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Winne of the 2011 PICA Winner Non-professional writer of the year Non-p

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa




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IMESA Supporting water services

Buffalo City


Water supply scheme

Decision dilemma

want to be recognised as a world class Michael Gibbon, CE, Bosch Holdings “We engineering and operations group” ISSN 0257 1978 Volume 37 No.3 • March 2012 • R40.00 (incl VAT)

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15 33 49 53 Water footprint

Managing M anaging pollution

Winne of the 2011 PICA Winner Non-professional writer of the year Non-p

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

Water 9 Our next greatest challenge 13 International innovation


Government perspective 14 The Municipal Infrastructure Support Agency

Industry perspective 15 Making a water footprint


Hot seat 16 Key appointments for

Key to road project

Bosch Holdings IMESA Supporting water services

Buffalo City


Water supply scheme

Decision dilemma

want to be recognised as a world class Michael Gibbon, CE, Bosch Holdings “We engineering and operations group”

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ISSN 0257 1978 Volume 37 No.3 • March 2012 • R40.00 (incl VAT)

Multi-disciplinary contractor, Edwin Construction, is playing a key role in expanding South Africa’s road network as it presses ahead on strategically important projects in the Limpopo and Free State provinces.

Regulars 3 Editor’s comment 5 President’s comment

Insight 19 Making the right decisions

Water sustainability 26 Know your water footprint 27 Water scheme for rural area 31 Water resource planning

Water and wastewater

79 Supporting improved water services

33 43 45 46

Cover article

Mine water

6 Covering the full road construction

49 A complete approach to water


value chain

Water supply



in n tthe

Mine water

Managing water pollution Ground water resources AMD technology Sustained decrease in water use


Buffalo City 53 Water for the people 56 Rehabilitation of national route 57 Drainage structures improved

Profile 59 Complete waste solutions

Panel discussion 61 63 65 67 69 71 72 74 77 78

Water and wastewater management Conrad Pilger: SEW Eurodrive Lepelle Northern Water Oliver Ive: Amanz’ Abantu Pierre Marais: Water and Wastewater Engineering Brian Abbott: Festo Martin Overy: Water Purification Chemicals and Plant Chris Ndela: Msunduzi Municipality Ralph Heath: Golder Associates Chris Jansen van Vuuren: Quality Laboratory Services

Safety 81 Open to interpretation 83 Improving awareness 85 Concrete solutions for structural problems

Products and services 87 89 91 92

An alternative to grey parts Questionable quality Quick hydraulics Still pumping




Do municipalities spend enough of their budgets?

PUBLISHER Elizabeth Shorten EDITOR Richard Jansen van Vuuren CREATIVE CHIEF EXECUTIVE Frédérick Danton SENIOR DESIGNER Hayley Moore Mendelow SUB-EDITOR Patience Gumbo CONTRIBUTORS Yunus Carrim, Debbie Besseling, Candice Landie, Tony Stone, Nicole Nel, Abdulla Parker, Peter Silbernagel, Helen Seyler, Rowena Hay, William Moraka, Jay Bhagwan, Grant Mackintosh, Frank Stevens, Kevin Wanliss PRODUCTION MANAGER Antois-Leigh Botma PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jaqueline Modise FINANCIAL MANAGER Andrew Lobban (ACIS, FCIBM) ADMINISTRATION Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTION SALES Nomsa Masina PRINTERS United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________


RAVIN GORDHAN has approved and budgeted for infrastructure plans amounting to a total value of R845 billion over a medium-term expenditure framework period – up to 2015. While this is an impressive amount, it’s not an unfamiliar one. This number has been bandied about for a few years and frustratingly not much of it is appearing through awarded work. The Budget Review 2012 document states that R3.2 trillion worth of large-scale projects are under consideration or in progress. The deputy minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs, Yunus Carrim recently reiterated that government is under pressure to accelerate service delivery – a task only possible if municipal infrastructure is expanded. However, it is estimated that South African municipalities did not spend about 14% of their R9.9 billion municipal infrastructure grant budget during the last financial year. The Municipal Infrastructure Support Agency (MISA) is being established to help municipalities address capacity challenges that are holding them back. The agency will assist municipalities to fulfil their functions, especially in respect of municipal infrastructure and service provision, and municipalities will have a significant role in making MISA work. This will make the current financial year an extremely interesting one – will the national structures create an enabling environment for local governments? As this is a water-themed edition of IMIESA, we are publishing the best paper presented at the 75th IMESA Conference. The paper examines the City of Cape Town’s extensive network of rivers and wetlands, and the quality of water within them. In recent years these watercourses have been negatively impacted by pollution. Poor water quality poses a significant threat to human health… so what is being done? Find out on page 33. Our featured municipality

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PUBLISHER: MEDIA No. 4, 5th Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail: ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R480.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2012. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS IMESA Administration Officer: Ingrid Botton P O Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: Website: BORDER BRANCH Secretary: Melanie Matroos Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2401 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 E-mail: EAST CAPE BRANCH Elsabé Koen Tel: +27 (0)41 505 8005 Fax: +27 (0)41 581 2300 E-mail: KWAZULU-NATAL BRANCH Secretary: Rita Zaayman Tel: +27(0)31 311 6382 NORTHERN PROVINCE BRANCH Secretary: Cornel Taljaard Tel: +27 (0)82 899 8341 Fax: +27 (0)11 675 1324 E-mail: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO BRANCH Secretary: Henrietta Oliver Tel: +27(0)79 390 7536 Fax: 086 536 3725 E-mail: WESTERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Erica van Jaarsveld Tel: +27 (0)21 938 8455 Fax: +27 (0)21 938 8457 E-mail: FREE STATE AND NORTHERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27(0)83 457 4362 Fax: 086 628 0468 E-mail: REST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA Representative: Andre Muller E-mail:

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.

PICA the 2011 of the year Winne of Winner nal writer Non-p Non-professio

Instit ute Africa ern zine of the al maga eerin g of South The offici cipal Engin of Muni

Winne of the 2011 PICA Winner Non-p Non-professional writer of the year

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

this month is Buffalo City. Again, in keeping with our water theme for this edition, we report on the Ncera Water Supply Scheme. The scheme extends from Needs Camp to Kayser’s Beach. The existing bulk main supplies 11 reservoirs. Gauteng road users have been rapped over the knuckles for their attitude towards the tolling of major routes in the province, which is set to begin in April. Despite the firm-handed approach taken by government and various authorities, it seems naive to imagine the last chapter to a seamless tolling system has been written. Perhaps protesters in the Western Cape have a more credible way of showing their displeasure? Several protesters have handcuffed themselves to scaffolding on the construction site of a toll booth on scenic Chapman's Peak drive. Many people have embarked on hunger strikes against the R54 million toll plaza. The general public of Cape Town has shown overwhelming support for the protest actions. Perhaps outraged Gauteng road users would have a more sympathetic ear if the white metal gantries spanning the highways of the province happened to be in a United Nations World Heritage Site as is the Chapman’s Park plaza.








Richard Jansen van Vuuren, editor of IMIESA


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I each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the In ffront of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front ccover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the ccover story on pages and maximum exposure. For more information on ccover bookings contact Jenny Miller on tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223.

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ISSN 0257 1978 Volume 37 No.3 • March 2012 • R40.00 (incl VAT)



Reflections An

journey through time

We take this opportunity to invite you to purchase this collectors item:

Take this very special journey with IMESA highlighting the existence of Municipal Engineering in South Africa over the last 100 plus years. Experience firsthand the trials and tribulations of the times, meet the people and engineers involved and share with them their experiences in the fields in which you yourself are so dedicated. This journey through time portrays a “reflection” of our past as an Institute. It can be purchased in either hard or soft cover Contact IMESA at 031 266-3263 for more info.

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Working for water In last month’s comment, I spoke about the highlights of the IMESA Jubilee conference, held in October 2011 at Birchwood near OR Tambo airport. I acknowledged particularly the ‘guardians’ of IMESA: our past presidents and our loyal members. In this month’s comment I will be looking at water conservation.


HE ISSUE IS particularly topical, because the Department of Water Affairs celebrates National Water Week during the month of March in South Africa; and internationally, 22 March is officially World Water Day. It is also fitting to mention at this point that the award for the best paper at the 2011 IMESA Conference went to PD Naidoo and Associates Consulting Engineers for their excellent paper (presented by Nicole Nel) on the “Determination of additional resources to manage pollution in storm water and river systems” in the City of Cape Town (see page 33). The primary aim of the National Water Week campaign is to raise awareness among South Africans about the critical role that water plays in social and economic development. Given the scarcity of this most precious of earth’s resources, there is a need for attitudinal

Professor Johannes Haarhoff and President of IMESA, Jannie Pietersen at the 2011 IMESA Conference

change amongst citizens towards the usage of water. It is therefore important that as IMESA members we become aware of our individual usage of water; and endeavour to conserve it wherever possible. Let us reflect for a moment on why it is so important that all citizens join in the campaign

to save water. South Africa is a water-scarce country, with low rainfall volumes in certain catchment areas. In addition, as a direct corollary of the significant growth in business and industry in recent years, less water is available for consumption than was previously the case. It is therefore everybody’s responsibility to use water wisely and sparingly and to save it wherever possible. We can all play a part by being responsible for our own water consumption and by spreading the message. We can all help to save water, whether at home, at work or wherever water is used. Tips on how to save water are often printed in newspapers and magazines, or are available electronically. The website www. is a further source of information on water resources and conservation in South Africa. I would like to encourage all IMESA

In closing, I would like to recommend the coffee table history book, Reflections, which was launched, to much acclaim, at the 2011 conference. The author is Professor Johannes Haarhoff, who was awarded Honorary Membership of IMESA in recognition of his outstanding services to the organisation. Honorary Membership is awarded to nonmembers who have done something exceptional for IMESA, or awarded for the field of municipal infrastructural engineering. The book is filled with highlights of municipal engineering in South Africa, including firsthand accounts of the trials and tribulations of the times. Meet the people and engineers as they share their experiences in this unique book.

It is everybody's responsibility to use water wisely and to save it wherever possible members to become actively involved in the National Water Week campaign, for the sake of our beautiful country. I am sure that many of you have already diarised the dates for the next conference, to be held from 24 to 26 October 2012 in George. The conference is sure to be very different from previous ones that were held in the main city centres. I am certain that the Local Organising Committee will demonstrate what the smaller centres can achieve. Further updates, registration details and the Call for Papers will be published in the IMIESA magazine in due course.

Jannie Pietersen, president of IMESA





Rebuilding Route 33 Multi-disciplinary contractor, Edwin Construction, is playing a key role in expanding South Africa’s road network as it presses ahead on strategically important projects in the Limpopo and Free State provinces.


RAFFIC VOLUMES along Route 33 (R33) have steadily increased in intensity and over time the roadway has faithfully carried endless streams of private and commercial traffic. Now however, intensive reconstruction is required to restore and elevate the present riding surfaces along this vital socio-economic corridor, with the Roads Agency Limpopo awarding the contract to Gauteng based Black Economic Empowerment company, Edwin Construction, a 9CE CIDB (Construction Industry Development Board) rated contractor. This road is currently a main conduit for heavily laden trucks transporting materials for Eskom’s new 4 788 MW Medupi Power Station, which is under development outside the coal mining centre of Lephalale, and Edwin Construction needs to plan around these frequently abnormal road transport movements as it presses ahead on this fast-tracked project. In some areas, and as an interim measure, the construction company has carried out temporary patching to restore failed sections. Edwin Construction’s scope of works on the R33 is split into two contracts covering a total

over the Waterberg escarpment. Construction commenced on the Marble Hall to Modimolle portion in March 2011. “Below the existing R33 pavement, the material is considered sub-standard,” explains Edwin Construction director, Greg Williams. “Lifting the existing alignment of the road is therefore the most economical approach.” Along the R33, the company is using the existing pavement as the foundation, ripping and recompacting this selected layer and then lifting the road with a 300 mm cement stabilised sub-base, and here the company’s recently acquired Cat RM300 rotary mixer is at the heart of the re-construction programme. The RM300 joins a new Cat PF300C pneumatic tyre compactor, which will be used during the slushing stages to prepare the base. Both units were supplied and supported by southern African Caterpillar dealer, Barloworld Equipment, and join a 120 strong plant fleet. Like the R33 contract, over the past five years all of Edwin Construction’s road projects have involved stabilisation, motivating the company to switch from the use of graders to in-situ recyclers, especially when working below 150 mm.

Lifting the existing alignment of the road is the most economical approach distance of around 133 km and entails a complete reconstruction and installation of open earth drains, building up the new road level to sealed base. The new road will be widened to a 4 m lane, with a 0.5 m surface shoulder, and a 2.5 m wide gravel shoulder. Phase one extends over 32 months and runs from Marble Hall to just short of the town of Modimolle; and the second, 24 month phase, from Modimolle to Vaalwater. Most of the route is relatively flat with the exception of a 12 km section along the way that crosses



“We find that a large percentage of the provincial tenders call for the widening and upgrading of existing roads,” adds Williams. “A number of our clients are now specifying the use of a rotary mixer on these projects. Machines like the Cat RM300 provide a more efficient distribution of the stabilising material, resulting in downstream quality.” The Cat RM300 takes production to new levels of efficiency on the R33, milling the existing premix layer and stabilising the 300 mm sub-base layers in one continuously

advancing operation. “The results we have achieved have been fantastic. The ability to hydraulically shift the entire cab from sideto-side, for example, really speeds up the work rate as there’s no need to plan in halfwidths, plus the mix is always visible from the operator station.” Cat’s RM300 is designed to work well in both full depth reclamation and soil stabilisation applications and the machine can be set-up either for water or bitumen spraying tasks, depending on the road design requirements. Expanding on the RM300’s technical features, Barloworld Equipment product manager,

MAIN PICTURE Edwin Construction’s scope of works on the R33 is split into two contracts covering a total distance of around 133 km INSET The Cat universal rotor is equipped with 200 point-attack carbide-tipped tools arranged in a chevron pattern


Johan Hartman, says the machine has been designed from the ground up for its purposebuilt civil engineering application. “A direct-drive mechanical transmission drives the Cat universal rotor, equipped with 200 point-attack carbide-tipped tools arranged in a chevron pattern for maximum breakout force, with three rotor speeds available for maximum performance in a variety of materials and cutting depths,” explains Hartman. The machine’s maximum rotor depth of 457 mm comfortably caters for a wide range of road reclamation tasks. In terms of the production sequence on the R33, the Cat RM300 travels upfront, linkedup to and pushing a water tanker ahead of it. Following behind is a 16 t padfoot, then a 12 t smooth roller, with a Cat 140H motor grader fitted with the Trimble system completing final levels. Around 1 000 m³ is being stabilised daily. The stabilised sub-base on the R33 will be followed by a compacted G1 base specification that specially caters for heavy current and future traffic volumes. Sub-base material is being sourced from calcrete borrow pits in the area, with the G1 supplied from a local quarry in Modimolle. The final riding surface entails

a chip and spray (19 mm and 6.7 mm double seal) carried out by a sub-contractor.

Warden revamp, WBHO JV contracts Edwin Construction’s contract gains continue nationally, with the company enjoying significant growth under the leadership of company founder and engineer, Eddie Maila, who serves as the current chairman and CEO. Maila’s first entrepreneurial entr y as a roads and earthworks contractor commenced in 1997, and now as then, the core business has always been in public sector infrastructure. Overtime, a close association with Johannesburg Stock Exchange listed entity, WBHO Construction, has subsequently led to the latter acquiring a majority interest in Edwin Construction and the two companies frequently work on joint venture (JV) projects. Milestone contracts in this respect include Eskom’s Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme development near Ladysmith, where Edwin Construction worked as a JV partner for the construction of the Bedford and Braamhoek dams forming part of the Ingula project. Edwin Construction was also responsible for airside and landside stabilisation works at Durban’s new King Shaka International Airport, where it was involved as a JV partner. Current JV examples include six road contracts in the Free State, as well as a building project for a new taxi rank and related retail development in Thohoyandou, Limpopo province.

Meanwhile, in addition to the R33, Edwin Construction is also deploying a Cat RM300 along a 17 km section of the P16-1, essentially the road from the R103 between Warden and Villiers to Vrede Town. The new design comprises a 3.7 m lane, with a 2.5 m surface shoulder and a 2 m gravel shoulder. “We’re using the RM300 to good effect, milling and stabilising to a depth of 150 mm,” says Williams. Along the route, Edwin Construction’s enterprise development company (ED), KZN

Projects, is responsible for the construction of two bridges and two in-situ culverts. “Going for ward we have a strong order book well into 2013 and, as in the past, we will continue to serve our traditional markets in provincial roads where our partnership approach has been proven to add value. Here, the adopting of technologies like rotary mixing will continue to refine our competitive edge,” maintains Williams.

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South Africa’s next “greatest” challenge South Africa has never shied away from designing innovative solutions required through dire circumstance. Our history is punctuated with social and economic milestones, yet a massive malevolent prospect looms in the not too distant future. by Richard Jansen van Vuuren


XPLODING GROWTH in the world’s population and increased agricultural and industrial production are putting strain on existing water supplies across the globe. When compounded with the potential effects of climate change, the stakes and risks are raised even higher. The largest complication to this equation is the fact that that there is no singular water crisis: different countries, even in the same region, face very different problems. India, for instance, faces demand fuelled largely by the agricultural sector as a growing population increasingly moves towards a middle-class diet that relies more heavily on wheat and sugar. China, by contrast, has a large agricultural sector coupled with a fast-growing

economy that is driving rapid industrial growth and domestic urbanisation. The South African minister of water and environmental affairs, Edna Molewa, stated in the last week of February this year that the country is will be facing a “near crisis situation” with regards to water supply within the next decade if urgent steps are not taken. Molewa was speaking at a media briefing in Cape Town that outlined government’s plans to spend billions on infrastructure – including water infrastructure – across the country. Water experts have warned that an ever-increasing demand for water is going to place severe strain on this finite source. The 2012 budget review recently presented by finance minister, Pravin Gordhan, stated that

National Water Week 2012 Every year during March, the Department of Water Affairs celebrates National Water Week (NWW) in South Africa, which also features the World Water Day. This year, NWW took place from 5 to 11 March 2012 and World Water Day will be held on 22 March. This year’s campaign theme is: ‘Water is Life; Conserve it, Respect it, Enjoy it’. The aim of this campaign is to raise awareness among South Africans about the role of water in social and economic development, including the need to encourage citizens to change their attitudes towards water use. The campaign emphasises water conservation as one of the major interventions that South Africans need to appreciate if we are to guarantee water security and availability for the country. It also highlights the centrality of water as a resource in the well-being of both the environment and people. This year’s NWW celebration recognised and awarded stakeholders involved in water conservation (WC) and water demand management (WDM) sectors through the Water Sector Award ceremony. The event aimed to celebrate achievers in WC and WDM, as well as ensure the cleanliness and the integrity of water sources and outlets, ensure the long-term sustainability of water resources and to empower communities, especially women, in managing and improving their living conditions.




