sectors, as well as communities,” says Mabunda.

A multifaceted approach

Reuse makes sense

ERWAT is now taking a multifaceted approach that extends beyond Ekurhuleni to include technical advice and O&M solutions for municipal wastewater treatment works

“One area with huge potential is water reuse, initially targeted at industry and agriculture. However, given South Africa’s worsening water-scarcity situation, reuse could soon


become a necessity rather than an option for wider consumption, which includes domestic users,” he continues. “Initially, we’re talking about reuse for industrial purposes – taking the pressure off available potable supply.” A prefeasibility study carried out in conjunction with Ekurhuleni has shown that two of ERWAT’s plants, namely Waterval and Olifantsfontein, are well suited for reuse streams. Phase II of this feasibility study is now investigating public-private partnership (PPP) opportunities. The potential is for around 85 Mℓ per day and ERWAT has identified the top 100 industrial companies within the Ekurhuleni region with a view to formalising off-take agreements. Blending reuse is also part of the plan in future potable supply scenarios, Mabunda adds. Singapore and Australia are two examples of countries that have embraced reuse for potable requirements. Australia is also using reused water to recharge underground water sources. A similar route is being considered for Cape Town in terms of the Cape Flats Aquifer recharge initiative.

Sludge has a value ERWAT is also investigating the sludge side of things, which includes PPP initiatives. Here, planning is at an advanced stage, with ERWAT in discussions with key international specialists. These include a UK-based OEM that has developed a proprietary sludge pasteurisation technology. The sludge comes out as a beneficial product and meets the South African A1A

guidelines for agricultural use. ERWAT produces around 250 tonnes of sludge daily. Currently, this is supplied free of charge to agricultural users. In its present format, it still needs to be mixed with other products to produce compost. Once ERWAT starts beneficiating, though, this will no longer be required and a whole new industry will have been created, with major SME distribution opportunities and a significantly reduced reliance on fertiliser imports. Key beneficial products that can be extracted from the waste stream prior to pasteurisation are struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) and off-take gas for renewable energy generation. Compost is the end product once it has been ultra-pasteurised. The model can be replicated at other WWTWs throughout South Africa, Africa and the rest of the developing world. Gas- and palletised-sludge-to-energy initiatives would make plants self-sufficient, selling surplus electricity back into the grid. ERWAT is conducting further research and has identified the Waterval plant, its largest facility, as the best suited to launch a PPP project. “Our operating philosophy is evolving to include resource mining from wastewater and to regard reuse and discharge as part of a continuous cycle,” says Mabunda.

Assisting other municipalities The most recent Green Drop Report was published in 2013, which outlined those WWTWs nationwide that were at a critical stage. In many cases, no further interventions have been

Our operating philosophy is evolving to include resource mining from wastewater and to regard reuse and discharge as part of a continuous cycle.” Fortune Mabunda, executive manager: Operations, ERWAT

carried out, which means that the situation at a number of these affected plants will have deteriorated even further. ERWAT has continued to measure itself in line with the Green Drop process as part of its quality management systems. The entity has also been commended by the Department of Water and Sanitation for its operational effectiveness. “Our systems, controls and wastewater risk abatement plans are in place and constantly monitored,” he points out. “This puts us in a good position to collaborate with colleagues open to it. Our key objective is to grow our commercial O&M and consulting services opportunities.” ERWAT is now in the process of completing a detailed planning document, which covers the future maintenance and upgrades at its own plants. Ongoing condition monitoring studies will continue to ensure that predictive maintenance is scheduled long before a potential breakdown or catastrophic failure occurs. Opex is then accurately aligned with anticipated budget requirements and profit margins, so it’s a profitable model. ERWAT also recently introduced a business continuity management initiative that will assess and test the resilience of its ICT protocols. That includes disaster management – e.g. if a specific plant was shut down due to a natural or man-made emergency. “Our vision and mission are an integral part of the City of Ekurhuleni’s 50-year master plan. Combined with this, there are excellent initiatives for commercialisation by replicating the ERWAT model nationally and internationally. Wastewater is an attractive PPP opportunity that offers an excellent and measurable rate of return,” Mabunda concludes.

IMIESA October 2018




AFRICA Decentralising energy supply The Off-Grid Energy Access Fund (OGEF) has had its first close with committed capital of US$58 million from the African Development Bank (AfDB), the Nordic Development Fund, the Global Environment Facility, Calvert Impact Capital and All On. The Fund is part of the AfDB’s sponsored Facility for Energy Inclusion (FEI), a $500 million debt platform to catalyse capital markets support for innovative energy access strategies. FEI is a flagship initiative of the bank’s New Deal on Energy for Africa and part of its High5 priority to light up and power the continent, aiming to connect 75 million households through off-grid energy access solutions by 2025. OGEF is designed to provide flexible debt instruments, predominantly oriented around local currency lending for consumer finance, to companies in the household energy access sector including distributors, manufacturers, and end-user credit providers. The fund supports financially sustainable transactions that engage local capital markets to increase access to clean electricity for underserved households. “FEI is part of a broader strategy to unlock more financing in decentralised energy companies, which also entails direct investments in market leaders, lines of credit for local banks and programmatic support to

The new Off-Grid Energy Access Fund aims to connect 75 million African households by 2025

countries in scaling-up their energy access agendas. “We will keep pushing the ‘offgrid revolution’ on the African continent to achieve universal energy access by 2025,” stated Amadou Hott, vice-president: Power, Energy, Climate Change and Green Growth, AfDB. OGEF has received significant technical and financial support from key partners, namely the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development, the United States Government’s Power Africa initiative and the Shell Foundation. “We see OGEF as a great opportunity for public and private investors to work together to address Africa’s significant energy-access gap. We look forward to working with LHGP, especially the Lagos office, to build a solid portfolio of off-grid energy companies that are improving livelihoods by providing affordable power to under- and unserved communities,” said Wiebe Boer, CEO of Nigeria-based All On, an off-grid energy impact investment company backed by Shell.

fast facts


of the Ethiopian highlands are degraded


IMIESA October 2018

3.75 million

affordable housing units are needed in Nigeria

ETHIOPIA Growing the green economy Ethiopia has received US$100 million credit to bolster its efforts to foster economic development and growth, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve resilience to climate change. The impact of natural resource degradation on Ethiopia’s economy and people’s livelihoods is significant. Almost 50% of the Ethiopian highlands are degraded, with declining productivity costing Ethiopia 2% to 3% of its annual agricultural GDP.

Over the past decade, with support from World Bankfinanced projects including the Sustainable Land Management Project (SLMP), communities throughout Ethiopia have successfully transformed their degraded environment into green and productive land. This has led to better use of water resources, higher yields, improved livelihoods, and greater resilience to weatherrelated shocks. Building on the success of SLMP, the Resilient Landscapes and Livelihoods Project (RLLP) will further promote effective landscape management activities, which will not only increase land productivity but will also contribute to Ethiopia’s Climate Resilient Green Economy strategy. The project will help improve the livelihoods of 3.2 million Ethiopians, particularly those who are vulnerable to climate variability, recurrent drought and floods, and land degradation. Specifically, RLLP will promote sustainable land and water management practices and

The Resilient Landscapes and Livelihoods Project will further promote effective landscape management activities in Ethiopia


Morocco has achieved nearly 100% electricity coverage

$7 billion

Tanzania’s standard gauge railway project will cost US$7 billion

the adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices.

MOROCCO Revolutionising energy in Africa Morocco has emerged as a pioneer in renewable energy in Africa, revolutionising its energy sector, to achieve nearly 100% nationwide supply. In less than 20 years, Morocco has made extraordinary progress to electrify the whole country, including rural areas, which have seen their coverage increase from 18% in the mid 1990s to nearly 100% presently. An impressive feat considering that the country’s demand for electricity has constantly increased by an average of 6% to 7% per year over the last 25 years. This is largely thanks to Morocco’s Global Rural Electrification Programme, which ensured that close to 12.7 million Moroccans had been connected to the grid at the end of 2017, radically transforming the lives of many. The country has implemented several impressive energy projects, mostly notably Noor, the largest concentrated solar power complex in the world. Noor I opened in 2016 with a capacity of 160 MW and more than 500 000 mirrors arranged in rows over 460 ha. Two further

Morocco’s Noor Ouarzazate complex is the largest concentrated solar power complex in the world

thermo-solar power plants, Noor II and Noor III, are due to come on-stream by the end of 2018, with a total capacity of 350 MW. A fourth 70 MW power plant is also under construction, which will bring the total capacity of the Noor Ouarzazate complex to 580 MW. Having achieved an impressive goal, Morocco now aims to convert 52% of its energy needs to renewable power by 2030.

NIGERIA National affordable housing The Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN) and leading labour unions have agreed to begin the implementation of a national affordable housing programme for workers. The housing scheme, which is expected to address the housing requirement of workers in a structured and sustainable manner, will provide safe, quality and affordable housing to registered members of the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC), Trade Union Congress (TUC) and the Nigeria Employers’ Consultative Association (NECA) that contribute to the National Housing Fund (NHF). The demand is estimated to be 3 750 000 housing units, which will include semi-detached bungalows and blocks of onebedroom, two-bedroom, and three-bedroom units in line with

The pilot phase of Nigeria’s affordable housing programme will deliver 2 800 units

local and international social housing models. The pilot phase of the programme aims to deliver 2 800 housing units in 14 sites across the country.

TANZANIA Funding secured for rail expansion Tanzania is set to receive a US$1.46 billion loan for the construction of the second phase of the standard gauge

railway (SGR) from Morogoro to Makutupora. Work is currently under way on the first phase of the SGR project, which runs from Dar es Salaam to Morogoro. According to Finance and Planning Minister Phillip Mpango, the rail will be connected to Makutupora in the second phase and to Isaka and Mwanza in later phases before ultimately reaching Rusumo and Kigali in Rwanda. President John Magufuli laid the foundation stone for the 426 km second phase in March this year, stating that the SGR would create 30 000 direct employment opportunities and 60 000 indirect jobs upon completion. The total cost of the project from Dar es Salaam to Mwanza is estimated at $7 billion. Work on the 422 km first phase from Dar es Salaam to Morogoro is reportedly progressing well.

IMIESA October 2018


Hot Seat

The game changer IMIESA speaks to Dinesh Chaithoo, MD of Chaithoo, about the company’s expanding business model, which includes a growing footprint in Africa for a range of solutions founded on civil engineering design and construction, contract law, and project management. Infrastructure asset management is an overriding focus. What is your current and future business strategy? DC Founded in 2013, Chaithoo is foremost a consulting engineering firm; but, in today’s world, that must dovetail with a broad spectrum of other disciplines, like IT, project management and transaction advisory services. These are all areas in which we currently specialise. In terms of IT, we work with the leading proprietary design packages, in addition to developing our own tailor-made software. In the transaction advisory space, I am one of three locally based practitioners registered

with International Advisory Experts (IAE). This is a global alliance of financial and consulting firms that are committed to providing clients with specialist solutions for their international business requirements, whether from a legal, financial or tax perspective when it comes to transacting in the intercontinental market. That’s a space in which South African companies need to grow, particularly in Africa. To date, I’ve visited the majority of the continent’s 56 countries, so that gives me good insight into current and future opportunities.

Back L-R: Alex Conradie, systems developer; Obey Ngwenya, project manager; Vuledzani Munyai, GIS specialist; Tlaleng Hlophe, personal assistant to MD; Nonhlanhla Ndlovu, tender administrator/OH&S officer; and Rutendo Kahala (tender administrator/quantity surveyor) Front L-R: Ria Chaithoo, “junior intern”; Rika Brijlall, CEO; Dinesh Chaithoo, managing director; Diya Chaithoo, “junior Intern”

My IAE involvement – combined with senior management experience in roads, structures and bridge design with two major global consultancies – has been particularly beneficial. Chaithoo currently has a number of projects on the go in Africa. We also have a registered office in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Among other endeavours, the government of Cameroon has appointed Chaithoo to assist in a transaction advisory capacity regarding infrastructure delivery ahead of their hosting of the 2019 FIFA African Cup of Nations tournament. Roads and bridge design has been a fundamental passion throughout my career, and expertise in this area has resulted in my branching out into forensic

engineering investigations. A past example is an assignment in Christchurch, New Zealand, where I was tasked with assessing the damage caused to municipal infrastructure following a major earthquake in 2010.

What are your thoughts on education? It’s what defines us, and there are no limits with education. I’ve shared my experiences by delivering a number of technical papers locally and internationally, among my peer group, as a registered professional. In addition to this, I feel a responsibility to inspire young engineers, as well as the full spectrum of aspiring artisans and specialist engineering subcontracting trades. For me, education is an absolute passion and my time outside of

Hot Seat

running a growing consultancy is spent making sure that those who have the vision and ability have the chance to grow. I teach mathematics and physical science at our offices next to a local high school, where I place this science in a practical perspective that makes sense: geometry and trigonometry are not purely puzzles to be solved; they, along with many others, are ancient tools that have built everything we see around us. I’ve also been a Unisa lecturer for close to six years, teaching Foundation Engineering IV and Geometric Design IV, and my contract has recently been extended to October 2021. It’s such a rewarding experience to see young learners achieve their full potential.

How would you define entrepreneurial excellence in engineering? Applied experience is the foundation. The rest boils down to innovation. I always say that if you have a dream, pursue it. That’s what I want for Chaithoo: to build a business that leaves behind an enduring legacy of successful outcomes. As civil engineers, we have a social responsibility to build lasting infrastructure. Those of us who’re also entrepreneurs have an additional obligation to assist developing SMME consulting and contracting companies. Many of them are struggling in the current business climate and would

definitely benefit from mentorship and professional advice.

You’ve won a number of global excellence awards. What’s the significance for your business? We’re proud of the awards because they are independent and unbiased endorsements of our successes to date. Winning these awards motivates us to excel. Examples include the Innovation and Excellence Awards 2016 in the UK, where I won in the category Excellence in Engineering Consulting Services – South Africa (Africa and Middle East regions). We also won at the International Advisory Experts Awards 2017 and at the ACQ5 Global Awards 2017 and 2018 (Gamechanger of the Year). Chaithoo won the ACQ5 Global Awards 2018 in the category Consultancy of the Year (Infrastructure Asset Management). We have also received recognition with an award from Advisory Excellence 2018. Most recently, I’ve won the Acquisitions International Leading Advisor Awards 2018 for Leading Civil Engineering Expert of the Year – South Africa. So, we know that our vision and mandates are well aligned. As a mentor and coach, I have always advocated that one should never give up on whatever you aspire to achieve in life.

Is Chaithoo ISO compliant? We are in the process of obtaining our ISO 9001: 2015 certification

and expect this to be awarded in October 2018. The Stage I audit process through SABS was successfully passed on our first attempt. Having ISO 9001 underscores the fact that all our systems are quantifiable and directed towards achieving set outcomes in the most efficient way possible. That’s particularly important when providing an infrastructure advisory, design and project management service.

Why is asset management so critical for sustainable infrastructure delivery? South Africa’s backlog in terms of new infrastructure requirements grows daily. When you add the hundreds of billions of rands required to repair and update existing infrastructure, then the problem can seem insurmountable. It’s not, but it does require a specialist approach so that we can accurately map out existing services, like roads, water, sanitation and electrification, and allocate maintenance budgets and project implementation timelines. That, in turn, needs IT systems that provide a constant flow of data, which can be accurately analysed and interpreted. The source of these smart solutions is often drone technology, as well as mobile apps linked via GSM and/ or GPS. South Africa’s municipalities are urgently in need of technical engineering skills. To address this, the Department of Cooperative

Governance and Traditional Affairs recently started sending technical task teams to assist the worst-affected municipalities. It’s a great start that will help to alleviate construction tender bottlenecks that currently hamper service delivery. On the upside, South Africa’s infrastructure is still the most advanced in Africa and well supported by government funding. However, for many other African countries, a very low tax revenue base often means that the only available funds for infrastructure must be sourced via agencies such as the World Bank or private sector investors linked to industries like mining and agriculture. Either way, once a project matrix has been established, the next steps are design and build, and construction management. Once the structures are completed, though, it’s essential that a comprehensive life-cycle maintenance regime be adhered to. That ensures the best possible return on investment, which will be heavily influenced by the design approach and materials specified up front. For both new and completed projects, real-time IT interfaces between the municipality and asset management specialists will add tremendous value. An example of a custom-built program is a performance-based software tool that continually updates the state of a city’s roads network and compares it against preset data. In South Africa and other African countries, we need to take care of our infrastructure and make sure it lasts.

IMIESA October 2018


Municipal Focus | Nelson Mandela Bay

The Kouga Dam reached levels as low as 6.8%

high-water-user schools, and manage the municipality’s internal water usage. The municipality has also decided to erect billboards across the city to inform residents and business owners of the water consumption in their ward. The billboards, which will be updated on a monthly basis, will reflect the latest consumption levels for the wards and provide practical advice on how to decrease consumption. According to Cllr Masixole Zinto, MMC for Infrastructure and Engineering, this just is one of the municipality’s latest watersaving initiative. “We want to encourage a culture of working together as a ward and advising each other about water reduction methods. The battle against the drought and the water shortage can never be won by ourselves as a municipality. Community members, right there in the wards where they stay, must also make a difference,” said Zinto.



The Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality has faced challenging times, with the removal of Athol Trollip as executive mayor and the ongoing drought affecting the region.


ecent rains have brought some relief to Nelson Mandela Bay and other parts of the Eastern Cape that were said to be nearing a ‘Day Zero’ status. Water levels at Kouga Dam have now risen from a mere 6.8% to a comparatively whopping 30.9%. The last time the dams supplying the municipality were filled to 100% capacity was November 2015. The catchment areas have experienced very low rainfall figures since December 2015, and June 2017 saw the lowest rainfall of the last 20 years, with only 2.5 mm precipitation. In response, the city


IMIESA October 2018

has asked residents to match Cape Town’s consumption restrictions of 50 ℓ per person per day. The municipality also announced that all building contractors must use treated effluent collected from Fishwater Flats (or any other appropriate wastewater treatment works) for all construction other than concrete work. Ousted executive mayor Athol Trollip previously said the municipality would make recycled effluent and untreated groundwater available to contractors and households for non-drinking purposes. He also announced plans to install flow control valves at 50

Funding water projects The municipality is in the process of acquiring substantial loans to fund water projects over the medium term. According to the 2018/19 budget, council has approved water projects to the value of R415 million, which will be funded by external loans. These include pressure management projects as well as meter and pipe replacements. A fur ther R150 million has been approved for major wastewater projects. Together with electricity and energy projects to the value of R185 million, the municipality will acquire a total of R750 million in loans over the next four years.

Revenue deficit One of the pressures the municipality is facing is that the budgeted operating expenditure for the year outweighs the operating revenue.

If the institution fails to collect as planned, that definitely means there may have to be a rethink in terms of expenditure.”

