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IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

infrastructure development • Maintenance • service delivery

industry Expanding an

INSIGHT integrated niche MCPM head Sizwe Mchunu and director Phendukani Ntini

sbs tanks Turnkey water solutions

Roads & Bridges Faster stabilisation techniques

Dams & Reservoirs Getting more from our dams

Waste Management Roundhill restoration

IN THE HOT SEAT ERWAT is embarking on a programme to update its Bulk Wastewater Master Plan, which will be overlaid on to Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality’s Spatial Development Framework.” Tumelo Gopane Managing Director, ERWAT P10 ISSN 0257 1978

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The offic ial mag azine of the Insti tute l of Mun icipa Engi neer ing Afric a of Sout hern







volume 42 no. 01 january 2017


industry insight MCPM

roads & bridges Faster, more efficient road stabilisation

Expanding an

IND US TRY grated niche SIGHT inte IN


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Regulars Editor’s comment President’s comment Africa round-up Index to advertisers

Pipe Technology 3 5 8 71

1978 ISSN 0257

Cover Story SBS Tanks – Water tank delivery Storing, capturing and reusing water is an imperative, alongside conventional reservoir containment systems, for sustained 24/7 supply – areas comprehensively covered by SBS Tanks’ turnkey solutions. P6


Technological advances in wastewater treatment


Industry Insight MCPM expands its integrated niche 12

IMESA Conference 14

Municipal Feature | Buffalo City A city at work


Paving the city of gold Faster, more efficient road stabilisation The pursuit of worker wellness Custom culverts remediate ‘deathtrap’

23 26 29 29

PIPE technology New frontiers for plastic pipes

Getting more from our dams


Water & Wastewater The new frontier in wastewater treatment


Mastering surface course rehab LP6505 duplex roller’s big brother FMX equals construction Trucks push through tough market conditions

31 33 34 36

Fleet Management Fuel management works


SOCIAL HOUSING The face of social housing

CESA Infrastructure Indaba Harnessing the three Cs


Geomatics Seeing the bigger picture


Infrastructure Development Monitoring infrastructure for positive change


Social Housing 57

Clay Brick Construction Breathing life into structures


Waste Management Roundhill restoration


SAICE Awards

Vehicles & Equipment


Dams & Reservoirs

The face of social housing

Roads & Bridges

ERWAT managing director Tumelo Gopane speaks about the Welgedacht WWTW extension in Springs and how this ties in with broader capacity expansion plans for the Gauteng region. P10


Hot Seat

Engineering our future


New frontiers for plastic pipes


SAICE awards civil engineering excellence


Cement & Concrete Paving for groundwater preservation Admixtures – creating greener concrete


waste management Roundhill restoration

69 70


The City of Johannesburg is required by the Department of Water and Sanitation to reduce its water usage by 15% with immediate effect, as water levels at our source (Integrated Vaal River System) have dropped to alarming levels. This mandatory mitigation measure on water usage has been triggered by on-going drought and unusual warmer conditions.


Level-2 water use restrictions according to section 44 (3) of the Water Services By-law states that consumers are compelled: • Not to water their garden between 06:00 and 18:00; • Not to use irrigation systems, only a hand held hose or bucket is permitted during watering times; • Not to fill swimming pools with municipal water; and • Not to use hosepipes to wash their cars or to clean paved areas and driveways with water.


Water demand restriction tariffs on domestic users effective on water usage from September 2016. Full tariff schedule: www.johannesburgwater.co.za


Implementation of water supply restrictions through reduction of outflows from our reservoirs will take place during off peak times (20:00 – 04:00) in selected areas daily.

For more information and water saving tips visit www.johannesburgwater.co.za. Please subscribe on our website, to our SMS notification service for planned or unplanned service interruptions.

EDITOR’s comment

Striving for an

Publisher Elizabeth Shorten MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie SENIOR JOURNALIST Danielle Petterson Head OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister DESIGNER Ramon Chinian Chief SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders SUB-EDITOR Morgan Carter ContributorS Gavin Clunnie, Nash Dookhi, Stan Jewaskiewitz, Mike Smart, Peter Townshend, Nigel Webb CLIENT SERVICES & Production MANAGEr Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator Jacqueline Modise financial manager Andrew Lobban MARKETING MANAGER Mpinane Senkhane Administration Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS subs@3smedia.co.za Printers United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________

inclusive economy


elcome to 2017, the 23rd year of South Africa’s new democracy and the next chapter in its unfolding story. Over the past two decades, change has been a constant companion, and will continue to be so as South Africa repositions itself for growth. How we respond to and manage change will be especially decisive in 2017, as the country faces a further contraction in its macroeconomic outlook, compounded by subdued trading conditions worldwide. Now, more than ever, “Countries need to rely on all policy levers – monetary, fiscal and structural – to lift growth prospects,” says IMF chief economist and economic counsellor Maurice Obstfeld. For South Africa, this is especially significant given its present borderline investment status. The upside: the current situation now lends itself to far greater public and private sector engagement, and a more transparent operating environment open to international scrutiny. Compared to more advanced countries, South Africa has a much smaller tax base to work with and relies on investment inflows to meet its longer-term goals, either via foreign loans or local private sector funding. In both cases, investor confidence will be strongly influenced by public policy decisions going into 2017 and beyond. Greater financial discipline, an end to the mismanagement of public funds, and more proactive project management are all focus areas being addressed by national, provincial and local governments. If successfully implemented, this will lay a strong foundation for economic recovery. Here, the role of South Africa’s 278 municipalities is particularly important, since they play an essential role in ensuring our infrastructure works and our economy functions. There are 8 metropolitan, 44 district and 226

Advertising Sales Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 Email: jennymiller@lantic.net ___________________________________________________

Publisher: media No. 9, 3rd Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 www.3smedia.co.za Annual subscription: R550.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2016. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: King Singh P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: admin@imesa.org.za Website: www.imesa.org.za BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 Email: celestev@buffalocity.gov.za EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Fax: +27 (0)41 585 1066 Email: imesa.easterncape@gmail.com KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Ingrid Botton Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax:+27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: imesakzn@imesa.org.za NORTHERN PROVINCE Secretary: Rona Fourie Tel: +27 (0)82 742 6364 Fax: +27 (0)86 634 5644 Email: np@imesa.org.za SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Fax: +27 (0)86 629 7490 Email: imesa.southcape@gmail.com

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.

Salga Getting the house in order was a central theme at the recent South African Local Government Association (Salga) conference held in November 2016. Newly appointed Salga president Parks Tau said that for municipalities to function effectively, they need to find innovative ways to attract funding. That includes more support from National Treasury, particularly for small municipalities, to ensure the delivery of basic services. “Local and provincial governments must work together to save costs,” he said.

Gauteng infrastructure At a provincial level, the Gauteng Department of Infrastructure Development (GDID) is a good example of a public entity working hard to unlock bottlenecks. This follows the establishment of Lutsinga Infrastructure House, a project management nerve centre focused on improved delivery, in the process seeking to eradicate wastage and corruption in a province that remains the country’s single largest contributor to GDP. Lutsinga monitors and manages a R31 billion property portfolio, so perfecting its systems will have a direct and positive impact on the Gauteng and broader construction economy. In 2017, let’s invest wisely and focus on quality: every project successfully completed, on time and within budget, sets us on the right path as we strive to become an inclusive economy.

