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IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

infrastructure development • Maintenance • service delivery


Condition assessment and monitoring Tommy Tinkler National Sales Manager, SA Leak Detection Distributers

SBS Tanks

Cape Town

Drought interventions

Harvesting the rain

Environmental Engineering Ways to outflank rivers

Fleet Management Leasing pitfalls

IN THE HOT SEAT More municipalities should consider using technologies like ultrafiltration to replace conventional water treatment systems because it offers very low water wastage and much higher quality water.” Henk Smit Managing Director, Vovani Water Products ISSN 0257 1978

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volume 43 no. 03 March 2018



The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa



Condition assessment and monitoring Tommy Tinkler National Sales Manager, SA Leak Detection Distributers

SBS Tanks

Cape Town

Drought interventions

Harvesting the rain

Environmental Engineering


Ways to outflank rivers

Fleet Management

Integrated Delivery Models

Closing Africa’s infrastructure gaps

Pipes, Pumps & Valves

Leasing pitfalls

The value of thermodynamics APE Pumps: crafting stainless masterpieces

IN THE HOT SEAT More municipalities should consider using technologies like ultrafiltration to replace conventional water treatment systems because it offers very low water wastage and much higher quality water.” Henk Smit Managing Director, Vovani Water Products ISSN 0257 1978

38 40

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Dams Rise of the dams

Steel tank water storage systems are one of the preferred interventions making a major contribution towards maximising water security in South Africa, their use in rainwater harvesting being a prime example. P6

Roads & Bridges Novel arch bridge for Ashton Geogrid stabilisation works

3 5 8 72

New routes with AAE Experience with public fleets Design applications that excel New products offer boost for Bell

Hot Seat 10

Plugging the leaks

IN THE HOT SEAT The social and economic impact of not adequately planning for water supply is substantial. Henk Smit, managing director, Vovani Water Products, explains what the implications are and what municipalities should be doing to avoid a crisis. P10


NATIONAL WATER WEEK Planning for water


National Water Week | Cape Town Avoiding Day Zero Leading storage solutions Managing water networks Responding to the Cape drought Saving the Vazi wetlands Groundwater exploration Planning for water The Luganda Trunk Sewer Project A first in water mapping Going underground Pipes that outlast the rest Water-loss savings in pipelines


DAMS Rise of the dams



Consulting Engineering Our future starts now

17 19 21 22 25 27 28 31 32 33 34 37


Project & Programme Management Infrastructural asset management’s strategic benefits

Industry Insight

46 48 49 51

Building Systems Which walling is best?

Cover Story Environmental Engineering Harvesting the rain 6 Ways to outflank rivers The answer to water security

44 45

Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment

Regulars Editor’s comment President’s comment Africa round-up Index to advertisers



City Development Uganda’s new industrial city


Construction Contracts Tips for cross-border contracting


Integrated Delivery Models Closing Africa’s infrastructure gaps


Cement & Concrete Benefits of precast



Plugging the leaks

INDUSTRY INSIGHT Utility leak detection and pipeline condition assessment must form part of a continuous maintenance planning cycle. At this stage, however, few municipalities have effective assessment systems in place. IMIESA speaks to SA Leak Detection Distributors about its role in minimising technical water losses.



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EDITOR’S COMMENT Publisher Elizabeth Shorten MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie SENIOR JOURNALIST Danielle Petterson JOURNALIST Liesl Frankson Head OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister Chief SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders SUB-EDITOR Morgan Carter ContributorS Dhiren Allopi, Gavin Clunnie, Bryan Perrie, Kieresh Singh, Pieter Steyn, Nigel Webb GENERAL MANAGER Candice Landie CLIENT SERVICE & Production MANAGEr Antois-Leigh Botma financial Director Andrew Lobban DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS Printers United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________


o you remember the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989? That was an incredible moment and I watched the events unfolding on TV with absolute fascination and amazement. Could it really be happening after so many decades of Cold War conflict? Here was an example of a divided and politically diverse country once again being reunited following the symbolic destruction of a 3.6 m high concrete barrier, which had separated Germany since its construction back in 1961. I went there as a tourist in 2004, and it’s an experience recommended for everyone, since history is always the best teacher. Parts of the wall have been dismantled and marked with red pavers along the original route, which now transverses a very modern city landscape on Berlin’s western section. You can ‘cross over’ whenever you feel like it. However, for historical purposes, part of the wall still stands, so you can experience what it must have been like to stare across as little as 200 m of terrain to observe office and home dwellers, divided, but now eventually unified.

Advertising Sales Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 Email: ___________________________________________________

No. 9, 3rd Avenue, Rivonia 2056 Publisher: PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 Annual subscription: R600.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2018. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: Ingrid Botton P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: Website: BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 Email:

Cape Town shows the way During his SONA speech, Ramaphosa further stressed the need for political parties to unite in achieving common goals and to form a ‘new social compact’. In this respect, the way political, public and private sector entities are pulling together in Cape Town shows what can be done when the right commitments and competencies are in place, and there’s no room left for political showboating. Cape Town’s water crisis shouldn’t have reached this critical point, since records show that the warning signs were identified and reported on years before. Regardless, though, the upside is that intervention solutions, ranging from desalination plants to pipeline leak detection and aquifer abstraction programmes, are now being rolled out and they’ll make a real difference. However, Cape Town is just the tip of the iceberg, and many other towns and cities across South Africa are under similar threat and need urgent interventions. How the situation eventually unfolds in Cape Town during 2018 will certainly make for one of the most interesting public administration, engineering and project management case studies worldwide. I’m positive the results will make us all proud and demonstrate our political maturity. As in the case of the Berlin Wall, positive change cannot be resisted. And, as South African citizens, we are more united than ever before.

For South Africa, apartheid has been our historical barrier and we’ve all been working hard to correct this past imbalance, but we need to strive harder to effect the change we need in our country. And it requires exacting leadership. That’s what voters will be looking for in 2019 when they take to the polls to elect those best equipped to restore local and international investor confidence. In this respect, the appointment of Cyril Ramaphosa as president has been unanimously welcomed locally and internationally. During President Ramaphosa’s State of the Nation Address (SONA) in February, he said that government will reinforce its commitment to ethical

KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Ingrid Botton Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax:+27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: NORTHERN PROVINCE Secretary: Rona Fourie Tel: +27 (0)82 742 6364 Fax: +27 (0)86 634 5644 Email: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Fax: +27 (0)86 629 7490 Email: WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email:

Alastair Currie To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.

@infrastructure4 struc www.infra

Infrastructure News


magazine The official of the Institute l Engineer ing of Municipa Africa of Southern







Conditi on assessm

ent and monito

Manager, National Sales ers Tommy TinklerLeak Detection Distribut SA

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.

behaviour and leadership. Also mentioned was the intention to form an infrastructure investment team to speed up the implementation of new projects in the water infrastructure, road maintenance and health sectors. Everyone in construction sincerely looks forward to positive traction here, as it’s critical for the health of the industry and the economy.

Coming together

EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Fax: +27 (0)41 585 1066 Email:

FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Fax: +27 (0)86 628 0468 Email:

A renewed democracy dawns

nks SBS Ta ting the rain Har ves

Cape Town ventions ght inter Drou

Environmenta Engineering


Ways to outfl ank river s

Fleet Managem Leasi ng pitfa



Cover opportunity

In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings, contact Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223.

logies like e SEAT er using techno ent systems becaus IN THE HOTpalities should considtional water treatm water.” More munici to replace conven higher quality and much ts ultrafiltration low water wastage Water Produc it offers very Director, Vovani Managing 3 No.3

Henk Smit

7 1978 ISSN 025

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IMIESA March 2018


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Towards a new path

Over the years, South Africans have grown accustomed to listening to ambitious project announcements from government, particularly in the mega infrastructure space. Those that do get the thumbs up from the local and international investor community are then welcomed with excitement since they’re clearly seen as economic catalysts.


owever, what sometimes star ts out as a great venture ends up running into dif ficulties during project implementation due to time and cost overruns that primarily rest with the way public sector entities manage the process. That creates a domino effect, considering that foreign loans often form a percentage of the monies raised to build these projects. Two big-ticket examples are Eskom’s Medupi and Kusile power stations, which have fallen years behind schedule. But at a more micro municipal level, the funding and project delivery challenges are much the same. These income flows are mostly sourced from national tax revenues when it comes to infrastructure grants, but the main source of funding for municipal maintenance and new construction is still expected to come from budgeted tariff electrical and water inflows. That’s not happening effectively at present, with some municipalities virtually bankrupt and unable to execute their NDP mandate. Then there’s the issue of money spent for an expected outcome. It’s pubic record that although billions have already been spent on infrastructure since 1994, at local and national levels, a great deal of money has also been wasted in the process through poor delivery and the remedying of construction defects. So, going forward, it’s vital that available infrastructure budgets

are reserved for priority projects and that the right decision-makers and skill sets are in place. For instance, do we really need another nuclear power station at this point, when there’s so much potential in renewable ventures, like solar and wind, alongside conventional coal-fired energy?

Promising 2018 budget This view is supported by statements made by Minister of Finance Malusi Gigaba during the 2018 budget speech. He pointed out that while the public sector has invested R2.2 trillion in social and economic infrastructure over the past decade, there are weaknesses in terms of project preparation, execution and delivery that need addressing. In response, government is moving ahead with the roll-out of its Budget Facility for Infrastructure initiative. National Treasury says, “The aim is to support quality public investments through robust project appraisal, effective project development and execution, and sustainable financing arrangements.” Gigaba’s speech had a strong infrastructure theme running through it. Developments earmarked over the medium term include R4.9 billion for industrial projects and R31.7 billion for an Education Infrastructure Grant to cater for new schools and infrastructure upgrades. Over the next three years, R57 billion has been set aside for fee-free higher education and training. If it comes to fruition, this will

President’s comment


IMESA president Gavin Clunnie

definitely pass on benefits in addressing the triple challenges of poverty, inequality and unemployment. There’s no denying that unless we address skills development, South Africa will continue to slide down the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI). We currently rank in 61st position in terms of the 2017/18 GCI report. That makes us top of the log in Africa, but well behind the rest of the world. Out of interest, fellow BRICS countries – namely Brazil, Russia, India and China – rank 80th, 38th, 40th and 27th, respectively. Some are asking where the money will come from to fund South Africa’s ambitious education drive. Part of it could come from new taxation structures. This will seek to generate an additional R36 billion for the 2018/19 period via VAT (now set at 15%), personal and corporate income tax. But generally, fund availability for all projects, including priority ones, will inevitably be constrained given our past GDP performance, as well as forecasted performance over the next three years. So, in all respects, we need to spend money wisely and honestly to get the best results. Improving local municipal revenue collection will certainly help this process, as will drawing up credible budgets. As IMESA members, we are here and well equipped to help engineer the future and a new and exciting path for South Africa’s socio-economic development.

IMIESA March 2018


Cover story

Harvesting the rain Steel tank water storage systems are one of the preferred interventions making a major contribution towards maximising water security in South Africa, their use in rainwater harvesting being a prime example.


ccurate statistics are dependent on precisely recorded data; but in the case of weather forecasts, there are so many new and unpredictable variables brought about by climate change. In South Africa, extended droughts are now common in a region historically prone to progressive desertification. Since the challenges are now mostly immediate, and we can no longer depend solely on dam storage, one of the best supplementary alternatives is the installation of rainwater harvesting systems. Specialist manufacturer SBS Tanks leads in this field with a broad range of propriety solutions that include recent orders to mitigate Cape Town’s worst drought on record. SBS’ steel tanks meet the water containment needs of a wide range of industries from mining and municipal to fire protection services, agriculture and the desalination sector. “Drought conditions experienced nationally are a serious risk to water security, but even in those areas currently not affected, other factors come into play as a result of collapsing infrastructure, resulting in extended interruptions to municipal services,” explains Mava Gwagwa, director:

New Business and Key Accounts, SBS Tanks. “This presents a strong business case for rainwater harvesting, and backup storage in general, which can alleviate the pressure

on our strained water resources and help ensure sustainable supply through dry seasons. Some level of self-sufficiency is no longer optional, but a prerequisite.

Gelofte primary and secondary school, KwaZulu-Natal Two SBS EC07/02 (38 kℓ) tanks were installed, each with Ø 4.78 m x 2.14 m dimensions and a combined capacity of 76 000 ℓ. Rainwater is pumped from these tanks to flush toilet cisterns

Atholl Heights primary school C  ombined rainwater harvesting tank capacity: 86 000 ℓ R  ainwater pumped from water tanks to toilet cisterns A  verage monthly toilet consumption: 300 000 ℓ

SBS Tank Model 1 x EC05/02 (20 kℓ) Dimensions Ø 3.41 m x 2.14 m

1 x EC06/02 (28 kℓ) Ø 4.09 m x 2.14 m

1 x EC07/02 (38 kℓ) Ø 4.78 m x 2.14 m


SBS Tank’s rainwater harvesting tank Operating parameters Location: SBS’ Pinetown fabrication centre SBS tank model: ST10/04 Gross capacity: 154 kℓ Effective capacity: 141 kℓ Dimensions: Ø 6.82 m x 4.20 m Commission date: November 2016

Features included Controlled pressure pump Three-stage filtration: activated-carbon block filtration, sediment filtration and ultraviolet sterilisation Automatic changeover and operation Manual bypass switches. All of these features can be powered by solar systems installed on the tank roof. And even steady harvesting in low-rainfall regions can yield great results over time. For example, for every 1 mm of rain that falls on a square metre section of roof or similar hard surface run-off area, one litre of water can be harvested.”

Showing the way As a premium supplier of water storage since 1998, SBS Tanks has wanted to ‘walk the talk’. “Having spent many years providing advice to a broad range of public and private sector stakeholders, we are more aware than most of how important water autonomy is to any company. So we decided to install a rainwater harvesting system at our manufacturing and head office campus in Pinetown,” says Fabio Grendele, operations manager at SBS Tanks. The total roof catchment area at this facility is approximately 1 046 m2. With a staff complement of almost 100 people, a fleet of a dozen installation and sales vehicles, and factory premises surpassing 6 500 m2, SBS’ water requirements

are considerable. Plus consistent water supply must be guaranteed to sustain business operations during periods of scheduled or unexpected municipal water supply interruptions. SBS’ purpose-built rainwater harvesting tank, which has a gross and effective capacity of 154 kℓ and 141 kℓ, respectively, now makes the company virtually selfsufficient. Additionally, having a dedicated standby resource also caters for other scenarios like firefighting emergencies. “In the event of a power failure, which may affect the VSD pump, our tank is equipped with an automatic changeover, ensuring that, in such an event, our water supply seamlessly switches over from our rainwater supply to the municipal feed,” adds Grendele. “For an entirely off-the-grid setup, tanks can even have solar panels installed on the roof, ensuring a guaranteed supply of rainwater in the unlikely event of both electricity and water municipal feeds being disconnected.”

Topping up

For every 1 mm of rain that falls on one square metre of roof surface area, 1 ℓ of water can be harvested.”

A minimum capacity should always be maintained, which means that owners may need to top up their rainfall harvesting tank from municipal sources from time to time, subject to any current water restrictions in force. Water is supplied to buildings via a variable-speed pump, ensuring constant

pressure, even with multiple users drawing from the feed, while filtration systems ensure consistently clean water. The water level is controlled by a telematics sensor, viewable on a cellphone app. These sensors send signals to the solenoid valve, which opens when the water level dips below the minimum municipal capacity, and automatically shuts off when the minimum level is reached. Recent rainwater harvesting orders completed by SBS Tanks include a series of school projects within KwaZulu-Natal. Meanwhile, outside the rainwater harvesting segment, SBS continues to supply general containment solutions, which includes a number of projects in the City of Cape Town to meet its emergency water intervention planning. These include three tanks for a desalination project under construction at the famous V&A Waterfront. “Water scarcity will always be with us, which means that current consumer behaviour will need to change accordingly. Ever y drop we can store and reuse will have a positive ripple effect,” Gwagwa concludes.

086 048 2657

IMIESA March 2018


A strong foundation for infrastructure success



Egypt Mega desal scheme in sight Egypt’s president, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, has announced his intention to build a mega desalination plant in response to water-scarcity concerns. Currently, Egypt relies almost entirely on the Nile for water, but the country has long expressed concerns that the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) will affect the water flow it receives. It has been suggested that filling up the new dam will reduce Nile water flowing into Egypt by an estimated 20%, and the desalination project is proposed to combat the challenge this would pose. Once completed, GERD is expected to be the biggest hydroelectric dam in Africa, with capacity to generate 6 450 MW. While Egypt has long opposed the dam being built by Ethiopia, talks between the two countries over sharing Nile River water

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Kenya will add 10 MW of waste-to-energy power to the grid

broke down late last year. No further details of the desalination project have been unveiled.

Kenya WTE plant in the works Kenya plans to construct a 10 MW grid-connected waste-toenergy (WTE) plant in Kibera, a suburb of Nairobi. The country has secured funding for the full environmental and social impact assessment, and detailed engineering designs of the WTE plant. The plant will generate electricity from municipal solid waste by converting it to biogas/ethanol fuel. The planned diversion and use of municipal solid waste will have significant health, social and development outcomes, and will be of benefit to the inhabitants of Kibera – a community that receives 1 000 t of municipal solid waste daily from Nairobi County.

The Lekki Deep Sea Port in Lagos will be 16.5 m deep

Nigeria A model port Major construction works are under way on the Lekki Deep Sea Port at the Lagos Free Trade Zone (LFTZ). At a water depth of 16.5 m, the Lekki Port is expected to be one of the deepest in West Africa, along with being one of the most modern, efficient ports in sub-Saharan Africa. With the capacity to berth larger vessels, the port is envisaged to support burgeoning trade across Nigeria and West Africa, making Lagos the transshipment hub for the region. The US$1.5 billion facility is being developed by Lekki Port LFTZ Enterprise in conjunction with the China Harbour Engineering Company.