Municipal Focus | Nelson Mandela Bay

According to Trollip, the budget was tabled on the basis of an improved revenue collection rate of 94% in the 2017/18 financial year, although only 92.2% was achieved. For the current financial year, the revenue collection rate is set at 95%. “If the institution fails to collect as planned, that definitely means there may have to be a rethink in terms of expenditure, as a situation whereby expenditure exceeds revenue cannot be allowed to continue, as that will drain the municipality,” the former mayor said upon tabling the budget. He noted the recent report tabled by National Treasury about the continuing culture of non-payment that threatens the

financial stability of municipalities across the country. Minister of Finance Nhlanhla Nene has also raised concerns about the financial health of some municipalities, with instances of institutions not being able to pay their creditors. “We cannot allow such a situation to happen in Nelson Mandela Bay. The collection rate for the 2018/19 financial year is set at 95%. All strategies will have to be adopted or implemented in order to achieve this collection rate, failing which, if the situation is not improving based on the assessment of the first and second quarter of FY 2018/19, the expenditure will have to be either reduced or curtailed, or more discipline be enforced

in our finances in order to avoid any financial disaster,” said Trollip. Specific revenue collection strategies to improve the collection of outstanding consumer debt are being implemented by the municipality. These include a debt relief programme and external capacity to deal with revenue enhancement and the improvement of debt recovery. Cost containment measures are also being implemented to further curb costs and improve operational efficiencies. The total operating revenue for FY 2018/19 has increased by 7.37%, to R10.36 billion. Operating expenditure exceeds this, at R1.38 billion, while total capital expenditure is allocated at R1.74 billion.







Flowtite South Africa’s manufacturing facility in Germiston, Gauteng

Flowtite Technology builds lasting infrastructure


lowtite Technology can trace its history back to the 1960s, when its predecessor, Vera Fabrikker, a Norwegian company, invented the world’s first continuous filament wound pipe. The system was patented in 1967. This paved the way for groundbreaking developments in GRP manufacturing technology and a successive series of proprietary innovations that has maintained Flowtite’s global leadership. Today, Flowtite’s worldwide footprint is represented by a network of international manufacturing facilities. The centre of excellence remains housed at Flowtite Technology’s Sandefjord headquarters in Norway. Flowtite South Africa joined the group as a manufacturing licensee in June 2018, following the acquisition of locally based company Fiberpipe Holdings. The deal was backed by funding from the Industrial Development Corporation, which has identified Flowtite GRP as a highly durable

Flowtite South Africa’s managing director, Bantu Mselana, shares the company’s strategic vision for resurgent growth in glass fibre reinforced pipe (GRP) in key sectors that include water, sanitation and gas pipeline delivery, building on Flowtite™ Technology’s long-established record as a preferred specification for municipal infrastructure worldwide. and cost-competitive solution for South Africa’s pressing infrastructure requirements. Historically, the introduction of Flowtite GRP in South Africa took place in the early 1990s. Locally, GRP was first manufactured by Flowtite Botswana for the Southern African market. The modernday factory, previously owned by Fiberpipe, is currently based in Germiston, Gauteng, and is now being expanded by Flowtite SA. “Growing South Africa’s manufacturing sector is a key macroeconomic priority and, in this respect, Flowtite SA has an important role to play, particularly in terms of boosting local content fabrication and downstream job creation,” says Mselana. “We are proud to say that around 80% of our content is sourced in South Africa, with the exception of the highly specialised glass fibre composites, which are imported.”

Flowtite GRP repositioning A top priority for Flowtite SA is to reposition and reinforce the value of Flowtite GRP, a standard technology globally, but one that has not achieved the same level of penetration it deserves in South Africa. Key reasons for this include misconceptions about GRP as a whole. “Flowtite GRP cannot be placed in this pool of thought, as it is a far superior product that is manufactured under strict controls and quality procedures handed down from Flowtite Technology’s Bantu Mselana, R&D Department in Norway, which managing director, is maintained through our Dekra ISO Flowtite South Africa 9001:2015 certification. Our main aim

is to separate the Flowtite Technology from the misconceptions of other GRP products,” Mselana continues. Flowtite GRP has been proven to beat steel, concrete and HDPE piping systems when it comes to longer-term durability, thanks to features that include its incredible non-corrosive properties. This is underscored by the fact that the typical lifespan for Flowtite GRP is up to 150 years, with minimal maintenance interventions required. Flowtite GRP is inherently flexible and virtually indestructible. Installations are also typically faster and more cost-effective compared to other pipe systems, due to Flowtite GRP’s lighter weight and custom-fit capabilities. The relatively lightweight properties of Flowtite GRP also lend themselves perfectly to labour-intensive construction and SME development, due to the smaller-scale plant required for some installations. “Flowtite Technology is very well established internationally but is still not well understood in South Africa. We’re here to change that and to demonstrate the long-term value of Flowtite GRP,” Mselane continues. “It is common knowledge that the construction industry is under pressure, and budgets are constrained; so, it’s vitally important that the market investigates alternatives. Flowtite SA assists in this respect by providing expert advice on material selection, quantities, training and on-site technical assistance. Maintenance training is also provided on request to maximise return on investment.”

Industry Insight

Flowtite GRP products range in diameters from 300 mm to 1 800 mm and cater for pressures up to 32 bar. Larger diameters – up to 4 m – are also available

such as SANS 1748-1, AWWA C950, EN 1796, EN 14364, ISO 10639, ISO 10467, ASTM D3262, ASTM D3517 and ASTM D3754.

Complete solution

Flowtite Grey

Flowtite GRP Technology systems provide a complete solution and are ideal for mainstream roles like water and sanitation, but the range of applications is virtually limitless and includes desalination, industrial and hydropower projects. A distinctive advantage is that Flowtite SA manufactures each pipe order to meet the exact project requirements. Flowtite SA GRP products range in diameters from 300 mm to 1 800 mm, and cater for pressures up to 32 bar. Larger Flowtite diameters – up to 4 m – are also available. Flowtite also fabricates its own REKA couplings and fittings, which are made to clients’ specifications, and pipes can be cut on-site to fit exact lengths required. Another complementary offering is Flowtite’s manhole series for sewer lines. “We are investing some R120 million in upgrades at the factory so that we can provide 100% quality assurance,” he explains. The current manufacturing output capacity is around 800 m per day, or 5 km per week, with production taking place under strict international quality control standards and is licensed to produce pipes according to standards

New products being introduced include Flowtite Grey high-impact GRP, which takes durability to a new level. Flowtite Grey provides up to 10 times higher impact resistance than standard Flowtite GRP, and is also more resistant to abrasion and water jet. Higher impact resistance enables engineers to use larger backfill particles (up to 64 mm), including crushed rock, which lowers construction costs; improved abrasion resistance enables the fluid transfer of heavier loads of suspended solids. “Standard Flowtite GRP is very robust; Flowtite Grey takes this to an unprecedented level, and we are introducing it as an alternative,” says Mselane. “This will further counter misunderstandings in the market that Flowtite GRP needs to be handled differently from other pipe systems in terms of its strength. Flowtite Grey will withstand the rigours of any construction market and forms part of our focus on driving imports into Africa.” Within Southern Africa, Flowtite GRP continues to form critical networks. A landmark project is Botswana’s North-South Carrier pipeline project, designed to transport raw water to Gaborone over a distance of approximately 360 km. Locally, Flowtite GRP applications include water pipelines in Mthatha, Eastern Cape, as part of the King Sabata Dalindyebo Presidential Intervention project, which is ongoing. Flowtite SA is also currently active in the Western Cape, Free State, Limpopo and neighbouring countries Zimbabwe and Namibia. “The market has responded very positively to the launch of Flowtite SA and we’re excited about working with public and private sector stakeholders to roll out the unique value our GRP offers,” Mselane concludes.

Table 1 Key advantages of Flowtite GRP

Characteristic Corrosion-resistant Lightweight Standard lengths, 12 m Smooth bore Superior hydraulic characteristics

Precision Flowtite REKA coupling

Flexible manufacturing process

Advanced technology pipe design

Advantage - long service life - low transportation cost - no expensive handling equipment - fewer joints – reduced installation time - low friction loss - lower operating costs - low flow coefficient - minimal slime build-up - excellent abrasion resistance - tight joints designed to eliminate infiltration/ exfiltration - ease of joining reduces installation time - accommodates slight deflection in line direction without additional fittings - custom diameters can be manufactured to provide maximum flow volumes with easy installation for sliplining projects - custom lengths can be manufactured - multiple pressure and stiffness classes to meet engineers’ design criteria

IMIESA October 2018


Water technologies that improve lives

For more information, please contact: Dikgang Nkwashu T +27 82 334 6743 E

Partners in Infrastructure

Future guaranteed Realising that people and technology have the power to address water insecurity South Africa is changing rapidly and so is the relationship between the government and the citizens it serves. Global pressures, economic uncertainties, environmental challenges and increasing demands for service delivery have never been greater. By Mokgosi Mokgosi, NEXTEC Water Technologies


ublic infrastructure is the bedrock of the economy and represents an enormous investment of our nation’s collective wealth. It provides a platform for growth and prosperity, and supports the kind of environment in which we expect to live in the 21st century: safe, healthy and with opportunities to prosper. When it is well planned, implemented and maintained, we all benefit. Its management can, however, be complex, requiring blended solutions that draw on social, financial, economic, engineering, property, planning and many other skills. The right balance between people, processes and technology yields the greatest results. NEXTEC helps governments to better serve citizens, control costs, future-proof and achieve operational excellence. We do this through digital infrastructure solutions that combine asset management, spatial planning, revenue and demand management with energy and water security solutions. Water insecurity (due to climate change, population growth, agricultural and industrial use) is one the greatest challenges of our generation and threatens the livelihoods of millions of people. According to the World Economic Forum, demand for water is expected to exceed supply by 40% by 2030; water security has never been so critical. Therefore, we must find innovative ways to

reuse and save water. The technologies, financing mechanisms and delivery models needed to address this challenge already exist. What is lacking, though, is scale and collaboration. NEXTEC’s Water Technology business focuses on optimising the available water supply, reclamation and replenishment techniques and encouraging good water stewardship. By providing the right blend of people, processes and technology, we deliver solutions for a water-secure world. Access to clean water means education, income and health – especially for women and children.

A new age The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) is here and it holds great potential for improving how we manage all sorts of challenges. The ways 4IR can support water security have not yet been fully explored. This should, however, not prevent us from using what is available to us today. By combining the internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI) and other smart city and environment technologies, we enable greater water security. We improve infrastructure per formance, reliability and visibility – all at a lower maintenance cost. In most cases, we can retrofit IoT systems that, in turn, allow municipalities to improve service delivery. We use Blockchain technology to change

how we manage water resources. Everyone – from individual households to agriculture, industry consumers and government – can access the same data to make informed decisions on water quality and use. Narrowly missing Cape Town’s Day Zero is a stark reminder of how water basins throughout the world are under severe pressure. Again, we already have the tools available to track and mitigate water-related risks. Satellite imagery, remote sensing, IoT, AI and other advanced technologies will enable us to detect water basin risks earlier. Even financing mechanisms (like SPVs), which are essential to the success of bringing infrastructure to scale, leverage 4IR technologies like IoT and AI. Water emergencies are often the result of people failing to appreciate the value of reliable water provision. At present, governance is failing to ensure that value is allocated productively and equitably. In addition, infrastructure is failing to deliver. The key to solving water problems, even before they happen, is strong partnerships with government, industry and society at large. NEXTEC’s approach to partnership allows for risk-sharing to achieve the outcomes that will make a real difference. By implementing innovative digital infrastructure solutions now, we help municipalities to be ready for ‘the next’ – creating a sustainable future for all.

IMIESA October 2018


Partners in Infrastructure

The answer to infrastructure delivery Municipalities face many challenges when it comes to implementing infrastructure projects, presenting a significant opportunity for design, build and operate (DBO) contracts. By Danielle Petterson


he current procurement model in South Africa means contracts are typically awarded on a lowest-cost basis, where a firm of engineers is contracted to provide designs and administration, and the successful contractor is responsible to construct the required infrastructure project and remedy defects for a limited period of time. According to Euan Massey, director, MDA Attorneys, this increases the risk of designs being underdeveloped or incomplete, which can lead to variations and defects during construction, increasing costs and causing delay. Added to this, the construction of the project relies on the upfront allocation of funds from National Treasury. This means that projects are constructed when budget can be allocated – not when infrastructure is needed. “We have been involved in several contracts where budgeting is a major issue and the pace of the execution is not guided by a defined contract period, but rather by how much money the municipality has in any particular budgeted year, resulting in


IMIESA October 2018

projects being done on a year-by-year basis, as the money becomes available. Projects that should have taken three years can end up taking eight,” says Massey. The employer is also reliant on the contractor for training in order to operate the plant, which takes place typically at the end of construction for a limited number of operating personnel. Invariably, this training is insufficient and/or the trained personnel take up other positions, compounding poor maintenance and operations, reducing the infrastructure’s lifespan. DBO contracts, however, offer a solution to these challenges by shifting the responsibility for designing, building and operating the required infrastructure to the private sector. Given the poor state of most wastewater treatment plants in South Africa, Massey believes this is a very promising area for these types of contracts.

DBO contracts explained A DBO contract is a procurement strategy where a single contractor is appointed to

design and construct a plant that it will also go on to operate for a predetermined period. The operations phase is typically for lengthy periods of around 15 to 20 years with specified handover requirements. This offers many advantages to the public entity by placing most of the risk on the contractor. The contractor is responsible for maintaining the plant during the operations phase and ensuring that it remains fit for purpose and in good working order when handed back. According to Massey, the strategy is flexible and can be arranged so that the contractor fully or partly finances the design and construction phase and is reimbursed during the operations phase. This flexibility allows plants to be constructed based on demand and not when they are budgeted for or when funding becomes available. Furthermore, the long-term nature of these contracts makes them attractive to financiers, explains Massey. DBO contracts also require one contractor to be appointed rather than multiple contractors or

Partners in Infrastructure

professionals, making the project easier to manage for the municipality. Significantly, the defects liability remains with this contractor for the duration of the operations phase. By being responsible for operating the plant, the contractor will also take into account the total cost of ownership when designing the plant, which often introduces efficiencies and reduces construction time. “These contracts are typically structured in such a way that the real revenue commences on commissioning of the works. So there is an added incentive for contractors to expedite construction so that they can start turning over revenue,” explains Massey.

Standard-form contracts According to Massey, standard-form DBO contracts can be amended to address specific skills requirements in terms of longterm community participation, skills transfer and the general upliftment of communities. There are two relevant standard-form contracts currently available in South Africa, namely the ‘FIDIC Conditions for Design Build Operate Projects, First Edition (2008)’, and the ‘NEC4 DBO Contract’. These contracts typically require significant amendments to accurately specify the employer’s requirements

and ensure the standard-form mechanisms are appropriate. “One of the shortcomings of these contracts is that the people who put the contracts together don’t always recognise their longterm nature. If the requirements are not precisely specified, there can be problems down the road,” says Massey. Bespoke contracts are also an option and while they do require a lot of work, they offer the advantage of being designed to address both parties’ needs and requirements.

Current framework DBO contracts share many traits with PPPs and are therefore governed by National Treasury Regulation 16, which defines a PPP. Section 120 of the Municipal Finance Management Act (No. 56 of 2003; MFMA) also provides for PPPs. According to section 120, municipalities may enter into PPPs where they provide value for

money to the municipality, are affordable to the municipality, or transfer appropriate technical, operational and financial risk to the private party. Although there is a big question mark around whether municipalities have the skills and capacity to manage PPPs, there are provisions within the MFMA that allow municipalities to rely on national resources in managing them, explains Massey.

Are DBO contracts the answer? Massey warns that DBO contracts are not always suited to brownfield projects. They also require contractual mechanisms, such as audit committees and dispute avoidance boards, to be properly implemented and maintained, or the contract could fail. Cooperation is crucial, owing to the long-term nature of these contracts. A breakdown in the relationship between the parties could lead to the contract being terminated. However, if properly structured, Massey believes DBO contracts can address the current budgetary constraints, skills shortages and lack of adequate maintenance, and ensure the long-term sustainability of infrastructure. “The current constraints will not be addressed if there is no change. The current procurement model needs to be disrupted and DBO contracts provide a good opportunity for this.”

IMIESA October 2018


Integrating municipal operations

Improving service delivery, addressing revenue protection

GISCOE has been pioneering integrated, spatially enabled, business-process-driven enterprise systems in the municipal domain over the last 15 years.


hese systems have been shown to encapsulate the historical knowledge and experience of the municipal business process, thus empowering the municipality to deliver excellent services across the board from gathered knowledge. Furthermore, these systems increase municipalities’ capability for faster and better service delivery while

reducing costs and automating the significant administrative burden, thereby freeing up staff’s time and empowering them to provide better services to customers. GISCOE’s solutions are based on standard, tried and tested, commercial off-the-shelf products, which conform to local standards. The systems are fully configurable to cater for each municipality’s specific requirements

without a serious re-programming exercise. Furthermore, all data is stored in an open format so that municipalities are not dependent on proprietary solutions. All information is stored in a standard structure after being collected and verified using digital technology. This enables sophisticated analyses to be done, improving operational efficiency and addressing revenue protection. These systems enable municipalities to operate more efficiently while lowering costs and empowering staff to make smarter, betterinformed decisions, which improve services across all departments.

