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IMESA The officia l magaz ine of the Institu te of Munici pal Engine ering of Southe rn Africa

INFRA STRUC TURE

DEVELOPME NT •

MAIN TENAN CE •

SERVI CE DELIV ERY

Contents 17

volume 41 no. 11 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2016

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Water Managing the water balance

Power Generation Nojoli Wind Farm commissioned

g water MUN ICIPA L Drivin gs INSIGHT savin

r: Deputy Directo Hanré Blignau t, nd Municip ality Planning , Overstra Enginee ring and

MANN AM ollo delivers for

Ap ctors emerging contra

rds IMESA/CESA Awa cipal Rewarding muni e engineering excellenc

Municipal Water Holistic water management

Bitumen & Asphalt New bitumen work specification frame

T IN THE HOT SEA

ering fraternity, the consulting engine ive relationship with a specific application.” We have a proact products to use for our advice on which s P10 who frequently seek Sizabantu Piping System

ing Director, Don Coleman Manag

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Ammann SA believes that making technology more accessible and af fordable will help stimulate South Africa’s construction economy. P6

Regulars

Panel Discussion

Editor’s Comment

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NuWater

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President’s Comment

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Cranefield College

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VNA Consulting

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Africa Round-up

IMESA/CESA Awards Cover Story Apollo delivers for emerging contractors 6 SAICE/SAFCEC Awards

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Meet SAICE’s engineer of the year 54

Hot Seat Plastic pipes are the future

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Bringing back demand

Municipal Insight Driving water savings

SAFCEC Conference 55

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Human Settlements Revitalising the Joburg CBD

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Water Technical Paper: Managing the water balance

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Water security is multifaceted

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HVAC Systems Total flow control

HOT SEAT A new, dedicated pipe factory, being commissioned in 2016, is situated within the Richards Bay IDZ and is a pivotal development for Sizabantu Piping Systems. P10

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Cement & Concrete The thermal mass leader

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Durability and sustainability

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Fleet Management 24

Fleet replacement planning needs to be quantified

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Power Generation New PV solution for the African market

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Nojoli Wind Farm commissioned

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Construction Vehicles & Equipment Earthmoving fleet pushes brick production

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Bitumen & Asphalt

Geared for growth

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Technical Paper: PG specifications add new dimension

Leading in vertical digging

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550 tonnes per hour

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IMESA/CESA Awards Celebrating municipal engineering excellence

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cement & concrete Durability and sustainability

73

Construction Vehicles & Equipment Geared for growth


WATER RESTRICTIONS IN JOHANNESBURG

The City of Johannesburg is required by the Department of Water and Sanitation to reduce its water usage by 15% with immediate effect, as water levels at our source (Integrated Vaal River System) have dropped to alarming levels. This mandatory mitigation measure on water usage has been triggered by on-going drought and unusual warmer conditions.

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Level-2 water use restrictions according to section 44 (3) of the Water Services By-law states that consumers are compelled: • Not to water their garden between 06:00 and 18:00; • Not to use irrigation systems, only a hand held hose or bucket is permitted during watering times; • Not to fill swimming pools with municipal water; and • Not to use hosepipes to wash their cars or to clean paved areas and driveways with water.

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Water demand restriction tariffs on domestic users effective on water usage from September 2016. Full tariff schedule: www.johannesburgwater.co.za

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Implementation of water supply restrictions through reduction of outflows from our reservoirs will take place during off peak times (20:00 – 04:00) in selected areas daily.

For more information and water saving tips visit www.johannesburgwater.co.za. Please subscribe on our website, to our SMS notification service for planned or unplanned service interruptions.


EDITOR’s comment Publisher Elizabeth Shorten MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie SENIOR JOURNALIST Danielle Petterson Head OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister DESIGN consultant Frédérick Danton Chief SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders SUB-EDITOR Morgan Carter ContributorS Konstant Bruinette, Tian Claassens, Duncan Daries, Piet Myburgh, Nigel Webb CLIENT SERVICES & Production MANAGEr Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator Jacqueline Modise financial manager Andrew Lobban MARKETING MANAGER Mpinane Senkhane Administration Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS subs@3smedia.co.za Printers United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________

The need for corridors of prosperity

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istening to Minister Gugile Nkwinti’s presentation at the annual South African Forum of Civil Engineering Contractors (SAFCEC) conference in October reinforced a number of key realities facing our country that need more immediate attention. As the Minister for Rural Development and Land Reform, Nkwinti has a strategic role to play in addressing past imbalances, and potentially on a far more dramatic basis than the Corridors of Freedom (CoF) proposals currently being forwarded by government. Within the City of Johannesburg, the CoF initiative sets out to correct the past imbalances created by entrenched black and white settlement patterns in pre-democratic South Africa. One of the key goals of the CoF project is to promote diversity and inclusion by constructing mixeduse developments that integrate with intermodal transport, in the process establishing an enabling environment where communities from across all ethnicities and income groups can live, work and interact as a more inclusive society. It’s a great idea and one that is steadily taking shape, supported by initiatives like Johannesburg’s Rea Vaya BRT (bus rapid transit) network. Although CoF helps to address the past, the reality is that a large section of the population is on the verge of being completely excluded and trapped in a poverty vacuum, compounded by low skills levels and limited access to higher education. South Africa’s official unemployment level is currently estimated at around 26.6% of the population. This compares to fellow BRIC member, Brazil, where the figure is pegged at approximately 11.2% in a country that shares similar socio-economic and political challenges, and disparities between rich and poor. According to World Bank estimates, the planet’s rural populations are shrinking, and urban centres are growing. This is well illustrated by the statistics for the 1960 to 2015 period, where the South African rural population reduced from 53% to 35%, with a continuous shift to towns and cities. (For Brazil, the shift is even sharper – from 54% to 14%.)

Advertising Sales Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 Email: jennymiller@lantic.net ___________________________________________________

Publisher: media No. 9, 3rd Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 www.3smedia.co.za Annual subscription: R550.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2016. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: King Singh P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: admin@imesa.org.za Website: www.imesa.org.za BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 Email: celestev@buffalocity.gov.za EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Fax: +27 (0)41 585 1066 Email: imesa.easterncape@gmail.com KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Ingrid Botton Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax:+27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: imesakzn@imesa.org.za NORTHERN PROVINCE Secretary: Rona Fourie Tel: +27 (0)82 742 6364 Fax: +27 (0)86 634 5644 Email: np@imesa.org.za SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Fax: +27 (0)86 629 7490 Email: imesa.southcape@gmail.com WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: Michelle.Ackerman@capetown.gov.za FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Fax: +27 (0)86 628 0468 Email: imesa.fsnc@gmail.com

Alastair Currie To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.

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Infrastructure News

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TURE INFRA STRUC

DEVELOPME

NT • MAINT

• SERVIC ENAN CE

tive water

Proac S T R Y loss reduc tion I N D UIGH & control T INS N&Z instrum entation Rod Glatt,

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.

So, although South Africa has a unique history, in many other respects, it has to address the same challenges faced by other developing nations. Agriculture is one of the solutions for job creation, underscored by the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform’s One Household, One Hectare philosophy for the creation of smallscale farmers that then have the potential for growth as sustainable SMMEs. To achieve this, funding will also be required for basic infrastructure, including public transport services in rural areas, aside from the pressing need for access to education and healthcare. By alleviating poverty and providing access to meaningful secondary and tertiary education, the rural migration to cities – often spurred by the need to find work – could stabilise and find equilibrium. As Minister Nkwinti said at the SAFCEC conference, “South Africa has to invest in its townships and rural developments.” Nkwinti’s expanded vision is to design and implement a 10-year socio-economic infrastructure building programme, with meeting basic human needs as the underlying theme. He highlights ambitious elements that need urgent attention. These entail the establishment of a state-owned construction bank within the next 12 months, the establishment of a construction company under the stewardship of the Department of Public Works, and the implementation of a programme to address youth unemployment, poverty and social and geospatial inequality. “The time for throwing stones is over,” he said, underscoring the need for stronger private and public participation. It’s clear that immediate and concrete steps need to be taken to address shortfalls in national and provincial development planning, as there’s definitely a growing mood of desperation evident among those living on or below the breadline. That’s why we need to create corridors of prosperity right now.

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MUNICIPAL Driving water INSIGHT savings Hanré Blignaut, Deputy Director: Engineering and Planning, Overstrand Municipality

Apollo delivers for emerging contractors

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In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings, contact Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223.

AMMANN

Bitumen & Asphalt New bitumen specification framework

e

IN THE HOT SEAT We have a proactive relationship with the consulting engineering fraternity, who frequently seek our advice on which products to use for a specific application.”

Don Coleman Managing Director, Sizabantu Piping Systems P10 ISSN 0257 1978

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IMIESA November/December 2016

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President’s comment

IMESA

Integrated urban development Outgoing president Duncan Daries reflects on key milestones and the way forward for the institute.

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his will be my last comment as president. It’s been a two-year tenure, which, although challenging, has been very rewarding. During my presidency, we have continued to form and strengthen our strategic alliances with key stakeholders within the public and private space, both locally and internationally. This includes the International Federation of Municipal Engineering, where I was fortunate to attend two board meetings as the IMESA representative, one being the World Congress in New Zealand during June 2015, where asset management was the main theme, and the other in Ottawa, Canada, in April 2016, where public-private partnerships were the primary focus. Both have strong relevance for South Africa, where we need to adopt international best practice models for procurement and alternative funding mechanisms. Our relationship with CESA (Consulting Engineers South Africa) also continues to strengthen, as does the one with the South African Local Government Association. IMESA has also been providing ongoing education and training programmes in the realm of infrastructure asset management for the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs. So far, the implementation of asset management has been rolled out to all the local authorities in the Free State. Going forward, we plan to expand this initiative further.

Strategic mission We are currently embarked on a strategic business review to ensure that IMESA is more

efficient and that we have a sustainable plan, which includes succession. Our mission is “to promote excellence in the engineering profession for the benefit of the municipalities and their communities”. For example, we are committed to supporting and enabling education opportunities for the youth through our bursary schemes. Allied to this, we need to continue to increase our membership base and provide added benefits. We continue to run successful continuous professional development seminars via our branches.

Communication, and has been a member of the Northern Branch management team since 1996, serving as branch secretary for eight years and chair for four. He was the LOC chairman for the IMESA Conference 2011 and will perform this role again for Conference 2017, being held at Emperors Palace in Gauteng. Clunnie also served as the project manager for IMESA’s book, Reflection, which is a fascinating, anecdotal history of the institute since its formation in 1961. I know that he will be of great service to IMESA.

New president I am pleased to now hand over the baton to our new president, Gavin Clunnie, who will take these and other initiatives forward, leading change over the next two-year term. I will be there to provide continued support, as will the IMESA Exco and Council. Clunnie has been an IMESA member since 1988 and a fellow since 2004, serving on the Council since 1997. He was elected to the Exco in 2009, as operations director: Marketing and

IMIESA November/December 2016

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cover story

Apollo delivers for emerging contractors Making technology more accessible and affordable will help stimulate South Africa’s construction economy.

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mmann Construction Machinery South Africa is introducing its Apollo asphalt plant range to the Southern African market. Rocco Lehman, general manager, Ammann, says that the Apollo brand is aimed directly at South Africa’s emerging road contractor sector, where there is a pressing need for competitively priced solutions for mobile asphalt plants and allied paving equipment. “With limited access to finance, SMMEs frequently cannot take the next step when it comes to bidding on larger projects, as well

Ammann Prime 140 semi-mobile hot-mix asphalt plants comply with Sanral design standards where a 40% RA content is specified

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IMIESA November/December 2016

as advancing up the scale in terms of the Construction Industry Development Board rating scheme. However, if they stipulate confirmation of a rental agreement in their tenders, then this creates an opportunity,” says Lehman. “Apollo products make sense, as they offer excellent economies of scale for SMMEs seeking a stronger foothold in the market, but prevented from growing due to the high cost of plant acquisitions. We’ve taken cognisance of this to the extent that we’re also introducing specialist rental options that can later be converted into an outright purchase agreement,” he adds. In addition to affordability, another key benefit of Apollo asphalt plants is their simplified technology, which makes them easy

to operate and maintain. Plus, all Apollo asphalt plants comply with South African environmental legislation. Apollo is a leading Indian original equipment manufacturer, which became a member of the Ammann Group in April 2013. Headquartered in Switzerland, Ammann has over 100 years’ experience in the design and development of static and mobile plants. Currently, there are an estimated 4 000 Ammann mixing plants in operation worldwide serving the roads industry. Apollo, in turn, has an approximate installed base of more than 2 400 plants. The latter are either batch mix or continuous drum mix-type portable and mobile plants, ranging up to 240 tonnes per hour (tph).

Apollo ValuTec 80 and DrumMix 90 The Apollo range will be supplied and supported directly by Ammann South Africa, with two modular asphalt plants initially available from Q1 2017. These comprise the Apollo ValuTec 80 batch plant, and the


cover story

Apollo DrumMix 90 counterflow continuous mixing plant. Both are 15% RA (recycled asphalt) compliant and can be modified for higher RA output requirements. Tonnages range from around 75 tph to 90 tph. The ValuTec 80 meets the requirements for cold or hot reclaimed asphalt feeds, together with either liquid or solid additives. This is the smallest Apollo plant and ideally suited to business owners who want straightfor ward processes and the ability to further customise with options. This plant ranges from ver y basic functionality to much more advanced applications, depending on the needs of the contractor. Apollo’s DrumMix series meets higher tonnage per hour outputs ranging up to 90 tph. Apollo’s unique flight design on this unit ensures total heat transfer, thorough mixing and coating, lower emissions and the prevention of bitumen oxidation. “These plants are ideal for contractors, as they are designed to be upgraded as the size and

complexity of their projects grow,” says Lehman. The possibility of introducing Apollo paving units is also being investigated. Like Apollo asphalt plants, all Apollo units are designed by Ammann’s research and development centres, based in Europe, with manufacturing then taking place in India.

Prime 140 The Apollo range will be sold alongside the Ammann series of semi-mobile hot-mix asphalt plants. The main Ammann unit supplied locally is the Prime 140, which complies with Sanral design standards where a 40% RA content is specified. This is a 140 tph unit. An Ammann Prime 140 will also be included in Ammann’s new 3 Asphalt Plant Rental Division, alongside the Apollo units, in the process catering for all segments of the road contractor market.

One of the first Ammann concrete mixing plants to be introduced locally in 2017 will be the Elba CBT 60 SL, which is a 60 m unit

Elba concrete mixing plants Also new for the South African market, in 2017, will be

ABOVE LEFT Ammann's CBS 105-150 concrete plant ABOVE The Apollo DrumMix 90 counterflow continuous mixing plant BELOW The Apollo DrumMix 120 counterflow continuous mixing plant

Ammann’s Elba concrete mixing plant solutions, available in stationary, semi-mobile and fully mobile versions. Their modular designs provide the flexibility to customise for current and future requirements. The initial plant to be launched will be a 60 m3 unit, the Elba CBT 60 SL. Like Ammann mobile and semi-mobile plants, the Elba CBT 60 SL is designed for road-legal transportation: just two opentop containers are required for relocation. Installation times are fast, thanks to folding mechanisms and their compact plant design; plus a foundation is not required for installation. A soil compaction of 250 kN/m² is sufficient. “At Ammann, we always have something new to add to the market,” concludes Lehman. “As a global leader, our success continues to be driven by listening to local demand and developing and delivering purpose-built solutions.”

www.ammann-group.com

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IMIESA November/December 2016

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INFRASTRUCTURE NEWS

FROM AROUND THE CONTINENT

Africa 10 years to light up Africa Akinwumi Adesina, president, African Development Bank (AfDB), has called for bold action to light up Africa within the next ten years. “Ten years is the timeframe. We need to take Africa out of the darkness. Period,” Adesina told a panel discussion in New York. Participating in a panel discussion on “How Energy Can Spark Global Prosperity”, organised during the Clinton Global Initiative Annual Meeting in New York, Adesina highlighted the urgency to bring energy to the millions of people who do not have access to it. Of the 1.3 billion people who do not have access to electricity in the world, more than 600 million live on the African continent. “Africa is just tired of being in the dark,” Adesina told the audience. Lack of energy is one of the major impediments to economic growth, which, in turn, makes it difficult for young people to get the jobs they need. In addition, it can be a source of serious public health problems. It is estimated that around 600 000 Africans, mostly women, die each year as a result of household air pollution.

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IMIESA November/December October 2016 2016

The new Ethiopia-Djibouti railway is Africa’s first modern electrified railway

To deal with a problem of this scale, Adesina called for a comprehensive approach. “There is no dichotomy between on-grid and off-grid solutions,” he said. AfDB’s New Deal on Energy takes a holistic view of the sector’s needs. The bank is planning to put in place a facility for energy inclusion, which will address the spectrum of on-grid and off-grid projects. The facility will increase the flow of private capital to the sector and address the barrier of accessing finance. “Money is not the only problem,” Adesina noted. He also called for an enabling environment and the right incentives for the private sector to invest. In addition, he stressed that governments, the private sector, development partners and NGOs should work together to create a better mix for energy production.

Ethiopia New 756 km railway launched The 756 km Ethiopia-Djibouti railway was launched in October at a new station just outside the Ethiopian capital.

The new railway, built by two Chinese companies, will link Addis Ababa to the Red Sea port city of Djibouti, and promises to provide a major boost to both countries’ economies. The $3.4 billion project is Africa’s first modern electrified railway. The railway has a designed hourly speed of 120 km and is expected to reduce travel time between the two capitals to 10 hours – a trip that would take several days via road. According to Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam, the standard gauge, electrified railway is central to Ethiopia's plan to encourage regional infrastructure connectivity. Speaking at the launch, Djiboutian President Ismail Omar Guelleh said, “What we are celebrating here today goes beyond a railway. It is, first and foremost, the celebration of the ability of the two countries to work together and overcome the barriers in building infrastructure on our continent.” The track will reportedly only run freight services initially, with daily passenger trains expected to begin running in three months’ time.

Ghana Building transport infrastructure The Greater Accra Region in Ghana will soon see the construction of a modern three-tier

highway interchange at Pokuase, and 10 km of interconnected urban roads, facilitating the movement of people and the transportation of goods in the rapidly developing industrial zone. These developments form part of the Accra Urban Transport Project, which aims to contribute to integrated transport and urban development solutions. The project has received a $83.9 million loan to finance the infrastructure, which is expected to be operational by 2020. “The city of Accra is facing the challenge of rapid urbanisation and motorisation, which has crippled the current transportation system resulting in huge traffic congestion and gridlock and negatively affecting urban mobility and productivity. The project will help ease congestion and enhance the competiveness of Accra as a major industrial and regional trade hub in West Africa,” explained Amadou Oumarou, director: Transport and ICT, African Development Bank (AfDB). Located in northern Accra, the Ga West area is an industrial zone with many factories and agro-industries, which require direct and quick transportation of goods to suppliers in the city, to the airport and port

The expanded TEMA port harbour


Africa round-up

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Katse Dam in Lesotho forms part of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project

for import/exports and to the hinterland. Because of its rapid expansion, the area suffers from a lack of transport infrastructure and basic services. That growing mobility demand will be addressed by the Pokuase interchange and by an urban traffic management system, which will connect 10 km of secondary roads in the area to the interchange. In addition, the Pokuase crossroad is a critical missing link of the Central Road Corridor, the strategic road connecting the Port of Tema to Ghana’s second city, Kumasi, and to Burkina Faso. Promoting a long-term approach to urban planning, the project includes institutional support for the conception of the Great Accra Master Plan, a development strategy conducted in partnership with the local municipalities. The plan will provide a common platform to develop integrated and collaborative decision-making tools for city planning and management.

$1.5 billion expansion of Tema Port The Tema Port will undergo a $1.5 billion expansion project for Meridian Port Services (MPS), operator of the container terminal at Tema Port.

