IMIESA July 2021

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IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa


INDUSTRY INSIGHT The BUILD programme makes every project count Cyril Gamede CEO, Construction

Industry Development Board

Geomatics The future of surveying

Environmental Engineering Riverbank training and protection

Thought Leadership Empowerment through quality, education and training

KERNEOS SA Repairing concrete with concrete in sewer systems

Corrosion Asset maintenance is a lifelong journey

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New diameters of the ecoFITTOM PVC-O fittings Molecor, in its continuous commitment to providing the most advanced solutions for the conveyance of water under pressure, has recently incorporated new references to its range of ecoFITTOM® Oriented PVC fittings that will contribute to significantly increase the possibilities in the design and execution of networks. In this range extension there are DN125, DN140 and DN225 mm fittings in all the figures already manufactured by Molecor: 11.25º elbows, 22.5º elbows, 45º elbows, 90º elbows, reducers, couplers and sliding couplers. The DN225 diameter is currently available, while the DN125 and DN140 will be available month by month before the end of the year. With the ecoFITTOM® fittings, unique in the world in PVC-O, Molecor offers a continuous system in this material; a continuity that guarantees the same hydraulic and mechanical properties in the different elements of the network, in the pipes as well as in the fittings, thus ensuring the total quality of the transported water. These fittings can be used in networks for the transport of drinking water, irrigation systems, industrial applications, reclaimed water, fire extinguishing networks, etc. among other applications.

Installation Advantages Light material | Easy to connect | Higher installation performance | Easy to adapt solid concrete blocks to trench conditions when needed

Advantages During Use Total water tightness | Less breakages & less leakages | Immune to attacks from micro and macro organisms | Immune to any % of chlorine | Reduced head loss in bends

Advantages for Users No biological corrosion, water remains always unaltered | No external corrosion proceeding from the soil | Total water quality | Environmental friendly


VOLUME 46 NO. 07 JULY 2021

16 Regulars

IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa




Editor’s comment President’s comment Index to advertisers

3 5 56

The future of surveying

The BUILD programme makes every project count

Environmental Engineering

Cyril Gamede CEO, Construc�on

Industry Development Board

Riverbank training and protection

Thought Leadership

Cover Story Repairing concrete with concrete in sewer systems

Empowerment through quality, education and training


Industry Insight


Corrosion Asset maintenance is a lifelong journey

Repairing concrete with concrete in sewer systems

The BUILD programme makes every project count


Geomatics I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 Vo l u m e 4 6 N o . 0 7 • J u l y 2 0 2 1 • R 5 5 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT )

ON THE COVER Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas buildups within wastewater networks are the main cause of accelerated biogenic corrosion in concrete structures. Unless countered, H2S will significantly shorten the life of infrastructure assets – but there’s a proven solution using specialty calcium aluminate cements and aggregate products developed by French multinational Imerys, operating locally as Kerneos Southern Africa. P6

INDUSTRY INSIGHT Building and infrastructure projects provide a vital catalyst for positive socio-economic development, employment and skills development. IMIESA speaks to Cyril Gamede, CEO, Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), about the roll-out of the CIDB’s Best Practice Project Assessment Scheme, known simply as the BUILD programme, which sets out to professionalise, grow and transform the industry. P10



The future of surveying


Corrosion Establishing a new docking site for MSC 15 Asset maintenance is a lifelong journey 16

Pipelines The durability of steel for bulk water delivery


uMshwathi Regional Bulk Water Supply Scheme Phase 2 20

Thought Leadership 22

River Erosion Riverbank training and protection


Ethics & Fraud Whistleblowing hotlines for municipalities



Power Systems Energy efficiency star ts with consumption Substation upgrade for new data centre Working towards a just energy transition University switches to green energy

34 35 36 37

Housing Inclusionary housing: addressing the elephants in the room Youth participation in the social housing value chain

38 39

Africa Round-up 40

Cross-border Construction Local knowledge key to success of cross border projects


Brick- & Blockmaking 44

Materials Handling 46

Vehicles & Equipment The FUSO FJ26-280C HYP receives a stamp of approval! A new standard for walk-behind rollers John Deere grader roll-out

48 50 50

A variety of solutions for driver management


Cement & Concrete 30

Roads & Bridges JRA explores the frontiers of smart mobility


Fleet Management 28

Women in Construction Unpacking barriers for women in construction

Trenchless techniques are optimal for urban zones

Lifting with a difference 24


Trenchless Technology

Affordable technology that builds brick businesses

Geotechnical Engineering Geogrids in civil engineering applications

Baziya to Mthatha Airport upgrade awarded

Infrastructure news from around the continent

Water & Wastewater

Empowerment through quality, education and training



Turning concrete waste into a resource Key route upgrade on the R67/5 Admixture accelerators for cold conditions Spun poles are more durable



52 53 55 56

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Complete water resource and wastewater management

Promoting integrated resource and waste management

The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa.

The official magazine of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa.

IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

Get your products, services and equipment noticed by infrastructure decision-makers TO ADVERTISE Hanlie Fintelman +27 (0)82 338 2266

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EDITOR’S COMMENT MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie SENIOR JOURNALIST Kirsten Kelly JOURNALIST Nombulelo Manyana HEAD OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders CONTRIBUTORS Philippus Fouché, Blaise Jacob, Hans Karemaker, Hans King, Frank Major, Keitumetse Moumakoe, Samantha Naidoo, Bhavna Soni PRODUCTION & CLIENT LIAISON MANAGER Antois-Leigh Nepgen PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise GROUP SALES MANAGER Chilomia Van Wijk BOOKKEEPER Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS PRINTERS Novus Print Montague Gardens ___________________________________________________ ADVERTISING SALES KEY ACCOUNT MANAGER Joanne Lawrie Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 / +27 (0)82 346 5338 Email: ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER Jacques Breytenbach 3S Media 46 Milkyway Avenue, Frankenwald, 2090 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R600.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2021. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: Ingrid Botton P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email: Website: BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Email: EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Email: KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Ingrid Botton Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email: NORTHERN PROVINCES Secretary: Ollah Mthembu Tel: +27 (0)82 823 7104 Email: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Email: WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Email: All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers. _____________________________________________


outh Africa’s market leaders – in every industry – have learnt to master the art of contingency planning to weather worst-case scenario outcomes. However, the July 2021 unrest caught everyone off guard. But as a prime example of resilience, some of the worstaffected groups immediately began the process of restoring their operations. While the unrest has also been a setback for the vaccination programme, this too is regaining momentum and hopefully a significant percentage of the population will have been vaccinated by the end of 2021. For now, the immediate priority is for the public and private sector to work together to find a workable balance. A positive step in this direction was the virtual meeting held on 20 July 2021 with more than 100 top business leaders, including those representing the informal and SMME sector. Convened by President Cyril Ramaphosa, a key focus was placed on joint initiatives to restore and rebuild economic sectors impacted by the riots. A parallel priority is the need to find faster, sustainable ways to address widespread poverty and inequality. All stakeholders are invested, and this is a real opportunity for government to accelerate the infrastructure-led economic recovery in earnest.

Promoting localisation One of the best ways to achieve this, alongside public-private partnerships, is to foster and regulate a far greater degree of localisation, particularly in manufacturing. Currently, for example, South Africa’s cement industry still competes with lowerpriced imported products, although there’s more than sufficient local capacity. Within the mix, the Department of Trade, Industry and Competition (DTIC) plays a critical role and continues to lay the groundwork for local and foreign investment. The DTIC’s support for the

The ABC logo is a valued stamp of measurement and trust, providing accurate and comparable circulation figures that protect the way advertising is traded. IMIESA is ABC audited and certified.

multibillion-rand Tshwane Automotive Special Economic Development (TASEZ) is a case in point. A more recent example is the July launch of an initiative by Isondo Precious Metals (IPM) to establish South Africa’s emerging green hydrogen sector. Being constructed within Ekurhuleni’s O.R. Tambo Special Economic Zone, IPM’s high-tech plant will manufacture electrolyser and fuel cell components using locally sourced materials. It’s an exciting project and the DTIC says it’s approved R55 million towards the feasibility and execution of the plant.

Building construction capacity Creating new markets is a vital GDP diversification strategy, but the enabling framework for any industry can only be achieved with world-class infrastructure. Within the roads segment, there have been encouraging signs of new Sanral awards. Hopefully these will gain momentum alongside municipal road projects to sustain the industry and create new jobs. According to the latest Databuild Construction Insight report, civil construction projects worth R2.8 billion and R2.7 billion were awarded for the months of April and May 2021 respectively. The report also states that there has been a general improvement in civils activity levels, which is encouraging. New building, civil and allied project awards are also anticipated in the wake of the destruction caused by the unrest. Hopefully, these will serve as the catalyst for a broader rebuild programme, spurred on by initiatives like South Africa’s housing, sanitation and renewable energy roll-outs.

Alastair To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.

IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa


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INDUSTRY INSIGHT The BUILD programme makes every project count

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Time for a reset and a restart

Cyril Gamede CEO, Construc�on

Industry Development Board

Geomatics The future of surveying

Environmental Engineering Riverbank training and protection

Thought Leadership Empowerment through quality, education and training

KERNEOS SA Repairing concrete with concrete in sewer systems

Corrosion Asset maintenance is a lifelong journey

Cover opportunity

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Coming together for positive change

The looting and civil unrest that flared up in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal this month has sent shockwaves throughout the country. The economic cost is estimated to run into the billions, yet the social cost could be far greater, as the ramifications filter through to every corner of society.


he aftermath of the July unrest has, however, showed an upside through widespread evidence that our society in general has shown an even greater desire to unite and build, rather than embark on senseless anarchy. This

Bhavna Soni, president, IMESA

has been demonstrated by the community clean-ups, as well as the donations that have started to flow through. To create a more inclusive society, it’s clear that we need to invest more and urgently in social infrastructure, like ITC, electrification, housing, water and sanitation. But finding solutions to the triple challenges of poverty, inequality and unemployment isn’t going to happen overnight. The challenges of addressing service delivery in the short to medium term will also become even more complex. This is because the emergency repairs required to fix damaged infrastructure will place further strain on already stretched infrastructure budgets. The rates and taxes accruing to municipalities will also be affected by those SMMEs and larger businesses that will be cash constrained as they start to reinstate their operations. According Khumbudzo Ntshavheni, Acting Minister in the Presidency, an estimated 150 000 jobs are at risk, with government now consolidating proposals for a package of interventions.

The need for innovative solutions As engineers, we’ll need to be even more innovative in the way projects are designed

and delivered, so that labour-intensive construction elements are incorporated to create jobs. We also need to find faster and more cost-effective forms of construction that can narrow the gap in South Africa, which, according to the World Bank, remains the planet’s most unequal society. The fact that service delivery protests have become a common feature of our lives as municipal engineers underscores this. The only way to address the gap is by bringing business and government together to create an enabling environment for a meaningful post-Covid-19 recovery founded on infrastructure build programmes. We have the solutions – and the will – but we need the funding and an enabling framework for implementation. Part of that solution lies in skills and job-creation initiatives like the War on Leaks campaign, the Expanded Public Works Programme, and the Construction Industry Development Board’s BUILD programme.

Training and mentorship Within the municipal space, a priority in helping to achieve these and other initiatives is to ensure that adequate professional capacity is in place. Working with key stakeholders like the South African Local Government Association, IMESA’s mandate is to support our members through ongoing training and mentorship programmes. Municipal engineers and municipalities remain the critical interface in executing socioeconomic programmes. That commitment and the required expertise is a crucial catalyst for revitalised growth and prosperity across the board in South Africa.

IMIESA July 2021



Repairing concrete with concrete in sewer systems Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas build-ups within wastewater networks are the main cause of accelerated biogenic corrosion in concrete structures. Unless countered, H2S will significantly shor ten the life of infrastructure assets, but there’s a proven solution using specialty calcium aluminate cements and aggregate products developed by French multinational Imer ys, operating locally as Kerneos Southern Africa.


pioneer in its field, Kerneos Southern Africa registered its first patented product, Ciment Fondu®, in 1908. This calcium-aluminate-based hydraulic binder, which is supplied to this day, was the forerunner of a series of proprietary innovations in the refractory, infrastructure and general industrial sector. A groundbreaking one for the wastewater industry was the introduction of SewperCoat® in 1991, which celebrates 30 years of successful application worldwide, including South Africa – a country widely regarded as an early adopter of the technology. SewperCoat’s unique aluminate cement and aluminate aggregate composition is a


IMIESA July 2021

Removing spalled concrete caused by severe corrosion

A refurbished section of a wastewater treatment plant sprayed with SewperCoat

purpose-designed corrosion inhibitor and protection coating used to preserve most sewer infrastructure assets. These include iron and precast concrete pipes, manholes, pump stations, and concrete infrastructure in wastewater treatment plants. Application techniques include low-pressure wet spraying, high-pressure dry spraying, as well as rotational spinning head spraying.




- Outstanding biogenic corrosion resistance - Easy monolithic installation: mixed, pumped and sprayed using conventional equipment - Readily adheres to damp concrete surfaces - Rapid return to service - Restores structural integrity - Creates an infiltration barrier - High abrasion resistance - No volatile organic compounds - Sustainable and long-lasting

“Calcium aluminates have a distinctive chemistry that makes them far more resilient than conventional Portland cement in environments where H2S and other corrosive elements, like acids, are present,” explains Dr Francois Saucier, Director: Infrastructure Project Specification, Imerys Building & Infrastructure, based in France. Alumina is derived from bauxite ore – the primary source of aluminium – and aluminate cement is regarded as a niche material within the construction sector. To illustrate the point, somewhere between 2 and 3 billion tonnes of Portland cement is produced annually worldwide. This compares to some 2 million tonnes annually for calcium aluminate cement. Essentially, it’s a premium cement

where the added cost more than justifies the assurance of longer-term operating life for critical assets. For SewperCoat, that’s been proven on thousands of sewers worldwide: the answer to combatting microbiologically induced corrosion – sulfuric acid being the main culprit. Within France, a key project example was the use of SewperCoat to rehabilitate some 23 500 m2 within a 4.4 km bulk sewer line for the Greater Paris Water Authority during 2016. This was the same year that SewperCoat was first introduced to the South African market, although Kerneos Southern Africa itself has a long local history dating back to 1970 when it opened its Richards Bay factory.

LEFT With the original corroded surface concrete layer removed, this section is now ready for a SewperCoat application BELOW LEFT A severely corroded section of a wastewater tank section prior to refurbishment

returned to service within a sixweek period.” One of the key advantages of SewperCoat is that concrete gets repaired with concrete, helping to restore its structural integrity. The product also performs best when applied directly to the moist concrete surfaces A refurbished concrete wastewater tank after SewperCoat treatment

Cape Town projects “Our first major order was for a City of Cape Town project in 2017,” says Tendayi Kaitano, Africa Development, Kerneos Southern Africa. “This entailed a major pump station refurbishment where severe corrosion had been experienced. Using SewperCoat, the contractor was able to fast-track the programme and the pump station was

Applying SewperCoat on a surface bed

IMIESA July 2021


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SewperCoat is a premium product that will stand the test of time, maintaining the integrity of wastewater networks for decades – a fact that utilities from around the world have confirmed.” commonly found in sewer environments. In fact, SewperCoat needs water to hydrate, making it an optimal solution for live sewers. Once sprayed to a specified layer thickness, this specialty cementitious mortar starts to harden rapidly, reaching 20 MPa within five to eight hours, and 40 MPa within 24 hours. Coatings vary in thickness. For a manhole, for instance, the recommended thickness is 15 mm, and 25 mm for an interior pump station refurbishment. A rough surface is always necessary for optimum adhesion and interlocking with the bonded surface. This roughness requirement is already present to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the severity of the corrosion. When urgent, an additional surface hardener can be applied to allow for a sewer system to return to service within one hour, but Kaitano says this is a highly specialised approach. “However, since a main sewer cannot be shut down for too long, it’s reassuring for municipalities to know that this option is available,” he explains. In terms of current projects, the City of Cape Town has again specified the application of SewperCoat for the refurbishment of the Cape Flats 1 and 2 sewer lines, each measuring some 14 km in length. The pipe diameters range from 1.2 m to 1.8 m, and the contractor is considering using a spinning head spray system on certain sections. “Techniques like cured-in-place pipe lining tend to work well for pipe diameters below 1 m. Above this, and for longer sections, it becomes very costly,” explains Dr Saucier. “Either way, the severest corrosion tends to occur within environments like manholes and inlet chambers, where H2S builds up in the highest concentrations.” Every technology has its claimed advantages in terms of corrosion protection. Epoxy coatings are a prime example, which often work optimally when applied to dry concrete during the finishing stages of wastewater projects. However, studies show that they tend to work less well when epoxies need to be reapplied during a sewer refurbishment. The key challenge here is that epoxies are typically hydrophobic. When applied under

normal wet operating conditions, they tend not to bond as well, so they peel off after a few years.