Sierra Leone Hopes for Bumbuna II Once completed, Sierre Leone’s Bumbuna Hydroelectric Phase II project will generate 143 MW of electricity for communities across the country. The Environment and Social Health Impact Assessment (Eshia) report for Bumbuna II was started seven years ago and it is hoped that, once

The GERD is expected to reduce Nile water flowing into Egypt by 20%

completed, Sierre Leone’s Environment Protection Agency (EPA) will award an ESHIA licence for the commencement of work on the project. Currently, the country only has a 20% access rate of electricity supply and Bumbuna II could add a further 10%. The power plant was initially intended to produce 365 MW of electricity, supplying to major historic towns in the Tonkolili District; however, the plans had to be reduced to a capacity of 143 MW in order to minimise the displacement of communities.

Tanzania Better basin management Tanzania plans to boost the management of its nine water basins, which are of great importance to the country’s socio-economic development. According to Minister for Water and Irrigation Isack Kamwele, government plans to allocate more funds to water management in the current financial year, as well as carry out a large-scale eviction operation to remove people who have invaded the country’s water sources. Part of this water management will include checking basins for environmental degradation.

Bumbuna Hydroelectric Phase II in Sierra Leone will generate 143 MW of electricity

The answer to water security Henk Smit, managing director, Vovani Water Products

The social and economic impact of not adequately planning for water supply is substantial. Henk Smit, managing director, Vovani Water Products, explains what the implications are and what municipalities should be doing to avoid a crisis. South Africa is a semiarid country. Historically, what has the country’s water situation been and what can we expect going forward? HS South Africa has always been a water-scarce country, and we have built infrastructure to secure our water supply during seasons with little to no rainfall. Droughts are not unknown to us. We have experienced several periods with below average seasonal rainfall, resulting in poor crop yields and dangerously low dam water levels. The periods from 1964 to 1970, 1991 to 1995


IMIESA March 2018

and again from 2002 to 2005 serve as examples of this. The quick succession of such periods causes insufficient time for natural resources and the economy to recover from these rainfall-deficient phases. As we are currently experiencing the worst drought in 100 years, we should focus even more on infrastructure and the latest water treatment technologies to improve our water situation and ensure the water security that we need to thrive as a nation.

Cape Town is rapidly approaching Day Zero.

What are the implications of a city like Cape Town running out of water? A huge impact will be felt by many communities, with problems like diseases and deaths a real possibility. Water is an integral part of everyone’s life – to bath, cook, wash and drink – and without it, a city like Cape Town could come to a standstill. Economically, this would be devastating. Tourism also plays a large role in the city’s income, and if domestic and international visitors choose not to make Cape Town their destination of choice, the ripple effect on the

Hot Seat

local economy will be significant.

Although not all cities are experiencing drought conditions at present, what should all municipalities consider when it comes to longterm water planning? Municipalities should all be looking at the management of their water sources and how they can reduce water wastage. Water reuse is also important to consider because treating secondary water effluent to potable standards would allow municipalities to supplement their water supply base. More municipalities should consider using technologies like ultrafiltration to replace conventional water treatment systems because it offers very low water wastage and much higher water quality. Ultrafiltration filters down to 0.01 µm, removing all bacteria and certain viruses, and provides feedwater recoveries as high as 90% to 95%.

What are the implications of not planning for increased long-term water demands and future droughts? The implications can be clearly seen all around South Africa. The population growth and changing weather patterns of cities like Cape Town and Port Elizabeth have caught up with them, and water scarcity is more real now than ever. If planning is not done for the next 10 to 20 years, and then on an ongoing basis, not only will communities suffer from the scarce supply of drinking water, but many diseases will occur in areas where water is not available for the wastewater distribution networks and for basic human use.

The economic impact on our country will be huge as well. Many businesses cannot operate without large quantities of water to manufacture their products. This will lead to more job losses and rising unemployment. The agricultural sector also depends heavily on water to ensure food security.

What solutions and technologies should municipalities be exploring to supplement water supply in the long term? Water treatment in the form of large-scale projects is required to make a real difference and to ensure that the water needs of all sectors in our country are met. About 70% of our water is used for agriculture, which impacts on our local produce supply and our ability for export. Ultrafiltration is a technology that is able to treat any type of surface water, which is not out of range on mineral levels, to potable standards for all communities to use. We have supplied ultrafiltration solutions to many of our clients to treat borehole water to drinking water standard, for use in industrial applications, or for home use. If water catchment can be improved and increased, ultrafiltration can replace conventional water treatment systems. It is easier to operate and will supply the same quality of water even if the quality of the water source is affected by the seasons. Desalination remains the best option for not only many coastal municipalities, but also for the municipalities surrounding larger coastal towns to which treated seawater can be distributed. Large-scale desalination water plants can produce 100 MLD to 200 MLD – enough drinking water to serve municipal metropoles and secure water supply for the long term.

What are the short-term solutions for towns hit hard by drought? Depending on where municipalities are situated, there are several options to consider. In the short term, water reuse has to be considered by all municipalities – treating wastewater to potable standard. A very good example is the Beaufort West water treatment plant, where ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis are used to treat secondary effluent to drinking water standard. For municipalities along the coast, desalination is a definitive option. Desalination has advanced technologically in the past 10 years and become a more cost-effective solution. When implemented correctly, desalination can provide significant relief to communities, as has been seen in places like Israel and the Middle East, as well as smaller plants in South Africa. If groundwater is available and can be accessed with boreholes, ultrafiltration alone can be used to treat water to drinking standards. Additional treatment may be required for brackish water or water with high iron content.

How can Vovani assist municipalities in securing South Africa’s water future?

Vovani Water Products represents international suppliers of the latest water treatment technologies. Vovani is able to supply these technologies into the South African market as part of complete water treatment systems for wastewater reuse, desalination, and surface water purification. At Vovani, we have the knowledge and expertise to educate municipalities on the latest water treatment technologies, and how these products can be implemented to produce potable drinking water and ensure adequate water supply. Working with consulting engineering and OEM companies, we are able to supply municipalities with the best solutions to long-term water security.

IMIESA March 2018


Industry Insight

Plugging the leaks Tommy Tinkler, national sales manager, SA Leak Detection Distributors


Utility leak detection and pipeline condition assessment must form part of a continuous maintenance planning cycle. At this stage, however, few municipalities have effective assessment systems in place. IMIESA speaks to SA Leak Detection Distributors about its role in minimising technical water losses. It starts with water audit training.

outh Africa’s major cities are all undergoing significant expansion with a corresponding increase in the number of water users. This is exer ting great pressure on scarce water resources, making the provision of new infrastructure a priority. Cape Town’s drought and water crisis is one of the most talked about right now. The way the city is handling its current crisis is in the spotlight both locally and internationally since so many industries critical to the regional economy, like agriculture, manufacturing and tourism, depend on urgent responses to water security. For many, the interim solutions will include desalination and, potentially, wastewater reuse (at least for industrial

applications), complemented in the longer term by conventional dam supply once water levels return to normal. However, a more immediate priority is the pressing need to address technical water losses due to failed infrastructure. Simply put, unnecessar y leaks are placing a major drain on our resources. They are also impacting negatively on municipal budgets due to resulting shortfalls in the water revenue tariffs traditionally used to help fund maintenance and new construction. “It’s not just about finding leaks, though. It’s about embarking on a total audit assessment that covers ever y aspect of a bulk water reticulation system and then making sure that the necessar y maintenance budgets, equipment and

skills are in place to implement repair inter ventions,” says Tommy Tinkler, national sales manager for SA Leak Detection Distributors (SALD). “Traditionally, our view is that water audits have focused more on consumption patterns rather than the underlying condition of the infrastructure. That needs to change urgently to halt the millions of litres being lost annually due to pipe leaks. The solution is to focus on continuous condition assessment monitoring. That’s where our technical expertise and OEM technologies come into play.” In addition to the revolutionar y AirSpade®, the SALD product range includes leading brands like Sewerin®, JD7® and MiniCam®, and covers the areas of utility ser vices location, leak detection and pipe inspection. Additionally, SALD is the master licensor for Nu Flow® pipe relining technology in Africa. “We also manufacture and supply our own epoxy for pipe rehabilitation and cured-in-place pipe lining (CIPP),” Tinkler explains. All products are supported by SALD’s team of OEMcertified technicians. SALD is also believed to be the only company in South Africa providing a rental ser vice for ground-penetrating radar and leak detection equipment.

Training deficiencies and zones “One the biggest problems is the lack of planning when it comes to infrastructure maintenance, plus poor training,” Tinkler continues. “We’re helping to address this.” Housed at its head office in Benoni, SALD’s training centre caters for specialists employed in water departments at local, district and metropolitan municipalities, as well as consulting engineering personnel. “Since the two disciplines inter face in terms


IMIESA March 2018

Industry Insight

of advisor y and implementation functions, it’s important that they have an in-depth understanding of how the technology works in order to conduct effective water audits,” Tinkler continues. During advanced training, SALD shows candidates how to create zones; gain an in-depth understanding of flow and pressure; and successfully apply appropriate technologies, such as acoustic or gas detection. At the training centre is a network of ‘underground leaks’ that are electronically controlled: they can be turned on and off to simulate an actual failed pipeline section. At the moment, SALD uses borehole water for this purpose, but has recognised the need for more eco-friendly practices. The plan is to adopt the approach used by OEMs like Sewerin where audio speakers are embedded into the ground to simulate leaks by transmitting sound waves. These are received and interpreted by handheld detection equipment on the sur face. As Tinkler points out, pressure management is a key factor in managing and slowing down the leaks. Municipalities can use basic measures, such as reducing the pressure from, say, 3 bar to 1 bar within a zone, but that’s not a long-term solution. “The problem with 1 bar leaks is

that they can go undetected due to gradual seepage. That’s why we emphasise the need to temporarily and gently increase the pressure in a zone during a water audit to accurately identify the location of ever y leak.”

Air excavation

Having established a zone, the area’s water losses and the type of maintenance inter ventions required can be determined. The next step is to gain access to the buried pipeline section needing repairs. Here, the proprietar y Air-Spade® product, which employs air excavation techniques, is one of the most effective tools available because it’s totally nondestructive. In Australia, for example, air excavation is a mandator y practice required by the countr y’s National Utility Locating Contractors Association (NULCA). In South Africa, however, SALD believes this practice is still seriously underutilised. Within the range, the Air-Spade® 3000 is the most power ful, non-destructive, compressed-air-powered excavation tool available on the market today. “An experienced operator can easily excavate a 2 m deep hole in 10 minutes within a per fectly controlled environment, adding extensions as necessar y to go down deeper,” explains Tinkler. The Air-Spade® is normally used in conjunction with the Air-Vac® truck/trailer system, The acoustic water leak detection system is the which vacuums up the dirt, perfect tool for detecting leaks. It makes the vibrations of the leaking water audible to the sand, rocks, or water during the human ear and also records and displays the excavation. The Air-Vac® can be volume and frequency spectrum as a graph mounted on the back of a truck or trailer.

Projects In addition to the courses provided at its Benoni training centre, SALD also offers in-field training. A recent example is the supply of equipment and training to Re-Solve Consulting, and Engineering Advice and Ser vices, who are conducting a series of audits in Port Elizabeth as part of Nelson Mandela Bay’s drought inter vention initiatives. “There needs to be a balanced approach to

An experienced operator can easily excavate a 2 m deep hole in 10 minutes within a perfectly controlled environment, adding extensions as necessary to go down deeper.”

infrastructure maintenance and upgrades. Since municipal budgets are constrained, it doesn’t make sense to spend money unnecessarily,” Tinkler continues. Municipalities often replace entire systems because of a few failures – largely due to a lack of understanding about condition assessment monitoring. “Let’s fix what we have first and, if the pipeline is still stable, rather focus on extending its life in the medium term. The exception would be for bulk water trunk line projects supporting new developments. “The important thing to emphasise is that leak monitoring and assessment has to be continuous if South Africa is going to achieve sustainable results. As consumption demand keeps increasing, so too will the pressures and flows,” Tinkler concludes.

IMIESA March 2018



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hen, but hopefully rather if, Cape Town’s dam levels reach 13.5%, the city will begin to shut down its reticulation system, except to key commercial areas and institutions such as hospitals. Once this happens, residents will have to collect their allotted 25 ℓ of water from collection points across the city daily. Although the City of Cape Town is working to increase the supply of water through the use of groundwater, reuse and desalination, these new water supplies will only make a meaningful contribution in the longer term and will not prevent Day Zero. In addition, the majority of these water augmentation schemes are behind schedule.

The drought affecting Cape Town has officially been declared a national disaster as the city works to stave off Day Zero.

Groundwater Groundwater is expected to peak at 150 MLD. Projects include: 1. Cape Flats aquifer – drilling began in January, expected to add 83 MLD water (temporary maximum abstraction) into the system ramping up from May/June 2018 2. Atlantis aquifer – 5 MLD has already been brought into the system, with a further 20 MLD to be ramped up from May to October 2018 to serve the Atlantis/ Silwerstroom area 3. TMG aquifer – pilot drilling commenced in November and water will enter the system ramping up from February 2018 to June 2019, yielding 50 MLD sustainably

According to the city’s Water Outlook 2018 (February 2018), the city has already used nearly 5 700 million litres more than it should have since 1 November 2017 by not reaching the 500 MLD a day target. Agriculture has less than 6 000 million ℓitres remaining in its allocation, having used ~90% already. The city cannot reasonably or sustainably go off-grid from the Western Cape Water Supply System (WCWSS), and augmentation will not add sufficient water to carry the system through to the next rainy season. Therefore, getting through the drought in 2018 requires that demand be reduced.

Reducing demand It is evident that failure will occur unless demand is immediately curtailed to meet the overall restrictions. According to the Water Outlook 2018, the current restrictions, if adhered to, will result

21.3% Desalination A major emphasis has been placed on desalination, with three short-term schemes currently under way to add an additional 16 MLD. These are: 1. Strandfontein, 7 MLD – on track for first water in March 2018, reaching full production by May 2018 2. Monwabisi, 7 MLD – on track for first water in April 2018, reaching full production by May 2018 3. V&A, 2 MLD – on track for first water in February/March 2018. A pilot project is under way at Koeberg for a permanent desalination plant. Plans are in place for a desalination plant at Cape Town harbour to be implemented if needed, and long-term desalination projects are under development.

9 July IMIESA March 2018




in the dams reaching a minimum of 15% before the rainy season. However, because the city cannot determine exactly when the rainy season will start, or how much rain is likely to fall in the catchment areas, it is imperative that residents use even less water than the restriction levels demand.

Long-term security


The City of Cape Town reports that it has been working towards a diversified supply for some time. However, the projects have progressed to pilot stage rather than production due to the expense of options other than surface water. The city does, however, have a plan in place to reach a diversified water supply position by June 2022. This will include desalination, groundwater and reuse, among others.

Level 6B

Other alternatives Cape Town plans to add all feasible springs into the reticulation system. To date, the following springs have been added: 1. Newlands – Albion spring in operation at ~3 MLD 2. Oranjezicht routed 1 MLD into the system Approximately 10 000 m3 will be transferred from a large privately owned dam on the Palmiet River over the season. Future transfers will depend on rainfall in respective catchments. Others are under investigation.

Water reuse


1. Zandvliet – 10 MLD temporary yield on track for June 2018, increasing to 50 MLD permanent yield in December 2021 2. Cape Flats – 10 MLD by June 2018, 75 MLD by December 2021 3. Macassar – 20 MLD by June 2019 4. Potsdam – 10 MLD by June 2019 5. Athlone – 75 MLD by December 2021

450 MLD

13.5% dam levels • Figures as at 19 February 2018


Leading storage solutions

Whether government, industry or the public, South Africans are re-evaluating their water usage patterns, increasing the demand for adequate on-site storage.


he recent drought has brought home the need to alleviate the pressure on South Africa’s dams and rivers. Industry, government and the public are all realising the need to store water, whether it be rainwater, grey water, or wastewater. Abeco Tanks, a leading innovator in the development of water storage solutions, has the answer – safe, hygienic water storage, unaffected by ultraviolet or light penetration, which is easily transportable to remote locations and quick and easy to install using basic equipment and manual labour. The company has been refining its tank solutions for decades, designing, manufacturing and installing quality tanks since 1983.

Drought solutions As the drought continues, the need for water storage solutions in cities like Cape Town is growing. According to Duane Ramos, managing director, Abeco Tanks, the company can supply these cities with water storage tanks to hold

larger volumes of water as a permanent solution, or with smaller temporary storage offerings. Abeco offers ground-level, elevated, customised and circular bolted tanks from capacities as low as 1 800 ℓ all the way up to 5 Mℓ. Standard ground-level tanks can be deployed in as little as three to four weeks for any size or capacity. “Our products are made from mild steel that is galvanised for added protection. They are strong and robust, and the panels are bolted onsite, making transportation and site access far easier,” says Ramos.

Expanding storage capabilities Abeco recently added a new division, African Tank Systems, to tap into a broader market. African Tank Systems will produce the powdercoated liquid storage tanks intended to expand Abeco’s storage capabilities to include chemicals, wastewater and slurry. Dry bulk storage for a variety of applications will also be possible. According to Ramos, these particularly robust tanks can be manufactured to client requirements at capacities of up to 30 Mℓ.