Alastair Currie To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.

WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: Michelle.Ackerman@capetown.gov.za FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Fax: +27 (0)86 628 0468 Email: imesa.fsnc@gmail.com

local municipalities. We know there is still room for improvement, as the latest Auditor General report for the 2014/15 period indicates. According to the report, the financial health of 92% of the municipalities audited was rated as either ‘“concerning” or “requiring intervention”.

@infrastructure4 uctu www.infrastr







The official magazin e of the Institute of Municip al Enginee ring Souther n Africa


Driving water MUNI CIPAL savings

Cover opportunity


, Deputy Director: d Municipa lity Hanré Blignaut Planning, Overstran Engineeri ng


ANN AMlloM delivers for

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Apo contractors emerging

Awards IMESA/CESA municipal

Infrastructure News


r Municipal Wate Holistic water management

Rewarding excellence engineering

Bitumen & Asp en


New bitum framework specification

SEAT fraternity, engineering IN THE HOT relationship with the consulting use application.” for a specific e products to We have a proactiv P10 advice on which tly seek our u Piping Systems who frequen g Director, Sizabant

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1978 ISSN 0257

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IMIESA January 2017


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President’s comment


Collaboration will fast-track delivery IMESA is leading change as it focuses on establishing unity and cooperation between private and public sector stakeholders.


he role of IMESA in promoting positive change within the infrastructure landscape is a vital one. That’s why, as the newly elected president, I will be placing renewed emphasis on greater collaboration between private and public sector professional bodies. IMESA will also continue to strengthen its ties with the construction industry, in all its facets, as we strive to meet the provision, management and maintenance needs of South Africa’s essential services. As IMESA, our task is to promote excellence in the engineering profession for the benefit of municipalities and their communities. As such, we are also a strategic partner to other key associations, like Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA), whose members are instrumental in helping to maintain and grow our built environment in meeting downstream macroeconomic objectives. In fact, all the associations, whether private or public, are on a similar mission. The South African Local Government Association (Salga) is a prime example: a public sector body that plays a crucial role in capacity building. In 2011, IMESA concluded a five-year strategic partnership agreement with Salga, which formed the foundation for cooperation and alignment on common goals. Salga, which is an association of some 257 municipalities (local, district and metropolitan), is the entry point for municipal infrastructure implementation, so this partnership is key for IMESA.

five-year period. Once concluded, IMESA plans to enter into individual MOUs with its alliance partners. These will be mutually included in the MOU with Salga. It’s important to emphasis that these MOUs are living documents that will evolve over time, in the interests of promoting excellence. We see the role of IMESA as the interface between Salga and professional private sector bodies, like CESA, which we liaise with on a continuous basis. In addition to CESA, parties already in alliance with IMESA include MISA (Municipal Infrastructure Support Agent), SARF (SA Road Federation), Sabita (SA Bitumen Association, together with the Society of Asphalt Technology and the Asphalt Academy), WRC (Water Research Council), and SASTT (SA Society for Trenchless Technology). Other stakeholders where strategic alliances may be formed include Cogta (Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs), National Treasury, Saice (SA Institution of Civil Engineering), WISA (Water Institute of SA), Sancot (SA National Council of Tunnelling), Corrisa (Corrosion Institute of SA) and others. These alliances all tie in with South Africa’s sustainability objectives for engineering and allied professions, namely to exchange, provide or facilitate information and advice, address skills gaps, and provide ongoing training and mentorship support services to all stakeholders and practitioners within the local authority environment.

MOUs Our memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Salga is now under review and in the process of being renewed for a further

Plans for 2017 Within IMESA, one of my objectives for 2017 is to work with the executive committee to

Newly inaugurated IMESA president Gavin Clunnie

streamline our operations and make them more efficient and responsive. I have also committed to visiting all of the branches during my two-year tenure as president. This year, the International Federation of Municipal Engineers will be hosting two board meetings, the first in May in Jyväskylä, Finland, and the second in Perth, Australia, during August. These events represent excellent networking opportunities and enable IMESA to further benchmark itself against global best practices in our field. In closing, I’d like to thank my fellow IMESA members for supporting my election as president. My stongest belief is that, together, we can succeed in meeting our sustainable infrastructure objectives.

IMIESA January 2017


cover story

Water tank delivery Storing, capturing and reusing water is an imperative, alongside conventional reservoir containment systems, for sustained 24/7 supply – areas comprehensively covered by SBS Tanks’ turnkey solutions.


ater security has been high on the agenda for several decades, but the recent extended drought periods experienced in more arid regions worldwide have made this issue a number one priority. The fact is that water is a finite resource. Although inevitably replenished over time, it needs to be managed more intelligently as rainfall patterns become more intermittent. “Let’s draw some comparisons. When the power goes out, we can always light a candle, but when there are severe water shortages, our economy is heavily impacted since most industries depend on this resource to function. Without proactive measures in place, either from a public or private perspective, this means that investor confidence is affected,” says Delayne Gray, managing director, SBS Tanks. “Plus, as a country, we have a constitutional obligation to ensure the right of every citizen to potable water and sanitation services.”

Social responsibility SBS lives these values on a daily basis, investing approximately R700 000 during 2016 for two social responsibility projects in An SBS tank provides water on tap for a local community


IMIESA January 2017

the Free State towns of Lindley and Petrus Steyn. SBS partnered with South African organisation Gift of the Givers. “We plan to revisit the sites one year later and find out first hand from community members how our water tanks have made a difference in their lives,” says Martin Barnard, sales and marketing manager, SBS Tanks.

An industry pioneer An early adopter in this field, SBS Tanks recognised the need, back in the 1990s, for utility-supplied and contingency standby potable retaining systems, with the development of a proprietary range of long-lasting, corrosionresistant modular tanks for all sectors. These extend from the municipal segment to general industry including the mining sector – for human settlement projects in terms of the Mining Charter, plus raw and process water requirements for minerals beneficiation. The insurance market is also a rapidly expanding area for water tank fire-fighting backup systems, plus rainwater harvesting is now a huge growth area for SBS. “Rainwater harvesting

BELOW SBS Tanks wins the Exporter of the Year 2016 award in the Medium Category, awarded by the Durban Chamber of Commerce. Seen here are SBS's Mava Gwagwa (holding the trophy) and, to his left, Portia Ndlou-Nzama

meets our sustainability objectives, plus there are real financial implications as South African municipalities respond with escalating tariffs for overconsumption and/ or misuse. Reuse of grey water is also receiving far greater emphasis,” says Barnard. SBS’s research and development team is currently in the final pilot testing stage for a large-scale rainwater har vesting tank designed for industrial and commercial applications. There is also a smaller-scale one in the pipeline for building and domestic use.

Export programme keeps growing SBS Tanks has a long-term vision for local and international expansion. Success to date is underscored by industry awards. These include Exporter of the Year 2016

SBS Tanks benefits

Tanks can be coated in a range of colour options to blend in with the landscape

in the Medium Category, awarded by the Durban Chamber of Commerce. This follows previous exporter awards from the chamber in the categories of Emerging Market and Small. The export map covers most continents to date and, in August 2016, SBS established its first foothold in the USA with the opening of a distribution outlet in Houston, Texas. This provides a base of expansion for both the North American and Latin American markets, with a recent dealership agreement concluded for Mexico. “As a Proudly South African company, we are making our contribution to positive GDP growth,” says Gray.