MPS is executing the project as part of the GPHA masterplan for the development of Tema Port. The necessary funding for the project has been secured by MPS from the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, as well as from shareholders. The project will treble Tema Port’s current traffic of about one million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). It will allow Tema Port to accommodate some of the world’s largest container ships, and improve cargo-handling services and capacity. This will enhance the port’s competitiveness as a leading maritime hub in West Africa. The expanded harbour will accommodate larger vessels thanks to a dredged 19 m deep port access channel, a new 1.4 km long quay for four container berths, with a 16 m draft, and a 4 km long breakwater.

poverty and income inequality, water contributes roughly 10% to Lesotho’s overall gross domestic product (GDP). A large portion of this benefit comes from revenues associated with the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP), which facilitates the transfer of water from the water-rich highlands of Lesotho to the economic engine of the African continent in Gauteng, South Africa, and contributes to the development of hydropower resources. “We find that, with projected temperature increases, climate change will have an impact on the long-term sustainable macro-economic development of Lesotho, affecting domestic and industrial water security, patterns of agricultural production, and opportunities afforded through the further development of water transfer infrastructure,” said

Guangzhe Chen, regional director: Lesotho, World Bank. Simulations show that continued development of existing water infrastructure such as the Lesotho Lowlands Water Supply Services (LLWSS) is critical to improving the reliability and resilience of the domestic and industrial sectors. They show that exploring interconnections between the developed water resources through LHWP and linking these to address domestic and industrial demands in the lowlands could help improve the resilience of the existing system. Furthermore, the implementation of the further phases of the LHWP will increase the transfer capacity and also support additional benefits including about 11 000 jobs to be created during the construction period.

Pressed Steel Sectional Water Tanks

Lesotho Enhanced water infrastructure needed Improving Lesotho’s national water resources infrastructure, and increasing water security in an environment of drought and floods and future climatic variations, are central to boosting the government of Lesotho’s efforts to promote long-term sustainable macro-economic development including food security and job creation. This is according to a new World Bank report titled ‘Lesotho Water Security and Climate Change Assessment’, which evaluates the vulnerabilities, challenges and opportunities in the Lesotho water management system. In a country characterised by high levels of

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Hot Seat | Sizabantu Piping Systems

Plastic pipes are the future Sizabantu Piping Systems has invested extensively in new technologies, like PVC-O pipes, to ensure that municipalities in South Africa, as well as current and future utilities across the sub-Saharan region, have sustainable solutions for their water reticulation requirements.

What is the company’s manufacturing and distribution strategy? Our strategy is to be the preferred supplier and manufacturer of plastic piping systems within our target markets. For us to achieve this objective, we need to continually research the piping sector, both locally and internationally, and establish fit-for-purpose products and technologies that best suit local requirements. We continually review our distribution networks via our divisional operations in South Africa. Here, we have established good relationships with the consulting engineering, municipal and contracting community with which we engage on a continual basis.

How will the new Richards Bay factory strategically position the company? Our new, dedicated pipe factory, being commissioned in 2016, is situated within the Richards Bay IDZ and is a pivotal development for SPS. One of the key streams to come out of the plant is the manufacture of Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O. SPS, together with our Spanish partner, Molecor – the developer of Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O technology – decided, right from the start of our venture, we would eventually manufacture in South Africa. The introduction of the Molecor PVC-O (Bi-Axle Orientated PVC) technology pipe, back in 2013, is a revolutionary step for South Africa and we are the pioneers of this first-time application for the country and Africa.

Why is this so significant?

Don Coleman, managing director, Sizabantu Piping Systems

Could you expand on the products and services provided by your company? DC Sizabantu Piping Systems (SPS) is a nationally based marketing and sales group that supplies a comprehensive range of quality piping and drainage solutions to the agricultural, civil (infrastructural) and industrial markets in Southern Africa, as well as increasingly within the larger sub-Saharan region. Altogether, SPS’s management team, engineering and technical specialists have

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IMIESA November/December 2016

approximately 300 years of experience in the plastic pipe industry in South Africa, so we’re well positioned to offer a high standard of service and recommend the best piping solution to the industries that we serve. We are committed to skills upliftment and transformation, which is underscored by SPS’s current Level 4 BBBEE status Operationally, we are represented throughout South Africa, with sales divisions in Gauteng, Limpopo, North West province, the Free State, Eastern Cape, Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal.

Could you provide a breakdown of the core products targeting municipal engineering? Municipalities are responsible for potable water, bulk water, sewer and stormwater reticulation. We supply pipe solutions in all these areas.

Well, simply put, PVC-O technology enables plastic pipe to compete, for the first time, in the traditional large–diameter, high-pressure metallic bulk water supply market. This new technology increases the diameter size range of plastic pipes to unprecedented levels, with higher working pressures than traditional PVC. From our experience to date, the consulting market is fully behind the application of this technology. In fact, O-PVC is a huge success.

What are the advantages of Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O pipes over those made from conventional materials? If we especially think of bulk water pipelines in South Africa, where PVC was very seldom used due to size and pressure-handling limitations, the use of Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O pipe is obvious. Some very clear advantages are seen when compared to the conventional metallic pipes used for bulk water pipelines. Examples include: • The speed of installation due to the familiar push-fit socket system, as on all PVC systems, compared to steel pipe welding, which requires coating, regular external


Hot Seat | Sizabantu Piping Systems

and internal repair, plus the need to X-ray each joint. • No corrosion. PVC-O pipes have an estimated design life of 100 years, compared to the standard 50-year guideline for conventional PVC and metallic pipes. • Zero maintenance is needed for PVC-O. • Lower celerity enables higher design velocities that increase capacity. • No cathodic protection required.

How does Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O differ from other types of PVC like UPVC and MPVC? First, let’s look at what the abbreviations above stand for. It’s about understanding how the thermoplastic family fits together: • U-PVC – un-plasticised polyvinyl chloride • M-PVC – modified un-plasticised polyvinyl chloride • PVC-O – molecular-oriented un-plasticised polyvinyl chloride. U-PVC is a well-known and respected PVC pipe product with the standard advantages and characteristics of a PVC pipe. M-PVC, on the other hand, is a chemically changed PVC pipe that is more ductile than U-PVC and has thinner walls than U-PVC. PVC-O basically starts as a pure U-PVC pipe where, after a process, the molecular structure of the PVC is bi-axially oriented without altering the advantages and chemical properties of the original polymer. This orientation results in a Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O pipe with unbeatable qualities of stress and fatigue resistance, outstanding flexibility and fantastic impact resistance. In summary, based on the ISO procedure, the minimum required strength (MRS) at 50 years for Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O is 50 MPa. For U-PVC and M-PVC the MRS is 25 MPa. Thus, the long-term (50+ years,

strength of Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O is 100% greater than that of U-PVC and M-PVC. TOM 500 is the highest orientation, improving on previous 300, 355, 400 and 450 classifications that enables larger pipe diameters and higher pressures. TOM 500 is twice as strong as standard PVC pipe.

Is the African export market important? Yes, the demand for potable water in Africa is enormous and our user-friendly products will assist in speeding up the supply of much-needed reticulation systems, particularly in urban centres where the trend points to exponential expansion, as rural communities increasingly migrate to towns and cities seeking better prospects. Here, plastic pipes are the best option.

What key infrastructure projects have SPS been involved with? The consulting engineering fraternity and the major municipalities around South Africa have welcomed the introduction of PVC-O technology. We have supplied schemes to every major water authority and municipality in South Africa. This amounts to in excess of 1 000 km of piping to date.

Where does SPS lead in terms of new technologies? Certainly in terms of the introduction of the internationally recognised Molecor TOM 500 PVC-O technology. To date, we have successfully supplied up to 800 mm diameter PN 20 bar pressure pipe, which is the largest application of PVC pressure pipe recorded so far for Africa. Being a “system” supply company, we also have introduced and are introducing fitting ranges that complete the reticulation system. We have a proactive relationship with the consulting engineering fraternity, who frequently

seek our advice on which products to use for a specific application.

What is the future for plastic pipes? Plastic pipes come with many inherent advantages versus other traditional materials, such as their non-corrosive properties, which enable a longer design life. In addition to very low maintenance, no cathodic protection is required. Additional advantages include better hydraulic performance, lower pumping costs, and better surge or water hammer capabilities. Essentially, plastic pipe is a tried and tested product well suited for Africa and the world of infrastructure.

Is composite high-pressure pipe gaining in popularity locally? Yes, especially for the emerging contractor who frequently lacks access to high-end equipment and pipe fabrication capabilities usually owned and operated by mainstream construction companies. This is particularly the case for steel pipelines, which require intensive skills coupled with expensive and specialised equipment. The South African government is encouraging and promoting the emerging contractor segment, which commonly has limited access to capital finance. Here, our user-friendly, tried-andtested plastic products are gaining popularity as an easy-to-install and cost-effective solution.

What’s your view on South Africa's water loss challenges? We need to encourage and create a culture of ownership, where proper maintenance programmes are implemented to reduce the wastage created by poorly maintained water infrastructure. Plastic pipes are the answer. Here, PVC-O redefines conventional thinking: it’s a better alternative for large-diameter, highpressure metallic pipes for bulk water supply up to 1 200 mm diameter and PN 25 bar.

www.sizabantupipingsystems.com

IMIESA November/December 2016

11


MUNICIPAL insight

Driving water savings In 2008, water losses in the Western Cape’s Overstrand municipal area stood at almost 30%, and were on the rise. In an effort to remedy the situation, the council adopted a turnaround strategy, with the aim to reduce water losses to 17% by 2017. By Danielle Petterson

O

verstrand’s extensive turnaround strategy, part of the Integrated Development Plan, included its aggressive replacement of ageing pipes, installation of intelligent pressure management systems and the phased replacement of ageing water meters. A focus was placed on leak detection and repairs, particularly repairing household leaks at indigent households, and improving telemetry systems for the monitoring of minimum night flows. Overstrand Municipality was supported by GLS Consulting, iX Engineers (previously WorleyParsons PI Business Unit), Lyners & Associates and WRP. Managing water balances in smaller distribution zones, and maximising the use of treated effluent for irrigation, also became a priority under the strategy and the municipality began to proactively source external funds for water demand management projects. Public awareness on water issues was seen as another way to increase water savings; water tariffs were structured to discourage excessive use of water, accompanied by volumetric sewerage tariffs based on water consumption. The result is a 21.1% reduction in water demand, despite a rapidly growing population, Hanré Blignaut, deputy director: Engineering and Planning, Overstrand Municipality, tells IMIESA.

Developing a water and sewer master plan GLS Consulting performed the first master planning of the water and sewer networks in

12

IMIESA November/December 2016

Overstrand in 2006 and has since been involved in a number of updates of these master plans. As consultant, GLS has played a major role in initiating some of the municipality’s major water loss reduction projects. “GLS has contributed significantly to the successes achieved with water demand management in the Overstrand Municipality through the company’s highly professional services rendered over the years,” says Blignaut. According to him, continuous accurate flow data is one of the biggest challenges in terms of water loss management. Hanré Streicher, director, GLS Consulting, adds that the integrity of the data is an important issue to keep in mind when evaluating the results from a master plan. In the process of compiling a hydraulic model to represent the existing distribution network, it is important to gather the best available data and get it verified by field personnel, he explains. To further improve the confidence level of the

(Left to right) Goosen le Roux, manager: Bulk Water & Sanitation; Patrick Robinson, manager: Water Infrastructure & Quality; Mike Bartman, deputy director: Operational Services; and Hanré Blignaut, deputy director: Engineering and Planning

hydraulic models, a degree of calibration is needed. In the case of water, the hydraulic models are calibrated using bulk water measurements, pressure loggings and flow loggings in the various distribution zones. There is always scope for improving data integrity, but funding constraints normally limit the efforts in this regard. In the case of Overstrand Municipality, each update was also an opportunity to resolve queries and gather outstanding network components, thereby improving the data.

Managing pressure is managing loss During the modelling and master planning of the water distribution networks, the


MUNICIPAL insight

potential for pressure management was also assessed. The areas with the biggest potential for pressure management were identified as Kleinmond, Stanford, and Betty’s Bay. GLS was able to conceptualise specific pressure management projects for budgeting and planning purposes, to be implemented by the municipality. “Pressure management has arguably been proved to be the most effective water demand management measure implemented at local municipalities,” says Streicher. “Changing the network characteristics by creating smaller district management areas and reducing pressures should simply not be done without, first, taking into account the degree of network conveyance that is for feited and, second, determining the critical point – the point where minimum pressure during peak demand conditions is experienced. These investigations are best per formed by using sophisticated hydraulic modelling software,” he adds. WRP acted as the specialist subconsultant in the implementation of the Kleinmond, Stanford and Betty’s Bay pressure management initiatives. WRP was responsible for the pressure management

an

company

ABOVE LEFT Logger locations in Betty's Bay ABOVE RIGHT Integration of water pipes and billing into one system in the master plan

feasibility assessments, logging and analysis of flows and pressures, input with the design process, and the final commissioning of the pressure reducing valves (PRVs) and smart pressure controllers. The company also supplied the Zednet data logging and evaluation software which was used to monitor the actual flows and pressures on a “live” cloud-based system. PRVs and flow controllers were installed in phases in these areas to reduce the pressures of typically up to 7 bar to 3.5 bar during the day, and 2.5 bar at night at the critical points (the highest elevated points of consumption in the various zones). The average daily flows and minimum night flows reduced substantially in these areas along with pipe bursts. In Kleinmond, water savings from pressure management amounted to 100 000 m3 or R900 000 per annum, and pipe bursts were reduced from 107 to 62 per year – at

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a cost R3 500 per pipe burst – adding up to R160 000 a year, says Neil Meyer, manager and technical specialist, WRP. In Stanford, water savings from pressure management amounted to 49 000 m3 or R420 000 a year, and pipe bursts were reduced from 19 to 9 per year, amounting to an annual saving of R35 000. “There is always a fine balance between sophistication and appropriate technology, and this is a challenge that water managers must address,” says Meyer. When using smart controllers in a water distribution system, you are effectively adding functionality to a standard PRV through the use of either an electronic or hydraulic controlling device. According to Meyer, there is no single solution that will address ever y problem and, while there are some ver y sophisticated forms of pressure control currently available, in most cases, the most basic time control or slightly more sophisticated flow control will provide a reliable and sustainable solution. Effectively, these forms of pressure control will reduce excess system pressures during off-peak periods, thereby reducing losses through


MUNICIPAL insight 6de Ln OKW3.4 PRV: CP Pressure - CR Louw Str

6de Ln OKW3.4 PRV: U/S PRV Pressure

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6de Ln OKW3.4 PRV: D/S PRV Pressure Kleinmond PRV Area: Combined Flow

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Raw values, between 2016-10-14 09:48 and 2016-10-21 09:48 Generated on 2016-10-21 @ 09:48 by ZEDNET, Copy right

Kleinmond’s PRV zone pressure and flow logging results recorded by Zednet

existing leaks and reducing the occurrence of new leaks. According to Blignaut, the locally developed Zednet real-time, internet-based monitoring and logging system was instrumental to the success of the projects. WRP installed Technolog GSM loggers to monitor flows and pressures in the PRV zones, with live data from these loggers relayed to Zednet. Zednet allows the user to view, manage and export the pressure and flow data from any computer, tablet or smartphone and it provides functionality to set up alarms, automatic reports and invoices. Using a “live” logging system of this nature helps water reticulation managers to pick up leaks and other operational problems as soon as they occur; by taking immediate action, they can reduce the volume of water lost through a new leak or prevent a small operational problem from becoming a serious one.

14

IMIESA November/December 2016

Aggressive pipe replacement approach In order to drive the replacement of ageing pipes under the turnaround strategy, GLS Consulting developed a water pipe replacement model for Overstrand Municipality in 2009. This model, which has subsequently been updated and refined, assists the municipality in prioritising which pipes are to be replaced within the available annual budget. The pipe replacement potential (PRP) for any pipe in the water distribution network is assessed by combining two critical indices: the likelihood of failure (LF) and the consequence of failure (CF). Each index comprises factors that are individually scored and then summated using weights. The factors for LF are typically the material, age, diameter, condition, pressures and historic failure rate of each pipe, while the factors for CF are typically potential repair cost, potential damage, strategic location, and lack of redundancy, explains Streicher.

Workshops were held with Overstrand to determine the factors and their respective weights. The two indices are multiplied to obtain a riskbased PRP per pipe, which is then ranked from highest to lowest. The highest-priority pipelines can then be identified per area and replacement can then be planned and budgeted for. The pipe replacement work consists largely of the replacement of old asbestos pipes with new HDPE pipes, using trenchless methods. By installing continuously butt-welded HDPE pipes through the application of trenchless technology, pipe joints are minimised, and the potential for leaks and pipe failures is reduced significantly, explains Blignaut. Open trenching during construction is reduced, resulting in fewer disruptions to residents, and minimal reinstatement of infrastructure such as roads, sidewalks, gardens and vehicle entrances is required. By selecting the correct class of HDPE pipeline for a specific application, a long lifespan of the pipeline can be expected under normal operating conditions. “We try to maximise the lifespan of infrastructure by using durable material, such as the use of butt-welded HDPE pipes with HDPE fittings, where possible,” explains Blignaut. Where trenchless construction methods are not practical or feasible, or under specific site conditions, the long-term feasibility of other pipe material options, such as uPVC, PVC-O and ductile iron, is considered. Neil Lyners & Associates (Lyners) has been involved with the Overstrand water pipe replacement programme for the past six years, acting as consulting engineer. During this time, more than 76 km of new pipes have been installed by replacing existing pipes and extending and reinforcing the networks. The networks replaced by new pipes ranged in diameter between ø110 mm and ø250 mm. Sections of bulk pipelines were replaced with ø400 mm pipes and the bulk supply to Kleinmond was upsized by means of trenchless methods, from


MUNICIPAL insight ø200 mm pipe to ø355 mm pipe. According to Blignaut, Lyners’ excellent engineering skills, practical insights and integrity ensured the successful completion of these projects for the benefit of the Overstrand community at large. The pipe replacement projects included the replacement of sections of the water reticulation system in the towns of Rooi Els, Betty’s Bay, Kleinmond, Onrus, Hermanus, Stanford and Gansbaai, all situated in the Overstrand municipal area and predominantly holiday destinations. In certain towns, the projects also included the extension of the reticulation system and the upgrade of the bulk supply pipelines. The reticulation systems of these towns function differently to those of most towns because they are subjected to high water demands during holiday periods and then underutilised for long periods, when many of the homes are unoccupied. The reticulation systems often experienced water pipe failures and high percentages of unaccounted-for water were measured, explains Mario Filippi, director, Lyners. Lyners reviewed the water master plan compiled by GLS Consulting, evaluated the pipe breakages information recorded over a period of three years, scrutinised existing reticulation drawings, conducted site visits and inspections, and held meetings with local area managers and plumbers to establish the high-priority pipelines to be replaced for each town within the Overstrand area. A limited conditional assessment of the water network was undertaken by Lyners. Pipe sections of the existing reticulation were removed and tested to determine the inherent strength of the pipelines, to evaluate the corroded pipe sections and to measure reduced pipe diameters due to various deposits and encrustation and corrosion in the pipelines. The limited budget allocated to the replacement of pipes and upgrading of

the network required careful consideration of the priority list. The age of the pipes, pipe material, type of couplings and fittings, historical breakages on a specific pipeline, geotechnical conditions, geographical location and strategic importance of the pipeline, and the potential negative impact should the pipe burst were some of the considerations used for determining the priority list. Lyners held additional workshops with operational staff of the municipality to obtain further information on problematic portions of the network, which included unacceptable water quality due to deposits in old pipes, which contained manganese and iron. The upgrade of the network included the installation of new pipes, valves, fire hydrants and additional air valves to ensure sufficient air is released from the reticulation system, especially during periods of low consumption. The projects included conventional open excavation construction methods, steel pipes fixed to bridges and plinths for certain stream crossings, but mostly included trenchless methods for the upsizing and replacement of pipes. It was largely reticulation pipelines that were replaced, but certain bulk pipelines from reservoirs to the towns had to be upgraded or upsized. Even in these instances, trenchless methods were the preferred method, as these pipelines were located in environmentally sensitive areas and the trenchless construction methods reduced the impact on the environment. In 2014, the Overstrand municipal project received an award for excellence from the South African Society for Trenchless Technology (SASTT) – the first time the award was bestowed on a municipality outside of a metropole. “The replacement of water mains in Overstrand was a success due to a coordinated team approach and the implementation of trenchless technology. The pipelines were constructed within the contracted amount

Typical pressure reducing valve installation in Overstrand

and time frames, with minimal social impact and disturbance to important, environmentally sensitive areas,” Filippi added.

Meter replacement There are more than 34 800 consumer water meters in the Overstrand area. As in all municipalities, mechanical water meters are used to measure water consumption

IMIESA November/December 2016

15


MUNICIPAL insight Overstrand Water Demand (Mℓ/a)

Years

at individual residential properties. However, accuracy tends to decline with age, resulting in an increase in the water loss percentage, as well as an increasing loss of revenue for the municipality. To address this, Overstrand Municipality and iX Engineers (previously WorleyParsons PI Business Unit) performed a comprehensive audit of all the consumer water meters in the area during 2011. The audit included determining the age of all the water meters by verifying their serial numbers. It was established that almost 5 000 meters were older than 20 years, and more than 18 000 were older than eight years. The phased replacement of the oldest meters started in 2012 and, to date, 8 839 domestic water meters have been replaced. For all new and replacement installations, plastic water meters are being used, because of the

Before and after meter installation by iX Engineers

Overstrand Water Losses (%)

Water Demand (%)

Water Demand (Mℓ)

Water Demand (Mℓ)

Overstrand Water Losses (Mℓ/a)

Years

prevalence of the theft of copper and brass fittings and equipment.