A leading brand Abeco Tanks celebrates 35 years in Southern Africa this year and, since 1983, has grown to become a major participant in the market. The company’s tanks are in operation across a wide variety of sectors, including mining, power generation, processing and manufacturing, and public buildings across Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar, Central America, the Middle East and the entire African continent. “Through years of continued service, we have built up a client base and relationships that back up a product we believe in. As we continue to grow and improve on our products, we would like to provide a value-added service that complements our products, offering exceptional expertise and technical knowledge to professionals in the water industry,” concludes Ramos.

IMIESA March 2018


an | e-mail: tel: +27 (21) 880-0388

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GLS, JOAT, WRP – the country's leaders in drought response, management and recovery


Managing water networks ynapmoc

Hanré Streicher, director, GLS Consulting

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Willem Wegelin, director, WRP Consulting

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Mark Shepherd, director, JOAT Group

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At a time when several cities are at risk of running out of water, South Africa can ill afford high levels of non-revenue water and increased demand. The directors of leading water management firms GLS Consulting, WRP Consulting and the JOAT Group discuss how municipalities can tackle these challenges.

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Given the ongoing drought in the monitor the impact to ensure sustained and modelling are also key offerings that take Western Cape, how can you assist equitable water distribution. into consideration the impact of demand | e-mail: | e-mail: | e-mail: municipalities to become more reduction through water conservation tel: +27 (21) 880-0388 tel: +27 (21) 380-0133 tel: +27 (12) 346-3496 drought-resilient? How do you think water service and water demand management on a delivery could be improved GLS, WRP and JOAT can assist water municipality’s finances and provide at municipalities? services authorities (WSAs) in responding guidance in terms of financial droughtto, managing and recovering from drought situations through the management and/or reduction of water demand and non-revenue water (NRW) in the network. Pressure management has arguably been proven to be the most effective water demand management measure implemented at local municipalities, and it can be increased in terms of aggressiveness to obtain increasing levels of demand reduction. However, municipalities must budget for the operations, maintenance and monitoring of their pressure management installations to sustain water savings. GLS is able to implement pressure management projects based on hydraulic modelling investigations. By utilising its sophisticated SWIFT software, GLS can perform water balances and detailed analyses of individual water consumption rates in order to identify areas where NRW could be reduced. WRP and JOAT have extensive experience in designing, implementing and optimising pressure management solutions, and have the tools, knowledge and experience to maximise the impact of pressure management solutions through a variety of techniques, including advanced pressure management. Revenue improvement strategies, consisting of revenue management plans, revenue enhancement plans and water tariff

GLS, JOAT, WRP – the country's leaders in drought response, management and recovery

resilience strategies.

What are the largest potential opportunities for municipalities in managing water distribution networks?

Performing regular and accurate water balances is not a complicated process, but can only be done if working bulk water meters are in place and provide reliable bulk water meter readings. Monitoring network pressures, water usage, distribution and consumption, either through water balances, hydraulic models, billing or online monitoring platforms, can be useful in assisting a WSA in making correct operational management decisions, identifying problem areas and undertaking corrective action. The continual monitoring of consumption can assist with revenue enhancement as well, ensuring that WSAs maximise revenue streams from their consumers. Another challenge faced by municipalities is deciding when to intervene in their systems, what intervention to implement, how to prioritise appropriate interventions, and how to monitor and evaluate progress. GLS, WRP and JOAT collectively offer a wide range of tools and techniques that can assist in identifying the correct intervention to implement in a water-scarce area, physically carry out the works required, and

Our opinion is that most municipalities, even the smaller rural ones, could justify a water demand management officer as a full-time position in the service of the municipality. This officer could drive the water demand management programme at the municipality and, inter alia, be responsible for the monthly water balances. This ‘new’ post would have to be funded; however, in most cases, this could comfortably be covered by the potential savings achieved by the reduction in NRW. Another area of improvement, particularly when faced with drought or water scarcity, is to prioritise continuous water supply in the reticulation networks rather than plan for, or encourage, intermittent water supply or water shedding. The City of Cape Town has adopted an approach of maintaining a much lower operating pressure in its network at all times in support of a ‘some for all, rather than all for some’ philosophy, which is a proven, successful international approach. Municipalities should also be investigating alternative implementation methods – shared water savings contracts, performancebased contracts and risk/reward contracts are attractive alternatives to traditionally funded contracts for reducing NRW or water losses, and can also be used to assist in drought response if the correct performance measures and incentives are adopted.

IMIESA March 2018



Responding to the

Cape drought

Desalination and groundwater initiatives under way provide immediate solutions to the longer-term challenge of managing the way water is supplied in the future. Dams will always be there, but they’ll only be one part of the solution. SWRO

Strandfontein desalination site with seawater intake pump station and pipework in progress


ape Town has reduced its peak demand from a high of 1 200 Mℓ/day back in 2015 to below 600 Mℓ/day currently through various initiatives. While this is a phenomenal reduction, the city needs to do more in order to avoid Day Zero, when dam levels drop below 13.5% and the ‘taps run dry’. This includes increasingly tighter water restrictions for domestic, industrial and agricultural users. The need for a diversified supply strategy was identified as a key water security measure and the city plans to have various schemes


IMIESA March 2018

in place by June 2022. The following augmentation schemes are being implemented/planned: • short-term, temporary desalination (SWRO) • groundwater abstraction • utilisation of springs • water reuse • water transfers from the private sector • permanent desalination. iX engineers, together with WorleyParsons Marine and Umvoto Africa are currently assisting the city with the seawater desalination and groundwater abstraction schemes.

The SWRO plants are seen as emergency measures, with a larger (long-term) permanent desalination plant planned for implementation at a later stage. The sites for these temporary plants were selected through multi-criteria analyses and high-level risk assessment. The following criteria applied: • the sites needed to be either state-owned, or owned by the city • the sites needed to be adjacent to the sea • the sites needed to be in close proximity to large water mains with adequate distribution capacity • electrical power had to be on hand, either via the grid or generators • the brine waste produced during the desalination process had to be disposed of safely • no brine disposal would be permissible within marine protected areas stretching from Clifton to just south of Muizenberg (with the exception of existing outfalls)

1 200 Mℓ/day Cape Town has reduced its peak demand from a high of 1 200 Mℓ/day back in 2015 to below 600 Mℓ/day currently through various initiatives

Innovative thinking with water scarcity experienced solutions iX engineers – a level 1 Broad Based Black Economic Empowered Entity (BBBEE) – has more than 52% black ownership and more than 35% black woman ownership. It is a Professional Consulting Engineering Practice specializing in Civil, Chemical, Electrical, Mechanical, Electronic, Transport and Structural Engineering as well as Project Management. iX engineers provides a National Service from Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein, Durban, Kimberley, Port Elizabeth and Upington

What does the iX engineers Water Team offer? Specialist capabilities in total water cycle management Pipe stringing floated in place

7 Mℓ/day

The Strandfontein installation is a 7 Mℓ/day plant, which is on track for first water distribution in March 2018, reaching full production by May 2018

• the temporary pipeline from the plant to the inlet structure and the inlet structure on the seabed had to be protected against wave action; the same applied to the pipeline from the plant to the brine outlet structure • another factor considered was the possibility of designing the placement of the inlet and outlet structures in such a way that prevailing currents would carry the brine away. Three temporary SWRO plant are currently being implemented.

Strandfontein The Strandfontein installation is a 7 Mℓ/day plant, which is on track for first water distribution in March 2018, reaching full production by May 2018. This containerised and modularised desalination plant and pump station, which is powered by generators, is located within the Strandfontein Resort off Baden Powell Drive – 2 km west of Strandfontein. A holding tank with half an hour’s storage (based on 7 Mℓ/day) will be constructed on the intake side of the desalination plant. A 315 mm diameter HDPE PE 100 PN 10 pipe abstracts raw water from the tidal pool, with the intake located south of the proposed treatment plant. The raw water abstraction pump station is located onshore, south of the plant.

Water resource assessment: supply options appraisal and selection Integrated water resource management (linking engineering and treatment strategies) Water & waste water treatment technology options selection, design and implementation, including desalination and water reuse Water conveyancing including pumps, pipelines and canals Water storage including dams, reservoirs and water towers Hydrological sciences and consultation support throughout the project life-cycle Water improvement, optimization, demand management and project risk mitigation

Monwabisi The 7 Mℓ/day Monwabisi plant is on track for first water delivery in April 2018, reaching full production by May 2018. Key elements of the design are similar to the Strandfontein project, taking a containerised and modular approach. At Monwabisi, situated within the Monwabisi Resort grounds off Baden Powell Drive, 3.5 km south of Khayelitsha, the project is being implemented in two phases – initially for a plant of 2 Mℓ/day followed by the addition

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2 Mℓ/day The V&A Waterfront containerised desalination plant is a 2 Mℓ/day installation on track for commissioning in March 2018 Moving the Monwabisi subsea pipework into position

Borehole success in the vicinity of Strandfontein (Cape Flats aquifer)

network will comprise two hours of storage capacity in a holding tank, a booster pump and HDPE pipework. The suction pipe will be a Ø355 mm HDPE PE 100 PN 10 pipe and the delivery pipe a Ø315 mm HDPE PE 100 PN 16 pipe.

V&A Waterfront The third plant, situated at Cape Town’s V&A Waterfront, is a 2 Mℓ/day installation on track for commissioning in March 2018. This containerised desalination plant, which is powered by generators, is located within the public parking area off Beach Road, west of the V&A Waterfront. The plant footprint is approximately 160 m x 25 m with a maximum element height of around 6.5 m. The raw water abstraction pipeworks are located east of the plant, off the marina break wall.

of a further 5 Mℓ/day. The initial infrastructure put in place during Phase 1 will cater for the full 7 Mℓ/day design capacity. The volume of raw water in the tidal pool will be supplemented by a pump-over scheme. This scheme serves to abstract raw water offshore (in the open ocean) and comprises a Ø355 mm HDPE PE 100 PN 10 suction pipe and Ø250 mm HDPE PE 100 PN 10 delivery pipe. The onshore water delivery from the plant to the injection point in the existing bulk water

Medium- and long-term groundwater abstraction Billions of cubic metres of clean water are stored below the Western Cape mountains. The City of Cape Town started a reconnaissance phase in 2002 and exploration boreholes were being drilled by 2009. Now, the city is investigating extracting water and distributing it in the south peninsula area. Drilling is envisaged in the Helderberg area and near the Berg River, Steenbras, Wemmershoek, Theewaterskloof and Voëlvlei dams. In the meantime, a number of existing aquifers have been identified for increased extraction.

Atlantis aquifer

7 Mℓ/day The 7 Mℓ/day Monwabisi plant is on track for first water delivery in April 2018, reaching full production by May 2018


IMIESA March 2018

Situated on the West Coast, Atlantis is already supplied with some water from the Atlantis aquifer. Water is pumped from boreholes at two well fields (groups of boreholes): Witsand and Silwerstroom Strand. The goal is to supply Atlantis purely from groundwater by further developing the existing well fields established by the city. The Atlantis groundwater scheme

already has a managed aquifer recharge programme in place. This will be extended as part of the augmentation project.

Cape Flats aquifer This large resource stretches over 400 km2, from False Bay in the south to Tygerberg Hills in the north-east and Milnerton in the northwest. Farmers already use boreholes to water their fields. Initial plans are to abstract, store and filter the water, and deliver it into the supply network. The aquifer could also be recharged with treated waste- and stormwater, cleaned via constructed wetlands. This will increase yield and improve existing water quality within the aquifer and False Bay, into which it flows. This managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy follows a master plan developed for the emergency development of the Cape Flats aquifer. The MAR challenge is to ensure the aquifer’s sustainability during the implementation of further well fields exploration and development. The disaster management yield target is 83 Mℓ/day (increasing from the earlier flow volume of 25 Mℓ/day). The plan is to expand long-term supply during Phase 3 to 123 Mℓ/day, while building resilience to changing economic, social and climatic conditions.

Saving the Vazi wetlands World Wetlands Day 2018, celebrated in northern KwaZulu-Natal, brought together community leaders, municipalities, state departments, scientists and industry to discuss a workable solution to the rapidly declining water levels in the area.


he initiative was held under the banner of the KwaZulu-Natal Wetlands, hosted by the Isibusiso Esihle Science Discovery Centre and supported by the South African Environmental Observation Network (SAEON) and Mark Schapers, a technical director at JG Afrika. Schapers was the first to alert the Water Research Commission and SAEON to serious declines in water levels in the Vazi peatland wetland system six years ago, highlighting the need to design and implement a system that would strengthen the existing Department of Water and Sanitation’s water monitoring programmes in the area. A formal proposal is now being drafted, which focuses research into ways of replacing the existing resource-based economy in the area with sustainable alternatives. This plan will be used to apply for funding to assist in the development of a document that will guide the implementation of a strategy for the Vazi wetlands.

A wetland under threat The declining water table has led to the drying out of the Vazi peatland complex. Several scientific studies concur that forestry is having a significant impact on the water resources, exacerbated by prolonged drought, increased levels of abstraction for human consumption, climate change and burning. The Manzengwenya and Mbazwane plantations, covering about 19 000 ha, form part of a major state-driven land redistribution programme in the area. The plan will, therefore, propose ways of substituting existing and future employment opportunities created in the forestry value chain. Further research is required to determine whether changes in land use, rainfall levels and climate will reverse the decline. Groundwater recharge in the area is under investigation.


Groundwater exploration Alongside its role in assisting Cape Town’s future water augmentation planning, Umvoto Africa has been instrumental in establishing key aquifer sources within the broader Western Cape region.


ydrogeologists and Stanford aquifer, as well as the fractured scientists at Umvoto Peninsula Formation aquifer of the TMG Africa have been at Hermanus. in the business The Stanford aquifer is highly productive of finding, testing and delivering and is thought to be comprised of the lower groundwater in various parts of part of the Waenhuiskrans Formation. the country and on the continent Palaeochannels, such as Kouevlakte and Klein for decades. River, along the base of the Stanford aquifer At the onset, Umvoto Africa was are hydrogeologically important due to their instrumental in siting and drilling one potential for high yields. of the first boreholes for Citrusdal Municipality Development of the Kouevlakte well field at in 1998 to access the groundwater potential Stanford has made the town water-secure for of the Peninsula aquifer of the Table Mountain decades to come. In turn, the Camphill and Group (TMG), which yielded up to 100 ℓ/s. Volmoed well fields helped Hermanus survive At the turn of the new millennium, Umvoto the 2009-2011 Southern Cape drought and now Africa was appointed under the Deep Artesian ensure that the town is water-secure during the Groundwater Exploration initiative for the current Western Cape water crisis. Oudtshoorn Supply project. It subsequently managed the Oudtshoorn Groundwater Project (OGP) from 2011 onwards, drilling numerous high-yielding ar tesian “The drought boreholes. A particularly memorable may break, water moment was seeing strong artesian groundwater flow from restrictions may be relaxed, deep (600 m plus) boreholes at but the recent appreciation and the Blossoms well field as part understanding of the value and of the OGP, which is currently on hold. scarcity of water resources in


Cape Town, and the Western Cape as a whole, will remain.”

Umvoto Africa is the current groundwater specialist for Overstrand Municipality and assisted in developing and monitoring well fields within the primary


IMIESA March 2018

Landfills In 2015, Umvoto was engaged by the City of Cape Town‘s Solid Waste Management Department to undertake the assessment of monitoring borehole infrastructure at operational landfill sites (Coastal Park, Bellville South, and Vissershok), old landfill sites (Brackenfell, Faure, Gordon’s Bay, Kraaifontein and Tableview), as well as transfer stations and historical landfills (Athlone Refuse Transfer Station, and Kraaifontein). Hydrogeologists surveyed and assessed the groundwatermonitoring borehole infrastructure, cleared and desilted the existing infrastructure, and installed new boreholes where required.

Risk mitigation Umvoto’s approach presents ideas to build resilience against future water crises through projects that complement or support existing strategic plans and interventions already under way, taking innovative options into account. A prime example is the work undertaken by Umvoto Africa with the City of Cape Town. Local-scale schemes abstracting from the unconfined portion of the TMG aquifer – e.g. in the Southern Planning District and Helderberg Basin – can cumulatively contribute to augmenting bulk water supply, and permit increased flexibility in the reticulation system in times of severe shortage. These schemes also provide an opportunity to train, empower and build capacity in local communities to support aquifer monitoring, water sampling and water resource management, as well as well field operations and maintenance. These thoughts underpinned the water resilience strategy for the City of Cape Town, which included (among other augmentation plans): - local groundwater development in the Southern Planning District - horizontal drilling in the Helderberg Basin - groundwater abstractions from the Cape Flats aquifer (CFA) - optimisation of the Atlantis Water Supply Scheme - construction of a desalination plant at Saldanha to free allocation from Voëlvlei Dam. The geomorphology and aquifer geometr y/hydrostratigraphy facilitate an approach of managed aquifer recharge in the CFA through the use of wetlands, making it possible to reclaim stormwater and treated effluent, while contributing towards aquifer rehabilitation where groundwater contamination is prevalent. These same factors address the issues of sewage management and winter flooding in the Kuils River catchment and the licensing of wastewater effluent from the Zandvliet treatment plant/discharge from the Bellville treatment plant (and/or treatment to potable drinking water standards). Umvoto Africa made use of various geophysical techniques and technologies to identify and refine drilling locations for the Cape Town resilience plan. This included aerial surveying, a non-invasive technology used to determine the thickness of the aquifer by identifying conductive basement clay layers underlying the sandy aquifer. The results of these various studies will help shape the city’s future planning. The drought may break, water restrictions may be relaxed, but the recent appreciation and understanding of the value and scarcity of water resources in Cape Town, and the Western Cape as a whole, will remain.