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World Water Week 2012 The theme for World Water Week 2012 is ‘Water and Food Security’, which will allow for further exploration of the intricate relationship between water and food, highlighting the challenges and opportunities for feeding our thirsty world. World Water Week will be held in Stockholm (Sweden) with an expected 2 000 participants meeting for an entire week. The event will bring professionals and decisionmakers from a wide range of relevant sectors and stakeholder groups together to address the critical role of water for the world to achieve food security for all, with special focus on the “bottom billion” hungry. Workshops will be organised by the Stockholm International Water Institute in collaboration with co-convening organisations. The workshops are based on an abstract submittal process that is open to practitioners, researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders around the world. Topics for World Water Week 2012 workshops include: • Best use of blue water resources for food security • Rain-fed production under growing rain variability: closing the yield gap • Safeguarding global food security and life supporting ecosystems • Health and food security • Securing water and food in an urbanising world • Towards a green economy: The water-food-energy nexus • Trade and food security • Governance for water and food security The event will run from 26 to 31 August.

South Africa will start running out of water 13 years from now if the resource is not better managed. The document goes onto state that according to current projections, South Africa’s demand for water will overpower the supply mechanisms between 2025 and 2030. With this in mind, Molewa has indicated that appropriate action is needed sooner rather than later. A total of amount of R75 billion has been allocated for water infrastructure over the next three years; this includes quality management, resource planning and support to local governments. The Department of Water Affairs has highlighted projects and initiatives as priority, such as the second phase of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (set to supply an additional 151 m3 of water to the Vaal River system by 2020). The department is also investigating the development of ground water resources and coastal desalination plants, although the water supplied by the latter would be expensive. Despite this, both eThekwini and the City of Cape Town are considering this to be an option for water supply in the foreseeable future. Another option being considered by the department is a “realignment” of water prices and it has drawn up a draft tariff review programme. Molewa explained that each year, water boards applied for and set their own tariffs for the various agricultural and industrial users. “This inequality is what we want to address at the moment,” she pointed out. “Every year there is this approach and we do not agree with this practice. By the end of 2012 we will have our new programme in place.” In a effort to avoid the upheaval surrounding the Gauteng Open Road Tolling, Molewa gave

her assurance that the public would be invited to give input to the programme, which is set to affect the price they will pay for water, before it was presented to cabinet for approval. In highlighting some of the shortcomings of the country’s current water supply infrastructure, Molewa highlighted that about 41% of water being supplied is lost due to pipeline leakages in water supply systems before end-users even open a tap. In addition, she stressed that significant behavioural changes

ABOVE Minister of water affairs, Edna Molewa, has stated that South Africa is staring down the barrel of a ‘near crisis situation’ with regards to water supply

are needed in the way South Africans use and consume water. The department is overseeing operations at 151 water and wastewater projects. These include the Olifants River Water Resources Development Project in Mpumalanga and Limpopo, which includes the R3.1 billion De Hoop Dam and bulk raw water distribution systems – expected to cost R13 billion – and a R3 billion dam safety rehabilitation project for the department’s 315 existing dams.

South Africa will start running out of water 13 years from now if the resource is not better managed



24 - 26 October 2012 GEORGE 031 2663263

The Southern Cape/Karoo Branch hereby issues

THE CALL FOR PAPERS 2012 Municipal Engineering in a Changing Environment •

Political and Legislation

Ecological / Environmental


Transport and Traffic

Water and Sanitation

Roads and Storm Water

Submissions by 31 May 2012 to Harold Basson


Top international award for innovation WRP, together with the Emfuleni Local Municipality, won the prestigious International Water Association 2011 PIA – Development Award in the Drinking Water category.


HE INAUGURAL AWARDS ceremony and reception took place at the 2nd International Water Awards Development Congress in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on 23 November 2011. The Project Innovations Awards – Development (PIA-D) aim to celebrate excellence and innovation in water and sanitation projects in low and middle income countries and will be presented biennially. The drinking water category was the most competitive and received entries from all over the world. The WRP/Emfuleni project, which took the top award, is good reflection on South African expertise. This award is the latest in a long list of national and international awards won by Emfuleni Local Municipality and WRP for their advanced pressure management project which was commissioned south of Johannesburg in the Sebokeng

and Evaton areas and has been operating successfully for the past seven years. The project was commissioned in 2005 as a small-scale Public Private Partnership and was one of the first projects of its type to be successfully implemented by a service provider to a municipality where the service provider carried the full costs for both the construction as well as all operation and maintenance costs. The actual measured savings resulting from the WRP pressure management installation were approximately 50 million kℓ of water over a fiveyear period representing financial savings to the municipality of more than R150 million. The energy savings were conservatively estimated to be approximately 70 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent and this was one of the main considerations on which Emfuleni Local Municipality and WRP also won the prestigious

African Energy Award in 2010. The project previously won awards for technical excellence from the South African Association of Consulting Engineers (now CESA), the South African Institute of Municipal Engineering and the South African Association of Civil Engineering, as well as several awards from various international conferences over the past few years. This latest award is of particular importance to Emfuleni Local Municipality which is embarking on a new second phase to the initial water loss reduction project in association with GiZ (German Government) and SASOL. In this new project, many water demand management interventions will be implemented including repair of some household leaks, normal road leak repairs, schools repair and awareness as well as an overall community awareness and education programme.




Municipal Infrastructure Support Agency Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CoGTA) is committed to making the Municipal Infrastructure Support Agency (MISA) work. It simply has to. By Yunus Carrim, deputy minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs


E ARE UNDER MORE PRESSURE than ever before to accelerate service delivery. In order to do this, we have to expand municipal infrastructure. We have financial obstacles but the main problems are around capacity. After all, municipalities did not spend about 14% of their R9.9 billion municipal infrastructure grant (MIG) budget during the last financial year. And it is basically to address these capacity challenges that MISA is being established – to support municipalities with planning, management and other technical expertise to roll-out infrastructure more efficiently and effectively. MISA will not take over the core responsibilities of local government. It cannot. Not constitutionally, not legally. Local government remains a sphere of government with its specific powers and functions, and that is not to be interfered with. MISA will merely assist municipalities to fulfil their functions, especially in respect of municipal infrastructure and service provision, which we all agree have to be accelerated. Municipalities will have a major role in making MISA work. We will, indeed, involve the provinces, SALGA, municipalities, experts and other stakeholders to play a role in MISA. If there’s a role for communities to play, we should make space for this. In a sense though, MISA is not an entirely new initiative. For some time now, CoGTA has been working with other departments and other public sector institutions providing municipal capacitybuilding programmes to rationalise these programmes and provide greater cohesion. MISA has to be located in this context. It builds on some of the collaborative work already done. MISA must also be located in terms of the Local Government Turnaround Strategy. The draft National Development Plan and the New Growth Path also provide a framework for MISA.



Too often a government department and its potential partners, including other government departments, talk past each other, and so the cooperation we could otherwise get on programmes and projects of common interest simply does not materialise! We can’t afford that luxury – or is it stupidity – anymore. There’s too much at stake. It’s the needs of the people out there, especially the poor that are an issue. And we can’t fail them. And they can’t fail themselves. We have to all work together to get things done better and faster. “The government has a huge infrastructure development programme of over R800 billion. We are aware that we are not rolling out this programme fast enough. It has been decided that the President should head a Cabinet Infrastructure Commission to accelerate this programme. Among the decisions taken were that: • There should be a greater focus on coordinating and integrating service delivery in priority

towns and cities with large informal settlements, and it was agreed that: • There will be an informal settlement upgrading plan in 45 metros, large cities and towns. Projects will cover security of Yunus Carrim, deputy minister of cooperative tenure, water, governance and sanitation, public traditional affairs transport, area lighting, electrification and waste management. There will also be provision of social services and amenities, including public open spaces and recreational facilities. • There will be a focus on improving the infrastructure delivery management process,

MISA is being established to roll-out infrastructure more efficiently and effectively areas where backlogs are the highest and on transforming apartheid special development patterns. These include 21 rural districts. It was noted that less than 30% of the people have access to basic services in these districts, which are in six provinces. • The projects to be implemented will address water, sanitation, electricity, waste management and access roads. Other very important services such as education, health, policing and housing will also be included. • The infrastructure cluster service delivery task team will compile a set of integrated project plans for each district. The lekgotla also focussed on metros, large

eradicating under-expenditure and improving value for money. All provinces and relevant national departments will participate in the Infrastructure Delivery Improvement Programme. All struggling municipalities will participate in the CoGTA special purpose vehicle to address key blockages in service delivery. There will be a focus on accelerating the building of infrastructure delivery skills and capacity where it is lacking in government and in municipalities. National government will put in place stronger norms and standards for infrastructure delivery, and monitor and enforce these measures.


Making a water footprint The WISA 2012 conference will be taking place in Cape Town from 6 to 10 May. Debbie Besseling speaks to the conference’s chairperson Dana Grobler about what delegates can expect from this year’s event. The theme for WISA 2012 is “water footprint”, tell us the concept behind this? The idea behind the “water footprint” theme is to say that humans, through their various social and economic activities, have an impact on all aspects relating to water. So in other words, water resources are being impacted as a result of the process of water being utilised, becoming contaminated, and then requiring to be cleaned in wastewater treatment systems before being returned often for reuse. The concept of the water footprint implies that the conference will look at the issues and challenges in their broadest sense and the associated impacts that humans have on water. How will this year’s WISA conference stand out from those of previous years? We are expecting between 1 200 and 1 500 delegates to attend WISA 2012. The conference will be different in the sense that we are bringing in water resources, together with what we classically call the water services sector and water researchers. This will be the first time that there is a concerted effort to bring together these three groupings that actually form the pillars of water management. In addition, WISA has formed a partnership with the Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) and the NWP representatives will be present at the conference. What also makes this conference unique is that we will be hosting the Department of Water Affairs Blue Drop Awards ceremony during the conference. The conference also includes an exhibition which will be providing opportunities for exhibitors to display advances in water technologies which can support water conservation, water reuse and developing and using alternative water sources. What can delegates expect from the conference in terms of acquiring knowledge in their field of expertise? Delegates can look forward to attending any of the 162 formal papers that will be presented, and viewing 66 posters that will be on display. There will also be a wide variety of workshop topics (28 in total), which will include the Blue Drop and Green Drop workshops, to support the Department of Water Affair’s initiative to implement regulatory mechanisms for the water services sector. One of the podium workshop sessions will be on corporate responsibility towards water, which intends to bring in an element that will undoubtedly grow in the water sector in the next 20 to 30 years. What are your views on the challenges faced in the water sector? If one simply considers the amount of media attention given to water-related issues in South Africa, there are undoubtedly some

serious challenges in terms of water resource management, water services delivery and provision of water supply. This includes issues of acid mine drainage, desalinisation, lack of service delivery, hydraulic fracking and aquatic ecosystem deterioration. To put these issues into perspective, South Africa has gone through a period of about 100 years of developing and using water resources to support economic activities, but we now enter an era in which we have no option but to improve the management of this limited resource to ensure a continued sustainable economic situation. South Africans do not have any further major water resources that can still be developed. We therefore need to effectively manage the resources that we have, and that would imply that we should focus on water conservation and demand management, the reuse of water and the minimisation of the impact on the aquatic ecosystems which supports the sustainable supply of water. Climate change for Southern Africa and sub-Saharan Africa is definitely going to be a major challenge. All indications are that the variability of conditions, in terms of more intensive rainfall and runoff events verses longer periods of low rainfall, requires a different approach to water use and its management. In terms of water services, the Department of Water Affairs should be commended for the efforts it has put in place to establish the Blue and Green Drop incentive-based regulatory mechanisms that addresses the issues of water management in local and district municipalities. In doing so, the department has also created awareness among politicians and councillors of local municipalities of the need to technically make provision for maintenance and management of equipment that will ensure adequate water supply and prevention of wastewater contamination of water resources. This is simply the start of a much broader focus on infrastructure maintenance and management, and building the skills base that is required to achieve this. WISA 2012 provides an important opportunity to participate and deliberate these issues and contribute towards the solution that is required to improve the planning and management of water in Southern Africa.

“South Africa has gone through a period of about 100 years of developing and using water resources to support economic activities” WISA conference chairperson, Dana Grobler





Key appointments for Bosch Michael Gibbon has been appointed chief executive of leading multidisciplinary consulting, project engineering, construction and operational management group, Bosch Holdings, and Bosch Projects is poised for growth with a newly appointed managing director Bill Yeo. Michael Gibbon, the newly appointed chief executive of Bosch Holdings




ORMERLY MANAGING DIRECTOR of Bosch Projects, one of the group’s three operating companies, Gibbon took up his new position at the beginning of February this year. Gibbon replaced Clive Swaisland, whom he credits with creating an important foundation for future growth at Bosch Holdings. The group’s roots stretch back to April 1961 when founder Bill Bosch convinced the then Tongaat board to set up a specialised consulting company to offer both internal and external professional services. Although its roots were initially in the sugar industry and the company is well known for providing engineering services for Durban’s iconic sugar terminals, the group soon began to diversify and was registered as Bosch & Associates in 1971. It now serves the industrial and energy sectors as well as the public sector and comprises three operating companies. Bosch Stemele offers specialised multi-disciplinary engineering services for a wide range of infrastructural developments, as well as project and construction management. Bosch Munitech specialises in the provision of operation and maintenance of infrastructural and municipal facilities and services, while Bosch Projects provides innovative engineering solutions and equipment to niche markets in the sugar, industrial and energy sectors in South Africa and abroad. During 2011, Bosch Holdings celebrated its 50th anniversary, was rebranded and established a single head office for all the three companies in Umhlanga – all under the guidance of Swaisland. His career at Bosch began in 1973 and culminated in his appointment as chief executive in 2001. Since then the company has sustained its steady growth which Swaisland believes will continue under Gibbon’s leadership. “Our vision is to be recognised as a world class engineering and operations group providing innovative solutions globally. We are well on our way to achieving that,” says Swaisland. Gibbon completed his mechanical engineering degree at the then University of Natal and, after working at Illovo Sugar (where his last position was chief engineer of the Sugar Corporation of Malawi), he joined Bosch Projects in 1997 as senior project engineer. In 2000 he was promoted to director of the sugar business unit and in 2003 he became managing director of Bosch Projects. “His leadership of Bosch Projects and intimate involvement in the growth and diversification of the group makes him well qualified to take over as chief executive as the group enters a new expansive phase,” explains Swaisland. Yeo has moved into the driving seat after Bosch Projects has seen 10 years of steady growth, and now not only established itself


Holdings and Bosch Projects throughout Africa but gained an international foothold throughout the world. In fact, he points out that Bosch Projects has grown tenfold from a relatively small consulting firm into one of South Africa’s leading multi-disciplinary consulting, project engineering, construction and operational management groups. He adds that the current economic climate will not hold it back. Unlike many executives who are lamenting tough conditions, Yeo believes that lean times like these create a good opportunity for both the company and its clients to focus on working smarter and increasing efficiencies. “Having come out of a couple of good years, ultimately, current times like these make both us and our clients more competitive in our global businesses,” he says. He also believes that one of the company’s strongest strategies has been its diversification. Originating out of the sugar industry, Bosch Projects has since established a presence in industries such as material handling, paper and energy sectors. “It was a strategic decision not to be subject to the seasonality and market swings that characterise one sector. Our clients BELOW Michael Gibbon, the newly appointed chief executive of Bosch Holdings, congratulates Bill Yeo on his appointment as MD of Bosch Projects

are in a wide range of industries which makes us less susceptible to risk and market swings and able to draw on new technologies previously common to other sectors,” explains Yeo.

a new challenge. I am definitely a team player so this is a ‘perfect marriage’ for my

"I want Bosch Projects being our clients’ first port of call when they think about a project" Bill Yeo, newly appointed MD of Bosch Projects Yeo’s career has made him a perfect match. Having started out as an energy engineer at SAPPI Kraft, he moved from paper into the sugar industry when he joined Tongaat Hulett as an engineering manager in 1994. Then, it was on to BP as a senior projects engineer and Bosch Projects as business unit director at the end of 2004. His appointment as managing director comes after spending just over a year in the technical director’s seat which, amongst other things, saw him manage the development of new technologies and help deliver new and innovative designs and concepts ready for marketing. “I dream technical. If it has anything to do with a bolt or a motor, I love it and can work it out. This appointment will be

engineering strengths and dealing with people. Someone has to make the big decisions – and I’m not daunted by that – but this is our company and our team. I’m very strong on that,” Yeo says. He believes creating an environment for innovation and technical excellence is something that is of particular importance to the long-term growth of Bosch Projects both locally and internationally. One of Bosch Projects’ great success stories is in Brazil. While the emphasis has been on sugar, Yeo believes the company can grow and diversify in much the same way it has in South Africa. “To illustrate, while this country has 12 sugar mills, Brazil has 340 – the same applies to its paper and rubber industries,” he points out. “We sell technology and implement projects. We have technical partners and have licensed our technology to a company in Brazil. We envisage our Brazil company being bigger than the present South African industry within three years. Yeo’s vision for Bosch Projects is to be the technical partner and service provider to its all clients. "I want Bosch Projects being our clients’ first port of call when they think about a project. We understand each of our clients’ particular requirements – we understand their company culture, their business and their technology.”

Bosch Holdings Tel: +27 (0)31 535 6000



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Making the right decisions Cheap, in the long run, is expensive. And, while ideals are impor tant, these cannot be the only considerations when awarding a tender. We also should not have decisions made by people who lack the relevant qualifications. By Tony Stone


OW TO MAKE the right decisions, at the right time and for the right reasons, is a challenge that has perplexed even the brightest of minds over the ages. Fortunately we have science on our side. Scientific and management principles established over the last few hundred years are there to guide us. And, from these principles we know that it is quite inappropriate to make

a decision, especially about complex technical issues, when ignorance prevails, or when simplistic ideology dictates. These are two excellent examples of bad reasons for making a decision. The Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act, 2000, as amended and ratified by the minister of finance, Pravin Gordhan, on the 6 June 2011, which guides the process of

awarding tenders from an entirely financial and ideological perspective, makes absolutely no mention of technical competency requirements, or the need for these, at all. This having been said, making a decision on which wastewater treatment system to use,

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based purely on capital costs, not even life cycle costs (capital costs and operating costs over time) and B-BBEE scores is extremely short-sighted and dangerous – to the health and well-being of the community at large and the environment. In their book, Biological wastewater treatment in warm climate regions, Von Sperling and Chernicharo state, “The vast array of available processes for the treatment of wastewater should be seen as an incentive, allowing the selection of the most appropriate solution in technical and economical terms for each community or catchment area. For almost all combinations of requirements in terms of effluent quality, land availability, construction and running costs, mechanisation level, environmental impacts and operational simplicity, there will be one or more suitable treatment processes.” They also underpin, in conceiving, designing and operating a wastewater treatment plant in a warm region, that climatic specificity must be taken into account in order to make the best use of the many favourable characteristics brought about by the higher temperatures. In a similar way, for a treatment plant in a developing region, the relevant aspects that lead to its sustainability must be judiciously incorporated. Building on this, the International Water Association’s Victoria Beddow says that, to successfully reverse the prevailing dramatic status of water pollution in many countries of the world, South Africa included, a deep knowledge of the theory and practice of wastewater treatment is obviously required from the technical people tasked with the responsibility of running a wastewater treatment works (WWTW). However, it should be borne in mind that technology alone cannot reverse this picture and that commitment, enthusiasm, proper organisation and persistence are also indispensable tools in the hands of those involved.