Partners in Infrastructure

Sabita listing Title Initials

Last Name


Postal Address

Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Ms Mr Mr Ms Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr


Kemp Pelser Agenbag Weidemann Bonser Broom Pegge Lehman Browne Webb Pienaar Grindley Robertson Nelson Botha Smith Ngcobo Van Niekerk Greyling Hill Neal Ricketts Ballantyne Groenewald Theron King Venter Lehoko

Actop Asphalt (Pty) Ltd Actophambili Roads (Pty) Ltd Advanced Polymers (Pty) Ltd AECOM SA (PTY) LTD Afrisam Sa (Pty) Ltd AJ Broom Road Products cc Amandla GCF Construction cc Ammann Construction Machinery SA Anton Paar Southern Africa Aqua Transport & Plant Hire (Pty) Ltd ASPASA/SARMA Astec-Technology (Pty) Ltd Aurecon Bituguard SA Bitumen Supplies & Services (Pty) Ltd Bitumen World (Pvt) Ltd Black Asphalts and Liquids BSM Laboratories (Pty) Ltd BVi Consulting Eng. WC (Pty) Ltd Cape Laboratory Equipment Cape Peninsula University of Technology Chevron South Africa (Pty) Ltd CIM Chemicals (Pty) Ltd Colas South Africa (Pty) Ltd Concor Infrastructure Dick King Lab Supplies (Pty) Ltd DMV Harrismith (Pty) Ltd Dubang Roads & Environmental Solutions

PO Box 16661 PO Box 16661 PO Box 742 PO Box 3173 PO Box 6367 PO Box 16421 PO Box 6064 Suite 253, Private Bag X43 PO Box 50471 Private Bag X11 PO Box 1983 PO Box 140 PO Box 494 Cambridge Street 32 PO Box 1028 PO Box AY 20 PO Box 134 PO Box 15318 PO Box, 86 PO Box 20244 ABC Building, 1st Floor, Symphony Way 5 Century Boulevard Postnet Suite 479 P/Bag X29 PO Box 1007 PO Box 585 PO Box 82138 PO Box 912 PO Box 782

Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Ms Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr Mr


Ntombela McKune La Grange Brown Moffett Cilliers Hattingh Moshoane Henning Bradley Laatz Clunnie Bechan Mzinyane Tinarwo Mukandila Van Niekerk Olivier Tyndall James Wills Barnard Van Reenen Berning Moodley Adande Reusch

Dupont De Nemours Int SA Durban University of Technology EFG Engineers (Pty) Ltd Gavin Brown & Associates GIBB (Pty) Ltd Gladafrica Consulting Eng. (Pty) Ltd GMH/Tswelelo Consulting Engineers Green Asphalt (Pty) Ltd GT Designs & Technologies Hatch Goba (Pty) Ltd HHO Africa IMESA Impact Chemicals (Pty) Ltd Industrial Oleochemical Products Instant Tar Surfaces iX engineers (Pty) Ltd Javseal (Pty) Ltd JG Afrika (Pty) Ltd Kantey and Templer (Pty) Ltd Kaymac (Pty) Ltd T/A Kaytech Kraton Polymers Nederland BV Leo Consulting Letaba Lab (Pty) Ltd Liesen Bitumen (Pty) Ltd Masana Petroleum Solutions (Pty) Ltd Mdubane Energy Services (Pty) Ltd Milling Techniks (Pty) Ltd


Atlasville Atlasville Gallo Manor Pretoria Weltevreden Park Dowerglen Welgemoed Rynfield, Benoni Randjiesfontein Ashwood Ruimsig Rothdene Cape Town Bethlehem Sunninghill Harare, Zimbabwe Edendale Westmead Century City Big Bay Bellville Century City Gallo Manor Krugersdorp Bedfordview Southdale Harrismith Melrose Arch, Gauteng PO Box 3332 Halfway House PO Box 101112 Pietermaritzburg PO Box 3800 Durbanville 24 Botanic Grove Berea PO Box 3965 Cape Town PO Box 3893 Cape Town PO Box 2201 Randburg Stand 541, Road D1660, Cyferskuil C Moreleta, North West Unit 6 Sugarbush Plce, 10 Sugarbush Cres Pinetown PO Box 25401 Gateway, Durban PO Box 6503 Roggebaai PO Box 2190 Westville PO Box 30792 Kyalami PO Box 12080 Jacobs, Durban PO Box 17219 Norkem Park PO Box 22 Menlyn PO Box 28041 Malvern PO Box 1109 Sunninghill PO Box 3132 Cape Town PO Box 116 Pinetown PO Box 201636 Durban North PO Box 32798 Totiusdal PO Box 739 White River Postnet Suite 228, P/Bag X9063 East London PO Box 1085 Saxonwold 214 9th Avenue Morningside, Durban PO Box 779 Gillits

Postal Code 1465 1465 2052 0001 1715 1612 7534 1500 1683 3605 1732 1964 8000 9701 2157 3217 3608 7446 7448 7530 7441 2052 1740 2008 2135 9880 2076 1635 3209 7551 4001 8000 8000 2125 0483 3608 4321 8012 3630 1684 4026 1631 0063 4055 2157 8000 3600 4016 0135 1240 5200 2132 4001 3603

IMIESA October 2018


Partners in Infrastructure

Sabita listing (cont.) Title Initials Last Name


Postal Address


Mr Mr Mr Mr


Burger Peringuey Uys Greyling

Mmila Civils & Traffic Services (Pty) Ltd More Asphalt (Pty) Ltd Mott Macdonald Africa (Pty) Ltd Much Asphalt (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 40158 PO Box 2180 PO Box 7786 PO Box 49

Faerie Glen Durbanville Roggebaai Eersterivier

Postal Code 0043 7550 8012 7103




N3 Toll Concession (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 67166

Highveld Park





Nadeson Consulting Services

PO Box 51121

V&A Waterfront





Naidu Consulting (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 2796

Westway Office Park





Namibia Technical Services cc

PO Box 30623, Pioneers Park





Nathoo Mbenyane Engineers

PO Box 47595






National Asphalt

PO Box 1657





Van der Wat

Nelson Mandela University

Dept Civil Eng. Block C, Room C210





Nolans Earthworks & Plant cc

PO Box 28617

Summerstrand Campus Haymarket




Outeniqua Lab (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 3186

George Industria





Polokwane Surfacing (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 288






Power Group (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 129






Pride Lab Equipment (Pty) Ltd

3 Van Eyck Crescent

De La Haye, Bellville





Puma Energy Services Sa (Pty) Ltd

15 Alice Lane, 3rd Floor






Raetex Industries

1550 Tiburon Boulevard, Suite B1

Tiburon, California





Rand Roads (a div of Grinaker-LTA) Ltd

Cnr Jurgens Street & Jet Park Road

Jet Park, Boksburg





Rankin Engineering Consultants

PO Box 50566

Lusaka, Zambia




Raubex (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 3722






Raubex KZN (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 10302






Reliance Lab Equip (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 911-489






Rettenmaier South Africa (Pty) Ltd

Building 4, Quodrum Office Park





Road Material Stabilisers (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 84513






ROMH Consulting (Pty) Ltd

Whitby Manor Office Park, 14th Rd

Noordwyk, Midrand





Royal HaskoningDHV

PO Box 867

Gallo Manor





Salphalt (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 234







PO Box 8379






Sasol Chemicals, a div of Sasol SA (Pty) Ltd The Marine Building, 22 Gardner Street Durban





Sasol Energy (a div of Sasol SA) (Pty)

PO Box 5486






Shell Downstream SA (Pty) Ltd

6 Ipivi Road






SMEC South Africa (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 72927

Lynnwood Ridge





Specialised Road Technolgies (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 15324

Westmead, Pinetown




Spraypave (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 674





Jansen van Vuuren Prinsloo

Tau Pele Construction (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 13125






Tekfalt Binders (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 531






Tosas (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 14159






Total SA (Pty) Ltd

3 Biermann Ave






TPA Consulting (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 1575




Tshepega Engineering (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 33783



Prof WJVDM Steyn

University of Pretoria, Dept of Civil Eng

Lynnwood Road



Prof KJ


Stellenbosch University

Private Bag X1






Worldwide Tanks On Hire cc

PO Box 2250






WSP Group Africa (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 98867

Sloane Park





Zebra Surfacing (Pty) Ltd

PO Box 14335






Zimile Consulting Engineers

Postnet Suite 252, P/Bag X11

Halfway House





Zydex Industries Pvt Ltd

G1 Gotri Sevsai Rd, Sevasi Vadudara

Gujarat, India


Prof GJ


IMIESA October 2018


CESA Awards

CESA Awards

The best in engineering

The 2018 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards aimed to create legacies and honour legends, as it brought together built environment professionals to reward outstanding work in the consulting engineering industry.


his year’s awards, hosted by Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA) and sponsored by Aon South Africa, received close to 50 submissions and served to recognise the engineering excellence provided by CESA’s member companies. “It is necessary, in times like these, to celebrate engineering excellence and, even more so, that we showcase what our industry is capable of and ready to deliver when the good times return,” said Chris Campbell, CEO, CESA. Speaking at this year’s event, Meggyn Marot, business unit manager: Africa, Aon, highlighted the importance of the work undertaken by South Africa’s engineers. “The gravity and everlasting effects of an engineer’s work on a society should never be overlooked. As challenging as the environment may be, you have achieved success by being out there, being at the forefront, and having a clear plan about what the eventualities might be,” she said. The project entries and winners are as follows:

Projects with a value greater than R250 million Winner: Construction of the Cape Flats 3 Bulk Sewer – Phase 2 | AECOM The successful construction of the Cape Flats 3 Bulk Sewer – Phase 2 (CF3-2) provides the final link in the City of Cape Town’s strategic Cape Flats bulk sewerage system. The CF3-2 is a 1 000 mm diameter ductile-iron rising main with a design capacity of 1.3 m3/s. This project stands out because of its innovative design aspects, such as the inclusion of a barometric loop with vortex drop structure, and state-of-the-art construction methods, including microtunnelling. The 5 km route traverses a densely populated area of Cape Town. Sections of the pipeline needed to be constructed through busy roadways and in close proximity to existing buildings and services. Microtunnelling was used to install a total of 1 200 m of the pipeline using a Herrenknecht tunnel boring machine. Commendation: Upgrade of the N11 Section 10 from Middelburg to Loskop Dam | HHO Consulting

The N11 section 10 from Middelburg to Loskop Dam passes through spectacular mountain scenery en route to Limpopo. The road upgrade was needed due to the deteriorating condition of the narrow 7.0 m surfaced roadway. The upgraded roadway is 12.4 m wide over most of its length. In the Kranspoort Pass, the roadway is wider, allowing for four lanes. One of the main objectives of the project was to include safety features in the pass, as many lives have been lost in this dangerous section of the route. Safety features provided on the project included the straightening-out of tight bends, the installation of two arrestor beds, as well as the provision of concrete barriers. Other entries: • Gamsberg 4 Mtpa Zinc Mine – Tailings Storage Facility | Knight Piésold Consulting • Western Aqueduct Phase 2 – Inchanga to Hillcrest (contracts WS6190 and WS6191) | Western Aqueduct JV – Knight Piésold Consulting, Royal HaskoningDHV and Naidu Consulting

Lifetime Industry Achievement Award In celebration of Nelson Mandela’s centenary year, CESA expanded the award’s categories to include ‘The Lifetime Industry Achievement Award’. This discretionary award recognises an individual who has contributed significantly to the development and promotion of the consulting engineering industry in South Africa during their lifetime. This year, the award was posthumously given to Ivor Evans, one of CESA’s past presidents who spent his career serving the industry with enthusiasm and passion.

Projects with a value between R50 million and R250 million winner Aurecon IMIESA October 2018


CESA Awards Projects with a value less than R50 million winner Hatch Africa

Projects with a value of between R50 million and R250 million Winner: Sol Plaatje University Library and Student Resources Centre | Aurecon The Sol Plaatje University Library and Student Resources Centre is the focal point of the first newly built public university in the Northern Cape. It is also a rapidly expanding node that has also become a catalyst for the rejuvenation of the surrounding Kimberley CBD. The project pushed the boundaries of architectural and engineering design to be visually striking, yet perfectly blend in with the surrounding buildings. The library is draped in a seamless in situ concrete shell, which takes on a strong, angular, diamond-like shape, reminiscent of the gem that helped put Kimberley on the world map in 1870. The floating façade walls, raised 2.4 m off the ground and separated from the concrete floor slabs, are the design highlight of the project. Commendation: Grayston Pedestrian Bridge | Royal HaskoningDHV In excess of 10 000 people make their way across the busy M1 highway in Johannesburg from Alexandra township to their jobs in Sandton daily. The Grayston Pedestrian Bridge now provides safe and convenient pedestrian and cyclist access into Sandton, literally bridging the gap between two communities while creating a visual gateway into the economic hub of the country. The 289 m long cable-stayed bridge has eight spans with a continuous post-tensioned concrete box girder deck. The main span is supported along its centre line by cable stays, which are supported by a concrete pylon with a height of 54 m above deck level. The pylon, in turn, is supported by backstay cables anchored into the ground.

and Clovelly Road, Clovelly – Phase 3 | Knight Piésold Consulting The scenic 4.5 km stretch of coastal road between Muizenberg and Clovelly had last been resurfaced in 1994 and was designed to last approximately 10 years. Due to the complexity of the route, the project was undertaken in three phases, of which the Atlantic Road to Casa Labia and Kalk Bay Harbour to Clovelly Road would make up Phase 3. A key factor in the design of this project was that all services had to remain fully functional and that Main Road had to be able to accommodate traffic at all times during construction. This required the utilisation of very innovative techniques, as all components had to be constructed in an extremely confined space. Other entries: • Rehabilitation of Black-Mac and Macassar Sewer Infrastructure | Aurecon • Rehabilitation and Addition of the Third Lane of the N2 between Borcherds Quarry Road (M22) and Swartklip Interchange (R300) | HHO Consulting • Project Sunrise | Bosch Projects • Watervalspruit Phases 1 and 2 Mega Housing Development | Infraconsult Engineering • Foskor Selati Tailings Storage Facility – New Decant Tower | Knight Piésold Consulting • Hilton Water Reticulation Replacement | Naidu Consulting • Restoration of the Old Granary Building | Royal HaskoningDHV • Construction of the Tugela River Bridge – Nyakana | Naidu Consulting

Projects with a value of less than R50 million Winner: Tugela River Pedestrian Bridge | Hatch Africa The new Tugela River Pedestrian Bridge is a landmark structure that forms part of the Pedestrian Bridge Programme, which seeks to redress past imbalances in historically impoverished communities. The bridge, with an overall length of 180 m and towers that are nearly 27 m high, was opened to the public in June 2017 as the first

pedestrian steel suspension bridge in Mvumase, Maphumulo District, KwaZulu-Natal. Prior to the construction of the bridge, community members had to put themselves in danger by removing all clothing and valuables and wading crossed the 150 m wide Tugela River. Local residents now have dignified and safe access to essential amenities and work opportunities. Commendation: Tongati River Bridge widening | Naidu Consulting In order to accommodate the increased capacity of the upgraded Main Road P714, the existing bridge over the Tongati River needed to be widened. It was discovered that the existing piers had adequate strength to anchor an extension on to them, but the existing deck had to be replaced to accommodate the increased load capacity. The designer opted to replace the deck with precast panels and widen the substructure. The abutments were conventionally widened, while the pier widenings were undertaken by means of a combination of dowels and diagonal stressed dywidag bars embedded into the existing piers. This selected method removed the need to install piles for the pier widening. Utilisation of this widening method provided major carbon footprint reductions as opposed to conventional systems. Other entries: • Residential property at 145 Kloof Road | JG Afrika • Groot Marico River Bridge Repairs | JG Afrika

Best International Project Winner: Sydney Metro Cable Stayed Bridge | SMEC South Africa Located in the north-west part of Sydney, Australia, this unique, curved, three-span, cablestayed rail bridge forms the tail end of a 4.5 km elevated viaduct that is part of the new Sydney North West Metro. Curved, cable-stayed bridges are rare, and curved, cable-stayed rail bridges even rarer. The

Commendation: Rehabilitation of Main Road between Atlantic Road, Muizenberg


Best international project winner SMEC South Africa IMIESA October 2018

CESA Awards conceptualisation, detail design and construction of this bridge presented huge technical challenges that went beyond conventional cablestayed practice and technology. The deck superstructure was first built as a seven-span continuous girder on temporary supports using an overhead self-launching gantry. Thereafter, the bridge was converted into a three-span, cable-stayed bridge and the temporary supports were removed. This project has proven that longer suspended, precast, segmental bridges can be erected using conventional erection methods. Commendation: Von Bach Dam Asphaltic Seal Replacement | Knight Piésold Consulting The Von Bach Dam is the backbone of the water supply for Windhoek, Namibia. After a three-year drought, the dam storage volume reached 10% – its lowest water level in 20 years. This provided an ideal window of opportunity to rehabilitate the deteriorated asphaltic seal, which forms the watertight membrane of the dam. The unique type of seal structure demanded a best-practice approach during the design phase, since design guidelines on hydraulic asphalt seals are based on an empirical approach. Time was of the essence for the project team,

and the entire project, including demobilising the specialised construction plant in Europe, shipping it to Namibia, establishing equipment on-site, and completing the work was done in just three months.

Commendation: Knight Piésold Consulting Other entries: • AECOM • Nyeleti Consulting

Business Excellence Other entries: • Massingir Dam Rehabilitation Project | Aurecon South Africa • Kariba South Expansion Project | Hatch Africa

Winner: Knight Piésold Consulting Commendation: BVi Consulting Engineers Other entries: • Naidu Consulting

Young Engineer of the Year

Small Company of the Year

Winner: Shamiso Kumbirai | Aurecon Commendation: Ntseuoa Motsieloa | Nyeleti Consulting Other entries: • Disele Mathabatha | Nyeleti Consulting • Loyiso Morrison | Bosch Projects • Phuti Sekoaila | Nyeleti Consulting • Sabata Malope | Nyeleti Consulting • Winston Nxumalo | Jones & Wagener

Winner: Infraconsult Engineering

Visionary Client of the Year Winner: Sanral

Publisher of the Year Winner Trade Publications: Crown Publications Winner Daily Newspapers: Tiso Blackstar Group

CESA Branch of the Year Mentor of the Year

Winner: Limpopo

• Winner: Graham Jennings | Knight Piésold Consulting

Job Shadow & Poster Initiative

Mentoring Company of the Year Winner: Naidu Consulting

Winner: Knight Piésold Consulting 1st runner up: UWP Consulting 2nd runner up: Hatch Africa



Power and Energy

Management Services

Water and Environment Urban Development

A Multi-disciplinary Construction & Civil Engineering Company

Murray & Dickson Construction (Pty) Ltd Tel: +27 (0)11 463 1962 E-mail: w w w. m d c o n s t r u c t i o n . c o . z a

Offices: Johannesburg, Durban, Cape Town, Kimberley, Rustenburg, Nelspruit, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth & Mauritius

CESA Awards

A concrete masterpiece

The Sol Plaatje University Library and Student Resources Centre, constructed by Murray & Dickson Construction, took home the 2018 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Award for projects with a value of between R50 million and R250 million.


ituated in Kimberley, a historic mining city that has felt the effects of disinvestment in recent years, the Sol Plaatje University (SPU) Library and Student Resources Centre (the Library) is the focal point of the first newly built public university in the Northern Cape. It is also a rapidly expanding node that has also become a catalyst for the rejuvenation of the surrounding Kimberley CBD. SPU appointed Aurecon to provide structural, civil, electrical, fire and wet services for the Library, situated in the heart of the new central campus district, to the south of the student square. The project pushed the boundaries of architectural and engineering design to be visually striking, yet perfectly blend in with the surrounding buildings. The Library is draped in a seamless in situ concrete shell, which takes on a strong, angular, diamond-like shape, reminiscent of the gem that helped put Kimberley on the world map in 1870. The floating faรงade walls, raised 2.4 m off the ground and separated

from the concrete floor slabs, are the design highlight of the project. The slenderness, off-shutter finish and eccentric steel suppor ts demanded considerable research, precision and outof-the-box thinking from the project team, especially given the isolated and constrained construction market in Kimberley. The project team was under immense pressure to get the design right the first time, as any necessary repairs would have damaged the off-shutter concrete aesthetics. To mitigate this risk, a large (to-scale) sample wall and sloping roof section were constructed to test the geometry, design, proposed construction joint preparation strategy, formwork panel alignment, tiethrough hole options, material workability and vibration techniques to ensure proper compaction and surface finishing. Design work started in August 2014, with construction commencing in October 2015 and reaching completion in November 2017. The Library opened to students in March 2018.

Project Team Client: University of Witwatersrand & Sol Plaatje University Architect: designworkshop : sa Consulting engineer: Aurecon Main contractor: Murray & Dickson Construction

IMIESA October 2018


Quality people who provide quality specialised services:

CESA Awards

CESA’s young company of the year Infraconsult Engineering was recognised as the Small Company of the Year at the 2018 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards.


nfraconsult Engineering is a small firm consisting of approximately 15 full-time staff members. The 51% black-owned, Level 2 BBBEE company has an excellent 25-year track record in civil and structural engineering projects, and is currently working on the Water valspruit mega housing development. This will consist of approximately 15 500 residential stands to be ser viced with civil engineering and electrical engineering internal and bulk ser vices over a period of 8 to 10 years. Infraconsult Engineering is passionate about introducing young learners to engineering and science, and has consistently taken par t in the annual CESA Job Shadow Day for more than 10 consecutive years. The company was presented with an Award of Recognition by CESA in 2014, for its continuous commitment to the development of young professionals. The firm has been actively involved in the final-year civil engineering programme at the University of Johannesburg’s Civil

Engineering Department over the past five years and, through this involvement, has employed five young graduates from the university, and provided them with training and skills development. A total of 60% of Infraconsult’s current engineering and technical staff members are youth. Infraconsult Engineering’s Quality Management System is ISO 9001:2015 certified. Infraconsult Engineering’s niche market is the design and implementation of civil municipal engineering ser vices. Over the years, the company has continuously improved its operational effectiveness in this sector and strategically increased its footprint by par tnering with both private and public sector clients. The firm has sustained lasting relationships with these clients through continuous commitment to provide goodquality and value-for-money professional ser vice. The result is a core base of loyal clients, which ultimately assists in the company’s ongoing sustainability.