Accelerated corrosion H2S is certainly unforgiving on concrete, but there are even more aggressive chemical compounds out there – particularly those derived as by-products of industrial processes. At times, these chemicals make their way into municipal sewer systems, chiefly because of illegal dumping. In a recent case, Kerneos Southern Africa supplied a SewperCoat solution for a key wastewater treatment works in East London. Severe corrosion some 15 years after commissioning was significantly inhibiting process efficiencies. Industrial effluent was a contributing factor. “Sometimes, the source of corrosion can be unexpected. Sugar, for example, is far more corrosive than H2S and will easily eat away 200 mm to 300 mm of concrete within six months if there aren’t countermeasures in place,” Kaitano explains. “We’ve worked extensively with the South African sugar industry to address this problem, supplying our heavy-duty Fonducrete® calcium aluminate mortar. We have case studies that confirm sound concrete integrity some five years after application.”

Precast and steel pipe industry Routine predictive and preventative maintenance interventions should always form part of an infrastructure asset management programme. The extent to which this can be minimised will also be influenced by the measure of corrosion protection in-built at inception. “Globally, South Africa’s precast manufacturing industry stands out as one of the most progressive adopters of calcium aluminate cement and aluminate aggregate coated sewer pipes,” says Dr Saucier. Back in 1989, the precast pipe industry established an experimental test station in Virginia, Free State, which is still active today. The setup enables the effluent flow to bypass the experimental line during inspection.

Follow-up studies have been performed by Alaster Goynes from Pipeline Installation and Professional Engineering Services and Professor Mark Alexander from the University of Cape Town. With two PhDs completed on this project, there’s plenty of local data available, with four study phases conducted so far. Dr Saucier says this is a unique long-term study with an excellent body of evidence. These Virginia tests confirm that calciumaluminate-lined pipes achieve four times the durability of Portland cement. Where manufactured test pipe sections are composed entirely of calcium aluminate, this increases to 10 times the durability. Manufacturers within the South African steel pipe sector are also applying SewperCoat liners for sewer installations. A recent example is a project for a KwaZulu-Natal utility. This entailed the fabrication of some 0.5 km of 1.8 m diameter steel pipeline to replace an existing section, which had become heavily corroded. The internal coating thickness is between 25 mm and 35 mm, and was applied with a spinning spray device. “Maximising the return on investment should always be top of mind for municipalities, and that boils down to best-in-class durability. SewperCoat is a premium product that will stand the test of time, maintaining the integrity of wastewater networks for decades – a fact that utilities from around the world have confirmed,” Kaitano concludes.

IMIESA July 2021



Building and infrastructure projects provide a vital catalyst for positive socioeconomic development, employment and skills development. IMIESA speaks to Cyril Gamede, CEO, Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), about the roll-out of the CIDB’s Best Practice Project Assessment Scheme, known simply as the BUILD programme, which sets out to professionalise, grow and transform the industry.

The BUILD programme makes every project count


Cyril Gamede, CEO, Construction Industry Development Board


IMIESA July 2021

aking sure that no one is left behind, the CIDB’s BUILD programme came into effect in April 2021 and is mandated in terms of the CIDB Act (No. 38 of 2000). Targeting public infrastructure projects valued at R60 million and above, the programme places joint responsibility for its execution on public and private sector clients and contractors. The objective is to foster greater collaboration and commitment by pooling resources in repositioning the construction sector on a sustainable growth path. “BUILD sets a new benchmark for practical and measurable delivery by allowing for contractors to factor in the cost of stakeholder training and development at the tender stage. For each project above a prescribed tender value, public and private sector clients are required to provide a financial contribution based on a 0.2% fee and capped at a maximum of R2 million,” says Gamede. “We need to support the emerging sector and ensure that they have the skills to survive, which can only be achieved

through targeted initiatives that have the full commitment and participation of public and private stakeholders. BUILD is a workable solution and we’re excited about the measurable outcomes,” Gamede continues. To date, there are some 250 000 construction companies registered on the CIDB’s database across the grade 1 to 9 spectrum.

Register of Projects The programme management control mechanism will be the CIDB’s Register of Projects online platform, which monitors all construction projects above a certain value nationally. It is a legal requirement for all public and private sector projects above a value of R200 000 and R10 million, respectively, to be listed on this register. CIDB clients will all report their contributions to the BUILD Fund via the Register of Projects portal.

14 standards In total, 14 best practice, or performance, standards will govern the programme’s


ABOUT THE BUILD FUND Construction projects of R60 million and above must contribute a percentage of their value to the BUILD Fund up to a maximum of R2 million. The fund will be ringfenced and managed by the CIDB to ensure transparency, accountability and that funds are distributed strategically and equitably for social development priorities.

roll-out – the first two having been gazetted by the Minister of the Department of Public Works and Infrastructure (DPWI), Patricia de Lille, in September 2020 (Government Gazette 43726). The initial two standards comprise: - The Standard for Indirect Targeting for Enterprise Development through Construction Works. - The Standard for Developing Skills through Infrastructure Contracts. The Standard for Indirect Targeting focuses on the development of emerging contractors on public and private sector projects through subcontracting and joint ventures. While subcontractor mentorship has been a common practice for many years, the new standard now places a formal responsibility on CIDB grades 7, 8 and 9 to implement action plans for the advancement of lowergraded construction companies. Clients are required to specify a minimum contribution of 5% of the project’s contract value in development support. The BUILD programme also places major emphasis on developing greater professional competency via the mentorship input of experienced built environment professionals. This is a core focus of the Standard for Developing Skills, which aims to create an enabling environment in order to increase the pool of qualified young professionals. A similar provision is made for learners from TVET colleges in terms of their experiential training. Graduates and learners will gain invaluable insights through their exposure on professional services, design and build, or engineering and construction works contracts. To facilitate this process, clients must allocate 0.25% to 0.5% of the project’s contract value, depending on the CIDB Class of Works. The Standard for Developing Skills establishes minimum contract skills development goals via workplace

opportunities. For its beneficiaries, the expected outcomes will be either: - a part or full occupational qualification registered on the National Qualifications Framework - a national diploma registered on the National Qualifications Framework, or - registration in a professional category by one of the professional bodies. For both standards, it is mandatory for public and private sector clients to stipulate the percentage targets when calling for tenders from contractors.

Roadshows and implementation dates To date, the CIDB has completed a series of virtual capacity-building workshops to formally introduce its public sector clients to the concept, its benefits, and their responsibilities. These stakeholders encompass the DPWI and its regions, national government departments, state-owned entities, and public sector clients involved in Strategic Infrastructure Projects. A series of similar workshops have also been completed with CIDB registered contractors in grades 7 to 9 across the country, as well as professional employer organisations, such as Master Builders South Africa, and the South African Forum of Civil Engineering Contractors. “The overall response has been very positive,” says Gamede. “Clients are keen to learn the requirements and how the CIDB will help them in the process.” Implementation dates for the BUILD programme vary for different spheres of government and the private sector. Specific timeline details for national and provincial government, district and local municipalities are listed in Government Gazette 43726. For the private sector, the implementation date for the Standard for Indirect Targeting comes into effect on or after 18 September 2021 – 12 months after the date of gazetting. The same applies for the Standard for Developing Skills. “For now, only projects for general building and civil work will be exposed to the BUILD programme for the private sector. Other classes of work will be incorporated at a later stage,” Gamede explains.

BENEFICIARIES OF THE BUILD PROGRAMME Emerging enterprises (grades 1 to 6): Among others, these will get opportunities for development support on projects and access to finance. The pool of skilled labour will also increase. TVET college learners: The programme will create workplace learning and placements opportunities for learners. Young professionals: The programme will create workplace and placement opportunities for candidates seeking professional registration. Public sector officials responsible for procuring and delivering infrastructure through training and capacitation.

ins and outs to contractors and professional service providers. The CIDB has also provided clear guidelines on how these standards must be incorporated into procurement documentation when public sector clients call for construction tenders. “BUILD is a new rendition of an existing CIDB mandate to ensure that financial investment in infrastructure translates into real work opportunities for labour and enterprises, skills for a competent workforce, safer work environments, environmentally friendly structures, and a capable public sector that can drive infrastructure delivery,” says Gamede. “Allowing for contractors to add training and development costs in the tender bid gives the construction sector an even greater incentive to work collectively with government to meet our collaborative development goals. The fact that public sector clients are also required to make their own specific training and development project contributions to the BUILD Fund makes it a two-way partnership that benefits everyone in our economy and society,” Gamede concludes.

Practice notes and guidelines Currently, the CIDB is finalising three practice notes. The first will comprise a general overview of the BUILD programme. The second will provide guidelines for client implementation, while the third will explain the

IMIESA July 2021



Like any other built environment professional group, geomatics practitioners are experiencing a constant evolution in their day-to-day activities spurred on by Industry 4.0 technologies. Rather than viewing it as a threat, the South African Geomatics Institute (SAGI) says embracing the change presents exciting new opportunities to evolve the survey profession. By Alastair Currie


o practise, all geomatics professionals must be registered with the South African Geomatics Council (SAGC), in accordance with the Geomatics Profession Act (No. 19 of 2013). The latter defines the actions and responsibilities of the survey profession, and makes it illegal for someone who is not registered to perform these duties. The geomatics field is diverse and encompasses land surveying, engineering surveying, planning, photogrammetry, remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and land management. Within this scope, the two main registered groups are either land surveyors or engineering surveyors. “The advent of relatively cheap positioning systems, as well as GPS apps on smartphones, may give the impression that anyone can produce a typographical map or accurately position survey beacons,” says Altus Strydom, chairperson: Northern Branch, SAGI. “However, this is far from the case.” Only a trained survey professional has the proven expertise to analyse and accurately interpret cadastral and engineering data, and then apply it within the host of Acts


IMIESA July 2021

The future of surveying

that govern land development, ownership and management. “Despite this, however, there’s still widespread evidence of unregistered activity; where it occurs, SAGI is committed to taking legal action,” he explains. So far, SAGI has approximately 30 cases of illegal surveying on record and is in the process of lodging the matter with the courts in one case. SAGI has also established a special committee to map out a more comprehensive plan of action.

Roles and responsibilities “As SAGI, it’s crucial that we continue to inform and educate SOEs and municipalities so there’s a clear distinction between our profession and others, like town and regional planning, as defined by the Planning Profession Act (No. 36 of 2002). To develop their models, for example, town and regional planners depend

A digital elevation model produced using drone imagery

on accurate survey data and expert advice from a land surveyor, who then lodges general plans for approval with the Chief Surveyor General (CSG),” says Strydom. The CSG defines its mission as follows: ‘To provide a national cadastral survey management system in support of an equitable and sustainable land dispensation that promotes socio-economic development.’ Within this framework, the CSG’s office has the sole responsibility for approving development applications, which must be prepared and signed off by a registered professional land surveyor. Currently, the typical approval process can take anywhere from two to four years


before actual development begins. The international benchmark is around six months. “Within the private sector alone, there are developments valued in the billions waiting for approval. Alleviating the bottlenecks is vital in providing the construction industry with new work and the survey profession can help with this process,” Strydom continues. As member of the Construction Alliance of South Africa, SAGI is working with other key stakeholder bodies to address these and other issues.

The influence of positioning technology within the mix In the meantime, Strydom says the survey profession needs to keep pace with the times and embrace technologies like augmented and virtual reality, as well as artificial intelligence, to reinforce its core professional skills. “Rather than viewing technology as a threat, surveyors should seize the opportunities it presents to evolve and grow their businesses,” he explains. “The same applies for all professional disciplines that surveyors

The use of drones is now common practice for survey professionals

interact with. For example, a surveyor can now produce a 3D survey report, but is the engineer equally up to speed with the technology or still working with traditional formats reliant on cross sections and 2D plans? “Either way, the rapid pace of technological development places the emphasis on the surveyor to sell the value to their clients. The latter also need to understand the difference between professional positioning data versus the instant data available to just about anyone with access to a GPS device,” he stresses.

The proliferation of satellites entering space is creating an unprecedented GPS network that will soon provide detailed coverage across the entire plant, which is great for internet connectivity. Key innovators within this field include SpaceX, founded by Elon Musk in 2002, which, among other endeavours, continues to launch its series of Starlink communications satellites. “What this means is that we’re getting to the point where anyone can obtain sub-1 m positioning with readily available devices. In fact, you can already attain so-called 1 cm accuracy on a smartphone using a specialist app. Real-time, on-site delivery of lidar imagery is also just around the corner,” comments Strydom.

Good versus bad data However, while the burgeoning growth of digital

SAGI represents Cadastral, Engineering, Mining, Construction, Photogrammetry, Cartography, Hydrographic Surveying and GISc. It is a voluntary organisation and the public and/or any other organisation can contact us for advice, specifications or any queries regarding the industry or our advice regarding members of our organization. It offers Professional Indemnity Insurance for peace of mind to clients. Members of SAGI are all registered with the South African Geomatics Council (SAGC).

For more details or information, please contact us. Email: Website:


RIGHT A bathymetric survey in progress FAR RIGHT Carrying out a detail survey

positioning and related data will continue to grow, only an experienced geomatics professional can distinguish between the good data and bad data when it comes to precise measurement and mapping. All a general GPS signal really does is provide location accuracy. “Technology is an amazing tool that actually empowers us to do more. And while the underlying survey skills don’t change, they are certainly adapting and evolving. A prime example is the so-called digital twin – a 3D virtual rendition of a real-world scenario. However, the final digital model still needs to be executed physically in terms of construction,” he continues. “What this technology means, though, is that survey practitioners now need to offer more than just topographical maps and beacon positioning to stay relevant, and profitable. And we’re already seeing many instances of this evolution in business thinking from

around the world,” says Strydom. “Examples include more descriptive practitioner titles like UAV surveyor, BIM modeller, and planning and development surveyor. “Like other professions, the surveyor is transitioning towards a blend of services. In future, for example, a surveyor might also include some element of quantity surveying by providing the costing on an earthworks project, as well as the actual model,” he adds. From a cadastral perspective, land management and administration will be the core disciplines; for engineering surveyors, it will be data management and analytics.

“The tools and workflows have changed, but the commanding role that the survey profession plays across all industries remains constant. That’s because, both within and outside the built environment, data has become a commodity of value that needs professional management,” Strydom concludes.


WASTE WATER TREATMENT WORKS Sika has decades of experience in being a reliable partner with waste water treatment plant contractors, supplying products and systems on all continents. Sika has shown the industry that we are a complete solution they can trust. The products and systems are thoroughly tested in Sika laboratories before being independently checked. Sika materials are further proven by long term site testing to withstand the harsh conditions in the real environment. ANY issues you have with your Waste Water Treatment Plant, Sika has the solution, be it: Waterproofing, Repair or Protection

Call us for more info: 010 823 5550

CORROSION MSC required berth repairs for its new docking site next to the new passenger terminal at the Port of Durban

Establishing a new docking site for MSC

Mediterranean Shipping Company, better known as MSC, required berth repairs for its new docking site next to the new passenger terminal at the Port of Durban. A multidisciplinary approach, employing purpose-designed products from Sika, provided an enduring solution.


tefanutti Stocks, as the main contractor, was awarded the project for both the berth repairs and the construction of the passenger terminal. The berth repairs entailed removing and replacing 42 bollards, as well as 21 fenders, together with the rehabilitation and strengthening of the concrete surrounding these installations. The entire rehabilitation programme took eight months to complete. The primary specialist was Engineering Projects and Naval Architecture, which designed and planned the project. Doing the specialist work were main contractor Stefanutti Stocks Coastal, together with two subcontractors – Structural Maintenance as well as Holmes Cutting and Coring. The project and quality managers were sourced from Turner and Townsend.

Process To start, Holmes cut out and removed the existing damaged bollards and their anchoring bolts. The team then cored 16 holes per bollard, at a racked angle to allow for the new reinforcing – each 80 mm in diameter and 8 m deep. The existing

Various Sika products were employed to ensure structural integrity

tyre fenders were removed and the quay wall stabilised. On completion, each of the 16 core holes were filled with a high-strength cementitious grout, SikaGrout-212. Sika UCS-01 ZA, an underwater admixture that forms a jellylike substance when used with a cementitious product, was used in conjunction with SikaGrout-212 to prevent small sand particles washing away. Sika UCS-01 ZA was also used by Structural Maintenance for the grouting installation on the new bollards and core holes. Once the installation of the bollards was complete, rehabilitation between the new and existing concrete was required. This was carried out using SikaGrout-212 and a joint sealant system comprising Sika Primer-3N and Sikaflex Pro-3i. This joint sealant system filled in and sealed all cavities, voids, gaps, and recesses. The use of these products created a neat, uniform look around each bollard and allowed for movement between the old and new substrates. Sika’s joint sealant system was also used around the outer edges of the repaired areas.