New technology Fortunately, with necessity being the mother of all inventions and free market competition being the driver of excellence in delivery, two new technologies have emerged in recent years to provide a better end product in wastewater treatment – a purer final effluent. These innovations are: • Membrane bioreactor (MBR), which is an activated sludge process using a membrane to separate the solids from the liquids, instead of the usual settling process. Suspended solids can be removed completely and bacteria-free treated water produced.

The sludge concentration and hydraulic loading rates are considerably higher than in conventional treatment. • Nereda®, which is an innovative and advanced biological wastewater treatment technology that purifies water using the unique features of ‘aerobic granular biomass’. Contrary

totally unprepared, despite various notifications and showed limited interest in, and knowledge of, their wastewater business. The report went on to further note that municipal management, political principles and sector participants needed to resolve Ventersdorp’s situation without delay or excuse. The following

A deep knowledge of the theory and practice of wastewater treatment is required

to conventional processes, the purifying bacteria concentrate naturally in compact granules, with superb settling properties.

Engineering the decision In making a decision, it is all well and good selecting the right technology, but it is also about selecting the right quality of pumps, pipes and valves, as well as all the other components that go into of a wastewater treatment works (WWTW). As Heinz Strohwald of SSI said recently, “If you do not invest upfront in quality materials, products and people, the long-term effect of using a lower-quality product, in all respects, will add at least another 20%, and likely much more, to your operating costs.” For example, in looking at the Department of Water Affairs’ 2011 Green Drop Report, the Ventersdorp Local Municipality scored a dismal 3%. The Green Drop assessment team’s observations noted that the municipality was

ABOVE The inlet works during construction

observations are consistent with the findings of the assessors: • There are no certifications, manuals or logbooks available on site. • Buildings are unhygienic and poorly maintained. The surrounding terrain is reasonably maintained, but the grass needs cutting. • The designated staff washing and eating areas are used for storage. The facilities main control panel is used as a dining table. • Raw sewage overflows from a manhole at the inlet works. The workers who are cleaning up the spillage have no protective clothes or equipment. • Manual screening is in place, but there is no flow metering. • One of two biofilters is under refurbishment. The other is in fair condition, but is not



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RIGHT Reactors & thickener during construction

TABLE 1: A ‘quick’ ratio guide to WWTW technologies TECHNOLOGY




Traditional WWTW 1.0 1.0 1.0 NEREDA technology 0.8 0.75 0.85 MBR technology 1.2 - 1.8 1.0 1.3 Note: These factors are rough guidelines only for producing a treated effluent of ‘normal’ quality when treating a typical domestic wastewater. Effluent from the traditional WWTWs and Nereda technology may need further treatment, of varying degree, in order to produce a final effluent of similar quality to that of MBR. The actual implemented cost of all these technologies is also dependent on locality considerations. Plant footprint and availability, including cost of land, could also influence the choice.

receiving flow due to a blocked manhole at inlet works. • The grit removal tank is not functional. Raw sewerage overflows into the environment. • One of two primary settling tanks has collapsed. No scraping, hence the sludge build up in the central chamber. • Humus dams have turned green. There is no flow and it seems like these have been out of commission for a long time. Sewage is diverted into the environment. • No chlorination or disinfectant stock is available. • Six ponds, in series, have no access control. Residents use these ponds as a solid waste disposal site. • No responsible care in terms of sludge handling – wet sludge disposed of on site. An absolute disaster! To fix these problems, a lot of time and a lot of money will be needed. Sadly, in South Africa, Ventersdorp is not an isolated case. It is better to pay a little more and get the right people, and do a proper job up front, than to have to repeatedly repair poorlyconstructed and/or neglected assets.

If Ventersdorp had been equipped with an MBR system, it would have been totally destroyed, at a cost of many millions, by the very people indicted by the Green Drop team. You simply cannot put a sophisticated and very expensive

Secondly, the CIDB’s registry of contractors may be a good system but, if not used correctly, it will not serve its purpose. If those who appoint people and/or contractors do not understand the nature and business of wastewater treatment, how will they be able to determine whether a lesser qualified and/or experienced person is capable of doing a job if the focus is purely on BEE credentials and the (cheapest) financials involved? This single-tier approach to tendering puts the focus in the wrong place and should not be used. The two-tier tendering process is far better because a person or entity’s technical and management competency is submitted separately for adjudication and, only once competency has been established, are the financials looked at. At this point, applicants who aren’t technically and managerially competent are disqualified. Their financials are not even touched. As discriminating as this process may be, it is a right and proper process, and will ensure that the taxpayer’s money is not wasted. In some instances, a mentor programme may be a worthwhile consideration. As to finances, one cannot just look at capital costs. One must also look at operating costs, which when compounded over a 20-year period, can amount to a significant sum of money. As a quick guide, and true to the more traditional WWTW, the initial capital cost of building a WWTW is only 20% of the total lifespan cost. This is also true of MBR or NEREDA systems, but to a greater or lesser degree. Table 1 provides a rough guide, a

Technical and management competency must be submitted separately for adjudication and applicants rejected where criteria are not met wastewater treatment system, MBR or otherwise, into the hands of unqualified people.

Guiding principles So, what are the principles that guide the decision to construct, commission, operate and maintain a WWTW? First and foremost, the people involved should have the appropriate qualifications, experience and track record to substantiate that they can do the job, a good job. In addition, they should possess and practice a set of moral and ethical standards that are congruent with the South African constitution.

‘quick’ ratio, of the capital and operating costs of these systems. Lastly, it does not mean that, because something is new, that it will not work. The problem in 99.9% of the cases is change, something most people are uncomfortable with. However, this is relative. The more qualified and experienced you are, the less of a threat change will be to you. It’s also attitude. The old ‘half empty’ or ‘half full’ glass of water analogy. The bottom line is that a good worker is invaluable and a good worker will always look to improving him or herself. To do this, one needs to





open one’s mind and to discover and evaluate improvement possibilities, something that will not be achieved if you close your mind to change.


The water nymph In this day and age when we as humanity have done nothing but damage the environment we live in, especially our water resources, we

need to be innovative and change (get rid of) our bad practices. A wise philosopher once said, “If you wish to know how to do something right, and keep things in balance, look to nature for your answer!� It’s these words that guided the inventors of the Nereda or aerobic granule wastewater treatment system, Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands and the DHV Group, an internationally respected Dutch civil engineering firm. The name Nereda is derived from the name Naireda, who is the water nymph from ancient Greek mythology. Nereda is the first aerobic ‘granular’ process in the world. It is a natural way of treating wastewater. With this new aerobic granular sludge technology, aerobic (oxygen using) bacterial granules are formed in the water that is to be purified. The great advantage of these granules is that they sink quickly and that all the required biological purifying processes occur within these granules. A granule is defined as a particle of sludge >0.212 mm in size (pure biomass) with a






Sludge Volume Index of five minutes (SVI5), which means most of the settling occurs in the first five minutes. This is possible because reactor concentrations of 10 to 12 g/ℓ are achieved, hence the settling rate being so dramatically increased. The more conventional activated sludge process SVI is 30 minutes and operates in the 3 to 5 g/ℓ range. Any higher and the sludge load on the settling tanks will be too high and lead to sludge washout. MBR also operates in the 10 to 12 g/ℓ range, but by avoiding the settling limitations of conventional activated sludge by adding a ‘physical barrier’, a membrane, to separate the sludge from the final effluent. This, however, adds technical complexity and higher costs. Even so, the process advantage that granular sludge has over-activated sludge (conventional and MBR) is the simultaneous removal of nutrients – nitrification and denitrification – which is a function of the granule’s structure. This basic principle is explained in the cross section illustration of a granule in figure 1. This technology offers impor tant advantages. For example, in the aerobic granule system, all the processes can occur in one reactor, as opposed to the large re-sinking tanks used in conventional activated sludge systems where bacteria clusters formed take much longer to sink. The aerobic granule system typically only requires feed pumps, e.g. submersible pumps and blowers, with no recirculation pumps or mixers required for the process. On the other hand, the MBR process is more complex than conventional systems given its need to backwash and clean its membrane on a regular basis, thereby making maintenance more costly. Table 2 provides a comparative analysis of the major aspects of the three wastewater treatment technologies. These substantiate the quick ratio guide in table 1. Using a simple scoring method, the conventional WWTW scores 4.5, the MBR system scores 4.75 and the Nereda system scores 8.4 and, within this day and age, the green agenda has to dominate. With the aerobic granule system, it does. The first Nereda WWTW in South Africa was built and commissioned in Gansbaai on 14 April 2009. So far, the plant’s per formance against agreed standards has been on par

TABLE 2: Process comparison of conventional, MBR and Nereda DESCRIPTION




Small footprint Typical sludge concentration Settling rates Fine screening required (< 6 mm) Diffused air (DA) or surface aeration (SA) Separate Anaerobic and Anoxic phases for BNR RAS, A and R Reticulation Pumps Downtime for chemical cleaning Chemical costs for cleaning Typical energy consumption (kWh/m3 treated) Disinfection required Final effluent quality

No 3-5 g/ℓ 1 m/h No DA or SA Yes Yes No No 0.25-0.4 Yes Good

Yes 12 g/ℓ n/a Yes (1 mm) DA Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.6-1.2 No Excellent

Yes 10-12 g/ℓ 8-12 m/h Yes (1 mm) DA No No No No 0.15-0.3 Yes Very good

South Africa needs to conserve energy and the environment, and save it from ourselves – doing what it was designed to do. In its construction, R17 million was shaved off the budgeted figure of R42 million for a conventional or MBR system. This technology has received seven international awards and our own prestigious South African Institute of Civil Engineering Award.

Wrapping up By this simple analysis we have demonstrated that a decision based simply on what we know or are familiar with would more than likely be a wrong decision, as would a decision based purely on construction costs. South Africa

needs to conserve energy and the environment, and save it from ourselves, who unthinkingly and, at times, unwittingly destroy it. When it comes to wastewater treatment, we cannot afford to make mistakes. The key to saving our planet is to educate our people and deploy enabling technology. It is not about ideology, it’s about life. It’s about making the right decisions at the right time and for the right reasons. It’s about having competent people being responsible for critical systems that affect the greater community. To do otherwise is highly irresponsible. A world destroyed will be a hell of a place to live in.

RIGHT Gansbaai's Nereda WWTW has been running quite successfully since its commissioning with a significant reduction in operating costs




Know your water footprint The growing scarcity of water in several parts of Africa is creating an imperative for businesses to understand better their operational water footprints.


LOBALLY, WATER DEMAND is expected to outstrip availability by a staggering 40% by 2030 and this situation will be far worse in Africa where urbanisation and an improving standard of living will add to the pressure on this finite resource. In fact, the future is already here for many hotspots throughout the continent where, for

LEFT Companies such as Talbot & Talbot can help to determine and reduce water footprint as it specialises in industrial and municipal water and wastewater management


example, large cities that have relied on dwindling groundwater supplies now find themselves with critical shortages. By 2025, as many as 230 million people will be living in African countries that face water scarcity and a further 460 million will be in water-stressed countries. Scientific developments over the last 10 years have highlighted the shortcomings of the more traditional approaches to the management of water resources. Driven by the worsening water crises, innovations have led to the more comprehensive and sophisticated Water Footprinting Methodology developed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN).



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Water scheme to service rural communities Umgeni Water’s Mhlabatshane Bulk Water Supply Scheme in the Ugu District Municipality will eventually supply 100 000 people with potable water.


HE VISION OF providing potable water to over 100 000 people in scattered rural and peri-urban communities on the lower south coast of KwaZuluNatal is close to becoming a reality. After many years of careful planning and consultation with communities in the uMzumbe and Hibiscus Coast local municipalities, Umgeni Water is implementing a bulk water supply scheme. One

of the key elements is the Mhlabatshane Dam on the Mhlabatshane River, situated approximately 25 km inland from Highflats. The R200 million multi-disciplinary project includes all aspects of Bosch Stemele’s

BELOW The project will deliver 60 ℓ of clean drinking water per person per day in rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal

engineering capability and will be completed through five separate contracts. “The project will bring this sparsely populated, deep rural community a new dam and ultimately 60 ℓ of clean drinking water per

Key facts of the project The dam has a composite earth embankment dam with a central labyrinth type concrete spillway. • Classification: Category 2 medium significant • Crest length: 179 m • Maximum height above foundation: 24.8 m • Spillway width: 35 m • Effective length of labyrinth: 57.3 m




person per day,” explains project director, Raj Ramchuran. The community currently has access to 12 to 15 ℓ per day which is normally drawn from informal sources. The project includes the

construction materials extremely difficult and ruled out the use of a conventional concrete batch plant. The solution was provided by Lafarge Readymix. Their proposal to position a semi-mobile batch plant on site won Lafarge

The biggest challenge facing the project was the steep, single-lane access gravel road to the remote site construction of the new dam, access roads, a pump house, water supply pipelines, a water treatment works and reservoirs. Mechanical, electrical and instrumentation works will also be carried out. The planning phase ran from 2007 to 2009 with construction beginning early last year. “The project is well under way and scheduled for completion and commissioning by December 2012,” points out Ramchuran. The biggest challenge facing the project was the steep, single-lane access gravel road to the remote site, which made delivery of all


the concrete supply contract from the main contractor, Cyclone Construction. “We had the right equipment and experience to tackle the job,” explains Lafarge’s project leader, Marco Sebastiano. “Using one of our semi-mobile batch plants, we were on site and ready to produce in no time at all. This versatile unit can supply an average of 450 m³/day, with a peak output of over 50 m³/hour, which is coping readily with the current average project usage of around 200 m³/day. To date, we have supplied 27 000 m³ of concrete against the estimated total requirement of 30 000 m³.”

Sebastiano handled the contract negotiations with the contractors and is continually in communication with Cyclone Construction to ensure the smooth operation of the concrete supply contract. All raw materials are being sourced locally: pre-blended CEM III cement comes from NPC’s Durban plant and the independently owned Port Shepstone Quarry is supplying 19 mm stone. Contingency planning for the access road becoming impassable during periods of heavy rain included installing a 180 t capacity cement silo. The main product supplied by NPC Cimpor is PRO-TEC (Cem III A 32.5 N). PRO-TEC is specifically manufactured for the readymix concrete industry providing the benefit of a product that has a constant blend ratio of 55% Slagmore. This consistency offers the client greater control in their quality processes with the added benefit of reduced Heat of Hydration due to the high Slagmore content. The greatest challenge NPC Cimpor faced in supplying cement to this project was to ensure safe delivery. The access road to site was complicated by a steep decline with a long radius bend at the top and a short radius bend at the


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bottom of the decline. Risk factors considered were the total weight of a fully loaded tanker including the vehicle equating to approximately fifty tonnes; this factor in its self poses a risk of the load pushing the vehicle out of control due to the steep decline. The other risk factors were the gradient of the road surface, the deterioration of the road surface due to constant use affecting the traction and causing excess gravel on the surface, and peak demand required three to four deliveries a day. Consideration had to be given to minimise risk in the event of a runaway vehicle as the entire site was bellow this access road. After various meetings and adjustments to

site, NPC Cimpor supplied all the cement without any fatalities or incidents. Construction work on the dam started at the end of August 2010 and is approaching 90% completion. “After our initial reservations about the production rate and quality from the mobile concrete plant, the supply has been good. We have also been getting good support in general from the Lafarge team to address any queries and help maintain the rate of construction,” comments Ramchuran. “The associated raw water pipeline, which was a separate contract, was completed at the

PRO PLUS PRO-R The finer details of embankment dams An embankment dam is a massive artificial water barrier. It is typically created by the emplacement and compaction of a complex, semi-plastic mound of various compositions


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waterproof core. This makes such a dam impervious to surface or seepage erosion. The force of the impoundment creates a downward thrust upon the mass of the dam, greatly increasing the weight of the dam on its foundation. This added force effectively seals and

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makes waterproof the underlying foundation of the dam, at the interface between the dam and its stream bed. Such a dam is composed of fragmented independent material particles. The friction and interaction of particles binds the particles together into a stable mass rather than the use of a cementing substance. Embankment dams come in two types: the earth-filled dam (also called an earthen dam or terrain dam) made of compacted earth, and the rock-filled dam. A cross-section of an embankment dam shows a shape like a bank or hill. Most have a central section or core composed of an impermeable material to stop water from seeping through the dam. The core can be of clay, concrete or asphalt concrete. This dam type is a good choice for sites with wide valleys. Since they exert little pressure on their foundations, they can be built on hard rock or softer soils. For a rock-fill dam, rock-fill is blasted using explosives to break the rock. Additionally, the rock pieces may need to be crushed into smaller chunks to get the right range of size for use in an embankment dam.






end of June. Tenders for the other main elements of the bulk water supply scheme include bulk storage reservoirs and a pump house building, which are currently being constructed and a new 8 Mℓ/day water treatment works and MEI works, which are in the process of being awarded. At this stage everything is on track for commissioning by the end of 2012.”


Pietermaritzburg-based Cyclone Construction specialises in all types of civil concrete work and has extensive experience of working in remote areas. “The location of this dam is certainly challenging,” says site agent, Dave Roux. “Lafarge’s mobile batch plant is giving us much more flexibility and the best possible service under

ABOVE Mhlabatshane Dam construction in progress

difficult circumstances. Once completed, the dam and the water reticulation network it is supplying will be an enormous benefit to thousands of people who previously had to draw their water from the Mhlabatsane River.”


WehavebeensupplyingaggregatefromacrusherdusttocrusherrunontheLowerSouthCoastforthelastfiveyearswithgreatsuccessbut noneoftheprojectshavebeenaslogisticallychallengingastheMthlabatsaneDamproject.TheStFaithsroadtothedamaswellastheroadinto thedamwasaparticularchallengeasthereareroadworksandtheaccessroadtothedamwasverysteep,ifitrainswecouldnotdeliver materialstothesitefordays.Wehavesupplied19mmstoneandriversandtothesitebatchplantforLafargeaswellasF1andF3Filtermaterial andHandstonetothemaincontractorCycloneConstruction.Weareacustomerorientatedcompanyandweprideourselvesonourserviceto ourcustomersandourabilitytogetthejobdonenomatterthesiteconditions.



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Managing pollution The City of Cape Town has an extensive network of rivers and wetlands which fulfil diverse ecological, aesthetic, recreational and infrastructure network functions. by Nicole Nel, Abdulla Parker and Peter Silbernagel


HESE FORM AN important part of the natural landscape, provide beauty and a sense of place and belonging, encourage tourism, and provide recreational opportunities, health benefits, natural hazard regulation and other ecosystem services.

Yesterday Over the past few decades, however, many of these watercourses have been adversely impacted by pollution. The State of the Environment Report shows that, in terms of the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) water quality guidelines for recreation and aquatic ecosystems, 69% of vleis and 42% of rivers in Cape Town have poor to bad water quality (City of Cape Town, 2008). This poses a

significant risk to both human health and to aquatic biodiversity.

Today The impacts of poor water quality in the stormwater system1 may be far reaching, as the forgoing of recreational opportunities, for instance, may result in socially less desirable behaviour, negatively affecting the wellbeing of society and placing strain on social services in the city. Also,

poor-quality water used for urban farming activities may severely compromise food production and a source of income for many. Ultimately poor water quality poses a significant threat to human health, aquatic biodiversity and the added value that good quality water brings to the economy.