Leak repairs at indigent households iX Engineers has a long-standing professional relationship with Overstrand Municipality, and headed up the leak repairs at indigent households. To date, three methods have been applied in the different areas of the municipality: physical inspection, listening sticks and correlation. Most of the leaks found were on house connections, with no major mains leaks. The repair of domestic plumbing leaks was done at indigent households over a period of two years, amounting to 1 587 leak repairs.

Years

made for drought situations, with Level 1 to Level 3 restriction tariffs also approved by council as part of the tariff structure, ready for implementation during periods of water scarcity at various levels of severity. In parallel with this, the municipality’s sewerage tariff is charged per kilolitre, based on 70% of the water consumption at a property, to a maximum of 50 kℓ of water consumed per month. This allows for irrigation consumption, which is not returned to the sewerage system. Every property owner receives a graph illustrating their last 24 months’ water consumption trend on their monthly municipal bill, allowing them to identify abnormal consumption.

Reducing consumption In an attempt to reduce excessive water consumption, Overstrand Municipality has been using a rising block tariff. There are six steps in the rising block tariff structure, with the highest being R47.64/kℓ for consumption above 60 kℓ per month. Provision has been

Success water savings Through the turnaround strategy, water loss decreased from a high of 28.5% in 2009/10 to a significantly lower 18.8% in 2015/16. The total volume of water losses in Overstrand decreased from 2 467 Mℓ in 2008/09 to 1 342 Mℓ in 2015/16 – a decrease of 45.6%. In addition, the total water demand for the Overstrand area decreased from 9 054 Mℓ in 2008/09 to 7 148 Mℓ in 2015/16 – a decrease of 21.1% – despite a rapidly growing population. While securing a continuous stream of funding for the maintenance and replacement of infrastructure and equipment remains a constant challenge, Overstrand Municipality has made significant progress in meeting its target to reduce water losses to 17% by 2017.

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WATER | Technical Paper

Managing the water balance A holistic approach in the analysis of and turnaround strategies for municipal water supply systems – the perspectives of a financier. By Konstant Bruinette* and Tian Claassens**

F

or many years, municipal supply systems have been operated inefficiently with little focus on best practice operation and maintenance. In many districts, losses have increased to such an extent that demand is outstripping supply. Refurbishment of systems is often viewed as a simple process of replacing old pipes with new pipes, but achieving a financially sustainable water supply business is much more complex. The quantum of investment required is often of such magnitude that it lies outside the normal capital expenditure budget range of most municipalities. An obvious solution is for municipalities to secure external finance for these works, but the credit and risk evaluation requirements of financiers go way beyond a simple plan to replace pipes. Existing methods to prepare projects of this nature are typically one-dimensional and lacking in adequate risk assessment. This paper introduces a new, holistic approach, through which key risks are identified and mitigated with the main purpose to facilitate the granting of finance for these projects.

Current analysis approach Figure 1 illustrates the Best Practice Water Balance as published by the International Water Association (IWA). It identifies components that make up the total demand for water at the input of a water supply

system. It is useful to formulate simple strategies to enhance the viability of a supply system. A key problem is that most of the subcomponents are not readily quantifiable. The dilemma a municipality faces is this: how to evaluate a project to reduce the real losses and motivate the required capital investment if the quantum of the real losses is unknown or, at the very least, highly uncertain. Addressing this dilemma is explored further in this article. In this context, one should differentiate between the identification of the presence of real losses versus the quantification thereof. For example, monitoring of night flows in an area can indicate the presence of new leaks, which can then be fixed. At some point in time, however, the frequency of new leaks, etc., would indicate the need for overall replacement of the distribution/reticulation system. At this point in time, the need to quantify real losses would arise, as it will play a critical role in the capital investment decision. Best practice in real losses is, internationally, loosely upon agreed at 15%. A uniform figure cannot apply to every system, as the law of diminishing returns applies to the reduction of real losses. In response to this, the IWA has developed the concept of unavoidable annual real losses (we refer to unavoidable real losses or URL) and a methodology for estimating URL. Based on this development, the real losses in a system can be split into two components: the URL and

recoverable real losses (RRL). From a financing perspective, only capital invested to eliminate the RRL can be motivated. But the problem of achieving a sustainable system goes further than eliminating the RLL. It is the view of the authors that, unfortunately, the focus has been isolated on real losses at the expense of ignoring other critical parameters. For example, when looking at the water balance, the impression may be gained that the component revenue water translates directly into revenue for a municipality. That is not true. The process of converting revenue water to revenue is a risky process. It is critical that recovery risk be assessed and adequately factored into a project. To achieve this, the water supply system must be designed to minimise this risk and it is clear that the pricing, metering, billing, accounting and collection functions are part of this system. To better understand this risk, the consumer base can be evaluated and the revenue water can be divided into the components shown in Figure 2. The impact of the four components reflected above on the actual revenue of a municipality will differ significantly. In general, different water supply strategies, systems, service levels and recovery strategies should be applied to all four components, but, in practice, it seldom happens. It is also clear that capital expenditure that will rely on revenue collected from the

FIGURE 1 Best Practice Water Balance as published by the International Water Association (IWA)

System input volume (corrected for known errors)

Authorised consuption

Billed authorised consumption Unbilled authorised consumption Apparant losses

Water losses

Billed metered consumption (including water exported) Billed unmetered consumption Unbilled metered consumption Unbilled unmetered consumption Unauthorised consumption Metering inaccuracies Leakage on transmission and/or distribution mains

Real losses

Revenue water

Non-revenue water

Leakage on overflows at utility storage tanks Leakage on service connections up to point of customer metering IMIESA November/December 2016

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WATER | Technical Paper FIGURE 2 Consumer base analysis

Consumption

High

Low Low

Recovery risk

High

high-recovery-risk components will be more difficult to motivate for finance. Another critical factor in play revolves around the economic phenomenon of the price elasticity of demand, which dictates that, as the price of a commodity such as water declines, demand/ consumption will increase and vice versa. To illustrate the impact of this further, we define the economic cost of water (units R/kℓ) as the cost that fully provides for all system input costs, system operating and maintenance costs, billing and collection costs, cost of capital as FIGURE 3 Price elasticity of demand

well as a charge for risk. A typical price elasticity of demand curve is illustrated in Figure 3. This figure highlights three key parameters: • Zero base system demand: demand for water that will result in the system if water is priced at the economic cost and there is no other restriction on consumption. • Elevated demand: demand for water that will result in the system if water is priced below the economic cost and there is no other restriction on consumption. • Suppressed demand: demand for water that will result in the system if water is priced above the economic cost or there are other restrictions on consumption. The difference between elevated demand and zero base system demand is labelled overconsumption. In itself, overconsumption is not necessarily a bad thing. There are two situations, however, where overconsumption is financially debilitating for municipalities and is critical to eliminate: • when overconsumption occurs in the high recovery risk portion of the consumer base • when new water resources have to be developed (at great cost) to meet growing demand.

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WATER | Technical Paper this purpose. In the absence of a complete and accurate measurement system, this distribution represents the best estimate of the true system demand. Given the par ticular distribution, it is clear that ignoring demand risk in any analysis of the system would be perilous. URL is estimated as per the guidelines of the IWA. Due to the uncertainties around different parameters that are likely to exist in any system, this parameter should also be a statistical variable with an associated probability distribution. ε is a difference parameter that is obtained by subtracting the aggregate zero base system demand and the aggregate URL from the aggregate system input volume for a given time period. The parameter ε will also be a statistical variable with an associated probability distribution. The width of the distribution of ε in Figure 6 indicates just how uncertain this variable is and how risky it would be to base any calculations on a single value. In the alternative perspective, presented in Figure 4, ε is the aggregate of four different statistical variables: • input metering inaccuracies • overconsumption • recoverable real losses • modelling error. If the input metering inaccuracies are eliminated and it is assumed that the modelling error is relatively small, then the probability distribution of the parameter ε represents an upper bound for the probability distribution of the sum of overconsumption and RRL.

FIGURE 4 Alternative perspective of the water balance

A holistic approach The discussion leads us to an alternative, more holistic perspective of the water balance, presented in Figure 4. Zero base system demand is the system demand that will result if water is priced at the economic cost and there is no other restriction on consumption. There are various methods through which this parameter can be estimated. It is important that this remain an estimate and any model used should preferably be based on reliable statistical analysis that will provide quantitative information on the uncertainty in the estimate. This uncertainty represents demand risk – one of the key risks in the water value chain of a municipality and it is critical, from a financing perspective, that this risk be adequately mitigated. Zero base system demand is, thus, a statistical variable with an associated probability distribution as illustrated from an actual case study in Figure 5. The probability distribution reflected in Figure 5 has a mean of 93.2 Mℓ/day with an 80% certainty that the true demand lies in the range of 78.8 Mℓ/day to 108.5 Mℓ/day. This range is a direct measure of the demand risk of the relevant system, although, in practice, the variance of the distribution would be used for

FIGURE 5 Example of the probability distribution of zero base system demand

In the absence of extensive metering and other analysis that will allow these two variables to be quantified, they should be treated as inseparable. This implies that the formulation of any water conservation project must aim to address both these parameters, and this highlights the risk of focusing on the elimination of real losses in isolation. The alternative perspective of the water balance in Figure 4 assists to identify two generic types of projects: • conservation projects • demand-side projects. The capital investment for any conservation project will be motivated through: • the potential cost savings through a reduction in the system input volume. The probability distribution of the parameter ε represents the risk that this saving will materialise and will enable robust risk analysis of the proposed investment • the financial benefit that will result if capital expenditure on development of new water resources can be delayed for any length of time due to the reduction in the system input volume. The capital investment for any demand-side project must be motivated through an appropriate increase in the risk-adjusted revenue volume and the associated increase in revenue to the municipality. It is important to note that the ratio of the risk-adjusted revenue volume/zero base system demand represents the true performance of the municipality from a recovery perspective. Any turnaround programme to re-establish the sustainability and financial viability of the water business of a municipality must focus on the maximisation of the risk-adjusted revenue volume as a priority – thus, demand-side projects. From this perspective, it is critical to: 1.  Understand the geographical distribution of the recovery risk areas. 2. Formulate separate strategies for the supply to and recovery from these consumer population groups. 3. Adjust the overall system design to implement the strategies formulated in 2 above. 4. Maintain the recovery ratio of the municipality above a suitable threshold.

Municipal tariffs The full cost of the URL must be included in the economic cost. Also, the economic cost should include a cost for carrying risk and the key risks to be included in this regard are demand risk and recovery risk. Determining and setting the appropriate tariff is a key step towards financial turnaround and sustainability of a municipality.

Conclusion The basis of a holistic approach in the turnaround of municipal water supply systems and IMIESA November/December 2016

19


WATER | Technical Paper FIGURE 6 Example of a probability distribution of ε

re-establishing sustainability may be summarised as follows: 1. Use of a suitable model to establish the zero base system demand and to quantify demand risk. 2. Use of a suitable model to estimate the URL. 3.  Establish the different recovery risk and consumption components and to suitably quantify the risk-adjusted revenue volume.

20

4. C  alculation of the existing recover y ratio of the municipality as a key per formance measure. 5.  Calculation of the economic cost of water supply. 6. Adopting an appropriate tariff structure to achieve specific strategies (such as eliminating overconsumption, etc.) 7.  Identification and formulation of suitable

conservation projects on a zone, district or subregional basis through: a)  Testing for the likely presence of overconsumption and factors contributing towards overconsumption b) Estimation of the aggregate of RRL and overconsumption (i.e. ε i) c) Redesign of the relevant supply system of elements thereof d) Cost/benefit analysis through a suitable risk model. 8.  Identification and formulation of suitable demand-side projects on a zone, district or subregional basis through: a)  Setting an appropriate target for the recovery ratio b) D  esigning a suitable recovery strategy c) Redesigning existing distribution and reticulation systems where necessary d) Integrating future system requirements e) Conducting cost/benefit analysis through a suitable risk model. *Konstant Bruinette is an investment officer at the Development Bank of Southern Africa. **Tian Claassens is the CEO at Tian Claassens (Pty) Ltd.

IMIESA November/December 2016

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WATER

Water security is multifaceted

With dwindling conventional water sources, South African authorities are increasingly looking for alternative ways of securing future supply requirements, with two main approaches being considered. There are strong arguments for treating and reusing wastewater for potable, agricultural and industrial usage. Seawater desalination is most suited to coastal town and city demand. BY Alastair Currie

W

ater security has become one of the most pressing issues for governments worldwide, with arid countries like South Africa rapidly reaching a crisis point. Potable and sanitation requirements are essential, but so too are the needs of industry. Essentially, ineffective water management will end up destroying ecosystems and depleting already scarce groundwater, where available, as dams run dry. Immediate responses are needed to protect both quality of life and the economy. That means drinking and industrial water need to share equal platforms. “We need a multipronged approach so that we can address these issues in parallel,” says Chris Braybrooke, GM: Business Development, Veolia Water Technologies, South Africa “We

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IMIESA November/December 2016

need to develop optimal life-cycle costing models to meet immediate, medium- and longer-term priorities. “There is limited scope for the construction of new dams, plus rivers are already over stressed and frequently polluted. In the latter respect, this means that it becomes more expensive to treat conventional water. The natural progression would be a shift to wastewater reuse as one of the practical measures. The treatment of acid mine drainage in Gauteng is a truly innovative example of wastewater management that could supply consumers and industry. “Then there’s seawater desalination, which is widely adopted globally and gaining renewed traction in South Africa, where Veolia has commissioned seven plants to date – the largest

ABOVE Veolia designed, built and installed a 15 Mℓ/day seawater desalination plant in Mossel Bay, the largest such plant in South Africa

being the Mossel Bay plant, which supplies 10 Mℓ/day of potable water to the municipality and 5 Mℓ/day of process water to PetroSA.” As Veolia points out, within this context, the argument for wastewater reuse and desalination is very persuasive. Desalination is traditionally a coastal option, but inland water systems contaminated by brackish water and related brine streams can also be converted using Veolia’s water technologies. The standard methodology for Africa is membrane desalination via reverse osmosis, which tends to be the least costly


WATER

approach and ideal for countries with limited energy resources. (The other end of the scale is thermal water desalination, which is an advanced distillation process). A number of the major South African metros are now looking at mega seawater desalination plants, in the range of 150 Mℓ/day. Desalination implementation is a lengthy execution process – the environmental impact assessment, a critical study in ensuring sensitive coastal ecosystems are protected, is a protracted process on its own. Then, one has to consider the energy supply demands, which tend to be intensive, but do come down on larger plants, due to new technologies. Skilled specialists are also required to run and maintain these plants.

Water, waste and energy Veolia is the global leader in seawater desalination. Each day, approximately 6.75 million cubic metres of water are produced by the company’s desalination plants around the world. The French multinational has a lineage dating back to 1853 and, today, Veolia’s core business segments comprise water, waste and energy management services for public utilities and private sector clients, of which the industrial segment forms a core component. The company’s vision and leadership helps to shape and implement practical models for supply delivery. The sub-Saharan region falls under the Johannesburg regional head office, which has a complete design and build project capability. Within Gauteng, the company has a manufacturing facility in Sebenza and a chemical blending plant in Isando supporting the African region, forming part of the company’s total solutions offering. Other South African

Veolia supplied and maintains a turnkey seawater desalination plant for the Bitou Municipality, which produces 2 Mℓ/day of potable water for Plettenberg Bay. Beach sand acts as a first-phase filter followed by other pretreatment phases; thereafter, the sea water is treated by reverse osmosis membranes

centres are supported by offices in Cape Town and Durban. The total Southern African workforce now numbers around 700 personnel. “Be they conventional or more specialised, we have proven solutions for converting all water sources into a potable grade,” says Dr Gunter Rencken, managing director, Veolia Water Technologies, South Africa. “It’s important to emphasise that each solution we offer is fit for purpose.” Veolia’s services measure and improve environmental and economic performance. “We implement energy-efficient water treatment strategies.”

A race against time So the question posed is: where is the starting point for water security management? “The fundamental objective is, first, to manage available resources in terms of operations, maintenance and supply, where government has publicly expressed concern and is calling for interventions,” Rencken explains. “It starts with addressing water losses through older and failing infrastructure; however, for most South African metros, it’s a race against time, so – in addition to this – other sustainable measures must be adopted now. We need to consider that urbanisation trends reveal a major migration from rural areas, either to coastal or inland centres. So, how is this demand going to be managed?” Enter the reuse debate, using a classic example. Commissioned in May 2001, the Durban Recycling Water Works is a public-private partnership (PPP) concession, purpose-designed by Veolia to supply retreated wastewater for industrial use, where Veolia has been involved for more than 13 years, providing operations and maintenance services. This facility meets

Veolia’s flagship municipal wastewater treatment plant in Durban, KwaZuluNatal, reclaims water, to a near potable standard, at a rate of 47.5 Mℓ/day, reducing the amount of municipal wastewater discharged into the environment

dedicated demand for a petrochemical plant and pulp-paper manufacturer, which saves on the overall costs for municipal infrastructure. “To take this to the level of supplying drinking water is a relatively small step in a logical progression. However, there is public resistance to the thought of wastewater reuse. Our opinion is that government needs to be more proactive in communicating the safe advantages of reuse,” says Braybrooke.

Design, build and operate In South Africa, Veolia focuses on offering a design, build and operate model, with skills transfer being a core component. In the larger ambit, Veolia is a leading implementer of the PPP model globally. Given South African government buy-in, Veolia believes PPPs have real merit as a mechanism for driving cooperation between municipalities and private companies, in order to ensure cost-effective water and wastewater treatment and adherence to required water quality standards. “Veolia brings the key advantage of providing technical advice and assistance, helping authorities to optimise and use current resources to the maximum. That’s before you start investing in new infrastructure,” says Rencken. “It’s all about long-term planning – at least 30 years in advance – taking a holistic view of supply. So, reuse has to be an immediate focus. Let’s start by turning wastewater into a resource.”

IMIESA November/December 2016

23


HVAC Systems

Total flow control Inefficient heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems translate into expensive energy loads that increase carbon footprints and impact on building costs. BY Alastair Currie

F

orming part of SEW-Eurodrive’s diversification strategy for the South African market, the German manufacturer is spearheading an energy-efficiency focus with the roll-out of its variable-speed drive (VSD) range for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. This proven technology is led by SEW’s LTP-B Eco HVAC building services suite, which offers faster and more simplified installation and commissioning, backed by advanced diagnostics and off-site remote condition monitoring for key elements like chiller, circulation and cooling pumps. For ease of installation, all LTP-B Eco drives are provided as standard with both BACnet and Mobus RTU. “Essentially, it comes down to automation on a plug-and-play basis for experienced specialists in the HVAC field,” explains Norman Maleka, national sales manager, SEW. “These solutions are available for retrofits, as well as new smart building and industrial projects in the private and public sector space in line with Industry 4.0 trends.” The LTP-B Eco for advanced fan and pump control

24

IMIESA November/December 2016

HVAC designers will certainly appreciate the quantifiable walkthrough savings since the new LTP-B Eco alternative is designed to optimise fan and pump performance. Fans, for example, now function on demand, rather than running constantly, taking into account seasonal temperatures and building occupancy rates. “Our system also facilitates the capture and reuse of heat,” he adds. Other features include “flying restart” for situations where the fan is already turning, but revolving in the wrong direction – for example, following a power outage. The drive detects the direction and speed of the freewheeling fan. It then brings it to a controlled stop and restarts the fan to run in the desired direction. From a routine operational perspective, SEW’s system can provide an immediate warning of a broken belt between motor and fan. The system will also immediately detect any loss of load – for example, due to a broken coupling or other mechanical failure. The load output throughout the speed range is monitored and compared to the normal operating condition parameters preset during the commissioning phase. During design, every element of the building is built into the SEW solution to achieve best-in-class maintenance management. For example, if pipe vibration is experienced at certain frequencies, or even oscillation, parameters for “skip frequency” can be preset during installation. This function will literally skip the frequency at which vibration occurs. In addition to noise reduction, this has other downstream benefits that include minimising the risk of pipe bursts. The essence is to reduce the myriad number of parameters needed, which remains an onerous task for older, hands-on systems that require constant mechanical intervention. Without predictive

Norman Maleka, national sales manager, SEW-Eurodrive

mechanisms in place, like dry pump detection, catastrophic failures can occur. Building safety systems are integral parts of the package in key areas that include stairwell pressurisation, fume extraction and fire override. Fire mode interventions activate in case of emergency to provide smoke-free escape by regulating the area. Inevitably, fire doors on different levels in a multistorey building will be opened by existing occupants. In response, the LTP-B Eco increases output to ensure that effective pressure is maintained. In all aspects, the system will operate uninterrupted under these circumstances, and run to destruction if the situation warrants it.