Deadman anchor block The so-called ‘deadman anchor block’ needed to be rebuilt 20 m inside of the main quay wall, spanning the full 400 m length of

the berth. It’s a massive concrete anchor that supports the bollards and helps resist the forces exerted on them by the huge, docked ships. Construction of the deadman anchors required an initial base unit of cast concrete. Sika Rugasol-2 liquid was used as a surface retarder to prevent the concrete from setting, and to provide a key before the second layer was cast upon it. To ensure the berth wall was structurally sound, three new anchoring rods were installed between the deadman anchors and the bollards. Sika Antisol E was applied to cure the concrete and prevent shrinkage cracking from rapid water loss.

Challenges Along with the ever-changing tides, and seawater seeping into the core holes, the contractors also had to deal with the narrow tolerances around the large Y40 reinforcing bars. The areas surrounding the construction site were also situated on reclaimed land. This presented problems through the presence of old oil, fuel pipes, old railway lines, water lines and the main electrical feed to the entire port. Working around these historical objects made every task a little more difficult. Despite the unique conditions, and unexpected challenges of this project, Sika’s specialised products ensured success.

IMIESA July 2021



Asset maintenance is a lifelong journey Routine maintenance of reinforced concrete structures is essential to extend their productive life. Ignoring the warning signs will significantly increase the cost of repair, and may pose a risk in extreme cases in terms of weakened structural integrity, says Wayne Smithers, manager: Technical Ser vices, Sika South Africa. By Alastair Currie


IMIESA July 2021


he first prize is to apply a protective coating on all new reinforced concrete structures – a widespread practice globally, but an uncommon one in South Africa. However, the added upfront cost has been proven to reduce the frequency and extent of future structural repairs and potential failures. “The most common causes of steel reinforcement corrosion are carbonation and chloride ingress. However, there are a host of other factors that include alkali-silicate reaction, chemicals, electrolysis, dampness and leakage, impurities in the water used to produce the concrete, and internal moisture – or combinations of these. Structural movement and overloading are

other contributing factors that can trigger corrosion,” explains Smithers. “That’s why it’s crucial to understand the root causes of corrosion before embarking on any repair solution.” As a specialty chemicals company, Sika is a market leader in the development and production of corrosion management systems and products. Some of the most widely used products include SikaTop Armatec-110 EpoCem. The latter is a cementitious, epoxy-resin-compensated, three-component coating material with corrosion inhibitor, used as a bonding primer, as well as for reinforcement corrosion protection. Another key product is Sika MonoTop-412 NFG – a one-component, polymer-modified, fibre-reinforced, low-shrinkage repair mortar with corrosion



inhibitor. ‘NFG’ stands for ‘normal set, with ferroguard’, and can be used as a repair mortar for larger repairs, like a micro concrete application. This makes the product ideal for restoration work, such as the repair of spalled and damaged concrete in buildings, bridges, general infrastructure and superstructure works.

Specialist coatings Alongside these repair solutions are key coating products like Sikagard-550 W Elastic. The latter is a one-component, plasto-elastic coating based on UV-curing acrylic dispersion with excellent crackbridging properties. Another popular coating solution is Sika FerroGard-903 Plus, a surface-applied, mixed corrosion inhibitor designed to impregnate steel-reinforced concrete. Essentially, Sika FerroGard-903 Plus penetrates the concrete and forms a protective monomolecular layer on the surface of the reinforcing steel. Smithers says it delays the start of corrosion and reduces the corrosion rate, increasing service and maintenance life cycles by up to 15 years when used as a part of a complete Sika concrete repair and protection system. Products like Sika FerroGard-903 Plus provide a practical, overall solution because, in most cases, it’s not realistic to expose all the concrete for steel reinforcement repair.

the patching of a spalled section, might inadvertently trigger enhanced corrosion around the repair area itself – a scenario known as insipient anode attack. “For this reason, corrosion needs to be constantly monitored by property owners and infrastructure asset managers; where it occurs, an industry specialist must be employed to carry out a detailed inspection,” says Smithers. Typical techniques include the half-cell potential test, as well as core-sample drilling. These techniques help to identify the worst affected areas. “Aside from the public and private building segment, across South Africa, there are critical structures like bridges, water and wastewater treatment works, and reservoirs that need urgent refurbishment. Over the longer term, this growing maintenance backlog places further pressure on available funds, and impacts on service delivery,” adds Smithers.

INDIRECT INFLUENCES - Design: joints, cover - Concrete: cement, type and content, water/cement ratio mixed - Application: cracks, gravel nests, curing, surface finishing - Conditions: humidity 50-70%, exposure conditions DIRECT INFLUENCES - Mechanical attack: impact, overloading, movement, vibration - Physical attack: freeze-thaw, thermal movement, shrinkage, salt crystal expansion, erosion, abrasion, wearing - Chemical attack: alkali aggregate reaction, aggressive chemicals, bacterial, biological, efflorescence, leaching (Source: Sika)

“In addition to maintenance, more focus needs to be placed on preventative corrosion protection during the construction and commissioning stages. The relatively low cost of applying corrosion protection at inception will greatly extend any maintenance intervals and maximise the return on investment for property and infrastructure asset owners,” Smithers concludes.

A hidden threat “The attack on reinforcing is like a cancer and the extent of the internal corrosion damage may not be immediately apparent. Initially, corrosion tends to develop slowly, but then rapidly escalates – so, in a few years of a structure’s life, it can jump from moderate to severe,” says Smithers. Repairs to extend the service life of reinforced concrete therefore require a total solution. There are cases, for example, where a short-term repair in isolation, like

The attack on reinforcing is like a cancer and the extent of the internal corrosion damage may not be immediately apparent.”

IMIESA July 2021



The durability of steel for bulk water delivery Steel is an indispensable and versatile material in municipal bulk water infrastructure, where pipelines traverse many kilometres of remote and demanding terrain to meet the potable water needs of South African communities. By Keitumetse Moumakoe, director, ASTPM


sed extensively in the construction industr y for many years, steel pipes are viewed as a stronger and more flexible alternative to iron- and plasticbased pipes. They have several advantages over other metals and compounds that could be used in pipe works, and provide the most durable presence when used in water pipelines. With the correct repair and maintenance in place, steel pipes should have a lifespan of over 50 years within municipalities.

Steel pipe water mains A system made up of steel pipe water mains has been a reliable and economically advantageous solution for drinking water supply for decades. The water mains and fittings can be customised according to the technical specifications of municipalities.

Maintenance and corrosion protection The maintenance and preservation of


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carbon steel pipelines in metros and municipalities is of paramount significance in ensuring continued and reliable water service delivery. These assets, like any infrastructure, are exposed to the elements of nature that present challenges. Carbon steel pipelines are inherently vulnerable to corrosion, but the pipeline

segments will not necessarily corrode at the same rate in every circumstance. Common factors that increase carbon steel corrosion include pitting corrosion, which happens when chips or cavities form on the outer surface of the steel pipeline, and exposure to moisture, grime, chemicals and saltheavy air.

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL PIPE WATER MAINS IN MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE • Diameter tolerances are precise • Curved fittings allow large-radius bends in pipelines • The number of joints in a pipeline can be optimised by the choice of pipe lengths (6-16 m) • Modifiable system of water mains, allowing the implementation of special solutions via welding • Steel can withstand external stresses and internal hydraulic shocks extremely well • Coated steel pipes are durable against environmental stresses like de-icing salt, corrosion, aggressive clay soil and contaminated soil layers – guaranteeing long service life (even without cathodic protection) • High domestic manufacture and delivery capacity within South Africa from ASTPM members • Steel is a versatile piping material suited for several joining methods – welded, flanged or couplings


A comprehensive corrosion mitigation plan is key to ensuring the longevity of steel pipeline process systems used for purposes of drinking water, sewage or rainwater drainage within municipal districts. Protective coatings on steel pipelines – polyethylene externally and epoxy and concrete internally – reinforce metallic surfaces and make it less likely for cracks or other ‘corrosion catchers’ to form. Additionally, galvanisation can also be specified to strengthen outer layers and protect against galvanic corrosion. The galvanising process includes spreading a layer of liquid zinc over the carbon steel pipes. This is because zinc is more likely to give up electrons than carbon steel when exposed to corrosive elements. Zinc strengthens the carbon steel beneath it. Pipe restraints like U-bolts, clamps and straps keep pipelines from colliding with surrounding objects – therefore reducing

the possibility of corrosion. Rather than pinning a steel pipe to one spot, some pipe restraints use protective liners that minimise vibrations and encourage axial movement. Pipe shoes can also be used to lift the steel pipes off surrounding beams or harsh surfaces. This prevents pipes from rubbing against other hard surfaces, further reinforcing the preference of steel pipes and their versatility.

Water infrastructure projects The prioritisation of water infrastructure bodes well for steel pipe manufacturers in the water fraternity who should see an uptake in demand and greater sustainability in the short to medium term. The Minister of the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), Lindiwe Sisulu, announced in her 2021/22 budget vote that the roll-out of water infrastructure projects will assist in achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 –

The objectives of the ASTPM are to:

clean water and sanitation for all by 2030. Some of these water infrastructure projects include the Mzimvubu Water Project, raising the Tzaneen Dam and Nwamitwa Dam, raising the Hazelmere Dam, the OlifantsDoorn River Water Resources Project, and raising the Clanwilliam Dam. Priority will also be given to the ongoing implementation of the Integrated Vaal River Intervention, including 10 regional bulk infrastructure projects, the successful evaluation of 25 dams across the country, and unscheduled maintenance projects. The capacity of the Trans-Caledon Tunnel Authority, Municipal Infrastructure Support Agent, water boards and DWS construction units will be harnessed to implement infrastructure projects with a clear focus on creating jobs, maintaining assets and promoting SMMEs, with 30% of procurement spend targeting woman- and youth-owned enterprises.

• Promote the domestic use of welded carbon steel tubes and pipes • Promote localisation and its implementation • Promote import replacement of downstream products • Promote quid pro quo co-operation among members without collusion


+27 (0)11 726 6111


uMshwathi Regional Bulk Water Supply Scheme Phase 2 Umgeni Water appointed Hatch to design and manage the construction of the uMshwathi Regional Bulk Water Supply Scheme Phase 2. This comprised a 15 km, 700 mm diameter steel pipeline between War tburg and Dalton, two booster pump stations, and a 10 Mℓ reser voir.


he project was located in the uMshwathi Local Municipality north-east of Pietermaritzburg in KwaZulu-Natal. The municipality falls within the uMgungundlovu District Municipality, which is responsible for the supply of water to consumers within this region.

Booster pump stations The 58 Mℓ/day Mpolweni pump station was designed and constructed at km 19.3 on the 27.7 km long 850 mm diameter pipeline built in Phase 1. The pipeline had been constructed under a separate contract and was practically complete at the time of commencement of the construction of the pump station. The


IMIESA July 2021

Mpolweni pump station consists of three pumpsets in parallel with a combined installed capacity of 900 kW, with future upgrading planned to 2.25 MW. The pumpsets installed for the initial two duty points were designed to run at 860 rpm and 1 065 rpm, respectively, using variable-speed drive (VSD) technology – allowing for flows rates from 1 620 m3/h to 2 180 m3/h. The pump station has been configured to operate with a single duty pump when required. Consisting of two pumpsets with a combined installed capacity of 1.5 MW, the 41 Mℓ/day Dingle pump station operates with one pump on duty and one pump on standby. These pumpsets are designed to run at 1 350 rpm and 1 450 rpm, respectively, using

The Dalton Reservoir site

PROJECT TEAM Client: Umgeni Water Principal design consultant and construction manager: Hatch Electrical consultant: Adamastor Consulting Cathodic protection consultant: Paradigm Projects Environmental consultant: Afzelia Health and safety agent: ORM Principal contractor: Icon Construction Mechanical and electrical subcontractor: Oro Projects / Electron

VSD technology. This allows for flow rates from 980 m3/h to 1 320 m3/h. A future third pump was allowed for in the design, where two pumps will operate as duty with a third pump on standby. The Dingle pump station was constructed about two thirds down the Phase 2 pipeline route to boost pressure in order to supply the Dalton Reservoir. Using the VSDs, these pump stations can meet projected system demands to 2035 using the same mechanical and civil infrastructure (including pumps). In order to achieve the ultimate 40-year demands, only the motors and the electrical switchgear would need to be upgraded, which will be necessary due to their design life in any event.

WATER & WASTEWATER Mpolweni pump station

Laying the 700 mm diameter steel pipe

Dalton and Wartburg integration A prestressed concrete structure with a flat concrete roof slab, the 10 Mℓ Dalton Reservoir was constructed adjacent to an existing 0.8 Mℓ reservoir that currently supplies the town of Dalton. The 8 Mℓ Wartburg Reservoir was constructed adjacent to an existing 1.5 Mℓ reservoir under a separate contract. The integration of the Dalton Reservoir, the Wartburg Reservoir and the existing 1.5 Mℓ reservoir was added to the scope of the Phase 2 project during the course of construction and required the construction of new chambers, pipework and control systems on the Wartburg site. The development of a complex design and control philosophy allows the three reservoirs to be filled via the Mpolweni pump station in any

combination of one, two or three concurrently. This was achieved by using programmable logic control systems that were configured based on predetermined (but adjustable) settings that allow for the operation of either one or two pumps, and for the speed of the pumps to be varied according to the preset rates – made possible due to the upfront design of VSDs at the pump station.

Steel pipeline The buried pipeline (15.1 km long) comprises a continuously welded 700 mm diameter steel pipe with a 6 mm wall thickness and 3LPE anticorrosion coating. This pipeline connects the new 8 Mℓ reservoir in the town of Wartburg (part of Phase 1) to the 10 Mℓ Dalton Reservoir. During the design phase, a net present value

Pipe jacking in progress

PHASES OF THE UMSHWATHI REGIONAL BULK WATER SUPPLY SCHEME Phase 1: 850 mm diameter steel pipeline (including the new Mpolweni booster pump station) from the existing Claridge Reservoir to Wartburg Phase 2: 700 mm diameter steel pipeline from Wartburg to a new 10 Mℓ reservoir at Dalton, including the new Dingle pump station Phase 3: Bulk pipeline from the Dalton Reservoir, which supplies water through a series of trunk mains to the Nadi and Ozwathini reservoirs, from which Phases 4 and 5 will be supplied

analysis was conducted to determine the optimal pipe diameter, considering the power, capital and maintenance costs of the various diameters and associated pumps. Through this analysis, it was determined that a 700 mm diameter pipeline would offer the best rate of return to the client. When crossing provincial roads and Transnet railways lines, the pipeline construction required the driving of five separate 2 130 mm diameter pipe jacks. Soil testing at the design stage revealed the need for cathodic protection, and this was installed through a specialist subcontractor, with temporary protection being provided during the construction phase. This necessitated the installation of two transformer/rectifier units, as well as test posts and current isolating flanges, along the pipeline route. Regular monitoring of the pipeline during construction and after commissioning of the system ensures that it performs as designed and the pipeline is fully protected. When steel pipelines are located near high-voltage overhead power lines, there is the danger of stray currents from the pipeline earthing through personnel working in the chambers. During the course of construction, following the recommendations of the cathodic protection specialist consultants, a decision was made to retrofit alternating current mitigation (ACM) measures on all chambers on the Phase 2 pipeline. This involved the construction of internal and external earth mats and monitoring points, and cross-bonding the systems to the pipeline and chamber reinforcing. Following the success of the Phase 2 work, a variation order was issued to further retrofit ACM measures on identified chambers on the Phase 1 pipeline. The communities of Mpolweni, Wartburg and Bruynshill can now benefit from an improved, reliable water supply while the vital supply of water to communities in Efaye, Ozwathini and Southern iLembe is now possible.

IMIESA July 2021



Empowerment through quality, education and training ‘Going Beyond’ defines PPC’s operating vision as it helps build a better society for all its stakeholders. IMIESA speaks to Bheki Mthembu, head: Inland Business Unit, PPC, about the unfolding vision. What makes PPC unique? BM Among all cement producers in South Africa, PPC has the widest geographical footprint. In construction, it’s all about on-time delivery and ease of access to materials. In this respect, we provide a complete solution that, in addition to consistent quality cement, includes premix products like plaster, aggregates, readymix and fly ash. We are a Proudly South African business that was established in 1892. Throughout our 129-year journey to date, we’ve stayed true to our purpose and that’s to empower people to experience a better quality of life. We believe in creating sustainable value for all our stakeholders and living up to our operating philosophy of ‘Going Beyond’. Via our corporate social responsibility initiatives, our goal is to uplift the communities in which we operate to maximise shared value. Areas

include education, enterprise development, infrastructure development and primary healthcare stewardship. Over the years, we’ve expanded our wings across Africa, investing in PPC operations in Botswana, the DRC, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Zimbabwe. As in South Africa, we have focused on helping to build stronger communities. As a responsible corporate citizen, we believe we have a duty to help grow capacity, especially within our home South African market where there is a pressing need to address the triple challenges of inequality, poverty and unemployment. That includes providing technical solutions to industry and nurturing a new pipeline of SMME builders, trades and construction material producers through various education, training and enterprise development programmes. So, it’s clearly not a case of just selling a ‘grey powder’. As in 1892, we continue to play an anchoring role in facilitating

South Africa’s infrastructure rollout across a diverse spectrum that includes housing, roads, water, sanitation, mining and general industry.