Tomorrow The challenge, therefore, is to protect the inland waters from the impact of pollution and to improve inland water quality to an acceptable level. Current city resources to manage pollution in inland waters are inadequate. The catchment, stormwater and river management (CSRM) branch of the Transport, Roads, Stormwater and Major Projects Directorate of the


It should be noted that for the purposes of this study, the stormwater system is distinguishable from the potable water system and includes stormwater reticulation, bulk pipes, canals, rivers and wetlands.




City of Cape Town decided to launch a project to determine the additional resources required to manage pollution in stormwater and river systems to improve inland water quality compliance to an ‘acceptable level’.

Acceptable water quality One of the main challenges on this project was to determine what is meant by ‘acceptable water quality’, whether current means of assessing and reporting on water quality for inland water quality are adequate, and to determine practical and achievable objectives in terms of water quality, in both the short and long term. Water quality standards and criteria will ultimately drive the interventions necessary to bring water quality of rivers and wetlands to a desired level. An inland surface water monitoring network currently consists of approximately 100 monitoring sites where samples are collected in each of the major catchment areas (See Figure 1). The number of inland water quality monitoring points was reduced in 2003 as resources were allocated to additional project-based monitoring and specialised pollution tracking, which was considered at the time to be more beneficial in terms of pollution management. Both rivers and wetlands are monitored and this occurs on a monthly basis, with both historical and current data being available. An extensive range of microbiological and chemical constituents is measured from these inland water samples. Reporting on acceptable water quality The city currently assesses and reports on these monthly water quality results from two perspectives: “ecosystem health”, where median total phosphorus concentration is reported on, and “public health”, where the percentage occurrence of the number of faecal coliforms is less than 1 000 counts per 100 mℓ. The relevant DWAF Water Quality Guideline series provides the basis for this evaluation (DWAF 1996a; DWAF, 1996b; DWAF, 1996c). Under the auspices of a water quality subcommittee, it was noted that most of the results for various constituents fall within the DWA “unacceptable” category. Subdivisions of this category were therefore created as a management tool to help establish the responses and actions needed to prioritise rivers and wetlands and to help determine the sources of pollution. The criteria agreed upon were then used to evaluate and to colour code the water quality data obtained from the city in order to provide a visual depiction of the water quality status of the rivers and wetlands of Cape Town.

Catchment analysis and sources of pollution An analysis of each of the catchments, rivers (including canals) or river reaches, as the case may be, depending on the water quality information from the monitoring points, was undertaken to obtain an understanding of the situation in each of these discrete units. It is important to understand that the catchments invariably span several administrative areas within the city, indicating from a catchment management perspective, a fragmented operational approach. Considerable assistance was provided by the various members of the project steering committee, the water quality sub-committee, workshops and site visits, as well as previous reports made

FIGURE 1: Inland water quality monitoring network

available by the city. The major sources of pollution with respect to water quality in river systems and stormwater which stand out from the many, many types of point or diffuse sources of pollution are the following: • greywater and sewage from informal settlements • wastewater treatment works • blockages and overflows of sewers • solid waste in water courses and such open areas • sewage pumpstations • general urban runoff • agriculture • industry and construction




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• golf courses • canalisation of rivers2.

Key general water quality issues Some of the key general issues affecting water quality in the river and stormwater systems in the Cape Town municipal area include: Approach and policy – There are many instances where reactive measures as opposed to proactive measures are used to address water pollution in the city. While these may be necessary in the short term, they are often temporary in nature, do not necessarily solve the underlying causes and are more costly in the long term. Reactive work utilises resources that could have been used more productively had more proactive measures been employed from the outset, which therefore prevents a sustainable improvement in water quality. Institutional issues Roles and responsibilities – There is a shortcoming in terms of the integration and optimisation of the roles, responsibilities and budgets of the various departments within the city, and this is to the detriment of stormwater quality in Cape Town. There is also currently a strong emphasis on the service delivery function of the city that the city also needs to fulfil. Interpretation and reporting of water quality data and incidents – Currently water quality is reported on to some audiences using rolling geometric means and percentage compliance, which hides the “peaks” in pollution levels that are of greatest concern. The use of E. coli and Phosphorus as the indicators of human health and ecosystem health may, particularly for the more sensitive or problematic water bodies, not always provide sufficient information on water quality. A project to create a water quality index and reporting tools for inland and coastal waters has commenced. It will develop public information materials and water quality data and related information will be posted on the city’s corporate website on a regular basis (Haskins, pers. comm., 2010). Due to a lack of awareness and/or empowerment by the general public, there is likely to be an underreporting of pollution incidents within the city. So too there may not be a well-known and/or adequately accessible complaints line. Also, many incidents that are reported may not be further investigated and recorded due to a lack of resources, thus feeding into an attitude of despair.

Sampling and monitoring – Water samples are currently not taken at certain historical water quality monitoring points and other points in the water systems which could offer significant insight into pollution sources. For the more sensitive or problematic watercourses there is a gap in information where additional indicator organisms to those currently monitored would shed further light on unexplained or improbable E. coli values which occur from time to time. Human resources – Water pollution control inspectors of the Water and Sanitation (W&S) Depar tment currently conduct limited programmed inspections of mainly industries (City of Cape Town, 2009). They do not conduct regular inspections of other business or residential property, but respond to complaints received from owners or tenants in these sectors. Statistics of the main transgressions are published in a quarterly report. There is further a lack of staff, funding and consolidation of the inspectorate, resulting in certain shortcomings with respect to water quality management in the city. Agriculture – the agricultural activities that occur in many of the catchments in the city, animal husbandry is potentially an intense point source of bacteriological or faecal pollution and nutrients, while runoff from crop agriculture is also a source of nutrients, particularly where fertilisers, pesticides and manure are used and effluent from wastewater treatment works (WWTW) is used for irrigation or the sewage sludge used for compost. The city has inadequate resources to ensure compliance with the stormwater management by-law for the prevention of polluted or enriched irrigation water or enriched stormwater from farmlands from entering the main stormwater system. Optimisation of resources/partnerships – Limited resources have led to inadequate ser vice provision for stormwater pollution management. Par tnerships with other city departments, neighbouring municipalities and other external public and private organisations have not been established adequately

to consolidate resources and to optimise pollution management.

Planning issues Service delivery: informal settlements and backyarders – Cape Town has approximately 3.3 million people, with an estimated population growth rate of 1.65%, which places further strain on a service delivery backlog in the city (Lewis, 2010). Lack of basic services due to current budget limitations particularly in housing, solid waste, and water and sanitation, directly and indirectly affect water quality in the rivers and wetlands of the

TOP Klipfontein Culvert - before BOTTOM Klipfontein Culvert - after

Cape Town municipal area. A further problem in Cape Town is “backyard dwellers” whereby backyards in formal areas are occupied by informal dwellers, thereby putting strain on the service capacity in the area and increasing greywater and night soil issues, which lead to poor water quality in the stormwater and river water. Strategic interventions – There is a need for more strategic interventions (standards, by-laws and records) as proactive measures for the prevention of stormwater ingress, in particular3. Land use – A legacy of land use, urban design and landscaping in the city with little regard for rivers, wetlands and other watercourses has a

2 This is an indirect pollution source as pollution is not attenuated in canals as well as it is in natural rivers, therefore resulting in higher pollution levels. Furthermore, canals are not as aesthetically pleasing as natural river systems, and may therefore induce less considerate behaviour towards their preservation. 3

A by-law whereby a plumber’s certificate is required before the transfer of a property can take place, has recently been introduced as a consequence of this project.




great impact on the water quality of inland water systems. Canalisation for instance, as is evident in many of the rivers in the Cape Town municipal area today, has caused tremendous ecological damage and reduces the ability of a river to attenuate pollutants. Incremental hardening/coverage of catchments through urban development is a major issue facing urban stormwater management, as rainwater is no longer infiltrated throughout the catchment but instead remains as runoff, increasing the risks of flooding and a deterioration of water quality. The policy for the management of urban stormwater impacts was specifically developed to address these challenges.

Technical issues Infrastructure – Leaking, inappropriate, and/or ageing municipal infrastructure, particularly sewage pumpstations, sewers and WWTW, have an impact on water quality, as an overflow of sewage will contaminate the stormwater system. Failure in design, such as inadequate consideration of the number of users of certain infrastructure, may result in its premature breakdown and malfunction, which will then place the water quality of the receiving aquatic ecosystem at risk. The adequate management and operation of infrastructure is a further consideration in terms of water quality as lack of knowledge and understanding of the context of the operations for which one is responsible, and appreciation of the impact of malfunctioning sewage pumpstations, for instance, will have a dire impact on the rivers. Sewage pumpstations – Spillage at sewage pumpstations can negatively impact water quality. Historical records show that the failure rate of sewage


TOP Klipfontein N2 Canal – during construction BOTTOM Klipfontein N2 Canal – completed



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pumpstations in the city is such that approximately 20% of the pumpstations will experience a spillage on average once per year. Sewer blockages – According to a media release by the city on 23 March 2010 (City of Cape Town, 2010), the city attends to approximately 90 000 sewer blockages per year, which costs approximately R60 million. The majority of blockages are found to be due to foreign objects becoming lodged in the sewer. This inevitably causes a back-up in the sewage system and leads to an overflow at a low point, which may cause a serious pollution problem in the rivers and streams in the area. Sewage disposal technologies – Sewage technologies such as conservancy tanks, septic tanks and soakaways are utilised in certain parts of Cape Town, such as in the upper reaches of the Sir Lowry’s Pass River, Schusters River and Disa River. Poorly managed or dysfunctional

The city attends to approximately 90 000 sewer blockages per year, which costs approximately R60 million systems or instances where the wastewater is removed and disposed of inappropriately impact negatively on the stormwater system. Cross-connections – Past practices of cross-connections between sewer systems and stormwater systems are a further contributing factor to poor water quality. These cross-connections, many of which have been closed off, were intended to provide “overflow” routes for sewers, when blockages or “flooding” caused backing up or surcharging of sewers. These overflow routes all lead to nearby stormwater pipes or systems, thus keeping the overflow out of sight (and out of mind!). Wastewater treatment works – Treated sewage effluent is one of the most common types of pollution found in urban rivers (Luger and Brown, undated). While the City of Cape Town did exceptionally well during the 2011 Green Drop Assessment Cycle, there are still WWTW that require significant improvement to achieve certification (DWA, 2011). While a broad range of criteria is assessed, a failure to achieve Green Drop Status implies that inadequately treated sewage is being discharged into storm water and river systems, with dire consequences for ecosystem and public health. There is currently a disparity beween WWTW effluent discharge standards or limits set by DWA versus the Water Quality Guidelines stipulated for recreation and aquatic ecosystems. Compliance in wastewater reports may therefore still result in a significant impact in terms of public and ecosystem health on the receiving water body. Stormwater ingress and infiltration – Excessive ingress and infiltration of stormwater into sewers, causing sewers to surcharge, have detrimental effects on stormwater and river quality. They can reduce the original design capacity of a sewer collection system and negatively affect the operation of a WWTW (Stephenson and Barta, 2005) and result in sewer reticulation overflows (Thompson, pers. comm., 2010). Excessive increases in flows reduce the effectiveness of the biological treatment process, leading to partially treated wastewater leaving the WWTW and entering the receiving water bodies (Stephenson and Barta, 2005). Solid waste – Outside of the normal cleaning cycle conducted by SWM, a number of challenges still exist as solid waste is a large and ever-increasing challenge in Cape Town and is a particularly visual and extensive pollutant in the rivers, particularly within the higher density areas. Despite many awareness programmes and extensive area cleaning services, illegal dumping and discharge of solid waste into the



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stormwater and river systems still occurs widely (City of Cape Town, 2009b). Solid waste has both an aesthetic and polluting impact on rivers and wetlands and is a contributing factor to blockages of the stormwater and sewer system. Such blockages can result in stormwater stagnating on the street and negatively impacting on road surfaces, as well as on human health. Greywater – In some areas of Cape Town greywater (often containing constituents such as faecal coliforms, organic matter and chemical pollutants) is often disposed of onto roads or in the stormwater system due to a lack of alternative disposal options, or the inconvenience and inadequacy of the existing disposal facilities. This can negatively impact stormwater quality as well as the road surface. Backyard garages – There are instances of illegal disposal of substances such as oil into the stormwater system. Water pollution control officers and law enforcement officers address complaints received from members of the public, but many incidents go unreported.

Communication Many of the current challenges to the city are further compounded by a lack of education and

ABOVE NY45 Culvert - completed

awareness on the importance of good “environmental” stormwater quality and the means to attain and preserve good water quality.

Signage Although there is a signage policy governing Cape Town as a whole, it is not implemented throughout. There is a shortcoming in terms of the compliance of city signage, visibility, branding and size, as well as maintenance and replacement. Risk assessment A risk assessment was performed on the catchments of each of the rivers and wetlands. The risk assessment identified 11 risk events and

associated consequences that could lead to deterioration in water quality. Each catchment was then evaluated for the probability of the risk of the event occurring and the impact that such a risk event would have on the public health and ecosystem health of that catchment and the river downstream of that event. A vulnerability score was then calculated for each risk associated with that catchment. The 12 most vulnerable rivers (or river reaches) and vleis were found to be: 1. Lower Hout Bay River 2. the middle reaches of the Bokramspruit 3. Kuils River 4. Soet River 5. Vygekraal River 6. the lower reaches of the Diep River (West Coast) 7. Milnerton Lagoon 8. the stormwater outfall at Theo Marais Park 9. the stormwater channel from Bayside Mall 10. Big and Little Lotus Canals 11. Zeekoevlei 12. Rondevlei.

Prioritisation of catchments, rivers and wetlands A prioritisation of catchments was undertaken as part of this project to assist the city management with the allocation of resources, bringing a sense of proportion. The outcomes provide guidance on a starting point for the allocation of limited resources. Ad hoc and emergency events that affect water quality will, however, still need to be attended to as the need arises. A multi-criteria model using several inputs to determine those rivers, wetlands and catchments which should receive priority attention for the proposed interventions was developed. The criteria and their weightings were workshopped and agreed upon by the project steering committee and the water quality sub-committee. Each catchment was then scored for each criterion, using a five-point scale. The scale and the outcomes of the prioritisation exercise were also workshopped and agreed upon with the project steering committee and the water quality sub-committee. Required resources Drawing on the legacy of the past to engineer into the future and reduce the burden of

pollution in the inland water systems of the Cape Town municipal area, the recommended resources required by the city are proactive and sustainable measures as far as possible. The dictum “prevention is better than cure” is used as a guiding principle to avoid costly, inefficient, after-the-event reactive measures. The recommendations made can be grouped as follows: • general recommendations: approach, institutional, technical, planning and policy issues • general recommendations: budget implications • additional recommendations per catchment: budget implications. The budget implications show that R675.30 million in capital or once-off expenditure, and R277.15 million in operational expenditure is required as additional resources to manage pollution in stormwater and river systems.

Does good water quality make economic sense? The value of good water quality in the stormwater system and the benefits it brings certainly justifies the investment for the achievement of good water quality and engineering into the future. De Witt et al. (2009) showed in a report presented to and accepted by the city that a conservative estimate of the natural assets in the city is that these yield a flow of services valued at R4 billion per annum. An alternative approach would be to compare the reduction in health costs and increases in tourism revenue due to good stormwater quality. It was found that a 1% decrease in health costs would justify an additional expenditure of over R110 million per annum and that a 1% increase in tourism income would justify a further additional expenditure of R230 million per annum. This paper has been edited and shortened. The full version is available from the editor. E-mail if you would like a copy.

* About the authors Nicole Nel: MSAICE, BSc Eng, MPhil (Development Studies) Candidate Engineer: PD Naidoo & Associates Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd Abdulla Parker: SAICE Western Cape Branch Committee Member, BSc Eng, MBA Head of Catchment Planning: City of Cape Town: Catchment Stormwater and River Management Branch Peter Silbernagl: Past President of CESA (2002), FSAICE, PrEng, CEng, Pr CPM Director: PD Naidoo & Associates Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd



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Using numerical modelling to cope with uncertainty Groundwater practitioners are often challenged with questions like how sure are you of the sustainable yield? What will be the impact of future changing rainfall patterns? How sure are you that my borehole will not be impacted? By Helen Seyler and Rowena Hay of Umvoto Africa

Case studies Quantifying the unexploited available groundwater resources was one aim of the Berg Water Availability Assessment project, and one area of groundwater interest was the Breede River Basin Alluvial Aquifer. A numerical model was used to provide support over the uncertainty of the volume of water available for abstraction, and the impact this may have on the hydraulically linked surface water system.

A multi-layered 3D regional model in MODFLOW was setup. Scenario testing showed that when abstracting 80% recharge, the system stabilises to a new steady state water balance within a timescale of around 10 years. As time passes under the new recharge regime, influx to the alluvial aquifer from the surrounding mountain springs increases and discharge from the aquifer to the Breede River decreases. The largest changes in these fluxes occur in the first five years and by 10 years the system has largely re-stabilised. Concern and uncertainty over potential environmental impact is often a ‘show stopper’ in the early stages of a project, or it can be a costly (time and monetary) hurdle to overcome.

Numerical modelling adds important information to the debate, providing a quantitative response to questions over the degree of impact. Figure 1 shows the long-term change in water level, for a hypothetical wellfield 10 km from an ecologically sensitive environment (the Langebaan Lagoon). The wellfield is located at the 10 km position on the graph and the lagoon at 20 km. The difference between the ‘natural system’ and the ‘wellfield’ water levels at 10 km shows that the wellfield would impact regional water tables by a few metres. The water levels at 20 km are, however, unimpacted (DWAF, 2008b). In the preliminary stages of a water resource development project, uncer tainty in the


Natural Sys y tem UAU Wellfield UAU Natural Sys y tem LAU


Modelled Water Level (mamsl)


E ARE OFTEN faced with the opinion that there is not enough certainty of the numbers or the groundwater system for a licence to be awarded, or for interested and affected parties to give their buy in, or for the landowner to allow you to drill a municipal production hole on their land. The various sources of uncertainty are: • in the conceptual model • in recharge numbers and patterns • in the hydraulic parameters • in the fracture networkers • over possible impact of abstraction, on other users, and on the environment. In each of these situations and for each of these possible sources of uncertainty, numerical modelling is a powerful tool to address these questions and deal with uncertainties both in the data and the key parameters, and in the conceptual understanding of the data. Various modelling examples from the Western Cape are presented below, following the order of a typical life cycle of a water resource project, from pre-feasibility stage to full-scale implementation, and wellfield management. At each stage in this cycle numerical models can be used to address several of the uncertainties listed above.

Wellfield LAU





0 0







Distance (km)

FIGURE 1: Modelled water levels for of the Langebaan Road and Elandsfontein Aquifer System under natural system and with a hypothetical wellfield added (DWAF, 2008b)




FIGURE 3: Modelled fluxes of the Breede River Alluvial Aquifer FIGURE 2: Model salt concentration and water level response to an over-pumping scenario

hydrogeological system is effectively handled with a regional model, constructed to test various conceptual models. The impact of various uncertainties on the system can be estimated, and thus the addressing of these uncertainties (which can require costly data collection) can be prioritised. For complex aquifer systems where analytical solutions are not possible, questions such as how the wellfield will respond to an alternate pumping scenario or to increased abstraction in drought periods can often only be accurately addressed with numerical modelling. The model is then a useful tool to support decision making over operating rules.


when subjected to 80% recharge, for the time since large-scale abstraction commenced.