A holistic approach Maleka says it’s about adopting a holistic systems approach to achieve energy benefits within the context of total ownership costs. “We’ve moved away from the conventional, general-purpose approach,” he says. “Our solutions address niche industry functionality together with competitive pricing, backed by SEW’s 85-year history of after-market support. That’s why we are engaging directly with consulting engineers and architects so that we can be part of the solution at the design phase.” Demonstration units are available for simulation trials, which integrate seamlessly with PLC interfaces, or independently. Intelligent functions are performed by the SEW unit: all the PLC system has to do is to command “stop/start”. Standard SEW units cater for sizes from 0.75 kW to 200 kW in single- as well as three-phase applications.


Power Generation

New PV solution for Africa

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arloworld has launched a new, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) solar energy solution targeted at Southern Africa’s commercial and industrial power segment. The Cat thin-film PV solar energy system features PV module technology, manufactured by First Solar, that can deliver up to 4.3% more energy than conventional crystalline silicon panels. The solution is the result of a strategic alliance between Caterpillar and First Solar, launched in 2015. First Solar, which has over 13 GW’s worth of global experience, manufactures the Cat-branded solar panels and associated components, which are sold and supported through Caterpillar’s dealer network alongside its other power generation offerings. “This solution offers our customers the opportunity to invest in reliable, affordable, high-performance PV modules backed by multiple gigawatts of First Solar’s expertise, combined with the familiarity and trust that come with the Cat brand,” says Grant Kirchmann, business development manager: Solar, Barloworld Power. “The technology is best suited to installation on rooftops or carports for businesses wishing to reduce their energy costs and improve their green credentials. It is not only cost-efficient and environmentally friendly but can also be fully integrated with other Cat power technologies renowned for their superior engineering and reliability.” The PV systems are available exclusively through Barloworld Power for the commercial and industrial (C&I) segment in Southern Africa, with sizes ranging from 25 kW to 5 MW. Barloworld Power provides installation, commissioning and aftersales support for all deployed systems. The company is currently installing a 300 kW test site at Barloworld Equipment’s Isando campus, which is expected to save about R500 000 per year on energy costs. “From our own experience, we’ve seen that thin film is the right technology for the C&I segment in Southern Africa. As we focus our efforts on utility-scale solar in the country, we are confident that Barloworld Power, with its extensive technical capabilities and sales and support infrastructure, is the right company to drive continued growth for thin film in the C&I segment,” says John Eccles, director: Business Development, Africa, First Solar.


SAVE THE DATE 25th-27th OCTOBER 2017

CO N F E R E N C E VENUE

SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING: BACK TO BASICS FOR THE FUTURE Has technology in design made us forget the basic principals of engineering design?

EMPERORS PALACE KEMPTON PARK – JOHANNESBURG

IMESA ORGANISER

THE INSTITUTE OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (IMESA) TEL: 031 266 3263 DEBBIE OR MELANIE

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HIDROSTAL SA (PTY) LTD Tel: (011) 704-5333 Fax: (011) 704-5666 Email: sales@hidrostal.co.za Tel: (031) 914-1007 Fax: (031) 914-1012

Nojoli Wind Farm commissioned

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enewable energy is gaining traction in the Eastern Cape following the recent commissioning of the Nojoli Wind Farm, a project executed by Italian multinational Enel, via local subsidiar y Enel Green Power RSA (EGP RSA). Situated some 180 km north of Port Elizabeth, between the towns of Cookhouse and Bedford, Nojoli has a total installed capacity of 88 MW and will be able to generate more than 275 GWh per year, equivalent to the annual consumption needs of around 86 000 South African households. This will also translate into an emission reduction saving of some 251 000 tonnes of CO2 annually. The site is located on a large plateau, which extends approximately 15 km north to south and 10 km east to west. “The completion of Nojoli demonstrates our continued commitment to the South African Renewable Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP),” says Bill Price, countr y manager, Enel, adding that the focus going for ward for South Africa will be on solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind projects. Price points out that, in addition to delivering clean energy, both technologies have relatively short construction lead times and are cost-competitive. Nojoli is supported by a 20-year power supply agreement with Eskom, awarded to Enel in October 2013 following the third round of the REIPPPP tender promoted by the South African government. In South Africa, EGP RSA currently owns and operates three PV power plants: Paleisheuwel (82.5 MW), which is situated in the Western Cape, Tom Burke (66 MW) in Limpopo, and Upington (10 MW) in the Northern Cape. EGP RSA has nearly 1 GW worth of projects currently in execution, of which 276 MW worth of capacity is now under construction. These comprise the Adams and Pulida PV plants, located in the Limpopo and Free State provinces, respectively (both with 82.5 MW capacities), and the 111 MW Gibson Bay Wind Farm, situated in the Eastern Cape.

IMIESA November/December 2016

27

Email saleskzn@hidrostal.co.za HIDROSTAL Flexible Coupled Bearing Frame is a close coupled rotating assembly fitted with our standard HIDROSTAL screw centrifugal hydraulic suitable engineered to accommodate a standard flange mount electric motor. The flexible coupled bearing frame pump is commonly installed in dry areas, e.g., together with other process machinery, dry-well sewage stations……………………... The construction of the flexible coupled bearing frame pump mounted on a fabricated baseplate makes it ideal for rapid dismantling and enables simple removal and installation during maintenance or shutdown periods. The flange mount construction on the drive-end of the pump, allows the electric motor to be mounted direct and in-line with the pump shaft. The two shaft ends are then coupled via a flexible flanged shaft coupling eliminating alignment checks. No more alignment problems. No more pre-mature bearing failures due to misalignment. No more wasting valuable time.


Bitumen & Asphalt

PG specifications add new dimension The process of transition has commenced from the current penetration grade bitumen specification framework to one that strives to define bitumen properties more closely related to their performance. By Piet Myburgh*

F

or the time being, the national standards for bitumen, published by SABS, and the recommendations contained in TG1, ‘Technical Guideline: The use of modified bituminous binder in road construction’, will hold sway. It is envisaged that the period of transition to a performance grade specification will be in the order of two years. Recent developments in South Africa, such as the implementation of the Sanralsponsored SA Pavement Design Method and the Sabita-sponsored revision of a national asphalt mix design method, both of which were introduced to practice during 2016, necessitated the adoption of a specification framework for bituminous binders based on engineering properties to ensure optimal performance of flexible pavements, especially in the higher traffic categories.

The basis of the specification Asphalt layers and spray seals in service are required to resist the following forms of distress: • distortion – permanent deformation and fracture, due to: - fatigue or loss of durability - temperature fluctuations. In addition, they should be durable, i.e. maintain their properties to counter distress for a long period. As a result, the concept of damage resistance characteristics (DRC) was introduced to provide a specification framework to gauge the binder’s resistance to damage resulting from: • permanent deformation (viscous flow) – at elevated temperatures • cracking – at intermediate temperatures • temperature fracture – at low temperatures. The specification framework should facilitate the rational selection of binders on the basis of: • traffic volumes and speed • climate (max and min temperatures) • binder durability. In the interests of resource economy, the aim

28

IMIESA November/December 2016

was to limit specialist laboratory equipment to: • dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) • bending beam rheometer (BBR) • rolling thin film oven (RTFO) • pressure ageing vessel (PAV). Further to these performance-related properties, additional requirements need to be set in the interests of safety, storage stability and viscosity limits to facilitate handling and application at elevated temperature.

Behaviour of bitumen Bitumen displays both elastic and viscous behaviour and this visco-elastic character of bitumen results in a variable response behaviour under varied loading times and temperatures changes. Elastic behaviour This behaviour characteristic of bitumen can be divided into three categories: • At low temperature and short duration loads, bitumen tends to act as an elastic solid, returning to its original position after removal of the load. • Excessively low temperature in conjunction with rapid loading may cause brittle failure and cracking. • Prolonged low temperatures can cause a build-up of internal stress resulting in thermal fracture. Viscous behaviour At elevated temperatures and/or low frequency loads associated with slow moving traffic, bitumen acts as a viscous fluid. Flow in the binder takes place as adjacent molecules slide past each other, the resulting friction or resistive force being related to the relative velocity of sliding. The relationship of this resistive force and the relative velocity (of sliding) is termed viscosity. Dynamic viscosity, represented by the

symbol η, is a measure of the resistance to flow of a fluid and is expressed as:

The SI unit of dynamic viscosity is the Pascal second (Pa.s).

Rheometry Rheology is the study of the flow and deformation of matter, including soft solids under conditions in which they flow rather than deform and recover fully. Rheometry refers to the laboratory measurement techniques to determine the rheological properties of materials. For bituminous binders, this entails the measurement of both elastic and viscous behaviour under varied conditions, primarily the type and frequency of loading and temperature of the specimen being tested. Two types of instruments in general use globally will be covered in this article: • dynamic shear rheometer • bending beam rheometer. Dynamic shear rheometer Measurements through the use of the DSR, shown in Figure 1, are the cornerstone of performance grade specifications. It illustrates important components of visco-elastic behaviour and is currently being introduced in South Africa for specification purposes. Two categories of measurement are afforded by the DSR: • u ndamental rheological properties • creep behaviour of a bituminous binder. Fundamental rheological properties The test is capable of quantifying both elastic and viscous properties of bituminous binders within the in-service pavement

Figure 1 Dynamic shear rheometer


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Bitumen & Asphalt

when exposed to shear load pulses. The phase angle, δ, indicates the relative proportions of recoverable and non-recoverable deformation. When testing within the linear visco-elastic range of the bituminous binder: Figure 2 Dynamic shear rheometer operation

temperature range (e.g. 10°C to 65°C). The operation of a DSR is illustrated in Figure 2. The basic DSR test uses a thin asphalt bituminous binder sample sandwiched between two plates. The lower plate is fixed while the upper plate oscillates across the sample, at a selected frequency, to simulate the shearing action corresponding to a selected traffic speed. The DSR is used to measure both viscous and elastic behaviour by measuring both the complex shearing modulus, G* (G-star) and a phase angle, δ (delta). G* is a measure of the total resistance of a material to deformation

The phase angle for neat (unmodified) bitumen is typically about 88 degrees to 89 degrees, while some modified binders can have phase angles as low as 60 degrees; i.e. they may act in a more elastic manner. Although the magnitude of G*1 and G*2 (of Bitumen1 and Bitumen2, respectively) depict ed in Figure 4 are of similar magnitude, they The phase angle δ represents the time lag represent binders that are significantly differbetween the maximum applied shear stress ent in visco-elastic behaviour. For instance, and the maximum resulting shear strain. Bitumen2 has a larger elastic component The DSR measurement of a specimen's complex shear modulus (G*) and phase angle (δ) are indicated in Figure 3. Limiting values of δ are: • for purely elastic material: δ = 0 degrees • for purely viscous Figure 3 DSR measurements of material: δ = 90 visco-elastic behaviour degrees.


Bitumen & Asphalt

Figure 5 Binder creep and recovery during repeated cycles

Figure 4 Visco-elastic behaviour

and will recover better from applied loading. Thus, G* alone cannot describe the behaviour of asphalt; δ is also required.

Creep behaviour This test is performed in a DSR, at an elevated temperature, to assess the extent to which a bituminous binder will recover after the relaxation of an applied torque. It is especially significant when considering the permanent deformation (rutting potential) of asphalt layers and the flushing/bleeding of spray seals. The multiple stress creep recovery test measures the recovery and non-recoverable creep of bituminous binders. This test procedure consists of a one-second constant stress interval followed by a nine-second unloaded recovery period. The loading and recovery interval is repeated 30 times as follows: • first 10 cycles are performed at 0.1 kPa stress level to condition the sample • 10 more cycles at 0.1 kPa stress level • 10 cycles at 3.2 kPa stress level. Figure 6 Bending beam rheometer deflection and creep test schematic

The whole test takes only six minutes until it is completed. The response of the binder during repeated cycles is illustrated Figure 5. From this test, the non-recoverable creep compliance (jnr) for a particular cycle is determined as follows:

Low-temperature behaviour To measure the binder’s ability to resist low temperature cracking use is made of the measured low temperature stiffness and stress relaxation properties of binders. Bending beam rheometer The bending beam rheometer (BBR) is used to measure how much a binder undergoes permanent deformation (or creep), under a sustained load, at a given temperature. The test temperatures selected relate to the pavement’s lower range of service temperature, when the bituminous binder acts more like an elastic solid. The test is usually carried out on binders that have

been aged to simulate the hardening that takes place during asphalt manufacture and paving, as well as in-service ageing. In this test, a blunt-nosed shaft applies a load to the midpoint of a simply supported bituminous binder beam, to simulate the stresses that gradually build up in a pavement layer when temperature drops. Using elastic beam theory and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle, the stiffness related to time is calculated by the BBR software. A schematic of the test and the recorded outputs of deflection and deduced stiffness are shown in Figure 6. The criteria for resistance to thermal cracking are based on the behaviour of the binder at a selected low temperature. Another value derived from BBR testing, which has been found to quantify the loss of relaxation properties and, hence, its susceptibility to durability cracking as the binder ages is ΔT(c) – the difference in temperature at which the binder stiffness S = 300 and m, the slope of the creep curve = 0.3, i.e.:

Age hardening Bituminous binders age primarily due to two distinct mechanisms – volatilisation of the light oils present in the bitumen and oxidation, by reacting with the oxygen in the environment. The ageing during handling up to the point of application comprises short-term ageing; that which occurs in-service is termed long-term ageing. Distress of asphalt layers or spray seal coats attributable to ageing typically includes fatigue or durability cracks, thermal-induced (shrinkage) cracks and ravelling. In practice, the actual time for short- and long-term ageing depends on site-specific conditions like heating temperatures, hauling distances and the period of pavement usage. Ageing caused by the oxidation of bitumen molecules and the loss of volatile components are irreversible, which subsequently has an impact on the rheological properties of the binders. For asphalt and spray seal layers to achieve their design lives, it is important that no excessive hardening of bitumen takes place during bulk storage, processing (e.g. manufacture and paving of asphalt or spraying operations) and on the road, i.e. when in-service. It is, therefore, important that the rheological and performance-related properties of the binder

IMIESA November/December 2016

31


Bitumen & Asphalt

Table 1 Proposed PG specification and report values Test property

South African performance grades 58S-22 64S-16 70S-10 58H-22 64H-16 70H-10 58V-22 64V-16 70V-10 58E-22 64E-16

70E-10

Max pavement design temperature (°C)

58

64

70

58

64

70

58

64

70

58

64

70

Minimum grading temperature (°C)

-22

-16

-10

-22

-16

-10

-22

-16

-10

-22

-16

-10

G* and δ at [(Tmax + Tmin)/2+4]°C

Test method

Compulsory report only – see detail description of report only item

ASTM D7175

G*/sinδ @10rad/s (kPa) @ T = Tmax

>1.0

ASTM D7175

Viscosity at 165°C (Pa.s) ≥ 30 sec-1

< 0.9

ASTM D4402

Storage stability at 180°C (% diff in G* at Tmax)

<10

ASTM D7175

Flash point (°C)

230

ASTM D92b

After RTFO ageing

ASTM D2872/TG1 MB3

Compulsory report only – see detail description of report only item

ASTM D7175

G* and δ at [(Tmax + Tmin)/2+4]°C, Mass change (% m/m) Jnr at Tmax (kPa-1) Ageing ratio [G*RTFO / G*Original]

G* and δ at [(Tmax + Tmin)/2+4]°C, S (60s) at Tmin + 10oC , MPa m (60s) at Tmin + 10oC

<0.3 <4.5

<4.5

<1.0 <4.5

<2.0

<2.0

<2.0

<1.0

ASTM D2872/TG1 MB3

<1.0

<1.0

<0.5

<0.5

<0.5

ASTM D7405

<3.0

ASTM D7175

After RTFO plus PAV ageing

ASTM D6521

Compulsory report only – see detail description of report only item

ASTM D7175

<300 MPa

ASTM D6648

>0.300

∆Tc (°C) = Tc,S – Tc,m

>-5

ASTM D7643

Ageing ratio [G*PAV / G*Original]

<6.0

ASTM D7175

32

IMIESA November/December 2016

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Bitumen & Asphalt

also be assessed after both short- and long-term ageing simulation. While it is impractical to simulate actual ageing, tests have been devised to give an indication of the susceptibility of a specific binder to ageing. Test specimen conditioning Tests will either be conducted on unaged binders or binders having been subjected to laboratory ageing techniques to simulate shortand long-term ageing. The ageing procedures adopted are standard ones, described below. Short-term ageing As is currently the case, the PG specification uses the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT), as per ASTM D2872, to simulate this form of ageing. Thin binder films are exposed to the effect of heat and oxidation, in the presence of air, as would typically occur in an asphalt manufacturing plant and during subsequent actions to construct the layer. Binders used in spray seals are not necessarily exposed to the same conditions, as would occur in an asphalt mixing plant. This feature is accounted for to some extent in the proposed specifications in specifying a requirement for unaged S-grade binders (see below). Long-term ageing The effects of long-term ageing – not covered by the current specification – are simulated in a pressure ageing vessel (PAV) as per ASTM D6521, which exposes the binder to high pressure (2.07 MPA) and temperatures (e.g. 100°C) for 20 hours. Since the binder (especially in asphalt) exposed to long-term ageing has also undergone prior heating in the mixing and construction processes, the PAV uses a binder that has already been aged in the rolling thin film oven. While, ultimately, all binders end up in a similar state of ageing, it is important that the rate of ageing during handling and in the medium term be gauged. Consequently, an ageing ratio requirement has been introduced. Two ratios are envisaged – being G*RTFOT/G*Original and G*PAV/G*Original at 10 rads/sec – at the intermediate temperature.

Performance grade specification The key feature of this new specification is limiting the potential of the binder to contribute to permanent deformation, fatigue cracking and low-temperature cracking. The term “performance grade” refers to the concept that binders will be graded in terms of their use and application to perform in specific environments defined by climate (particularly temperature ranges) and the intensity of traffic loading. Performance criteria In considering the development of appropriate criteria to assure adequate binder performance quality, it should be borne in mind that the characteristics of the binder alone will not ensure optimal performance of an asphalt layer or a spray seal. Design methods covering these types of applications should safeguard adequate performance of the layer through optimal configuration of its components. Safety and handling Although not directly linked to performance characteristics, three requirements related to safety, ease of handling and the stability during storage are covered in the specifications: • safety – flash point • handling – flow characteristics (viscosity) of the binder at elevated temperatures.

• storage stability – for modified binders, this requirement serves as an indicator of the compatibility of the base bitumen and the modifier used. Climate The effect of climate is taken into account by a grading designation component related to: • the average seven-day maximum pavement design temperature • minimum pavement design temperature. Traffic Traffic will be classified in terms of Standard, Heavy, Very Heavy and Extreme, with the associated symbols of S, H, V and E, respectively. The classification is based on both traffic volume and traffic speed. Provisional specification The proposed PG specification for trial introduction in South Africa is shown in Table 1. The columns indicate the binder grades for the maximum pavement design temperatures and associated minimum grading temperatures for each of the four traffic intensity categories. Two main binder grades are envisaged for South Africa: PG58-22 and PG64-16. It is expected, based on road surface temperature measurements, that, in the PG64-16 region, areas may exist with a higher Tmax than 64°C; therefore, provision is made for a PG70-10 binder grade, indicated as the shaded grades in the proposed specification. *Piet Myburgh is the executive director at Sabita.


SUPERIOR TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATIVE COMMERCIAL SOLUTIONS.

The majority of local governments in Africa are under severe strain to deliver basic services to their communities. This is as a result of many factors such as population growth, insufficient capacity, limited budgets, lack of maintenance and, in the case of water and sanitation, severe water scarcity due to drought.

The advantages of the NuWater solution: • NuWater partners with municipalities by providing affordable, easily financed, rapidly implementable solutions to assist the municipalities in their endeavours to provide quality basic water and sanitation services to it’s communities. • NuWater can tailor the commercial offer to suit the cashflow restrictions experienced by the municipalities and operate on the Build-Own-Operate (BOO), Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT), or Rental business model. • The existing water treatment works can be run at design capacity while the NuWater plant delivers the balance of the total volumes required by the municipality, thereby ensuring volumes and quality standards are met.

www.nuwaterglobal.com info@nuwaterglobal.com

• The “Modular & Mobile” nature of our technology allows for the flexibility and easy deployment / redeployment as and when required.