SBS construction advantages: design and build There is a reason why SBS is gaining ground and it comes down to product innovation and service. SBS offers a turnkey solution, with tank construction carried out in-house or by approved contractors. SBS units are either off-the-shelf standard models or custom-designed. Then there are the significant savings achieved in construction time and cost when compared to concrete reservoir structures: in fact, similarly sized concrete structures are estimated to be five times more expensive than their steel tank counterparts. The key to successful establishment is in the construction of the concrete ring beam that supports the tank. SBS provides technical advice and design guidance for consulting and municipal engineers in this area. “We regard every tank sale as an individual project and we assign a dedicated project manager. We also carry out process simulations during the design phase to maximise the efficiencies and downstream utilisation objectives, which translate into monetary savings for our clients.”

Theewaterskloof Municipality Recent public sector projects include the installation of a 2.2 Mℓ tank (ST 31-06 model) at Riviersonderend for Theewaterskloof Municipality, based in Caledon, Western Cape. The town’s single, ageing concrete reservoir could no longer cope with the increased demand and the municipality required a 2 Mℓ storage capacity expansion. It chose SBS’s bolted steel panel tank for two reasons: the speed of erection and the cost of the structure. SBS was appointed as the supplier and main contractor. From the awarding of the tender on 12 May 2016, SBS was allocated 14 weeks to complete the project, which included a weather contingency allowance. Due to time constraints, on-site civil work had to run concurrently with tank manufacturing. Technical requirements on-site required the top water levels of the old and the new tank to match. The ST31-06 2.2 Mℓ tank was installed using proprietary SBS lifting equipment and some manual labour. The marathon build was completed within a record 13 days, with seven days’ worth of rain interruption halting work in-between. The town of Riviersonderend suffered no downtime in supply during the entire installation, except for a scheduled four-hour break in service, during which the new reservoir was tied in to the existing infrastructure. As an environmental consideration, SBS suggested that the new reservoir be powdercoated green to match the existing concrete reservoir and the surrounding landscape, which was adopted by the municipality.

•M  odular designs promote ease of transport and erection. •C  apacities can be incrementally increased to meet future requirements. • SBS manufactures its own 1 000 g/m2 liners. Good-quality liners are critical for the long-term integrity of tank systems. • SBS provides turnkey solutions and in-house project management and design teams. • Tanks are constructed using SBS’s unique jacking system, which minimises the need to work at height. • Low maintenance over their lifetime, which can typically exceed 65 years. • A range of colour options are available to blend in or stand out. • Manufactured in accordance with SABS ISO 9001.

and labour plan (SLP) objectives of South African mining houses in terms of the Mining Charter. SLP projects require a 30% community subcontractor allocation. A recent SLP example, completed in Q2 2015, is an SBS project for Wesizwe Platinum. This entailed the installation of a 1.5 Mℓ tank (model 27-06) for agricultural purposes. SBS provided project supervision and training for community members. The end result has made a lasting and sustainable difference. “Don’t let it be a grudge buy. South Africans need to be educated about responsible usage and how water scarcity impacts on socio-economic development,” concludes Gray. For total, affordable water storage solutions, contact SBS® Water Systems now on +27 (0)31 716 1820 or info@sbstanks.co.za.

Mining sector Riviersonderend is a prime example of how SBS can add value to community water projects. This includes supporting the social

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IMIESA January 2017




East Africa Hydro plant to supply 80 MW The Regional Rusumo Falls Hydroelectric Project is a step closer to becoming a reality as two contracts worth a combined $75 million were signed for the initial construction works. The hydropower project will generate 80 MW of electricity, which will be shared evenly between the East African countries of Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania. The governments of the three countries have agreed to jointly develop the project and manage the plant through Rusumo Power Company Ltd (RPCL), which is owned by the three countries. The first contract – awarded to a consortium of contractors, including CGCOC Group Ltd, Jiangxi Water and Hydropower Construction Company Ltd Joint Venture – provides for civil works, including supply and installation of hydro-mechanical equipment, and other associated civil engineering works. The second contract, to carry out mechanical and electrical works for power generation, was signed between RPCL and a consortium of companies, including German company

Rusumo Falls Andritz Hydro GmbH and Indian company Andritz Hydro PVT Ltd. The civil works at the Rusumo site are expected to begin in January 2017 and take three years to complete.

Ethiopia Improving the sanitation value chain A three-day event was held to launch the Improved Sanitation Value Chain (ISVC) project, which aims to serve the urban poor in Arba Minch Town, one of the major cities in southern Ethiopia. This project will help the municipality of Arba Minch address urgent sanitation needs at a time when its basic infrastructure and service levels are still largely inadequate, leaving more than half of the population without access to improved toilet facilities. The project will help increase water supply and sanitation service provision in the area, streamline interventions, build capacity from both public and private stakeholders, and meet critical infrastructure gaps. The IVSC project will also improve the municipality sanitation planning by targeting the

improvement of the sanitation service chain including the construction of improved toilets, better transport service for human excreta and increased production of compost for reuse. Moreover, the ISVC project will focus on increasing the various private services provided along the sanitation value chain, from waste collection, to transportation and processing. This will be done by helping small private businesses better leverage the income potential of the sanitation business and earn additional profits from the sale of the by-products of urine, faecal and organic waste as compost and fertiliser.

Kenya Water and sanitation project to supply millions Kenya has received a $391 million finance boost for a major water and sanitation programme. The Kenya Towns Sustainable Water Supply and

The Regional Rusumo Falls Hydroelectric Project will generate 80 MW of electricity


IMIESA January 2017

Kenya’s major water and sanitation programme will provide more than 2.1 million people with reliable and sustainable water supply services

Sanitation Program is designed to improve access, quality, availability and sustainability of water supply in 19 towns and wastewater management services in 17 towns across the country. It will provide more than 2.1 million people with reliable and sustainable water supply services and more than 1.3 million people with waterborne sewerage systems. In addition, the programme will create more than 15 000 new jobs during and after its implementation. The initiative will further boost Kenya’s rapid urbanisation, which drives GDP growth, economic transformation, increases in productivity and incomes, and employment creation. It is projected that more than half of Kenya’s population will be living in cities and towns by 2030. The programme fits with the Kenya’s Vision 2030 and its five-year Mid-Term Plan II (MTP-II), whose realisation is heavily dependent on adequate and sustainable

Africa round-up


Nigerian transport minister Rotimi Amaechi believes the Warri to Abju rail project will attract $3 billion in investment

provision of water supply and sanitation services. The MTP-II prioritises water sector investments including expansion of water supply and sanitation in towns.

Liberia Roads get boost as rain ceases Liberia’s Ministry of Public Works has been mandated to prioritise key road projects during the upcoming dry season. During a recent cabinet meeting, it was highlighted that works on several routes need to be fast-tracked. These include the 80 km Fish TownKarloken; the 66 km HarperKarloken; ongoing designs on the 81 km Gbarnga-Salayea; the 72 km SanniquellieDannane; and the 6 km SD Cooper Coca-Cola Factory. Other topics addressed were the ongoing procurement process for EU funding for the maintenance of the Buchanan-Cestos City road, and additional road works that will see the opening of a total of 78 alleys with a total length of 63.54 km from ELWA Junction to Marshall Junction.