How is PPC helping to unlock the value, particularly in terms of youth unemployment? There’s a key role that PPC can play by helping the nation to thrive through public-private partnerships. An example would be as a key material supplier on mega developments like human settlements, water and sanitation projects. At present, megaprojects are few and far between, so PPC has researched the market and identified where we can help right now. A key area is the township brick- and blockmaking and SMME residential building markets, where we are now investing in transitioning smaller start-ups that are dedicated to using PPC products in their operations. Allied and in parallel to this is the provision of a range of training courses aimed at capacitating unemployed youth to enter the construction industry. The latest Q1 2021

figures released by Statistics South Africa are concerning. Around 32.6% of our population is currently unemployed – some 46.3% being youth, as defined in the band from 15 to 34 years of age. This means that for every two unemployed people, one will be a youth. The best way we can help is by creating an entrepreneurially driven economy.

Why is technical education key for PPC? Technical excellence translates into exceptional quality, which is non-negotiable for PPC. We want every structure built using PPC products to stand the test of time.

Bheki Mthembu, head: Inland Business Unit, PPC

In partnership with Motheo Construction Academy, PPC has launched a national training initiative offering courses in bricklaying, plastering and construction management


A PPC instructor trains customers on a manual brick- and blockmaking machine

Allied PPC support includes technical and business development training. We have pamphlets at retail outlets outlining our value proposition and PPC buyers are encouraged to contact us via the website for advice and assistance.

Does this lend itself to the creation of circular economies within township markets?

Our training strategy is geared towards this and is highly adaptable to the present need within our socio-economic environment. In other words, we cater for the unskilled, semiskilled and skilled. Internally, we continue to develop our personnel to achieve optimum operational efficiencies via the PPC Technical Skills Academy (TSA). Courses here include trades for electricians, diesel mechanics, boilermakers, and fitter and turners. We’ve also made the TSA available to our customers in construction, mining and general industry. Additionally, the TSA caters for an annual intake of qualifying matriculants with mathematics and science as subjects. Those selected embark on our 12-month youth development, or YES programme. We have a YES programme at all our larger sites, like Dwaalboom, Slurry and Hercules. Around 20% become employed by PPC and the balance are absorbed by the industry. For the SMME building segment, we’ve launched a nationwide, CETA-accredited training programme in partnership with the Motheo Construction Academy. Initially, we envisage training opportunities for up to

200 South Africans in fields that include bricklaying, plastering, and construction management.

How is PPC helping SMMEs to grow? We have various programmes in place. A prime example includes our support for township brick- and blockmakers via our Enterprise Development mandate. For SMMEs who are established, and loyal to the PPC brand, we provide brickmaking machines. These SMMEs are currently either buying direct from PPC or via one of our retailers. So far during 2021, PPC has supplied seven machines to SMMEs within the Gauteng and Limpopo regions, and four to coastal SMMEs. It’s a partnership. We conduct an in-depth gap analysis to understand where they are in their business. Some may currently be using manual mould casting methods to produce bricks and blocks. Others may already have hand-operated brickmaking machines and, based on business volumes, this might motivate the sponsorship of a fully automated unit. To assess current and future business viability, we therefore research the market’s growth potential within their region.

That’s our objective. We want to support and grow the township brick- and blockmaking sector and, in turn, create a local, sustained supply for SMME builders. Buying local also cuts down on the logistics costs for SMME builders and customers. Via our joint training courses in bricklaying and plastering, we are also creating a pool of skilled workers eligible for employment by SMMEs and/or the broader construction market.

to ensure that the SMME product is quality assured. We walk the path with the SMME block- and brickmaker, and assist them in gaining accreditation as a competent producer in accordance with SABS standards. That strategy also protects communities and hopefully eradicates substandard building products generally found in the market. As part of our strategy, we are also engaging with retailers who could potentially stock bricks and blocks produced by township SMMEs carrying the SABS mark. It’s about connecting the dots in the supply chain, with PPC central to the process. Over the longer term, we see a scenario where accredited SMME brickyards will be able to sell their product to a wholesale and/ or retail construction materials supplier or the mainstream construction market.

And in closing? Can SMME brick- and blockmakers provide quality assurances? PPC is committed to world-class quality and we instill this value in our customers. For builders and customers who buy bricks and blocks from SMME brickmakers, it’s essential that they have complete confidence. The key factor to making this a reality is

Rather than waiting for a better life to come, PPC recognises the need to give communities, and especially the youth, the tools and opportunities to work. As an industry leader, we cannot just sit back. We need to be the change that we want to see. That change is a better quality of life for communities that use or are associated with our products.

PPC assists its SMME customers with gaining accreditation as a competent precast brick and block producer in accordance with SABS standards

IMIESA July 2021



Geogrids in civil engineering applications

Geogrid installation phases at Zimbali Lakes

Soil, from a mechanical interaction point of view, suppor ts compression, but much lower tension stresses. For this reason, when tensional resistance is required, the use of geogrids is essential. By Samantha Naidoo, Pr Tech Eng,* and Blaise Jacob, BSc (Eng)**


he uses of geosynthetics in civil engineering are relatively well defined according to their functions. They are employed, for example, to reinforce retaining walls, as well as sub-bases or subsoils below roads or structures. The following two case studies provide practical examples of optimum interventions that achieved the best engineered result.

CASE HISTORY 1 – ZIMBALI LAKES Geogrid used: MacGrid™ WG MacGrid WG is a geogrid for soil reinforcement made from high-molecular-weight, high-tenacity polyester multifilament yarns. The yarns are woven on tension in the specified machine direction and finished with a polymeric coating. MacGrid WG geogrids are engineered to be mechanically and chemically durable, and resistant to biological degradation.

Problem Zimbali Lakes – an elite, multigenerational living space – required the completion of various earthworks phases during its development. The initial construction required high fills to be constructed. The in-situ soft rock can be defined as clayey sand, while the inferred material classification is G10+, with a very low inferred shear strength of ɸ = 21 degrees.

Solution The high engineered fills were initially designed to reach a height of up to 15 m. They therefore required a high-strength geogrid with an ultimate tensile strength of 800 kN/m to improve the shear strength and global stability of the embankment. The in-situ cut banks beneath the fills were to be reduced to a maximum of 1:2 to reduce the differential settlement effects propagating from the road surface. Further to this, to reduce the water table, a rockfill heel using geogrids was created with varying lengths of grids for different heights of fill. A woven geotextile was used as a separation and filtration layer, while the WG 80 specified was used to provide the strength required. The rockfill toe, with a layer of geogrid on the upper and lower bound, assists with the separation of material, and accelerates the consolidation of the fill. The high strength properties provide muchneeded stability to the embankment by limiting

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Design The design was carried out according to the guidelines prescribed in BS 8006-1:2010 – Code of practice for strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills. The design is based on limit state design principles where ultimate and serviceability limit state considerations are accounted for.

Soil parameters considered in the design of the embankment A geotechnical investigation was performed to understand the current properties of the in-situ

TABLE 1 Mechanical properties of geogrid

Mechanical properties Tensile strength (MD) Strain at max strength (MD) Tensile strength (CMD) Strain at max strength (CMD) Demand analysis 2015 (millions per annum)

FIGURE 1 Zimbali Lakes: cross section of embankment with 22 m rockfill toe


differential settlement and base sliding, and protect the embankment against internal and global failures.

Unit kN/m % kN/m % 31.3

Geogrid 805 10 105 12 20.56

Test method EN ISO 10319 EN ISO 10319 EN ISO 10319 EN ISO 10319 12.96

FIGURE 2 Zimbali Lakes: cross section of embankment with 16 m rockfill toe

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING TABLE 2 Factors of safety achieved

Method name Simplified Bishop Spencer GLE/Morgenstern-Price Strain at max strength (CMD) Demand analysis 2015 (millions per annum) material. The unit weight, friction angle and cohesion were important parameters required for the design and calculations undertaken. The high-strength geogrid mechanical properties can be seen in Table 1.

Design analysis The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was considered in the analysis. Fundamentally, the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion represents the linear envelope that is derived from correlation between the shear strength of a material versus the applied normal stress. Factors of safety (FOS) required were above a minimum of 1.3, which was achieved (as shown in Table 2).

CASE HISTORY 2 – M4 DURBAN Geogrid used: ParaGrid 100 and ParaGrid 150 ParaGrid geogrids are planar structures consisting of a biaxial array of composite geosynthetic strips. The strips comprise a core of high-tenacity polyester tendons encased in a polyethylene sheath.

Problem The Department of Transport together with eThekwini Municipality faced a major challenge as periodic heavy rainfall, coupled with a burst underground concrete pipe, resulted in major erosion of the embankment and the partial collapse of a section of the M4 highway. There was an urgent requirement to develop a solution that would be functional, costeffective, environmentally friendly and timely.

FIGURE 3 Cross section of the M4 embankment

FOS achieved 16 m rockfill toe 1.320 1.319 1.318 % 31.3

FOS achieved 22 m rockfill toe 1.354 1.353 1.352 12 20.56

The client and consultant formed a project team with Maccaferri South Africa and the appointed contractors to derive the solution.

Solution The solution was a collaborated team design. Interventions included the installation of a new high-density polyethylene underground stormwater pipe, while the upper and lower embankment slopes were reinforced with a Green Terramesh system. Repairs were also undertaken to remediate collapsed road layer works.

Installation of geogrids on the M4 Installation of facia system

Design The design of the soil-reinforced structure was conducted in accordance with SANS 207:2006 – The design and construction of reinforced soils and fills. Toe protection has been allowed for in the design of the eastern embankment to increase the bearing capacity of the subgrade and the FOS. The toe protection comprised a reno mattress of 0.9 m in thickness. The geogrid reinforcing comprised ParaGrid CMD 150/05 and ParaGrid CMD 100/05. For each layer that required reinforcement, two layers of geogrids were positioned in both longitudinal and transverse directions. The geogrids in the longitudinal directions were provided to increase the shear strengths of the soils and FOS against slope instability. The transverse geogrids were provided to assist in the reduction of settlement of the embankment (see Figure 3).

ABOUT MACCAFERRI For nearly 140 years, Maccaferri has been developing innovative, sustainable engineering solutions. Our teams are available to offer full technical support including analysis and design, product selection and installation supervision.

The completed installation

Conclusion Geogrids used in soil reinforcement and ground stabilisation are among the most important interventions within the multifaceted field of geosynthetics. They increase the range of possible solutions, from the steepening of slopes to increasing bearing capacity. There are many types of geogrids, with varying mechanical and chemical characteristics. Therefore, careful consideration should be given when assessing their properties so that they match the intended design and performance criteria. When installed correctly, geogrids add a dimension of engineered stability that blends in exceptionally well with the environment. *Head of Sales: Coastal, Maccaferri **Project Manager: Coastal, Maccaferri

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Black wattles have colonised the inside of a bend (right) and diverted the flow of water into the riverbank (left)

Riverbank training and protection A bulldozed riverbed with no vegetation to hold the sediment during a flood. This has created unnaturally high flow velocities

Unnaturally high flow velocities, progressive loss of vegetation and increased sediment loads are key contributing factors that cause riverbed and riverbank erosion. The downstream effects include flooding and siltation build-up in dams and weirs. The installation of groynes serves as an effective countermeasure. By Hans King, Pr Eng*

Large blocks of peat washed out from the riverbed upstream, obstructing the flow of the river and causing fresh erosion downstream. This is an extreme case, but not uncommon


any indigenous wetland plant species naturally minimise erosion by having root masses that bind the soil, and plant upper structures that lie flat and cover the soil surface during floods. However, when invasive alien vegetation, such as black wattle and Port Jackson willow, displace indigenous wetland flora, there’s ensuing havoc. That’s because they’re woody, so they don’t lie flat during floods. As a result, they then trap floating debris and create obstructions in the river channel, which diverts the flow into the riverbanks, promoting erosion. This scenario is compounded where unnaturally high flow velocities are experienced. This may occur where soil and rocks in rivers have been

Long and low groyne structures, designed to overtop during relatively small floods, but capable of safely supporting a sustainable, wide, slow-flowing channel


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bulldozed to the sides to optimise surrounding land use, making the river channel narrower and deeper. This also happens when thick stands of woody alien vegetation become established on the inside of river bends. They effectively block part of the river channel, leaving the rest deeper and narrower than usual, and significantly increasing the flow velocity. That in turn increases the water’s ability to pick up and carry away sediment in the river. When the water flowing in a channel carries an abnormally high volume of sediment, it deposits some wherever a lower flow velocity zone occurs, such as at the inside of a bend in the river. This deposition of sediment builds up on the inside of the bend and forces the flow outwards. That results in an acceleration of the meandering process and often causes fresh erosion of the bank on the outside of the bend.

Groyne structures Faced with these escalating environmental threats, one of the best ways to counter them is to install groyne structures to stabilise the watercourse. If designed and installed correctly, groynes are highly effective. In this respect, there are some important points to note: • The river channel needs to be widened and its depth reduced. The low-lying groyne structures installed will then assist in directing the flow of water around the bend without high, erosion-causing flow velocities being encountered at the riverbank. The groyne design should ensure that the installation is low enough to be overtopped at a low flood level, enabling a wide flow area, but high enough to redirect the flow of water.

• The spaces between the groynes should be arranged so that an environment is created where indigenous wetland vegetation can be established. Apart from contributing to the environment’s biodiversity, this vegetation plays the important role of assisting the groynes to manage erosion during high flow situations. If the intention is to establish a healthy stand of indigenous wetland vegetation between the groyne structures, it is reasonable to motivate for a wider groyne spacing at the project design stage. • Ideally when erosion at a site is being encouraged by unnatural erosion upstream, the river should be rehabilitated all the way up to the source of instability. If this is not possible, a field of groyne structures still has the advantage that it can trap a lot of the sediment arising from the upstream erosion and have a beneficial impact on the river’s stability. Groynes trap surplus sediment and help protect the downstream riparian community from sediment-driven river instability.

Groyne installations protecting a river bend

Purpose-designed and labour-intensive It’s important to note that while longitudinal bank erosion protection methods (such as retaining walls or rip-rap armouring of the banks) have their advantages in terms of soil retention, groyne structures are purpose-designed for watercourse stabilisation. Apart from creating a more natural river cross section and facilitating the use of indigenous vegetation to stabilise rivers, groynes also provide a host of additional benefits. The key one is that they lend themselves to labourintensive construction and Expanded Public Works Programmes. Where the landscape permits long and low structures, groynes also provide a cheaper solution than longitudinal protection (such as retaining walls and rip-rap). *Hans King, Pr Eng, is the founder of HansKingSRS. Email:

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The King IV Code on Corporate Governance strongly recommends that all organisations have a whistleblowing mechanism in place to establish an ethical corporate culture. Whistleblowing hotlines are particularly important for municipalities given their crucial socio-economic role, says Philippus Fouché, CEO, Advance Call.

Whistleblowing hotlines for municipalities


ccording to a 2018 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) global study on occupational fraud and abuse, tip-offs are the primary method of fraud and corruption detection. Fraud losses are 50% lower at organisations with whistleblowing hotlines. The Protected Disclosures Act (No. 26 of 2000) protects employees from retaliation should they report any

suspected wrongdoing or misconduct within their organisation. To encourage employees to report such misconduct, they need to be convinced that all disclosures will be dealt with appropriately. Accordingly, using an independent whistleblowing hotline, or safe report line, creates trust and affords employees and other stakeholders the opportunity to report ethical transgressions without fear of being victimised.

On the other hand, such a safe report line protects the organisation by offering the opportunity to deal internally with ethical issues. This can pre-empt public exposure of organisational scandals and prevent potentially harmful reputational damage.

The importance of blowing the whistle Blowing the whistle on suspected unlawful and unethical behaviour may seem very daunting and overwhelming. Whistleblowers fear possible retaliation or isolation. However, employees and other stakeholders play an important role in rooting out fraud and corruption in municipalities. Blowing the whistle is vital for the following reasons: Reporting fraudulent and corrupt behaviour can put an end to it Transparency International compiles an annual Corruption Perception Index, which measures the perceived level of corruption in each countr y. In 2019, South Africa received a score of 44/100, indicating a high level of perceived corruption, and ranked 70 out of 180 countries. Fur thermore, according to the PwC Global Economic Crime and Fraud Survey 2018, 77% of South African companies repor ted experiencing a form of fraud or economic crime within the last 24 months. This is in comparison to the global average of 49% of companies.


What is the Advance Call process?