Panel Discussion

NuWater Aurelia van Eeden | Executive: Business Development and Strategy How does NuWater work with the public sector to develop and maintain key infrastructure? AvE NuWater understands the multiple challenges that municipalities face – from dilapidated infrastructure to financial turmoil. Driven by this insight, NuWater partners with municipalities by providing affordable, easily financed, rapidly implementable solutions to assist the municipalities in their endeavours to provide quality basic water and sanitation services to their communities. NuWater can tailor commercial offerings to suit cash-flow restrictions experienced by various municipalities and operate on build-own-operate, build-own-operate-transfer or rental business models. Because of our modular and mobile solutions, which can be rapidly deployed and redeployed, municipalities are able to augment their current infrastructure systems with our water treatment plants during infrastructure upgrades. This allows the municipality to maintain its production volumes, circumventing loss of income from not being able to sell water during downtime.

How is NuWater leveraging its strategic relationships with leading service providers to the municipal sector?

Having proved our modular and mobile model in the private sector, we are now demonstrating its relevance in the municipal sector with short-term, own-and-operate projects – something that is completely new. We are also leveraging our strategic relationships with leading service providers to the municipal sector by helping them to add distributed water and wastewater treatment services to their offering. We are very excited about the progress we are making with our client base and the leadership position we are carving out in this new, decentralised world.

Tell us about a recent municipal project that makes use of your modular and mobile approach. eMalahleni Municipality has a water treatment plant that is severely strained because of demand exceeding treatment capacity. Up to 20 Mℓ/day was being wasted due to the excessive frequency of required backwashing and rinsing of the filters. Not only was the quality of the water being distributed at risk of contamination by push-through from the overloaded treatment system, but the reduced volumes of available water placed more pressure on water availability. This resulted in less income for the municipality and long periods without residential water supply. NuWater intervened with an efficient and affordable solution

that can be rapidly implemented and redeployed when required. The existing municipal water treatment works can be run at design capacity while the NuWater plant delivers the balance of the total volumes required by the municipality, thereby ensuring that volumes and quality standards are met. The plant is financed through operational budgets and generates additional income for the municipality, by producing more water, which provides an income stream to pay for the facility.

South Africa is facing a growing water challenge. What does this mean for NuWater? The current pressures on South African water resources allow NuWater to further differentiate its solutions offering. NuWater specialises in delivering water and wastewater treatment and desalination as a service. Our main focus has never been to sell equipment but rather to own and operate our own equipment to deliver the service required. Adopting this business model has meant that we are always motivated to deliver the most efficient, reliable and cost-effective plants based on the most

appropriate technology, whether that is our own proprietary technology, such as our 16” reverse osmosis system, or carefully selected third-party technologies.

How does NuWater connect with consumers to safeguard our water resources? We encourage society to form part of the water treatment process and, ultimately, part of the solution to water scarcity. We believe that creating awareness and educating our customers and wider society on water treatment will go one more step in alleviating our current water challenge. We recently commenced the construction of our new facility in Muizenberg, which sees our offices, factory and a conference centre in one place. We have purposely decided to do it in such a way to allow the public to visit and learn about our vision and technology on-site. We allow them to engage not only academically but also recreationally with the water treatment process. Ultimately, we aim to make a positive difference, which starts with making people aware of how precious water is and how every drop that comes out of a tap has a price, and every drop wasted or going down the drain a cost.

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Panel Discussion

Cranefield College Prof Pieter Steyn | Principal Could you expand on Cranefield College’s mandate and the courses it provides to the market? PS As a top provider of private higher education, Cranefield College has established itself internationally as a leader in the field of project management, programme managing the supply chain and project portfolios, and value chain performance management. These courses meet the leadership and management needs of both private and public sector organisations. Courses range from advanced certificates to postgraduate diplomas, and degrees up to doctoral level. We recently had the pleasure of conferring two PhDs in Commerce and Administration, one of which was to a candidate in Germany. Importantly, our courses are internationally recognised to the highest standards – for example, they enjoy H+ status in Germany (and hence the EU), which makes them equivalent to degrees conferred by any German university. Our courses are offered on an enhanced distance learning basis, utilising advanced online technology, and we have students registered from all over the world.

How is project and programme management evolving as a profession? The evolving trend is for organisations to adopt a cross-functional approach to their business models. Essentially, this means that diversification has become the norm and this has placed even greater emphasis on project and programme management to ensure a focused

approach. In both the private and public sectors, the pressure is on meeting delivery targets in shorter time frames. Completing work ahead of deadlines also reduces wastages in terms of manpower. Plus, earlier completion means prompter payment and positive cash flow management.

What’s the difference between programme and project management? Project management is the foundation, and the principles and practices are very important to understand. Learning these skills provides project managers with the ability to move into the modern-day realm of programme management, which focuses on maximising strategic benefits along the value chain. Programme managers reflect critically on the role of quality and performance management in the organisational supply chain and in particular, the cross-functional processes. They compare business strategy theory with practice to meet challenges in both internal and external organisational environments, in a prescriptive and emergent manner, to enhance the value-creation ability of the knowledge-based learning organisation. This includes managing multiple project portolios. That’s where keeping bureaucracy to a minimum is vital, as is the need to remove silo cultures in organisations.

How closely is project and programme management linked to business success? For organisations to survive, they

need to stay focused on continuous improvement and product and service innovation. Project managers play an essential role here, and keep programmes on track.

What are the implications for virtual project management? This is a major new area for project management professionals. Location is no longer an issue with an online systems approach. Business models are shifting to a network matrix, in terms of functionality. Here, virtual managers help to shape the evolving organisation via online programme offices. Virtual networks enable dispersed organisational teams to collaborate more effectively, using the best talent available, irrespective of geographical location. For virtual project managers to be effective, they need to build effective data linking systems to optimise interconnectivity. It’s an exciting, near real-time approach, as virtual teams work together to achieve targeted goals.

What are the reputational advantages of project management? Implementing effective project and programme management ensures that there are rigorous checks and balances along the value chain. This enables organisations to significantly reduce the risk of corruption and unofficial expenditure.

Are there new courses being introduced at Cranefield College during 2017?

Yes, a BBA and MBA degree that will enable students to demonstrate advanced knowledge and insight into the optimal functioning of knowledge-based-learning organisations, where the value system plays a central role in creating a preferred supportive organisational culture and top performance. At the heart lies the balanced scorecard, in its strategy map form, containing the critical success factors for achieving the organisation’s mission and vision, and continuous improvement initiatives so profoundly important for value chain performance optimisation and improvement. We are also introducing a legal course shortly. Management and the law are inextricably interconnected. So, managers in all fields of practice must know the law that applies to them, and lawyers inevitably apply principles of management (whether they realise it or not) in dealing with cases.

What are the implications for change management? Our research shows that organisations are bombarded by change, which poses threats and opportunities. This has motivated new roles for project and programme managers at the executive level, which include the chief portfolio officer, or CPO, whose key role is to manage change and help grow the cross-functional model. It’s clear that organisations of the future will be compelled to shed old ways of leading and managing in favour of a knowledge-based approach that embraces innovation and learning. That’s where Cranefield College comes in.

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CONNECTING AFRICAN COMMUNITIES homes for living buildings to work roads to travel bridges to connect schools to educate

REALISING CONTINENTAL POTENTIAL

GOOD ROADS ARE VITAL FOR SOUTH AFRICA’S CONTINUED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.

The efficient and cost-effective management of our roads is essential, ensuring optimal maintenance planning and delivery. VNA is at the cutting-edge of this country’s built environment service delivery, contributing to the continent’s emergence as a meaningful economic powerhouse. The use of Pavement Management Systems assists decision-makers to develop strategies for maintaining road surfaces in serviceable conditions for as long as possible, with the least cost. Central to these systems is the effective collection and analysis of road condition data for the identification of surfaces in distress. Engineering specialist, VNA Consulting, believes that automated road surface

condition surveys are the way of the future for South Africa and beyond. Working in conjunction with international leaders in the field, we are a part of the global move towards embracing road surface survey automation. We have invested extensively in hardware and software for the best practice in automation and streamlining of data collection and processing, designed to enhance this country’s road and bridge solutions into the future. Combining our excellent capabilities, expertise and efficient technologies with our new fleet of survey vehicles, all kitted with sophisticated, state-of-the-art equipment, we are ideally positioned to meet South Africa’s most demanding road surface condition survey and infrastructure mapping requirements.

VNA... SETTING INDUSTRY STANDARDS TO ENABLE INFRASTRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA.

CORPORATE OFFICE

10 Kyalami Road, Park 2000 Westmead, Pinetown, 3610 Tel: +27 31 700 2500

HEAD OFFICE

596 Peter Mokaba Ridge Berea, Durban, 4001

Facsimile: +27 31 700 2550

Email: paresh.narsai@vnac.co.za

For further information regarding our national and regional offices, please visit our website: www.vnac.co.za


Panel Discussion

VNA Consulting Vikash Narsai | CEO What role does good asset management play in managing road infrastructure? VN Infrastructure is the foundation of social and economic upliftment – which are essential to achieving increased levels of economic growth – and the establishment of well-serviced areas. Good asset management will enable municipalities to maintain and operate road infrastructure in the most effective way, so that critical serviceable access can be provided to the communities they serve. It helps to understand the asset, how it performs and determine the funding needed to meet the requirements placed upon it.

How does VNA work with local government to assist with road asset management? VNA has, through the past years, engaged with various municipalities to provide an automotive road asset management assessment solution to enable corrective road infrastructure upgrade planning and rehabilitation maintenance.

What technologies does VNA utilise in its asset management process? VNA employs the latest technologies, together with visual condition assessments, FWD (falling weight deflectometer) analyses, road profiles, rut measurements, texture analysis and dereferenced imaging to prepare and produce concise and highly accurate data for incorporation into an integrated pavement management software tool. The expansion into road asset management enabled VNA to offer a “one-stop-shop” solution using the latest automated technologies, namely:

• s tate-of-the-art equipment to collect asset location and condition data in a non-destructive scientific manner that is repeatable and not susceptible to the inherent subjectivity associated with manual data collection methods • fully integrated computer systems to store, manage, analyse and report on asset data. Our present technologies include, among others: • FWD testing technologies that enable a non-destructive method to evaluate the structural capacity of a pavement structure • the Hawkeye 2000 Series, which is a highly specialised range of survey products designed to meet the most demanding survey applications • World Bank Standard Class 1 products such as our digital laser profiling and digital imaging systems –invaluable assets that streamline pavement management systems internationally • our flagship Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD).

What advice can you give local government in implementing an asset management system? Without sound and accurate road asset management information, planning outputs to maintain infrastructure and essential municipal services becomes fruitless. Good asset management knowledge supports commercial decisions and provides longer-term financial benefits to all participants in the chain. To this end, many municipalities are reluctant to accept the evolution of technological advancement and find it difficult to embrace change. It is prudent to understand that the world is ever-changing, in order to

better equip and offer technological solutions to support clients and to implement solutions that improve serviceable levels for economic advancement.

globally, to own and operate the recently acquired TSD.

In which areas does the company operate and what are your plans for expansion?

The VNA brand has expanded beyond the realm of traditional built environment professional service offerings, such as design and construction services. In converging directly on relationship-building, the brand has become known for its unique, fast-track delivery mechanisms and its solutions that are tailored to customers’ needs. Our present service offerings include traditional built environment consulting services; asset management; delivery management solutions, from project to portfolio level; as well as niche services, such as management information applications focused on the infrastructure delivery market. All our solutions are proven and customised to suit our clients.

In the delivery of high-value built environment outcomes for clients, derived from a wide range of business sectors, VNA’s operations are locally based from various offices within the KwaZulu-Natal, Gauteng and Free State provinces, with new expansion towards the Western Cape, Eastern Cape, North West and Mpumalanga. VNA has further established an international footprint with an office in Mauritius and we have been leaning towards an Asian footprint due to the specialised service offering within the pavement industry. It is important to note that we are the first private sector entity,

What other consulting services and solutions does VNA offer?

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IMESA Awards

Celebrating municipal engineering excellence

Redhouse Chelsea Interchange and Arterial Roads

The biennial IMESA/CESA Excellence Awards gives recognition to well-engineered civil engineering projects for infrastructure.

E

ntrants for the awards must portray the art and science of civil engineering for infrastructure to the general public and indicate how the profession finds answers to challenges. IMIESA recognises the outstanding entrants in this year’s awards.

Category: Roads and Stormwater Winner Redhouse Chelsea Interchange and Arterial Roads Implementing agent: Sanral Consultant: Aecom Contractor: Basil Read Aecom began work on a proposal to design a road network to service the expansion of the western areas in Port Elizabeth (PE) and alleviate existing congestion in 2006 – the Redhouse Chelsea Arterial. The proposed network would underpin the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality’s (NMBM) long-term plans to expand the western areas in order to meet a growing demand

for residential and commercial growth in the greater PE area. The Redhouse Chelsea Arterial project was fast-tracked by the development of the 92 000 m2 regional Bay West Mall planned for completion by March 2015. With the proposed interchange on the N2 able to provide direct access into the area, the commercial development became significantly more viable than before. A special purpose vehicle, Bay West City, was set up to implement the project. Aecom was appointed for the design, management and supervision of the project, which included the management of an extensive environmental approval process, as the site is situated in an extremely sensitive environmental biosphere containing a number of redlisted plant species. As part of this process, the layout of the road network went through many design iterations before an agreement was reached with the local authorities. This was the primary driver behind the extended design process for this road network, as the solution had to have the least invasive impact upon the natural habitat.

The final road layout consisted of a new interchange on the N2 with two bridges with 4 km of ramps; the Cyclopia bridge over an environmentally sensitive area; two river bridges over the upper Baakens River; a major, three-barrel culvert servicing outfalls from three major detention ponds; and 6 km of arterial roads with a maze of intersections and services. The project also included the provision of several bulk services including water, sewerage and telecommunications for the Bay West City precinct and street lighting for all the roads, including a portion of the N2. Work commenced on 6 January 2014, with Basil Read appointed as the principal contractor. The contract consists of two major milestones: 1. P  hases 1 and 2 to complete unrestrictive access and services for the mall. 2. Phase 3 to complete the arterial from the N2 to Cape Road. Due to the delay in the start of construction, the contractor proposed the use of precast members for the construction of the bridges. The main beams for the N2 bridges (weighing up to 70 tonnes) were manufactured

IMIESA November/December 2016

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VIP CONSULTING ENGINEERS VIP Consulting Engineers was founded in 1976 and has since become an established consultancy in the field of civil and structural engineering. VIP is represented and presently involved in various development projects throughout Gauteng, Mpumalanga, Limpopo Province and the Free State.

IMPROVING LIVES

EXPERIENCE AND EXPERTISE

VIP provides comprehensive consulting engineering and project management services for civil engineering and municipal infrastructure projects

VIP’s accurate interpretation and sound understanding of client’s needs ensure long-lasting and functional solutions to any engineering challenge

CONTACT US Pretoria 2nd Floor, Building 88A, Tijger Vallei Office Park, 0081 PO Box 11211, Silver Lakes, 0054 Tel: 012 809 0010 Fax: 012 809 1435 E-mail: pretoria@vipconsulting.co.za

www.vipconsulting.co.za

Benoni Reef House, Top Floor, Cnr Mowbray & Bunyan street PO Box 3108, Benoni, 1500 BBBEE Tel: 011 421 7233 status: Fax: 011 420 0120 LEVEL 2 E-mail: benoni@vipconsulting.co.za


IMESA Awards Redhouse Chelsea Interchange and Arterial Roads

improving safety and the general living conditions of the residents. The project was funded by means of a Mayoral Fund that was intended for upliftment projects in informal or disadvantaged communities. The total cost of the project amounted to R6.7 million.

in Gauteng, and driven down utilising bespoke transportation equipment. The remainder of the precast members were constructed on-site. The project proceeded with great gusto. A significant penalty for late completion of Phases 1 and 2, coupled with the great embarrassment of opening the mall with no access, incentivised early completion. Ultimately, Phases 1 and 2 were completed on time, and Phase 3 was completed ahead of schedule.

2ND place Construction of a new underpass for the proposed Riverfields Boulevard under the R21 See winner of the Structures and Buildings category.

3RD PLACE Phola Park Stormwater Upgrade Local authority: City of Cape Town Main contractor: WF Constructions The Phola Park Stormwater Upgrade evolved from a small-scale intervention to improve water quality to a full-scale inter vention after extensive community participation. The construction component of the project was implemented during the 2015/16 financial year – beginning on 18 August 2015 and substantially completed by 7 April 2016. The original intention was to improve the quality of the stormwater while simultaneously improving the living conditions of the residents adjacent to the channel. The interaction with the local community and “walk-arounds” resulted in a number of interim and long-term interventions, such as regular cleaning of the stormwater channel. A trial run was planned to test the feasibility of dosing the channel with bio-enzymes to improve water quality.

The upgrading of the open unlined system to a lined system, including silt and litter traps, was considered. Low-flow diversions of stormwater to the sewerage network were also investigated. The Solid Waste Removal Department increased its service by providing a door-todoor bag service of two bags per dwelling per week, service containers twice per week and investigating the feasibility of rolling out green bins to Phola Park. It also committed to increase the number of drop-off facilities to reduce wind-blown pollution as well as committed to maintaining the walkway. The Department of Water and Sanitation provided additional toilet facilities and upgraded the layout of the existing toilet facilities. It also agreed to allow the diversion of contaminated low-flow stormwater into the sewerage system to improve water quality. It was decided to opt for a closed stormwater system which would improve water quality and reduce maintenance cost while

Category: Structures and Buildings Winner Construction of a new underpass for the proposed Riverfields Boulevard under the R21 Developer: ELS Development (previously Tridevco) Architect/urban designer: Gapp Civil and structural engineer: VIP Consulting Engineers Electrical engineers: N3 Section – Aecom; Riverfield – CPE Civil contractor: Civilcon Owner: Sanral/Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality Traffic studies determined that, in order to connect township development on both sides of the R21, a link needed to be constructed consisting of two duallane carriageways. The choice between underpass and overpass was extensively investigated, and it was decided that an underpass would be Phola Park Stormwater Upgrade

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IMESA Awards

Riverfields Boulevard

preferable. This was due to a variety of reasons, including topography and founding characteristics. In order to accommodate the two carriageways and two cycle lanes, a four-span structure of symmetrical configuration would be required. The main spans are 14.05 m, and the two end spans 9.3 m. Both decks are 25 m wide to accommodate the five 3.7 m lanes, with shoulders, barriers and a pedestrian lane for each carriageway. The decks are continuous over three sets of combined column piers, designed as a solid reinforced concrete slab with thickness var ying from 700 mm abutments and mid spans, to 1 100 mm

over the piers. The piers are made up of six columns, each having a diameter of 800 mm, and are fixed to the slab. The end spans are supported on elastomeric bearings at the abutments. The deck was constructed with reinforced concrete, which would allow the use of asphaltic joints at the interface with the existing road, avoiding the “thump” associated with other joints. Both decks were cast in a single operation (1 050 m³) to ensure no cold joints and cracks. The bridges were designed to the standards TMH7 for NA, NB36 and NC.30x5x40 loads. The total cost of the project was roughly R48 million, which translates into a rate of about R19 200 per square metre of deck. Taking into account that the traffic accommodation on its own amounted to approximately R9.5 million and the works associated with the cycle tract another R1.3 million, this is ver y reasonable. The construction period was 16 months and the result ver y satisfying.

2nd PLACE Tsakane Extension 22 Sewage Pump Station Consultant: VIP Consulting Municipality: Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality The Gauteng Depar tment of Human Settlements undertook to develop 3 790 erven, 3 721 of which are zoned residential, in an area adjoining existing Tsakane. The area had no bulk or link services and a waterborne sanitation system was required. This could not be connected to the existing gravity draining sewers and a pump station was indicated. The pump station had to be designed for a capacity of 55 ℓ/s (200 kℓ/hour) with standby capacity and had to be constructed in such a way that continued operation, even in the event of power failures, could be ensured. Clearly visible from the R550, the pump station building was given special attention

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Effluent flowing over the rectangular weir


IMESA Awards

3rd PLACE Redhouse Chelsea Interchange and Arterial Roads See winner of the Roads and Stormwater category.