Notable projects Infraconsult Engineering has completed several significant civil and structural engineering projects over the last five years. These include: Watervalspruit mega housing project: principal agent, project management, design and construction supervision for civil engineering services for ±15 500 affordable residential stands for Cosmopolitan Projects. Ridge Ext. 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30 and 31: principal agent, project management, design and construction supervision of ±12 000 affordable residential stands for Kiron. As-and-when appointment of consulting engineers for design, project management and construction supervision of roads and stormwater networks in various areas of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality. Construction of a new community hall in Grassland for Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality. Improvement of bulk stormwater infrastructure in the Buurendal, Harmelia and Croydon areas for Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality. The upgrading of Styx Road and associated stormwater in Actonville for Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality.




4 5 6

IMIESA October 2018


CESA Awards

A trenchless innovation


he Cape Flats 3 Bulk Sewer – Phase 2 (CF3-2) provides the final link in the City of Cape Town’s strategic Cape Flats bulk sewerage system. The project took the most prestigious spot at the 2018 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards, as the winner for projects with a value greater than R250 million. The CF3-2, designed by AECOM and constructed by CSV Construction, is a 1 000 mm diameter ductile-iron rising main with a design capacity of 1.3 m3/s. This project stands out because of its innovative design aspects, such


IMIESA October 2018

as the inclusion of a barometric loop with vortex drop structure, and state-of-the-art construction methods, including microtunnelling. The 5 km route traverses a densely populated area of Cape Town. Sections of the pipeline needed to be constructed through busy roadways and in close proximity to existing buildings and services. Microtunnelling was used to install a total of 1 200 m of the pipeline using a Herrenknecht tunnel boring machine (TBM) – the first of its kind to be owned and operated by a Southern African company.

The recent innovation of ductile-iron jacking pipes meant that the pressurised product pipe could be installed using the TBM without the need for a sleeve. This was a cost-effective and technically efficient solution, which was employed for the first time on South African soil.

Project Team Client: City of Cape Town Consulting engineer: AECOM Contractor: CSV Construction

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Roads & Bridges

Precision depends on data Advances in lab testing equipment are pushing the boundaries of modern-day bituminous designs, with Much Asphalt recently commissioning a new state-of-the art facility that meets world-class standards.


uch Asphalt’s new Gauteng Regional Laboratory was built and refitted at the company’s Benoni plant over a two-year period to improve testing and working conditions, and accommodate more advanced equipment suited to changing requirements. “New equipment includes a multitude of devices for both bitumen and asphalt performance testing,” says Joanne Muller, manager: Gauteng Regional Laboratory. “The upgrade enables our Gauteng lab to explore additional engineering and performance data to improve control over risks in asphalt design and production. It also means we can provide clients with betterquality information to make informed decisions on mix type selection for more cost-effective/ longer-lasting solutions.” The Gauteng lab has been operating for many years, but changes in specifications and more sophisticated testing procedures necessitated an expansion and overhaul. The new facility also reduces the need to outsource testing and designs required by new protocols. The lab serves the needs of Much Asphalt’s inland branches, including Pomona, Polokwane, Benoni, Eikenhof, Roodepoort and Witbank, as well as Mthatha and Bloemfontein further afield. Mobile plants are also catered for in all inland regions of South Africa. From time to time, the facility is also used by other Much plants, as well as subsidiaries East Coast

Asphalt and SprayPave, to test or investigate product problems. In addition to ensuring that quality products are delivered to clients, the lab team is continually evaluating alternative materials, modifiers and additives to improve product performance. “Following the acquisition of Much Asphalt by AECI, we are building a strong relationship with several AECI group companies to find alternate uses for their products, improve their additives to expand into our market, and explore waste stream use alternatives from both ends,” Muller adds. The Gauteng lab has seven full-time employees and places strong focus on training interns. “We Lab technician Bonginkosi Xaba uses a dynamic shear rheometer to test the rheology of bituminous binders over the in situ working temperature on the road

The Much Asphalt Gauteng Regional Laboratory team

currently have five interns in a ‘round robin’ training programme shared with the Benoni plant,” he says. New equipment acquired for the Gauteng Regional Laboratory includes: • an asphalt performance material tester for flow number and dynamic modulus testing • universal testing system for dynamic creep testing as well as flexural stiffness • a double wheel tracking tester for permanent deformation and moisture sensitivity testing • an automatic maximum density device • sample preparation equipment • ageing ovens for short- and long-term binder performance and testing • a flash-point testing device for safety evaluation • low- and high-temperature binder rheology testing devices. “We have had to adopt new methodologies for each new piece of equipment and the upgrade is a big learning process for us all,” says Muller. “Our mission is to be an effective support function for the branches we serve and the company as a whole. We endeavour to reduce risk as far as we can and to facilitate development as far as possible. “We believe we’ve taken a significant step forward with this upgrade and look forward to sharing the improvements with our clients,” Muller concludes.

IMIESA October 2018


Roads & Bridges

Perfecting asphalt designs: a user guide An overview of the complexities of flexible pavement construction provides key insights for new entrants to the field.


he ‘Sabita Manual 24: User Guide for the Design of Hot Mix Asphalt’, published in 2005, is to be superseded – again – to serve as a practical guide for the application of the general procedure for designing asphalt mixes. Whereas the 2005 version was linked to the ‘Interim Guidelines for the Design of Hot Mix Asphalt in South Africa’, prepared in 2001, the new user guide will be linked to the standard design procedure as set out in ‘Sabita Manual 35/TRH8: Design and Use of Asphalt in Road Pavements’, published in June 2016. Once again, the document strives to simplify and smooth the application of the principles of design in Sabita Manual 35 to ensure that designs prepared are optimal for their application in terms of resources of constituent materials, traffic and climate. Aimed at the lesser-experienced practitioner, the intention is to: • emphasise key content of the manual • provide background on the principles adopted in the method for guidance • caution on the limitations of some


IMIESA October 2018



• Traffic • Pavement • Climate • Construction issues

• Stone skeleton mix


• Binder

• Workability • Durability • Load-bearing capacity • Load transfer to underlying layers • Volumetric criteria • Resistance to damage - moisture - permanent deformation - fatigue cracking - structural properties


LABORTORY MIX DESIGN Select appropriate level • Level IA • Level IB • Level II • Level III Volumetric design Performance-related design Levels IB – III

Roads & Bridges

procedures and compliance requirements • g ive guidance to supplementar y methods or procedures to enhance the design procedure. While the focus of this document will be on the general method of design of asphalt, it will also draw the user’s attention to special considerations that should be taken into account when designing warmmix asphalt, recycled asphalt, thin asphalt wearing courses, open-graded asphalt, EME (high-modulus asphalt) and stone-mastic asphalt (SMA). The layout of the document differs somewhat from Manual 35, and follows one similar to the that presented in the current Manual 24. As shown in the diagram on page

34, the mix design process follows a logical sequence, divided into two broad sections: - design inputs - component selection and proportioning. Within this context, sections covered are evaluation of the design situation – i.e. the external factors that will influence decisions to meet specific design objectives. Once these ‘input factors’ have been identified, the actual selection of component materials and their proportioning commences.

Mix type selection A first decision in this respect is the selection of the mix type – i.e. a stone or sand skeleton aggregate configuration. Following this step, component materials are

selected, given considerations of availability, cost and performance requirements. The final proportioning of these component materials is determined through a formal design process, the complexity of which is determined by the application as detailed in Manual 35. It should be emphasised that this user guide serves as a companion document to Sabita Manual 35 – it neither replaces nor supersedes it. The layout will be designed on a colour-coded basis, whereby the reader is alerted to categories such as important, caution, background, and update to enhance its usefulness, especially for practitioners with limited experience in the design of asphalt. IMIESA October 2018


Roads & Bridges

Creating safer work zones Motorists constitute approximately 80% of the fatalities in work zones. Roads authorities are responsible for the safety of these motorists, and they must establish and enforce the criteria contractors must follow to design a safe work zone.


safe work zone may cost more money than an unsafe one, but, according to the World Bank, the social cost of a fatality on a road is roughly R6 million. Therefore, preventing one fatality in a work zone in South Africa can justify the cost of a lot of safety measures. The International Road Federation (IRF) is promoting safer work zones in South Africa using established best practices and state-of-the-art technologies. In line with this, Michael G Dreznes, executive vice president, IRF, is presenting a workshop at the 2018 SARF/IRF/PIARC Regional Conference for Africa. Dreznes has spent the last 33 years working to make roads safer around the world, and is recognised as one of the world’s leading specialists on roadside safety. He will discuss his ‘Five Elements of a Work Zone’ to provide an understanding of what must be done to make them safe for motorists, motorcyclists, pedestrians as well as workers. Attendees will learn how to design a safe work zone and will

For those who wish to attend the work zone presentation on 11 October only, a rate of R500 per delegate will be charged


IMIESA October 2018

learn about the newest technologies for work zone safety. The use of positive protection from crash-worthy barriers; truck-mounted attenuators; dynamic, variable-message signs; average speed camera enforcement; and flagger training will be among the topics discussed. Roads authorities are responsible for the safety of their motorists in a work zone. Dreznes will help road specialists understand the current status of work zone safety in South Africa, and how to design a safe work zone for both motorists and workers by using best practices and state-of-theart technologies and concepts in each of the five work zone elements. The IRF strongly recommends that roads authorities, contractors, academia, distributors, law enforcement and consultants take heed of these safety practices in an effort to find a way to make South African work zones safer.

Michael G. Dreznes, executive vice president, IRF


NEVER A BRIDGE TOO FAR FOR SANRAL Along SANRAL’s N2, as it runs toward, along and upwards from Durban, there are bridges. There have to be: this is a big and growing city with cars and people who have to be able to move. And they can, despite the exceptionally heavy traffic. The bridges are key; and there are many. They’re all great. One is outstanding. The Mount Edgecombe Interchange is the longest incrementally launched bridge in our country and in the southern hemisphere. The bridge superstructure was constructed section by section, on one side of a road and then launched sequentially into position. This was done without closing a single road permanently during construction. It has already become a landmark as it is aesthetically outstanding. It is also able to deal with ever-growing traffic demands over a very long time. It has reduced travel time from 25 minutes to just one! Then there is the one on SANRAL’s N3. It is ultra-modern in a different way. It is attuned to the tempo of the time – everything has to be instant, immediate. Not quite what you can do with a bridge, but still astonishing that a new bridge can appear over two consecutive weekends! Development brings its own needs. So, the growth of the Keystone Park Light Industrial, Warehousing and Logistics Precinct caused extra heavy traffic, with trucks backing up onto the N3 near Hammarsdale. The intersection is currently under construction in efforts to alleviate the growing traffic congestion. It was decided that the existing structure had to be upgraded from a simple diamond interchange to a new semi-parclo (partial clover leaf) one. Several construction methods were considered. One was the cheapest, but would mean three to four months of severe traffic disruption. Another was the so-called launch deck, set up from a launch yard. But that was too expensive. It was then decided that the precast bridge beam and slab method was the way to go. The beams were cast in a specialised casting yard some five kilometres from the bridge construction site. Special low-bed vehicles transported them from the casting site. It had to be done this way - the beams each weighed 37 tons. A large crane then had to lift and place each of the beams in place. There were 23 beams for each of the decks. The crane was so big and the potential danger to traffic so real, that each carriageway was closed during the lifting and placing operation. It only took four days. Not quite instant but really close. If one had not travelled on the N3 in a fortnight, one would be astonished and worrying whether one is on the right highway as there are fewer trucks backed up and there is more bridge!

Reg. No 1998/009584/30. An agency of the Department of Transport

Roads & Bridges

A world first in road safety

Iris Wink, an associate at JG Afrika and registered International Road Federation road safety audit team leader

Iris Wink, an associate at JG Afrika, has become a registered International Road Federation (IRF) road safety audit team leader and is the first woman in the world, and the second person in Africa, to receive this globally recognised credential.


eadquar tered in Washington DC and suppor ted by regional of fices throughout the world, the IRF assists a network of members from both the public and private sectors in more than 70 countries by providing world-class knowledge resources and advocacy ser vices. This is in addition to offering continuing professional education, such as its Global Credential Programme, which provides a pathway for experienced road safety auditors to enhance their existing qualifications. Wink was first introduced to the programme by the South African Road Federation (SARF), which is a local partner of the IRF. In order to qualify as an IRF road safety audit team leader, she had to complete an online examination before submitting a comprehensive presentation of her professional experience, including details of the projects that she had


IMIESA October 2018

audited and four letters of recommendation from clients. Michael Dreznes, executive vice-president, IRF, noted that the content of the reports demonstrated a sound understanding of safe systems concepts, while also praising her insightful commentar y on speed and its management, as well as her knowledge of vehicle restraint systems. Wink graduated with an MSc in civil and transpor tation engineering from Leibniz University in Hannover, Germany, in 2003. She immigrated to South Africa that year to gain experience working in a subSaharan African environment. Then, in 2012, she joined JG Afrika as a traffic and transportation engineer and was later appointed to lead the firm’s Transport & Traffic Engineering Division in Cape Town.

Challenging existing practices Wink has been involved in numerous audits over the years and remains extremely

passionate about creating safer roads, especially for South Africa’s youth. She lauds the IRF and the SARF for the leading role that they are playing in challenging existing traf fic and transpor tation engineering practices to create safer road systems. “I am looking for ward to helping them change existing mindsets as a registered IRF road safety audit team leader. In South Africa, too many engineers still tend to design strictly to the guidelines, when, in fact, we should be challenging the norm to find real workable solutions to the extraordinar y road mortality rate,” she says. She fur ther says that many lessons and experiences can be gleaned and adapted from developed countries, such as the UK, USA and Germany, which continue to make major strides in terms of road safety. Impor tantly, in these countries, due attention is given to pedestrians, the most vulnerable of road users, in the early design phases of road transpor tation networks.

Pedestrians Pedestrian safety is an area that requires significant improvement in South Africa, considering that three children under the age of 15 die ever y day while commuting on the countr y’s roads. Wink says that targeted educational programmes will greatly assist in raising

Roads & Bridges

road safety awareness at school level. “While they will play a large part in helping to reduce many fatalities and injuries in the short term, the longer-term benefits of these programmes will become apparent once these learners reach a driving age. This will help correct many of the current unsafe driving practices that have contributed towards the many deaths on South Africa’s roads ever y year, especially during the holiday periods,” she says. Meanwhile, South Africa’s international engineering counterparts are also making major strides in terms of using new materials to manufacture road signage that collapses on impact, and in the design of guardrail end treatments that provide effective deflection and absorption of oncoming traffic. Iceland has even started trialling a new pedestrian crossing that appears to be three-dimensional, which forces drivers to deaccelerate once they see the seemingly floating ‘zebra stripes’. Wink will accept her certificate at the

2018 SARF/IRF/Permanent International Association of Road Congresses’ Regional Conference for Africa, held at the Durban International Convention Centre in October. She received news of her accolade during

Women’s Month and, as such, says that she hopes that her recent achievement will inspire women who are interested in the technical professions to pursue their ambitions.

IMIESA October 2018


A Proud Past. A Bright Future. Great reputations are built over time. Proudly independent, proudly South African and proud to service Africa, JG Afrika has built a strong reputation for offering innovative and sustainable engineering and environmental consulting services of the highest quality.

Level 1 B-BBEE

Roads & Bridges

Ensuring safer roads for all The impact of being hit by a car travelling at just 60 km/h is equivalent to jumping off a seven-storey building. In addition, South Africa’s road safety standards are frequently not met, contributing to alarming road fatality statistics. By Danielle Petterson


uman factors are indicated as the biggest contributor to road crashes and fatalities in South Africa. And, at almost 39%, jaywalking pedestrians are said to be the largest human factor contributing to crashes and deaths. The number of pedestrian deaths as a result of road accidents continues to grow and pedestrians account for the largest road user group when it comes to fatalities. According to Garth Strong, owner, Deltabloc South Africa, one of the reasons so many pedestrians are killed is that the wrong systems are in place. “Protecting lives needs to be a priority,” he says. “Your pedestrian may look protected, but how safe are they really?”

Guarding against crashes In South Africa, the standard W-beam guardrail has been extensively used on both


At almost 39%, jaywalking pedestrians are said to be the largest human factor contributing to crashes and deaths


IMIESA October 2018

highways and urban roads since the 1960s. The design was developed in the USA in the 1950s and has not changed since. According to Strong, the system was crash tested in 1972 with a 2 t vehicle travelling at 72 km/h, with a 20-degree angle of impact. The deflection of the system, in a controlled test, was 1.9 m. The problem, he says, is that W-beam guardrails are so widely used because roads authorities believe they work; however, they do not actually stop vehicles. When determining the correct barrier to install, you need to consider what type of vehicle you need to stop and, more importantly, the working width you need, explains Strong. Working width is a combination of deflection and the movement of the barrier. Another stumbling block for South Africa is that there are no barrier crash tests for minibus taxis, making it difficult to select a barrier safe for this kind of impact. However, Strong points out that the kinetic energy of a taxi is very close to that of a 10 t truck. “That’s really quite frightening,” he says. Guardrails are often installed alongside sidewalks, without a 1.9 m deflection space. They are also often left dented and broken after being hit or are installed using wooden poles – which does not provide a sufficient level of safety. Strong argues

Roads & Bridges


Around 40% quicker reaction times are needed when situations are not anticipated, such as in the case of construction work zones that concrete barriers offer a far safer solution, with much lower deflection as well as lower maintenance costs. These provide pedestrians with protection and a separated area to walk along, without needing to build

a sidewalk – something Strong believes is often unnecessary and impractical. “We need to get municipal engineers thinking about a better solution for pedestrians and cyclists, and, ultimately, motorists as well.”

Safety devices are essential Another important factor for protecting motorists and pedestrians is compliant safety control devices. Road signs serve as important guides for drivers and are essential in preventing road accidents. It is a criminal offence


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not to use correct signage, and motorists who are injured due to incorrect or a lack of road markings and signage can lay criminal charges against the relevant authority, explains Andre Fabricius, director, AnFab Consult. It is also essential that the quality of the product be in line with the specified standards. This means using the correct reflective material so that signs are clearly visible to all road users. “The better the reflective sheeting you display, the more reading time you provide to the driver of the vehicle, and the better the reaction

Roads & Bridges

7 to 12

Depending on the quality of the road sign, it should be replaced within 7 to 12 years

time,” says Fabricius. Around 40% quicker reaction times are needed when situations are not anticipated, such as in the case of construction work zones. All road signs are supposed to have a number on the back indicating the date of manufacture. Depending on the quality of the sign, it should be replaced within 7 to 12 years. However, many signs in South Africa don’t have these markings, are not replaced

as they should be, and have very poor nighttime visibility as a result. Furthermore, when painting or using thermoplastic for pavement markings, it is compulsory to use glass beads for better visibility and reflectivity, and this reflectivity must be measured to ensure that markings comply with safety standards. “Unfortunately, almost 80% of the roads in South Africa at the moment, aside from national


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IMIESA October 2018

roads, do not comply with specifications,” says Fabricius. Fabricius, who serves as an expert witness in court cases, points out that in the event of a fatal or serious accident, an expert will visit the site to measure and check whether safety standards have been met. “Safety control devices are life-savers on the road; if you don’t install the safety devices correctly or use the correct products, how many accidents will result? How many people die on the road every day because of substandard road maintenance?” he questions. The ultimate message: comply with safety standards, never use subpar products, and always put safety first.