Joint Senate and House of Representatives Committee on Land Transport on an oversight visit to the Ministry of Transportation. According to Amaechi, the Warri to Abuja railway line, which will pass through Ajaokuta and Obaro, has been properly placed on the path of the Public Private Partnership platform. A Memorandum of Understanding has already been signed with China Railway Construction Corporation.

Rwanda Sustainable energy for all Rwanda’s Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) Action Agenda was officially launched by Rwandan Minister of Infrastructure James Musoni at the recent iPAD Rwanda Energy Infrastructure Forum. The SE4All Action Agenda sets sector targets for the country, and outlines the priority actions

required to achieve them. It also highlights that the country plans to achieve universal electricity access with a combination of both grid extension and off-grid solutions for the most isolated areas, achieving a universal basic level of access (Tier 1) by 2020 and progressing to have least 70% of the population with advanced access (Tier 3-5) and the rest with moderate access (Tier 2-3) by 2030. Renewable energy will play an important role in the development of the energy sector, maintaining a 60% share in electricity production, matching the planned 10 factor growth in the installed generation base by 2030. DanielAlexander Schroth, the coordinator of the SE4All Africa Hub at the African Development Bank, underscored that “the government has set national targets and outlined a series of priority actions, it will now

be critical that there is concerted support from partners and the donor community to the government to turn these commitments into reality.”

East Africa 80 MW

The amount of power to be generated by the Regional Rusumo Falls Hydroelectric Project

Ethiopia 21 000

The number of Arba Minch citizens to receive improved sanitation and faecal waste management

Kenya $451.66 million

The expected total cost of Kenya’s water and sanitation programme

Liberia 63.54 km

The total length of alleys to be constructed from ELWA Junction to Marshall Junction

Nigeria $3 billion

The expected investment to be attracted by the central rail project

Rwanda 2020

The deadline for universal, Tier 1 access to electricity in Rwanda

Renewable energy will play an important role Rwanda’s SE4All Action Agenda

Nigeria Rail project to attract $3 billion Rotimi Amaechi, Nigeria’s Minister for Transportation, believes that the Warri to Abju, or central, rail project will attract an estimated $3 billion in investment. Amaechi made this statement when updating officials from the

IMIESA January 2017


hot seat

Technological advances in wastewater treatment IMIESA speaks to ERWAT’s managing director, Tumelo Gopane, about the Welgedacht Wastewater Treatment Works extension in Springs and how this ties in with broader capacity expansion plans for the Gauteng region.


What were the constraints facing the existing Welgedacht plant?

Were there any construction challenges along the way?

TG The existing 35 Mℓ/day Welgedacht WWTW, situated near Springs, was completed in 2003 and was struggling to keep pace with rapid urbanisation. Eventually, it was running over capacity, and by 2008, the plant was already receiving 59 Mℓ/day against a design of 35 Mℓ/day. This necessitated a new Module 2 extension of 50 Mℓ/day to cope with the increased demand for wastewater treatment from key areas that include Benoni, Boksburg, Springs, Bakerton and Daveyton. The new extension actually comprises two 25 Mℓ/day modules to improve efficiencies and maintenance. At 85 Mℓ/day, the plant is now running at full capacity. Further upgrade plans are in progress to meet downstream residential and industrial demand. This will entail the addition of a further 50 Mℓ/ day. Our process technologies are already in place. Plus, our inlet works are already designed to cope with 135 Mℓ/day.

Numerous environmental and hydrological impact studies had to be conducted at Welgedacht. The final plant effluent runs into the Blesbokspruit, which is a Ramsar site – an internationally conserved wetland and the only one in Gauteng. We are proud to report that we have surpassed 90% environmental compliance.

IMIESA January 2017

Can you expand on key technologies employed? Unique aspects include the adoption of bubble surface aeration, as opposed to surface aeration. Bubble aeration is far more energy efficient. Plus, ERWAT has improved the design of the sand filters, which promotes downstream efficiencies in terms of removing residual solids in the water. ERWAT is also reducing the impact

of chlorine through a de-chlorination plant. This stage in the process is deployed only if the process required too much chlorine in killing microorganisms in the water. It’s not ideal to release water with high chlorine content into natural water courses. Methane is being captured at the top of the digesters and is burnt in order to drive a boiler used to generate stream. The stream is used to heat up the sludge in the digesters. This process can still be improved since some of the methane is flared into the atmosphere. In future, methane-driven generators will be sourced. They will be used to supply about 30% to 40% of the plant’s requirements, whilst utilising their exhaust energy to heat up the sludge. In the near

ABOVE Tumelo Gopane, ERWAT’s new managing director

hot seat

future, thanks to advances in technology, clarified water will be sold back to the market for industrial purposes at a much lower cost compared to potable sources, and with minimal environmental impact. South Africa will need to invest in clarified water pipes to harness this potential. Currently, this water is all released back into natural water courses. A percentage will always be released to sustain ecosystems.

How are plant designs like Welgedacht helping to lower emissions? Every ERWAT facility is being repositioned to ensure that conventional grid electricity consumption is reduced. One of the ways to do this is by harnessing alternative energy solutions, an area where WWTWs have reasonable resources. ERWAT’s entire energy consumption is about 15 MW. Methane will be used to power the plants; and all buildings and usable surfaces will be covered with solar panels. These interventions will: • reduce methane emissions into the atmosphere • reduce the carbon footprint from fossil fuel energy via the national grid • improve the biological and solids loading of water released into streams.

Does ERWAT support the reprocessing of wastewater for potable use? Water reuse innovations in water-scarce South Africa must be a priority. As for sludge, this can be processed to produce

An aerial view of the new Welgedacht WWTW extension

Bubble surface aeration is one of the new technologies being employed at Welgedacht

a non-toxic, virus- and bacteria-free agricultural fertiliser and/or incinerated in order to generate electricity. At Welgedacht, ERWAT has acquired a series of belt presses that will be used to press the sludge into a cake. The residual water removed will be sent back to the clarifier for reprocessing. ERWAT is hoping to work with the agricultural industry, as well as the coal and charcoal industries, in beneficiating the sludge. With regard to treated wastewater being used as a potable source, this is very possible. The process step from clarified to potable water is not very far. However, it will need a complete mindset shift. As time goes by and freshwater resources become scarcer, South Africa will be forced to think along these lines.