INTEGRATED WATER AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY EARTH Remote Sensing and Geodesy Geological mapping and exploration Resource evaluation Structural geological analysis Sedimentology WATER Water resource assessment and evaluation Water resource development and management Mine water management models and implementation Water quality assessment and treatment options Compliance monitoring SCIENCE Data and information management system Climatic data analysis 3-dimensional geological modelling Groundwater and hydrological modelling Specialised data analysis and assessment LIFE Ecological monitoring Environmental impact assessments Stakeholder and community engagement Training and education

Our Mission is: To deliver scientifically sound earth science-based research and consulting services that will meet both the client’s requirements and be of a standard that may be reviewed by international peers.

Tel: +27 (0)21 709 6700 Fax: +27 (0)86 685 5725 E-mail: Umvoto Africa (Pty) Ltd. P.O. Box 61, Muizenberg 7950, South Africa

Planning for water Peter Shepherd, principal hydrologist and partner, SRK Consulting


“Too much, too little, or too dirty.” These are the problems that plague South Africa’s water resources. By Danielle Petterson

outh Africa faces three major transferred to and where and how much water water challenges: flooding, is needed is well understood within the DWS, drought, and pollution, explains and there are various plans in place that Peter Shepherd, principal should be implemented to reduce the risk of hydrologist and partner, SRK Consulting. running out of water, explains Shepherd. Drought has been at the forefront recently He argues that South Africa’s dry climate as many towns face has resulted in a great We have a great deal of understanding water shortages and Cape Town nears around water resources team of water Day Zero. resource planners in the and although Cape Drought planning Town in facing a crisis, is one of the most country but we need to its drought planning is important aspects of implement the plans at done in line with the South African water a more urgent pace.” standard of a 1:100 resource management. event. What is currently Much of the planning and implementation of being experienced is a 1:300 drought event. water management lies with the Department Shepherd, therefore, believes Cape Town is of Water and Sanitation (DWS), which is doing fairly well insofar as it has maintained assisted by municipalities in minimising supply to this point. water wastage and understanding growth and demand. This focuses largely on management of surface and groundwater in various catchments, understanding source and demand through surface water, rainfall and groundwater modelling as well as yield analysis. The variability of the climate means drought planning will always be an ongoing process. However, the planning of where water is


IMIESA March 2018

“I still believe that because we are a dry country, our planning of water resources has been good. But implementation of those plans and the continual updating of water resource modelling is paramount,” says Shepherd. “The implementation of water transfer schemes takes a long time, so strong leadership and management of the implementation is required. We have a great team of water resource planners in the country but we need to implement the plans at a more urgent pace than what is happening at the moment. If we do not, we are bound to find ourselves in a situation where water rationing will be more prevalent. There are many places in South Africa where growth could occur if more water was available and we, as South Africans, need growth as much as possible.”


Measure to manage

works up to standard, but we need to do that. We can’t have a situation where we are destroying rivers because we don’t have the money to treat our sewage correctly,” says Shepherd. “The longer we leave it, the more capital we will have to spend to get it back to where we want. It is vitally important and a lot of the DWS budget should be spent to try and rectify the situation.”

With climate change and variability, Shepherd believes South Africa is not collecting enough data on rainfall to look at its potential impact on resources. Many weather stations have closed down and that should change – we need more rainfall stations not less, he says. Similarly, it is vital to know how much water is coming into and being abstracted from all dams and water sources. “All our monitoring facilities need to be upgraded to ensure that we understand the changes,” he stresses. “In South Africa, we do have a very good water resource model but it needs to be Future water resources continuously updated. The more data Dams form the primary source of South Africa’s available, the better the simulations will be.” water, and remain the cheapest Data is mainly collected by the way to collect water. Shepherd DWS and municipalities, but “For too believes dams will continue Shepherd believes it is time to be the primary source of for farmers, mines and long, water has the country’s water supply industries to collect data been cheap going forward, but South that can be reported on. and relatively Africa’s water supply “We really need to work needs to diversify. together as a team,” accessible in the Sustainable abstraction he adds. larger towns.” of groundwater is likely Tackling pollution to become an important Planning aside, it is vital that South contributor, but Shepherd predicts Africa protect its water resources if longthis will become unsustainable in the next term water security is to be achieved. When 100 years and South Africa may have to it comes to the “too dirty”, South Africa’s look outside its borders. There are several poorly performing wastewater treatment works large rivers to the north and although this is pose a serious concern, as untreated effluent a lengthy distance, it may be a sustainable damages the ecology of dams and rivers as option to boost water supply. Desalination well as downstream water resources. also has potential, and although the price is “It is going to take a lot of money, planning currently prohibitive, it will likely be required and implementation to get those sewage in most if not all coastal towns in the future.

Agriculture, which accounts for approximately 60% of water use in South Africa, will have to adopt better methods of irrigation, such as drip irrigation, which can reduce water consumption by 30%


Driving down demand “For too long, water has been cheap and relatively accessible in the larger towns. The growth of our population and changes in demands in the urban environment mean we need to spend more effort understanding where we can reduce demand,” says Shepherd. Agriculture, which accounts for approximately 60% of water use in South Africa, will have to adopt better methods of irrigation, such as drip irrigation, which can reduce water consumption by 30%. Similarly, industries like mines are working to minimise the water they use by better utilising what they have on-site and reducing losses from tailings dams via seepage and evaporation. South Africa also urgently needs to address its bleeding reticulation infrastructure, where unnecessary water losses can add up to 30%. Positively, many people have realised the importance of reducing water consumption to ensure access to water for all citizens. “There has been a big attitude change and there are a lot of technologies available to minimise the amount of water used and I think this will only improve going forward,” concludes Shepherd.


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The Luganda Trunk Sewer Project

Pipe bridge piers under construction

In 2015, Bosch Projects was appointed as one of four consultants for the design and construction supervision of water and sanitation infrastructure for human settlements within the eThekwini Municipality. This was for the third phase of this accelerated service delivery project.


osch Projects had also been involved in previous project phases and was instrumental in the installation of over 200 communal ablution facilities across eThekwini. This contributed to the water and sanitation mandate to provide basic services to over 300 informal settlements ser ving more than a million people

Gravity sewer pipeline and manhole

across the city. The provision of ablution services meets the immediate needs of the community, while the ensuing sewer and water infrastructure will service future formal housing projects. Central to the works in Phase 3 is the Luganda Trunk Sewer Project. This is a significant bulk sewer project that services the informal settlements of Luganda/

Pipe bridge piers under construction

Intake, Demat, Progress Place and Katshi areas, and integrates with the city’s plan to centralise wastewater treatment. The goal is to create an essential link of the upstream catchments to the existing uMlazi trunk sewer main for processing at the Southern Wastewater Treatment Works. This catalytic project includes the construction of a 900 mm diameter concrete CAC-lined pipe measuring approximately 4 500 m in length; three dual-purpose pipe/pedestrian bridges, with crossings over the uMlazi River of 225 m, 200 m and 150 m, respectively; and the inclusion of eight reinforced concrete drop structures – a first for eThekwini – to induce a hydraulic jump under supercritical flow conditions. The construction contracts (11 work packages between 9 contractors) commenced in September 2016 and are expected to be completed in June 2018 at a construction value of approximately R140 million. eThekwini Municipality has taken the lead in prioritising socio-economic development for the community using labour-intensive construction methods and encouraging the use of local labour and suppliers. With a strong emphasis on skills development, Bosch Projects was allocated two development design consultants, in a mentorship role, to accelerate training and knowledge sharing in the areas of business development, project management, and design and construction supervision across the project cycle, while their teams collectively execute the project.

Gravity sewer pipeline with bedding

IMIESA March 2018



A first in water mapping For the first time, South Africa’s water resource managers will have access to country-wide, real-time data pertaining to monthly surface water resources. The tool is ideally suited for non-mapping experts due to its simplicity of use.


zanzi Amanzi, or Water South Africa, is an online water monitoring tool developed by GeoTerraImage that offers national wall-to-wall coverage of all surface water features. Using cloud-based satellite image data archives, combined with big data processing capabilities, the company has been able to generate spatially detailed information on the extent of all surface water features, from small farm dams to large impoundments, on a monthly basis. As South Africa faces increasing pressure on its water resources, the provision of these regular, high-cadence, detailed surface water resource maps will support accurate and timeous monitoring of the status of local, regional and national water resources. Jason Hallowes, director of DHI South Africa, adds that the Department of Water and Sanitation currently monitors approximately 200 dams, while at least 3 000 dams require regular monitoring. Mzanzi Amanzi offers a tool to easily manage this large number of assets at a low cost and circumvents the need to install monitoring equipment at dams across the country. There is also an opportunity to extend the website’s coverage across the Southern African region in the near future, should there be sufficient user interest, which could provide vital

information for cross-border water management within a significant portion of SADC.

Satellite mapping “Mzanzi Amanzi was born out of GeoTerraImage’s landscape mapping expertise and capabilities, made possible by the technological advances of cloud-based processing and free satellite imagery,” explains Mark Thompson, director, GeoTerraImage. To develop the website, GeoTerraImage used freely available imagery from the European Space Agency’s two Sentinel-2 satellites. A new image is taken every five days and used to create a composite image for a calendar month, showing the combined extent of water recorded for that period. The website is updated with new information within the first five days of every month, providing up-to-date data on any water body larger than 20 m x 20 m. Users can view the current month’s total surface water area in comparison to the preceding month. The forthcoming website update (due in March 2018) will increase this to several individual months’ comparison and a comparison to a long-term maximum. Through a user subscription, the reporting is provided at quaternary catchment level, with information available as both spatially enabled, GIS-compatible, digital data map coverages, and tabulated spreadsheets. Non-subscribers will still be able to view the website; however,



IMIESA March 2018

Mark Thompson, director, GeoTerraImage

they are limited to what they can download in terms of data. GeoTerraImage has partnered with DHI/ EkoSource, who specialise in hydrological research. They are developing algorithms that will allow it to convert the surface water areas shown on Mzanzi Amanzi into water volumes. Hallowes says this will take up to six months to complete, but will provide critical information for future website releases.

Innovative subscription method Mzanzi Amanzi is a public domain website. A subscription option is available for those who would like to download and access the surface water monthly coverages in a GIS-compatible format and the tabulated monthly water statistics for their own specific use. However, any data accessed under subscription automatically becomes publicly accessible. In this way, larger organisations can provide access to this valuable data to smaller organisations and the public. “This is the first time a country has been able to show live, monthly water surface resources, and we expect it to be a world leader,” says Thompson.


Going underground Endemic droughts are placing the Southern African region under threat and it is the SADC Groundwater Management Institute’s responsibility to find sustainable alternatives. Aquifers are part of the solution.


he Southern African Development Community (SADC) is heavily reliant on groundwater resources, with an estimated 70% of the region’s population dependant on this resource for basic water supplies. Moving into the future, population growth, climate change and the need to combat growing food insecurity are aggravating this situation, which is being compounded by increasing aridity and dwindling surface water resources. A study undertaken in 2011 revealed that 12 of the 15 SADC countries are directly and periodically affected by drought events. With so much demand placed on groundwater, SADC needed an institute to carry the groundwater mandate in the region. To that end, the SADC Groundwater Management Institute (SADC-GMI), a subsidiary structure of the SADC Secretariat, was set up as the Centre of Excellence. SADCGMI’s role is to promote sustainable groundwater management and providing solutions via the creation of an enabling policy, legal and regulatory environment. Other focus areas include capacity building, advancing research, supporting infrastructure development, and enabling dialogue and accessibility to groundwater information. In pursuit of its mandate, SADC-GMI is currently rolling out a series of key projects that support the sustainable development of groundwater resources in the region.

officially commenced on 15 September 2017. The project focuses on capacity building and training at ministerial, departmental and agency level, and is being implemented by the International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC) from the Netherlands and the Institute for Groundwater Studies (IGS) in South Africa on behalf of SADC-GMI. As part of the implementation, the IGRAC/IGS project team was required to visit each SADC country and obtain an overview of the full chain of data and information relevant for groundwater governance (including groundwater development, use, protection, management, policy development and implementation). The project team commenced with country visits in November 2017 and has managed to visit 10 countries thus far (Botswana, the DRC, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe). Using semi-structured interviews, the team was able to discover the different dynamics of data collection and management that exist in each Member State. The results of this first round of visits will be communicated through a report, which will be published on the SADC-GMI website in the near future. The data collected through the project will also be uploaded and shared on the SADC-GMI Information Portal at

SADC-Groundwater DataCoM

Engaging young professionals

‘The Capacity Building on Groundwater Data Collection and Management in SADC Member States’ (SADC-Groundwater DataCoM) initiative

The project implemented by IGRAC and IGS also includes the engagement of two young professionals from each SADC Member State.

This SADC-GMI initiative addresses the capacity gaps that exist within the groundwater fraternity in the region through internships on data collection and management.

Groundwater infrastructure development SADC-GMI is also currently assisting Member States in the implementation of small-level pilot groundwater infrastructure projects. This initiative is backed by a US$2.2 million World Bank subgrant scheme. Between November 2017 and March 2018, SADC-GMI embarked on a regional campaign to explain the modalities of the sub-grant scheme, encourage member participation, and provide guidance on the identification of qualifying pilot projects. To date, five proposals for pilot projects have been received and are undergoing the necessary screening processes prior to approval and implementation.

Transboundary cooperation It is estimated that there are around 30 transboundary aquifers in the SADC region; however, so far, the hydrological yields of at least 25 of these sites have not been studied. SADC-GMI plans to address this by replicating the lessons and best practices learnt during two key transboundary projects – namely the Ramotswa aquifer, shared between Botswana and South Africa, and the Stampriet aquifer, which covers a wide area stretching from Central Namibia into Western Botswana and South Africa’s Northern Cape. All of these aquifers have the potential to be primary water sources for economic and social development. In collaboration with other key players in the sector, including Member States, SADC-GMI will continue to advance the groundwater agenda in the region.

For more information on the activities of SADC-GMI, visit


When it comes to durability and return on investment, plastic pipelines have an impressive track record worldwide, and SAPPMA argues that they should be the preferred choice for municipal water supply. The City of Cape Town supports this view.

Pipes that outlast the rest


outh Africa is currently in the grips of the worst drought in a century, with five of the countr y’s provinces already declared drought disaster areas. The Western, Nor thern and Eastern Cape provinces, together with Limpopo, are the areas facing the most serious lack of water, with the Mother City counting down to the predicted Day Zero when the taps run dry. While El Niño and climate change are contributing factors, the Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA) says that inadequate and ageing water infrastructure has exacerbated the problem. “We started to sound the first alarm bells as early as 2010,” says Jan Venter, chairman of SAPPMA, a nonprofit association that represents more than 80% of the plastic pipes produced


IMIESA March 2018

in South Africa. Venter confirms that the impacts of the severe drought could have been negated had the calls for water infrastructure improvements been heeded earlier by the authorities. “Pipelines lie at the heart of South Africa’s infrastructure and must be replaced before they fail. Water distribution, waste disposal, irrigation and telecommunications all rely on pipelines to function,” he continues. Most of South Africa’s pipeline installations were installed in the early 1950s and 60s and were manufactured from cement, asbestos or steel. Since these pipes were designed with a maximum economic lifespan of 50 years in mind, most have long since corroded and disintegrated. “This became evident many years ago as we started seeing an increase in water leaks and disrupted water supplies around the countr y. Millions of litres of treated water are being lost ever y year,” he says.

Municipal water investments Towards the end of 2017, the City of Cape Town announced plans to spend R8 billion on its water infrastructure over the next 10 years. The city invested R1.2 billion on water engineering, refurbishment and replacement infrastructure during the 2015/16 period. “Intensive planning has already taken place to allow for the scale (and cost) of new and upgraded infrastructure, as well as a number of projects to avert the drought situation. These include desalination plants, groundwater extraction and treated effluent reuse,” comments Anic Smit, head: Planning, Design and Projects for the City of Cape Town’s Reticulation Branch. Over the past 12 months alone, at least R500 million has been spent on replacing ageing infrastructure, repairing burst pipes and expanding pipelines in and around the









Jan Venter, chairman, SAPPMA



“Cape Town’s water shortage will undoubtedly affect the rest of the countr y’s economy and the way we look at our water resources in the future,” he asserts. “It’s important that we all work closely together to get out of this crisis and prevent a repeat scenario in the years to come. “Areas elsewhere in the countr y where water and rainfall are still in abundance should learn from the Western Cape’s lessons and ensure that they have upgraded their water infrastructure with HDPE and PVC pipes bearing the SAPPMA mark. Investing in replacing old and failing pipes today will allow us to save enough purified water to significantly reduce the impact and long-term effects of the below-average rainfall, which we are expecting to become the new normal. “Consumers, engineers and other decisionmakers must empower themselves with knowledge and information on the benefits of using plastic pipes versus other materials,” Venter concludes.


Investing in replacing old and failing pipes today will allow us to save enough purified water to significantly reduce the impact and long-term effects of the belowaverage rainfall.”

Future outlook


“We prefer using plastic pipes and pipe fittings for our city’s infrastructure because international studies have proven that these pipes last in excess of 100 years. In this regard, we follow the example of international metropoles, such as London and Sydney, where HDPE pipes are being used to replace old infrastructure,” Smit continues. “When manufactured correctly to international standards, these pipes are cheaper, quicker and easier to install; they do not rust; the joints are leak-proof (if installed correctly) and have lower failure rates than pipes made from alternative materials.” For this reason, the city insists that all HDPE and PVC pressure pipes being installed bear the SAPPMA mark. “We have revised our tender requirements and



Plastic pipes vs other materials

specifications to include SAPPMA as an additional quality-reassurance measure. In addition, we are also insisting that all bends on HDPE pipes comply with SANS 6269 and that pipe installers have valid IFPA certificates.” In addition to durability, HDPE and PVC pipes also offer low frictional resistance. Their hydraulic properties remain virtually unchanged over their useful life, resulting in lower energy use and pumping costs. “Because they are also available in a range of sizes and pressure ratings, are lightweight and easy to handle and to join, it is little wonder that they are the preferred material for modern infrastructure,” Venter points out.