Category: Water and Wastewater Winner Ashley Drive Break Pressure Tank

Tsakane Extension 22 Sewage Pump Station

to present a pleasing architectural appearance. To comply with safety regulations and to ensure security, the whole of the building is covered with reinforced concrete roof slabs. The layout of the station consists of the following: Inlet pipe This pipe is fitted with an isolating valve to allow maintenance of the inlet channels. Overflow during maintenance is directed into the overflow pond. Inlet feeder line The feeder pipeline is constructed of 450 mm diameter mild steel pipe sections, which have been externally coated with a 250 μm Copon coat and internally coated with a bituminous Carboline coating for protection against the natural elements. Inlet screens Two screens in parallel channels serve to prevent undue oversize matter from entering into the wet sump, and subsequently into the pumps. Flow measuring flume The screens are followed by a venture flume in which flow is measured and logged. Wet sumps Flow is directed into two parallel wet sumps. These are interconnected but this connection may be closed when only one of the two needs to be operated. Dry sump Adjoining the wet sumps, a pump room (dry sump) is situated with floors at about

the same level as the wet sump. Two pumps, with equal capacity and which operate on a “switch-on, switch-over” basis, draw water from their own designated sump. Automation An emergency generator, set with capacity of 10 hours at 60% flow demand, is able to start up when power supply fails. The station has been designed to operate with the minimum input from personnel and to moderate, as far as is possible, the effect of stoppages due to power outages.

Local authority: eThekwini Municipality Consultants: Royal HaskoningDHV, Naidu Consulting and Knight Piésold Consulting Joint Venture Main contractor: Icon Construction Subcontractors: SSE and Electron The Ashley Drive Break Pressure Tank (BPT), located in Hillcrest, Durban, has a unique functionality in South Africa. It is designed from first principles to safely operate the Western Aqueduct, which is eThekwini Municipality’s largest water conveyance project. The primary function of the BPT is to limit water pressures in the Western Aqueduct to 25 bar between Ashley Drive and Wyebank. The pressure in the aqueduct has to be “broken” at various points so that the potentially destructive energy in the pipeline can be safely and economically controlled. Under normal, steady-state, conditions the aqueduct works like a well-behaved, lazy river. However, when there is any change, such as an increase or a decrease

Ashley Drive Break Pressure Tank

IMIESA November/December 2016

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IMESA Awards Construction of the Northern Areas Sewer – Phase 2

46

in water demand, the inlet to the BPT must react. If the reaction is too fast or too slow, potentially catastrophic conditions will arise, namely overpressure in the upstream pipe or overflow from the tank. In conventional BPTs, the water level fluctuates between full and a preset, lower limit. The inlet valve is either open or closed. If the tank is full at the time the water demand slows or stops, the inlet valve may not close quickly enough to prevent the BPT from overflowing. In the Ashley Drive BPT, the inlet valve is constantly adjusted (modulated) via a PLC so that the water level fluctuates around 50% of the tank’s depth. The BPT thus has sufficient water volume and air space to allow the inlet valve to open or close slowly. The Ashley Drive BPT’s operating system was devised by the design team in Durban from first principles, since there is no known similar modulating system for large BPTs in South Africa or, indeed, the world. Despite the design engineers’ best efforts to prevent overflow at the inlet valves, the BPT can overflow due to loss of power to the PLC, or some other malfunction, which was not acceptable to the client. Three hydraulically actuated, automatic globe valves are provided as backup to close sequentially if the water starts to approach the overflow level. Even before the globe valves start to close, an alarm will have been sent, by telemetry, to the water department’s control room and maintenance staff will be dispatched to attend to the fault condition. The PLC exercises the globe valves periodically to prevent the working parts from seizing due to corrosion and chemical deposits from the water, and then not operating when called upon to act. Approximately 2.14 MW of power can be generated as electrical energy from the flowing water when the scheme reaches its

full capacity of 400 Mℓ/day. The electrical energy can be used for the electrical needs of the BPT, or it can be injected into the local distribution grid. Space has been reserved within the confines of the BPT site for the construction and management of a future hydropower installation. The Ashley Drive BPT is an excellent example of the art and science of civil engineering being brought together to control and tame the potentially destructive and lethal water energy in the Western Aqueduct pipeline. It is a technical showcase of civil and municipal engineering, requiring unique and innovative solutions to protect the pipeline – and the public – from flooding that can occur if the pipe bursts due to overpressure or if the tank overflows. The municipal engineers’ involvement, experience and management skills bring together a multitude of engineering disciplines to complete an installation comparable with the best in the world.

2nd PLACE Construction of the Northern Areas Sewer – Phase 2 Local authority: City of Cape Town Consultant: AECOM Main contractor: CSV Construction Subcontractors: Wepex, Tuboseal and TT Innovations The Northern Areas Sewer (NAS) is a major collector sewer currently serving an approximately 4 100 ha area of the northern suburbs of Cape Town. The sewer is approximately 9 km in length, starting in Parow and terminating at the Langa Pump Station, adjacent to the Old Athlone Power Station. The old NAS was originally commissioned in 1951. And, although most of the sewer was still in a relatively good condition considering its age, in the early 1990s, it

IMIESA November/December 2016

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IMESA Awards became evident that the NAS no longer had sufficient capacity to service the existing catchment area. Furthermore, critical developments, such as Wingfield and the Conradie Hospital, which would tie into the NAS, had to be delayed until the system was upgraded. Phase 1 of the upgrade consisted of the replacement of the first 3.8 km of the bulk sewer in 2000 and 2001. The Northern Areas Sewer Phase 2 (NAS2) entailed the replacement of the remaining portion of the original NAS from Jakes Gerwel Drive to the Langa Pump Station, which would increase the capacity of the system from approximately 600 ℓ/s to 3 000 ℓ/s. In terms of service life, the aim of the NAS2 project was to provide the City of Cape Town (CCT) with at least 50 years of low-maintenance service; however, considering the high-durability materials used for the project and the quality of the construction work, it is anticipated that this sewer will continue offering uninterrupted service to the CCT for the next 80 to 100 years. CSV Construction undertook the construction of the NAS2, which involved the construction of a 5.2 km concrete gravity sewer with a diameter ranging from 1 350 mm at the upstream end to 1 650 mm at the downstream end. The depth of installation of the NAS2 typically varied between 4 m and 7 m. In addition to the construction of the new outfall sewer, manholes were constructed at approximately 90 m intervals, and also at changes to the vertical and horizontal alignment of the sewer, to allow for access for operations and maintenance. Ultimately, 70 in situ cast concrete manhole structures were constructed as part of this project, as well as 10 smaller precast concrete manhole structures. Sheet piling Instead of traditional open-cut excavation with the necessary dewatering along most of the route, the contractor proposed that shoring, in the form of steel sheet piles, would be installed using vibrating hammer technology, which would limit the width of excavation to a narrow trench. Silent piling In order to prevent the 40-year-old, existing 132 kV cables from failing, the decision was made to install the sheet piles by means of “silent” (vibration-free) piling technology, which uses a “press-in” method. This method of installing sheet piles was used successfully for about 450 m adjacent to the cables, as well as in other areas where the vibrations from the high-frequency vibrating hammer were considered to pose a risk to nearby structures and services. Pipe jacking Eight pipe jacks were undertaken at road and rail crossings, including five 1 460 mm diameter pipe jacks and three 1 680 mm diameter pipe jacks. Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) Since the new NAS2 does not follow the same route as the old NAS, a portion of the sewer catchment area will still be serviced by a 1 040 m section of the old 762 mm diameter NAS. This sewer is still in a relatively good condition, despite its age; however, in order to provide for another 50 year service life, the sewer was rehabilitated using the CIPP trenchless technology method. The CIPP technology was used to rehabilitate a total of 1 040 m of sewer over a period of less than one month, with minimal impact on the nearby residents and businesses. The construction of the NAS2 reached practical completion in October 2015, within budget and on programme, despite many complex technical challenges.

3rd PLACE Phola Park Stormwater Upgrade See winner of the Roads and Stormwater category.

Category: Environmental Winner Bellville Waste Management Facility Local authority: City of Cape Town Consultant: Mott MacDonald Africa Main contractor: Haw and Inglis Arising from a looming airspace crisis due to an increasing waste stream generated by a growing Cape Town, plus pending closure of the Bellville South Waste Disposal Facility, the City of Cape Town embarked on the development of the Bellville Waste Management Facility (BWMF) as an innovative, sustainable and high-tech facility focusing on waste management and minimisation. The BWMF includes a transfer station, a waste drop-off facility (both domestic and household hazardous waste) and a future potential materials recovery facility (MRF). The new facility includes an administration office building, waste handling, weighbridge, security and workshop buildings with a floor area of approximately 8 630 m², on a site with an area of 120 000 m². The project was divided into two phases: Phase 1 – the conceptual investigation, and Phase 2 – the design and construction of the BWMF. The real innovation came from the conceptual phase, which involved comprehensive research into waste tonnages and technologies for the 2015 FULTON AWARD WINNER INNOVATION IN CONCRETE

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IMESA Awards

Bellville Waste Management Facility

refuse transfer station (RTS) and MRF using waste generation models and waste categorisation studies. Technical study tours were conducted in the UK and Europe to investigate alternative technologies for the RTS and MRF. Waste generation and characterisation studies formed a significant part of the conceptual explorative studies. Critical investigation into waste generation models and assumptions, waste generation reduction rates, and projections for BWMF, including reduction and the

impact of separation at source schemes on waste stream composition, were conducted. Sustainable design assumptions and approaches guided the investigations for sustainable interventions and financially viable integrated waste management. This included an investigation into the viability of an MRF, the recovery rates and probable income from dry recyclables. A supplementar y carbon emissions reduction repor t was prepared and the possible

income generation from carbon credit trading determined. A comprehensive report of all investigations compiled with numerous recommendations was drafted. Only three recommendations were taken forward, namely: the provision of a modern public drop-off centre (recycling and HH hazardous), a facility for chipping of garden greens only, and RTS, which makes provision for transfer of waste to Vissershok Landfill site.


IMESA Awards

Somarela Thothi Water-loss Reduction Partnership

The construction phase was carried out in two stages: Stage 1: Removal of existing services and buildings; removal of sewage sludge from, and infill of, sludge ponds; site earthworks; and foundation improvements. The sludge was taken to approved farms on the west coast and used for soil improvement, having been tested for its suitability prior to disposal. Stage 2: Alterations to Peter Barlow intersection; upgrading of Rotterdam Road; rerouting of two key services; and construction of the new BWMF. The BWMF is an innovative solution and is designed to address the complex social, environmental and financial issues of waste management in the City of Cape Town. It is the largest refuse transfer station in South Africa. At its peak, it will receive up to 1 500 tonnes of domestic waste per day. The project spanned over eight years, from the planning phase in 2008, until completion in October 2015, within budget and according to schedule.

2ND place Phola Park Stormwater Upgrade See winner of the Roads and Stormwater category.

3rd PLACE Somarela Thothi Water-loss Reduction Partnership Local authority: Partnership between Water Utilities Corporation – Botswana, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, and FNBB Foundation Consultant: WRP Engineering Subcontractor: Core Environmental Solutions Project Somarela Thothi was initiated in March 2015 to reduce water losses and improve water use efficiency in the Greater Gaborone water supply area. Water rationing was initially introduced in March 2013, but had relatively little impact on the overall water demand. In 2014/15, the supply was curtailed by 17%

compared to the 2013/14 baseline due to more aggressive rationing, compounded by vandalism, pump failures, leaks, pipeline material problems and power failures. In June 2015, the Gaborone and Bokaa dams failed completely, causing a further reduction of 16%. To address the water supply situation in the Greater Gaborone supply area, a partnership was established between FNBB Foundation, Water Utilities Corporation and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH with support from the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Limpopo Watercourse Commission (LIMCOM) as well as UK Aid and AUS Aid. Social interventions Community awareness is an integral part of any water conservation and water demand management project. A total of 543 508 community members benefitted indirectly from the project through awareness activities while 21 035 community members benefitted directly through door-to-door, outreach and workshop activities. Technical interventions Twenty-seven district metered areas (DMAs) were identified and analysed as part of the project and an operations and a maintenance manual was prepared for each DMA. Implementing the DMAs was a challenge as the water supply system is not operated IMIESA November/December 2016

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IMESA

BURSARY SCHEME Institute of municipal engineering of Southern Africa (IMESA) (IMESA) offers a bursary scheme for full-time studies in the field of Civil Engineering. Other engineering disciplines may be considered only at the discretion of the Executive Council of IMESA.

The aims of the scheme are:

IMESA For more information contact us on:

031 266 3263 031 266 5094 E: bursaries@imesa.org.za W: www.imesa.org.za

To provide financial assistance to students who would otherwise not have been able to afford to study To recognise the achievements of students and prospective students who are dependants of IMESA members

Applications for 2018 will open in June 2017. Closing date for applications is 15 September 2017.


IMESA Awards according to the master plan, but dictated by the availability of water resources and electricity. This was aggravated by the failure of the Gaborone and Bokaa dams and lack of network maintenance. A total of 22 major leaks were identified, of which 19 were repaired during the project. Pressure management was identified as one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce water losses, burst frequencies and inefficient water use; it also prolongs the design life of the distribution network. Some 58% of the population is now benefitting from improved bulk metering and sectorisation while 33% is benefitting directly from the pressure management initiatives.

Nomzamo Public Transport Facility

Category: Community Upliftment Winner Construction of Nomzamo Public Transport Facility Local authority: City of Cape Town Consultant: SMEC SA Main contractor: RT Enterprises Subcontractors: N.A. Roofing and BNC The new Nomzamo Public Transport Facility (PTF) provides a significant improvement to the public space compared to the original informal taxi rank it replaced. The PTF plays a major role in providing public transport for the inhabitants of Nomzamo to employment, business and shopping opportunities. It also provides an essential transport link for workers, shoppers and other commuter categories to the rail network, enabling them to access the wider Cape metropolitan area and the Western Cape. The facility currently serves in excess of 3 000 passengers per day. Roughly five years ago, a temporary upgrade of the informal taxi rank was conducted and the existing gravel patch was given a rudimentary asphalt surfacing. Unbeknown at the time, the operating surface plus thin gravel layer was underlain by a deep saturated clay layer. The road pavement, therefore, had insufficient structural capacity to carry the traffic load of the 115 minibus taxis, which were holding and loading on the facility. There was also a lack of taxi management and control within the PTF, with minibustaxis operating in all directions and parking wherever they found a space. They parked on sidewalks, in roadways and also took over the brick-paved parking area outside the Nomzamo Business Centre, which was meant to serve only the business centre. The consequence was that the asphalt surfacing

of the informal taxi rank and the brick paving in the business centre parking area deteriorated rapidly into potholes. The original taxi rank lacked commuter facilities for seating, shelter, lighting, security, trading and food. The way in which the facility has been planned and designed as a community meeting place and urban forecourt is an example of how a community can be uplifted through appropriate planning and design. Having identified the need for the informal minibus taxi rank to be urgently upgraded in 2012, the City of Cape Town appointed SMEC South Africa in January 2013 to carry out the planning, design and construction of the Nomzamo PTF. The main objective of the project was to improve the commuter experience and to provide shelter and a dignified facility. The intention was also to stimulate the economic development of the area because it is adjacent to the business centre and is a growing business node. The aim was to include provision for buildings with offices, meeting room and ablutions; landscaping and tree planting; paving repairs to the parking area outside the business centre; green principles; and opportunities for informal traders. The new facility was planned to accommodate the minibus taxi movements in the most efficient manner. The commuter was treated as the number one priority in terms of comfort and safety, to reduce conflicts between pedestrians and moving minibus

taxis. Pedestrian crossings were provided at strategic points, widened and clutterfree sidewalks were introduced, walls and bollards were erected to prevent vehicles encroaching on sidewalks and pedestrian areas, and benches and walls were provided for seating. The project brief included a requirement that green principles should be investigated for implementation in the project. These included a hybrid system for power supply and lighting with photovoltaic panels and a connection to the normal power system, and rainwater harvesting for use in the wash bay and for flushing toilets. Following negotiations with the local councillor and the community, local community members were employed to carry out the face brickwork and other building operations that were successfully completed to a very high standard.

2nd PLACE Tyityane Senior Primary School Local authority: O.R. Tambo District Municipality Consultants: GIBB Consulting Engineers, MDA Architects, Imvelo Quantity Surveyors and Amanzâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; abantu Services Main contractor: Max-Wenzie Civils A new senior primary school was recently completed for the community of Tyityane, in the Eastern Cape, near Port St Johns in the Libode Educational District. The school was constructed through the Accelerated Schools

IMIESA November/December 2016

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Engineering a brighter future for the children of Tyityane

The site Tyityane is in the Eastern Cape, near Port St. Johns in the Libode Educational District

Construction

Tyityane School

Construction started in May 2014 and practical completion was achieved in September 2015

The completed Tyityane School boasts a science lab, nutrition centre and irst rate classrooms

Proud Partners and Suppliers to the Tyityane School:


Infrastructure Development Initiative (ASIDI) of the Department of Basic Education (DBE) and implemented by the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA). The new school will provide the opportunity for high-quality education to the approximately 377 learners who previously had to make do with a rudimentary mud school. Prior to construction, the site for the school was located on a highly impacted site covered with grass. The site lies on a conical hill with steep slopes towards the west and south-west and the site had limited space for all the proposed new school infrastructure. Further challenges included designing and building a school on a site with limited space, labour relations, environmental challenges, water and electricity supply, logistics and materials supply to this very remote area, and further specific site challenges such as graves on the building site. Following the practical completion of construction in September 2015, the community in this remote, rural corner of the Eastern Cape now boasts a school with state-of-the-art infrastructure and facilities that include: • an administration block • a new media centre • a science laboratory • 3 x 3 classroom blocks, 2 x 2 classroom blocks and head of department office • a double grade R classroom • a nutrition centre and ablution blocks. In completing this project, a number of innovative, technical solutions were adopted. Among these are raft foundations, which are used on rocky ground instead of more conventional strip foundations, and maximum use of natural lighting through efficient and extensive use of skylights. Rainwater collection tanks with pumped storage augment the unreliable municipal water supply and vetiver grass is used to polish grey-water effluent. The learners of Tyityane will now enjoy facilities that rival any school in South Africa and the new school will go a long way to meeting the goal of quality education for children.

3rd PLACE

a strong foundation for infrastructure success

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Tyityane Senior Primary School

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Phola Park Stormwater Upgrade See winner of the Roads and Stormwater category.

IMIESA November/December 2016

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Profile | SAICE/SAFCEC Awards

Meet SAICE’s

Engineer of the Year Danie Brink was named joint winner of the 2016 SAICE/ SAFCEC Engineer of the Year award. Brink, director, Jones & Wagener (J&W), shared this year’s award with Danie Badenhorst from Aecom.

S

peaking to IMIESA about winning the award, Brink says, “I am very honoured to receive recognition from my peers and very grateful that I have had the opportunity to make a contribution to my profession. I have, throughout my career, worked as part of a team and the award is as much a recognition of all the colleagues with whom I've had the privilege to work.” Brink decided to enter into civil engineering two weeks before starting university, after being accepted to study a law degree – a defining moment in what became a prolific career. Five years into his career, Brink decided to join Jones and Wagener, where he had the privilege of being mentored by Fritz Wagener, opening the door for many opportunities. Brink became the CEO of J&W during a period of major political change in South Africa. As a result, he had the demanding task of identifying ways of restructuring the company so as to comply with BEE requirements. The continued progress of J&W is a testament to his success in implementing these measures. Having now stepped down as CEO, he remains a director within Jones & Wagener. He will be stepping down as a director at the end of 2016, but will continue to serve the profession and the company as a technical

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director, while passing on his experience and expertise to the next generation of leaders. “It was an immense honour to be given the responsibility to lead the company that has meant so much to me in my career,” says Brink.

Significant achievements Brink has worked on a multitude of major and challenging projects during his career, including designing the water management system for Syferfontein Colliery, fine ash dams 3, 4 and 5 for Sasol at its Secunda plant in Mpumalanga, hazardous waste landfill development and rehabilitation, and numerous tailings storage facility developments and surveillance. Brink was also on the steering committee that assisted with the drafting of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry’s Minimum Requirements for Waste Disposal by Landfill set of documents that revolutionised waste containment facility design in South Africa.

Mentorship – a foundation for success “I passionately believe in mentorship and skills transfer. Any young engineer should be given the opportunity to work with experienced and quality engineers,” Brink emphasises.