What does the future hold for ERWAT? Industrial and population growth will lead to a rising demand for wastewater treatment capacity. To this end, and according to a facilities development plan, ERWAT’s approach will focus on providing the rightsized works in the best geographical location, at the most economic cost, incorporating the finest and most appropriate available technology. ERWAT is embarking on a programme to update its Bulk Wastewater Master Plan, which will be overlaid on to Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality’s Spatial Development Framework, which incorporates the Aerotropolis. This master plan has a 50-year horizon. The outcome of this process will result in the closure of smaller wastewater treatment works that no longer deliver the required efficiencies, the building of new, state-ofthe-art facilities, and the extension of existing works. Our new Welgedacht extension is a prime example, which will be used as

Welgedacht WWTW extension project milestones Project planning commenced some eight years ago and actual construction took around four years to complete June 2012 marked the start of the earthworks programme The mechanical, electrical and electronic work commenced in October 2012 Civils works commenced in February 2013 Full commissioning and official handover took place in August 2016 Total project cost amounted to some R590.5 million a model plant. ERWAT is also looking into building a state-of-the-art control room, which will measure, monitor and control all aspects of our plants, including lighting and access control. There are plans to strengthen ERWAT’s R&D Department, with a dual emphasis on natural sciences (focusing on the process) and engineering (the equipment, machinery and instrumentation). Reliability engineering is a priority to ensure high plant availability. Additionally, ERWAT will be focusing on expanding its commercial footprint across South Africa, as well as the rest of the continent: we need to collaborate in getting wastewater treatment plants to the requisite standards, while being commercially viable in the process. There is a need within private sector industry (factories and mines) to collaborate with ERWAT in order to comply with licence requirements regarding what is released into the municipal network, as well as natural water courses.


IMIESA January 2017


industry insight

MCPM expands its integrated niche

A unique project management approach, focusing on in-house technical, legal and financial expertise, is passing on major benefits for clients and communities, as MCPM demonstrates on three infrastructure projects.


orking on complex initiatives, ranging from publicprivate partnerships (PPPs) to large-scale infrastructure roll-outs for local municipalities and metros, continues to hone Masithu Consulting and Project Management’s (MCPM’s) skills and positions this Durban-based firm for major expansion. Established in 2008, MCPM is 100% black owned and managed, with fields of interest that encompass municipal infrastructure engineering, project management, renewable energy, housing, roads and transportation. MCPM provides innovative tailor-made professional services on large-scale projects from inception to close-out stage. “Large infrastructure projects need to be legally, technically and financially sound to ensure their sustainability, which is especially important when seeking to attract PPP investors, while complying with the regulatory framework and legislative prescripts,” explains Sizwe Mchunu, head of MCPM. “The fact that we have in-house technical, legal and financial expertise to meet all these facets is what makes MCPM’s service offering so unique.” On each project, the firm focuses on establishing partnerships that enable skills

Sizwe Mchunu, head of MCPM


IMIESA January 2017

transfer, as its director, Phendukani Ntini, explains: “It’s common knowledge that most local municipalities still face significant skills shortages, especially when it comes to project implementation. We see each project appointment as the conception of a partnership that can be used to facilitate an integrated hub of skills and knowledge transfer, connecting the project sponsor and the end user. The impact must last way beyond our involvement.” To support its own requirements, MCPM started 2017 with 10 engineering graduates from the class of 2015.

Sembcorp Siza Water Concession One of MCPM’s exciting project opportunities to date has been their extensive involvement in the Sembcorp Siza Water Concession, a PPP initiative that has synchronised government objectives on basic service delivery with the expectations of private investors in the water sector. Located in KwaZulu-Natal, about 35 km north of Durban, the concession was formed in 1999 to meet the water and sanitation needs of the Ballito community and surrounding areas of Ilembe District Municipality. It was the first PPP for water services in South Africa and is a 30-year concession agreement. Sembcorp took over the concession in 2012 and is the current operator responsible for water and wastewater

Water condition assessment: Stanger, KwaZulu-Natal

Elements within MCPM's technical scope Concession area bulk water demand Infrastructure requirements (short to long term) Engineering systems administration and support (ESAS) Water reservoirs and reticulation networks (WRRN) Operations and maintenance procedures Compliance with quality standards such as ISO 9001 Environmental compliance Compliance with Blue and Green Drop standards Compliance with water regulatory and legislative prescripts

services within the municipal boundary. “Back in 1999, the former Dolphin Coast, now Ilembe District Municipality, was faced with technical capacity constraints against a backdrop of high demand for residential and commercial development in the area,” Mchunu explains. “A solution was urgently required to avert a potential water and sanitation infrastructure supply shortfall, which could have severely stifled economic growth.” The concession area covers 12.5 km² and encompasses approximately 60 000 users,

industry insight

who vary greatly, from the poorest to the wealthiest, from urban to rural, from residential to commercial and light industrial.

The monitoring agent Ilembe appointed MCPM in January 2013 to assist with the monitoring and performance review of the concession over a period of three years, which was extended and now comes to an end in mid-2017. “In 2015, the concession reached its halfway mark. It was, therefore, imperative for the municipality to ensure meaningful measures were set in motion, and put in place preparatory succession planning for the eventual culmination of the concession contract,” says Mchunu. “Working on the technical key performance areas, MCPM was tasked with ascertaining the quality of infrastructure on the ground, its design life, the postmaintenance requirements, operational cost projections, plus confirming the infrastructure asset register Ilembe would inherit once the concession contract terminates in 2029.” Using a value engineering approach based on analysis rather than pure auditing, MCPM’s integrated model encompasses technical, financial and legal factors.

Umgeni Water: PAS55 readiness Proven expertise in these complex disciplines subsequently led to MCPM securing another landmark project within the water and sanitation field during 2014/15. Pragma Africa, a leading infrastructure asset management company, approached MCPM to participate as a contract participation goals (CPG) partner in Umgeni Water’s Asset Condition Assessment

Phendukani Ntini, director, MCPM

Asset management: KwaDukuza, KwaZulu-Natal

Sembcorp Siza Water third phase of eThekwini’s Programme. The project ongoing water and saniformed part of Umgeni’s tation implementation asset management and is valued at close strategy aimed at to R1 billion. achieving PAS55 (ISO MCPM is currently 55000) cer tification involved in works packover a two-year period. ages that include a bulk This is the first recorded pipeline and pump station, initiative to seek ISO 55000 which are both at the construcby a local water board. It will also tion stage. The pipeline works predominately be the first ISO 55000 certification of its entail the construction of a 900 mm diamkind in Africa if Umgeni can achieve this witheter sewer connection measuring 5.6 km in in the next three years, which is their target. length with up to eight bridge crossings. The The intention of the CPG is to provide scope of works is valued at R180 million. exposure and technology transfer to small eThekwini’s Water and Sanitation programme and medium-sized companies by facilitatuses the New Engineering Contract 3 (NEC3). ing collaboration between specialist, wellNEC3 contracts are designed to encourage established local and multinational entities collaboration and teamwork, and dovetail well on projects. MCPM was extensively involved with the integration of multidisciplinary engiin and responsible for a range of outcomes. neering services. “In fact, it allows stakeholdThese include the realignment of existing ers to work in a coordinated fashion in the asset management protocols to PAS55 management of project risk, thus acceleratstandards, engineering asset performance ing project delivery,” says Ntini. MCPM is conand condition assessment. stantly reinventing itself to evolve with future MCPM’s experience with Umgeni now demands and global engineering trends as provides opportunities to work with other an integrated professional services provider. South African water boards embarking on the “Given the demand, economic growth, and same path. an enabling investor scenario, we are optimiseThekwini Water and Sanitation tic that South Africa’s water and sanitation Meeting South Africa’s water and sansector will be a viable option for PPP initiaitation objectives is an absolute tives, where we now have experience and a priority, and especially critical in track record when it comes to deliverables. addressing the challenges of We are ready to engage and facilitate,” informal settlements. concludes Mchunu. Here, MCPM is helping to make a difference following the firm’s appointment on to eThekwini Municipality’s consulting panel in April 2016. eThekwini’s Water and Sanitation Unit is rolling out essential services to informal settlements and schools over a three-year period using multiple engineerwww.mcpm.co.za ing consultants and contractors. This is the