Geotechnical Engineering

Innovative drainage solution

The prohibitive costs of a French drain soakaway system necessitated an innovative wastewater solution at a Northern KwaZulu-Natal housing project.


he Charlestown Housing Project in Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal, was designed to consist of 1 200 units when complete, with an on-site sewage treatment plant planned for a later stage. As a temporary measure for the 500-unit Phase 1 already under construction, MNA Consulting required a French drain system to be installed downstream of an adequately sized septic tank. However, the costs of transporting tonnes of stone for the conventional stone and pipe French drain system was prohibitive and the feasibility of the project became reliant on an effective alternative being found. The identified solution was to install 3 000 of Kaytech’s Quick4 Infiltrator chambers, completely eliminating the need for a conventional French drain soakaway system. Infiltrator chamber systems promote effluent infiltration into the soil with 100% efficiency, while requiring 50% less space than French drain systems.

Design and installation The engineer conducted a series of percolation tests and gathered geotechnical information on the area allocated for the French drain system. Using this data in conjunction with the allocated wastage litres per unit, Kaytech and the engineer designed a complete Infiltrator chamber system. To allow for reductions in behaviour of the in situ material, the design incorporated factors as per the specified design codes.

In early February 2018, contractor Pilcon Projects commenced excavations and, within four months, had installed 3 079 Infiltrator chambers, effectively covering a distance of 3 757 m. The chambers were clipped together in rows in 0.9 m wide trenches. A 2.5 m centre-to-centre spacing between each row simplified excavations and the placement of chambers in the multiple rows. To ensure efficiency of the drain, each row of chambers was closed with an end cap, thereby maintaining the void and preventing contamination from surrounding material.

An economical solution According to Kaytech representative Yugeshnee Naidoo, the Quick4 Infiltrator chamber system is not only a direct replacement for oldfashioned French drain soakaways, but is also a significantly more economical alternative. The eco-friendly product is manufactured from recycled plastic waste and provides numerous benefits, including quick and easy installation, flexibility, as well as chemical resistance and UV stability. Compared to conventional stone and pipe soakaways, Infiltrator chambers require no heavy installation equipment, no stone, less labour and occupy a smaller footprint, thereby minimising site disruption and reducing on-site clean-up time. The arch design of each chamber can support axle loads up to 70 kN. This considerably more economical and construction-friendly solution ultimately resulted in significant cost savings for the Newcastle Municipality.

IMIESA October 2018




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Geotechnical Engineering

Piling in complex geology


uring the construction of the Greenfields Link Interchange, an alternative piling solution proved optimal for the founding of the three bridge structures. Situated in Saldanha, the project was awarded by the Western Cape Provincial Government’s Department of Roads and Public Works, with WBHO appointed as the main contractor. Franki Africa was appointed as the piling contractor. At tender stage, the pile founding solution called for “predrilled, based temporary cased auger piles” for all three bridges. These piles were expected to be around 14 m in length from the underside of the pile cap. The site geology consists of windblown sands for around 0.5 m to 1.0 m below natural ground level, followed by up to 3 m to 4 m of strongly cemented hardpan calcrete, then varying layers of loose, silty,

The test pile results proved the alternative methodology was correct and working piles were installed

clayey sand and calcrete lenses, followed by a dense, greenish-grey-mottled orange and brown sand. A high water table is also present. While the largest of the three bridge structures was clear of any obstructions, the other two had a water main in close proximity to the piles and pile cap, raising concerns over vibration during pile installations. After discussion with the engineers and main contractor, Franki proposed that the two bridges with the existing water pipeline obstruction would be more suitable to CFA (continuous flight auger) piles, while the main bridge could be found on DCIS (driven

cast in situ) Franki piles founded at a dense layer, higher up in the soil profile. Franki’s proposal was accepted following the installation of test piles. The main feature of the Franki Pile is the enlarged base formed at the toe. In forming this base, the end-bearing area is increased significantly: the displacement achieved when expelling the plug and forming the enlarged base compacts and preloads the soil. Thus, the end-bearing of a Franki Pile in sands develops at much lower base deflections than that of a bored pile, and was the best founding approach for the Greenfields Link Interchange. IMIESA October 2018


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Water & Wastewater

Ways to manage recharge performance Adequate storage and diversified water supply are essential components of future urban planning, since relying purely on dams is too risky in terms of South Africa’s increasingly arid climate. Cape Town’s threeyear drought underlines this and reinforces the need for contingency planning and new measures.


evelopment of the Cape Flats Aquifer (CFA) as an emergency and long-term resource was initiated in 2017, when it was clear that Cape Town’s drought was becoming abnormally extended. Experts considered this to be a 1-in-400-year hydrological event. However, since current and future weather patterns are becoming more unpredictable, a new response to longer-term water resource management within the greater Cape Town metropolitan region was required. Going forward, the same principle now holds true for other increasingly water-scarce towns and cities in South Africa. In Cape Town’s case, it’s about conserving and expanding precious groundwater sources as both a standby intervention measure and an alternative sustainable supply source, through a managed aquifer recharge (MAR)


IMIESA October 2018

model. This is currently a key project being undertaken by earth sciences group Umvoto Africa, as part of a multidisciplinary team of specialist consultants. Umvoto Africa’s main areas of expertise include: - Geoinformatics and remote sensing - Water resources planning and management - Applied geology and engineering geology - Environmental and climate science - Water, environmental and climate monitoring - Georisk and disaster risk reduction - Gender and social studies Umvoto’s initial focus on the CFA entailed a detailed analysis of the geology via remotesensing mapping and GIS modelling. The aquifer geometry and properties were innovatively combined with land- and airborne geophysics, parallel exploration and production drilling – a borehole testing

programme provided the iterative numerical modelling to inform the well field and reticulation design. MAR forms the next phase in terms of ensuring sustainability and is already included in the master plan for the emergency development of the CFA. Steered by Umvoto, the MAR approach encompasses both shortand long-term strategies informed by two disaster risk reduction principles, namely ‘no regrets’, and ‘build back better’. The shortterm disaster response strategy encompasses the development of emergency boreholes, treatment and reticulation; while the longterm view for risk reduction homes in on the diversification of water supply and its downstream management. The CFA extends under the city and, therefore, already performs an excellent role in capturing some of the stormwater; but more can be done here to channel run-off into these naturally formed underground caverns.

Reuse and storage Another MAR proposal is to divert processed water from wastewater treatment works (WWTW) and stormwater ponds into the aquifer for storage. Aquifer recharge will involve both active and passive systems, requiring the improvement of WWTW effluent quality for

Water & Wastewater

A multifaceted approach to water - Water Resources Planning and Management - Applied Geology and Engineering Geology - Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing - Environmental and Climate Science - Water, Environmental and Climate Monitoring - Geo-Risk and Disaster Risk Reduction

direct injection and the re-establishment of wetland ecosystems for passive infiltration. The benefits of this approach, particularly the latter, include the improvement of surface and groundwater quality, the re-establishment of wetland ecosystems (and their associated eco-services), plus the immense opportunity for the creation of green infrastructure, urban greening and enriching the urban/social landscape of the Cape Flats. For the context of the CFA, a purely groundwater perspective (encompassing hydrogeology, geology, hydrology, biochemistry and engineering) will be insufficient. Thus, the CFA requires a two-phase approach: establishing the physical parameters of the aquifer itself; and defining the interfacing ecological and social landscapes. Ongoing drilling of boreholes across the CFA has provided an extensive and spatially distributed dataset of aquifer parameters. Linking these to the updated understanding of the aquifer’s 3D geometry and geology allows for greater understanding of the system’s 3D hydraulics. By understanding which geological formations allow for greater flow rates, and by knowing where these are, flow paths and rates can be predicted with greater confidence. The numerical model of the CFA is being developed as a decision support tool to assist in the planning and management of the groundwater abstraction and recharge scheme. The model provides an up-to-date representation of existing hydrogeological data and is used to assess the impact of proposed abstraction and managed recharge schemes

Umvoto’s three-pronged approach to water resources is to monitor, model and manage

on selected indicators (i.e. water levels and flow rates). An important intervention is to protect and remediate the catchment of the aquifer via aquifer protection zones (APZs). The intention is that by-laws will be defined for future land development and regulating activities within the APZ.

The future with Umvoto Umvoto is recognised locally and internationally as an innovative, leading practitioner in the interdisciplinary fields of integrated water resource management, disaster risk reduction, geo-risk assessment and prevention, and geoinformatics. The team has specialist experience in the fractured-rock Table Mountain Group aquifers and associated primary aquifers in the Western Cape, as well as in the Karoo Basin, Northern and Eastern Cape. Given the growing concern about environmental pollution and the legal need for due diligence, this expertise can be applied with predictive modelling tools to determine site contamination and groundwater pollution with a view to designing the most appropriate remediation measures. Over the years, Umvoto personnel have also gained considerable experience in the implementation of water-related legislation. This knowledge supports strategic approaches in water resource and water source development studies, and is vital in terms of licence applications, public liaison and buy-in, and for the preparation of risk-based environmental impact assessments. The company was the lead consultant on the Support to the Implementation and Maintenance of Reconciliation Strategies for Towns in the Southern Planning Region, on behalf of the DWS National Water Resource Planning Directorate. This required the

Umvoto has become a partner on some of the most exciting developments in the water resources and related fields. From this experience, the company has learned the importance of taking a multifaceted approach towards sustainable water management. As a project manager, Umvoto delivers on turnkey initiatives covering every phase – from groundwater exploration to water on tap. Included within its range of services is environmental management, from both prevention and mitigation perspectives. This is applied via predictive modelling tools to determine site contamination and groundwater pollution, with a view to designing the most appropriate remediation measures. Umvoto has significant expertise in quantifying geohazards (like sinkholes) and their associated risks, whether natural or man-made. The latter includes the infrastructure assessment of water pipelines.

projection of water demand, water supply, associated intervention options and strategic recommendations for all populations in the Eastern and Western Cape. Umvoto was also the lead consultant on the Support to the Continuation of the Water Reconciliation Strategy for the Western Cape Water Supply System, which ran from 2013 to 2016. Umvoto’s extensive knowledge and experience on the aquifers and surface water resources of the Eastern and Western Cape is now proving invaluable in helping to shape Cape Town’s groundwater augmentation programme.

IMIESA October 2018


A case for submerged UF membranes

Sand filter replacement cells

Ultrafiltration is a viable alternative to gravity media filters and the filter cells can be retrofitted to increase throughput by up to four times on the same footprint.


here is a great need in South Africa for the upgrading of conventional equipment without civil infrastructure. Quality Filtration Systems, together with technology partner Memcor, recognises this need. Memcor is a global supplier of pressurised, submerged and MBR low-pressure membrane technologies. The innovative membrane processes are protected with a large number of patents and cover the supply of packaged water filtration systems for small projects and modular solutions for very large plants (>700 MLD).

Application study Manitowoc Public Utilities (MPU) in the USA provides an excellent example of the replacement of gravity media filters with submerged ultrafiltration modules. Located on the shores of Lake Michigan, the city of Manitowoc, Wisconsin, is positioned in one of the highest-growing population areas in


IMIESA October 2018

the state. Up until 1999, MPU used traditional media filters with a treatment capacity of 45.5Â MLD. Due to the population growth, the utility decided to update its facilities with membrane filtration technology. At the time, Evoqua (now Memcor) supplied MPU with a classic CMF facility that used pressurised membrane technology to filter water.

The municipality built the new plant in a new building and decommissioned its media filters as well as the building in which they were housed. This facility took approximately three years to be completed, from pilot testing to start-up, at a cost of roughly US$7 million.

Choosing to retrofit 5 MLD CSII membranes

The utility had added a single skid in 2000, and again in 2003, to keep pace with the growing population, but found itself in need of expansion again after signing a wholesale water agreement in July 2004, with the Central Brown County Water Authority (CBCWA) – a joint water authority in north-eastern Wisconsin comprising six communities that needed to replace their groundwater sources. At the time, the six member communities did not meet the US Environmental Protection Agency’s water-quality guidelines due to the high radium levels in their water supply.

Water & Wastewater

Benefits of Memcor’s CS II submerged membrane system: • Reduced capital costs • Reduced plant footprint • Reduced operating costs • Lower membrane replacement cost • Reduced air usage per m2 • Reduced chemical usage

The water demand of the CBCWA was about 36.4 MLD, and the pressurised membrane microfiltration plant at MPU did not have the necessary excess capacity. In order to save space, MPU decided to retrofit the media filters that had been vacant for five years with the Memcor® CS system, a submerged membrane filtration system. Using the existing basins, the engineers and construction teams were able to accommodate a 91 MLD capacity in a space that once would have produced only 45.5 MLD from the media filters. The new technology is so compact that the building also has a future capacity of an additional 91 MLD, should the need arise. Engineered and constructed in 18 months at a cost of roughly $8.5 million, the submerged membranes reduced staffing requirements, simplified process adjustments during changes in raw water quality, reduced chemical usage and residuals production, and minimised the treatment facility’s footprint.

The submerged membrane system Submerged configurations, which operate in an open tank design where feedwater flows by gravity into the membrane cell, may work better for conventional plant retrofits because they easily fit into existing filter bays and have smaller footprints. While there is a long-standing myth that pressurised membranes are able to handle high solids content and water fluctuations better than submerged configurations, that is not necessarily the case. Some manufacturers claim that a higher allowable pressure differential allows a greater threshold to handle solids, but this is misleading. During the demonstration of Memcor submerged systems in 1998, both the pressurised and submerged configurations withstood the same flux and backwash interval. The results showed that the performance between pressurised and submerged systems resulted in nearly identical cleaning intervals. Both types have been cost-effectively retrofitted into existing facilities across the US. Importantly, submerged membranes allowed for installation with a smaller footprint than skid-mounted pressure membranes, which proves vital in cases like MPU. Herman Smit (MD):

Water & Wastewater

Bolstering SA’s treatment capacity As much as 56% of South Africa’s wastewater treatment works and 44% of water treatment works are in a poor or critical condition. With water sources being contaminated at alarming levels, it is now more vital than ever to ensure the correct functioning of these plants.


nly by ensuring that the countr y’s water and wastewater treatment plants are operating effectively at their full capacities can the cycle of pollution be stopped and the situation remedied, believes Henk Smit, managing director, Vovani Water Products. With this in mind, the expansion of current wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) and the construction of new works is imperative. However, funding this presents a very real challenge for South Africa.

Short-term solutions The immediate challenge is managing the capacity issues with short-term solutions until expansions are possible, says Smit. Prefabricated

wastewater treatment systems offer the ability to increase capacity over a very short period. Package plants address the challenges of space constraints and rapid roll-out, which are major factors in urban expansions. These plants can be designed with a much smaller footprint than conventional treatment designs and can be manufactured and installed in a much shorter period. “These plants can be installed closer to the consumer and serve communities better, as the treatment of water becomes more of a point-of-entry-type system, where water has shorter distances to travel to the consumer and many of the issues with contamination within distribution networks are eliminated,” says Smit.

RO vessels and RO membranes


IMIESA October 2018

These systems can either be purchased outright or rented on a monthly basis, with knowledgeable operators. Package membrane bioreactor systems are also an option, as wastewater can be treated to a higher quality for discharge into rivers, or for reuse. Membrane systems can also produce higher-quality water than traditional water

Water & Wastewater

Pumping equipment with energy recovery devices

their water treatment plants. By utilising the correct amount of chemicals during cleaning procedures for membranes, significant saving in operations costs can be achieved. “We make sure our customers get the maximum life out of their membranes, so maintenance costs are also reduced,” says Smit.

Energy savings works, extracting water from rivers, dams and boreholes. The footprint of these membrane plants is much smaller than traditional systems, and the required water quality can be produced in a much shorter time period when compared to traditional systems. Vovani Water Products offers products for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane bioreactor applications, as well as package plants for some of these membrane technologies.

Extending membrane lifespan Pre-filtration plays an essential role in extending the lifespan of membranes, and therefore contributes to cost-savings over the long term. Pre-filtration assists in removing larger particles that might block membrane fibres or damage membranes, and protects the filtration steps downstream. Vovani offers FRP vessels with bag, cartridge or high-flow filters, as well as self-cleaning strainers. Vovani also offers screening systems and hydromechanical equipment for wastewater plants, which includes debris handling solutions. Another way to extend lifespan and save on costs is through effective operation and maintenance. Vovani, with the help of its expert suppliers, is able to provide guidance to customers on the correct operation of

Energy efficiency has always been a factor: the less energy you use, the more costeffective your operational process. However, the high costs of electricity have made this an increasingly important factor. Designs have to be more sensitive to energy and the resultant costs over the operational life of a treatment plant. By saving on energy costs, more funds can be freed up for effective maintenance and plant expansion necessary to address the capacity challenges facing WWTWs. Vovani offers various solutions, including energy recovery devices from FEDCO. The LPD turbine generator uses hydraulic energy to drive a standard induction motor that acts as a generator to produce electrical energy. Integrated into the unit is a regenerative VFD that regulates the LPD to achieve the flow and pressure required for the operating conditions while extracting the maximum amount of electrical energy available from the feed stream. Applications include the replacement of pressure reducing valves and conduit energy recovery. Vovani can also supply nanobubble generators, which improve efficiencies of wastewater clarifiers, reducing process times and ultimately saving energy.

design, build and operate projects in South Africa, especially within many municipalities. These types of contracts shift the responsibility for designing, building and operating the required infrastructure to the private sector. A single contractor is appointed to design, construct and operate a plant for a predetermined period – typically for lengthy periods of around 15 to 20 years. The contractor is responsible for maintaining the plant during the operations phase and ensuring that it remains fit for purpose and in good working order. This offers many advantages to the public sector. “If more water treatment companies could implement these types of projects, the burden of operating and maintaining treatment plants would be taken off of municipalities. Water treatment plants would operate efficiently, as technically skilled engineers and operators would make sure that the water quality provided is of a high standard. Municipalities would only be required to pay per kilolitre for the water provided from these plants,” explains Smit. The latest technologies could be implemented, ensuring that water quality is improved, and the operation of these plants is simpler and more cost-effective than current conventional treatment systems. This type of set-up would assist in addressing many of the capacity challenges facing municipalities, such as funding and skills shortage, and ultimately assist in re-capacitating South Africa’s water and wastewater infrastructure.