Mother City. “We have installed more than 40 km of HDPE pipes by pipe-cracking and open-trench methods,” says Smit. “In many cases, we have opted for trenchless pipeline methods to fix burst pipes for both water and sewer mains as part of the City of Cape Town’s pipeline replacement initiatives. This reduces the overall project time and proves less disruptive and inconvenient for local residents and road users. Plus, it allows us to replace long lengths of pipe without digging long trenches.” The city also supports the Department of Water and Sanitation’s ‘War on Leaks’ campaign, whereby national government aims to reduce municipal water losses from 35% to 15%. Currently, losses are estimated at R7.2 billion annually due to leaking pipes.




ENTRIES CATEGORIES To recognise outstanding achievements in municipal infrastructure, we are calling for entries that showcase projects which demonstrate the best of civil engineering as a science and how engineering enhances the lives of the local communities, through excellence in: planning and design construction methods innovation and originality meeting social and technical challenges contributing to the wellbeing of communities

1. ENGINEERING EXCELLENCE IN STRUCTURES & CIVILS E.g. Projects demonstrating engineering science, use of alternate materials, innovative construction processes, etc 2. COMMUNITY UPLIFTMENT & JOB CREATION E.g. Projects demonstrating labour intensive construction, skills development, community awareness/participation, etc 3. ENVIRONMENT & CLIMATE CHANGE E.g. Environmental rehabilitation, renewable energy, drought solutions, coastal initiatives for rising sea levels, pollution control, educational/technical initiatives, etc


Only projects that have reached practical or substantive completion by 30 June 2018 will be accepted for the Excellence Awards. Adjudicators reserve the right to reallocate entries in the 3 categories.


ENTRY FORMS AND AWARD CRITERIA are available for download: QUESTIONS Debbie Anderson – IMESA – 031 266 3263


Pipes, Pumps & Valves

Water-loss savings in pipelines New technologies from Ultra Control Valves provide proven results for utilities.


ith water scarcity facing users worldwide, water utilities should be proactive in ensuring that pipe leaks are reduced and kept to an absolute minimum. One of the ‘fast return’ innovations that has been implemented by some municipalities and water boards is pressure management. This entails reducing pressures in networks during low-demand periods (to reduce losses from leaks). The process involves electronic equipment connected to pilot-operated pressure reducing valves (POPRVs), which ‘reset’ pressures to different levels for different flow rates. The problem with this strategy in the South African context is that POPRVs are complicated and poorly understood (or maintained) by operators. The addition of electronic controllers makes these valves even more complicated and less user-friendly.

Ratioreducing pressurereducing valves (RRPRVs)

Simple and effective alternative Ultra Control Valves has entered the market with some very new and simple innovations, which are starting to capture the imagination of users as tremendous water-saving devices. “These valves reduce pressures in a ratio (2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1) and have no adjustments that can easily be tampered with,” explains Peter Telle, head, Ultra Control Valves. “They are also much easier to apply in the field, as they do not have delayed reaction times, low-flow instability or vulnerability to dirt: just a simple piston activated by line pressure, which will always keep the ratio between inlet and outlet pressure at a constant value.” Telle says that, with POPRVs, one has to be very careful that the valve is sized correctly to handle low flows, or install valves in series to overcome cavitation damage, all increasing the complexity of the installation and increasing the chances of malfunction. In a lot of POPRV installations, valves become unstable at low flows (at night), causing pipe breaks and leading to huge water losses, exactly the opposite result to what the valve is intended for. The installation of ratio-reducing pressure-reducing valves (RRPRVs) is a lot simpler and does not require much engineering or maintenance – truly, an African solution to keeping pressures low without the accompanying complexities. Ultra Control Valves also represents Australian valve specialist Maric, whose valves control flow in a very simple manner. Since its development, this innovative product has been used to control flow in many applications over the past 40 years. “This valve is completely tamperproof and absolutely ideal for African conditions, where simplicity and robustness are key and maintenance is seldom done,” Telle points out. In the right applications, such as consumer end-points like taps, showers, and standpipes in rural water areas, this valve will ensure tremendous water consumption savings, as is the case for all water supply networks. By placing Maric flow controllers in strategic positions, flows are limited to what is the norm for such a network. If this causes pressure drops to the extent where users complain, it indicates that consumption is too high due to pipe leaks, which then need to be repaired. The above products provide pressure and flow control with absolute simplicity, which plays an important role in ensuring correct operation. The end result is huge savings in water losses.

Maric flow-control valves IMIESA March 2018


The value of



nergy costs are often the second highest in a water utility’s operating budget, with up to 80% of the expenditure in this area consumed by pumps during treatment and distribution tasks. For this reason, correct pump selection and control, plus optimal refurbishment timing, are essential to improve efficiencies.

Pump per formance assessment is an exact science, and flow meter measurement is just one element of the equation, says testing and monitoring specialist TAS Online.


IMIESA March 2018

With this in mind, accurate measurements are necessary to determine the condition of a pump and the impact it has on energy consumption, maintenance, scheduled overhauls and potential pump failure. Traditionally, hydraulic measurements are taken on-site to determine pump efficiency using installed flow meters. This is where the problem starts at water distribution sites. These pump stations were designed with an installed flow meter in mind only: typically, pipes disappear into the wall and one flow meter is installed in a manhole outside the pump station. “In this scenario, when a pump testing technician arrives to test the pumps, there are insufficient pipe lengths to use the portable flow meter accurately,” comments Greg Adcock from TAS Online. “In our typical example, the technician attaches his flow meter anyway or decides to use the values on the uncalibrated installed flow meter. A few weeks later, the report is used as the basis to spend millions on pump refurbishments.” It’s clear that an improved method of pumpefficiency measurement must be adopted so that water boards and municipalities can make the correct decisions based on reliable data. The answer is thermodynamic

technology, which has been widely adopted by leading utilities in the UK, USA and Australia, and is now being introduced in South Africa. In thermodynamic pump testing, only the rise of water temperature and pressure across the individual pump is measured in order to calculate pump efficiency. Advances in Australia, by Robertson Technology, in the design and manufacture of stable and repeatable temperature probes, which measure temperature within 1 mK (0.001oC), have resulted in this technology making the required advances. As a result, thermodynamics is now accepted as the most accurate method for on-site pump efficiency and flow measurement. The equation used to calculate pump efficiency is: Ƞ = EH / EM Where EH is the hydraulic energy and EM is the mechanical energy per unit mass of liquid. EH = dp / ρ and EM = a x dp + CP x dt Where dp and dt are the differential pressure and temperature, ρ is density, a is the isothermal coefficient, and CP is specific heat capacity of the fluid. “The accuracy of thermodynamic testing improves with increased head, the limit of effectiveness being 10 m head. Previously,

Pipes, Pumps & Valves

these levels of accuracy were only available on test beds,” Adcock continues. Once pump efficiency and head are known, motor power can be measured and the pump equation used to calculate the flow. Thus, individual pump flow is measured without the need for a flow meter.

pumps and are thus indicative of actual operating conditions. This is also useful in pump stations where multiple pumps are constantly required and cannot be switched off for individual pump testing. • The more accurately the pump efficiency can be measured, the more accurate the determination of potential energy savings and payback periods for remedial work or pump replacement will be. • Vertical wet well pumps can be tested. • Costly test bed pump tests are replaced by accurate on-site testing where pumps are run at full speed. • Where hydraulic measurements are used, thermodynamics can verify accuracy. • Rapid corrosion of pumps in desalination plants, due to the very pure water, can be identified with cost-effective continuous monitoring on each pump.

Benefits In water distribution, the application of thermodynamic pump testing carries many benefits; • The measurements are performed on individual pumps as they operate with other

Performance and energy cost monitoring TAS Online’s TAS PumpMonitor system transmits pump performance data off-site and generates monthly reports on pump

condition, energy consumption and costsaving interventions. “Integrating Robertson thermodynamic technology with TAS PumpMonitor results in accurate pump data being displayed on the pump curves locally and remotely, and allows for the appropriate storage and reporting on the data,” explains Adcock. The pump performance and flow data continuously obtained through the thermodynamic system allows for the generation of actual pump curves within the software. Combining these accurate pump curves with the system curve allows for intelligent pump control to reduce energy consumption. In systems with variable-speed-driven pumps, the speed of each individual pump is controlled so that they run at best efficiency at the head required, and the sum of the flows is the total flow required. In chambers where multiple fixed-speed pumps are used, the system selects the pumps to run based on flow demand, thus limiting pipeline friction and energy cost continuously.

Super duplex APE Pumps:

crafting stainless masterpieces Advances in metallurgy now make it possible for pump manufacturers to devise precision designs that last a lifetime and don’t compromise on performance. Stainless steel is one of these evolving materials.


inimising costs and maximising productivity are the primary objectives of APE Pumps’ research and development (R&D) philosophy, with purpose-designed and custom-developed solutions ensuring a perfect match for each downstream application. “Within the infrastructure market and alongside conventional water and wastewater treatment plants, an area where we’re placing renewed focus is the desalination market,” explains Richard Harper, project manager, APE Pumps. “Cape Town is the current focus area, but the need extends up and down Southern Africa’s arid coastal regions, plus into the interior where brackish water can also be treated to potable standards. Recognising that these are hostile environments for pump systems, we’ve invested extensively in R&D studies to ensure we field products with extended durability.”

Multistage vs split-case pumps • Multistage high-pressure pumps are ideally suited for fluid transfer applications that exhibit low volumes but high pressure, the perfect application for mine dewatering solutions. • Split-case pumps are best for higher volumes with lower pressures, with enhanced maintenance accessibility and reduced downtime for the client/ end user.


IMIESA March 2018

Stainless experience

At the Gansbaai abalone farm, five old cast iron A recent long-term case study at an abalone units were replaced with APE’s LN type splitfarm in Gansbaai, on the Cape south coast, case super duplex stainless steel horizontal serves as a prime example. “Seawater is one centrifugal pumps, each with a capacity of 1 of the most corrosive fluids to transfer and 250 m3/h to draw seawater under negative suction head from the intake gully. Successful prior to the installation of our super duplex trials led to an order for a further two super stainless steel split-case pumps in 2014, the duplex pumps, after supplying four pumpsets exisiting conventional high-chromium white from the original purchase order. iron pumps weren’t even lasting four months,” These pumps transfer seawater to holding he continues. tanks. From there, the Cast iron and aluminium pumps seawater is then fed by often suffer from corrosion and/ gravity through the farm or cavitation as a result of high before flowing back alkalinity or high acidity. In such into the sea. instances, a pump’s reliability, APE Pumps fields more The main pump efficiency and performance than 250 products on its systems for the farm are affected, especially the sales catalogue, including were manufactured pump’s power consumption, 500 000 engineering and imported by which substantially increases drawings in APE Pumps’ holding its lifetime running costs. 3D format company, WPIL Limited, “Studies have shown, for example, which is based in India. Final that just 0.001 mm of clearance assembly and commissioning were inaccuracy on a pump system results in an carried out locally by APE Pumps and sister approximate 1% efficiency reduction,” Harper company Mather+Platt. points out.

Pipes, Pumps & Valves

Milestone super duplex WPIL installations

Unique properties As well as being extremely resistant to pitting, the inherent properties of duplex stainless steel also virtually rule out the risk of stress corrosion cracking. There are eight progressive grades, 5A and 6A being the two highest. Working with its South African and other international subsidiary companies, WPIL has designed and supplied super duplex vertical turbine and mixed-flow pumps for major corporates worldwide. Sectors include water utilities, petrochemical plants, marine dry docks and industrial installations.

“Another key advantage of split-case pumps is that they are practically maintenance free. When maintenance is required, the process normally requires the unbolting and removal of the top housing. Repairs can then be carried out in situ,” adds Harper. APE Pumps and its group of companies field more than 250 products in their sales catalogue including 500 000 engineering drawings in 3D format via Inventor and Vault, indicative of their understanding and effective penetration of this complex market.

The following are some recent international examples: • Chemanol, Saudi Arabia: seawater circulation for industrial cooling. Three pumps delivering 4 000 m3/h at 51.9 m head driven by 800 kW motors. • Jubail Chemicals, Saudi Arabia: seawater circulation for cooling. Three pumps suitable for 6 500 m3/h at 42.5 m head driven by 1 030 kW motors. • Modec, Brazil: FPSO application. This seawater lift pump design underwent rigorous testing at the WPIL factory prior to shipment. Four pumps were supplied to meet 1 400 m3/h at 98 m head duty. • Gemak shipyard, Turkey: TGE dry dock No.1. Seawater discharge pumps. Four pumps suitable for 7 600 m3/h at 11.10 m head driven by 315 kW motors. “Always use OEM parts made to the original design drawings, since buying cheap can end up being very costly, with reduced efficiency and performance, and higher maintenance costs for the client or end user,” Harper concludes.

APE Pumps - Pumps at the heart of Africa Mining Institutions

Water Processing Utilities

Manufacturers of: Vertical industrial turbine pumps Multi-stage high pressure pumps Split casing pumps End suction pumps

Power Generation Authorities

Petrochemical Industries

Vertical sump pumps API 610 pumps

26 Nagington Road, Wadeville Germiston 1400, South Africa Tel +27 11 824 4810 | Fax +27 11 824 2770 PO Box 14733, Wadeville 1422, South Africa Email: Website:

Leaders in pump innovation


Past experience, locally and globally, proves that ground anchor solutions are a safe and effective response for increasing a dam’s capacity, and the relatively short construction timeframe for the raising of the wall is a major boon for drought-stricken regions. By Kieresh Singh and Professor Dhiren Allopi


outh Africa is facing a water shortage crisis that has led to the implementation of restrictions across many parts of the country, including KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape. The latter are some of the most severely affected drought regions. For example, the City of Cape Town has placed Level 6B restrictions on its citizens in order to prevent its dams from drying out completely. The South African government is searching for ways of increasing the volume of its stored water and the way it’s presently supplied to its citizens. Currently, South Africa stores 70% of its run-off water in dams, which is a large percentage, and indicates that most major catchment areas across the country have already been identified. However, we are one


IMIESA March 2018

Rise of the dams

of the 30 driest countries in the world, and with high water demands from a growing economy and population, this water storage capacity could be used up quickly. Given this scenario, building new water retaining structures such as dams may not be the fastest and mosteffective solution to the crisis at hand. Many existing dam structures in South Africa were built in the early 1900s and are inspected by the Department of Water and Sanitation’s Dam Safety Office on a regular basis. These inspections ensure that the dams are performing and conforming to the requirements of dam safety. The stipulations have become more stringent in recent years. This means that dams that do not meet the requirements will have to be thoroughly assessed and modified if required. In South Africa and other countries around the world, one of the safe modification options for structures is the raising of the dam wall to increase its storage capacity, subsequently extending its lifespan.

Rock anchor response A prime example in meeting modern upgrade requirements is to increase the dam’s resistance to overturning and sliding by installing post-tensioned rock anchors. Installing anchors will also allow the dam owner to increase the height of the dam wall. This may be one of the quickest long-term solutions

Hazelmere Dam, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

to the drought experienced, as building new walls would take many years to construct due to planning and the lack of suitable locations. Over the years in South Africa, many dams have been fitted with ground anchors, the first being Steenbras Dam in 1952 to 1954. Other early local dams that received anchors in order to raise the wall heights and stabilise them were the Henley Dam for the Pietermaritzburg Municipality (raised by 5.5 m), Groot Doornpoort Dam for the Witbank Municipality (raised by 4 m), Lower Compies Dam for the Zebediela Citrus Estate (raised by 1.5 m), Plat River Dam for the Warmbaths Municipality

About the authors Kieresh Singh from Group Five Coastal (Civil Engineering Division) is an engineer employed on the Hazelmere Dam raising project and currently registered on a master’s programme at the Durban University of Technology. Professor Dhiren Allopi from the Durban University of Technology’s Civil Engineering Department is Singh’s master’s supervisor.


The raising of dam walls could provide added relief to the water shortages in the country. However, it is important to note that not all dams can be raised. In this specific situation, the increased water storage could result in new water lines and many built-up areas around the dam being affected. Therefore, feasibility and cost studies need to be done to assess dams that can be raised to ensure that this can be done without compromising the safety and the livelihood of surrounding areas.

History of the Hazelmere Dam The dam was built in 1975, with provisions to increase reservoir storage capacity in the future. The initial design provided provisions for radial sluice gates. The need for the increase came about after drought conditions were forecast in various regions of South Africa. However, after inspection and analysis of the existing structure, it was concluded that the dam would not be able to resist the forces of the planned new water level and storage, which was planned to increase from 18 000 million cubic metres to 36 000 million cubic metres. In order for the wall to resist overturning and sliding forces, the design engineers decided to install post-tensioned ground anchors, which allowed the dam to be raised and the capacity-increase goal reached. The dam is currently being raised by 7 m and has been retrofitted with the current highest-capacity anchors in the world (91 strand – 14 802 kN), resulting in a doubling of the storage capacity. However, regardless of the many initiatives by government, it is still up to the people of this beautiful country to ensure that we save as much of this precious natural resource as we can. Engineering innovation can only do so much. (raised by 2 m) and the Amanzimtoti Dam in KwaZulu-Natal. These anchors can lower the centre of gravity of the wall below the underside of the structure, which increases the dam’s resistance to overturning and sliding forces. Ground anchors have proven to be a quicker and cost-efficient way of increasing dam capacities. However, as with everything, there are advantages and disadvantages, especially with complex systems such as these. One of the major advantages is that the costs are relatively low compared to building new dams and it is relatively fast to construct and install, depending on the location and type of dam. The disadvantages are that these anchors require a lot of supervision to ensure that they are not compromised in any way during and post construction. South Africa does not have many engineering professionals that are experienced in retrofitting large rock anchors into dams. Therefore, specialists still need to be brought in from other countries. But that’s a great learning experience. Another disadvantage is that the construction industry has become extremely fast-paced due to the smaller profit margins during the tender stage and the ensuing focus on shorter project durations. Despite this, contractors need to ensure that works are completed at the highest level of quality.