Engineering our future Delegates at the gala dinner


eld in East London, the conference attracted an impressive turnout of close to 1 000 delegates and was attended by the city’s executive mayor, Xola Pakati, who stated that the conference would assist the metro in sharing successful practices from other municipalities as well as deriving new solutions. Municipalities still face capacity challenges when it comes to well-qualified engineering staff. Allyson Lawless, director: Professional Development and Projects, SAICE, presented her latest report, ‘Numbers and Needs in Local Government’, highlighting the urgent need for qualified civil engineers within the country’s municipalities. Research carried out for the first ‘Numbers and Needs’ report in 2005 showed that municipalities were short of civil engineers, technologists and technicians. Ten years later, civil engineering capacity in municipalities has grown, but the number of experienced staff members has reduced. The average age of civil engineers in municipalities has dropped to 38. Moreover, the number of engineers has reduced, having been replaced by technicians and, in some instances, technologists. On a more positive

Allyson Lawless, director: Professional Development and Projects, SAICE. Watch IMIESA’s interview with Lawless on her latest ‘Numbers and Needs’ report on bit.ly/2ijhiZy

IMESA hosted a very successful 80th conference in East London in note, the numOctober 2016, highlighting the ber of municipalities without any civil engineerchallenges and achievements in ing staff has reduced from the municipal engineering sphere 60 to 41, and the overall ratio of civil engineering under the theme ‘Siyaphambili – staff per 100 000 populaEngineering our Future’. tion has increased from 3.9 to 4.4. However, the number By Danielle Petterson of municipalities without registered civil engineers has increased from 126 to 202. Lawless said the need to implement a policy and system to develop existing municipal engineering staff was urgent. This should include training courses and workshops associated with activities in the municipal calendar, combined with assignments associated with the actual work to be done. It is suggested that a programme of action learning should be rolled out to develop existing staff and empower them to develop the systems and procedures that need to be implemented. Another strong focus at the conference was water, with two water-related papers winning the best paper awards. Dr Ronnie McKenzie from WSP won Best Paper Presented by an IMESA Member, for his presentation on the dangers of intermittent supply. The award for Best Paper Presented by a Non-IMESA Member went to Daniel Petrie from Aurecon, for his paper on energy-efficient plant design for wastewater treatment works.

Institutional wins and losses In his welcoming address, outgoing president Duncan Daries noted the importance of the IMESA branches and their role in transformation. “The branches continue to be the backbone of this voluntary institute. This is where the membership experiences the institute at face value. A healthy functioning


IMIESA January 2017

branch translates to a healthy, functioning national body. I, therefore, extend a heartfelt thank you to all branch chairpersons, and their respective committees and secretaries, for their dedicated efforts in serving the general membership. I am pleased to see that a transformed leadership at branch level is starting to affect the national level as well. We still have a long way to go.” Daries also highlighted the membership challenges facing the organisation, noting that members need to be the focus of the institute’s efforts. According to Daries, membership numbers have decreased over the past year. There has been a concerted effort by IMESA over the last year to clean up the membership database and follow up on members in arrears on their fees, which has resulted in many memberships being cancelled. This drop in membership numbers can be attributed to various factors including the state of the economy and unsupportive local municipal authorities, said Daries. “This trend needs to be arrested and a strategy put in place to understand the dynamics and implement reactive measures. To this extent, we have revived the portfolio for membership to ensure

imesa conference

this is driven with the necessary vigour in our organisation,” he added.

New president inaugurated Gavin Clunnie was inaugurated as the new IMESA president at the opening ceremony, taking over from Duncan Daries, who served as the head of the organisation for the past two years. Addressing IMESA members for the last time as president, Daries said that the institute has a great future because of the legacy of past presidents and the executive committee. “It has been an honour serving you in the capacity as president,” Daries told those present. In his acceptance of the presidency, Clunnie said, “I am incredibly honoured to be standing here receiving the highest accolade anyone can receive in this very prestigious institution. It is with honour that I humbly accept this role as the president of your institution for the next two years.” Clunnie thanked his colleagues for making this possible and for having faith in and supporting him. He also thanked his wife, Rhu, for her support and his colleagues who he hopes to make proud while they continue to work together towards a common goal.Daries wished Clunnie luck in his new position as president and pledged his support as he continues to serve IMESA as deputy president.

Institutional stakeholder dialogue To close off the conference, panellists drawn from seven key institutions in the

industry came together for an institutional stakeholder dialogue – a historic gathering of industry leaders. Moderated by Danai Magugumela, managing director, Bosch Projects, panellists were asked to discuss the topic: ‘The role of the engineering institutions for future development through skills enhancement and improved policy and regulatory frameworks’. Speaking on the panel, Webster Mfebe, CEO, SAFCEC, noted government’s plans to increase spend on infrastructure, but highlighted the fact that most national government departments, municipalities and state-owned enterprises did not spend their

full budgets in the last financial year. “That shortage is critical for the survival of the construction industry and the economy. Budgets need to be spent as allocated,” he emphasised, noting that there needs to be collaboration to ensure that enough capacity is created to deliver infrastructure. Mfebe also expressed hope that the new Standard for Infrastructure Procurement and Delivery Management would begin to plug the gap in the existing procurement legislation, ultimately reducing corruption and overspending. Chris Campbell, CEO, CESA, also addressed the new procurement and delivery management standard, which This year was IMESA’s 80th conference – a huge milestone for the institute that has been in operation since 1961. A cake-cutting ceremony was held to commemorate the occasion. Newly inaugurated IMESA president Gavin Clunnie and Francois van Zyl, a representative from the cake sponsor, Premier Hotels & Resorts, cut the cake


From left to right: Lester Goldman, CEO, WISA; Chris Campbell, CEO, CESA; Mike Church, MISA; Prof Kobus du Plessis, IMESA; Manglin Pillay, CEO, SAICE; Webster Mfebe, CEO, SAFCEC; and Basil Jonsson, operations director, SARF

will become applicable from 1 July 2017, directly affecting those in the municipal space. According to Campbell, the conglomeration of procurement in the public sector has led to the commoditisation of professional services, which leads to issues such as discounting. “It’s gotten horribly mixed up with the procurement of goods,” he lamented. Prof Kobus du Plessis from IMESA highlighted the development of governance structures and warned that local government needs to beware not to adhere to the socalled “hollow state” theory, or it will soon

end up with a structure that can do little work other than managing external parties. This is vital to ensure technical capacity in all municipalities. Du Plessis further stated that local governance is all about service delivery, of which technical staff forms the central focus point. Most of the remaining municipal structures need to support the technical staff to ensure service delivery. He highlighted the need for local governments to support each other and mentioned twinning agreements between larger and smaller municipalities as a possible option to maintain technical capacity. Du Plessis concluded that IMESA needs qualified engineers in local government and that training support needs to be provided to young engineers at a municipal level. The DBSA model to ensure technical capacity was also highlighted as a success story to be reconsidered. The benefits of

Motivational speaker Evita Bezuidenhout with the organising committee

IMESA thanks its sponsors:


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IMIESA January 2017


BMK Engineering Consultants



employing registered professionals also came under the spotlight. Lester Goldman, CEO, WISA, noted that competency and accountability are the central components needed to ensure performance, effectiveness and efficiency, and that standards and processes must be implemented to ensure these. “Persons registered with a professional or statutory body have a duty to maintain both of these. By employing professionals in key posts, you mitigate both these risks and ensure accountability of key personnel – because the buck stops with them,” he said.