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Although fraud and corruption are a global problem, South Africa seems to be even more prone thereto. Reporting this kind of behaviour can help bring the crimes to light and put an end to it. Fraud and corruption can cause a municipality serious damage Municipalities that are victims of fraud and corruption can suffer serious harm, including the cost of the actual crime, investigative costs, legal costs, and reputational damage. Over and above the cost of the actual crime – in 30% of cases – the cost of investigating the crime may be more than the cost of the actual crime. Should a municipality decide to take legal action after an investigation, it will also incur further legal costs. Apart from the financial loss, a municipality can also suffer extensive reputational damage, which is incredibly difficult to recover from. The longer fraud and corruption crimes go unnoticed, the higher the cost of these crimes. One of the biggest problems with fraud and corruption is that it is impossible to recover the losses in most cases. Therefore, it is essential to report any suspected wrongdoing to minimise the potential loss. Whistleblowing is crucial for detection It is imperative for municipalities to have proper corporate controls specifically designed to detect fraudulent and corrupt behaviour. One of the most valuable sources of information to a municipality is its employees and they play a crucial role in identifying and



WHY ADVANCE CALL? To assist municipalities in combatting fraud and corruption, Advance Call provides independent, professionally run ethics and fraud hotlines, which ensure: - A solution certified by The Ethics Institute - Technology-driven communication channels for reporting disclosures - Continuous service (24/7) - Multilingual capability - Three options regarding anonymity - Guaranteed confidentiality of information - Bespoke solution software, complete with latest technology - Educated and trained staff with extensive interviewing experience - Additional security of information with two-factor authentication login - Awareness material and training

alleviating fraud and corruption. Employees should be encouraged to report suspected wrongdoing and should keep in mind that they are protected from any form of retaliation by the Protected Disclosures Act.

The key factors for a successful whistleblowing hotline Implementing a whistleblowing hotline for a municipality is a positive step towards creating a more ethical culture. To ensure that a whistleblowing hotline is effective, the following factors need to be kept in mind: Creating an ethical culture It is crucial that leadership sets a positive ‘tone from the top’, placing emphasis on good governance and ethical business dealings. By creating a culture in which the reporting of unethical behaviour is valued, stakeholders will be encouraged to report any wrongdoing they are aware of within a municipality. Awareness and training The success of a whistleblowing hotline for a municipality depends largely on the awareness and training surrounding it. It is essential that all stakeholders are continuously made aware of the existence of the whistleblowing hotline through various platforms, such as staff meetings, written communications, posters, and supervisory interactions. Furthermore, it is important to provide proper training and education to stakeholders to clarify the scope of the whistleblowing hotline and clearly define the types of wrongdoing that can be reported. Acting on disclosures For stakeholders to continue making use of a whistleblowing hotline, there needs to be a perception that action is being taken. Accordingly, it is critical that disclosures are properly investigated and resolved, and there needs to be ongoing and meaningful communication with the whistleblower to provide updates on the progress of the matter. Municipalities also need to provide regular updates to all stakeholders regarding action




taken against unethical behaviour. In the interest of fostering a speak-up culture and demonstrating that a municipality is serious about doing ethical business, it is critical that stakeholders know the executive is taking action when required.

In summary A whistleblowing hotline is an integral and necessary part of a municipality’s compliance programme, but simply having one is not sufficient to guarantee its success. The onus is on the leadership to create an ethical work environment and foster a speak-up culture. There is also the responsibility to create awareness, provide training, and act decisively when confronting potential wrongdoing. If done correctly, a whistleblowing hotline can be an excellent tool in combatting unwanted behaviour within a municipality.

WHICH TYPE OF DISCLOSURES CAN BE REPORTED? Disclosures can be reported on any incidents or behaviours that can possibly be considered unlawful, unethical, or irregular. Disclosures are categorised as follows: - F raud (forgery, falsification of documents/claims, identity theft, misrepresentation) -C orruption (any form of bribery, third-party collusion, contract and procurement irregularities) - T heft (unlawful and intentional removal of company property, with the aim of permanently depriving the company of the benefit thereof) -M isconduct (harassment, any form of discrimination, intimidation, abuse/misuse of company property, time and attendance abuse, abuse of authority) -U nethical behaviour (favouritism, nepotism, conflicts of interest)

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Higher levels of domestic responsibility, lower levels of education and a lack of female role models and mentors are among the barriers faced by women in the construction industry.

Unpacking barriers for women in construction


his was discussed during a webinar hosted by the Constr uction Industr y Development Board (CIDB) ahead of the 2021 Empowerment and Recognition of Women in Construction (ERWIC) Awards. “While entrepreneurship and risk will always be inextricably linked, woman entrepreneurs face even more barriers than their male counterparts,” explains Sakhile Mkwanazi, business coach, GROW. “Studies have proven that there is a strong correlation between education and entrepreneurship. The higher the level of education you have, the higher the probability that you will move towards entrepreneurship and become successful. The lack of female role models that are successful entrepreneurs has an impact


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on other females visualising themselves as entrepreneurs, as they have never seen women succeed before them.” Mkwanazi also highlighted possible cultural barriers such as a woman’s lack of assertiveness and confidence in their own skills, as well as a lack of business connections. “Most businesses are assisted by an entrepreneur’s network and relationships that helped the business get off the ground. Most women do not have such a network. If you are not educated enough to start your own business, if you do not have the confidence to start your own business, and if you do not have a mentor or role model that you can relate to and ask for advice – and no business network – you will probably not start a business. And if you do, there are already significant barriers.” A lack of access to funding, the incapacity of regulatory bodies to enforce transformation frameworks, and corruption were other barriers mentioned by Kile Mteto, MD, Ntando-Thando Consulting & Projects and steering committee member of the CIDB. “If you look at CIDB-registered companies, just 30% are womanowned and awarded just 23% of public sector projects.” “In addition to being outnumbered, women who work in construction are walking into a world that has long been tailored to men’s needs. The most challenging part of working in the construction industry as


SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN IN BUSINESS – SOME WORRYING STATISTICS • 19% of business owners are female (0.2% growth from 2019) • Ranked 45 in the world (below Uganda, Botswana and Ghana) • Women earn up to 50% less than their male counterparts when performing the same job

a woman is earning the same respect men get for doing the same thing,” explains Phindile Cindy, CEO of PCA Trading and Projects and winner of Project Excellence of the Year, Grade 1 in the 2020 ERWIC Awards.

Enablers On Women’s Day 2020, President Ramaphosa stated that government would set aside 40% of public procurement to woman-owned businesses in a bid to achieve equality. “However, there are doubts that government has even spent 30% of the budget on woman-owned businesses. Budget needs to be set aside for women,” states Mteto. “Banks need to prioritise women when giving access to funding and all women

should work more closely together and implement peer coaching,” she adds. Melita Mohlala, an ERWIC Awards judge and CEO of Kopano Creative Concepts, guided attendees through the elements of an award-winning project. She listed critical elements for success, including creativity, innovation, quality workmanship, and presentation of the finished project. “You are only as good as your most recent project,” she says. She also encouraged a focus on projects that have a positive social, developmental and economic impact, while also being legislatively compliant. In August 2019, President Ramaphosa added an infrastructure mandate to bring all projects together in one place. Infrastructure South Africa (ISA) ensures that there is a single point of entry for all

infrastructure projects across the country. Currently, 276 have been submitted and 88 projects are past the feasibility phase. These projects have a total investment value of R2.3 trillion, with an estimated gap cover of R502 billion. Mohlala encourages woman-owned businesses to take advantage of these opportunities. SMMEs employ around 11 million people and contribute towards half of South Africa’s GDP. As more than half of the population are women, the economy would grow exponentially if the number of woman entrepreneurs increased. “We need to be more resolute and be unapologetic in our intention to create a bigger space for women in construction. We should accept nothing less than equal opportunities to men. As the famous saying goes: you empower a woman, you empower a family, a community and – indeed – a nation,” concluded Mteto.


Sakhile Mkwanazi, business coach, GROW

Kile Mteto, MD, Ntando-Thando Consulting & Projects and steering committee member of the CIDB

Melita Mohlala, CEO, Kopano Creative Concepts and an ERWIC Awards judge

Phindile Cindy, CEO, PCA Trading and Projects and winner of the 2020 ERWIC Award for Project Excellence (Grade 1)

Thobekile Ndlovu, MD of Thobethulani Trading and winner of the 2020 ERWIC Award for Project Excellence (Grade 7)

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oyal HaskoningDHV South Africa has won the 5-Year Intelligent Transport Strategy 2027 project for the deployment of smart and sustainable mobility solutions by the Johannesburg Roads Agency (JRA). The appointment is an extension of an existing partnership between Royal HaskoningDHV South Africa and the JRA. This follows the drafting of the preceding Intelligent Transport Strategy (ITS) for signal management and traffic monitoring. The data collected during the previous phase will be used to develop a strategy that incorporates traffic management as a service (TMaaS) and mobility as a service (MaaS). The ultimate objective is to optimise traffic flows, reduce congestion and travel time, lower CO2 emissions, plus provide easier and more affordable access to mobility options. “Our partnership with the JRA will shape the next generation of transport networks and improve the way people and goods move,” says Bonga Ntuli, business unit director: Infrastructure at Royal HaskoningDHV South Africa.

JRA explores the frontiers of smart mobility MaaS and TMaaS MaaS involves integrating various forms of transport into a single service that commuters can access on demand from a single application on their phones. This includes public transport, taxis, ridesharing, and e-hailing. In turn, TMaaS connects transport services providers – like train, bus and taxi operators – with city managers. Offered as a cloud-based service, TMaaS keeps traffic flowing smoothly

by rerouting vehicles in response to everchanging traffic situations. The project will be benchmarked against global best practices and solutions, such as Royal HaskoningDHV’s award-winning traffic optimisation software, Flowtack. Through Royal HaskoningDHV’s merger with ITP, a sustainable transport planning consultancy, the JRA will also be equipped with the best tools and expertise to create a green transport network.

Baziya to Mthatha Airport upgrade awarded

C 32

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onstruction is now set to recommence on the R61, Section 7 from Baziya to Mthatha Airport after Sanral’s

termination of the previous contractor due to non-performance. The remaining works on this 27 km route will now be executed by H&I Construction, with the

18-month programme due to commence in September 2021. The contract is valued at some R237 million. “Once completed, access to the airport and Mthatha will be improved due to the wider road prism and surfaced shoulders. In addition, numerous intersections will be upgraded to improve traffic flow and ease turning movements into and out of the R61,” explains Mbulelo Peterson, manager: Southern Region, Sanral. All major structures are approximately 95% complete and require finishing off. Some access roads leading to the R61 will also be regravelled or surfaced. “These will be improved to ensure safer access, as well as to reduce the number of access points to the R61,” adds Peterson. In addition, Sanral plans to provide a dual carriageway between Mthatha Airport and Mthatha CBD to increase mobility and service levels in the area.


Trenchless techniques are optimal for urban zones Horizontal directional drills are fast becoming a mainstay for larger-scale trenchless applications, where machines like the powerful Ditch Witch JT 10 are being used to drill under obstacles


renchless technologies represent among the safest and easiest means of installing utilities such as water, electricity and data infrastructure in urban areas. This is especially the case where blueprints are inaccurate, in sensitive areas, or where high volumes of surface traffic are encountered. Keith Smith, national sales manager: Ditch Witch, ELB Equipment, says his company has the technical expertise to assist municipalities and contractors to find viable trenchless solutions for most infrastructure delivery headaches. “Commonly purchased equipment includes our range of HammerHead piercing tools – or moles, as they are referred to in the industry – which are used in fibre installations and increasingly to minimise disruptions in the installation of electricity and water infrastructure,” he explains. These tools are mainly used under roads, driveways and other obstacles, and range from 50 mm to 145 mm in diameter. Smith says models with reciprocating heads and no moving parts are becoming the tools of

HammerHead piercing tools are commonly used in fibre installations and are increasingly being used to minimise disruptions in the installation of electricity and water infrastructure

choice due to their efficiency and reliability. He adds that ageing water and sewerage infrastructure has also given rise to the popularity of pipe-bursting equipment. The HammerHead range is employed to burst ageing pipes and pull new HDPE piping in behind it. With the addition of specific fittings, the HammerHead range is easily able to deal with steel, clay, concrete, asbestos and other pipe types. Both static and pneumatic models are available and depend on individual contractor requirements.

Precise work “Similarly, among larger contractors, horizontal directional drills are fast becoming a mainstay for larger-scale applications, where drills like our powerful Ditch Witch JT 10 and 20 are being used to drill

under obstacles – whether it be a large road, building, dam or river. The ability to guide the drilling head around other buried infrastructure is also invaluable,” Smith adds. Ground-penetrating radar and locators from Subsite Electronics, as well as other equipment to assist trenchless contractors, are also available from ELB Equipment.

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Energy efficiency starts with consumption Having a clearer understanding of current and future power demand trends provides power utilities, independent power producers and municipalities with a more coherent roadmap. Within the mix is the need to lower climate change impacts.

A D-rating would typically indicate basic compliance with the energyefficiency component of the national building regulations


he South African National Energy Development Institute (Sanedi), together with the Department of Mineral Resources and Energy (DMRE), and the University of Cape Town, recently completed a study on the impact of energy-efficient appliance usage within South Africa’s residential sector. “During peak periods, the residential sector can account for up to 35% of national electricity demand,” says Teslim Yusuf, project manager: Data and Knowledge Management at Sanedi. He adds that, according to the International Energy Agency, the global residential sector consumes a fifth of the world’s energy. The joint Sanedi study found that South Africa’s Standards and Labelling Programme (which displays a product’s rated energy efficiency) has been effective in achieving meaningful savings in appliance energy consumption between 2015 and 2020. The highest energy savings were seen in refrigeration, by a hefty margin, especially in low- and middle-income homes. “From the research sample, 98.1% of households reported owning at least


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one fridge, and 24% of households reported owning more than one. It stands to reason that massive energy savings can be gained from these appliances,” comments Yusuf. In high-income homes, savings in water heating were dominant, but were closely followed by refrigeration. Overall, the programme saw a reduction in energy intensity of 4.1% in 2020. With regard to lighting efficiency, the study highlighted that very few households used LEDs in 2020. LEDs are more energy efficient than incandescent light bulbs and compact florescent lights. “The VC9109 draft lighting regulation, once adopted, aims to remove less-efficient lamps from the market,” explains Yusuf.

Building energy efficiency compliance New requirements are also in the pipeline for buildings. This follows the gazetting of ‘Regulations for the Mandatory Display and Submission of Energy Performance Certificates for Buildings’ in December 2020.

As an agency of the DMRE, Sanedi has been tasked with developing, hosting and maintaining a national Building Energy Performance Certificate Register in terms of these regulations. Among the requirements, certain classes of buildings need to have their energy performance assessed by a Sanas-accredited inspection body. The latter will then issue an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC), rating the building from A to G. “To be compliant, the EPC must be displayed at the building entrance, and a D-rating would typically indicate basic compliance with the energy-efficiency component of the national building regulations,” explains Barry Bredenkamp, GM: Energy Efficiency and Corporate Communications at Sanedi. “This first assessment will form the benchmark for the building and give the owner an idea of what needs to be done to improve the rating in the future. Everyone should aim for an A-rating in the longer term,” says Bredenkamp. EPCs will need to be renewed every five years. The current regulations apply to four different classes of buildings defined in the national Building Standard. These comprise entertainment and public assembly facilities, theatrical and indoor sports facilities, places of instruction, and offices with a net floor area of at least 2 000 m2 in the private sector, and 1 000 m2 for buildings owned, operated or occupied by an organ of the state. These buildings must be compliant by 8 December 2022.


Substation upgrade for new data centre Actom Power Systems has secured a new data centre self-build substation contract in Gauteng, funded by Growthpoint Proper ties. Wor th over R50 million, the project involves the complete refurbishment of the 132/11 kV Kosmosdal-A substation in Samrand, Centurion.


his is the third substation contract that Actom Power Systems has been awarded within the past three years by a private sector company on a self-build basis, by arrangement with a municipality for the supply of power to a new or extended data centre. The previous two contracts were for substations in the City of Ekurhuleni. The first of these, completed in September 2019, involved an extension of the 132/11 kV Airport super substation next to O.R. Tambo International Airpor t in Kempton Park, while the second, awarded in November 2020, and due for completion in October this year, is for the new 88/11 kV Long Avenue substation. Originally referenced as Witfontein Ext. 90, the Long Avenue facility includes provision for additional power supply to enable substantial further development throughout northern Ekurhuleni. Meanwhile, the Kosmosdal-A substation contract, awarded at the end of Februar y 2021, and overseen by consulting engineers Geopower, is scheduled for completion by Januar y 2022.