Correct installation is critical It is of the utmost importance that quality control measures are taken during the construction phase and that proper records are kept to ensure the lifespan of the anchors. There have been cases where dam anchors have failed in the past years due to poor workmanship and quality control on-site. It is essential that the projects are supervised by experienced professionals at every step and that the anchors are inspected and monitored in the following years.

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Roads & Bridges

Novel arch bridge for Ashton Ashton’s new bridge deck begins to take shape


cheduled for completion in early 2019, extensive works are under way to reconstruct parts of Trunk Road 31 sections 2 and 3 (TR31/2 and 3) from Ashton to Montagu, including the approximately 6.5 km Cogmanskloof Pass along the route, which interconnects these two Western Cape towns. About 7 000 vehicles travel through Ashton, and 3 600 through the Cogmanskloof Pass and Montagu on a daily basis.



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TR31/2, a single carriageway with gravel shoulders, was constructed in 1877 and surfaced in 1931. The last resurfacing was completed in 1985 and sections now show marked deterioration. In addition, the geometric alignment needs to be adjusted in a few places to enhance safety. Flood control interventions are one of the requirements. The Ashton-Montagu region and Cogmanskloof Pass, in particular, have experienced substantial flood damage on a number of occasions, most notably in 2003. The river bridge in Ashton is also being upgraded to cater for future growth in traffic volumes and to counter the current structure’s tendency to be overtopped during large flood events. Factors include a very skew river crossing, plus the fact that the existing multispan arch-shaped bridge deck and pier configuration is hydraulically inefficient and, therefore, needs to be improved to accommodate design flood events. Several options were considered. A key consideration was the need to allow unrestricted flow in the main watercourse opening, and also to enhance the available free-board of the bridge crossing. The final design adopted was a single-span concrete tied-arch bridge, with a deck suspended by stay cables, which accommodates four traffic lanes and two walkways. This will span the full 110 m width of the river, eliminating the possibility of debris build-up. Michael Bouwmeester, African lead: Highway and Bridges, AECOM, says that a tied-arch bridge type is particularly well suited for span lengths within this range. An important client requirement is that the road remains open during construction of the new bridge. Therefore, it was proposed to construct the new bridge adjacent to the existing one so that normal traffic flow is maintained. After the completion of the new bridge, it will be utilised as a temporary bypass, while the existing structure is demolished and the new abutments are being built. Following this, the new tied-arch bridge will be launched transversely into its final position.

Cape Town

Tel: 021 914 6700 Fax: 021 914 6687


IMIESA March 2018

Geogrid stabilisation works


ying approximately 93 km north-west of Polokwane is the small town of Senwabarwana, whose internal road network, comprising mostly unpaved gravel sections, was recently upgraded using an innovative geogrid product. Working with a limited budget, Nyeleti Consulting approached Kaytech, a leading geosynthetics and geotextile specialist, for a cost-effective solution that would allow for the utilisation of the in situ G6-G7 material and the employment of unskilled labour wherever possible. After considering the original design specifications, Kaytech decided that Tensar TriAx TX160 geogrid would tick all the boxes. The rigid polypropylene triangular geometry of TriAx provides near-uniform radial


stiffness through 360 degrees. Compared to biaxial geogrids, TriAx’s design also reduces the aggregate thickness required. The works were carried out by contractor ML Phadima Construction. Since the contractor had no prior experience using geotextiles, Kaytech provided training on the correct method of rolling out and overlapping the TriAx geogrid, as well as how to end-tip the granular fill material. In total, 7 200 m2 of TriAx was installed. This was a highly successful project in which the use of only TriAx was sufficient to mechanically stabilise the in-situ aggregate and provide a sub-base without using cement or imported material. That greatly expedited the entire project and resulted in massive savings for the Blouberg Local Municipality.

Correct installation techniques included the overlapping of the geogrid materials

New routes with AAE This year’s bauma CONEXPO AFRICA serves as a great opportunity for Associated Asphalt Equipment to showcase its expanding range of leading OEM products.


he recent appointment of Associated Asphalt Equipment (AAE) as the South African dealer for Spanish original equipment manufacturer (OEM) Intrame further refines AAE’s offering to the regional road infrastructure sector. Headquartered in Madrid, Intrame is a global leader in the design and fabrication of batch and continuous asphalt plants. The products AAE distributes and support are world class and, alongside Intrame, the company is proud to represent the following OEMs, namely Roadtec, Romanelli and LeeBoy. In addition to LeeBoy’s ear thmoving range, another key LeeBoy brand is LeeBoy-Rosco. LeeBoy is a

ABOVE Romanelli’s UHR 700 slurry paver BELOW Johannesburg Roads Agency’s new Intrame RM200 hot mix batch plant is designed to cater for 40% recycled asphalt mixes and has a 200 tph output capacity

VT Systems company with factories in the USA, Brazil and India. In turn, Roadtec is a USA-based manufacturer, while Romanelli is headquartered in Brazil. “Our strategy is twofold: we are focused on supplying and supporting emerging road contractors in South Africa with affordable equipment solutions, alongside more premium-priced products aimed at top-tier construction companies,” explains Reyan

Fortune, technical advisor, AAE. “However, in this price-sensitive market, every contractor is looking for the best value, without compromising on quality, and AAE’s solutions deliver the results.”

Made in Brazil for the world, Romanelli is a dominant player within South America and is broadening its reach internationally. The key products distributed locally comprise: the UHR 700 and UHR 900 slurry  pavers with 9 m3 and 18 m3 capacities, respectively, designed for microsurfacing using modified emulsions EHR 600 and EHR 700 bitumen distributors

The first Intrame plant sold in South Africa was acquired by the Johannesburg Roads Agency (JRA) and will be commissioned

in March 2018. AAE provided a turnkey solution, which included the civils and building component for the site establishment and erection of an Intrame RM200 hot mix batch plant designed to cater for 40% recycled asphalt mixes. AAE installed the RM200 as part of a two plant solution for the JRA. The second unit is a Romanelli UPMR cold mix plant. The scope of works included the installation of separate storage tanks for each plant. “Asphalt plants are a core area of specialisation within AAE and we’re particularly excited about this project as it opens the door to other opportunities both locally and cross-border,” says technical advisor Reyan Fortune. “Towards the end of 2018, we also intend to introduce Intrame mobile continuous plants with 40% RA capability, which will help to further expand the Intrame footprint.”

Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment the UPMR 40/60 cold mix plant the EHR 15 crumb rubber bitumen  distributor, which is specially designed to meet the increasing demands for new paving techniques on rubber-modified asphalt. “Alongside the high level of interest in the UPMR plant, we believe there’s a major opportunity for Romanelli to gain traction in the microsurfacing market given the emphasis being placed by roads departments on routine maintenance interventions,” he continues.

Roadtec is one of the world’s best known road construction equipment brands, with AAE supplying the full range locally. The product classes comprise materials transfer vehicles (MTVs), road recyclers and milling machines. There’s a model to meet every contractor requirement. The current machine population in South Africa stands at around 39 units and one of the more popular models currently is the Tier III SB-2500ex Shuttle Buggy MTV. Designed to store and transfer hot mix asphalt from a truck to a paver for continuous paving, the SB-2500ex features a patented anti-segregation auger. This remixes materials just before they are delivered to the paver. High output is assured thanks to the machine’s 25 t surge capacity. At the top end of the recycler range is the SX-8ex, which is a high-performance machine ideally suited to national and provincial road projects. Four cutting speeds and right-hand flush cut allow operators to deploy the machine in a diverse range of applications, from stabilising to pulverising and cold recycling. Bestselling Roadtec milling units include the RX600 and RX900 within the OEM’s six model line-up. Outside South Africa, Roadtec supplied a RX600 milling machine to an Italian multinational contractor working on road rehabilitation projects in Zambia. Another recent

LeeBoy’s 995 motor grader

order is for a Roadtec cold-in-place recycling train placed by the Egyptian government.

For the South African and African markets, the LeeBoy range provides a comprehensive suite of earthmoving, paving Roadtec’s RX-600ex is a 503 kW cold planer cutting and allied solutions. to depths of 330 mm and widths of 2.18 cm “LeeBoy has been a recognised earthmoving brand in the USA for decades, and is a market leader in presently dominates in North America where India. However, it’s not a name that is familiar it enjoys an approximately 65% market share. in South Africa, so we are taking a progressive “Designed for smaller works, as well as the approach locally, with niche products identified paving of one-lane road widths, we believe this from the extensive LeeBoy line-up,” Fortune is a perfect machine for emerging contractors,” explains. he asserts. Other small kit examples include These include the LeeBoy 699 backhoe the 2 t LeeBoy 420D mini pneumatic roller, loader, the latest generation 24 t 525 hydraulic perfect for smaller jobs and when working in excavator and various motor graders, including confined areas. the 15.5 t LeeBoy 985. “Each one of our brands has been carefully The local range will be joined by new models selected and is backed by a comprehensive following their unveiling at EXCON 2017 in after-sales suppor t strategy. We currently Bangalore, India, during December. These have ser vice dealers based in all main include the 990 and 995 graders. centres nationally, and during 2018, we Also officially launched at EXCON was the will be complementing this by setting up 27.8 t LeeBoy 528-D crawler drill rig, and Fortune new AAE dealerships. The road ahead is says that demand is already outstripping supply exciting and, at AAE, we pride ourselves on from the factory. being the home of innovative technologies,” Within Southern Africa, a major order has Fortune concludes. already been placed for 10 units by a mining operation in Mozambique. The Rosco broom and chip spreader range is also proving popular due to its durability. A top seller, the LeeBoy RB50 features a rolloverprotection bar, which is designed to fold down for ease of transportation. AAE is also bullish about the LeeBoy paver series. The baseline 1000G mini paver

The Rosco RB50 broom is a top seller

IMIESA March 2018


Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment

Experience with public fleets Managing a fleet is a specialist function that, if done well, delivers the intended operational benefits. But without a professional focus, this can be one of the largest financial drains for any enterprise. By Nigel Webb


y recent experience on client projects has again highlighted the priorities in managing a mixed public sector fleet. So many of the challenges resulting in unnecessar y and high costs are related to the structure and age of these fleets, the lack of funds to implement sound replacement policies, management structures and personnel, plus the absence of tools such as IT. Perhaps the single biggest challenge is the fleet structure. Inefficient fleets cost money in terms of downtime due to major mechanical repair, accidents and out-of-service vehicles. Excessive downtime (i.e. poor utilisation) results in a greater than necessary fleet size and the associated direct costs. The causes of downtime are many, but perhaps the most prominent is administration. In an environment where bureaucracy and controls dominate, minor repairs and the purchase of spares can take days and even weeks to authorise, while vehicles stand idle awaiting administrative go-ahead. This process is further delayed by late payment to suppliers. Sometimes, for major repairs, budgeted funds have to be moved between cost centres, causing even greater delays, and there are several extreme cases on record. The age and mix of vehicles adds further difficulties as parts and/or tools are often not available and personnel skills are in short supply. In-house workshops are often not viable because of the fleet mix, low volumes, lack


IMIESA March 2018

of modern tools and equipment, and yet the public sector retains them because of staff retention and the belief that outsourced work is expensive. Efficiency is not costed into this reasoning.

Leasing pitfalls The limited availability of vehicle funding is often overcome by using external funds from leasing companies. The preferred method is an operating lease, which utilises a residual value in its rental calculation. It does reduce the monthly rental cost, but is based on strict time, kilometre and condition requirements. The lessor carries the risk of resale value and places great importance on condition and usage. Public sector fleets do not always give these strict requirements their due attention. Contracts and usage overrun, services are missed and condition is not at the required levels. The end result: significant penalty costs, which are avoidable. Private organisations managing similarly sized fleets utilise relatively inexpensive fleet management software that manages the full asset management, operating cost and personnel requirements of a fleet. Total vehicle costs are typically R100 000 per vehicle per annum, which is significant, underscoring the need for the right systems and people to be in place. Within the public sector, however, these fleet systems are either not available or underutilised. Therefore, asset management with public sector fleets is generally poor.

Nigel Webb, head, Latitude Fleet Services

Government audits frequently record unfound vehicles, wrecks and out of service vehicles. Fuel is an ever-increasing cost (45% to 50% of operating costs), which requires detailed analysis and effective management control. Tools to achieve this are seldom utilised.

Solutions There are solutions to the needs of public sector fleets, such as the development and utilisation of a skilled team of fleet managers. These specialists then have the tools and authority to manage the right sizing of fleets on a daily basis in terms of quantity and vehicle type, and to dispose of out-of-service or underutilised vehicles. The abandonment of in-house workshops and the use of outsourced ser vices is another recommendation, with the caveat that administrative controls are not neglected, strict cost controls are applied, and current personnel are accommodated. Competent professional suppliers are available to assist public sector fleets. However, they do require a strong fleet management inter face within municipal and allied governmental entities to achieve mutual objectives. Vehicle fleets are vital for public sector service delivery, so investing in the right people and systems is well worth the effort.

Design applications

that excel

One of the key success factors of the Wirtgen Group’s products is that they are never adaptations based on existing models. Every machine has a dedicated research and development (R&D) focus, which, in most cases, makes each one a class leader in South Africa and globally. By Alastair Currie


uring 2018, the Wirtgen Group will continue to build on its well-established presence in the construction segment, with an allied expansion into the mining and mineral processing sectors. The group continues to expand its brand offering, which currently encompasses the Wirtgen, Vögele, Hamm, Kleemann, Benninghoven and Ciber ranges. “The tough market conditions experienced in recent years, locally and internationally, have placed even greater emphasis on the need for construction plant that provides the best machine application match, and lowest cost per tonne productivity,” explains Waylon Kukard, sales manager, Wirtgen Group South Africa. The Wirtgen Group’s strength lies in its extensive model range, which is a distinctive characteristic of all its products. For example, the milling line starts at 350 mm and goes up to 3 m with a comprehensive series of incrementally sized machines slotting in-between. No other market player can compete on this level. “Some of these milling units can also be adapted with a flexible cutter system so that you can use one machine, yet have three different milling widths by interchanging the drums,” he continues. “This serves as another example of the Wirtgen Group’s design flexibility.”

The Ciber iNOVA 2000

is being unveiled at bauma Conexpo Africa in March 2018. Manufactured by Ciber in Brazil, this mobile plant has two interconnecting units that form the asphalt process chain. An industry first, these units are designed to directly hitch with a truck tractor for on-road towing

Paver series When it comes to paving, the Vögele brand is widely regarded as the benchmark globally and a common sight on national road projects. The Vögele machine categories fall into the Mini, Compact, Universal, Highway and Special classes. At the lower end of the scale, Super 700 machines in the Mini class are typically employed on smaller works like patchwork repairs and cycle lanes, while the Compact class caters for paving widths up to 4.5 m. Designed for large-scale production tasks, Universal class pavers go up to a width of about 10 m, with the Highway series ranging from 7.75 m to 16 m. The Special class includes the 1800-3 SprayJet, 2100-3 IP Binder Course Inline paver and the MT3000-2 PowerFeeders. For the Southern African market, Vögele machines are imported with high specifications levels, so minimal addons are required and these pavers can immediately handle 95% of the project

Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment

A Wirtgen KMA 200 cold recycling mixing plant in operation in Cape Town

requirements. Options include additional levelling systems, like 3D positioning. Universal models are among the best sellers locally and include the 1603, 1803 and 1800. The first two are three-axle wheeled units and the third is a tracked machine. “The Sanral specification is very specific on rideability and, here, Vögele delivers the results,” says Kukard. All Vögele elements are designed and manufactured in-house. These include the

OEM’s control and levelling systems specifically designed for paving. “We don’t try to adapt, but purpose build,” he emphasises.

426F2 210mmby148POINT5mm.pdf

10:14 AM



Rollers and automation When it comes to compaction, the Wirtgen Group has over 200 different Hamm machine configurations. The main units sold are the Hamm HD75 (8 t) and HD90 (9 t) tandem rollers.

These units can be equipped with either VV (vibration, front and rear) or VO (vibration on the front, and oscillation on the rear). VO is a unique Hamm technology, which has been on the market for over 35 years. K (vibration on the front, and tyres on the rear) is another option. On the compaction front, Hamm has developed a 3625 VC 25 t soil compactor, which is an industry first. VC stands for ‘vibratory crusher’. The application works in a similar fashion to conventional recyclers, but is far more robust and works well for a broad range of tasks that include the reconstruction of concrete roads and the comminution of G5 aggregates. “Construction is an exact science and so too is product development at the Wirtgen Group. For both mature and emerging contractors, we have training programmes in place to maximise utilisation. It’s all about optimising efficiencies and the future is constantly and rapidly evolving. “For example, our R&D programmes are already at an advanced stage when it comes to the automation of compaction machines, probably not a product for Africa at this stage, but yet another example of Wirtgen Group innovation,” Kukard concludes.