Making a change in asset management Closing the conference, Clunnie emphasised the importance of asset management and its implementation. “The importance is not in question; what is, however,

imesa conference

in question is the fact that implementation and budgeting of the asset management system should be a capital one,” said Clunnie. He reiterated that asset management should be implemented at the commissioning phase and not as a reactive measure that, ultimately, is more expensive. “All I can say is let’s push forward and make a


concerted effort to make this change. I put this in your hands. IMESA is certainly going to move forward on this.” Clunnie also praised the professionalism of the local organising committee and the conference venue staff, concluding what he believes was a highly successful instalment of the annual event.


2016’s Best Papers

Best Paper Presented by an IMESA Member: Dr Ronnie McKenzie, WRP ‘The dangers of intermittent supply as a measure to save water in South Africa’ Dr McKenzie highlighted the huge problems intermittent water supply can cause to the long-term viability of the water reticulation systems, and the significant health risks it poses. The paper also addressed the fact that while some savings can initially be achieved through the introduction of

intermittent water supply, in the long term, such measures will often result in higher water use. Ultimately, it concluded that intermittent water supply should be avoided at all costs.

Best Paper Presented by a Non-IMESA Member: Daniel Petrie, Aurecon ‘Energy-efficient plant design: cost-benefit analyses of treatment process options at different Western Cape wastewater treatment works’

Constraints around the security and affordability of energy are increasingly driving planning decisions in municipal water and sanitation service provision. Petrie’s study reviewed the technical and economic potential of different design configurations for a number of wastewater treatment works within the Western Cape, both at the small regional scale (1 Mℓ/day), right up to the major metropolitan scale (150 Mℓ/day). The study presents a useful array of results that indicate how wastewater treatment plants of different scales may be appropriately designed to practically and affordably reduce energy demands over a plant’s lifetime.

Mercedes-Benz South Africa The Mercedes-Benz plant, located alongside the Port of East London, is the life blood of the region’s economy. CEO Arno van der Merwe, who delivered the keynote address at the conference, spoke to IMIESA.

East London is an important city for Mercedes-Benz. Where did this history start? AvdM We have an incredibly long history with East London and the Border region where we’ve been manufacturing for around 67 years. When starting operations here, it was determined that the

Arno van der Merwe, CEO, Mercedes-Benz South Africa, gave the keynote address. Watch IMIESA’s interview with Van der Merwe on bit.ly/2icPuY3

location of the harbour was very unique and there was a lot of foresight in the positioning of the plant. If we look at our link with the harbour today and how we are directly connected for export purposes, we are in a unique situation and it is a great advantage for us.

There have been talks about further expansion. Could you touch on that? As we stand currently, we are running the facility at absolute capacity. The next investment cycle would be in two or three years’ time. Our business model is good, the factory is performing well, and we have a very important position within the Daimler network. So, if we keep everything up, there is no reason why we won’t see further investments and expansion in the future.

How important are transformation and skills development for Mercedes-Benz? These are absolutely critical. For us to be sustainable and integrated in South Africa and this community, we have to make sure that we get both of those elements 100% right. We have been doing a lot of work on the transformation side and there will be some exciting things happening there. It has been an important theme for us over the years and remains at the top of the list. Education and skills creation are the foundation for our operations here. We recently invested heavily, together with the Jobs Fund, in expanding our MercedesBenz Learning Academy. We can certify artisans, create high-technology skills and provide broader training to suppliers and other stakeholders.

IMIESA January 2017


Municipal Feature | Buffalo City Metro

A city at work Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality’s vision is to create a city that delivers for its communities, while establishing a sustainable environment for investors. By Alastair Currie


uffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM) was proud to host the 2016 Institute of Municipal Engineering (IMESA) Conference, held at the East London Convention Centre during October. For IMESA, the event marked a major milestone in its history as it celebrated its 80th year. South Africa’s sole river port, East London is a major focal point for the Eastern Cape’s regional economy and the global market, with the progressive evolution of its Industrial Development Zone (IDZ) well positioned to leverage macro- and


micro-economic oppor tunities. In the motor industry, one of East London’s main anchors is Mercedes-Benz South Africa (MBSA), which locally manufactures the C-Class right-hand passenger vehicle line-up for the global market. The plant is rated by its holding company, Daimler AG, as one of the best worldwide. Mercedes-Benz operations in East London first commenced back in 1958. A keynote speaker at the 80th IMESA Conference, Arno van der Merwe, CEO, MBSA, expressed his passion for and commitment to transformation and investment in South Africa, and especially East London. That’s welcome news for BCMM, which is leading the change for all its stakeholders and directly focused on foreign and local investment attracted by world-class infrastructure development. “The IMESA Conference will assist the metro to share best practices that have been successful in other municipalities, but mostly to derive new solutions through active engagements with all stakeholders in the engineering sector,” said Xola Pakati, executive mayor, BCMM, speaking to delegates. “The conference should have

The IMESA Conference will assist the metro to share best practices and derive new solutions through active engagements with all stakeholders in the engineering sector


IMIESA January 2017

LEFT Buffalo City Metro’s executive mayor, Xola Pakati, speaking to delegates at the 80th IMESA Conference in East London

outcomes that will assist us as the metro to change the lives of our communities. Our engagement here today should provide an enabling socio-economic environment in which our ultimate goal of a competitive city is based on our five pillars of growth and development. “We need an investor-friendly local government, resulting in the creation of employment opportunities for our youth, which promotes skills development as a catalyst for the creation of small businesses and economic growth,” he added. This view was reinforced at the regional South African Local Government Association (Salga)

BELOW An artist’s impression of the Mtentu bridge, one of two major structures being constructed on the N2 Wild Coast Toll route. Mtentu will be approximately 1.3 km long and around 190 m high. This will be a balanced cantilever structure, with the pillars featuring a distinctive design

Municipal Feature | Buffalo City Metro

summit in November 2016 where BCMM’s passion for service delivery and excellence was an overriding theme, expressed as ‘Inspiring Ser vice Deliver y: Building a Sustainable, Responsive and People Centered Local Government’. BCMM has prepared a Metro Growth and Development Strategy up to 2030. Key infrastructure focus areas include roads and stormwater, transportation, human settlements, water and sanitation, and electrification. As part of its long-term plan for human capital development, the city has allocated funding for internships, particularly in the areas of engineering and finance, as well for the Expanded Public Works Programme. Projects planned within East London include the regeneration of the inner city; the revitalisation of the West Bank, which includes infrastructural investments to develop housing, industr y and commercial nodes; and the upgrading of the port. Meanwhile, East London’s IDZ is well positioned to drive investor growth in areas that include wind and solar electricity generation. IDZ projects in the pipeline are estimated at a total value of R2 billion. In terms of industr y breakdown, BCMM’s manufacturing sector contributes approximately 16% to the gross value a dded composition, with key segments comprising the automotive, pharmaceutical and textile industries.