Responding to the curved balls “Working to an already tight programme, we have had to field a couple of cur ve balls to ultimately achieve a workable execution plan,” says Hannes Horn, senior contracts manager, Actom Power Systems, who is responsible for the Kosmosdal-A substation contract. The first was the discover y that an original equipment manufacturer in Europe,

which Actom had routinely approached to manufacture specialised 132 kV disconnecting circuit breakers in the past, had unexpectedly discontinued its production line after initially quoting for the supply of this equipment. “As a result, we’ve had a mad scramble to explore various alternative compactdesign solutions, as well as tr ying to locate substitute suppliers that could still meet the local deliver y constraint without negatively impacting the overall programme,” Horn explains. The second complication posed an even greater threat of impacting the entire data centre development programme, beyond merely the substation portion of the works. A local manufacturer, with which the order for the two free-issue 40 MVA 132/11 kV power transformers had been placed, suffered a devastating fire at its factor y in March. “This serious setback was successfully overcome by negotiating with our customer to incorporate the supply of the two power transformers into our contract and switch the manufacture thereof to our in-house factor y, Actom Power Transformers, instead. While some overall delay slippage was unavoidable, we have still managed to curtail this to within the constraints of the broader data centre deadline,” Horn remarks.

Turnkey interfaces The other Actom businesses involved in product supply are: • A ctom High Voltage Equipment: conventional circuit breakers, isolators,

Apart from the imported specialised 132 kV disconnecting circuit breakers required for part of the refurbishment of the 132/11 kV Kosmosdal-A substation, due to space constraints, the rest of the substation will have a conventional open-yard configuration. A recent example, shown here, is a portion of a substation extension erected by Actom Power Systems in Kempton Park two years ago

ear th switches, current transformers, voltage transformers and surge arresters • Actom Distribution Transformers: NECRT transformers • Static Power: batteries and chargers • Actom Protection & Control: protection and automation systems • Actom Electrical Products: all power and control cable and accessories required to renew the substation. The 11 kV switchgear will be free-issued by the City of Tshwane for relocation to the substation.

IMIESA July 2021



Working towards a just energy transition The evolution of power generation, transmission and distribution has been a topic of major debate in recent years, spurred on by innovative developments that include smart technology. In these interesting times, iX engineers is actively engaging to provide designs and solutions for the market. By Hans Karemaker* and Frank Major**


stablishing a highly functional and strategy-adopted transmission and distribution grid network is the crucial starting post for a just energy transition (JET). This will enable the progressive shift away from a predominantly coalbased fossil fuel generation fleet to a carbon-neutral generation system based on renewable energy. South Africa’s transmission network was designed to transfer power mainly centralised within the heart of Mpumalanga to the rest of the country. This existing electrical infrastructure network needs to be leveraged for an energy transition by establishing new renewable generation capacity, energy storage and energyintensive processes. Examples include hydrolysers for green hydrogen production or agro-processing facilities on or around the retiring Eskom coal-fired power stations. This could possibly be combined with agrivoltaics (also referred to as agriPV) to provide dual land-use opportunities, while simultaneously addressing the foodenergy-water nexus. Additionally, the transmission infrastructure needs to be strengthened to areas rich in renewable energy generation capacity and land availability, such as the


IMIESA July 2021

Northern Cape for solar energy. Apart from higher transmission line capacities, energy storage can play a pivotal role in helping to overcome grid infrastructure bottlenecks.

strengthening. This decentralised generation approach will also contribute to a JET, empowering many regions to generate energy, job opportunities and related revenues.

A smart grid and e-mobility The future grid will be a smart one with a more dynamic character. With a costreflective real-time tariff system, the demand will follow the generation curve and more energy will be consumed during the daytime periods, where cheaper solar power is available. The generation will be more decentralised and scattered all over the country – moving away from a central, unidirectional grid. Driven by the move to a net-zero-carbon global economy, apart from the hard-toabate industries, much of the industrial and transport sectors will be electrified, adding significant new electricity demand to our current system. Despite the challenge of meeting this new demand, the move to e-mobility can play an enormous role in grid stabilisation by leveraging the high distributed battery storage capacity of electric vehicles in combination with smart chargers and vehicle-to-grid technology. Highly distributed and on-site generation can add significant capacity to the grid, without the need of additional grid

Independent power producers The expected amendment of Schedule 2 of the Energy Regulation Act (No. 4 of 2006) to increase the NERSA licensing threshold for embedded generation projects from 1 MW to 100 MW, as announced by President Ramaphosa on 10 June 2021, will open significant opportunities for private and municipal self-generation initiatives. In connection with this shift to a decentralised generation system, an important conversation will be around municipal revenue models and wheeling through distribution and transmission networks. Smart technologies and artificial intelligence will play a key role to ensure a stable future smart grid that will be fully powered by intermittent renewable energy sources. *Executive Director & Executive Project Packaging, iX engineers **Solutions Lead: Sustainable Energy, iX engineers


University switches to green energy


s part of its quest to achieve its sustainability goals, the Facilities Management Division at Stellenbosch University (SU) is implementing energyefficiency initiatives over the next decade to lower total emissions and operational costs. One of the most recent examples is the installation of a 315 kWp solar PV rooftop system at SU’s Neelsie Student Centre. The off-grid installation is expected to save the university around R960 000 annually. In total, six Huawei 60 kW inverters were installed, 829 PV modules of 380 Wp, and a further 174 PV modules of 450 Wp each. A complete steel substructure was required on the roof to evenly distribute the load and bear additional ballasts to counter the uplift of the PV modules. John de Wet, environmental sustainability manager at SU, says the power generated via the PV modules provides a third of the energy requirements of the entire Neelsie Student Centre. “This type of project fits within our aim to reduce Scope 1 and 2 emissions, as well as dependence on fossil-fuelled energy,

through dynamic and continuous energy management programmes,” he explains. “We aim to reduce Scope 2 electricity consumption emissions by 20% compared to 2019, including self-generation. Towards the end of the Neelsie Student Centre PV installation project, it was clear that we were comfortably within budget, and an additional 78 kWp was added,” De Wet adds.

SEM Solutions completed the Neelsie Student Centre installation in June 2021 and the system has been registered with the local municipality, with fire department requirements incorporated. Rooftop PV panels installed at the Stellenbosch University’s Neelsie Student Centre are expected to pass on savings of R960 000 annually

IMIESA July 2021



Inclusionary housing: addressing the elephants in the room Mid-July 2021 saw comments close on the Western Cape Provincial Government’s draft Inclusionary Housing Policy Framework; however, there’s still a great deal of debate among many developers and other professionals about the best way forward.


ne of the organisations that delivered comment is the Western Cape Property Development Forum (WCPDF) – an organisation that has been actively engaging with various public and private role players on the topic since 2018. “Our organisation has always supported the principle that all people have a right to well-located accommodation that brings them closer to economic activity and addresses the spatial injustices of the past,” says Deon van Zyl, chairperson, WCPDF. When it comes to the draft Inclusionary Housing Policy Framework, three critical issues exist for the WCPDF. “Top of the list is government’s ongoing failure to release welllocated urban land that could be used for affordable or inclusionary housing in the first place,” Van Zyl explains. “Then there is the failure to facilitate the development of new economic nodes in previously disadvantaged areas and, finally, a fundamental failure to develop viable, affordable public transportation systems


IMIESA July 2021

Deon van Zyl, chairperson, Western Cape Property Development Forum

that would link people from where they currently live to economic opportunities,” he continues.

Another tax on an already over-taxed industry The introduction of inclusionary housingrelated offsets on new developments, as proposed by the policy framework, and as expected to be seen in the City of Cape Town’s own policy, is also being viewed by industry members as nothing more than additional tax. Van Zyl says the point of departure is the concept of land value capture (LVC), whereby government is the owner of the development rights on a particular piece of land on behalf of society. The release of such rights to the private sector will come in the form of a levy to be paid by the developer and the cost passed on to the end user and market in general. “If not a tax, then the granting of rights in lieu of payment would equate to the selling of development rights, which is not allowed in

legislation. We must therefore give the benefit of the doubt to the drafters that it is not their intention to equate LVC to a sales transaction. However, the only alternative description for the concept of LVC can therefore be that it is a taxation on property development, which ultimately increases costs to the open market’s tenants or purchasers of residential property,” he continues.

The proposed solution “The only way forward is to go back to the drawing board with a four-phase approach that should be the guiding principle in any policy framework document of this kind,” says Van Zyl. The approach recommended by the organisation is as follows: • Lead by example: The WCPDF calls on government to commit to releasing stateowned land, either directly or in partnership with the private sector, specifically earmarked for affordable housing. • Explore relationships between employers and employees: The opportunity exists for employers to engage on behalf of their employees and provide bridging funding or surety for employees to enter the formal housing sector. In this instance, the use of well-located public-sector land at subsidised rates will be critical. • Incentivise rather than tax the private sector: In other words, encourage this sector of its own accord to provide inclusionary housing (i.e. through tax rebates and financial incentives). “And only then – when all else fails and as a last resort – tax the private sector,” concludes Van Zyl.


The Social Housing Regulator y Authority (SHRA) recently held a webinar aimed at encouraging young people to par tner with the SHRA to develop government-subsidised, affordable social housing rental units.

Youth participation in the social housing value chain


ith South Africa’s star tling youth unemployment rate, it is vital that all sectors of society and industry aid in easing barriers to entry for young people. The youth and companies can become successful contributors to social housing, through various avenues: • Becoming an accredited social housing institution (SHI), which must be a nonprofit organisation. SHIs are required to meet a set of qualifying criteria designed to ensure quality delivery standards in order to achieve accreditation status. Through this avenue, the SHRA can subsidise up to 70% of the total project costs. • Becoming an other delivery agent (ODA), which can be a private company – although 20% equity is expected from them. An ODA may construct, own, maintain and rent out housing to qualifying tenants. • Becoming a service provider to the SHRA, which procures various services including recruitment agencies, legal services, auditors, IT equipment, marketing and other services in support of SHRA’s core programme. The professional guidance of the SHRA is available to young people who are looking to

explore these avenues. “The SHRA team is available to address your queries, as it is vital that you receive help early on, to make the most of the opportunities available,” said Lesego Diale, marketing and communications manager, SHRA. She highlighted the SHRA’s interest in procuring services from youth-owned companies as vital for stimulating transformation across the value chain. Diale further highlighted the distinction between free government housing and subsidised social housing. “We aim to offer quality, comfortable and well-located urban housing options to low- and middle-income households. These developments go a long way in overcoming the spatial inequalities of the apartheid era, where housing options were placed far from economic opportunities. It is important that our developments are appealing to tenants, and are in areas where they can work, live and learn in close proximity.”

Building capacity

sector, and aim to establish functioning and well-managed delivery agents, which are sure to meet a landlord’s responsibilities to its tenants.” The SD&T training programme offers capacity-building grants and management assistance, which helps up-and-coming entities grow into sustainable businesses. Demonstrating the SHRA’s commitment to youth-owned companies, the final presenter of the seminar was Bob Mukahanana, CEO of Let’s Care South Africa – a youth-owned nonprofit company that has successfully entered the social housing sector. “The SHRA’s capacity-building grant went a long way in assisting us as a young SHI, and we have made great progress. We recently won a project in Springs with 246 units.”


Parties interested in attending the next SHRA information session and training can register online here.

Dudu Phoswa, acting sector development and transformation (SD&T) executive, provided insights into the SHRA’s mandate, and the SD&T training programme. “We contribute to a transformed social housing

IMIESA July 2021




DRC Water to Nyiragongo region restored after volcano

BOTSWANA 100 km water pipeline completed Khato Civils has recently completed a R1.169 billion, 100 km water pipeline for Gaborone and 23 villages. The Botswana Water Utilities Corporation praised the company for completing the project, which would ordinarily take two years, in 12 months. Simbi Phiri, chairperson, Khato Civils, said that because this was awarded as a turnkey project, many engineering variations were avoided – and those that were necessary did not cost the Botswana government anything. “We designed the project ourselves, so for any variations, we did not charge government more.” Phiri said Khato Civils’ ownership and use of modern machines enabled the company to work at speed and complete projects quicker. He said the company used trenchers to dig the 100 km, which were much faster than excavators, as they covered 3 km a day.

Virunga Energie has just completed rehabilitation work on the water pipeline that supplies the Bushara reservoirs near Goma in the DRC, which was damaged after the eruption of the Nyiragongo volcano in May. The 1 300 m pipeline carries water pumped from Lake Kivu. “Our teams cleared 1 000 m3 of lava that was blocking the pipe. We also deployed laterite along the route of the pipes over the lava,” explains Ephrem Balole, GM of Virunga Energy. The DRC’s Régie de distribution d’eau (Regideso) will connect this stretch of pipeline to the one from Lake Kivu. The public company treats the water pumped from the lake before distributing it to people in the villages of Turunga, Kiziba and Ngangi Nyiragongo, as well as the Katoyi, Bujovu, Majengo and Ndosho neighborhoods in Goma. The water pipeline rehabilitated by Virunga Energy is supported by 300 m of secondary lateral water pipeline. To improve the efficiency of Regideso throughout the DRC, the government is multiplying initiatives, including the Urban Drinking Water Supply Project (Pemu). The project benefits the cities of Kinshasa, Lubumbashi and Matadi. Pemu will require an investment of US$360 million (R5.21 billion), of which US$59.4 million (R861 million) is for the construction of an industrial water treatment complex. The government is financing the project with a loan from the World Bank.

KENYA SMEC awarded industrial infrastructure project in Tatu City Global engineering firm SMEC was recently appointed as lead infrastructure consultant for the second phase of Tatu Industrial Park at Tatu City – a 5 000 acre Special Economic Zone in Nairobi. A fast-growing industrial zone in Nairobi, Tatu Industrial Park is home to over 60 businesses. Phase 1 is almost 90% sold and work on Phase 2 has already started. This phase is expected to be completed by the end of May 2022. SMEC is overseeing the design, tender processing and construction of infrastructure. The scope of infrastructure works includes roads, storm drainage, street lighting, water distribution and wastewater reticulation, electrical networks and information communication technologies. In Tatu Industrial Park Phase 2, Kenya Wine Agencies Limited, majority owned by Distell of South Africa, broke ground in February on a KSh4 billion (R540 million) production and distribution facility. “We are delighted to commence work at Tatu Industrial Park Phase 2 and to be part of a new city development that has catalysed more than US$1 billion (R14.4 billion) of investment in Kenya in the last four years alone,” says Dave Duke, GM: Social and Urban Development Africa, at SMEC.


IMIESA July 2021

MOZAMBIQUE Dedicated rail service between Mozambique and Zimbabwe Through its key partnerships with NRZ (National Railways of Zimbabwe), CFM (Caminhos de Ferro de Moçambique) and Traxtion, Unitrans Africa is spurring trade in Africa by offering dedicated rail links between Maputo Port and three major Zimbabwean trade hubs – Harare, Bulawayo and Gweru. These new transport ser vices offer key access and an enhanced opportunity for importers and exporters to utilise Maputo’s multipurpose deepwater port. As well as promoting new trade opportunities for customers in both Zimbabwe and Maputo, this

dedicated rail ser vice will reduce transit times, cut costs and offer a more reliable ser vice, as goods previously needed to be transported via road. Maputo Port’s enhanced trade capacity is proving vital to its renewed position as a global transit hub, thanks to its strategic location in the region, with extensive road and rail connections throughout Southern Africa, and shipping routes to the Middle East, Europe and East Asia. Unitrans Africa’s rail corridor between Mozambique and Zimbabwe will play a key role in promoting Maputo Port’s standing among its global and African trade partners.

ZAMBIA 200 MWp solar plant in Serenje US-based Ultra Green Corporation plans to break ground on its Serenje solar photovoltaic power plant in September 2021. The facility, which will have a capacity of 200 MWp, will be connected to Zambia's national power grid.

According to Emmanuel Mwizer wa, managing director of Ultra Green Corporation Zambia, the solar photovoltaic plant will be built on a 448 ha site in Kosamu. With 465 people employed at the project site, the company hopes to complete the project after 15 to 18 months of construction.

IMIESA July 2021



Local knowledge key to success of cross-border projects Infrastructure projects in Africa are seldom linear and their procurement and execution is usually complex. Darrin Green, managing director: Africa, AECOM, believes that local partnerships, embracing digitalisation and practical procurement strategies can contribute to their success.

Darrin Green, managing director: Africa, AECOM


hen executing a crossborder construction project, a company needs to have experience in dealing with differing approaches, standards, expectations of deliverables and cultures, Green explains. Often, there are various companies from numerous countries working on the same project. “Technical skill is only a part of executing the project. It is also important to understand the different contractual nuances of these companies and have a team that is cognisant of local environmental conditions.”

Partnerships AECOM has long-standing relationships with a number of local businesses in different African countries. “The success of a crossborder project is through local knowledge. Localisation is key. Many cross-border projects have procurement processes that in any event have a localisation requirement. But even if this is not in place, one needs an


IMIESA July 2021

The digital tools pilot site at the Polihali Western Access Roads Project in Lesotho

in-depth understanding of a country’s culture, labour relations, tax compliance, contracting regulations, standards and laws,” adds Green. “Many of our projects are multicultural. For instance, with the Tema Port Expansion Project in Ghana, we worked with Chinese, French and Ghanaian contractors, where we had to deal with different languages and approaches towards work. It is therefore important to remain flexible and find ways to meet the end goal of the project – creating a fit-for-purpose structure that can work in a local context,” he says.