Alternative contracting options When it comes to constructing new plants, Smit believes there is a great need for

IMIESA October 2018


Water & Wastewater

ACTIFLO® is a high-rate compact water clarification process in which water is flocculated with microsand and polymer

By Alastair Currie

The O&M approach works best


ith over 160 years in water, its substantial track record positions Veolia Water Technologies as a definitive thought and implementation leader. A key focus from inception has been the concession business and the perfection of the operations and maintenance (O&M) and build, own, operate and transfer (BOOT) models. Outsourcing O&M to specialist service providers is a standard and growing practice in many parts of the world when it comes to wastewater and water purification works, and this approach is steadily gaining traction in South Africa. O&M services can be standalone for existing facilities, but can also form part of greenfield developments defined as BOOT contracts. In the BOOT segment, notable local examples include Veolia Water Technologies’ operation for KwaZulu-Natal’s utility, Umgeni Water. This BOOT plant at Durban Water Recycling (DWR) has been running successfully for 18 years, with some 24 months left to run on the current agreement. Since the business risk rests solely with the BOOT entity, major pressure has been taken off the City of eThekwini when it comes to potable water supply and the associated costs. DWR delivers some 47 Mℓ daily. Key industrial users are part of the mix, which was a basis for the original proposal. As an indication of the scale of its global BOOT expertise, Veolia currently manages some 2 900 wastewater treatment works (WWTWs), serving close to 62 million people, and 4 100 drinking water plants that meet the needs of around 100 million people. Currently, Veolia’s largest O&M facility in the water and wastewater sectors is based in China. Across Africa, Veolia operates O&M plants for municipal, industrial and mining clients.

Overstrand A current O&M development by Veolia in South Africa is the commencement of a 15-year agreement with Overstrand Municipality in the Western Cape, which has five dams servicing 11 towns within its municipal footprint. Veolia has been on-site for two years. Within the municipal scope are nine potable water treatment plants, and

five wastewater treatment facilities; the Veolia technologies being employed at these sites include reverse osmosis, bioremediation and ultrafiltration. By going the outsourcing route, Overstrand has made substantial budget savings, with the added benefit of skills transfer opportunities for municipal personnel. Alongside Veolia’s O&M focus is the supply of proprietary technologies that improve efficiencies. In the Western Cape, this includes orders at

Water & Wastewater Veolia’s BOOT plant at Durban Water Recycling has been running successfully for 18 years, with some 24 months left to run on the current agreement

Sometimes, plants are backed by funding. A current example is a water purification works project being undertaken by Veolia in Zambia, where donor support was provided by the Danish International Development Agency.

Technological solutions

The Windhoek Goreangab Operating Company treatment works

WWTW plants in Bellville and Stellenbosch. Here, expansions are being driven by membrane bioreactor technology, incorporating ultrafiltration, which treats wastewater discharge to the highest international standards. “With a few simple modifications, this treated water could be recycled for reuse in key industries, like agriculture (a common practice in Israel), taking the pressure off potable supply,” explains Chris Braybrooke, general manager: Marketing, Veolia. “With a further process step, this treated water would also be safe for potable consumption.”

Windhoek A classic example within the Southern African context is the Windhoek Goreangab Operating


Company (Wingoc) treatment works, in which Veolia has a 67% interest. This O&M contract, which commenced in 2002, is a world first: the Wingoc plant recycles large volumes of wastewater, providing up to 21 Mℓ of drinking water daily for some 300 000 inhabitants. The treatment process is complex and entails various filtration and ozonation stages. “An important point to mention is that O&M savings are shared between the operator and client,” Braybrooke continues. “Optimisation savings include renewable interventions like solar and waste-to-energy gas turbines for electricity generation. That’s aside from the improved efficiencies that can be achieved by retrofitting Veolia technologies on older plants.”

“Veolia carries out studies for clients, which includes adherence to environmental standards and the pitfalls of designing and constructing low-budget solutions. At Veolia, we can precisely calculate the true cost of water and its downstream benefits. This statement is backed by over 350 proprietary Veolia technologies that are designed to maximise process efficiencies,” he explains. “These include ACTIFLO®, a high-rate compact water clarification process in which water is flocculated with microsand and polymer. In a conventional clarifier, the rise rate would be around 2 m/hour. With ACTIFLO, we can go up to 100 m. This means the ACTIFLO footprint will be a fraction of that required for a conventional system, with obvious capex savings. The chemical costs are also much lower. “So it’s clear that there is an obvious payback when clients select the right technology and match it with an expert O&M partner,” Braybrooke concludes.

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Meters, Pumps & Valves

Covering the full water cycle


ylem Water Solutions South Africa’s recent move to a new purpose-built headquarters and warehouse facility in Glen Erasmia, Kempton Park, positions the group for further expansion in the local and subSaharan markets across its multifaceted range of proprietary OEM platforms. Xylem entity Sensus South Africa has now also relocated to Glen Erasmia in line with Xylem’s strategy to house the management, support and sales forces of all its brands under one roof. Direct interfacing with the Xylem product range is done via appointed dealers in South Africa, while distribution hubs are also being formed in Africa. Sales are backed by ongoing training programmes provided by Xylem product and solutions application engineers working with their counterparts in specific industry sectors. “Xylem is strategically focused on vertical market segments, with the capability to serve the entire water cycle from end to end for both public and private sector clients. Our research and development initiatives meet the need for smart water and smart cities, wherein automation plays a major role,” explains Pierre Fourie, managing director, Xylem Water Solutions South Africa. “A key advantage is that our products are scalable in terms of project scope and technological maturity. In other words, we have different solutions for differing levels to cater for low- and high-tech requirements and capex availability.” Key technologies aimed at the municipal segment include water metering, process control, the management and mitigation of non-revenue water (NRW) losses, and water and wastewater treatment. In the private sector, segments cover the full spectrum of general industry, with key examples including the mining, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Xylem is also focused on growing the building services segment for the residential, commercial and agricultural markets.

Advanced metering “Within this mix, Sensus will build on its niche product offering in the realm of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and NRW,” explains Gerardt Viljoen, managing director, Sensus South Africa. “The potential is enormous, particularly in the public space. It’s common knowledge that there’s a big backlog on municipal project approvals, which is having a negative impact on the total water cycle. The for ward outlook remains positive, but implementation will need to be accelerated to ensure sustainable water ser vice deliver y. “For example, the War on Leaks campaign is currently lagging due to budgetary constraints. A major benefit of our technologies is the ability to bring down opex through smart interventions that will free up cash. This can then be invested in addressing NRW issues like pipeline repairs, thanks to precise leak detection,” Viljoen adds. The latest addition to Xylem’s product range is the Flygt Concertor smart pump – the world’s first wastewater pumping system with integrated intelligence. Benefits include opex reductions, lower maintenance, as well as ease of installation. “From an NRW perspective, Sensus will be launching more static-state bulk meters to suit the greater African market,” Viljoen continues. “We’ll also be fielding innovative BELOW LEFT Gerardt Viljoen, managing director, Sensus South Africa BELOW RIGHT Pierre Fourie, managing director, Xylem Water Solutions South Africa

solutions from other Xylem technology companies specialising in NRW. Currently, Xylem is the only company worldwide with products that address both the technical and apparent losses in the water industry.” Examples of other Xylem brands and their smart NRW solutions are: Visenti, with its real-time leak detection and pressure monitoring systems; Pure Technologies’ leak detection and pipeline evaluation products; Valor Water Analytics for meter modelling; EmNet for real-time intelligent monitoring; and Hypack, a hydrographic survey software specialist. “The future is certainly an exciting one. Xylem’s vision is to ensure seamless integration across all its OEM brands related to the water industry so that clients can harmoniously share information for realtime management and control. For this to be effective, they will need access to a national utility-grade network for critical infrastructure that is secure and reliable. We already provide this with the Sensus/Xylem FlexNet communication platform, which has a military Grade 1 specification,” Fourie concludes.

IMIESA October 2018


Meters, Pumps & Valves

Driving efficiency Several countries across Africa face ongoing power deliver y challenges. Energy-efficient water pumps have the potential to deliver significant efficiencies where they are needed most.


hile South Africa looks for ways to create additional powergenerating capacity and contain costs, some key aspects of the solution are often neglected, says Henning Sandager, regional head: sub-Saharan Africa, Grundfos. Power-saving water pump solutions present municipalities with improved energy efficiencies that allow them to lower their demand on the national power grid and allocate much-needed energy resources elsewhere. “Bringing water to end users – the removal and treatment of wastewater, and the production of energy – requires a lot of pumping. Throughout this process, massive energy optimisation and cost savings can easily be realised,” says Sandager. Water pump systems account for 10% of the world’s

electrical energy consumption. Switching to energy-efficient pumps can save up to 50% of that energy. Sandager points out that adopting solutions like those delivered by Grundfos would put municipalities in a favourable position to contribute to NDP Outcome 6, reduce the financial burden, and benefit the communities they serve. The more municipalities save on energy, the more they can deliver in other areas and help to grow the economy.

Smart solutions Smart technologies – such as the Grundfos Demand Driven Distribution pressure-control system – demonstrate how municipalities can reduce both water and power consumption by up to 20%. This is achieved by automatically monitoring grid use patterns with remote

sensors and adjusting water pressure accordingly to deliver optimal water pressure at any given time. This technology was implemented by the municipality of Bucharest in Romania, which was able to reduce water losses from 50% to 30%, over 10 years, by installing new pumps, replacing pipes and dropping pressure at night. While water leakage was reduced significantly, the municipality was surprised by the substantial energy savings accrued. “It is these types of savings we are committed to bringing to municipalities, industries and businesses around the world,” says Sandager. “With our range of energy-efficient water pump solutions, municipalities should take advantage of the latest technologies available to them to help solve their most pressing challenges.”

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Meters, Pumps & Valves

The benefits of magnetic drive


eadquar tered in India, WPIL Limited’s company growth to date has been fuelled by strategic OEM acquisitions as it expands its niche in the global pump market. Within Southern Africa, APE Pumps and Mather+Platt are the two key WPIL group companies represented on the ground. “Where more specialist applications are required, we have access to an extensive range of products from within the group,” explains Richard Harper from APE Pumps. “This also supports our drive to introduce tried and tested WPIL technologies that are common in other parts of the world, but have not yet been introduced to the Southern African region.” A prime example is the range of products produced by WPIL subsidiary Gruppo Aturia, based in Italy. Gruppo Aturia’s series of leading brands includes Rotos, which first entered the market in 1919. Rotos began fielding magnetic drive seal-less pumps, which aren’t widely manufactured on the global market, from 2005 and has become renowned as a specialist in this field. The Rotos seal-less range is available in 18 different designs, with over 250 basic models catering for a broad spectrum of industrial requirements. The technology is especially well-suited for process applications: API 685- and ISO 2858-compliant magnetic drive pumps are the ideal choice for the fluid transfer of hazardous chemical products that exhibit toxic or flammable properties. The Rotos range is also well suited for reverse osmosis and desalination plants. In addition, the Rotos division of Gruppo Aturia produces custom-engineered models. These include: - STM seal-less regenerative turbine magnetic drive alloy pumps - PTM seal-less regenerative turbine magnetic drive nonmetallic pumps - SVM seal-less rotar y vane

magnetic drive alloy pumps - PCM seal-less centrifugal magnetic drive non-metallic pumps - SDM seal-less centrifugal magnetic drive alloy pumps. “The fact that these pumps are hermetically sealed means that they remain leak-free, which is an essential health and safety feature when transporting chemicals like acids. Mechanical pumps would be ruled out here because of the inherent risk of a seal failure leading to an accidental spillage,” says Harper. “Another advantage of seal-less pumps is that they provide a very low-maintenance solution over their lifespan. “It’s important to note, though, that sealless systems are designed exclusively for the transfer of clean fluids. In this respect, low or high viscosity is not an issue,” adds Harper. “So, a seal-less pump would be the ideal choice for the safe transfer of chemicals at a water purification plant. However, in a wastewater application where raw sewage is being handled, the only option would be a fit-for-purpose mechanical drive pump designed to handle solids in suspension. “For each and every industry and application, WPIL companies have the right pump solution,” Harper concludes.

The seal-less advantage: the absence of mechanical seals or gland packing eliminates costly pump maintenance, lost production time and process contamination

IMIESA October 2018


The cycle of solutions – water technology by KSB Water is crucial for our survival – for every one of us, for all nations and peoples. Clean water supplies and efficient sewage treatment have never been more important. Prosperity and well-being depend on it, worldwide. KSB’s know-how and extensive pumps and valves product range help you meet all water supply and treatment requirements, efficiently and affordably. We are one of the few suppliers worldwide with endto-end solutions addressing all stages of the water cycle – from water extraction to sewage treatment. KSB Pumps and Valves (Pty) Ltd Tel: +27 11 876-5600

Our technology. Your success. Pumps Valves Service n


Meters, Pumps & Valves

Improving pump suction Pump manufacturer KSB has developed a special impeller to further improve the suction characteristics of its Movitec multistage high-pressure pumps.


pplications with critical inlet conditions, or in which the pump is required to take in water from low-lying tanks or at higher temperatures, are not always suitable for standard pumps. A pressure drop in the intake area can cause cavitation in the first pump stage, resulting in excessive wear of pump parts or motor bearings, as well as a reduced service life of the pump due to damaged parts and an unbalanced hydraulic

KSB has designed a new impeller for the Movitec type series to substantially improve the pumps’ suction characteristics

system. KSB’s new impeller addresses these challenges. The new impeller is offered as an alternative to the standard product. It was developed to ensure it can be used with a number of Movitec variants without necessitating modifications

to the outer pump casing. The new impeller features a modified inlet diameter, vanes that allow a slightly diagonal throughflow and a newly designed stage casing, all of which serve to substantially improve the pump’s NPSH curve. The multistage centrifugal pumps from KSB’s Movitec range are ideal for a wide variety of applications, and are designed for handling fluids such as water, coolants, condensate and mineral oils. IMIESA October 2018


Dams & Water Storage


the Achilles heel of the

municipal economy

Finding ways to get more water out of municipal dams is critical for sustained socio-economic growth. The raising of the dam wall is one of the most viable options, either using automatic spillway gates or by adopting a conventional spillway raising approach. By Peter Townshend*


lobal warming is now generally accepted as the cause of the adverse weather effects we’ve been experiencing in our municipal cities and towns. The occurrence of severe, debilitating droughts, often followed by large floods, is the new normal that we have to cope with in South Africa. Over the last three or so years, there has hardly been a town or city in South Africa that hasn’t had to institute water restrictions. That, in turn, has had a ripple effect on our economies and revenue collections. Cape Town has received the most prominent media coverage for its shortage of water, with ‘Day Zero‘ being well published. However, Cape Town’s experience is not exclusive: currently, for example, Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality is adversely affected, as are many other coastal and inland regions. The cost of water shortages to the City of Cape Town is said to be billions of rand in lost tourism, business, manufacturing


IMIESA October 2018

and farming. Water, therefore, is even more important than electricity… it is the Achilles heel of our economy. However, the shortage of both is equally devastating. Water shortages also lead to greater social unrest and demonstrations. Consequently, more emphasis is now placed on water saving measures, as well as the procurement of extra water supplies. The prolonged drought has had the benefit of instilling water saving habits into the population, although that can also be short lived once water is more readily available. Therefore, municipalities now need to spend money on the reuse of water and other sources. A lot has been published and promoted in the media regarding water scarcity, which does not need to be expounded on here, except to say that the repair of broken pipes and leaking valves in municipal and private proper ty is the most impor tant measure to be implemented now. This could save about 30% of water lost due to broken infrastructure.

ABOVE Belfast Dam, Mpumalanga ABOVE LEFT Runde weir gate opening

The treatment and recycling of wastewater is probably the next most impor tant. Approximately 40% or more of water consumed flows to the sewage works, where it should be treated and recycled. Surplus treated water should be stored in underground aquifers, where possible, from where it can be extracted in times of drought. Coastal cities and towns can revert to desalinating sea water. However, these measures come at a cost, which will manifest and be paid as higher tariffs by the public, leading to more financial hardship, especially for the poor.

Take advantage of the floods The cheapest form of water is bulk rainwater run-off in the numerous dams serving municipalities. However, with the long-protracted droughts, the dam storage capacities have been depleted, with some

Dams & Water Storage

ABOVE Avis Dam, Windhoek, showing the gate closed ABOVE RIGHT Avis Dam gate beginning to open

dams running dr y. Never theless, after drought periods brought on by the El Niño effect, it is frequently followed by the La Niña effect, which is higher-than-normal rainfall, often presenting itself as highintensity floods. These can fill the dams in a very short time; surplus water then overflows and is lost to the sea. This surplus water needs to be captured by raising the dams to gain an additional 30% or more of the initial dam capacity. In the early 2000s, the Port Elizabeth area suffered droughts; however, in 2006, heavy rains filled the dams and overflowed, causing considerable damage to the dams. That is water that could have been retained by raising the dams to give relief for future droughts. The raising of dams is the cheapest method of obtaining additional water supplies. A

number of South African dams have already been raised to provide additional storage, such as Midmar and Hazelmere. Others in the process of being raised are the Garden Route and Tzaneen dams. These raisings are constructed as fixed spillways using concrete and earthworks, and usually at considerable cost.

Best spillway option That said, a unique range of automatic spillway gates has been developed and installed in South Africa over the last 20 years, and can raise dams at about half the cost or less than fixed spillway raisings. The spillway gates do not have any electrical or mechanical mechanisms to open and close them, nor do they require operators to activate them. Being spillway gates, they are activated to automatically open and close using water forces only. A number of these TOPS spillway gates have been installed in dams across Southern Africa, such as the Belfast Dam in Mpumalanga, the Avis Dam in Windhoek, as

The cheapest form of water is bulk rainwater run-off in the numerous dams serving municipalities well as Swaziland’s Mnjoli Dam. They have increased storage capacity considerably. The gates can be easily and quickly fitted to most spillway types, including ogee and side-channel spillways. Flexible in operation, these TOPS gates also meet all the requirements of dam safety and provide additional safety features over fixed raising. Municipalities should consider raising their main water supply dams, even during drought periods, as the floods will come and then the additional water can be stored rather than spill over the dam and be lost. Dams still provide the cheapest water. *Peter Townshend is the managing director of Amanziflow Projects. IMIESA October 2018

No Electrical supply or human intervention required

AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL EQUIPMENT • Spillway gates • Scour gates • Release fuse gates • Canal regulating gates • Diaphragm regulating valves • Increased water supply in dams • Sediment removal • Trouble free river offtakes • Canal flow control • Inlet control to reservoirs and dams No Electrical supply or human intervention required

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Structa Technology’s Prestanks are hygienically safe, cost effective and a reliable way to store water for commercial sectors, private sectors and even for personalized storage. Choose from temporary or permanent erection at mines, powerstations, building sites, hospitals, water affairs,municipalities, rural communities and agriculture.

Pressed Steel Sectional Water Tanks Specialists in the manufacturing of domestic and industrial water storage

Prestank tank capacities range from 1 500 litres to 4.2 million litres designed to SANS 10329:2004 guidelines and SANS structural codes. Our Hot Dipped Galvanising units are easily transported and assembled on even the most remote sites.


sustainable & long term




Robust steel tanks specifically intended for rural, domestic, industrial and agricultural water storage needs. Roddy tank capacities range from 3900 - 10,000 litres and stands 5m and 10m high. Designs are based on SANS 10160 and our Hot Dipped Galvanised units are made according to SANS 121 (ISO 1461) standards.