Brink played an instrumental role in setting up the South African Youth into Engineering Programme (SAYEP) almost a decade ago, together with Dudu Mkhize, and remains actively involved in its activities, currently serving as director. “I must give recognition to my friend, Dudu Mkize. Without her commitment and passion, SAYEP would not be the success it is,” he adds. J&W has remained a key sponsor of SAYEP, a registered non-profit organisation that identifies impoverished black students with academic potential, places them in engineering studies at suitable universities, and provides holistic support to the students throughout their engineering studies. The programme opens its doors to all engineering disciplines, with students coming from seven provinces. They are placed at one of three Gauteng universities: the University of Johannesburg, the University of Pretoria or the University of the Witwatersrand. Once registered at the universities, students are given financial support, which includes meals and textbooks. More importantly, their performance is monitored and extra academic support is provided, if necessary. All these activities are funded by external donations from private companies. “My advice to young people would be to get themselves into a position where they work with the best, are given responsibility, and remain on a steep learning curve – the rewards will follow,” says Brink.

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SAFCEC CONFERENCE

Bringing back demand The South African Forum of Civil Engineering (SAFCEC) Annual Conference 2016 stressed the need for closer private and public participation being a key driver in achieving common goals and industry transformation.

A

s a major micro- and macroeconomic enabler, the construction industry needs more support and cooperation from government if the country’s infrastructure demands and longer-term growth targets are going to be met. These and other topics formed the basis for a series of presentations at the recent SAFCEC Annual Conference, held between 17 and 18 October 2016 in the Drakensberg. This was SAFCEC’s 77th Annual Conference. SAFCEC’s re-elected president for 2017, Thembinkosi Nzimande, spoke about one of the most pressing issues – job creation. “However, one cannot create jobs in the absence of an enabling environment, since employment is demand driven. That’s SAFCEC’s mission going forward: to create a positive and engaging climate that brings back the demand element in the economy.”

Webster Mfebe, CEO, SAFCEC

Dr Azar Jammine, chief economist, Econometrix

It is estimated that approximately two-thirds of capital investment spend is in the private sector, so this has a direct impact on the current and future prospects, given relatively low confidence levels at present. Nzimande said that opportunities for publicprivate partnerships (PPPs) need renewed focus as a way to unlock infrastructure backlogs and enable the construction industry to take a more proactive stance. He pointed out that the private sector has the balance sheet under the right condition, a chief one being investment security. “The industry is now at a critical point of change and, going into 2017, we need to take concrete steps to ensure meaningful transformation,” he said.

Also speaking at the conference, Webster Mfebe, CEO, SAFCEC, said that the way forward will be strongly influenced by ethical leadership within the private and public sphere that puts the interests of the country and the economy first. He referred to the pitfalls of a “dealership”, as opposed to leadership, approach – the former fostering a negative environment that promotes collusion. “We need to develop a more sustained project pipeline of work that enables larger SAFCEC members to help mentor and grow the emerging contractor segment and proactively transfer skills.”

Public debt Speaking at the conference, Dr Azar Jammine, chief economist at Johannesburgbased firm Econometrix, said that Q1 2016 was one of the low points in South Africa’s recent history. This was heavily impacted by the country’s extended drought and the generally depressed state of the global economy. “For South Africa, one of the key concerns is managing the huge rise

SAFCEC’s re-elected president for 2017, Thembinkosi Nzimande

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in public debt. Plus, the size of the public sector keeps growing to unsustainable levels. With South Africa’s credit rating under severe scrutiny, urgent steps need to be taken to curb expenditure. Fiscal competency is needed or South Africa is heading for bankruptcy,” warned Jammine. On a positive note, he pointed out that inflation has been less severe than expected, with associated interest rates relatively stable against the background of a depressed

commodities market, which has a direct impact on South Africa’s primary resource industry. A lower rand, of course, does present renewed opportunity for exports, and growth industries like tourism. Urbanisation is another trend that presents both threats and opportunities. The immediate pressure is on existing infrastructure and finite resources like water. Current estimates, for example, place the influx of new residents and job seekers into Gauteng at around 120 000

annually. Positively, this will inevitably drive demand for housing and allied services. “Construction opportunities are also presenting themselves elsewhere in Africa, with the International Monetary Fund forecasting positive growth for a number of countries on the continent,” Jammine added.

Land reform One of the highlights of the conference was a presentation by South Africa’s Minister IMIESA November/December 2016

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SAFCEC Awards

of Rural Development and Land Reform, Gugile Nkwinti, who says that in response to the challenges, his vision is to “turn South Africa into a construction site”, in the process, narrowing the gap left behind by the previous government in terms of inequalities. “We need to invest in townships and rural development,” he stated. Nkwinti’s vision is to design and implement a 10-year socio-economic infrastructure building programme, meeting basic human needs as the underlying theme. He

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IMIESA November/December 2016

highlights a number of ambitious elements that need urgent attention. These entail the establishment of a state-owned construction bank within the next 12 months, as well as the establishment a construction company under the stewardship of the Department of Public Works and based on the PPP model, with the state holding a controlling 51% stake: “Construction companies that are at the forefront of industr y transformation should get preferential treatment in the business relations created by such a PPP regime.” Further, government aims to implement a programme to address youth unemployment, poverty, and social and geospatial inequality. “The time for throwing stones is over. Decongestion and the de-densification of township human settlements and

asset-ownership would immediately bring dignity to the poor and needy,” said Nkwinti. “The black child would be born and grow up in an environment that inspires pride and self-respect. Infrastructure investment in townships and villages would thus be an immediate game changer. It would open up opportunities for all kinds of social and economic developments.” Again, getting traction on these and other initiatives, which include megaproject proposals by state-owned entities like Transnet, will only succeed if government and the private sector work together and there is adequate funding in place. That means an end to dealership and a move to leadership. The future of South Africa and the construction industr y largely depend on it.

“For South Africa, one of the key concerns is managing the huge rise in public debt.”


HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Revitalising the Joburg CBD

The economic revitalisation of Joburg’s inner city is not simply about property development, it’s about public and private investments to create value chains, and hubs of social and economic excellence.

J

ohannesburg’s CBD is fast becoming a happy place. Reverberating to the rhythm of Africa, the DownTown Music Hub (DTMH), situated in the heart of Johannesburg’s evolving CBD, is so much more than just a studio or rehearsal space. It’s a recording studio, a venue, a training and development resource, and an ABOVE Lebo Ramoreboli, deputy director: Integrated Regional Economic Development, City of Johannesburg

incubation node for start-ups in the music industry. It is a space with unique features and a remarkable heritage that inspires and ignites the musical soul of the city. “DownTown Studios started out in 1979 as RPM Recording Studios and it proudly flies the flag as one of the oldest surviving big recording studios in Johannesburg,” says Chola Makgamathe, chief executive, DTMH. “It offers artists a truly inspirational and openly creative space and has done so for decades.”

On the opposite side of the CBD is Maboneng, a destination offering retail stores, entertainment venues and restaurants, mixed with residential, office and industrial spaces that appeal to a wide variety of people and businesses. With its creative take on history, architecture, art and nature, as well as a place for people to proudly call home, Maboneng is the epicenter of the Joburg inner city renaissance. It’s where you can submerse yourself in a place alive with vibrant culture, entrepreneurial spirit and a strong sense of community. It is


HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

LEFT The DownTown Music Hub ABOVE One of the recording studios where many a famous musician has recorded their hits

a place to live, create and collaborate in a secure neighbourhood with a vision and future unrivalled among the urban set. The driver behind the economic revitalisation of Joburg’s CBD is Lebo Ramoreboli, deputy director of Integrated Regional Economic Development. Tenacious and totally committed, this dynamic city official is determined to realise the vision of turning Joburg’s decaying and partially abandoned inner city into a thriving hub of social and economic activity that lives up to its slogan, “a world class African city”. “It will stimulate development and create opportunities from which Joburg and South Africa’s economies will thrive. It’s about developing affordable accommodation and workspaces that contribute to the social and economic progression of people and small businesses, where they can grow, and play their own role in transforming the city. All those organisations and entities that are taking part in this process and investing in the city are developing business opportunities for emerging professionals, enhancing tourism attractions and developing the community,” says Ramoreboli. “But, it’s about attracting private investors.”

Tax incentives To make this happen, Joburg is promoting the Urban Development Zones (UDZ) initiative, which offers tax breaks to investors for the erection/acquisition or improvement of buildings. In terms of the grant, these investments are subject to an allowable deduction in the form of an accelerated depreciation allowance. This allowance is available until 31 March 2020. According to SARS, the following criteria apply: • A deduction will be allowed for the cost of the erection, extension, additions, acquisition,

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IMIESA November/December 2016

or improvements of any commercial or residential building or part of a building within an approved urban development zone that is to be used solely for the purpose of that trade. • The deduction will stop when the building stops being used solely for the purpose of trade or if it is sold. • The allowable amount will be calculated as follows: - refurbishment of a building – 20% straightline depreciation allowance over a fiveyear period (where the existing structural or exterior framework is preserved) - construction of a new building – 11-year write-off period (20% in the first year and 8% per annum thereafter for the next 10 years. Prior to 2008, 5% instead of the 8% write-off) - refurbishment of a low-cost residential unit – 25% straight-line depreciation allowance over a four-year period (where the existing structure or exterior of framework is preserved) - construction of a new, low-cost residential unit – seven-year write-off period (25% in year one, 13% over the next five succeeding years and 10% in the seventh year). • A deduction is also available for a firsttime buyer who purchases a building or part of the building from a developer under subsection 3B: - refurbishment of a building – 30% of the purchase price of that building or part of the building. - new building – 55% of the purchase price of that building or par t of the building. The necessary forms can be downloaded from SARS’s website and must be completed and retained for a period of five years after

the date of submission of the return. “This is quite an attractive offer. And the city will assist investors with the acquisition of property by providing owner contact details and by facilitating compliant legal processes quickly and efficiently,” says Ramoreboli. “We wish to create social and economic hubs where people can live, work and play,” Ramoreboli adds.

Success stories There are currently more than a dozen success stories of investments in Joburg’s inner city. These include banks, mining houses, hotels and student accommodation – the latter being much in demand at the moment. Among these major UDZ investors are: • Absa Bank • Afhco • Anglo American Corporation • BHP Billiton • City Property • First National Bank • Lionshare Group Hotels • Mapunbugwe Hotel • Southpoint’s Braamfontein Student City • Standard Bank • Turbine Square: Anglo-Gold Ashanti headquarters. “Our vision of Joburg’s inner-city future is to reclaim its position as a focal point of economic activity, a sustainable powerhouse in the South African financial landscape, as well as to transform it into a socially and culturally pleasing environment,” Ramoreboli says.

A second gold rush Against this backdrop, eGoli, the City of Gold, is experiencing a second "gold rush". But, it’s not the promise of gold that’s driving it. Instead, it’s proper ty


HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

investment, and development, with the richest claim yet to be staked. It’s a golden opportunity! With densification on the cards, infrastructural requirements such as electricity, water and sanitation will need to be upgraded, and the “richest claim” will be a design and construction challenge for civil engineers. But, before we look at this opportunity, let’s look at some of the other initiatives, each one an investment opportunity. Newtown, Fordsburg and Doornfontein, as in Maboneng, have seen a number of old industrial buildings and office blocks being conver ted into affordable housing units, with commercial units on the ground floor. In Fordsburg, considered Joburg’s little India and one of the best places to go for anything in interior design, the move to develop accommodation and office space is the next targeted investment on the agenda. And, adjacent to Fordsburg, is Newtown, which has also undergone impressive transformation. Here, the innovative use of shipping containers in highrise accommodation is but one of the

hallmarks of the area. Earmarked to be a cultural precinct, it has the advantage of being close to the University of the Witwatersrand, where there is the opportunity to develop, in collaboration with the university, specialised accommodation and activity centres for students, postgraduates and university departments. Affordable office space for entrepreneurial development is also a possibility. And, in downtown Joburg, the old and now unused Johannesburg Sky Rink, which is located on the top floor of the Carlton Centre parking garage, is being turned into a TV and film studio. A post-production facility to encourage engagement from the film industr y, both locally and abroad, will also be built. The facility will be equipped with the latest equipment, highly trained employees and specialised, high-tech services in media and sound production. Plans are also afoot to refurbish the entire Carlton Centre Precinct to rekindle business and public interest. The creation of a conference venue, with the capacity to host up to 500 delegates, will add to the attraction.

Doornfontein, and the Ellis Park Sports Precinct, with its inner city railroad corridor, is another area where development is being led by the private sector. The goal is to transform the locale from its derelict state into an exciting, vibrant student village and retail hub, void of the vandalism that has previously plagued the area. It will be imbued with the atmosphere to drive entrepreneurship, spor ts enter tainment and tourism.

The richest “claim” Land is valuable. And, within the context of urbanisation, land in or near the inner city is even more valuable. In an effort to redress apartheid’s spatial design, and with ver y little open land available, the only way to go is up. But where, since the inner city is already a conglomeration of highrise buildings? But, there is one area that is not proliferated with high-rise buildings; however, it is a major transit corridor. West of Park Station, from the Queen Elizabeth Bridge to Subway Road in Fordsburg, is Transnet’s railway yard. With a reinforced concrete deck over the yard, it creates an

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

LEFT Ravi Naidoo, executive director, Department of Economic Development

ABOVE The Doornfontein and Ellis Park precincts LEFT Old grain silos converted into student accommodation, with railway containers stacked atop like Lego blocks BELOW LEFT Joburg CBD’s landmark, the Carlton Centre BELOW MMC Ruby Mathang, Member of the Mayoral Committee for Economic Development in Johannesburg

entire area that can be developed as a social and economic hub. The idea came from examples set by New York's Hudson rail yard, Melbourne’s Jolimont rail yard and other similar initiatives. This novel approach has been adopted to overcome space limitations within city limits. Naturally, what will be on top will determine what will need to go into the foundations and on to the deck. Innovative design methods will need to be adopted to accommodate the weight of what will be built on top of the deck, stormwater, electricity and water supply, and wastewater handling. On the construction side, this will need to be carried out in such a manner as to not negatively impact the operations of Transnet and Prasa, which will require finely tuned and close coordination, as well as exemplar y project management. The city has completed a feasibility study

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and development, off approved plans, can begin as soon as investors can be found. It is envisioned that the deck will ultimately support high-rise buildings, retail shops, a range of housing options, including low-cost and mixed rental units, hotels and office blocks, and an efficient transport system. At the moment, the railway yard is generating almost nothing towards the city’s tax base. Developing the deck and precinct(s) on top of it will generate significant revenue for Joburg. Although the total amount needed for the construction is not yet known, it is estimated to be in the region of R42 billion, with at least R3 billion spent in the first phase, between the M1 and Fordsburg. With this, thousands of jobs will be created and there will be a healthy injection into the local economy.

Last word “In the year 2040, the landscape of Johannesburg will be a ver y different one to what we inherited at the advent of democracy, in 1994. This city and all its scars of a segregated and divided people will be but histor y,” Ruby Mathang, MMC for Economic Development, says. While the “deck” project may not appear to be complex, it is, and will be. It will be a project of scale and magnitude never before seen in the histor y of Joburg. It is a project that ever y civil engineer would like to be involved in, and it is a project that the City of Johannesburg and its people will benefit from, now and for many decades into the future.


CEMENT & CONCRETE

The thermal mass leader Concrete has dynamic properties that beat other materials when it comes to maximising the temperature regulation of structures internally, with tilt-up construction being one of the fastest and most cost-effective walling systems that excel in passing on these energy efficiency gains. BY Alastair Currie

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o appreciate the energy benefits derived from solid cast concrete walls, three factors need to be taken into account, namely thermal resistance, thermal conductivity (the greater or lesser its ability to insulate) and thermal mass. Each type of construction material exhibits these characteristics in varying degrees. Industry standard R-values measure the resistance to heat flow through a given thickness of material, while thermal mass refers to the rate at which heat is absorbed and transferred. “As a walling system, concrete is far more energy efficient because of its thermal mass characteristics. However, as an association, we have noted that the SANS 204: 2011 Energy Efficiency in Buildings walling specification focuses more on thermal conductivity and thermal resistance factors,” explains Johan van Wyk, general manager, Southern African Readymix Association (Sarma). “The specification is also biased towards masonry construction. “We would argue that the specification needs to include thermal mass values, and that concrete be given its own section. If you calculate the CR (thermal capacity) value of concrete, you will find that it outperforms double cavity clay brick walls, even with insulation.” A significant amount of heat energy is required to change the temperature of highdensity materials like concrete, which means that naturally ventilated structures built using this medium stay cooler in summer and warmer in winter. The same applies to ventilated structures in terms of reducing the

ABOVE A readymix concrete pour in progress on a tilt-up panel section. Ordering the exact readymix quantities keeps construction costs in line with the budget and minimises wastage RIGHT Windows and door frames are precast into the tilt-up walls

potential heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) load. “That’s why the business case for precast concrete walls is so attractive,” points out Van Wyk. “They naturally exhibit low thermal conductivity, enabling the efficient capture and storage of solar energy during the day. When the temperature goes up, concrete keeps absorbing the external heat. When the external temperature drops, the concrete wall then releases and radiates it internally. This means the internal temperature stays fairly constant. It’s all about achieving optimum insulation and comfort levels – areas where concrete exels.”

Tilt-up: a concrete example Sarma has been working with industry leaders to find answers and solutions to the South African government’s sustainability objectives. One of Sarma’s foremost responses has

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ABOVE Precast concrete's thermal mass flattens out daily temperature differentials and therefore reduces heating and cooling loads on the building's HVAC system

been to promote the wider adoption of tilt-up building methodologies, a technique commonly adopted for decades worldwide, but still in its relative infancy locally. Tilt-up can be used for a wide range of structures. For example, one of the largest tilt-up walls constructed in South Africa to date measures 24 m in height and 8 m in width. Simply put, this is a highly accelerated technique that outstrips conventional concrete construction in the right application. Where readymix concrete is used, this enables builders to specify the exact quantities required for each pour, keeping costs in line with budget and minimising wastage. “With tilt-up, contractors have the absolute assurance of applying a high-tech product for a relatively low-tech application.” The final structure is only limited by the design. All elements are precast on the ground and then lifted into place using a mobile crane, with minimal grouting needed to form the final structure. This includes precast columns: here, Van Wyk argues that finishes tend to be superior since concrete beams are cast in one section. “Your quality is also better because you are vibrating a shorter distance to remove the air voids.” The technique also lends itself to the South African government’s focus on promoting SMME development since tilt-up is a perfect system for community-based, low-cost housing and allied projects like schools and clinics. To prove the argument, a pilot programme was run in KwaZuluNatal, during 2013, entailing the construction of a 24 m2 house. A local contractor was employed for the project and the total outlay, including materials, came to approximately R60 000. Each precast concrete panel was reinforced with steel mesh, and formed using purpose-designed shuttering systems. (The technique for housing can also be applied without reinforcement.) Topping the structure was a lightweight preassembled roof system comprising galvanised metal trusses, which was fast and easy to install by hand. “The house was completed in 21 days – from excavation and construction of the raft foundations to the lifting of the walls,” says Van Wyk. All the electrical and plumbing conduits, windows and door frames were precast into the walls. In this instance, pigments were not applied, but they can be added to achieve attractive architectural elements that never require plastering or painting. The result is a 30 MPa structure that will last indefinitely. “Tilt-up construction is simple and easy to do right the first time. We take it for granted. Anyone can do it with the right training,” concludes Van Wyk.


CEMENT & CONCRETE

Durability and sustainability

Concrete retaining block walls and erosion control systems, in their various forms, offer design flexibility, structural integrity, cost-effectiveness and low maintenance.

ABOVE LEFT Monte Casino, Gauteng: this 9 m high retaining wall was built in 2001. The blocks are planted with tickey creeper from below, with ivy cascading down from the top of the wall. This arrangement has proven itself over the years and provides a living habitat for a number of bird species

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ABOVE RIGHT Al Jalila Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital. This wall is planted with spekboom

ew people realise that concrete is the most used man-made material in the world, with three tonnes used annually for every man, woman and child. In fact, twice as much concrete is used around the world compared to the combined total for all other building materials, including wood, steel, plastic and aluminium. Apart from being versatile, concrete provides lasting infrastructure solutions, plus it is recyclable and doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t place a burden on the environment. There are, of course, aspects of concrete manufacture that are not as green as we would like them to be. Not yet, at least. According to the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) in Geneva, the production of

concrete, notably itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most important ingredient, cement, poses several sustainability issues that need to be managed. Cement production emits CO2 and other air emissions, and the quarrying of raw materials produces local impacts such as noise and dust. Also, water use needs to be carefully looked at in locations where it is scarce. The industry is well aware of these impacts and addresses them both collectively via the CSI, or regional and national trade organisations, and individually as producers within their sphere of influence. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The local industry is very sensitive to energy consumption and environmental damage. Sustainability is a key driver,â&#x20AC;? says Bryan Perrie, managing director: South Africa, The Cement and Concrete Institute.