On-site and virtual presence While an on-site presence is not always critical during the design phase of a project, it becomes increasingly important during the construction phase, where AECOM has to monitor quality, and implement project management and controls. “During design, we can rely on surveys that can be done by third parties. Today, we also often use drone footage taken of the site as supplemental or even base information. All of our design involves digital modelling. These models are carried through to guide construction and then become the as-built information; they are also often used by the client during the operations and maintenance phase. There is, however, no substitute for an on-site presence during the construction phase. However, with Covid-19, there have


been lockdowns and restrictions on the cross-border movement of people. Some members of the professional team have had to quarantine. We have had to find different ways of working, such as using drones, virtual data collection and remote sensing to inspect sites,” states Green. He adds that Covid-19 has accelerated the use of digital technology. “We have all realised that people do not have to be in the same room to have a meeting.” Most of AECOM’s site systems and inspections are becoming paperless. An online system can give the entire professional team of a project access to inspection requests, while photos can be logged on to a digital platform where a contracts manager sitting in another country can inspect photos immediately and sign off on approvals. AECOM has also established a virtual stakeholder participation tool. This is a digital platform created to visualise projects, meet virtually, and bring communities and stakeholders together in partnership with AECOM’s clients. A virtual event can be personalised to show consultation materials, including virtual reality and sound demonstrations, videos, maps, plans and pop-up banners. The tool allows for instant feedback so public reaction can be captured and saved for analysis and accurate reporting. There is also a chat function, so that on-hand experts can answer questions remotely as visitors look around the materials – similar to what would take place during an inperson event.

projects in Africa out for tender. “With most budgets directed towards Covid-19 relief, we believe that a lot of prospective projects are dependent on the speed of vaccination. In the next 12 to 18 months, we anticipate government-stimulus-type public infrastructure projects that cater toward basic services like water, sanitation and transportation.” Funding is key to any type of project – and more so in Africa, as it is not freely available. Many African governments cannot give sovereign guarantees. Donor funding is therefore critical to the funding of key projects. There is also a mixed bag of infrastructure funds and private sector investors. “Project preparation – getting projects to a bankable feasibility stage – is important. It is a small cost when compared to the entire project life cycle, and could save a lot of money.” Green adds that public-private partnerships (PPPs) are still possible but are suited to a very specific type of project. “About 10 years ago, PPPs were viewed as the panacea to everything. Legislation was put in place and many projects were earmarked as a possible PPP. But if there is not a viable business case or a dependable return on investment, it will have to be heavily subsidised by government.

Procurement – lessons to learn “Donor-funded projects are usually executed within a set framework of rules and policies. This removes a lot of the risk from the project and makes it easier for the professional team to operate. Procurement is also not entirely

focused around cost – professional reputation and quality are factors taken into account,” he says. Looking at South Africa, Green believes that a balance needs to be found between governance and project implementation and execution. “It is very expensive to bid for projects in South Africa, there are a number of barriers to entry, and the procurement process is cumbersome – slowing down the speed of project delivery. Procurement in some other African countries is far more streamlined.” He adds that a bid document in South Africa can be 500 pages long, where the scope of work would take up a page and the rest of the pages involve compliance. “While price will and should play an important part of the process, there needs to be an equal focus on quality. By focusing only on cost, there may be huge impacts on the overall expense of the project life cycle. The design of a project influences construction costs and future maintenance. “By trying to drive down costs at the expense of quality, and choosing companies that do not have the capacity to execute the project, one will encounter poorly executed projects that are not fit for purpose with massive cost overruns,” he warns. As a multidisciplinary infrastructure consulting firm, AECOM offers a variety of in-house services – from environmental, civil engineering and mechanical engineering to electrical, plumbing, fire, architecture, project and cost control.

Trends Green maintains that it is still too early to anticipate any trends regarding the type of

KEY CROSS-BORDER PROJECTS IN AFRICA Some recent and current projects involving AECOM include: • Tema Port Expansion Project – Ghana • Tema Liquid Natural Gas Project – Ghana • Nestlé Factory Expansion – Ghana • Heineken Brewery – Mozambique • Corumana Dam Project – Mozambique • Polihali Western Access Roads (Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 2) – Lesotho

AECOM is on track to complete its scope of works at the Tema Port Expansion Project in September

IMIESA July 2021



Affordable technology that builds brick businesses Catering for SMME brick and block manufacturers requires an in-depth understanding of their production and end-user requirements. IMIESA speaks to Reyno van Rooyen, managing director, Revaro Concrete Equipment, about the company’s custom and off-the-shelf solutions.

What are some of your more popular brick- and blockmaking machines? RvR Depending on each unique situation, we have machines suited for all types of SMME and start-up businesses. Very small start-ups, especially in rural areas, have had great success with our range of manual egglayers. Our range consists of the REL3-1, REL4-1, REL5-1 and REL8-1, priced between R20 000 to R110 000. Among these is the REL4-1 manual egg-layer. This machine produces 14 stock bricks per drop and 3 780 bricks per ninehour shift. This is perfect for areas where electricity is scarce, as you have a manual, petrol or 220 V electric option, which does not require three-phase power. It is important to note that it is recommended to produce any bricks on a concrete slab, but they can also be produced on level ground.

With interchangeable moulds, our clients have more opportunities to cater for different customers according to their needs. This one machine can create up to five jobs.

What’s the next step up for more established operations? If you have a larger budget, our RS (Revaro Static) range of machines would be suitable, as they vary between R82 000 and R900 000. An example of one of our start-up machines is

the Revaro RS5-2.5. This unit features an auto-mould feed with a dual-electric vibration motor to ensure the best compaction for high-quality concrete bricks, blocks and pavers. The RS5-2.5 is only complete with the addition of a 350 ℓ or 500 ℓ pan mixer, 6 m or 8 m conveyer belt to feed the concrete mixture, plus a wet block stacker. But Revaro offers a tailor-made solution that suits your budget and delivers on your production demands. This being said, we even supply the equipment needed to move larger quantities of bricks and aggregates like forklifts and loaders. From a manufacturing throughput perspective, we’d also recommend our plywood production pallets and brick trolleys to move the ready-stacked pallets with bricks to the curing area for drying. Our RS5-2.5 requires 8 to 10 people to run the full production line – from the aggregate transport to the packing of the complete bricks and blocks. Revaro also offers a wide range of diesel generators to keep production running during loadshedding or power outages.

Does Revaro offer tailor-made solutions for customers? The REL4-1 manual egg-layer produces 14 stock bricks per drop and 3 780 bricks per nine-hour shift


IMIESA July 2021

Yes, this is one of our core specialisations. Our in-house engineering team offers a machine manufacturing and

customisation service. We offer standard moulds for hollow blocks, interlocking pavers, bevel pavers, inland and coastal maxi bricks, and stock bricks – and can always customise to your exact requirements.

What type of support and advice do you offer SMMEs? Before we even start with the sales process, we go through the requirements for each machine with our client. We assess their situation, budget and surroundings, and advise on critical elements such as the size, layout, materials and other basics they will need to get their production line up and running. We help them with a costing sheet to realistically show the potential of each machine so that a well-informed decision can be made. There are many aspects to site preparations needed for our machines to function optimally and these details are given to the client in advance as a pre-installation requirement checklist. Once this checklist is complete and signed off by the client or a site manager, as well as a third-party electrician arranged by the client, we are ready for installation. Revaro sends its highly trained and experienced technicians to go


The RS5-2.5 machine features an auto-mould feed with a dual-electric vibration motor to ensure the best compaction for high-quality concrete bricks, blocks and pavers. Complete with a 6 m or 8 m conveyor and mixer

through the entire setup of each machine and plant. Once the production line is set up, a soft start is done to calibrate and adjust the system; then the first hard start gets under way. From there, our technician spends the next few days – depending on the setup complexity – conducting in-depth training while running production, with the customer’s staff responsible for the day-to-day running of the machine. We also recommend that the owner or manager attends this training to ensure the skills

handed over are performed as instructed. Examples include daily maintenance checks and the ability to troubleshoot small snags, thereby ensuring seamless productivity.

What happens after the sale and installation? Our service doesn’t end with commissioning and training after installation. We have seven field services support teams that are available to assist customers if the need arises. Our lead time, depending on where the site is

located, is within 48 hours and we send our best technical minds to solve any problem. We also stock and manufacture all the parts needed to avoid any delays and downtime. Every machine we sell goes through a rigorous quality assurance inspection at our

factory, and again at the customer’s site to verify that the commissioning is perfect. From there, we’re always on standby to assist with any advice and to help grow our SMME start-ups into leading brick and block suppliers to the industry.

IMIESA July 2021



Italian OEM Magni Telescopic Handlers has built a reputation for innovation, which includes the development of full-rotation telehandlers with a reach extending up to 51 m. Alastair Currie speaks to Lindsay Shankland, CEO, Magni SA, about gains in the local market.

Lifting with a difference


stablished in 2013, Magni Telescopic Handlers was found by Riccardo Magni with a vision of creating a pioneering brand with world-class solutions for the global market. Manufactured in Italy, the OEM now fields the broadest range of telehandlers with the highest lifting capacities. These comprise the RTH rotary series, the HTH fixed-boom heavy-duty range, and the TH fixed-boom series, which are sold and supported worldwide via more than


IMIESA July 2021

300 dealers. These machines meet the demands of diverse sectors that include construction, mining, rental companies and general industry. In South Africa, Eazi Access was appointed as the first distributor and served in this role for five years up until 2018 – the year that Magni opened a South African subsidiary. Eazi Access continues to serve as a strategic South African dealer within the locally expanding network in South Africa and Africa. So far, Magni SA has

A specialist Magni attachment for bridge maintenance inspections

appointed dealerships established in the DRC, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius and Zambia. “Magni’s products are designed for bestin-class utilisation in terms of maximum safe lifting capacity, lifting heights and driver comfor t,” says Shankland. “In developed markets like Asia, Europe and North America, they are a common sight


Magni’s success has always been based on out-of-the-box thinking, and its research and development team continues to push the boundaries of conventional design.” on construction and mining projects, and this trend is gaining increasing traction in South Africa and Africa, as customers and contractors gain an appreciation for their versatility.” This versatility throughout the Magni range is borne out by the extensive range of more than 150 Magni attachments. These include buckets, concrete skips, drilling attachments, forks, jibs, winches, platforms, as well as tyre and cylinder handlers. Safety is in-built across the board. Magni’s attachment recognition system, for example, resets all the safety parameters when changing to a new attachment. All telehandlers also come out of the factor y platform-ready for safe remote operation, where a personnel cage/platform is required.

The fixed-boom champions The heavy-duty design of the Magni HTH series makes them well suited for rugged materials handling applications. Lift capacities on HTH models start at 10 t and extend up to 50 t with the 50.14 model, which has a lifting height of 14 m and a capacity at maximum height of some 22 t. For the general construction and maintenance market, Magni recently added smaller machines to the TH line-up with

maximum lifting heights of between 10 m and 19 m, and a lifting capacity for these units of 5 t to 6 t. “Where the lifting capacity and height in the market is 4 t to 14 m, and 4 t to 18 m, Magni has extended that versatility by fielding TH machines of 5.5 t to 15 m, and 5.5 t to 19 m,” Shankland explains. “These latest-generation TH units have now arrived in South Africa with a number of units sold to date.”

Low-profile-designed underground mining machine A recent innovation is the development of a low-profile machine with an overall height of 2 m for the underground mining and tunnelling market. This machine has a 5 t capacity and 8 m lift, and is certified to SANS 1589 braking standards. “In South Africa, the first unit was recently delivered to a local mine and is performing incredibly well,” says Shankland.

Full-rotation machines

on numerous tunnel installations and projects globally.

Market movements “Our largest market currently is in mining, followed by construction, where the most popular machines tend to be the 15 m and 19 m fixed-boom units. However, fullrotation machines are receiving growing interest within the construction sector. For example, with a platform attachment folding out from 2.3 m to 4.7 m this greatly reduces the need for scaffolding,” adds Shankland. “Across the board, we’re pleased with our expanding footprint across the world and in Africa. Going forward, we continue to work closely with our customers to meet their multifaceted materials handing requirements, backed by comprehensive after-sales service and the unique Magni experience,” says Shankland. Reaching new heights with the Magni RTH6.51 telehandler

Within the RTH series, capabilities extend from 4 t/18 m up to 6 t/51 m – a tremendous height that sets the benchmark for telehandlers in this class. The first 51 m unit has been sold in the USA. “Magni’s success has always been based on ‘out-of-the-box’ thinking, and its research and development team continues to push the boundaries of conventional design. This includes launching the world’s highest liftingheight rotating telehandler models, and the RTH13.26 model with a payload of 13 t and lift height of 26 m,” says Shankland. The key advantage of RTH units is that they can work in a static position within confined spaces, while the rotating boom (with attachment) can turn to any point surrounding their 360-degree axis. As an aside, Magni units are also working

Magni’s new THU5.8 telehandler. This low-profile machine has an overall height of 2 m and has been purpose-built for the underground mining and tunnelling market

IMIESA July 2021



The FUSO FJ26-280C HYP receives a 6-cubic metre capacity stamp of approval! Métier Mixed Concrete is the first company in South Africa to put the FUSO FJ26-280C HYP under rigorous testing for a month. Both management and drivers give this enhanced product a thumbs up and declare it fit to accommodate a 6-cubic metre capacity. This is one of the key buying factors for the company that has now purchased six models of this game-changer, expanding its current fleet which is approximately 100% Daimler products.


étier Mixed Concrete started from humble beginnings in 2007 with one plant in Durban and, despite a relatively volatile operating environment over the years, the company has made great strides, which led to the development of six additional plants in Gauteng. This flourishing company is a 100% subsidiary of Sephaku Holdings and is well positioned as a market leader in the construction industry – remaining at the forefront of readymix concrete technology. The company has been a long-standing valued customer of Daimler Trucks & Buses


IMIESA July 2021

Southern Africa for the past 13 years, operating predominantly with the Mercedes-Benz Axor and Arocs models. With a near 100% Daimler fleet, it proudly boasts 100-170 vehicles between its fleet and owner-drivers. Métier Mixed Concrete confirms that it has been waiting in great anticipation to add reliable and durable FUSO products to its fleet. Fast-forward to April 2021: FUSO Trucks lives up to its promise of delivering ‘Simply Better Trucks’ with the successful launch of the FUSO FJ26-280C HYP. Since its entrance to the market, it has had everyone wondering, "So what's the HYP all about?" Métier

Doug Thring, national operations manager, Métier Mixed Concrete

Mixed Concrete is thrilled to be the first company in South Africa to give feedback on the outstanding performance of this remarkable vehicle. Doug Thring, national operations manager of Métier Mixed Concrete, had this to say: “Being the first company to be granted the opportunity to test this new truck is a privilege for us. We are delighted to see that FUSO Trucks values constructive feedback from its customers – this tells you a lot about the brand and what it stands for. After a month of testing the vehicle, we are extremely impressed with its overall performance.


WHAT MÉTIER MIXED CONCRETE LOOKS FOR IN A TRUCK Key buying factors • Suitability for the application • 6-cubic metre payload • Price, service, and after-sales support Operating hours • Approximately 8 hours a day

Métier Mixed Concrete personnel with the FUSO vehicle put through a rigorous onemonth customer test. From left to right are Steven Caelers, plant manager, Métier Mixed Concrete (Kempton Park); Eddie Pelcher, key account manager, Daimler Trucks & Buses Southern Africa; Tyran Loynes, operations manager: Gauteng Region, Métier Mixed Concrete; and JP van Dyk, plant manager, Métier Mixed Concrete (Lyttleton)

“We strongly believe that it is the best product for our current and future business growth, and a perfect solution for the greater industry. The 6 m3 payload capacity is a game changer, as are the low fuel consumption and driver comfort. These key factors have influenced our company to purchase six models directly after the testing,” he continues.

Suitable for application The FUSO FJ26-280C HYP is specifically fitted with hypoid rear axles (single reduction axles), contributing extensively to low fuel consumption and reducing the tare weight of the vehicle. This is to ensure that the vehicle can accommodate a 6-cubic metre concrete mixer and still comply with the permissible axle loads. “We are exceptionally happy that the brand has set the bar high with the FJ26-280C HYP to meet our business needs. After obtaining the weighbridge results, this vehicle quickly proved that it is suitable for the application. I can safely say that it is an impressive truck that can operate under the toughest conditions and is suitable for the South African market,” says Thring.