Operation of the Gateway Wellfield is supported with a wellfield model which builds on the regional model. The model is constructed in the finite element modelling package FEFLOW. Confidence in a model is built through testing it against data as yet which hasn’t been used in the calibration process: ‘validation and verification’ (i.e. comparison without further calibration to these new conditions). Due to its proximity to the coast, one of the key sources of uncertainty over the sustainability of long-term use at the Gateway Wellfield is the risk of saline intrusion. The wellfield model was extended to a multi-density flow model (again using FEFLOW) to explore the various controlling factors on saline intrusion, to test the impact of the geological structures on saline intrusion and test the salinity response to over-abstraction (Von Scherenberg 2010).

Summary The case studies described above illustrate that modelling at early stage of a project can effectively move a project from the uncertainty realm into action, and modelling during management phase takes you from acting retroactively based on monitoring data into a practice of model to predict future, predictions informing management decisions, and monitoring to see how closely the model predicted events, and fine tuning a model. This paper has been edited and shortened. Please contact the editor at Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2606 if you would like an unabridged version


(011) 579 4800 (011) 455 6066


LEFT Rowena Hay, managing director of Umvoto Africa RIGHT Umvoto senior hydrogeologist, Helen Seyler

(012) 665 2077 (012) 665 2063






Joining forces to improve acid mine water treatment technology In an effort to address the rising problem of acid mine water in South Africa, Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies South Africa (VWS South Africa) and Mintek have signed a co-operation agreement.


HE AGREEMENT AIMS to further develop Mintek’s SAVMIN water treatment technology. This comes after the initial evaluation of the VWS South Africadeveloped Multiflo and Actiflo clarifiers merged with Mintek’s SAVMIN chemical precipitation technology. The combined technologies are potentially a more efficient, cost-competitive and productive acid mine water treatment system. Using lamella settling and ballasted flocculus formation, the VWS South Africa clarifiers effectively remove precipitated solids from mine water with relatively low footprints. These proven systems require minimal maintenance and are a cost-competitive solution compared to traditional clarifiers. A precipitation-based process, SAVMIN removes heavy metals and calcium sulphate to produce either potable or industrial water. This process’s waste streams are relatively clean gypsum and metal hydroxides, which could be recovered as saleable by-products. Because SAVMIN does not rely on membrane separation technologies, the overall cost per litre has the potential to be significantly lower. “These systems’ integration marks a long-term approach to sustainable acid mine water treatment in South Africa,” says Dr Gunter Rencken, managing director, VWS South Africa.

“The synergy lies in Mintek’s mine water treatment technology and our ability to make the technology feasible for large-scale implementation.” The Mintek and VWS South Africa collaboration draws on the complementary strengths of both organisations to derive a sustainable, economically feasible solution to acid mine water, with the potential to also recover byproduct metals. “We are fortunate enough to have had financial backing for the development of SAVMIN from government, which recognises the importance and urgency for solutions to South Africa’s acid mine water problems. We hope this partnership with VWS South Africa is long-lasting and

ABOVE Dr Gunter Rencken of VWS South Africa and Abiel Ngomezulu of Mintek signing the agreement that will help address the local acid mine water problem

beneficial to both the mining industry and South Africa,” says Abiel Mngomezulu, the president and CEO of Mintek. Mintek and VWS South Africa began initial discussions to develop affordable mine water treatment technologies in 2009 and, with further refinement, hope to have a holistic treatment process on the market by the end of 2013 after the completion of a full-scale pilot plant evaluation.




Sustained decrease Aware that Durban is quickly outgrowing its water supply, eThekwini Water and Sanitation (EWS) is making significant strides in containing nonrevenue water.


HE HEAD OF EWS, Neil Macleod, says average monthly bulk water purchases that were steadily increasing prior to 2011 have shown “definite and sustained signs of decreasing and have dropped to levels last seen in July 2007”. Average daily purchases of water from Umgeni Water decreased by 50 912 Kℓ from the 2009/10 financial year daily average. “In the 2009/10 financial year, the non-revenue water was 37.4%. During the 2010/11 financial year, we reduced this loss to 33.2%, which amounted to an improvement of 4.3%. Our long-term goal is to reduce water loss to 25% within the next eight years,” he explains. To realise this long-term goal, EWS put in place a proactive 17 point plan to minimise water losses and optimise service delivery to consumers. During 2011, which comprises the second half of the 2010/11




in water usage financial year and the first half of the 2011/12 lower the minimum night flow from 599 to 352 m3/ financial year, the replacement of aged infrastruchour, which equates to almost 6 Mℓ/day,” continture such as faulty water meters, the reduction ues Macleod. of water pressure – a major cause of leaks and He also says detecting and repairing leaks has bursts – and the detection and repair of leaks played a significant role in containing water losses gathered momentum. throughout the 2010/11 and during the first half of According to Macleod, during the financial year the 2011/12 financial years. A key factor has been ending 30 June 2011, EWS commissioned 230 EWS’s use of Category B plumbers in informal and pressure reduction valves and seven innovative formal areas on a ‘find and fix’ approach. i20 pressure controllers. The latter is a revolution“During the course of the financial year, this ABOVE JOAT’s technicians, ary device with artificial intelligence to optimise Ndumiso Mkize and Njabulo proved extremely successful with a dramatic the control of water pressure. Using Global System Mthembu, conducting a pressure increase in the number of leaks repaired at a far test on a water pipeline for Mobile (GSM) Communication signals, the i2O lower cost. This activity will be continued with tarBELOW MAP Africa technician, controller is constantly updated with pressure Samantha Zungu, inspecting bulk gets set at 4 000 km of leak detection surveys and information from a critical point in the zone. Using consumer meters the repair of 20 000 leaks for 2012.” advanced algorithms, it then makes minute adjustBilling improvements have also been high on ments to a pressure reducing valve to ensure that the water pressures the EWS agenda with some important new measures introduced during are kept at an optimum level at all times. 2011. Interventions such as the replacement of non-domestic consumer “Actively managing the water pressure translates into an ongoing meters older than 10 years and the replacement of all domestic consumer reduction of water loss through leaks and burst pipes. Preliminary meters older than 20 years continued. During the first half of this year, investigations have indicated that a reduction of 40% in pipe bursts is EWS intends regularising a targeted 820 illegal connections through the possible. In the Durban CBD, this advanced controller was utilised to Amnesty Programme and municipal courts.



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Witty with water Part of Bigen Africa’s five year ‘S-Vision 2016’ strategy aimed at improving all of Africa’s infrastructure needs, is to help mitigate the demands on South Africa’s scarce water resources and its deteriorating raw water quality.


HIS WILL BE DONE through designing, developing, managing and delivering water and wastewater treatment solutions for significant industry water consumers. Bigen Africa’s approach to solving water and wastewater challenges in the mining sector is based largely on decades of experience. “The technologies we offer are determined by and depend on the various challenges faced by a particular mining operation. It is true that similar water challenges are faced by mines processing similar minerals, but our experience has shown that the water circuit of each mine is unique and presents unique opportunities for improved water use. “What makes Bigen Africa’s approach unique is that we first engage with mines to fully understand their individual various water circuits, and then develop appropriate solutions which best fit its operational and legislative requirements. We also assist mines to develop rural communities as part of their social investment programmes,” says Bigen Africa Services project director, Corrie Marx. This approach has seen the company take on considerable work in the sector, where it is currently involved in a number of projects dealing with the planning design and implementation of source development, water supply, water and wastewater treatment, water conservation and demand management and water reclamation for a number of mines and mining groups. The key to retaining a strong position within the mining industry going forward – in terms of meeting its water needs – is to understand and meet its current needs and difficulties. “Protection of the environment is one of our key objectives in developing solutions for the mining industry, but the delays caused by the

environmental authorisation processes should be reviewed. They are significantly reducing project implementation times,” points out Marx. Bigen Africa’s tactic is to engage with the relevant national departments at a ver y early stage, in order to raise awareness of projects, and ensure it develops as a non-threatening entity to its environment.

“We are currently involved in a number of producers’ forums in the Eastern and Western Limbs where a number of water-related (and other) projects are being developed. These projects include studies to augment water supply to the areas by means of water large transfer schemes, water demand management, water re-use and projects to improve the

RIGHT Acid mine water discharge



MINE WATER water supply systems to neighbouring communities,” explains Marx. One such project includes the review of a mine water balance and the development of a water reclamation facility to reduce the total water consumption of the particular mine. Another project includes the sourcing of water and the development of a water supply system for a new mine in a water scarce area. Marx

notes that both projects are at a very sensitive stage and the names therefore cannot be made available. Bigen Africa’s water commitment also extends into the much talked about acid mine drainage crisis South Africa is facing. “We have been involved locally on a number of mines, as well as in Australia in developing treatment processes for acid mine drainage prevention and treatment,” Marx notes.

BELOW Bigen Africa’s water commitment also extends into the much discussed area of acid mine drainage

The Limpopo commitment Water is recognised as a fundamental key to economic development in Limpopo and placed on the same strategic level as minerals. One of the most significant approaches embraced in the management strategy of mining companies, and aligned with the Department of Water Affairs Integrated Water Resources Management solutions within a complex system, is user integration. Within this paradigm, the mining companies in Limpopo, through the strategic development and implementation support of Bigen Africa, have played a pivotal role in creating cohesion amongst the mining sector in the Limpopo to address the urgent need for water in the province. The Olifants River Joint Water Forum, with 28 mining companies situated in the Eastern and Northern Limbs of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, was established in 2004 with the support of Bigen Africa. It is a formal mining sector partnership which was created to facilitate the development of the Olifants River Water Resource and Services Development Project, a presidential project. The project, valued at R10 million, is inclusive of the construction of the De Hoop Dam, which will supply water to the mining industry as well as enable water provision to three municipalities in the Sekhukhune area. It is further inclusive of augmentation of water supply to the Flag Boshielo Dam which will enable water provision to the mining industry and two municipalities in the Capricorn and Mogalakwena regions. A bulk distribution system will be put in place to ensure distribution of water to the various areas. It is foreseen that mining development in the Eastern and Northern Limbs of the Bushveld Complex will create 30 000 direct and indirect jobs by 2030. Bigen Africa is playing a fundamental role in ensuring that this impact is achieved.

51 MetropolitanRepublic/8384/E


With our water treatment technology, we can make acid mine water completely usable again, even good enough to wash with. Developed in South Africa, this technology is world-renowned for its high recovery of clean water. *Aveng Water treats approximately 50 mega litres of acid mine water from all its water reclamation plants per day.



Bringing water to the people Driven by growth within its villages, Buffalo City Municipality embarked on a project to address the issue of water supply backlog. by Leigh Bahlmann, Goba


N 2005, THE Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM) identified the need to address the backlog of water supply to a number of villages and development nodes within the south western areas of its municipal boundaries. This need was driven by growth in the villages, the BCMM’s planned low-cost housing developments and development of the Coastal Resorts, which required additional water. The area is located within the boundaries of the BCMM to the south of the Buffalo River and is bounded by: • the Mount Coke road to the north • the Igoda River to the east • the Indian Ocean to the south • the Tyolomnqa River to the west.

Population and water demand There is a limited formal water supply scheme – the Ncera Water Supply Scheme – that serves a

BELOW The finished pipe route

portion of the project area. This scheme extends from Needs Camp to Kayser’s Beach. The existing bulk main supplies 11 reservoirs, ranging in

capacity from 1 kℓ to 200 kℓ. Population figures from the 2001 census indicate that the scheme supplies approximately 8 500 people. The

TABLE 1: Overview: coastal areas water supply scheme PROJECT PHASE AND COST



Phase 1A R3 million Phase 1B R3 million Phase 1C R3 million Phase 1D estimated value of R24 million – awaiting award Phase 1E R1.5 million Phase 1F R2.1 million Phase 2 schemes Estimated value of R36 million

November 2010 November 2010

December 2011 800 m of 300 mm-diameter ductile iron pipe for each contractor – total of 2.4 km December 2011 pipe laid

November 2010

December 2011

Mid 2012

Mid 2013

September 2011 April 2012 September 2011 April 2012 2013



8 km of 300 mm-diameter ductile iron pipe, 2.4 Mℓ reservoir and an 80 Kℓ reservoir. Presently out to tender – awaiting award by the BCMM 60 standpipes and 16 km of PVC and HDPE reticulation pipelines to upgrade existing village water supply schemes within four villages of the BCMM Future bulk water supply to Coastal Resorts and addressing the backlogs of water supply to farmers for household consumption and rural villages




current population estimate for the entire project area is approximately 25 000. Based on the current population and water demands for the supply groups, the population growth rates were applied to escalate the water demands to the 20 year design horizon of 2025. Following the analysis of the water demand growth, it was estimated that the present summer peak water demand for the study area is approximately 4Mℓ/day; increasing to approximately 8Mℓ/day by 2025. Funding for this water supply scheme was received from the Municipal Infrastructure Grant (MIG), the BCMM and private developers, who would pay a development levy toward the costs of receiving a bulk water supply.

Project overview The BCMM required the provision of water to rural villages to an RDP level of service in line with the Department of Water Affairs’ objectives. Furthermore, as far as possible, the projects were to be split up to assist and enable


EPWP learner contractors



Where trenches were deeper than 1.0 m, the trench excavation was stepped to provide side slope stability the development of Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) learner contractors and emerging contractors to tender and construct the works. Projects were designed and managed by Goba to fit in with the BCMM’s funding stream as well as maximise labour intensive construction (LIC) methods. The scheme was therefore split into a number of smaller projects and phases in order to encourage the participation and development of local small, medium and micro enterprises. This included utilising EPWP learner contractors identified by the BCMM. Furthermore, the team was required to work closely with local community structures and the community, through elected Project Steering Committees (PSCs) and Village Water Committees as well as Community Liaison Officers in order to ensure local buy-in and commitment by all.

Skills development and empowerment The Institutional and Social Development (ISD) agents conducted a number of training sessions, workshops and PSC meetings in order to empower the structures to make decisions regarding both the technical and social aspects




1. Labourers doing bedding preparation – note stepped trench. 2. Labour wrapping Ductile Iron pipe 3. Bedding Compaction 4. Hand mixing of concrete 5. Ductile Iron Pipe Wrapped and Laid

Village reticulation contractor Project managers Civil structural engineers ISD consultant Environmental consultant OH&S consultant

Intlakohlaza Civils (Phase 1A) Orae Contractors (Phase 1B) Lililo Construction (Phase 1C) Makisi Civils (Phase 1E and 1F)

Goba (Pty) Ltd Goba (Pty) Ltd Thina Development Consultants Aurecon AKA Risk Management

of the project, on behalf of their constituent community. Training of the PSCs was carried out before construction started. The PSCs proved their skill through effective communication and decision making and, in this way, assisted the projects continuously. The EPWP learner contractors all received training in both Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Management components of construction. Contractors’ construction and rehabilitation methods were closely monitored especially due to the steep slopes and diverse nature of the soils. On-the-job training was provided for general construction skills, as well as training and skills transfer to local semiskilled and skilled labour, which were drawn from the skills base provided through the Labour Desk Officers.

Safety on site With the emphasis on LIC methods, the utilisation of learner contractors and generally emerging contractors, safety on site was critical. In order to ensure the safety of workers on site while trenching was taking place and for cost effectiveness, trench depths were limited to less than 1.0 m where possible. Where trenches were deeper than 1.0 m, the trench excavation was stepped to provide side slope stability and therefore additional protection to the labour. Where hard rock was encountered, it was removed by compressors. Machines were only used where boulders too large for labour were encountered. Testimony to the success of the Health and Safety Programme was that there were no injuries or fatalities on these five contracts. The BCMM and Goba’s entire project team were Xhosa speaking, which allowed the freedom for meetings to be conducted in Xhosa (when necessary) to ensure understanding by all parties.





Efficient flow of traffic With a project value of R104 million, the national route along the N2, section 16 from km 16.6 to km 27.4, as well as the Gonubie and Brakfontein interchanges, is currently being rehabilitated under Gibb's watchful eye. This section of the road lies in both the Amathole District and Buffalo City municipalities.


OMMISSIONED BY the South African National Roads Agency Limited (SANRAL), once complete, this section of the road under rehabilitation will be able to better accommodate traffic flow. It includes rehabilitation and capacity improvements at the N2: Gonubie Main Road Interchange at km 20 and rehabilitation of the N2: Brakfontein Interchange at km 26.5. The project consists mainly of two sections: 1. Km 16.6 to km 19.6: This section, including the N2: Beacon Bay Interchange (with three ramps), will be patched and resealed with a 19/6.7 double seal.

2. Km 19.6 to km 27.4: This section, including the N2: Gonubie Main Road Interchange and the N2: Brakfontein Interchange will be rehabilitated. The interchanges, including all ramps and cross roads (Gonubie Main Road and the R102) within the SANRAL road reserve, will also be rehabilitated. This section shall be surfaced with a 19 mm cape seal.

Proposed roadworks The dual carriageway stretches up to km 22.0 and thereafter becomes a single carriageway for the remainder of t he project up to km 27.4. An auxiliary lane, approximately 2.6 km long, will be constructed between km 24 and km 26.6 on the single carriageway. The N2: Gonubie Main Road Interchange will require a capacity upgrade within the limits of the SANRAL road reserve. An additional lane will be added on the northbound off-ramp and the Gonubie Main Road will be widened on both sides to allow for an additional lane. An additional lane will also be added to the southbound on-ramp. The route covers rolling terrain with no gradients greater than 7%. The only section of the road where a stop/go section will be allowed is between km 22 and km 25 – the remainder of the road shall be kept open for two-way traffic. The structural scope of works on the project includes: • Culverts: at km 24.96, a 2.65 x 2.45 m major box culvert is to be extended by approximately 10 m to accommodate the widened fill. Nine new pipe culverts will be laid and two Armco culverts will be sleeved and grouted. • Bridges: all road levels are to tie in with the various bridge decks as indicated on the relevant construction drawings. Construction on the project commenced in October 2011 PROJECT TEAM and is set for completion in Client SANRAL SOC Ltd March 2013. Civil engineer Gibb (Pty) Ltd






Haw and Inglis Civil Engineering (Pty) Ltd



Improvement of drainage structures and minor works The high-trafficked R72 forms part of important infrastructure in the Eastern Cape. Due to low maintenance over the years, the route between Nanara and East London was in need of an upgrade.


HE R72 IS a major route in East London, among others such as the R343 and R345, linking Kenton on Sea with the N2 and Peddie with the R72 respectively. In light of low maintenance over the past years, and to maintain and improve the riding quality, maintaining road furniture and subsidiary works, as well as protecting the pavement, routine maintenance projects on all the major roads in the Eastern Cape came into effect in February 2010. The scope of works along the R72 between Nanara and East London includes planning, design and management of a maintenance holding contract for nine months, which was completed in May 2011, and a routine maintenance contract for another 36 months. The three year maintenance contract is valued at R 16 882 111 and covers a length of approximately 341 km of road along the R72 and R343.

Project overview The extent of the works for this contract includes the following: • clearing and grubbing • collection and removal of debris and litter • stormwater and drains • asphalt and concrete berms • pavement layers of gravel material • patching and repairing edge breaks • bituminous single seal with slurry (cape seal) • treatment to an existing surface exhibiting certain defects • gabions • guardrails • road signs • road markings • control vegetation growth – mowing and cutting • chemical control of vegetation and eradication of undesirable vegetation • training • emergency standby team.