Precast environmental solutions One also has to take into account that some applications of concrete are greener than others, such as the different methods used to retain eroded earth or cut and fill slopes caused by excavation activity. The locally developed Terraforce concrete retaining wall and erosion control systems are considered sustainable products and have been since their development 35 years ago â&#x20AC;&#x201C; long before it became fashionable to â&#x20AC;&#x153;ride the green waveâ&#x20AC;?. It is a hollow core and closed-faced system promoting maximum water absorption and plant growth. It is also an easy-to-use,



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cost-effective, mortarless system that requires less material and equipment staging areas. Additionally, there are fewer requirements for large pieces of equipment when compared to cast in situ

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solid concrete solutions. Says Johan van Wyk, CEO, Klapmuts Concrete – a concrete retaining block manufacturer based in the Western Cape: “A well-designed Terraforce wall, properly vegetated with water-wise plants, is as green as it gets. The walls can be constructed with curves and angles to fit into any slope profiles, thus keeping in line with the existing environment. The blocks can also be manufactured in colours to match the environment.” In addition, most licensed Terraforce producers, locally and abroad, use concrete building rubble and industry by-product in the manufacture of their blocks. Says Van Wyk: “We recycle all reject blocks, as well as blocks that get damaged during the ‘split’ operation of the rock face blocks. We

LEFT Strand Hospital, Western Cape: an example of a Terracrete installation. Manufactured locally and internationally by Terraforce licensees, this versatile eco-surface hard lawn paving block was introduced to the South African market by Terraforce in 2002. The installation in this picture was planted with kweek grass BELOW LEFT A Terraforce L12 concrete retaining block wall planted with ground morning glory (Convolvulus mauretanius)

accept ‘clean’ building rubble (no timber, plastic, metal, etc.) from builders, as well as all the rejects from another building block manufacturer in our area. To ensure that the rubble can be used in our products, without comprising quality, it is graded by a SANASaccredited laboratory.” The bottom line is that durability is the key to sustainability. If the useful life of a structure can be extended by using concrete, that's a huge gain for sustainability. Developments in concrete technology will continue to improve the industry's ability to respond.

IMIESA November/December 2016

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FLEET MANAGEMENT

Fleet replacement planning needs to be quantified Par t two, in a series of six, on the discipline and practice of municipal fleet management for optimum life-cycle costing. By Nigel Webb, Latitude Fleet Services

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he selection of vehicles in the public arena is largely driven by tender pricing (least cost). Frequently, this does not give recognition to criteria such as total cost of ownership, fit for purpose and optimal replacement timing. Yet these are the very issues that enable a municipality to maximise service delivery and reduce costs. Assuming that our municipality has an old fleet and a range of vehicles that do not fully satisfy service delivery needs, what process should be applied?

Guiding the process First, a quality fleet register for wheeled vehicles, specialised, earthmoving and static equipment needs to be created. A fleet audit will enable you to identify active vehicles, their mechanical and body condition, current age, last known and monthly kilometre usage, and “fit for purpose” status. This will also identify out-of-service vehicles that should be disposed of at the first opportunity. Thereafter, the balance of their useful life needs to be determined. To do this, you require a policy that will guide you on the recommended replacement

timing for each category of vehicle. This will usually be based on age, kilometres and/or hours (e.g. five years for a light commercial vehicle and/or 180 000 km; and 10 years and/or 500 000 km for a heavy truck). Importantly, it will not be based on the municipality’s current financial capability and should be used as a guide only, because the final replacement decision will be based on budget, condition, historical cost and the benefits of transfer within departments. The replacement policy should be used to identify the suggested replacement timing for each and every vehicle. By analysing current age/kilometres and recommended replacement timing, it is possible to calculate the balance of useful life for each vehicle. Second, the ideal replacement vehicle needs to be identified. It may not necessarily be a “like for like” replacement. As an example, how many 4x4 LDVs are really needed; can a 4x2 be used or even a 0.5 tonne pickup? In instances where vehicles are inadequate, there will be a need to upgrade. Importantly, this replacement plan will also identify the correct quantities of vehicles. The selected finance method, specifically rentals, may

enable you to increase your new vehicle purchases, but remember that they have strict condition and usage requirements, with exposure to future termination penalties. A conservative new vehicle cost estimate should be used and inflation applied to identify the future capex requirement for each point of replacement and consolidate annually. No doubt this will exceed the available budget, which results in the need to prioritise. Although price will be the main selection criterion, the following should be considered: • vehicles and equipment available from dealers within your municipality • fuel consumption comparisons • maintenance and/or service plan costs • expected future resale value • fit for purpose.

Operational expenditure budgets This replacement plan will also facilitate the development of an opex forecast for the fleet. You will be replacing a number of vehicles, so your maintenance and fuel costs should decrease. Furthermore, new vehicles have to be serviced at dealers to validate warranties, which will test the viability of current workshop facilities. Your opex budget should be developed around fuel and maintenance costs, and fuel consumption and maintenance CPK (cents per kilometre) benchmarks need to be developed for each category of vehicle, with adjustments for new and old. Monthly usage projections will identify a cost – e.g. 1 500 km per month at a consumption of 11 litres/ 100 km, at R13.00 per litre, equals a cost of R2 145 pm, plus inflation. This methodology is certainly more accurate than a flat increase on last year’s cost. The calculations are only complex because of volumes, but they are enormously beneficial.

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CONSTRUCTION VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT

Earthmoving fleet pushes brick production

Advanced Technology Power • Fuel efficient Low and easy maintenance Here it is – the best business partner you will ever have, the MST backhoe loader.

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ith a present production capacity of around 8 million clay building bricks per month, independent Western Cape producer Claytile is well positioned to meet the needs of the region’s construction market. Over the last two and a half years, Claytile has replaced its existing fleet of machiner y with five new Volvo machines to meet various earthmoving and materials handling tasks. These units are supplied and supported by Babcock International Group, which has been the exclusive Southern African distributor for Volvo Construction Equipment since 2000. “Our machiner y runs 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days of the year, so of particular importance to us was the aftersales support provided by Babcock and the high levels of uptime associated with the Volvo brand,” says Julian De La Hunt, managing director, Claytile, which is a member of the Heavy Clay Products Group.

State-of-the-art machines The five Volvo machines purchased are being used in Claytile’s modern, automated plant and comprise a hydraulic excavator and four wheel loaders. The EC210 excavator is used to break stockpile for blending and other general work in the factor y; the L90F and L120F wheel loaders for

Units from Claytile’s Volvo fleet deployed at its Western Cape operation

loading of raw material; the L150G wheel loader for distance running and the loading of materials into the hopper; and the SDLG LG958 for general work. Volvo’s EC210 excavator was a natural choice for Claytile, thanks to its industr yleading fuel economy and legendar y Volvo cab, while the F-series wheel loaders were selected for their low fuel consumption, quick and easy maintenance, and high resale value. The recently improved L120F sports a new-generation Volvo HTE 200-transmission, providing smoother shifting and lower fuel consumption, as well as a spacious Care Cab with improved all-round visibility and safety. The SDLG LG958 is the ideal machine for all-purpose work, as it is robust, fuel efficient, and easy to maintain and repair. De La Hunt says the fact that Volvo comes backed by a 175-year heritage and places a strong emphasis on safe, comfortable, productive machines that also minimise environmental impacts fell per fectly in line with Claytile’s own ethos. “We utilise wastewater and implement energy-efficient systems, coupled with limited wastage of end product, in order to minimise our carbon footprint on the environment.”

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The MST M542 4 x 4 is rated tops in the category of backhoe loaders currently in the international market, setting a new standard in terms of durability and value for its production capability. These turbocharged machines are engineered to deliver best-in-class performance, meet international ROPS and FOBS safety regulations as well as ISO9001:2008, CE and TÜV standards. Breaker piping is fitted as standard for increased versatility. No added expenses are consequently needed to fit additional valves and flow-dividers to accommodate most hydraulic attachments. ELB Equipment, the sub-Saharan Africa distributor of MST backhoe loaders, is committed to enhanced customer support by providing a specialised range of aftermarket services that includes sales, financial services, warranty and 24/7 technical support and parts service. Contact us. We are there for you every step of the way.

Distribution and Product Support by:

H/OFFICE: 14 Atlas Road, Anderbolt, Boksburg Tel: (011) 306-0700 • Fax: (011) 918-7208 e-mail: Elb@elbquip.co.za Website: www.elbequipment.com BRANCHES & DEALERS – SOUTH AFRICA: BRITS: (012) 250-1565 • CAPE TOWN: (021) 933-2383 • DURBAN: (031) 464-6522 EAST LONDON: (043) 740-4530 • GEORGE: (044) 878-0874 KIMBERLEY & KATHU : (053) 841-0040 • MIDDELBURG: (013) 246-2312 POLOKWANE: (082) 334-1564 SUBSIDIARY: ELB EAST AFRICA: NAIROBI, KENYA: (00254) (0) 20 807-0728 DEALERS – SOUTHERN AFRICA: BOTSWANA: (00267) 390-9972 • LESOTHO: (00266) 2831-3926 MOZAMBIQUE: (00258) 219-00469 • NAMIBIA: (00264) 61-234-052 SWAZILAND: (00268) 518-5348 • ZAMBIA: (00260) 212-210-642 ZIMBABWE: (00263) (4) 448-990-3


CONSTRUCTION VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT

Geared for growth Adopting a central operations and manufacturing model brings COMAR closer to its existing and future customer base.

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OMAR Plant Design & Manufacturing is on a mission. Having recently relocated its Pinetown operations to the COMAR head office in Johannesburg, the company aims to better serve the local and international market with its range of static and mobile asphalt plants. In addition to the design, manufacture and supply of asphalt plants, COMAR also focuses on the development of ancillary products, such as bitutainers, decanting plants, standalone baghouses, chip spreaders and self-bunded storage containers. COMAR’S strategic aim is to serve its clients as a “one-stop asphalt solutions provider”. “Our Johannesburg facility has been the main centre for field service, research and development, and manufacturing while Pinetown has served as a secondary manufacturing outlet,” explains Kenneth Basson, director, COMAR. “To better pool our expertise, it made sense to consolidate all our engineering specialists and designers under one roof, given the dramatic increase in demand for COMAR plants. All new plants will now be manufactured in Gauteng.” As an original equipment manufacturer, COMAR has already gained more than 29 years of local experience in the asphalt and aggregates industry, progressively evolving and enhancing its product range through its concerted R&D focus and investment. COMAR prides itself on the fact that more than 90% of its materials are sourced locally and this proudly

South African company is committed to industry empowerment and transformation. “We’re always looking for ways to enhance productivity. For example, we’re currently implementing design upgrades that will make our mobile plants even faster and easier to erect,” says De Wet Dreyer, operations manager, COMAR. "In addition to these aspects, intensive R&D is being focused towards the design and development of more energy-efficient solutions." COMAR’S fixed and mobile asphalt plants come in three, standard-capacity models – namely 60 tph (tonnes per hour), 80 tph and 120 tph. Depending on clients’ requirements, COMAR will design and manufacture a bespoke solution in order to satisfy their respective needs. Larger units can be manufactured on request.

Class-leading performance Noteworthy COMAR asphalt plant features include: • simplified operation and maintenance • control systems are designed and built in-house for optimum output performance • compact design • mobility and full compliance with road transportation ordinance • energy efficiency • compliance with South African environmental standards • up to and including 40% RAP (recycled asphalt pavement) capability

COMAR 80 tph super mobile plant

• plants equipped with a 100 tonne hot storage reserve capacity, which is unique to industry; the main benefit is rapid and continuous loading for queuing trucks • feed operation via a hoist system, as opposed to the more industry standard drag conveyor – the latter tends to be more maintenance intensive; hoist systems are much simpler and easier to maintain • plants designed to withstand the adverse African operating environment; reliability and maintainability form the cornerstones of COMAR’s design philosophy.

New orders Recent orders include the design and manufacture of three COMAR continuous mix asphalt plants supplied to Actop Asphalt. These comprise an 80 tph and two 120 tph plants, respectively. COMAR is also currently commissioning an 80 tph continuous mix asphalt plant for Aveng Grinaker-LTA. As an example of COMAR’s design flexibility, Aveng Grinaker-LTA opted for a drum mixer configuration for its plant, while Actop Asphalt decided on a pug mill mixing configuration. “Our expert knowledge and experience mean that, in addition to asphalt plant optimisation, irrespective of the manufacturer or model, we’re also well equipped to conduct energy audits and allied consulting services,” adds Dreyer. “This extends to include our retrofit and upgrades services, for example, adapting older plants with RAP handling capabilities.”

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CONSTRUCTION VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT

Leading in vertical digging

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ompact in design and big on performance, Wacker Neuson’s 3503 meets industry demand for a mini excavator that delivers optimally in trenching and general materials handling tasks, with the machine exceptionally stable at maximum extension and operation. “The 3503 features a unique vertical digging system, which not only makes it possible to work safely on slopes, but can lead to savings in material and time by as much as 25%,” notes Eugene Brown, regional president: Africa, Wacker Neuson. “With local industry currently in an economic strangle-hold, savings of this substantial nature provide welcome news for customers and end users.” Low maintenance was an important consideration during the excavator’s design; the machine features a self-cleaning undercarriage and all service points are strategically positioned for fast and easy access to maximise uptime. Power is delivered by a large-volume, water-cooled, diesel engine.

550 tonnes per hour

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stablishing a new road stone benchmark, B&E International has set up a Metso Mobile crushing and screening train that consistently produces G1 product at a rate in excess of 550 tonnes per hour. This is regarded as one of the first mobile trains in the region to achieve these volumes and incorporates the first Metso Lokotrack 330D combination cone crusher and 11 m² triple-deck screen to be put into action on the continent. Sandro Scherf, CEO, Pilot Crushtec International, the sole Southern African distributor for Metso Mobile aggregates products and services, describes the process around this groundbreaking engineering achievement. “The train consists of four Metso products: 700 mm dolerite feed material is first processed by an LT120 jaw crusher and then

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IMIESA November/December 2016

A Metso Lokotrack LT300GP mobile cone crusher and LT120 mobile jaw crusher being used in a train of four Metso machines to produce high volumes of G1 road stone product

fed into a Lokotrack 300GPS secondary cone crusher, which is capable of accepting material of up to 320 mm in size. This, in turn, feeds the Lokotrack LT330D combination cone crusher and triple-deck screen before quaternary crushing is completed in an existing Metso 9100 vertical shaft impact crusher,” he explains. The Lokotrack 300GPS is capable of a prodigious output, and key to the success of the train as a whole is the LT330D combination product’s ability to process, screen and recirculate massive volumes of secondary material.


PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATES AECOM siphokuhle.dlamini@aecom.com Afri-Infra Group (Pty) Ltd banie@afri-infra.com AJ Broom Road Products ajbroom@icon.co.za Arup SA rob.lamb@arup.com Aurecon Fani.Xaba@aurecongroup.com Aveng Manufacturing Infraset cgroenewald@infraset.com Averda claude.marais@averda.com Bigen Africa Group Holdings otto.scharfetter@bigenafrica.com BMK Consulting brian@bmkconsulting.co.za Bosch Munitech info@boschmunitech.co.za Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd mail@boschprojects.co.za Brubin Pumps sales@brubin.co.za BVI Consulting Engineers marketing@bviho.co.za Civilconsult Consulting Engineers mail@civilconsult.co.za Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa secretary@corrosioninstitute.org.za CSIR Built Environment rbapela@csir.co.za Development Bank of SA divb@dbsa.org.za DPI Plastics mgoodchild@dpiplastics.co.za EFG Engineers eric@efgeng.co.za Elster Kent Metering leon.basson@elster.com Engcor Engineers masham@engcorengineers.co.za Fibertex South Africa (Pty) Ltd rcl@fibertex.com GIBB yvanrooyen@gibb.co.za GLS Consulting nicky@gls.co.za Gudunkomo Investments & Consulting info@gudunkomo.co.za Hatch Africa (Pty) Ltd info@hatch.co.za Henwood & Nxumalo Consulting Engineers cc pmboffice@hn.co.za Herrenknecht schiewe.helene@herrenknecht.de Huber Technology cs@hubersa.com Hydro-comp Enterprises dan@edams.co.za I@Consulting louis_icon@mics.co.za ILISO Consulting hans@iliso.com INGEROP mravjee@ingerop.co.za Integrity Environment info@integrityafrica.co.za JG Afrika DennyC@jgafrika.com Johannesburg Water rtaljaard@jwater.co.za KABE Consulting Engineers info@kabe.co.za Kago Consulting Engineers kagocon@kago.co.za Kantey & Templer (K&T) Consulting Engineers info@kanteys.co.za Kitso Botlhale Consulting Engineers zimema.jere@gmail.com Knowledge Base info@knowbase.co.za Lektratek Water general@lwt.co.za Lithon Project Consultants (Pty) Ltd info@lithon.com Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates mmakhaotse@mna-sa.co.za Malani Padayachee & Associates (Pty) Ltd admin@mpa.co.za

Maragela Consulting Engineers admin@maragelaconsulting.co.za Marley Pipe Systems info@marleypipesystems.co.za Martin & East gbyron@martin-east.co.za Masithu Consulting & Project Management info@mcpm.co.za Mhiduve adminpotch@mhiduve.co.za Moedi Wa Batho Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd info@wabatho.co.za Mott Macdonald Africa (Pty) Ltd mahomed.soobader@mottmac.com Much Asphalt leon.alberts@muchasphalt.com Nyeleti Consulting ppienaar@nyeleti.co.za Odour Engineering Systems mathewc@oes.co.za PMA Consulting pragasen@pmaconsultingsa.co.za Pumptron info@pumptron.co.za Pragma nicojobe.mabaso@pragmaworld.net francisg@rhdv.com Royal HaskoningDHV SABITA info@sabita.co.za SALGA info@salga.org.za SARF administrator@sarf.org.za.co.za SBS Water Systems desere@sbstanks.co.za Sembcorp Siza Water info-sizawater@sembcorp.com Servotech (Pty) Ltd finance@servotech.co.za SiVEST SA garths@sivest.co.za SKYV Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd kamesh@skyv.co.za SMEC capetown@smec.com SNA stolz.j@sna.co.za Sobek Engineering gen@sobek.co.za Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology director@sasst.org.za SRK Consulting jomar@srk.co.za Syntell julia@syntell.co.za TPA Consulting roger@tpa.co.za UWP Consulting craign@uwp.co.za Vetasi south-africa@vetasi.com VIP Consulting Engineers esme@vipconsulting.co.za VOMM commerciale@vomm.it VUKA Africa Consulting Engineers info@vukaafrica.co.za Water Institute of Southern Africa wisa@wisa.org.za Water Solutions Southern Africa ecoetzer@wssa.co.za Wilo South Africa marketingsa@wilo.co.za WorleyParsons hans.karemaker@worleyparsons.com WRP ronniem@wrp.co.za WRNA washy@wrnyabeze.com WSP Group Africa sam.herman@wspgroup.co.za

I M E S A A F F I L I AT E M E M B E R S

IMESA


iNDEX TO ADVERTISERS

Amanzi Meters

18

Imesa Bursary Advert

50

SMEC

57

Ammann

OFC

Imesa Save The Date 2017

26

Structa Group

Aveng Infraset

IBC

IX Engineers

16

Technicrete

32

2

Tecroveer

44

9

B&E International

72

Johannesburg Water

Bell Equipment

70

Jones & Wagner

54

Terraforce

65

Komatsu

69

The Concrete Institute

66

68

The Federated Employers Mutual

IFC

4

Chevron SA City of Johannesburg

59

Latitude Fleet Service

Concrete Units

47

Ledwaba Mazwai Attorneys

36

Mining Indaba 67

Cranefield College CSV Construction ELB Equipment MST ELB Equipment Sumitomo

48 71 55

Assurance Company

56

TOSAS

58

TT Innovations

49

Tuboseal Services

46

UWP Consulting

30

Veolia Water Technologies

21

VIP Consulting Engineers

42

VNA Consulting

38

Model Maker System

33

National Cold Asphalt

29

Neil Lyners and Associates

14

NuWater

34

Quality Filtration Systems

25

Rocla

53 64

Water & Sanitation Services

10

WRP Consulting Engineers

Elster Kent Metering

20

Gibb

52

GLS Consulting

13

Hidrostal Southern Africa

27

Southern Africa Readymix Association

Imesa Affiliate Members

75

Sizabantu Piping Systems

OBC 15

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