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Transport, Logistics, Vehicles & Equipment

New products offer

boost for Bell


ell will showcase its new range of Kobelco excavators and the Dakar Rally-winning Kamaz range of heavy-duty tipper trucks at bauma Conexpo Africa in March. The Kobelco range of excavators, from 5.5 t to 85 t, was added to the Bell stable in mid-2017 and has been extremely well accepted by the Bell customer base, reports Mark Hughes, sales and marketing director, Bell Equipment Sales South Africa. “Japan-based Kobelco is widely recognised as a global excavator specialist and through this partnership, we are able to offer competitively priced and per fectly matched loading tools for our range of ar ticulated dump trucks (ADTs) in the

Bell Equipment expects its two newly added product ranges to draw interest as they build on the company’s holistic offering. construction, quarr ying, mining and forestr y industries,” he says. Additionally, the introduction of the Kamaz trucks at the end of 2017 has given Bell a presence in the Southern African tipper truck market for the first time, to further expand the company’s one-stop-shop offering to customers in the region. Established in 1969, Kamaz manufactures out of Naberezhnye Chelny in Russia and today accounts for half the trucks sold in that country. It is represented in 80 countries around the world. The first phase of the Kamaz introduction consists of four models, which are available in left- or right-hand-drive

configurations. The models include two 6x4 trucks with payloads of 15 t and 20 t, a 6x6 truck with a payload of 19.5 t, and an 8x4 truck with a payload of 25.5 t. Alongside the Kobelco and Kamaz products, Bell will also exhibit an extensive range of its own manufactured products, including ADTs and tractor loader backhoes, as well as displaying machines from long-standing partners Deere, Bomag and Finlay. “We expect both of these new partners and product ranges to generate a considerable amount of interest, as they bring quality and competitive machine solutions to our local market, and are all backed by the most extensive support network in Southern Africa,” concludes Hughes.

IMIESA March 2018
















WATER-WISE CLAY BRICK EXTRUSION Photograph courtesy of Worcester Brick

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■ lowest electricity use ■ maximum fire ratings ■ superior thermal & noise insulation ■ tough, safe & strong ■ beautiful & versatile ■ low VOCs & emissions ■ superb investment ■ low maintenance Learn more about clay brick at

Building Systems

Which walling is best? The University of Pretoria recently released the results of its thermal performance study, which assessed operational energy use of structures built with six different walling materials. Clay brick came out on top.


hen selecting materials, developers and architects of green buildings take into account the embodied energy of their raw materials. While this is an excellent start, in reality, energy use over the life of the building dwarfs energy used during production. Operational energy use is an expensive, long-term cost for the property owner and a drain on South Africa’s limited resources. Therefore, ethical housing developers should look beyond cost-cutting during construction to take into account the long-term expense of operation and maintenance, particularly in the case of affordable housing.

Study methodology The design models applied during the University of Pretoria study were used in prior research by the CSIR and the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs. Best-practice construction methods were assumed, as required by SANS 10400-XA: Energy usage in building and SANS204: Energy efficiency in buildings.

for every million bricks

Annual Energy Usage – 130 m2 house by region

Building with an insulated cavity wall rather than a solid wall, reduces the use phase climate impact by

30% Since size and use influence thermal performance, three different building types were analysed: • a large 2 000 m2 commercial building, unoccupied at night and on weekends • a middle-income residential home of 130 m2 • a low-income home of 40 m2 (with heating fuelled by coal or paraffin). Variables such as floor, roof, windows, doors and occupancy patterns were kept constant.

Climate zones South Africa has six major climate zones and energy use varies depending on the geographic location. Warm climate zones use more airconditioning and ventilation, cold climate zones require heating, while high-rainfall areas need to deal with humidity and condensation. Lighting requirements also have seasonal variations. Temperatures and other parameters used in the study are acknowledged averages for that zone. The measurements were based on the

residents living in reasonable thermal comfort, which is between 19°C and 25°C.

Wall types Six wall types were analysed: • double (internal and external) clay brick solid wall (nominally 220 mm thick, plastered) • double clay brick cavity wall with air cavity (nominally 270 mm thick with an uninsulated 50 mm air cavity) • insulated double clay brick wall (nominally 280 mm thick, with 30 mm extruded polystyrene insulation in the 50 mm cavity) • 140 mm hollow core concrete block (150 mm thick with a single external layer of plaster, and bagged internally) • light steel frame, externally clad with 9 mm fibre cement board to SANS 517 (nominally 145 mm thick with 0.2 mm polymer vapour membrane, 20 mm orientated strand board and 0.8 mm steel studs; the internal wall comprised 15 mm gypsum board with 75/100 mm fibre sound insulation) • timber frame to SANS 10082 clad with

Technical contributors Professor Piet Vosloo, University of Pretoria Professor Dieter Holm, University of Pretoria Neels van Rooyen, University of Pretoria Greg Rice, University of Pretoria Howard Harris, SP Energy

IMIESA March 2018


Building Systems

energy saving using clay brick relative to other typical building materials external ship-lapped tiles or weatherboard (nominally 145 mm thick with 20 mm orientated strand board and internal cladding of 15 mm gypsum plasterboard). A wall lifespan of 40 years was estimated; however, not all the walling types have been shown to have this lifespan. In the USA, the lifespan is assumed at 32 years, influenced by the use of timber frame and lightweight construction systems in the American housing market.

sizes): thermally insulated 280 mm clay brick cavity walling - non-residential building (climate zone 1): 140 mm hollow concrete block walling - non-residential building (climate zones 2-6): 220 mm solid clay brick walling. Worst (highest) energy use - Residential buildings (all climate zones, all sizes): 140 mm hollow concrete block walling - non-residential building (climate zone 1): timber frame walling - non-residential building (climate zones 2-6): light steel frame walling. The low-density walling systems (timber and steel frame) show a trend towards higher annual energy use even when they have low U-values. High-density walling systems (clay brick) consistently result in lower annual energy use even without additional insulation.

Analysis of the results


The results showing the variation of heating and cooling energy modelled for the three building typologies can be summarised as follows: Best (lowest) energy use - Residential buildings (all climate zones, all

“Members of the Clay Brick Association of Southern Africa (CBA) are pleased to see that the study corroborates existing national and international research for clay brick products,” says Nico Mienie, technical director, CBA .

0861 KEMACH (536 224)

South Africa’s six climatic zones Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6

Cold (interior) Temperate (interior) Hot (interior) Temperate (coastal) Subtropical (coastal) Arid (interior)

“This research verified that any of the three clay brick walling formats provide property owners and residents with the lowest energy usage and, hence, greatest thermal comfort. “This also demonstrates the critical role played by thermal insulation in residential buildings. Perhaps it is time that South African building regulations relook at the thermal resistance and heat bridging requirements of SANS 517 and SANS 10082.” In the meantime, and thanks to this study, architects and public and private sector developers will be able to make more informed decisions about future walling specifications. “This will protect South Africa’s environment and give rise to high-performance structures that reduce our reliance on electricity,” he concludes.

Environmental Engineering

Ways to outflank rivers


abions, in their many forms, such as baskets and mattresses, and their sausage and allied configurations, have been with us for centuries, and for good reason. They remain one of the most successful intervention and prevention measures to counter factors like erosion. They also perform exceptionally well as retaining systems in a variety of applications, from road embankments to marine coastal protection, rivers and weirs. “A key benefit of gabion installations is the way they blend in with the environment, because an essential ingredient is their natural rock composition, which intentionally lends itself to some level of permeability, in conjunction with geotextiles that are there to counter soil retention loss,” explains Louis Cheyne, managing director of Gabion Baskets and a qualified construction materials specialist. “The alternative is to go the mass concrete route for structures like weirs and irrigation channels. However, this will result in a much higher construction cost since specialist equipment and tradesmen will be required. Gabions, on the other hand, are perfect for labour-intensive applications under the guidance of an experienced consulting engineer and contractor.” In addition to being a manufacturer of gabion systems, Gabion Baskets provides design recommendations and on-site training for installation teams, many of whom are sourced from local communities and have limited initial skills. However, after they’ve completed the training and applied this in practice, Cheyne says that these community members are then well prepared to work on other short-term projects, which could potentially serve as a launching point for SMME subcontractor businesses.

Rivers follow their own course and will challenge any natural or man-made barrier. That’s a top-of-mind consideration for environmental engineers designing gabion structures and a key deliverable for the contractors that build these structures. By Alastair Currie

Wetlands preservation These job-creation oppor tunities were well illustrated recently during the construction of three weirs within an expansive floodplain in the Brakpan area. The works were completed by the contractor for the City of Ekurhuleni. These weirs are between 1 m and 1.5 m high. Two of these structures have a wall length of approximately 12 m, while the third measures 9 m. Their purpose here is, first, to reduce water velocities and ensuing erosion and, second, to

IMIESA March 2018


Environmental Engineering

capture water, thereby minimising its loss within neighbouring wetland zones. Gabion Baskets assisted with a design proposal. “Gabions are never a ‘one-size-fitsall’ solution, so one of the things we always recommend is a pre-site inspection prior to the design stage,” explains Cheyne. “Once on-site, the final design proposal often needs some adaptation as the excavations and establishment of the foundations begins.” With any weir structure, the correct height and length of the wings on the side walls is essential. This ensures that the water is effectively channelled through the centre, or notch zone. “To cater for the hydraulic jump on the downstream side, we always stress the need to include a counter spilling basin that’s slightly higher on the upstream approach. This creates a ponding effect that significantly reduces water velocity,” says Cheyne. The notch zone is always covered with a concrete layer, as is as the first 2 m of the spillway, to prevent damage to the

mesh, which is very important. The concrete layer formed is normally between 75 mm to 100 mm thick. “The wall designs must ensure that the structure extends adequately into the banks by at least 2 m to 3 m,” Cheyne continues. “The last thing you want is the ‘pebble in the river’ effect, where the river ends up outflanking the weir structure and undermining it. To prevent this, contractors need to construct an upstream berm with side notches to control water direction through the centre. Otherwise, the water hits directly against the obstacle, creating turbulence build-up and subsequent soil erosion.”

Best gabion materials When it comes to selecting the materials used to fill gabion baskets or mattresses, non-negotiable rules apply in terms of rock hardness. “It might surprise some readers, but a few years back on a remote rural wetlands project,

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cost-effective flexible funding

I experienced a situation where broken brick discards from a local manufacturer were being included in the rock mix to reduce material costs: definitely not the right approach,” says Cheyne. “Unless fired very hard and blue, which was not the case there, these nonfired and rejected bricks will dissolve in a few weeks. Even sandstone or shale materials are too porous. In all cases, you have to use selected shot rock, such as dolerite or basalt.” In situ river rocks should also never be used: first, because of their rounded shape, which prevents the effective interlock required for gabion designs – i.e. controlled porosity – and, second, because it contravenes environmental legislation. “What these discussions and the abovementioned project illustrate is that gabion designs and their installation are an exact science within the highly innovative field of environmental engineering,” Cheyne concludes.



Brakpan weir project 3

One of the weir structures at an advanced stage of construction. To ensure longer-term integrity, the best approach is to use gabion baskets constructed using Class A galvanised and PVC-coated hexagonal mesh. This offers maximum corrosion resistance


First stage of wall construction: excavation operations in progress. For the weir wall foundation, a geotextile layer is placed on a 90% minimum MOD AASHTO soil-compacted layer, followed by



another geotextile layer above this, on which the ensuing gabion baskets are formed The first layer of gabions resting on a geotextile layer: these baskets will be laced, braced, filled with rock and then closed


The rock material is typically a third of the price of the contract.”

The design for each installation features a first and second counter weir to minimise damage to the gabion mattresses


Failed river wall, Johannesburg Following a spate of heavy rainfall, the foundations of a riverfront property came under threat when a gabion wall installation failed. Gabion Baskets was called in to provide technical advice and a cost-effective intervention solution. No records were available concerning the contractor responsible for the original installation. Upon closer inspection, it was discovered that the original gabion structure did not have a concrete footing/foundation: a reno mattress would not have sufficed in this section of the river due to there being a substantial amount of bedrock. It was also noticed that the bottom gabion layer was made out of welded mesh, which has a much thinner wire diameter than the recommended 3.15 mm specification. On top of this observation, it should be noted that welded mesh is not recommended in any water situation.

Gabion Baskets’ determination was that this river wall failed due to the following reasons: - the absence of a concrete footing/ foundation, which allowed for erosion under the structure, causing it to fall over - an incorrect mesh product applied in a water situation. The following was decided upon to ensure the prevention of a reoccurrence of this failed structure: - the construction of a 500 mm wide and 500 mm deep concrete foundation - the first layer of gabions, being continuously immersed in water, should be rebuilt with Class A galvanised hexagonal woven mesh with a PVC coating, which gives the structure a longer lifespan - this specification should also apply to the remaining gabions forming the normally above-water structure.

IMIESA March 2018







31st October to 2nd November 2018 Boardwalk Hotel


Project & Programme Management

Infrastructural asset management’s

strategic benefits

Industry 4.0 is here and is rapidly shaping the way all future collaborative business interactions are conducted. For leaders in the infrastructure sector, this means that acquiring a project and programme management qualification is an essential skill in interpreting and implementing the constant flow of information. By Professor Pieter Steyn*


rom an operational perspective, all private and government organisations have a duty to protect their infrastructural assets against deterioration. Sadly, this is often neglected. Organisations need to equip themselves with the necessary knowledge and skills to be exercised across the entire life cycle of infrastructural assets. It is expected of leadership and staff members engaged in the management of these assets to be able to distinguish between all facets of strategic infrastructural asset management through all its phases, and to apply

global best practices to the management thereof. As the global economy advances into the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0), with its dependence on sophisticated

Organisations need to equip themselves with the necessary knowledge and skills to be exercised across the entire life cycle of infrastructural assets.�

technologies, this is becoming progressively more important. It is imperative that organisations have a clear understanding of their infrastructural assets, the management thereof and the management systems involved. Moreover, they need to distinguish between infrastructural asset management philosophies and the guiding management systems. Sound infrastructural asset management strategy and planning must be practised at all times. From a quality assurance perspective, adherence to the ISO 55000 standard, which has been condensed into a framework recommended by the Global Forum for Maintenance and Asset Management, is of paramount importance. Infrastructural asset managers must grasp the full meaning of the concept of asset management strategy and planning, which evolves from the idea phase, consolidates all stakeholder requirements, and concludes with specific asset planning guidelines. However, the formulation of an infrastructural asset policy is a strategic responsibility

IMIESA March 2018


GET EDUCATED FOR INDUSTRY 4.0 APPLY WHAT YOU LEARN TODAY IN YOUR CAREER TOMORROW Cranefield's courses are designed to serve organisational leadership, management and governance needs of the Industry 4.0 economy. Learn to achieve value chain performance excellence through programme-managing cross-functional and inter-organisational supply chain and project activities in virtual networks of partners. The mode of delivery is live online technology-enhanced distance learning.

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Project & Programme Management

Master’s in Programme Management (MComPM) – NQF 9 Readers wishing to advance their knowledge and skills in infrastructural asset management can enrol for Cranefield College’s Master’s degree programme, or simply take the subject as a standalone module for non-degree purposes. Visit www. for more details. This is an important step for professionals that want to stay relevant during and beyond Industry 4.0.

that takes precedence over asset management strategy and planning formulation. The underlying infrastructural asset management strategy and objectives give substance to policies, and guide the demand analysis for strategic planning and subsequent asset management planning processes.

Life-cycle best practices Infrastructural asset decision-making includes aspects such as capital investment, operations and maintenance, life-cycle value realisation, resource strategy, as well as shutdowns and outages strategy. Capital investment decision-making is formulated in terms of the infrastructural asset portfolio, condition-based asset management philosophy and life-cycle best practices. Operations and maintenance management are integral parts of the strategic infrastructural asset management decision-making processes. Decision-making with respect to infrastructural asset management is an integrated whole, which contributes significantly to the sequence of new life-cycle asset management processes. A life-cycle process is followed in all forms of infrastructural asset delivery. The process is governed by specific legislation, policies, rules and guidelines that are important to adhere to and comply with. An organisation’s infrastructural asset management system is likely to continually evolve to match its context, organisational objectives and changing infrastructural asset portfolio. The life-cycle delivery process combines several elements related to the philosophy of project and programme management within a total quality management (TQM) change management paradigm. These elements are: technical standards and legislation, asset creation and acquisition, systems engineering, configuration management, maintenance delivery, reliability engineering, asset operations, resource

management, shutdowns and outage management, faults and incident response, and, finally, asset decommissioning and disposal.

Information management processes Infrastructural asset managers must fully appreciate and understand that asset information encompasses all decision-making information regarding the full asset life cycle. This includes the establishment of all information systems and the continuous recording of information to ensure top functionality over the full infrastructural asset life. It is of paramount importance that infrastructural asset management decisions are carefully structured, follow international standards and ensure safe operations at all times. Asset information is often regarded as the asset register. The fundamental impact of high-integrity asset information embedded in the information architecture must be appreciated. Strategic decision-making, as alluded to earlier, cannot be done without specific organisational, industry and international asset information standards. Whole enterprise asset management systems (EAMs) must be fully and seamlessly integrated into the corporate financial system. Elements such as infrastructural asset information strategy, standards, systems, as well as data and information management, are of great importance. The logistics associated with infrastructural asset management in the organisation must be fully understood and appreciated.