MEYERTON | 0861 STRUCT (787828) Structa Technology is a now a Level 1 BBBEE contributor

Director: Rodney Cory Email: Tel: +27 (0)82 575 2275 Manufactured in SOUTH AFRICA

Dams & Water Storage

Quality storage solutions Leading structural steel water storage tank fabricator Structa Technology has achieved BBBEE Level 1 status as well as ISO9001:2015 certification.


tructa Technology is committed to continuous technological advancements, enabling the company to offer municipalities cost-effective and durable solutions for water storage. “We are indeed proud to have achieved these very important milestones in our company, and we are looking forward to being of better service to all companies and municipalities who need water storage solutions,” says Rodney Cory, director: Prestank, Structa Technology. “Structa Technology prides itself on being one of the country’s best producers of water storage solutions, and we are geared to assist government with its water infrastructure and maintenance programme. We offer water utilities and municipalities two durable, costeffective water storage products: the Roddy Tank and the Prestank.”

The Roddy Structa Technology has improved its basket of service offerings to municipalities by patenting its new Roddy Water Storage Tank. The Roddy Tank is designed for water storage up to 10 000 ℓ across a variety of applications, such as rural, domestic, industrial and agricultural water storage. According to Cory, the new tank responds to government’s need for a patented-design, lower-volume water storage offering that is a more durable, robust and cost-effective solution, which requires minimal maintenance and is ideally suited for smaller rural villages, schools and clinics. The Roddy Tank is a sectional, round, galvanised (hot-dip galvanised in accordance

Structa Technology products are: • proudly South African • manufactured by BBBEE-compliant manufacturers • relevant to infrastructure development • compliant in terms of quality control

with SANS 121, ISO 1461) water storage tank that offers capacities of 3 900 ℓ, 7 200 ℓ and 10 000 ℓ. However, the patented system allows for an easy extension to increase the storage volume without having to replace the original tank. This is perfectly suited for villages where population growth may demand greater storage capacity. The Roddy Tank can be set up on ground level or on a stand of 5 m or 10 m, is easily transported and erected, requires minimal maintenance, and can last for up to 40 years.

Prestank Structa’s long-standing brand, Prestank, has proven itself as a hygienically safe, costeffective and reliable way to store water for communities, commercial and private sectors over the last 40 years. The Prestank Water Storage Tank is the ideal water storage solution for volumes of 10 000 ℓ and above, and may be used for various water storage applications – such as temporary or permanent installations at mines, power stations, building sites, hospitals, water affairs, municipalities, rural communities and agricultural projects. Prestanks are fully customisable, highquality water storage solutions that are manufactured according to SANS guidelines and meet South African hot-dip galvanising requirements. A major advantage of the sectional tank design is that it facilitates easier handling and transportation over long distances to remote areas, regardless of the final dimensions of the assembled unit. Assembly on-site is quick, without the need for sophisticated tooling methods. Minimum maintenance is required because the galvanised steel panels resist weathering from the elements, while maintaining the integrity of the water within from most forms of contamination.

Quality guaranteed Structa Technology is a member of The Structa Group of companies and has successfully manufactured steel engineering products for infrastructure projects since

2002. The subsidiaries in the group pride themselves on: • excellent manufacturing standards • quality health and safety standards • state-of-the-art machines • highly skilled and dedicated workforce • innovative design. “Our Prestank and Roddy Tank adhere to SANS 10160 for structural loading and SANS 10162 for structural steel design. Our new ISO 9001:2015 standard further enhances Structa’s focus on quality and management of risks to ensure that we continuously comply with and exceed our customers’ requirements,” says Cory.

IMIESA October 2018


Improving Quality of Life and Enhancing Sustainable Economic Development

Umgeni Water is a public entity established in 1974 to provide water services water supply and sanitation services - to other water services institutions in its service area. The organization operates in accordance with the Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997) and the Public Finance Management Act (Act1 of 1999), amongst others, and categorized as a National Government Business Enterprise. Umgeni Water reports directly to the Department of Water and Sanitation through the Chairman of the Board and the Chief Executive. The Executive Authority of the water board is the Minister of Water and Sanitation.

310 Burger Street, Pietermaritzburg, 3201, Republic of South Africa / P.O Box 9, Pietermaritzburg, 3200, Republic of South Africa Tel: +27 (33) 341 1111 / Fax +27 (33) 341 1167 / Toll free: 0800 331 820 / Email: / Web:




Trenchless Technology

Securing power supply in West Africa The succesful microtunnelling of two power plant cooling water lines in Ghana will ensure that the plant can supply electricity on the West African Atlantic coast while being cooled by sea water.


he 2 700 GWh per year capacity of the new Kpone Independent Power Plant (KIPP) is enough to supply approximately one million households with electricity reliably. The operations of the oil-gas power plant located about 25 km east of the Ghanaian capital, Accra, directly on the coast, will be cooled

with sea water from the Atlantic Ocean via two cooling water lines. For the construction of these 2 m diameter underground sea water intake and outfall tunnels, Coleman Microtunnelling, a subsidiary of Bothar Group Australia, ordered a Herrenknecht AVND2000AB utility tunnelling machine. Herrenknecht specially

An AVND2000AB Herrenknecht tunnel borer dug its way more than 2.5 km underground at the coast of Ghana

designed the tunnel boring machine (TBM) with a salvage module for this special application: in the sea-outfall method,

18-07-27_034_ID18150_eAz_CapeTown_ImiesaMagazin_210x148_RZgp IMIESA October 2018


Construction of the Cape Flats 3 Bulk Sewer – Phase 2 Client: City of Cape Town Engineer: AECOM Contractor: CSV Construction

Efficient State-of-the-art tunnelling technology from Herrenknecht is currently being applied to upgrade the sewage system in Cape Town. 1.2 km of new, sustainable tunnel infrastructure has been constructed with minimal disruption

Credit: Terry February

to the local community.

Pioneering Underground Technologies

Trenchless Technology

pipelines are constructed from the coastline into the open sea. There, the machine has to be recovered under water. The salvage module prevents the machine and the tunnel from flooding. In addition, for cutter tool changes under high groundwater pressure, Herrenknecht equipped the machine with a hyperbaric chamber. Two shafts on the coast served as starting points for the jobsite crew and

The machine was equipped with a special salvage module as well as a hyperbaric chamber for cutting tool changes under high groundwater pressure

Project INFO • T unnel length: 2 530 m (545 m + 520 m onshore, 380 m + 1 085 m offshore) • L ining method: Pipe jacking • A pplication: Cooling water intake and outfall • G eology: Weathered gneiss • C ustomer: Coleman Microtunnelling, a subsidiary of Bothar Group Australia • C lient: Cenpower


IMIESA October 2018

the Herrenknecht AVND for a total of four pipe jacking drives between May and July 2017. In total, they covered a distance of 2 530 m. First, the team produced two tunnels from the two shafts toward the power plant. These 545 m and 520 m long tunnels run under the mainland and connect the sea outfalls and the power plant.

Thereafter, construction of the challenging tunnelling sections under the sea floor started. Initially, the machine excavated a 1 085 m long tunnel from the coast to the target spot on the seabed for the extraction of the cooling water (sea intake). There, the TBM was recovered by the jobsite crew at a depth of 17 m. Finally, the machine created a parallel 380 m long tunnel toward the sea, which will later deliver the cooling water back into the Atlantic Ocean (sea outlet). “The good project performance for the long sea-outfall drive in Kpone will be a benchmark for the future in the region,“ says Swen Weiner, area sales executive: Middle East & Africa for the Herrenknecht Utility Tunnelling Business Unit.

Contractor Development

Overcoming barriers to

development The demand for public services and job creation is often raised at municipal protests, where the provision of infrastructure is seen as the major driver in attaining these two goals. Major metros, in particular, must create linked construction and training programmes that result in technically and organisationally competent SME contractors. By Professor Robert McCutcheon*


mployment creation and skills development are both national and municipal priorities given the extent of South Africa’s unemployment problem and the threat that this poses to socio-economic development. Within the construction mix, there are opportunities for small contractors, who could be employed to construct and maintain a great deal of the municipal building and infrastructure landscape. Indeed, much of the policies and procedures developed since the mid-1990s have intended to promote small contractor development. However, it appears that many SMEs have fallen short in terms of proficiency and execution, mainly due to inexperience, which obviously needs to be addressed: poor quality and rework derail the process and become a hindrance.

Small contractor development: Policies and procedures Continued transformation of the construction industry is important in meeting the triple challenge of unemployment, poverty and inequality. In the second half of the 1990s, targeted procurement regulations were introduced

to begin the process of transformation. In the late 1990s, this morphed into preferential procurement. Then, in 2000, the Construction Industry Development Board was instituted (CIDB Act 38 of 2000). The Act could apply to both the contracting and consulting arms of the industry, but the major focus was on contracting. The CIDB categorised contractors into nine different grades: Grade 1 was limited to contracts less than R200 000 (now R400 000). The rand value for Grade 9 was unlimited and remains so. Part of the stated rationale for the grading system was that contractors could progress up the scale from Grade 1 to 9. Whatever the merits or demerits of preferential procurement and the CIDB grading system, it has now been in place for over 18 years. In order to quantify its level of success in terms of where we need to be in the future, the whole process needs to be revisited.

Results to date Since the mid-1990s, there have been various contractor development programmes. The CIDB launched its own, known as the National Contractor Development Programme (NCDP). In March 2009, the CIDB published its Status Quo Review of Contractor Development Programmes. A major conclusion was that “the overall success of CDPs is somewhat questionable.� In October 2011, the CIDB published a Baseline Study of Provincial Contractor

IMIESA October 2018


Development Programmes, which was subtitled ‘Review of the Contractor Development Programmes: Towards an NCDP Monitoring and Evaluation System’. This study extended and updated the 2009 Status Quo Review and its major finding was similar: “Overall, most of the programmes have not performed as they were envisaged in the development of contractors.” Postgraduate research in the WITS School of Civil and Environmental Engineering substantiates these conclusions.

The challenges Although the ‘business’ aspect is important, our research has suggested that – during the tendering and selection process – insufficient attention has been paid to the prior need for technical qualifications, experience and competence. The need for quality of product, proven experience and appropriate track record has been

somewhat undervalued. This is at both executive and site level. Technical quality and sound experience are intrinsic and must be in place irrespectively, since this has a direct bearing on the efficient expenditure of public funds as well as public safety. We cannot make assumptions: capabilities need to be rigorously tested. In general, industry reports on underperforming SME contractors end with recommendations on the need for improvement, but lack specifics. If policy and procedures were mentioned, it was stated that improvement would result from the implementation of existing policy and procedures. There has been very little questioning of the policies and procedures themselves. Our research suggests that it’s the policies and procedures that are no longer appropriate. Three examples will suffice for now. In 2018, some 13 000 of the 14 000 companies registered by CIDB are listed as Grade 1; Grades 2 to 9 account for the balance (less than 10%). As mentioned earlier, part of the rationale for the grading system was that contractors could progress to higher value projects. However, the rate of progression has been much slower than anticipated: the lower grades are not far removed from being labour-only subcontractors. The fact that Grade 1 contains the vast majority of all registered contractors suggests a severe weakness in the underpinning of the CIDB grading system and, simply, wishful thinking regarding small contractor development. The whole idea of moving up a hierarchy from one level to the next is deeply flawed, especially when based upon the proposed method of improvement, namely on-site mentoring by established contractors. This is hopelessly inadequate and the approach has failed time and time again. It has often been stated that established contractors should mentor small contractors, and this stipulation is more often included in the contract documentation. The conventional industry has found ways to ignore contractual obligations. The same is now true for small contractor development. Without monitoring, evaluation and enforcement, very little will have been achieved by the end of the contract. For the main contractor, the immediate need is to run a successful business, which places mentorship of a myriad of SME contractors very low on the list of priorities. More importantly, it ignores the fact that a small contractor requires considerable prior technical and organisational knowledge before being able to benefit from mentoring.

How contracts are allocated The difficulties experienced in the small contractor development field have been exacerbated by the policy and procedures surrounding the allocation of contracts done on a rotational basis. In some places, this has been formalised into a roster. The theoretical basis for this is that it is necessary to spread the contracts around in a community. That hampers SMEs from sustaining their businesses if they remain based in a specific region, since it will be some time before their turn comes up again to apply for new work. The approach is not conducive to fair competition and entrepreneurship.

Contractor Development

The end result is a dearth of technically sound and economically efficient SME contractors. Therefore, a new approach to SME and individual skills development is required, and policies and procedures must be changed.

The way forward Regarding SME companies, the selection process must pay far more attention to technical qualifications, experience (i.e. a proven track record) and competence. Policies and procedures need to adopt a more realistic approach regarding the route

to becoming a successful contractor. The trajectory should be more in line with the following: a good basic education, followed by thorough technical training, then five to ten years of applied experience. The new approach must also focus upon the production of properly trained artisans and construction operatives who need to complete the Construction Processes Site Supervisors (NQF Level 4) qualification. Opportunities are already presented by the Municipal Infrastructure Grant (MIG) and these need to be more proactively explored and implemented. MIG funding

initiatives include job creation and skills development for individuals, small contractors and municipal officials/ community representatives. Municipalities and, in particular, major metros must also establish in-house programmes that formally link construction and maintenance to the training of the ‘missing middle’ – i.e. the hands-on singleand multisite supervisors – so that they have the requisite foundational technical construction and project management skills. The more independent and entrepreneurially minded might later risk the big step to becoming small contractors. This focus demands that formal linkages be established between TVET colleges and the construction and maintenance of municipal building and infrastructure. In effect, this would result in the formation of municipal infrastructure training colleges, a highly niched and focused approach that builds South Africa and fulfils all our national development plan objectives. That’s sustainable transformation in practice. *Professor Robert McCutcheon is an employment creation and development specialist at Malani Padayachee and Associates (MPA) and professor emeritus and honorary professor at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand. These are the views and opinions of the author, and neither MPA nor Wits.

IMIESA October 2018


Human Settlements

Ensuring quality housing


RK Consulting has contributed its scientific and engineering expertise to numerous housing projects in KwaZulu-Natal since 2010 and has, to date, been instrumental in the successful completion of about 3 400 houses. Projects have ranged from peri-urban developments, comprising upwards of 1 000 stands, to small rural initiatives comprising 20 to 70 homes. “The SRK team, with its broad range of expertise, is making an important contribution in terms of services ranging from environmental engineering to quality assurance,” explains James Morris, partner and lead engineer, SRK. “In town planning management, for example, we make use of a spatial planning tool that provides geographic information system overlays of development suitability criteria such as geotechnics, slope, road corridors, floodlines, wetlands,

3 400

SRK Consulting has contributed its expertise since 2010 to the successful completion of about 3 400 houses

A completed Cape seal section


IMIESA October 2018

servitudes and endangered species in the area of the development.” SRK currently has over 15 housing projects in KwaZulu-Natal, with about half of them either in the construction stage or already completed. The remainder are in various stages of pre-implementation. Among the earliest developments was the Kwa-Jali Rural Housing project. This ran from 2010 to 2014 and entailed the construction of 889 houses. Another is the 445-unit Bashaweni Rural Housing project, which ran from 2012 to 2015. One of the largest is the Khula Housing integrated residential development project, which began in 2012 and is ongoing; by the end of 2018, some 1 145 houses will have been constructed in a ver y challenging and environmentally sensitive area. A number of the housing projects in which SRK is engaged are at the approval stage


SRK was part of the multidisciplinary team that was a second runner-up in the KZN section of the 2017 Govan Mbeki Housing Awards – in the Integrated Residential Development Programme category

– including urban housing in integrated residential developments, rural housing and Operation Sukuma Sakhe housing initiatives. The impact of these will be significant, as they involve the delivery of over 6 000 houses. SRK was part of the multidisciplinary team that was a second runner-up in the KZN section of the 2017 Govan Mbeki Housing Awards – in the Integrated Residential Development Programme category. SRK’s roles on this project included technical project management, design and review, and the quality control of 1 145 houses, as well as water reticulation and roads. The reticulation and house connection design involved 2.9 km of pipework, while the roadwork consisted of a 3.5 km Cape seal taxi route and 2.9 km of gravel access roads.

6 000

A number of the housing projects in which SRK is engaged are at the approval stage and involve the delivery of over 6 000 houses

Waste Management

Navigating landfill closure South Africa produces over 100 million tonnes of waste daily, putting landfill space at a premium. In dealing with this, the controlled, planned, and systematic filling of landfill cells requires progressive closure and rehabilitation.


andfills are typically designed with a predetermined lifespan in accordance with the volume of waste that can be handled. Once filled to capacity, landfills must be closed and decommissioned, as stipulated in the awarded waste management licence. Landfills may also need to be closed for other reasons, such as unacceptable environmental impacts and geological issues. However, effective landfill remediation poses a challenge for both public and private entities. Navigating the regulatory

Successful international remediated landfills in urban areas include: • London Olympic Stadium (2012) • Milan Universal Expo (2015) • Confluence neighbourhood of Lyon, France

process, coordinating the different phases of the project, and establishing a longterm plan for post-closure reuse are only the beginning. Nicolas Vanhecke, practice lead: Remediation Services, and Soleil Jones, environmental scientist, both at AECOM, comment that although closure may seem like the end of the story, it is only the beginning of the next chapter in the life of the landfill.

Closing a landfill The process of landfill closure and remediation is legislated by the National Environmental Management Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008; NEMWA), the Water Act (No. 10 of 1998) and the Waste Management Series, as promulgated by the Department of Water and Sanitation. While it might seem that the closure process only commences once the landfill has reached the end of its useful life, there are factors that may need to be attended to while the site is still operational. The slopes of the waste body, for example, must lie at a safe angle, which should be maintained throughout the operational phase, after

which capping is carried out by means of an engineered liner. All stormwater run-off must be diverted away from the waste body so as to separate the clean and dirty water circuits, and to prevent leachate from soaking into the waste body, which can result in subsequent groundwater pollution and odours. The site must also be fully secured, and access-controlled, in order to prevent trespassers, such as people re-mining the waste body for recyclables, which presents a fire risk, as well as allowing rainwater to permeate the waste body. “In the past, little to no consideration was given to the potential environmental impacts of landfills on human health and the larger environment, which is why today’s landfills are licensed, with specific engineering designs,” Vanhecke and Jones highlight. The remediation process depends on factors such as the type and classification of the waste, and the size of the landfill. Most of the time, the remediation process consists of waste reprofiling; capping, usually with topsoil such as clay or with a geotextile; revegetating, usually with indigenous grass; and, finally, closure. If the site is smaller,

IMIESA October 2018


Waste Management

site reclamation can be conducted via an excavation-transfer-treatment process. A key element in site reclamation is the transformation of anaerobic to aerobic conditions in the landfilled waste. Depending on the waste accumulated in the landfill, a methane gas plant can be installed to recuperate methane for energy purposes. Once properly remediated, the landfill site could be used for anything from parkland to recreational infrastructure or even grassland.

Post-closure monitoring Following closure and remediation, the landfill

site is subject to a post-closure monitoring period, which is recommended for up to 30 years. This is in order to monitor the integrity of the capping, and the impact on the groundwater quality in and around the waste body. There may also be a need for ongoing pumping and treatment of the leachate that gathers in the leachate collection system. The landfill will also most likely require a methane management system, whether done by landfill gas harvesting or regular flaring, to prevent methane build-up, fire risk and air pollution. Adherence to legislation is key and, therefore, a preliminar y closure plan and

end-use options for the landfill should be outlined from the outset of the project. These should also ideally addressed in the initial environmental impact assessment phase. Financial provision must be made for these engineering works and materials, and a more detailed rehabilitation and closure plan must be developed as soon as landfill operations commence.