One of the main challenges was to determine how best to utilise the available budget especially after heavy rainstorms which severely affected the condition of the road. Traffic loading on the R72 with a 60% heavy vehicle ratio, also had to be taken into consideration. During the detailed visual assessment and design process, the following controls/checks were implemented: • pavement and materials design • practicality of elected remedial action • road drainage improvements • detail design drawings (if required) • coordination of services drawing • value engineering • traffic accommodation detail and specification, including fining mechanism for contractor not adhering to specification • health and safety. Other important maintenance issues such as grass cutting, betterment of sight distances, guardrail repairs, rest areas and even storm water drainage are often only partly addressed as a result of the vast number of major black top failures over long distances associated with the overall condition of the road and traffic volumes, together with budget constraints. In late 2011, road markings were successfully carried out over the complete length of the road as a safety measure.

Although bitumen-treated base is more expensive, it is preferred over emulsion-treated base for patch repair work as a result of heavy vehicles and rainy weather. Emulsiontreated base repairs were tried, and curing periods and traffic volumes did not allow for successful implementation. As a desperate measure during October 2011 when bitumen-treated base was not available, a concrete mix was used for base and surface patching. Patches with concrete had to cure for the night by means of night stop/go traffic accommodation. Assistance from the traffic police in Port Alfred was very helpful in this regard. During rainy weather, plugging of potholes was done temporarily by using sabunga or a fine aggregate stabilised with cement. As an alternative, hydro asphalt will be considered in 2012 for repairing patches in rainy weather. The project commenced on 28 June 2011 and is scheduled for completion on 28 June 2014.


Eastern Cape Department of Road and Public Works Project engineer Engineering Advice and Services Civil consulting engineers Madan Singh Bester & Associates cc Civil contractor African Bulk Earthworks

Availability of construction materials Currently, the major challenge being experienced on the project is the availability of construction materials. Long distances to work areas and bitumen shortage in the latter half of 2011 were crucial factors in the availability of construction materials.



Envitech Solutions’ core business focus is on the waste management, environmental, and mining sectors. With an international network of technology partners and associated companies, projects are undertaken both locally and internationally. Environmental Engineering • Integrated Waste Management Recycling, Composting, Anaerobic Digestion & Thermal Treatment Waste-to-Energy • Landfill Engineering Landfill Gas Management & Power Generation Leachate Management & Treatment Mine Waste Management • Closure & Rehabilitation


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Complete waste solutions and associated technologies Envitech Solutions focuses on technologies and projects in waste management, landfill engineering, landfill gas to electricity, waste-to-energy and integrated waste handling, including sorting and treatment.


HE COMMON OBJECTIVE of these processes is to provide environmentally sustainable solutions and hence reduce the volumes of waste requiring disposal to landfill and associated emissions. The company is a leading provider of waste management solutions to both municipalities and industry, ranging from general wastes to specific waste types. Waste-to-energy solutions

Projects are undertaken both locally and internationally in countries such as Angola, Nigeria, Namibia and the Middle East. Another specialisation that the company offers is the design of geosynthetic liner systems and a number of projects have been completed in countries such as Jordan, Yemen and Qatar, where construction quality assurance (CQA) is a prerequisite on most lining projects. To date the company has

Turnkey solutions Turnkey solutions are provided to clients, including feasibility studies through to design, procurement, installation, operation and maintenance of facilities on a long-term basis. Landfill gas management Landfill gas management systems include gas yield modelling, gas monitoring, gas extraction and flaring systems as well as landfill gas-toelectricity systems. Alternative uses for landfill gas are investigated to offer the appropriate use option such as thermal energy for kilns and boilers, or electricity generation using reciprocating engines and generators.

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provide industry with process steam for manufacturing processes and electricity for own use and where possible, for supply to the local electricity grid. Some of the various landfill gas to electricity projects undertaken by the company over the previous five years include the eThekweni Municipality and the Ekurhuleni Municipality clean development mechanism projects. Envitech has recently been appointed by the Windhoek Municipality to provide turnkey services for the development and installation of a landfill gas to electricity project on the Kupferberg landfill site.

and required round the clock supervisory and environmental monitoring services.

ABOVE Rooikraal landfill gas pump and flare station in Ekurhuleni

carried out CQA services on projects totaling some 3.5 million m2. On another project, related to the Mesaieed landfill, the company provided environmental and waste management technical services for a contract involving the removal of some 6.5 million tonnes of waste, including petrochemical wastes, from the sea at the site of the new Doha International Airport. This project was carried out 24 hours every day over a period of 13 months

Waste-to-energy Waste-to-energy plants allow industry to minimise the amount of waste to be disposed of to landfill and hence reduce disposal costs. They also facilitate the generation of electricity for their own requirements. Any surplus electricity generated can be supplied to the local grid. Biogas plants utilising both solid and liquid organic wastes can generate significant volumes of biogas which can be utilised to provide thermal energy. The resultant residues can be used as soil conditioners or used to manufacture compost or organic fertilisers. Integrated waste management Integrated waste management or treatment systems are offered, both in modular format (individual technologies or components), or as complete systems depending on specific requirements. Alliances have been secured with various technology partners to provide the optimum combination of technologies for a particular integrated waste treatment solution.



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The key to sustainable water resources Ensuring that the quality of water resources is suitable for the intended uses, while at the same allowing the water resources to be used and developed to a certain extent, constitutes effective water and wastewater management.


ROM A REGULATORY point of view, water utilities are in the ‘business’ of ensuring water quality management through the ongoing process of planning, development, implementation and administration of water quality management policies, and the authorisation of water uses that may have an impact on water quality. In addition, the Department of Water Affairs has introduced a certification scheme for municipal water and sanitation services in South Africa known as the Blue and Green Drop Certification. Blue Drop

Certification ensures that everyday water supply systems are evaluated according to a stringent set of criteria while Green Drop Certification applies to the management of municipal wastewater systems to encourage proper processing of waste in an eco-friendly manner. South Africa, and Africa as a whole, has very little water available and it is imperative that these resources are properly recovered, managed and treated. Candice Landie facilitates this panel discussion, which focuses extensively on water and wastewater quality and treatment, including: the

processes/regulations followed by water treatment specialists and Candice Landie laboratories to ensure efficient management; the expertise required by consultants to construct and rehabilitate Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTW) and purification plants, and how these plants aid municipalities in the efficient treatment of wastewater; the methods used to ensure water security; and the products that suppliers to water utilities and WWTW plants have on offer.



Since its inception at the beginning of July, the new IMIESA weekly e-newsletter is proving to be hugely popular, with a total of 5 640 subscribers already receiving their copy directly every week.

Su ubsscribe now to the weekly IMIESA e-new wsleƩer or the most up-to-daate news in the indu ustry! fo To subscribe e-mail | Send your press releases & event information to

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CONRAD PILGER GM sales and engineering – SEW Eurodrive Q. With regard to water and wastewater, what is SEW Eurodrive’s core business function? CP: We provide power transmission products which are used for mixing and agitating processes in the treatment of wastewater. When it comes to wastewater plants, does the company supply specific product/s or do you offer a complete solution? We offer a complete solution in that we will provide the product in a way which can be installed. We also work with various OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) to custom-make products according to customer requirements. What products make up SEW Eurodrive’s water and wastewater range? MC Series of industrial gears, complete with EBD (extended bearing distance) and our complete series 7 geared motor range. The new MOVITRAC LTP B frequency inverter is set to be released in the first quarter of 2012. Can you briefly explain the benefits of this inverter and the applications it would be suited for? This unit can work in harsh conditions, which include wet areas. It is extremely versatile and can be used with very different motors: asynchronous motors, synchronous motors without encoder feedback, and servomotors. The new MOVITRAC LTP B frequency inverter from SEW Eurodrive is the perfect match for a large variety of drive solutions in a wide range of applications. It is easy to install, highly reliable and particularly efficient. This unit series can be used universally as it was designed for controlling the speed of asynchronous motors, permanent-field synchronous motors and servomotors. The wide range of application options for different motor types and tasks allows for an optimum drive solution in terms of efficiency and energy consumption. In addition to the energy-saving function that reduces consumption in part-load operation and the ‘sleep mode’ that switches off entire areas (as long as they are not needed), the operation of synchronous motors in speed control mode is another aspect that characterises this sustainable SEW Eurodrive product. The

MOVITRAC LTP B frequency inverter is available in six frame sizes from 0.37 kW to 160 kW for a line voltage of 230 V or 400 V. The IP55/NEMA 12 degree of protection ensures that this inverter series can be used in rough ambient conditions. In this way, the MOVITRAC LTP B frequency inverters operate reliably and flexibly even when exposed to dust or water. This drive solution is also ideally suited for solutions outside the control cabinet, where less enclosed space is required.

Overall, what industries does SEW Eurodrive service and what is your global market share? SEW services around 80% of all industries – water, mining, logistics, timber, sugar, automotive, entertainment, airports, food and beverage, etc. There are no official figures on market share in South Africa. International figures indicate 21.5%, which is the highest in the geared motor market.

be a fault code when the unit is acting up. When the customer goes onto this appliConrad Pilger cation they choose the type of product, that is, Movitrac B, Movidrive B or Movimot and fill in the fault code, the phone application will tell them what the code means and what the relevant corrective action is. Brilliant for quick on the spot maintenance! BELOW Units from SEW Eurodrive ready for delivery to an OEM

Can you briefly explain the SEW iPhone Application and the benefits this will present to clients? It is an easy application to assist customers on two fronts: first is the SEW ID Application which allows customers to fill in a serial number and then get all the data relating to the product on their iPhone. If you can imagine that some products run in the field for a number of years and when a customer needs to replace it they might not have the paperwork on hand anymore (might have been archived), so this is an easy way to get the information. Each unit has a unique ID number which relates back to our SAP systems. The second application is the SEW Diagnostics Application, used especially on electronics products where there would




LEPELLE NORTHERN WATER (LNW) Q. As a water utility, what processes/ regulations do you follow to ensure the efficient management of water? LNW: For potable water: full scale conventional treatment plant including inlet works, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination and reservoirs. For wastewater treatment: inlet works, grit channel, biological nutrient removal, sedimentation and chlorination. The regulation for drinking water: SANS 241:2006. Wastewater: We are guided by the conditions stipulated in the Wastewater Licence issued by the Department of Water Affairs; these are derived from the influent plus quantity on a given day and the receiving environment (water resource) where the effluent is discharged into. The regulations we follow for wastewater are General Standards and Special Standards. As water treatment specialists, what technologies do you rely on for effective water and wastewater treatment, such as, reverse osmosis, ozonation, etc? For potable water we rely on the following technologies: coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination. For wastewater, most of our plants are activated/designed according to the Phoredox principle three stage, inlet works, grit channel, biological reactor, sedimentation and chlorination. As consultants, what is the expertise required to construct and rehabilitate WWTW and purification plants, and how do these plants aid municipalities in the efficient treatment of wastewater? We need to have a sound knowledge and experience in the water treatment plants and be a process engineer/specialist, be accredited, and registered with the Engineering Council. WWTW and purification plants aid municipalities in the supply of good quality water that complies with the set standards SANS 241: 2006 and Special and/or General Standards for WWT plants. As water recovery specialists, what methods do you recommend (desalination, grey water recycling, etc) to ensure water security and why? We recommend rain water harvesting as it’s the simplest way and can be widely accessed especially in rural areas which have an inadequate supply of water. Rain water does not require any

immediate chemical intervention but of course if it’s stored for a long time it would need chemical intervention. Water scarcity is a major issue and this natural process can be leveraged.

As suppliers to water utilities and WWTW plants, what products do you have on offer to aid in the treatment of water and WWTW wastewater? For both the potable and wastewater treatment plants, we make sure that the products we use to treat the water are SABS or NSF approved. We use flocculants for potable water (the use of specific flocculants is always determined by the quality of water at the time). We use biocatalysts for wastewater. Which areas/communities does the company service? The following are water schemes currently operated by LNW: Burgersfort (Tubatse Municipality within Sekhukhune District Municipality), Doorndraai (Mogalakwena Municipality), Ebenezer (Haener tzburg, Polokwane and Mankweng areas), Flag Boshielo (Marble Hall and Makhuduthamaga municipal areas), Nkowankowa (Greater Letaba River to surrounding villages and small industries), Ohrigstad (Ohrigstad Town in Tubatse Municipality),Olifantspoort (Polokwane metropolitan area, the rural villages in the Mphahlele area and the Lepelle Nkumpi Municipality), Phalaborwa (Ba-Phalaborwa Municipality and semi-treated water to the industries and mines), Politsi (Duiwelskloof and the Ga-Kgapane areas), Steelpoort (Tubatse in Sekhukhune District

ABOVE LNW provides support to selected water services authorities

Municipality), Modjadji (rural villages in the Greater Letaba municipal area).

Is the company involved in any skills development and/or community programmes/projects? Since 2003 LNW has provided just over 100 graduates with internship opportunities to apply their knowledge as well as learn from the expertise within the organisation. Some of these graduates have since become permanent staff members of LNW while others have gone to other institutions. We have offered full bursary allocation to students who will be pursuing post matric studies in Chemical, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering fields as LNW has identified these to be more crucial skills in the water services environment. LNW has a memorandum of understanding with the Limpopo Provincial Department of Education, which identifies and refers most deserving learners to LNW. We also provide support to selected water services authorities (WSA). LNW advises its best performing WSA’s to identify community improvement projects, which LNW allocates financial and human resources to, as part of its CSI strategy. LNW also assists with rain water harvesting projects to improve the quality of life in the rural areas. The company oversees the installation of water tanks and gutters, which will serve to harvest rain water at schools and dwellings it identifies.




OLIVER M IVE Managing director – Amanz’ abantu Services Q. With regard to water and sanitation services, what is Amanz’abantu Services’ core business function? OMI: Amanz’ abantu Services, as its name implies (an isiXhosa term meaning “water for the people”), considers its core business as the development of water and sanitation infrastructure (schemes and projects) for the developing and predominantly rural communities of the Eastern Cape. The company was initially formed in 1997 to act as the programme implementation agent for the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF’s) high profile Build Operate Train and Transfer (BoTT) programme. As the requirements of the BoTT programme included the full turnkey development of water schemes, Amanz’ abantu was required to provide a range of services, including institutional and social development, planning and design, construction and operations. Following the BoTT programme in 2003, Amanz’ abantu shareholders agreed that the knowledge gained for rolling out water services using this turnkey approach should continue to be made available to the municipalities, and so the company has remained active ever since. Which provinces/areas/communities does the company service? Amanz’ abantu Services operates mainly in the Eastern Cape province and our focus has been on projects or programmes providing water services to rural communities or those on the urban fringes. Can you cite the last three community water and sanitation projects undertaken by Amanz’abantu? In late 2009, Amanz’ abantu Services was appointed to manage a number of Zone Manufacturing Centres on behalf of the Alfred Nzo District Municipality (ANDM) for the rollout of the ANDM’s sanitation backlog eradication programme. On this programme, we have been responsible for planning and implementing the roll-out for the provision of household Ventilated Pit Latrines (VIPs) to the rural areas of the ANDM. To date we have completed over 13 000 VIPs, and in the process have provided employment for many previously unemployed people through manufacturing blocks and slabs, as well as through excavation, material distribution and building work on site.

We have a current appointment from the Chris Hani District Municipality to manage the design and construction of household sanitation in the Intsika Yethu Local Municipality. This project has involved providing training and mentorship to 40 selected EPWP contractors, as well as directing and overseeing these contractors for the construction of 2 600 VIPs under Phase 1 of a larger sanitation project for the Intsika Yethu Local Municipality. Amanz’ abantu is also in partnership with Arcus Gibb to provide a Professional Resource Team (PRT) to the Eastern Cape Department of Human Settlements. Under this programme, the company is providing construction management services to oversee the work of the small contractors who have been appointed to build 1 289 houses in Cala and Elliot. Other activities being undertaken include water meter/ water management device installations as well as the servicing of households water supply ‘beyond the meter’.

Can you give me a brief overview of government’s Community and Water Sanitation Programme and how Amanz’abantu ties into this programme? Government has, since adopting the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) in 1994, focused on providing water and sanitation to the previously un-served communities of South Africa. Amanz’ abantu Services considers itself as a private sector partner to government in its mission to provide this universal access to water and sanitation, and we have regularly accompanied government delegations to international summits to support wherever possible. For example, our managing director, Oliver Ive, was part of the ‘private sector’

delegation for the debate at the United N a t i o n s Johannesburg Oliver M Ive World Summit, in 2001, where the Sanitation MDG was eventually approved. Amanz’ abantu Services believes that for an effective and sustainable community water and sanitation programme, it is essential that the private sector service providers have a good understanding of all the aspects relating to working within and with local communities for the development of their local infrastructure.

Is the company involved in any skills development programmes/projects? Amanz’ abantu Services has a memorandum of understanding with the Water Research Commission, CSIR, Irish Aid (funding partner) and the Eastern Cape Department of Education, to train and develop micro-enterprises to undertake the servicing of school sanitation and water facilities. This pilot project has enabled us to explore utilising a social franchising mechanism to enable us to develop and support these micro-enterprises to provide good quality services to public clients. This is a very exciting project for us, and we are hoping it will positively influence our public sector clients to work towards creating a small business friendly approach to outsourcing operation and maintenance services for particularly the rural and developing areas.

BELOW Manufacturing of blocks for the Alfred Nzo District Municipality’s Rural Sanitation Programme at the Mphakamisi Mhlaba Zone Centre






Water Reclamation


Seawater Desalination


Water Treatment


Wastewater Treatment


Process Design


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PIERRE MARAIS Managing director – Water & Wastewater Engineering Q. With regard to water quality and treatment, what is Water and Wastewater Engineering’s core business function? PM: We are a complete water solution provider that specialises in water and wastewater treatment. This includes desalination, water reclamation and operation of these treatment plants. Can you cite the projects undertaken by the company over the last two years? Our most recent projects include the following: • Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant – This is the first direct (toilet-to-tap) water reclamation plant in South Africa. The project was initiated and awarded to Water & Wastewater Engineering under a 20 year design, build and operate concession. The water reclamation plant has been completed and is fully operational, delivering water which is complying with the SANS 241-1: 2011 (Edition 1) standard. It is a ground breaking project in that it unlocks a significant water source that has historically either been over looked or under-utilised. • Piketberg Water and WWTW – These projects entail the upgrading of the Piketberg Water and Wastewater Treatment Works. Water & Wastewater Engineering’s involvement included the process design, civil, mechanical and electrical designs as well as construction management. • Maseru Wastewater Project – Water & Wastewater Engineering was the technical assistant to the Maseru Wastewater Project. This project entailed a new 21 Mℓ/ day wastewater treatment works, of which Phase 1 has been completed.

‘direct’ water reclamation plant in South Africa. The term ‘direct’ means treated effluent from the wastewater treatment works is further treated and pumped directly back into the town’s water supply system. It is not diluted into a catchments dam or aquifer. It is blended with other treated water and distributed. The reclamation plant is only the second of its kind in the world. It is a very revolutionary project and the municipality had to overcome a lot of hurdles to implement the project.