JP van Dyk, plant manager at Métier Mixed Concrete’s Lyttleton depot, gives the FUSO FJ26-280C HYP the thumbs-up

Fuel economy goes a long way In every corner of South Africa, fuel costs continue to present a challenge for fleet owners. The fluctuation of these costs and consumption play a significant role in the overall profits of fleet companies. The price of fuel is beyond the fleet owner’s control so the only way to mitigate these costs is to focus on vehicle fuel efficiency, operating parameters and driver behaviour. Thring further adds: “After a month of intensive testing, the fuel economy achieved on the vehicle met our expectations. We are pleased with its consumption and the better turnaround time. This will contribute significantly to fuel efficiency and reduce the total cost of ownership. With the new models that we have recently purchased, we certainly look forward to further savings, which will become tangible profits in the long run.”

Increased productivity Looking at construction industry trends, it’s evident that most truck manufacturers are incorporating additional options to enhance driver comfort, safety and productivity. In response, the FUSO team has invested heavily in the FJ26-280C HYP to ensure that these key factors are a priority. “From a driver’s point of view, this is a robust truck suitable for the South African terrain. The vehicle drives very well; it offers smooth gear changing and better handling on turning circles. There were absolutely no issues even driving it on wet sites. It went everywhere and showed no signs of getting stuck. I can confidently say that

it is a vigorous vehicle and drives very well in most conditions,” says Thring.

SA construction industry outlook It’s no secret that the construction industry has been under significant pressure for some time. “It has been tough for a while, even before the pandemic, and it got tougher after the first hard lockdown. We only started to see a pick-up in construction works within two months of lockdown for a sustainable level of production. For this reason, we have witnessed many small to medium, independent and some of the large operators closing down,” Thring explains. “With this said, we remain optimistic, as the industry is starting to build its way back to positive growth; in the same breath, we are also cautious as, in the past 10 years, we have had a lot of peaks and valleys. We are seeing an increase in tender activity and some decent infrastructure projects. These positive developments have also given us the courage to further expand our business in Cape Town. As we grow our business, we look forward to invest further in the FUSO brand when a business need arises,” he adds. “The team has done its homework with this new model. It aligns perfectly with our business ambitions of building a concrete legacy in South Africa and I would certainly recommend it to any readymix concrete company looking into expanding its fleet,” concludes Thring. FUSO Trucks says it wishes Métier Mixed Concrete unending success as it takes its business to greater heights and continues to expand into other regions. “Most importantly, we look forward to seeing the contribution these new models make to their business.”

IMIESA July 2021



A new standard for walk-behind rollers

John Deere’s 622G model is ideally suited for contractors, roadbuilders and municipalities looking for a cost-effective, six-wheel-drive machine The RD7 has a 700 kg operating weight and meets the compaction requirements for asphalt as well as granular materials

John Deere grader roll-out

acker Neuson’s latest-generation RD7 walk-behind, dual-vibration roller sets a new standard for manoeuvrability and performance in the 700 kg class. At less than 2.5 m/s², the RD7 also produces the lowest hand-arm vibrations on the market. With a drum width of 650 mm, the RD7 delivers optimum results on asphalt as well as soil surfaces, directed by an ergonomically designed guide handle that has a series of integrated functions. The operator can control travel direction and the right variable speed by moving the handle forwards and backwards or stop the roller completely by simply releasing the handle. As a further plus, the vibration-dampened guide handle is not set to a fixed height and can be moved freely to match the terrain. The operator simply sets the vibration depending on the surface – high frequency for asphalt compaction and low frequency for soil compaction. This way, the RD7 consistently achieves the required density and surface quality. On the go, the long guide lever simplifies the acceleration and turning of the roller, which is facilitated by the short distance between the drums and the machine’s low centre of gravity. In addition, a low lateral overhang of only 30 mm – combined with a tapered frame – enables exact and uninterrupted compaction directly alongside walls or curbs.

ohn Deere’s latest-generation G and GP Series motor graders build on the OEM’s legacy of easy maintenance and durability. Operators have various control options. These include a choice between dual-joystick controls or fingertip armrest-mounted controls, or a field kit allowing them to easily switch between the two. The dual-joystick control option assists in reducing operator fatigue, eliminating the twisting wrist motion or uncomfortable combinations common to other joystick systems. The GP models within the range include advanced features such as automatic-return-straight, highresolution reverse camera, rear-mounted ripper/ scarifier, front dozer blade, and 16 LED light package. An Automation Suite feature helps operators improve productivity by reducing the number of controls required to per form common tasks, such as auto-articulation, blade flip, and operator-selected machine presets. Selected models in the range will also include John Deere Connected Support™ – leveraging the power of telematics to deliver higher levels of uptime and reduced operating costs. The JDLink™ Dashboard, the user inter face for the telematics system, gathers and organises a wide variety of machine information, empowering customers to better manage their fleet. Dealers can connect to the machine remotely to troubleshoot machine issues and upgrade control software, reducing the need for site visits to conduct maintenance.


Easy service – higher profitability Ease of maintenance is another key feature on the RD7. The protective hood can be folded open tool-free, and all maintenance points are accessible without complications or tools. Moreover, easy access is ensured by the open design, which allows for many components, such as the hydraulic hoses, to be accessed easily. This way, downtime is kept to a minimum for best-in-class productivity on-site.


IMIESA July 2021



A variety of solutions for driver management Vehicles are an expensive, important asset and the way they are used can significantly impact on the success of a business. Managing vehicles and drivers is a complex task. Fortunately, solutions like Ctrack’s driver management suite can eliminate guesswork and ensure the optimal running of your fleet.


ood drivers support a positive reputation, while drivers who breach road regulations not only risk their own safety but that of others. They also incur additional costs for the business such as fuel, maintenance and insurance. Ctrack offers a range of solutions to support businesses with driver performance and management across multiple driver groups and vehicles. These solutions include a driver behaviour indicator that detects harsh acceleration, braking and cornering, while driver fatigue is managed with the help of front, rear and in-cab cameras. Improving the behaviour of your drivers can benefit your business through better kilometres per litre, lower fuel bills, enhanced driver safety and reduced accident rates, as well as reduced fleet administration and vehicle maintenance costs. Ctrack driver management tools succeed at providing you with multiple solutions to ensure your operations run effectively, efficiently, safely, and allow fleet operators to manage drivers, asset access, and driver behaviour across multiple vehicles and assets remotely.

Data leads to change The data harvested from these systems makes it possible to upskill operators and ensure the safety of both workforce and assets. Fleet managers can provide direct operator behaviour feedback to their staff using indicators through Ctrack software applications, visible on mobile devices, as well as vehicle in-cab peripherals or electronic data sets.

Innovative driver management solutions Ctrack’s driver management solutions enable companies to accurately identify, control and manage their drivers. Integration with peripherals such as breathalysers prevents access to vehicles from intoxicated drivers, and safety requirements such as the failure to wear seatbelts can also be reported. Drivers can be identified through various mechanisms such as the Dallas iButton, RFID cards, and even virtual driver pins. Driver behaviour monitoring then ensures that the correct person is behind the wheel and that your vehicle is being driven in a satisfactory manner, with parameters that keep an eye

For an in-depth analysis of your business requirements, contact Ctrack at 0860 333 444 or visit

on factors such as speed, harsh braking, irregular stops and many more. The in-cab driver display unit aids the driver with critical information such as job dispatching, navigation and messaging, enabling the driver to focus on the task at hand, which is driving the vehicle safely, with access to all the information needed to do their job efficiently. Various camera options further allow for live video and replays of incidents on the road that could support and reduce insurance claims, including supporting possible litigation against your company and the driver involved in such cases. Engine performance monitoring ensures that the vehicle is driven efficiently by keeping an eye on engine speed and will also alert fleet managers to excessive periods of idling. The Driver Mobi application allows drivers to view their driver behaviour scores, as well as complete their logbook by marking journeys as business or private, and also conduct vehicle checks before start-ups via their smartphone. Ctrack has industry solutions to track a variety of assets, including cars, trucks, trailers, containers, generators, packages and confidential deliveries, which is why Ctrack is a one-stop shop for all your fleet management needs.

IMIESA July 2021



Turning concrete waste into a resource Enormous economic and environmental benefits could be achieved globally by placing more emphasis on the recycling and retrofitting of concrete – the most commonly used building material on ear th – says Br yan Perrie, CEO of Cement & Concrete SA (CCSA).


odern civilisation is built on concrete and its positive social impacts are immense. Because of its extensive usage, concrete inevitably has a relatively large environmental footprint, but this could be reduced by increasing the volumes of recycled concrete,” Perrie states. “At least 10 billion tonnes of concrete are used annually – twice as much as any other building material. This means the potential for recycling is enormous, but unacceptably high volumes of concrete sadly end up in landfills together with other construction and demolition waste (C&DW), completely ignoring their recycling potential,” he continues. Perrie says the demolition of in situ, precast and tilt-up reinforced concrete can be achieved relatively easily by modern cutting, breaking and lifting equipment. Once the demolition of reinforced concrete has been completed, the concrete and reinforcing steel can be separated for recycling. Internationally, the most common usage of recycled concrete currently is in roads, but concrete can be recycled for many other purposes, such as aggregate for building products like bricks, blocks, layer works in roadbuilding, or land reclamation. Furthermore, recycling reduces the need for virgin materials, thereby saving resources and the energy required to process them. Crushed concrete also absorbs carbon dioxide, while precast components from structures can be reused in new buildings


IMIESA July 2021

without having to be demolished and recycled. In fact, Perrie says that structures using precast elements should indeed be designed for such reuse. “In former industrial areas and inner-city precincts, there are many old concrete structures such as unused offices, factories and warehouses that can be retrofitted and converted into residential space. Effective building retrofitting usually requires the building structure to be left largely intact,” he explains.

Material advantages The benefits of recycling and retrofitting include: • saving of natural resources, including raw materials, energy and water required for new structures • reducing the quantity of solid waste sent to landfill • lowering the energy consumption and pollution that would result from the extraction, manufacturing and transportation of virgin materials

• increased employment opportunities – an important element in a country such as South Africa where so many people are jobless.

Key challenges and the need for regulation Perrie concedes that there are still some challenges to be overcome in the quest for using higher volumes of recycled concrete. “Included are aspects such as irregularity of supply, contamination and a lack of consistent quality, site sorting, noise and pollution resulting from on-site recovery and processing, as well as potential legal aspects,” says Perrie. “But the benefits, particularly for countries with shrinking economies, by far outweigh the challenges. CCSA believes there should be legislation banning construction and demolition waste from landfills, or taxation to limit the volumes of C&DW ending up in landfills,” he adds. “This must be coupled with increased policing to stop the illegal dumping of construction waste. Architects and specifiers also need to increasingly consider the use of recycled concrete or concrete unit reuse when designing new buildings,” Perrie concludes.


Key route upgrade on the R67/5


friSam’s specialised Roadstab cement is helping to pave the way for a safer R67/5 route along an 18 km section stretching north to south from the Swart Kei River bridge to Queenstown in the Eastern Cape. The various works are being carried out by the Raubex Construction and Roadmac Surfacing Cape Joint Venture, and includes the construction of a new bridge over the Swart Kei River, plus the widening of the Klaas Smuts River Bridge.

The road’s existing 3 m per lane will be widened to 3.7 m, plus a 3 m surfaced shoulder. Some vertical realignment is also taking place, in areas such as those where drainage problems are addressed, where livestock crossings are required, and at the new Swart Kei River bridge. This realignment will improve line of sight for motorists, allowing the authorities to raise the current 80 km/h speed limit to 100 km/h. Over the course of the project, around 180 000 bags of AfriSam’s Roadstab cement

will be used for the stabilisation of the road’s G4 sub-base layer. The project’s stabilisation design requires a 3% cement composition. The Roadstab cement is trucked to site from AfriSam’s Queenstown depot, which is supplied by rail from the company’s Ulco factory in the Northern Cape. AfriSam’s nationwide footprint also enables it to service the project from its Bloemfontein depot, when necessary. The project began in July last year and is scheduled for completion in April 2023.


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Admixture accelerators for cold conditions


Chryso XEL C205 chloride formulation facilitates earlier demoulding and faster turnaround times

older ambient temperatures can cause delays in concrete strength development, as well as finishing aspects; however, the challenge is easily overcome using specialised accelerator admixtures. These are normally categorised as chloride and non-chloride based. A popular chloride-based accelerator commonly used by many dr y precast operations is Chr yso XEL C205. This product enhances the early stages of cement hydration, which in turn enhances the rapid stiffening and hardening of the concrete mix. The result is that final finishing or mould stripping can begin at an earlier age without damaging the concrete sur face, increasing productivity. It can be used in applications that do not contain embedded metal, and in foamed mortar systems. For steel-reinforced concrete, the ideal solution is the nonchloride-based accelerating admixture Chr yso XEL 650. This can be used in all types of cement, and applications that include shuttered concrete, prestressed concrete, precast elements and readymix. Another solution is Chr yso XEL 680 EMx, which is specifically used in highly extended cements. It allows for productivity gains through pouring/stripping cycle time reduction. Moreover, it enables the time required and temperature of steam curing to Chryso XEL 650 be optimised. non-chloride formulation promotes initial hydration of cements

IMIESA July 2021



Spun poles are more durable


anufactured to exacting standards, Rocla’s spun concrete poles are purpose-designed to support overhead transmission and distribution powerlines. They have been evaluated at Eskom’s Rosher ville Testing Station and approved for use by the power utility. Durable and maintenance-free, these poles are exceptionally strong through 360 degrees. By comparison, normal cast concrete poles have a major and minor load axis. Rocla’s unique centrifugal manufacturing process achieves a uniform, densely compacted concrete along the whole length of the pole. This provides extra strength properties, offering a lifespan exceeding 50 years. Small ser vitude requirements, simple and economic founding methods, and a quick installation turnaround time translate into a cost-effective solution. A variety of pole lengths in single, jointed and double pole configuration are available. Rocla’s engineering technical team can also customise spun concrete pole solutions to meet specific sizing requirements, as well as non-standard applications. Rocla manufactures a range of concrete pole solutions for electrification, reticulation, telecoms, lighting, security monitoring and stadium use. In-built durability enables them to withstand harsh environments, inclement weather and vandalism.

A Rocla spun concrete pole manufactured for a wind farm transmission and distribution network



Association of Steel Tube & Pipe Manufacturers of SA


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IMIESA July 2021


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13 53


The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

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Articles inside

Admixture accelerators for cold conditions article cover image

Admixture accelerators for cold conditions

page 57
Turning concrete waste into a resource article cover image

Turning concrete waste into a resource

page 54
The FUSO FJ26-280C HYP receives a stamp of approval article cover image

The FUSO FJ26-280C HYP receives a stamp of approval

pages 50-51
A variety of solutions for driver management article cover image

A variety of solutions for driver management

page 53
Lifting with a difference article cover image

Lifting with a difference

pages 48-49
Local knowledge key to success of cross border projects article cover image

Local knowledge key to success of cross border projects

pages 44-45
Affordable technology that builds brick businesses article cover image

Affordable technology that builds brick businesses

pages 46-47
Infrastructure news from around the continent article cover image

Infrastructure news from around the continent

pages 42-43
Inclusionary housing: addressing the elephants in the room article cover image

Inclusionary housing: addressing the elephants in the room

page 40
Youth participation in the social housing value chain article cover image

Youth participation in the social housing value chain

page 41
University switches to green energy article cover image

University switches to green energy

page 39
Working towards a just energy transition article cover image

Working towards a just energy transition

page 38
Substation upgrade for new data centre article cover image

Substation upgrade for new data centre

page 37
Trenchless techniques are optimal for urban zones article cover image

Trenchless techniques are optimal for urban zones

page 35
Energy efficiency starts with consumption article cover image

Energy efficiency starts with consumption

page 36
Riverbank training and protection article cover image

Riverbank training and protection

pages 28-29
Whistleblowing hotlines for municipalities article cover image

Whistleblowing hotlines for municipalities

pages 30-31
Unpacking barriers for women in construction article cover image

Unpacking barriers for women in construction

pages 32-33
Geogrids in civil engineering applications article cover image

Geogrids in civil engineering applications

pages 26-27
Empowerment through quality, education and training article cover image

Empowerment through quality, education and training

pages 24-25
uMshwathi Regional Bulk Water Supply Scheme Phase 2 article cover image

uMshwathi Regional Bulk Water Supply Scheme Phase 2

pages 22-23
Asset maintenance is a lifelong journey article cover image

Asset maintenance is a lifelong journey

pages 18-19
The BUILD programme makes every project count article cover image

The BUILD programme makes every project count

pages 12-13
The future of surveying article cover image

The future of surveying

pages 14-16
Editor’s comment article cover image

Editor’s comment

pages 5-6
Repairing concrete with concrete in sewer systems article cover image

Repairing concrete with concrete in sewer systems

pages 8-11
The durability of steel for bulk water delivery article cover image

The durability of steel for bulk water delivery

pages 20-21
Establishing a new docking site for MSC article cover image

Establishing a new docking site for MSC

page 17
President’s comment article cover image

President’s comment

page 7
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