Supply chain management implications Moreover, infrastructural asset managers must be able to guide and manage all elements of strategic supply chain management (SCM) and distinguish between the various components governing the creation and maintenance of infrastructural assets. The responsible management component is continuously affected by the dynamics of project and programme management, as guided by infrastructural asset management planning and strategy. It is imperative that managers clearly distinguish between the responsibility of procurement within a specific asset creation/operational activity and management of the supply chain as a

whole. Of importance is to grasp the implications of following TQM leadership principles throughout the infrastructural asset management process, and how organisational structure follows organisational strategy. It is the aim of all organisations to achieve sustainable, continuous growth. For this, they rely heavily on infrastructural asset management that serves all its stakeholders in an increasingly changing Industry 4.0 economic environment. The necessity and impact of change management to ensure sustainable infrastructural asset management in a competitive business environment must not be underestimated. This is especially true in the emerging Industry 4.0 economic dispensation and concomitant risk and uncertainty that lead to accelerated organisational transformation and change. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is characterised by, among others, virtual networks of interorganisational partners, artificial intelligence, the internet of things, integrated information and operations technology, robotics and mass data. The management of risk cannot be separated from any strategic or operational function. It is imperative that proper risk assessment and management is performed and contingency planning and resilience analysis done. Managing change is important to achieve sustainable development, asset performance and health monitoring, asset management systems monitoring, management review audit and assurance, asset costing and evaluation, as well as stakeholder engagement. Organisations must wake up to the reality of all of this. *Professor Pieter Steyn, Pr Eng is the principal of Cranefield College of Project and Programme Management.

IMIESA March 2018



Our future starts now


Establishing a sustainable framework for infrastructure development requires proactive collaboration between public and private sector stakeholders to grow an inclusive economy. That process is also dependent on dedicated project and fiscal management, plus an adherence to codes and standards – areas where consulting engineers play a major role. By Alastair Currie

f fective ethical leadership is one of the key objectives that will spearhead the future direction of Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA) under the leadership of newly appointed president Neresh Pather. “The world of the future can only be changed and facilitated through the leadership of today embracing the true purpose of service to humanity,” says Pather. During Pather’s 2018/19 term in office, CESA will also focus on key objectives that include transformation, the opportunities presented by Industry 4.0, plus the need for public and private sector collaboration on socio-economic issues. Tackling corruption is a top priority.


IMIESA March 2018

Pather’s view is that planned programmes of employment creation, skills development, and improved trade relations with developing African nations, as well as developed countries, should be accelerated. “Within South Africa, we need to encourage the black empowerment principle, not as a means of compliance, but to truly develop African industrialists to grow our economy. As part of our transformation drive, we need to embrace both youth and gender equality so that we ensure the conversation on our future includes all participants. This is the only way we will be able to design a future that is relevant and inclusive,” Pather explains.

There have been marked improvements since 1994, with some 27% of the industry’s 21 900 engineering professionals now represented by individuals from previously disadvantaged communities. With sustained education drives on the careers available in engineering and how the industry functions – predominately lacking in the past for disadvantaged groups – Pather says that new entrants will gain a better understanding and appreciation of the opportunities available. CESA will continue to be a part of this education drive, together with its member firms.

SIPDM Turning to industry developments, the roll-out of the Standard for Infrastructure Procurement and Delivery Management (SIPDM) across all spheres in government has been a positive intervention. CESA has been collaborating with National Treasury by providing training across the public spectrum at national, provincial and municipal level.


On average, South Africa spent 6% of its GDP on infrastructure annually over the last 16 years. This approximately translates to around R300 billion each year. This spending occurs largely through state-owned enterprises, which account for around 45% of infrastructure budget expenditure

CESA CEO Chris Campbell (left) and newly appointed president Neresh Pather

Project failure has been defined globally by Merrow as being a project that overruns its budget by more than 25% and is executed over a time 50% greater than originally intended.” The SIPDM programme was designed to transition the emphasis away from administration and to focus on governance and leadership. This is intended to ensure that infrastructure in government is driven with the correct knowledge and competence. “The end goal is that all state organisations have the required capacity and skills to be compliant with SIPDM, as well as to ensure that non-compliance is addressed in a positive manner for future relations,” Pather explains. “We are, however, concerned that since the announcement and implementation of this procurement system across government, there is no infrastructure directorate at National Treasury that is taking ownership and accountability for the implementation and monitoring of compliance with this standard. “It is also not being driven by specific infrastructure specialists that should be capacitating the Auditor General’s office who are meant to be reviewing this system and its application in all state organisations during the audit process. “The lack of appropriate skills in both these departments needs to be addressed urgently if the value for money consideration of an annual R300 billion spent on infrastructure is to materialise. This failure to act should now be escalated to more senior decisionmakers in government.”

Construction Sector Scorecard Regarding the new Construction Sector Scorecard, Pather says that setting transformation goals and objectives for the industry is the right thing to do and should not be viewed simply as a compliance issue. CESA, through its membership, seeks to set the correct value system within the industry for all companies to abide by. “While we will not adopt an exclusionary stance, we encourage members to lead by example, espousing the values we have set,” he continues.

“The system of ‘set asides’ is one mechanism within our procurement policies and must be used to encourage new entrants and smaller companies to grow. There is a reliance on companies to afford good partnering opportunities to younger companies and, in so doing, effect skills transfer across the industry.” In conclusion, Pather reiterates that CESA is hopeful that the work done to date in the roll-out of SIPDM and the partnership with National Treasury is further accelerated in order to create a paradigm shift for infrastructure in South Africa.

City Development

Uganda’s new industrial city


s a result of the discover y of oil in the region, and the need to maximise value from the resource, the Ugandan government has allocated approximately 3 000 ha of land for an industrial park, which is expected to ser ve as a major catalyst for socio-economic development. Global consulting engineering firm SMEC was engaged by Uganda’s Ministr y of Energy


IMIESA March 2018

and Mineral Development to develop a master plan for the park, located in Kabaale, in the countr y’s western region. This park is expected to form part of a new industrial city encompassing an oil and gas refinery; energy, petrochemical and other strategic industries; an international airport; commercial and administrative areas; health and education facilities; residential neighbourhoods; and an oil and gas export

hub. “The park will have first-class facilities, utilities and advanced security built to the most up-to-date standards and practices,” explains Godfrey Hatejeka, SMEC’s utilities engineer in Uganda. “All this will be centrally controlled with a Scada system.” During construction, the refiner y will create approximately 5 000 jobs, and over 30 000 direct and indirect jobs when fully operational. 

Construction Contracts

Tips for cross-border contracting


he principle of an equitable distribution of project risks between the employer and the contractor, as covered in the JBCC’s SFC, still applies outside South Africa’s borders, but may require more intensive control and management. “Most major South African contractors cannot sur vive on local work alone and are already using JBCC contracts for projects throughout Africa, often working with South African developers and consultants, sometimes in conjunction with a local company in a joint venture,” Putlitz explains. He says, generally, the former British colonies in Africa that are now part of the Commonwealth follow similar legal principles to South Africa and use English as their business language. However, many of these countries place less emphasis on dispute avoidance and thus may not allow for the bouquet of such tools including mediation, adjudication or arbitration in preference to litigation, as contained in the local JBCC SFC.

Remote control Putlitz says that the concept of SFCs has developed internationally over more than a century and the principles of contracting

Building contracts formulated by the Joint Building Contracts Committee (JBCC) are appropiate for use outside South Africa – and there is, in fact, substantial scope for contractors to use the locally produced Standard Form of Contract (SFC) for projects in sub-Saharan countries, says Uwe Putlitz, CEO of the JBCC. are essentially the same, regardless of the country of use. But, depending on the nature and location of a project, the control and management by remote control may require additional collaboration agreements with local consultants and contractors. “To limit queries from authorities or from contractors during construction, the contract documentation may have to be more comprehensive, and possibly evolved with a local respondent to capture available product specifications or construction techniques to facilitate quality management. The interpretation of local building and safety regulations may require, for example, minimum dimensions marginally different compared to South African regulations and this could result in project delays,” Putlitz explains. “A point to consider is whether the building/construction project could be carried out in the conventional manner or if it may be preferable to follow a design-and-build option with a local contractor.”

Uwe Putlitz, CEO, Joint Building Contracts Committee

Feasibility studies Either way, Putlitz says the employer must under take appropriate feasibility studies on the selection and/or purchase of a suitable site and/or existing building(s), and obtain geotechnical information and applicable environmental approvals. The employer must also compile a brief or a detailed schedule of project requirements. And for a conventional project approach, appoint professional consultants to prepare designs in accordance with the project brief. The consultants may, on

IMIESA March 2018


Construction Contracts

the employer’s behalf, apply for statutory approval from the local authority, including town planning and building plan approvals. Or, for example, in a design-and-build option, the contractors’ consultants may complete tender documentation as part of the procurement process. The employer and the contractor also need to ensure that they understand their respective contractual obligations. Assuming the technical performance criteria are dealt with, the financial and other administrative criteria must then be identified and managed. For example, what currency is applicable? How are rates of exchange and export or import of capital dealt with, and what local consumption or other statutory taxes apply? What about profits? Are they to be repatriated to South Africa? And what are the tax implications? Then there’s the insurance aspect and how this will be dealt with. “If based in South Africa, the insurer may require a higher premium, depending on the assessment of the local risk. For example, no local

equivalent of the South African ‘Strike-RiotCivil Commotion’ insurance may be available in some African countries, which will significantly change the employer’s risk profile – and insurance premiums,” says Putlitz. “It is important that all design documentation and statutor y compliance cer tificates are filed safely so that they can be retrieved easily and correctly, and shared with members of the project team. During the construction process, all members of the project team must comply with the administrative requirements of the SFC – this includes all notices, minutes of site meetings, contract instructions, etc., as well as compliance certificates, as various trades are commissioned before such service or equipment can be used. The employer must apply for an occupation certificate from the local authority before the completed building may be occupied. Occupation without such a certificate is illegal and any damage will not be covered by insurance,” Putlitz concludes.

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Integrated Delivery Models

Closing Africa’s infrastructure gaps Establishing local business entities in Africa, supported by a country-specific talent management strategy, minimises AECOM’s reliance on expats and, in the process, builds sustainable platforms for market penetration and growth in the megaproject arena.


esign, build, finance and operate (DBFO) is AECOM’s global strategy project delivery. Within the African context, opportunities for fully fledged DBFO projects are still thin on the ground, but are gaining traction. “We can’t necessarily bring the financing, operations, or building side to bear on all projects. However, we are engaged in very deliberate partnering with select contractors and financiers. That is the way things are going in Africa, with clients increasingly looking for both a project kick-start in terms of available financing and a ‘one-stop shop’ for infrastructure delivery,” explains Darrin Green, managing director: Civil Infrastructure, AECOM Africa. “The major advantage for clients is that it centralises risk and delivery, as well as allows for a single point of contact and responsibility.” Within South Africa, Green says that the appetite for DBFO-type initiatives is growing alongside public-private partnership

(PPP) models. Typical PPP projects that have been successful include those in the e-toll road sector, where there has been a sustained and guaranteed return on investment. “In other sectors, like water supply, wastewater and energy, I believe that there’s definite scope for the privatisation of certain elements within a DBFO framework, or a DBFO-PPP hybrid arrangement that includes final transfer of ownership to the client,” Green explains.

Faster project delivery “One of the major benefits of DBFOs is that project implementation tends to happen faster, risks are managed more effectively and innovation comes to the fore. Cape Town’s water crisis, for instance, is a good example of how the private

One of AECOM’s biggest projects is the construction supervision of the US$1.5 billion Tema Port Expansion Project in Ghana

Darrin Green, managing director: Civil Infrastructure, AECOM Africa

sector can play a critical role, in this case with the installation of desalination plants at short notice that operate on a DBFO basis.” Green says that PPPs have traditionally been seen as the panacea for providing ‘instant infrastructure’. However, historically, a significant constraint across the continent has been the challenging regulator y and legal frameworks. “Additionally, poor project preparation and unrealistic expectations from the public sector have failed to make a clear business case for investors. So up until now, very few PPP or DBFO projects in Africa have reached a bankable stage, but I believe there’s a new level of maturity emerging as governments across the continent continue to invest their

IMIESA March 2018


Integrated Delivery Models

resources into enabling attractive legal and regulatory frameworks,” Green explains.

rest will comprise core skills we will need to import,” Green explains. High-level management is being carried out from South Africa.

Tema port expansion Within Africa, one of the biggest projects that AECOM is currently undertaking using the integrated delivery model approach is the construction supervision of the US$1.5 billion Tema Port Expansion Project in Ghana for Meridian Port Services, the operator of the container terminal. Here, AECOM is providing design and procurement management services prior to the awarding of construction contracts, following which it will be supervising the actual construction. The project commenced at the beginning of October 2016, with completion anticipated by Q4 2019. “At its peak, we will have 70 people on-site, of which 55 will be Ghanaians. The

Itare dam Another flagship project for AECOM in Africa is the Itare Dam in Kenya for the Rift Valley Water Services Board (RVWS), which will have a capacity of 100 000 m3/day. The project is currently still in the design phase. AECOM is partnering with Italian contractor CMC, with which it has a long-standing relationship, as well as assisting with Italian export financing in order to implement the project. Green says that the extensive backlog in civil infrastructure across Africa presents significant opportunities for AECOM. “We have a defined focus for Africa, looking at specific countries, projects, sectors, and risk profiles. In addition, we focus on the more complex projects, where we think we can make a big difference,” he explains. East Africa is a growth area, particularly Kenya and Uganda, while proximal countries like Botswana, Namibia, and Mozambique, present their own opportunities. “We are also seeing quite a bit of growth in West

Africa, in places like the Ivory Coast, Ghana, and Senegal,” Green notes. The biggest need is for the establishment of basic infrastructure in key sectors that include power generation and supply, water and wastewater, and sanitation. “Secondary opportunities will flow from increasing urbanisation. Bulk infrastructure in terms of transportation, be it road, rail, or aviation, also presents opportunities for mega projects,” Green highlights. AECOM’s total service offering runs the gamut from architecture to engineering, including civil, structural, mechanical, electrical, plumbing and fire, as well as cost control and project management. “I don’t believe there’s another business in Africa offering all of that. It’s a fully integrated service offering, which differentiates us from most of our competitors,” he expands. Another key differentiator for AECOM is its progressive approach towards Africa. “The main design centre is still in South Africa, where the bulk of our resources are, but our model is to move out into Africa and be on the ground. That does not preclude partnering with local businesses, even in those countries where we have established entities,” Green concludes.

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Cement & Concrete

Benefits of

precast In its precast form, concrete provides tremendous design flexibility. By Bryan Perrie


Bryan Perrie, managing director, The Concrete Institute

oncrete is an incredibly versatile material that can be designed and proportioned to meet an exceptionally wide range of requirements. These may include various properties of fresh concrete such as consistence, flow, setting times, as well as hardened properties such as varying strengths at early or late ages, different types of strength, densities, abrasion resistance and shrinkage. Concrete structures offer a huge amount of flexibility in the ways and methods in which they can be constructed. Concrete can be constructed in situ using various transport and placing mechanisms. It can be transported from the batch plant to the structure under construction in any number of ways, including via wheelbarrows, dumpers, trucks, conveyors, cranes, and pumps. It can also be placed by cranes and pumps, tremies (for under water construction), trunks, and spraying, to name just a few means of placement. Self-compacting concrete offers further flexibility in placing concrete and the achievement of excellent off-shutter finishes. Concrete has an advantage over other materials in that its elements (walls, columns, beams, trusses, and slabs) can be constructed in situ on-site, or precast on-site on the ground and lifted into their final position (tilt-up and stack casting), or precast in a precast yard and transported to site and erected into position as a hybrid of precast and in situ concrete. Concrete has an additional benefit in that all the above options can be combined on one project. This may mean that some elements are constructed in situ, while others may be precast on- or off-site.

Fabrication technique Precast concrete is a construction product created by casting concrete in a reusable mould or form, which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the site and lifted in place, as opposed to standard concrete, which is poured into site-specific forms and cured on-site. By producing precast concrete in a controlled environment, such as in a precast yard, it

IMIESA March 2018


Cement & Concrete

is possible to monitor all stages of production, including adequate curing. This ensures that products fully comply with strength requirements. The precast yard may be an established factor y or erected on-site. Precast concrete is generally cast at ground level, which helps with safety and productivity throughout a project. There is greater control of the quality of materials and workmanship in a precast plant, invariably leading to enhanced durability with consequent savings in maintenance costs, inconvenience, materials and energy. The forms used in a precast plant may be reused hundreds to thousands of times before having to be replaced. This ensures that the cost of formwork is lower than for in situ construction. Often, if the structure has been appropriately designed, precast products can be removed and reused after the structure has reached the end of its life.

Product versatility There are many different types of precast concrete products. Precast architectural panels are used to clad all or part of a building

faรงade. Stormwater drainage, water and sewage reticulations make use of precast concrete units such as pipes, culverts, manholes, sumps and tunnels. Precast building components are used architecturally as cladding, trim products, accessories and cur tain walls. Structural applications of precast concrete include bricks, blocks, foundations, beams, floors, walls and other similar components. Precast concrete products are used in the construction, safety and site protection of various transportation systems including culverts, bridge beams and segments, railway sleepers, sound walls or barriers, safety barriers and kerbs. A significant amount of precast concrete was used in the construction of Gautrain and the 2010 FIFA World Cup stadiums. Although precast manufacturing does not in itself save resources, better control over the production phase ensures less non-compliant products and commensurate raw materials savings, as well as speeding up construction

Precast architectural panels are used to clad all or part of a building faรงade

on-site. Well-sited, highly sophisticated precast yards manufacture concrete products to very high tolerances, with subsequent time savings on-site. Good examples of this include the plants that produced the precast concrete tunnel and bridge segments for the Gautrain infrastructure.

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Imiesa March 2018  
Imiesa March 2018