Why did the municipality opt for this reuse option? What makes the Beaufort West water supply difficult is that it has no perennial rivers in the surrounding area. Water supply is heavily reliant on rainfall and drought is inevitable. The municipality has two main sources of water, that is, surface runoff that is captured in the Gamka and Springfontein Dams, and borehole water. During the recent drought both dams and approximately 50% of the boreholes dried up. Given this background, the municipality identified water supply as a key strategic resource and embarked on a short, medium and long term strategy to secure the water supply; and embarked on this project. Louw Smit, director Engineering Ser vices, says: “We knew it was going to be a first in South Africa but given our circumstances, it was the only sustainable solution. We were also aware of the sensitivity of the project. The

FROM LEFT TO RIGHT Pierre Marais, Jaffie Booysen (municipal manager), Louw Smit (director: Engineering Services), both from Beaufort West Municipality

design had to incorporate safety measures, with automatic shut down should the water quality deteriorate.”

What treatment technologies does Water & Wastewater Engineering specialise in? We are not married to a specific technology. We evaluate our client’s needs and challenges and propose a suitable solution. The technology may vary from rudimentary treatment technology in the rural areas, to high technology membrane solutions in the urban areas. We believe in providing a solution that is suitable to our clients. BELOW Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant

The company recently completed the Beaufort West Water Reclamation Plant, which is the first direct (toiletto-tap) water reclamation plant in South Africa. Can you explain what is meant by toilet-to-tap and why no plants of this kind have been commissioned in South Africa? Historically final effluent from a wastewater treatment works would either flow to the river or be used for irrigation. As a result of the topographical conditions in Beaufort West the municipality decided to implement the first




BRIAN ABBOTT Product manager, Pneumatics – Festo Q. With regard to water and wastewater products/applications, what is Festo South Africa’s core business function? BA: Through years of development of factory automation solutions, Festo has been able to bring together a wide range of technologies, tried and tested in the demanding Industrial Automation segment, thus being able to offer customers in the water and wastewater segments a complete automation solution of the highest quality and reliability. From consultation through to design, installation, commissioning and didactic training, we are able to offer a complete valve automation solution from a single source. This includes ‘plug and work’ valve actuator combinations, customised electro pneumatic control panels, centralised or decentralised offerings, including PLCs. We take the hassle out of sourcing components from a number of different suppliers and then getting them to work together, as they should, by offering our customers the turnkey solution. What are the advantages of using pneumatic actuators in the treatment of sewage? Firstly for areas where ATEX is a requirement, pneumatic drives have the distinct advantage of being rated by default for explosive environments, thus negating the need for costly electrical solutions. It’s as simple as installing the actuator into the ATEX zone and driving it from our customised control panel in a non-ATEX zone. Other advantages include the high corrosion resistance of the actuators body (we call it CRC or Corrosion Resistance Class). Another very important advantage of pneumatic actuators, in any area of process automation, is that unlike electrical actuators, they have a safety or default position in the case of loss of electrical power. Even with the power down, an air reservoir will allow for the actuators to be switched a number of times by using a simple manual override, literally the touch of a button, rather than turning a hand wheel countless times as is with electric actuators. What are the advantages of pneumatic actuators for drinking water technology and what components are offered by Festo? The simplicity of pneumatics makes it a logical solution for this industry. For starters,

the installation requires minimal effort and a low level of skills. Pneumatic drives from Festo ensure a high level of plant availability, reduced procurement costs and are maintenance free. Not only can Festo offer linear and rotary drives, up to 4.8 t of force and 8 000 Nm torque respectively, we also have a unique linear drive solution with an integrated positioner – series DFPI. The DFPI (a ‘plug and work’ solution) is the only one of its kind in the world.

Does Festo offer automation solutions for both municipal and industrial water and wastewater treatment? Yes, Festo offers solutions for all areas of automation. If it’s a control valve that needs to be actuated we can provide the products. Industry today has a few basic requirements – the solutions need to be cost-effective, simple to install, easy to maintain, be energy efficient and provide a high level of plant availability. Does Festo make use of Condition Monitoring Systems (CMS)? If yes, please briefly explain the concept. CMS is a critical part of most processes today, increasing the level of safety, preventing costly down time, increasing levels of plant availability and making maintenance a more pro-active activity rather than reactive. These benefits can be realised with Festo’s CPX valve terminal. With this option we combine both an electrical and pneumatic solution in one offering. This valve terminal offers connectivity to all major bus protocols and an optionally integrated PLC that can both be set up for condition monitoring tasks, indirectly giving feedback critical to maintaining plant or system availability.

out the tasks of opening and closing of valves. Though the task is simBrian Abbott ple, through its speed, torque and accuracy, pneumatic drives can achieve minimal loss of water and ultimately, energy in the process. Closing a backwash valve manually or automatically could mean the difference between thousands of litres. The water used for the backwash process has to go through the entire conditioning and filtering process once more. This inevitability requires the input from pumps, chemicals, etc, resulting in the wasting of energy. Closing a sludge valve is just another example of how speed could result in either the loss or saving of water. This is also where pneumatics has a big advantage, being able to operate in the event of a loss of electrical power. Valves can be opened or closed having a ‘safe’ default position in the event of a loss of power – ensuring plant security and peace of mind. BELOW Meulwater WTW – actuated raw water isolating valve

How does automation save energy and water? Automation has been an integral part of the water and wastewater treatment plants, carrying




MARTIN OVERY Managing member and founder – Water Purification Chemical & Plant cc With regard to water quality and treatment, what is Water Purification Chemical & Plant’s (WPCP) core business function? MO: WPCP’s core business function revolves around (mainly) the mechanical and electrical construction of water purification plants. This includes package plants up to 5 Mℓ/day and conventional plants up to 50 Mℓ/day. What treatment technologies does WPCP specialise in? We have the engineering know-how and process technology to design and build the full spectrum of plant with regard to water purification including water reuse, desalination, iron and manganese removal, organic removal, DAF, high (and low) turbidities and colour removal.

Can you cite the water projects undertaken by the company over the last two years? Our projects have included a few plant upgrades, for example, Kokstad water treatment works (WTW), where we added an extra 9 Mℓ/day upgrade, including siphon controlled gravity filters mechanical aspects of the two new pulsator clarifiers; fully auto Cl2 dosing in proportional to flow; etc. We have also just started installing the M&E parts to a 13 Mℓ/day plant which we designed at Sundumbili WTW for Ilembe District Municipality in Mandini on the KwaZulu-Natal north coast. To deal with the sometimes high raw water turbidities in excess of 10 000 NTU, we designed a Clariflocculator with bridge scraper and dual flocc mixers on board for sedimentation, and gravity filter floors. We were awarded

Our projects have included a few plant upgrades, for example, Kokstad water treatment works, where we added an extra 9 Mℓ/day upgrade



a really interesting contract to build two SS pilot gravity filters for Umgeni Water at Durban Heights – complete with siphon flow control and full PLC capability. Martin Overy We’re also currently busy with a 5 Mℓ/day upgrade to the Maphepethwa WTW for Umgeni Water.

WPCP refers to itself as a multidisciplinary water company. Explain what this means to the industry and your clients? What we mean by this is that we have expertise in a few of the essential aspects of water

BELOW A pilot filter plant at Umgeni Water: Durban Heights Plant OPPOSITE Grabouw WTW upgrade


The Lamella settlers

The MCC manufactured by Kaltron

The ‘bubble test’ prior to installation of dual filter media

treatment including flocculant manufacture and therefore expertise with regard to the application requirements for different water qualities. Process and engineering expertise for the full spectrum of water quality treatment technologies via our ‘in-house’ or associated process and engineering specialists whom we call in as required.

in a number of cases, for example, in some United Arab Emirates (UAE) cities, and many of the bottled water suppliers both here and in the UAE. This aspect needs to be highlighted along with the possible medical problems of continued potable use of desalinated water without proper remineralisation.

Can you explain more your thoughts and involvement in desalination? This technology, which is improving at a fairly rapid rate, is often the only source of potable water. We have associations with a few of the major membrane suppliers and are able to offer a plant to suit. We have seen however that proper remineralisation is not taking place

Where has WPCP installed containerised drinking water plants and what have been the benefits to that particular region? We’ve installed containerised plants in a number of Southern African areas. Local installations include Somkhele Mine, North KZN, the Gumbi Emergency Water Plant and far Northern KZN.



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MSUNDUZI MUNICIPALITY Q. With National Water Week being observed in March, what water saving initiatives has the Msunduzi Municipality been involved in? MM: The Msunduzi Municipality has made great strides when it comes to saving water over the past year. Having embraced the Department of Water Affairs’ policy that ‘Water Is Life’, we formulated a five-year Water Conservation and Water Demand Management initiative to stem water losses, increase revenue and improve service delivery. Ultimately, this is expected to bring us in line with the Presidential Directive of halving water losses by 2014. At present, we distribute an average of 175 million litres of water to over 600 000 people each day. If

we do not optimise the use of water, we cannot rule out water restrictions and even shortages. During the first year, the Msunduzi Municipality not only moved ahead with numerous technical interventions, but also focused on nontechnical engagements and activities aimed at increasing consumer awareness. We also need to reiterate that we started placing posters and undertaking ‘save water' social initiatives approximately a year and half ago. While we will be embracing National Water Week, Msunduzi Municipality will be campaigning these throughout the year.

Can you cite specific examples of the municipality’s technical and

non-technical interventions as mentioned in the previous question, and how have these measures helped with regard to overall savings? The high-impact interventions that began in earnest in February 2010 include the replacement of aged infrastructure, pipes and water meters as well as the reduction of water pressure, leak detection and the minimisation of illegal connections. Non-revenue water for the 2009/10 financial year was 37% but this dropped by 1.3% within the first few months, equating to a saving of 15 Mℓ/day. Because unnecessarily high water pressure increases both the frequency and volume of water leaks, we have introduced stateof-the-art pressure reduction valves (PRVs) to reduce pressure to consumers - however within the legal limits. As a result, we expect to save in excess of 10 Mℓ/day, equating to about R13 million. So far, Oribi, Murray Road, Bisley, Hathorns, Symons and Masons’ reservoir zones have been rezoned and redesigned to comply with the new pressure regime. Additional PRVs will be installed during 2012. We also installed two advanced controllers in Townbush Road, which feeds 75% of the CBD. Utilising GSM Communication signals, these revolutionary devices are constantly updated and adjust the PRVs to ensure that water pressures are kept at optimum levels at all times. Currently, they deliver a saving of 2.2 Mℓ/day. Savings are expected to equate to R2.65 million when the system has stabilised. When it comes to water saving initiatives, what is next on Msunduzi Municipality’s priority list? Leak detection and repair is a big priority for us. Level 2 leak detection began in March 2010 and a total of 1 791 km of pipes were surveyed. 1 739 visible and non-visible leaks were found, of which 99% were repaired. Level 4 leak detection took place in Symons reservoir zone in the CBD area and 78.3 km of pipeline was surveyed. A total of 14 leaks were found and 10 have been repaired. Special steps are being taken to repair those in difficult positions such as tarred intersections. Overall, this has ended estimated losses of 2.4 Mℓ/day. Our main replacement programme, which will ultimately replace approximately 30 km of pipe across the city, is well under way. In 2011, pipe LEFT Honourable Mayor of Msunduzi Municipality, Councillor Chris Ndlela




ABOVE In-line valve maintenance being conducted

replacement in the CBD was prioritised due to the high frequency of bursts due to crumbling infrastructure. High traffic congestion in the CBD necessitated the use of sophisticated

If we do not optimise the use of water, we cannot rule out water restrictions and even shortages trenchless technology. Phase 1 comprises 3.2 km of which 1.8 km has been replaced. The balance will be completed during 2012. We are further in the process of advertising contracts for the refurbishment of certain reservoirs that are leaking and for the changing of unreadable or inaccessible water meters. Planning for the rezoning of the Edendale reservoir, has already commenced.

Has the municipality experienced any billing problems and if so, have you managed to counteract this issue? A year ago, illegal connections and unmetered or unregistered connections accounted for 37% of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water losses. In February 2011, there were 12 589 exception reports. Of these, 5 947 water meters required maintenance such as clearing of rubble and grass. Furthermore, 6 061 water meters were inspected and 3 122 were found to be either damaged or not working. To date, 1 157 water meters have been replaced. Phase 2 of this replacement programme commenced in early 2012 and, by the end of 2013, all faulty water meters will have been replaced.

Going forward, what are the water saving plans/initiatives for Msunduzi Municipality? While the water-saving interventions form the backbone of the Msunduzi Municipalityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Water Conservation and Water Demand Management initiative, it is only by entrenching a water-saving culture that we can ensure that saving will be sustainable. An awareness programme has been initiated. We have visited schools to teach both learners and educators about the need to save water. The aim is for learners to take this message home so that it can be disseminated to whole communities. Feedback from learners indicates that this is happening and that they are using water more responsibly and

ABOVE Pipe replacement using trenchless technology carried out by JK Structures, at the corner of Echo Road and Bulwer Street in the Pietermaritzburg CBD

even reporting leaks and illegal connections. Although this programme has been put on hold during the recent school holidays, 75 primary and high schools within the Msunduzi Municipality are expected to be reached. Msunduzi Municipality urges its communities to use water sensibly and report leaks.



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RALPH HEATH Africa Leader Environmental Technology – Golder Associates Q. With regard to water and wastewater applications, what is Golder in Africa’s core business function? RH: Golder offers specialised services including the characterisation and quantification of water and wastewater streams, and the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment technologies – including process engineering related to treatment systems (sludge and brine disposal). We develop the layout and infrastructure of the treatment plant site and our professionals apply civil and earthworks engineering related to the treatment plants. Golder conducts impact assessments of treated effluent discharges to public streams and water bodies, and develops wastewater collection and treatment tariff structures and associated agreements. Golder’s total offering includes assessing and managing all surface and groundwater resources, which include hydrocarbon contamination, environmental geochemistry, as well as aquatic, terrestrial and wetland ecology. Can you briefly explain Golder in Africa’s involvement in the Mine Water Treatment Plant project (Optimum Colliery) in Mpumalanga? As the lead engineering, procurement and construction management contractor, Golder undertook the full scope of work related to the feasibility and execution stages of the Optimum Water Reclamation Project, including: mine water characterisation, engineering design, mine water treatment technology, report preparation, project management, construction management services and regulatory approvals. With regard to groundwater, what solutions are offered by Golder in Africa? Can you cite the most recent groundwater project? Golder’s groundwater solutions include: groundwater resource evaluation; groundwater based supply for urban, community rural water supply programmes, mine, industrial, agriculture and irrigation use; hydrogeological and geochemical site characterisation for EIA specialist report and licensing applications; design and implementation of mine dewatering systems; numerical unsaturated and saturated flow and contaminant transport modeling; hydrocarbon contamination assessment, definition, mitigation, remediation and control; groundwater impact definition, mitigation, remediation and

control; groundwater monitoring; aquifer management; well field and borehole design as well as well pointing and infiltration gallery design. Golder was appointed by RJ Burnside International, a consultancy group based in Canada, to assess the groundwater supply to four cities, namely Pemba, Quelimane, Montepuez and Nacala in Mozambique.

In the last three years, who has been Golder in Africa’s biggest clients in the water and wastewater industry? Optimum Colliery’s Eikeboom Section: dewatering and water treatment – Golder assisted Optimum Collier y in finding a solution to address part of the Optimum’s surplus of affected water, in the form of the Optimum Water Reclamation Project whereby up to 15 Mℓ/day of excess mine water is treated to potable standards for human consumption, for reuse by the mine and for discharge back into the environment. The eThekwini Municipality: sludge management at Darvill Wastewater Works (biogas to energy) – Golder investigated options to optimise the digestion system and biogas production for the beneficial use at Darvill Wastewater Works. Anglo Gold Ashanti Obuasi Mine: water management – Golder was requested to conduct a site inspection and advise AGA Obuasi Mine on crucial water management aspects. Goldfields Tarkwa Mine (Ghana): cyanide destruction technology – Gold Fields Ghana Limited approached Golder to conduct a conceptual study with the aim to assess different cyanide destruction technology options. The study forms part of the TSF upgrade project and requires the tailings, prior to storage in the TSF, to meet specified cyanide concentration levels.

TCTA: Witwatersrand Goldfields acid mine drainage – BKS, in Ralph Heath association with Golder, have been contracted to install pumping facilities in each of the mining basins to maintain the water level below the Environmental Critical Level (ECL), construct measures to reduce water ingress and recharge to the underground workings and treat the excess mine water.

A press release was issued on 2 February stating that Golder in Africa has launched a construction services business unit. Briefly, what will this business unit entail? Golder is expanding to provide specialist construction services to its clients in Africa, complementing their existing strengths in ground engineering and environmental consulting. Golder offers one point of client contact, ensuring that every aspect of the project, including risk analysis and permitting, is effectively managed. In Africa, we will be building on our acquired global skills to offer complete design and construct packages. The typical service offering includes mine and dump rehabilitation, water treatment, groundwater abstraction systems, environmental monitoring systems, water supply schemes, waste to energy and carbon sequestration, waste disposal sites and waste management infrastructure. Golder is further extending its service offering into the oil, gas and energy sectors in Africa.

BELOW The completed Optimum project




CHRIS JANSEN VAN VUUREN Quality Laboratory Services Q.With regard to water and wastewater, what is Quality Laboratory Services’ core function? CJvV: Quality Laboratory Services (QLS) is an analytical laboratory whose main function is to perform water, wastewater and microbiological analysis for the various mining groups, local and district municipalities. QLS is an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory. What municipalities/wastewater treatment plants has Quality Laboratory Services’ worked with over the past two years? QLS has been appointed by the Bojanala district municipality to perform all their water analysis. Work has also been performed for Rustenburg Local Municipality and also for Madibeng Local Municipality. Work done was



mainly to perform analysis and also to consult on the improvement of the quality of the final product and the optimisation of the plants.

What type of water analysis is conducted by Quality Laboratory Services – analysis of drinking water, rivers, others? QLS performs the full spectrum of SANS 241 analyses and also a variety of microbiological tests on water and food samples. The lab is a SANAS accredited testing laboratory. What does this mean in terms of the level/integrity of water quality testing and analyses? As one of the criteria that have been laid down by the Department of Water Affairs, all municipalities have to test their water and wastewater

by either an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory or a Department of Water Affairs cer tified laborator y. This means that the results are accurate and reliable.

Chris Jansen van Vuuren

Can you give me a list of the services offered by Quality Laboratory Services? QLS offers the full spectrum of analyses as per SANS 241 , as well as a variety of microbiological analyses on water and food.