Waste Management

Medical waste auto tracker launched Healthcare institutions have a legal duty to ensure that their hazardous waste is managed responsibly.


s stipulated in the Proposed National Health Care Risk Waste Management Regulations (2018), the person in charge of a health establishment must ensure that healthcare waste is handled, collected, transported, removed, treated and disposed of in such a manner that it does not pose a risk to human health and the environment. To monitor for compliance, the Department of Environmental Affairs requires that waste generators keep detailed records on the waste management chain. “The mandated duty of care and recordkeeping for hazardous waste presents significant difficulty to medical institutions that consign various stages of the disposal process to external service providers,” says Eugene Barnard, head: Healthcare at Averda South Africa. Therefore, in a bold move that demonstrates its commitment to the responsible management of hazardous waste products, Averda has introduced Averda TruTrak. This innovative waste management system gives clients access to automated waste-tracking and record-keeping capabilities via an online customer portal – a first-to-market innovation in South Africa. Waste management companies are trusted to collect and transport waste, subject it to the required treatment processes, dispose of it in a suitably compliant manner, and keep accurate records to support their client’s auditing requirements. Failure to act in accordance with the specific regulations attributed to each step in this process exposes waste generators, their directors, managers, agents and employees to significant liability. The lack of oversight in a system that is vulnerable to human

error and mismanagement does little for a waste generator’s peace of mind. However, according to Barnard, the introduction of Averda TruTrak will resolve this concern. “By having the means to monitor the disposal of their hazardous waste loads, medical institutions can ensure compliance with their legal responsibility to protect the communities they serve,” he explains.

RFID tags The system makes use of radiofrequency identification (RFID) tracking tags, which are attached to the containers that hold high-risk waste. Then, scanners on scales, collection vehicles and at treatment facilities automatically record information, including collection and delivery weight, time, date and location details. This data is automatically captured and uploaded to an online client portal. Clients are given access to the tracking process via the portal, which allows waste transportation to be monitored in real time.

Averda TruTrak is an automated waste tracking and record-keeping system, which enables real-time monitoring via an online customer portal

This also provides them with access to delivery notes, invoices and disposal reports detailing the nature, quantity and disposal methods for each waste consignment. These are automatically stored and can be printed off as and when required, in line with the waste generator’s auditing requirements. “The automation of this process eliminates the risk of inaccurate or incomplete reporting, enhances transparency and boosts data integrity for record-keeping purposes,” Barnard concludes. Averda will first pilot the Averda TruTrak system with select clients. Thereafter, the benefits of this automated track-and-trace system will be made available to the entire market, ensuring 100% compliance in the disposal of healthcare risk waste.

IMIESA October 2018


Building solutions that last A workman applies Mapei Planitop Smooth and Repair R4 ZA mortar, which forms part of the new building products range


apei South Africa’s new state-of-the-art production facility in Roodekop is geared up to meet local demand and recently launched a range of commercial and residential generalpurpose building products. These include performance grouts, cementitious waterproofing, screeds, concrete additives, and concrete repair products. “Mapei is known worldwide for its innovation and product development, which means we’re always looking at ways to improve our products, while continuously keeping our impact on the environment in mind,” explains Antony Offenberg, managing director, Mapei South Africa. As a result, Mapei has developed products that use less water, are rapid-setting, and which exhibit low volatile emissions. “Our products are price competitive and manufactured to international standards, which ensures consistency of quality,” adds Tracy Harris, commercial manager, Mapei. Product quality is backed up by expert advice from Mapei’s technical department, in addition to courses run at the company’s training centre. Products in the Mapei building line

Mapefill GP SAF 25kg

General purpose non-shrink grout

Mapegrout T40 SAF 25 kg

Shrinkage-compensated, fibre-reinforced grout for concrete repairs

Mapelastic Smart A 20 kg

High-flexibility waterproofing grout with crack bridging ability

Planitop Smooth & Repair R4 ZA 25 kg

Structural R4-class, rapid-setting, shrinkage-compensated, thixotropic, fibre-reinforced, cementitious mortar

Topcem 20 kg

Premier floor screed

Mapegrout Hi-Flow ZA 25 kg

High-flow, shrinkage-compensated, fibre-reinforced mortar for concrete repair

Planiseal 88 25 kg

Acrylic polymer specifically designed to treat concrete slabs

Mapelastic Foundation A 20 kg

Cementitious mortar for waterproofing concrete surfaces subject to both positive and negative water pressure

Mapetop N AR6 Extra Light Grey 20 kg

Pre-blended, ready-to-use industrial hardener for concrete floors


IMIESA October 2018

Cement & Concrete | Precast

A pilot programme has prepared the way for the release of a new modular system for reservoir projects.

Driving innovation in service delivery


he need for swift action to help solve the water crisis has been a major driver behind the marked uptake of Corestruc’s precast concrete systems by municipalities and water authorities. “They continue to explore new and innovative ways of fast-tracking service delivery,” Shaun Hadkinson, marketing manager, Corestruc, tells IMIESA. “A case in point is a visionary municipality that agreed to be the first to test our new unique precast concrete wall system on a 10 Mℓ reservoir construction project. It is being used alongside Corestruc’s tried and tested precast concrete roof system, which, alone, has shaved months off the construction time of these structures for other municipalities.” The project is now reaching completion and has served as an important trial phase ahead of the imminent commercial launch of the new modular precast concrete wall system. It is based on more than 11 years of experience in designing and constructing precast concrete systems for water infrastructure projects, including treatment works and large 50 Mℓ reservoirs. During the R&D phase, significant emphasis was placed on the design of the wall panels to ensure a water-tight structure.

Reducing commercial risks Using the company’s reservoir roof system, municipalities have also been able to

reduce risks associated with these builds. “By constructing the walls and roof of the structure in this manner, the critical path of the programme runs through the earthworks and foundations,” says Hadkinson. “The construction of the floor slabs overlaps the installation of the walls and roof on the works programme. We are able to construct the walls and roof in three months on-site. Meanwhile, the manufacture of the structure takes place at our factory during the earthworks and construction of the foundations.” Importantly, the system also supports increased par ticipation by emerging contractors, which will construct the floor and other associated infrastructure. Meanwhile, they will also benefit from municipalities’ ability to accelerate these projects to bridge the growing backlog in water supply infrastructure, considering that the system is able to reduce reservoir project programmes on reservoirs by more than 50%. The growing backlog of water infrastructure has again been placed under the spotlight by the draft National Water and Sanitation Master Plan, which will serve as South Africa’s guide for investment planning to develop water resources and the means to deliver water and sanitation services beyond 2030. “The document describes the low reliability and advanced age of this critical infrastructure,” he says. “More than 50% of municipal water supply assets now require

urgent rehabilitation or replacement. This will avoid further negatively impacting water supply reliability, which is as low as 65% in the country. In 27 priority district municipalities, water reliability is only 42% and just over 30% in 10 of South Africa’s water services authorities.” However, one of the biggest selling points of Corestruc’s precast concrete systems for municipal infrastructure projects, including sports stadiums and recreational centres, remains the high durability of the structures that are manufactured at its stateof-the-art factory. The modular reservoir wall technology will also be manufactured to the same exacting standards as the company’s other systems, in a safe and controlled environment. This also ensures that higher levels of accuracy are achievable on-site than what is possible with conventional cast-in-place construction methods. “Budget constraints remain a serious inhibitor to the effective maintenance of these assets. This has been exacerbated by the cutting of provincial authorities’ and municipalities’ budgets, which they need to provide basic services. These have already had a profound negative impact on smaller municipalities already struggling to leverage their income, and this will continue to stimulate new thinking around infrastructure delivery,” Hadkinson concludes.

IMIESA October 2018


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Creating Concrete Possibilities

Cement & Concrete | Precast


he successful completion of a complex erosion-control countermeasure has provided a firm foundation for a new residence in Thohoyandou, Limpopo. The project was executed by Engineered Interlock Solutions (EIS) and serves as a prime example of the effectiveness of concrete retaining block (CRB) wall systems. Technicrete’s Earthform product was specified for this project. “Earthform provides embankments with natural support, while protecting the land from collapsing due to erosion,” explains Peter Hilton, sales consultant for Technicrete in Polokwane. “Additionally, it provides an attractive and practical finish in steep areas through the creation of plantable and easy-tomaintain retaining walls.” EIS designed and constructed the retaining walls in various stages. The critical area was in front of the house where 80 mm wide tension cracks had already developed. There was a

CRB systems installed as erosion control and slope stabilisation measures on a residential project in Thohoyandou, Limpopo

Steep slope stability maintained risk that this embankment could collapse and a total slip failure would have had a major impact on the structural integrity of the house. As a starting point, the in situ embankment was cut back to the required design distance for the geosynthetics reinforcement and drainage to be installed. The fill wall was constructed in two terraces, each 3 m high. There were various smaller terraced walls constructed on both sides of the house. One wall was constructed as a 7 m high continuous wall that flared out into three smaller terraces. The wall behind the house in the cut section

was also designed as a two-terrace wall. The bottom section was 5 m high and the second wall 3 m high. Earthform retaining wall blocks can be stacked up to 7 m high, provided that sufficient geosynthetic reinforcement, erosioncontrol layers and drainage are installed in the reinforced fill section directly behind the CRBs. Constructed over a period of eight months, over 20 000 grey Earthform blocks were installed to complete the Thohoyandou project. IMIESA October 2018


Cement & Concrete | Precast

Unmatched structural integrity Exposed concrete interior sections add a dynamic effect

Structural integrity, durability, energy efficiency and fire resistance are just a few of the benefits concrete construction offers for the creation of infrastructure, says Bryan Perrie, managing director of The Concrete Institute (TCI). Bryan Perrie, managing director, The Concrete Institute


he strength of concrete elements in buildings is well understood by structural engineers, architects and contractors. This includes in situ reinforced concrete, precast concrete, tilt-up, hybrid construction, and post-tensioned concrete elements. “South African design and construction codes regulate the structural requirements of concrete buildings, which ensure that concrete structures are safe, with the capacity to cope with any permanent, imposed, wind and earthquake actions. For common spans, the relatively high mass of concrete floors leads to natural damping and low vibration. For more stringent criteria, such as for laboratories or hospital operating theatres, the additional cost to meet stricter vibration criteria is negligible,” Perrie states.


IMIESA October 2018

Concrete is renowned as one of the most durable materials on earth, so well-designed, well-constructed concrete ensures long life in any structure. This results not only in lower expenditure of energy in building new infrastructure or housing, but also in reduced maintenance and impact on the use of finite resources. “The first line of defence against deterioration is good-quality, impermeable concrete. In the case of reinforced concrete, the quality of the cover concrete is extremely important in protecting the steel reinforcement against aggressive agents and fire. This zone of concrete is intended to act as the barrier between the reinforcing steel and external aggressive environments, and its quality is of primary importance in durability considerations. Good material choice, mix proportioning, and sound construction practice are essential to ensure durable concrete,” Perrie emphasises.

Resource efficiencies Concrete’s energy efficiency is shown in many ways. The use of local materials in the production of concrete minimises fuel costs for handling and transportation and, once

in place, concrete offers significant energy savings over the lifetime of the structure. Most of the primary materials used in concrete are produced locally. Cement extenders and slag aggregates used are secondary industrial products that would otherwise have required dumping. While the cement factories are generally located close to the location of the necessary raw materials, sources of aggregates and readymix plants can be placed close to the areas of demand, thereby reducing the energy required for transport. “The materials used in concrete furthermore make efficient use of natural resources and, again, the potential for recycling at lifeend saves quarrying of finite resources. Concrete mixes for readymix plants and precast yards are designed specifically to use aggregates sourced from local quarries, and more recently also from recycled concrete, which reduces fuel costs for transporting these materials. “The embodied energy in the construction of a structure is usually minimal compared with the energy likely to be consumed during the life or use phase of a structure. In the

The structural strength of concrete elements provides a boundless range of design opportunities

case of roads and transport infrastructure, any aspect that reduces fuel consumption will have a major impact on the energy usage over the lifetime of a busy highway. A major Canadian study showed a 2.35% fuel saving by using concrete roads, with a subsequent reduction in the emission of polluting gases.”

Fire properties Perrie says another benefit of concrete structures is that concrete does not burn or emit any toxic substances during a fire. It will not produce smoke or drip molten particles and, therefore, concrete can be described as fire-resistant. The concrete in structures, unlike in other construction materials,

generally does not require fire-proofing or protection if appropriately designed. “This eliminates the time, cost, additional materials and labour required to provide separate fire-protection measures. During a fire, the concrete cover will protect the steel reinforcement from buckling or yielding,” he explains. Concrete’s inherent fire resistance will restrict smoke from spreading and will largely maintain a building’s strength during a fire. After a fire, the continuing structural strength and reduction in smoke damage also reduce the magnitude of insurance claims. Concrete structures generally remain intact after a blaze, allowing for relatively quick repair and

Cement & Concrete | Precast

re-occupation, saving time and costs, as well as finite resources. Fire-damaged concrete buildings usually do not require demolishing or rebuilding, so concrete structures protect life and preserve property, contributing to enhanced social and economic performance of the built environment – an important consideration for all property owners, such as municipalities. “When aesthetic qualities, such as design flexibility and variety of finishes are added to the sustainability benefits of concrete, it is easy to see why it is the preferred building material choice for property owners, developers, designers and contractors,” Perrie concludes.

IMIESA October 2018


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Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment

L-R: Jacques van der Sandt, senior operations manager: Pinetown branch, Komatsu South Africa; Dave Haines, owner, Old Lady & Son Plant Hire; and Ravi Naidoo, sales representative: Pinetown branch, Komatsu South Africa

Real-time rental management

A major reclamation and ground improvement project

Remote machine monitoring via wireless communications is an invaluable tool when it comes to analysing utilisation and maximising performance.


OMTRAX ® , Komatsu’s advanced remote equipment and machine-monitoring system, has become an indispensable tool for the management of an extensive fleet of capital equipment operated by Old Lady & Son Plant Hire (OL&S). This KwaZulu-Natal-based company leases equipment primarily to the construction industr y, and recently extended its footprint into mining and quarr ying. “Wireless, secure and user-friendly, the web-based application places a wealth of information at the user’s fingertips so that they can enhance utilisation, minimise downtime and reduce operating costs,” says Toshi Ohtsuka, manager: Sales and Marketing, Komatsu. Areas in which KOMTRAX delivers are wide-ranging and include parameters like equipment hours, average hourly fuel consumption, idling times, water temperature, and fuel levels. OL&S owner Dave Haines makes extensive use of KOMTRAX and it is now an integral part of the operation. “Maintenance is a non-negotiable issue and we strictly obser ve the minor and major ser vice procedures notified by KOMTRAX. A short-term costsaving gained by skimping on an oil change is nothing compared with the financial consequences of an expensive machine standing idle,” he says.

Managing fuel burn costs KOMTRAX provides the data to support three vital functions: financial controls, engineering and maintenance, and marketing and costing. In terms of operational costs, diesel consumption is by far the biggest consideration. Here, KOMTRAX data enables OL&S to provide better advice to customers on the anticipated fuel consumption for specific jobsite applications, thus improving their competitiveness when bidding for tenders. “They may have two identical excavators both working a nine-hour shift, but the operating costs can vary enormously. The first may be used for pipe laying and burn diesel at a rate of 13.4 ℓ/h. The second may be used for bulk earthworks and continually load trucks, which would likely consume fuel at a rate of 17.5 ℓ/h. The difference of 4.1 ℓ/h over a month of operations would equate to more than R10 000, which the customer must account for when costing operations,” says Haines. An energy-saving report details actual operational hours, as well as idle times, times worked in power or economy mode, and lightor heavy-load applications. In reporting daily fuel consumption based on injector volume, KOMTRAX also enables OL&S to advise customers on the possible incidence of fuel theft by comparing fuel burn with volumes dispensed from diesel bowsers. In addition to

IMIESA October 2018


Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment

ABOVE A KOMTRAX working status report shows how much fuel is left in the tank ABOVE RIGHT The energy-saving report shows the average hourly fuel consumption record in power and/or economy mode

accurate productivity and utilisation information, KOMTRAX can also be used to elevate training requirements for new and existing operators.


IMIESA October 2018

Komatsu has a global contract with Google Maps, which provides the exact location of each product – a major time saver when technicians go out to work on equipment in remote rural areas. Knowing exactly where machines are at any given time also discourages theft and unauthorised usage. KOMTRAX is now installed as standard on ever y new unit of Komatsu construction equipment. The range includes excavators,

dozers, wheel loaders, graders, and rigid and articulated dump trucks. It can also be installed on equipment using 12 V or 24 V electrical systems, which makes it possible to retrofit older Komatsu products or those produced by other OEMs. Users are able to access the system from their desktop computers and, more recently, via the KOMTRAX ON THE GO app on their smartphones.


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Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment

Perfecting floor finishes


he new MCT36-5 M Series walk-behind concrete trowel has joined Wacker Neuson’s comprehensive range of solutions for the Southern African market. Affordable, easy to operate and maintain, the MCT36-5 M is designed to deliver prolonged uptime and the lowest total cost of ownership. It’s a robust machine that benefits from Wacker Neuson’s 60+ years of experience as a market leader in concrete finishing. With a 915 mm trowelling diameter, the MCT36-5M is ideal for finishing domestic and industrial concrete floors with areas smaller than 500 m2 and comes equipped

with a ‘whale tail’ trowel handle that is heightadjustable. For added safety, the machine also features a centrifugal engine shut-off (for emergency shutdown) and robust blade guard. “Ensuring that customers have access to our complete product and ser vice por tfolio is of the utmost impor tance to us,” says Dennis Vietze, managing director, Wacker Neuson sub-Saharan Africa. “Consequently, we continue our strong focus on strengthening existing dealer relationships and expanding our dealership network.”

Powered by a reliable 4.1 kW four-stroke petrol engine, the Wacker Neuson MCT36-5M concrete trowel is optimally balanced for effortless control at variable speed ranges

Wacker Neuson’s extensive concrete technology por tfolio also includes internal and external vibrators, frequency convertors and rebar tiers. IMIESA October 2018

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Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment

Double up on power

Equipped with solid lifting eyes and forklift inlets, the container can be easily manoeuvred on to flat-bed trucks for safe transportation and positioning on the plant

The innovative and smart design of the new QAC 1100 and QAC 1450 TwinPower™ containerised generators from Atlas Copco Power Technique sees them optimally designed for sites that have variable power needs.


ccording to David Stanford, business line manager: Por table Products, Atlas Copco Power Technique, “End-users receive twice the power and double the flexibility on a single compact platform, making the economic viability of the QAC 1100 and QAC 1450 second to none.” The advanced TwinPower concept offers two fully loaded generators housed in one 20-foot cer tified container.


IMIESA October 2018



“The positioning of the two generators, two 500 kVAs (QAC 1100) and two 725 kVAs (QAC 1450), on one platform provides the ultimate solution to customers and end-users that require changeable power and current usage options. In addition to solving variable-load issues, this innovative arrangement also reduces fuel consumption, with savings of up to 10%,” Stanford explains. End-users have the choice of island mode or Power Management System, which can

run in parallel with mains, peak shaving, mains power expor t/impor t, fixed-power and AMF (automatic mains failure) set-ups. Requiring less than two hours of ser vice after 500 hours of operation, the TwinPower generators also contribute to increased uptime. “Moreover, one generator can run at 50% while the other is being ser viced, offering end-users a built-in backup as standard for seamless 24/7 power supply,” Stanford concludes.

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