Supporting improved water services by William Moraka (SALGA), Jay Bhagwan (Water Research Commission), Grant Mackintosh (Municipal Benchmarking Initiative support team), Frank Stevens (IMESA and eThekwini: water and sanitation)

Local Government Water Services Authorities (WSAs) in South Africa have contributed significantly towards increased access to a wide range of basic and improved water services.


otwithstanding the progress made, this is set against the backdrop of an ongoing need to continue accelerating service delivery in order to meet inter alia the 2014 service delivery targets, and within an environment of growing development-driven water demand, as housing development and service upgrading accelerates. In order to seek sustainable provision of adequate, effective, efficient and safe water services, improved performance measurement and management will be crucial. Benchmarking is a structured, continuous process to both assess and improve one’s organisation’s performance and identify and adapt best practices from amongst one’s peers to own situation. Internationally, benchmarking has been shown to lead to substantial improvements in water services performance and water services delivery efficiencies, with associated economic benefits. With the maturing of South Africa’s water sectors regulatory tools it is now appropriate and possible to separate regulatory performance monitoring from more introspective municipal performance benchmarking; that is benchmarking for municipalities, by efit of municipalities, to the benefit municipalities. 1 Accordingly, in mid-2011 SALGA and the Water Research Commission (WRC) initiated the re-establishment municipal water services benchmarking. The municipal benchmarkingg initiative (MBI) will build on earnlocal and international learning, and seek to use water services benchmarking to provide a structure and

process for municipalities to strive for continual and significant performance improvement, while also being able to harness the experience of their peers to make the most efficient use of available resources to improve service delivery and customer services. The project is supported through a professional team, including as team members, both IMESA and eThekwini Water Services, and importantly also comprises a voluntary group of municipal benchmarking ambassadors and champions. The MBI aims to: • Support improved efficiency and effectiveness in water services delivery through comparative per formance benchmarking, peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and iterative performance improvements. • Strengthen performance measurement, monitoring and management in municipal water services provision, while recognising and affirming the distinctiveness of each municipality’s challenges and strength. • Build peer group based communities of practice within and between municipalities. • Forge relationships of mutual respect and trust between municipalities and the project support team which strengthen the deve development of performance tra tracking, repor ting and ccomparative assessment systems. For municipalities, the key benefits of bencho f marking are access to a support network of peers and dedicated pprofessionals where they ca can share common experience riences, achievements and challenges in a manner FIGURE 1: Benchmarking’s that supports and enables plan-do-check-act principle of continuous improvement improved performance.

The main phases to introducing effective water services benchmarking to the municipalities of South Africa can be summarised as including: • Phase 1: design of benchmarking process via consultation with core WSAs • Phase 2: initiation amongst all WSAs • Phase 3: institutionalisation and consolidation across WSAs and the water sector • Phase 4: iterative and ongoing strengthening of municipal performance assessment and improvement. Currently, the project is busy with Phase 2. Key progress to-date includes: • brief ‘dip stick’ analysis of the current state of WSA performance reporting • alignment to local and international benchmarking initiatives and regulatory efforts • development of themes/modules and Performance Indicators for 2012 (pilot year) • IMESA 2011 pre-conference benchmarking workshop • linkage to the city water managers forum and development of strategies for peer group interactions • launching of peer-learning-based Water Services Master Classes, through partnering with eThekwini’s Municipal Institute of Learning (MILE) • establishment of municipal peer learning groups • initiation of benchmarking initiative sustainability model • development of the benchmarking webbased system. The first MBI-facilitated Municipal Water Ser vices Master Class: #1 peer-based learning interaction took place in Durban over 14 and 15 Februar y 2012. Technical themes comprised product quality (Blue Drop and Green Drop), as well as water loss and demand management.









Kite Style No: 8044 Upper Material : Distressed leather Tongue : Bellows Tongue Toecap : Extra Wide Steel 200j Sizes : 5-12 Sole : Double/D Polyurethane Colours : Black, Tan & Brown

Owl Upper Material : Distressed leather Tongue : Standard Toecap : Extra Wide Steel 200j Sizes : 5-12 Sole : Double/D Polyurethane Colours : Black, Tan & Brown


Style No: 8045


Open to interpretation We have heard it many times, especially at social gatherings or perhaps around a braai with something frosty in the hand, where it’s the first question many people ask when they meet someone new… by Kevin Wanliss, NDip Env. Health, Nat Higher Cert. EDTP Practice


HAT DO YOU DO FOR A LIVING?” I hate those questions mainly because they are so loaded, and the answers made are used to peg me on the social hierarchical ladder. I never have a cute answer for this other than to say “I’m in risk management.” That normally opens another can of worms such as, “Ah, you mean financial risk management?” Once a tattooed guy with a Leatherman strapped to his belt replied, “Yep, I also did some risk management in Iraq – the money was really good!” So that got me thinking how best could I describe what I do for a living? It would be nice to answer “work is not necessary, I’m too prosperous to have to work at the moment!” Perhaps I could answer the truth: “My work is diverse and exciting. It provides opportunities to travel the world, experience different countries, cultures and foods. I go mostly to factories, mines and construction sites, providing assistance with regards to safety, health, environmental and quality (SHEQ) considerations. My job provides opportunities to add value to people at work. I enjoy sharing my 24 years of experience and knowledge with other people to empower them to be more aware of SHEQ considerations.”

By this time the person who asked the question’s frosty drink is warm, the meat is burned and his eyes have glazed over. So I reach into my back pocket and give him a business card.

“That’s what we do. AKA Risk Management Specialists do SHEQ training, consulting, certification, auditing and construction SHEQ work worldwide, and we love doing it!”

“I go mostly to factories, mines and construction sites, providing assistance with regards to safety, health, environmental and quality”


PPOOBox Box120, 120,Gonubie, Gonubie,5256, 5256,Shop Shop16C, 16C,Schwedelm SchwedelmCentre, Centre,Gonubie, Gonubie,5257 5257 Mobile: Mobile:Alan Alanvan vanDyl Dyl082 082457 4578161, 8161,Kevin KevinWanliss Wanliss083 083443 4436681 6681 Fax to e-mail: 086 633 7272 Fax: :043 043740 7405848, 5848,Fax Emails:, Emails:,, Website:




Joining forces to improve safety awareness Two of South Africa’s health and safety experts, Action Training Academy (ATA) and KBC Health and Safety, are working in alliance to provide a value-added service to several industries, including mining, manufacturing and construction.


BC HEALTH AND Safety operations manager Werner Jansen van Vuuren points out that the companies first teamed up for a project two years ago, after KBC identified the need for providing contractors in the construction industry with first aid and firefighting training – an area which ATA specialises in. “Following the demand from the industry for additional training courses, KBC conducted comprehensive market research and discovered that ATA was the company best-suited for us to go into alliance with,” he explains. “Since then, the two companies have taken on a number of additional projects nationwide, and there has been a good cultural fit between the two organisations, which both have similar standards of training and methods of operating. What’s more, our combined knowledge and expertise adds significant value to the client.” ATA Director, Alastair Farish, notes that since teaming up the two companies have provided Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) and Department of Labour accredited training courses to a number of large-scale industrial operations across South Africa. “Both companies are passionate about the training programmes, which are undertaken by professional subject matter experts with extensive experience.” Farish points out that the alliance provides first aid and firefighting training courses on three different levels, ranging from basic to advanced courses. “We have completed a significant amount of health and safety, and fire fighting training at a large steel processing plant in Richards Bay with fantastic results, and that can be attributed to the dedicated cooperation between the two companies and commitment from our clients to empower employees to work safer.”

ABOVE A depiction of a KBC Health and Safety Contractor Hub BELOW ATA director, Alastair Farish, and KBC Health and Safety operations manager, Werner Jansen van Vuuren

Despite the success of the alliance to date, Jansen van Vuuren admits that it is a challenge convincing clients of the importance of undergoing more advanced training courses, which are in line with stringent legislation. “In the mining industry, the Department of Labour and Inspectorate states that employees are required to undergo a comprehensive first aid training course that is scheduled over two-and-a-half days. Clients generally tend to select the shorter one-day courses, due to time and financial restraints; however, this creates a challenge, as all the course content required by legislation cannot be accommodated into this shortened course.” Farish notes that the same challenge is faced when dealing with building contractors too. “Health and safety laws are becoming more demanding

and authorities are not willing to tolerate companies that are taking shortcuts in this area. KBC and ATA are working closely together to change the mindset of the industry, and that the final outcome will be to ensure that should an accident occur on a client’s premises – the trained first-aiders on site will be able to make a difference between life and death by applying the correct first aid principles taught to them.” Looking ahead, Jansen van Vuuren points out that the two companies have a number of high-profile training projects lined up in the future. What’s more, Farish notes that ATA and KBC plan to further expand their alliance through more extensive marketing strategies highlighting the success of previous projects. “There is potential for significant growth in the future, as the combined services of two leading health and safety experts will ensure that clients are provided with a comprehensive ‘one-stopshop’ solution with all health and safety-related challenges,” he maintains.




Concrete solutions to structural problems Industrial operations across Africa ensure that their high-reaching concrete structures are safe for operation and in good condition.


NE OF THE INSPECTION services provided by Skyriders, a market-leader in the provision of expert rope access aided inspection and highelevation safety solutions, allows them to carry out these precautions. Skyriders boasts a zero fatality record throughout its 22-year history and employs a team of highly trained and experienced rope access specialists who perform a variety of concrete inspection services for the power generation, petrochemical, off-shore, steel, concrete manufacturing and general engineering industries. Skyriders marketing manager, Mike Zinn, points out that the company specialises in providing rope access aided concrete testing services to the South African power generation and construction industries. “Rope-access-aided concrete testing provides industries with significant savings related to cost and time, due to the fact that tall structures such as cooling towers, silos and chimney stacks often have limited or zero means of access. In the case of high-rise buildings, the scaffolding access option is costly and time consuming, and the cost can often be disproportionate to the actual work that needs to be done,” he explains. Using various industrial rope access techniques such as bolting and aiding, Zinn notes that these structures can be swiftly ascended or descended by the Skyriders’ team of rope access technicians. “Once access has been gained, temporary and permanent platforms can be installed for use in a wide range of other services. What’s more, rope access allows for increased manoeuvrability in confined spaces, thereby enabling technicians to carry out challenging tasks at height such as core drilling and thorough inspection, with relative ease.”

Zinn points out that Skyriders offers three main concrete-related rope access services, namely inspections, repairs and maintenance. “Working closely with relevant engineers, Skyriders rope access technicians conduct structural integrity and protective coating surveys – in order to determine the extent of any damage to the actual concrete, the reinforcement steel and the paint or other coatings that cover the structure.”

Skyriders plans to increase its market share in the water infrastructure market of South Africa. “We are looking to market our services and capabilities to South Africa’s water authorities, as a number of local dam walls and reservoirs are currently in poor condition and we have the ability and resources to help improve this situation – by inspecting every millimetre of the walls in less time than it takes for scaffolding to be installed,” he maintains.

RIGHT A technician inspects the exterior of a cooling tower




Integrated SHERQ management solutions HASLAC is an independent South African organisation registered as Health and Safety Legal Audit Consultants Holdings.


HE COMPANY TRADES as HASLAC and is an accredited service provider with the Health and Welfare Sector Educational Training Authority and Department of Labour, in terms of General Safety Regulations 3(4). It is a specialist consultant in the integrated SHERQ (safety, health, environment, risk and quality) management field, with emphasis on occupational health and safety legislation. HASLAC renders services to assist employers to be in compliance with legal requirements as contemplated in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, Act 85 of 1993. HASLAC has completed more than 700 successful projects from its inception.

Services rendered by HASLAC include the following: • training in various disciplines utilising accredited training material • consultations with regards to occupational health and safety requirements • provision of safety officers to contractor companies • conduction of five star grading legal compliance audits • implementation of safety and health management systems at the employer’s premises • assistance with incident investigations • assistance with hazard identification and risk assessments • recommendation of control measures. HASLAC also offer the following systems: The SHE management system which: • addresses full legal compliance in terms of the Occupational Health and Safety Act and its regulations • addresses extended legislation in the form of incorporated codes and internal rules and regulations • is in line with ISO 14001, ISO9001, OHSAS 18001 and BS 8800 in terms of initial status reviews and audits, in that it will ensure an extremely high level of compliance


• ensures a minimal amount of administrative maintenance once implemented and populated. Computerised legal compliance audit star grading system: • establish compliance • pointing out shortfalls • pointing out responsibilities • recommendations • assistance with implementation of recommendations and development of the safety systems. These services contribute towards development of employees as contemplated in the relevant Act and regulations and aim to assist chief executive officers to ensure duties as contemplated in the Act are properly discharged. Section 16(1) of the Act reads: “Every chief executive officer shall ensure that the duties of his employer as contemplated in this Act are properly discharged”. HASLAC is involved with various companies in developing and training of employees’ career paths. The company recently began to assist contractors to compile and maintain site specific HASLAC Holdings health and safety files for construction Tel: +27 (0)11 312 0828 and other projects.



Accredited Courses SHE Representative` Incident Management HIRA First Aid Level 1-3 OHS Act And Regulations Emergency Awareness HCS Handling JSA - SWP

• • • • • • • •

Accredited Courses Basic Fire Fighting Confined Space and Hot Work Safe Stacking/Storage Construction Regulations 3 Week InDepth OHS Act Train the Trainer ISO 9001 & ISO 14001 OHSAS 18 001

• • • • • • • • •

Products and Services Training Auditing Consulting Risk Assessments SHE Management systems Legal Compliance Audit systems * Star Gradings * Outsourcing SHE Officer Services Risk Management

SHEM-TRAC ™ Tel: 011 312 0828/9 • Fax: 011 312 0530 • WWW.HASLAC.CO.ZA • PTALJAARD@HASLAC.CO.ZA


An alternative to ‘grey’ parts Bell Equipment’s drive to offer its customers added value and promote the longevity of its machines has seen the home-grown manufacturer invest a large amount of capital in establishing two centres to remanufacture components for customers.


ELL EQUIPMENT’S manager of group technical ser vices, Ryan Bland, says that the first phase of the centres, which are known as Bell Re-Man Centres, has seen the establishment of a facility near the company’s head office in Richards Bay which will focus on hightech components such as engine and transmission components. A second facility at Bell’s Jet Park complex in Johannesburg will specialise in basic components such as transfer cases, differentials, pumps and cylinders. “Economic times are tough for customers across the various industries we serve and

our experience has shown that customers are increasingly turning to potentially dangerous grey parts, which are generally cheaper than the Bell Genuine Parts manufactured within our Bell supply chain. With our remanufactured parts, we aim to provide our customers with an affordable alternative to these grey parts, offering them protection and peace of mind while also protecting the integrity of our Bell brand.”

BELOW Remanufactured parts provide customers with an affordable alternative to grey parts





Quality question According to the SAPPMA, the quality of plastic pipes manufactured in South Africa leaves room for improvement, despite the fact that many of the pipes carry the SABS mark of approval.


HE RESULTS OF the second round of random sampling undertaken by Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA), since the first sampling exercise of a specific range of products took place last year, have just been released. “SAPPMA works closely with the SABS in a joint effort to weed out inferior quality plastic piping systems,” explains SAPPMA CEO, Jan Venter.

“We selected 18 samples of PVC pipes at random from eight different manufacturers – all of them carrying a SABS mark (SANS 1601, SANS 966-1, SANS 966-2 and SANS 967) and clearly identified by trade or company names. Of those pipes tested, at least 56% of those produced by non-SAPPMA members failed, while none of those produced by SAPPMA members failed. After the results of the first round of tests were released,

SAPPMA again repeated the survey at the end of 2011 – again obtaining pipes at random, although a much bigger sample size was used. “We have found that a considerable number of the pipes tested still fell short of the industry standards.”

ABOVE Research indicated that of the pipes tested at least 56% of those produced by non-SAPPMA members failed



If you are serious about Quality, insist on the SAPPMA mark Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association

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Quick hydraulics Today’s Cat machines are faster, more powerful and easier to operate thanks to technological advancements nts in their hydraulic designs.

Caterpillar’s Custom Hydraulic Service ensures that machines perform at optimum levels


AXIMISING THIS performance depends on strict contamination control, which is why making Caterpillar’s Custom Hydraulic Service (CHS) a part of an overall maintenance programme is so important. “In essence, CHS enables you to maintain peak hydraulic system performance and catch problems before they turn into costly repairs,” explains Paul Verwey, a group products specialist at Barloworld Equipment. “In fact, long before contaminants cause component failure, they start to reduce system efficiency, which has a tremendous impact on machine productivity. “Consider this: controlled studies have shown that without a monitoring mechanism in place, hydraulic efficiency can fall off by as much as 20% before being detected by even the best operators. “Efficiency losses of this magnitude can equate to a day of lost production each week. They also cause machines to burn more fuel and shorten component life.”




Still pumping after 87 years Just another 13 years and a 225 mm (9″) three-kilometre concrete water pipe will have been in operation for 100 years in Potchefstroom.


N FACT THE PIPE could already be over 100 years, but documentation to verify this claim is unfortunately not to hand. What is known is that a ‘modern’ water works, which comprised a filtration plant and reservoir, was completed in 1924 and the pipe in question, which still conveys water from the reservoir into the town centre, was most likely installed at the same time. According to Kleintjie Kleinhans, assistant city engineer of the Tlokwe City Council, it is possible that the pipe was installed in 1900 when six steel water tanks were erected on the site of the purification plant. “The pipe may well have even existed before this. However, I think it is safe to say that it has been supplying potable water at a maximum rate of 4 910 m3/day to Potchefstroom residents for at least 87 years,” he explains. This information came to light when the Concrete Manufacturers Association (CMA), in collaboration with IMIESA, ran a competition in the September and October 2011 editions of the magazine to locate some of the country’s oldest concrete pipe installations. So far the Potchefstroom project is the only one to have

won one of the 10 cases of wine on offer for successfully meeting the CMA’s competition criteria. CMA director, Hamish Laing, says the motivation behind the competition is to illustrate the durability and cost-effectiveness of concrete piping. “These benefits have been clearly demonstrated in Potchefstroom,” says Laing. “No other material comes close to concrete piping’s track record for the conveyance of water using pipes with diameters greater than 150 mm. Moreover, concrete piping is self-supporting, unlike plastic

ABOVE The partially visible 225 mm concrete water feeder pipe. The pipe continues to supply Potchefstroom with potable water on a daily basis

piping, which is flexible and a conduit only, requiring additional material for structural support.” The CMA’s offer of presenting a case of wine to anyone who successfully identifies a functional precast concrete pipe installation 75 years or older is still open. There are still nine cases to be given away. Simply submit your entry to

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS ABS Wastewater Technology 18 Aka Risk Management Specialists 81 Amaz' Abantu 66 Anatech Instruments 24 Arcus Gibb 56 Aveng Water 51 Bagshaw Footwear 80 Barloworld OFC & 88 Beier Safety Footwear 82 Bell Equipment 87 Bigen Africa 48 Bosch Holdings 16 & 17 Bosch Stemele 28 BVI Consulting Engineers 31 Corobrick 60 Degremont 38 Department of Water Affairs IFC Dynamic Fluid Control 46



Elster Kent Metering 36 Envitech Solutions 58 ERWAT 32 Festo 70 Fiberpipe 47 Goba 52 Golder Associates Africa 76 Grundfos 44 Haslac 86 IMESA Conference 2012 12 IMESA Reflections 4 Incledon 2 Krohne South Africa 39 Lebone Engineering 54 Lepelle Northern Water 64 Msunduzi Municipality 74 & 75 Murray & Roberts Building Products 26 Natal Portland Cement 29

National Asphalt Port Shepstone Quarry’s Quality Laboratories Robor SBS Water Systems Sew Eurodrive SAPPMA United Fram Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies Virtual Consulting Engineers Water & Sanitation Services Water & Wastewater Engineering Water Purification Chemical & Plant WRP Consulting Engineers Xylem Water Solutions South Africa Zest WEG Group Zevoli t/a EFTEC

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Imiesa March 2012  

Imiesa March 2012

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