Infrastructure investments As repor ted in BCMM’s Medium Term Revenue and Expenditure Framework

(MTREF), the total budget of R7.46 billion in the 2016/17 period (operating and capital) will increase to R8.10 billion in the 2017/18 financial year. “It further grows to R8.77 billion in the 2018/19 financial year of which, consistently, over R1.5 billion per annum has been allocated for infrastructure

The East London terminal has a ro-ro (roll-on, roll-off) facility, the largest grain silo on the South African coastline, and a combi terminal with facilities for handling break bulk and containers. The Noscar-rated ro-ro facility includes a sophisticated, multilevel car terminal (Source: Transnet)

investment.” The MTREF report states that R1.3 billion has been set aside for wastewater infrastructure, and R830 million has been allocated over the next three years for the construction and refurbishment of roads and stormwater infrastructure across the city. Supporting initiatives in this area, Sanral has, to date, spent around R3.5 billion on road construction within the province. One

of the single largest such initiatives is the R61 upgrade between Mzamba and Magusheni. Sanral will spend a further R5 billion on improving the province’s road infrastructure over the 2016/17 financial year. The town of Port St Johns on the Wild Coast is another focus area, with the province planning to spend a total of R162 million on major infrastructure works, namely in stormwater (R22 million), access roads (R48 million), electrification (R37 million), and sewage treatment (R55 million).

N2 Wild Coast Port St Johns’ local economy will receive a welcome boost once the construction of Sanral’s N2 Wild Coast Toll project is completed. This greenfield development will feature a new 112 km road alignment. The route starts at Ndwalane outside Port St Johns and ends at the Mtamvuma River between Mzamba and Port Edward. It includes the construction of two new mega bridges spanning extensive river gorges, namely Msikaba and Mtentu, whose combined construction cost is estimated at around R3.5 billion. Construction on both structures is planned for commencement in 2017 and work on the remaining greenfield route is due to start from 2018, in progressive stages. Once fully completed, the new road will cut the total travelling distance between Durban and East London by approximately 100 km – providing a major stimulus to the Eastern Cape’s regional economy along this strategic route.

IMIESA January 2017


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Beyond roads.






Paving the city of gold

With some 814 bridges to maintain, together with three freeway systems and an extensive urban network, detailed planning is key, says the Johannesburg Roads Agency. By Alastair Currie


eeping the wheels of the economy turning, the Johannesburg Roads Agency (JRA) is focusing on priority improvement programmes that run in parallel with its ongoing gravel-to-tar conversion projects in the city’s extensive townships. “An overview of the cost projections to meet all current and future requirements runs into the billions,” says Mpho Kau, head: Infrastructure Development, JRA. The longer-term vision is outlined in the city’s Growth and Development Strategy (GDS 2040), with medium-term planning governed by five-year integrated development programmes. Using its pavement management system, the JRA has completed a visual condition assessment of every section of road in the city, as well as the type of intervention required and the cost implications. The city needs in the region of R3 billion for resurfacing

Mpho Kau, head: Infrastructure Development, Johannesburg Roads Agency

of roads that are still in sound structural condition, so this is where the priority lies at present in terms of budget availability. Where full reconstruction is required, the cost estimates are closer to R4 billion. A further R3 billion is anticipated to attend to defects identified within the JRA’s approximately 814 bridge portfolio.

M1 bridge remediation Within its extensive mandate, the JRA is responsible for three freeway systems – namely the M1, M2 and Soweto Highway – all of which will be progressively upgraded over time. Of the three, the M1 is one of the more strategic conduits, playing a critical role in the city’s economy, with an estimated 80 000 vehicles traversing this route in any 24-hour period. Here, intensive construction works are in progress to carry out repairs to three bridges, at a combined cost of R210 million. These comprise the Oxford and Federation bridges, and improvements to the landmark double-decker section bordering the CBD’s Newtown district. All phases are now scheduled for completion

Construction works in progress on the M1 Oxford and Federation bridges repair project

in 2017: the double-decker section by year end and the Oxford and Federation bridges in September 2017. “The Oxford and Federation bridges are prime examples of priority work,” says Kau. “The bridge footings have settled and shifted over time, which is a clear sign of inadequate support, so urgent measures are needed to restore their integrity.”

Floating piles The expected depth for geotechnical interventions was around 10 m. However, geological complications have been encountered. “At some points, the bedrock level is around 3 m; while in other places, even at 35 m, there is still no sign of contact with the underlying granite. For this reason, the decision has been made to opt for jet grouting to establish the support columns.” Using a Rodio drill rig, small holes are being drilled at intervals down to depths ranging from 13 m to 25 m within the

IMIESA January 2017


A strong foundation for infrastructure success

BELOW Oxford and Federation bridges: using a Rodio drill rig, small holes are being drilled at intervals down to depths ranging from 13 m down to 25 m within the existing bridge footings

existing bridge footings. Thereafter, injection grouting takes place at pressures up to 40 bar.

Gravel to tar, stormwater In the meantime, routine asphalt resurfacing projects are ongoing alongside the JRA’s gravel-to-tar township initiatives. At the present rate of growth, the JRA estimates that close to 1 000 km of gravel road needs to be upgraded. It currently costs approximately R6 million per kilometre to implement these projects. Stormwater systems across the city are also receiving attention, with intensive work in this area taking place. This includes addressing drainage structures where run-off capacity is being impacted by rising urban development and converting open stormwater drains to underground systems where they present a safety hazard.

Porous asphalt


For the more immediate future, the JRA has investigated the viability of introducing porous asphalt and is considering running a pilot project during 2017. “By enabling water to drain through the pavement surface, porous asphalt virtually eliminates ponding and, thus, greatly improves road safety,” Kau points out. “However, the system tends to be less effective in high-silt areas, since the process is designed to enable water to pass into a stone recharge bed and thereafter be collected through a subsurface drainage system before being conveyed to the discharge point. Current South African flexible pavement structures are designed to prevent water penetration, so the adoption of porous asphalt presents a major mindset shift.” To keep pace with its surfacing targets, the JRA plans to procure a new asphalt manufacturing plant during 2017, which will meet the requirements for new technologies.

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Road Recycling & Resurfacing

Faster, more efficient road stabilisation Geotextile and allied solutions offer various engineering benefits for road builders. Three recently commissioned South African road projects – where challenging in situ conditions required innovative responses – perfectly demonstrate the advantages.


n the Free State, a severe drought in conjunction with poor underlying soil conditions resulted in the formation of large cracks on section 17 of the N1 between Ventersburg and Kroonstad. To create a lasting solution, SealGrid, a composite asphalt reinforcement interlayer, was specified by consultant SMEC to achieve a dramatic reduction in reflective cracking. This project involved the successful installation of 10 000 m2 of SealGrid, installed between the 40 mm AC-medium layer and the milled surface on select sections over a distance of 44.9 km. “Providing a high-strength interlayer at very low strain, the glass-fibre roving effectively stitches cracks together while the bitumen-impregnated paving fabric provides a waterproofing barrier, as well as a stress-absorbing underlayer,” explains, Garth James, marketing director, Kaytech, expanding on SealGrid’s performance characteristics. “SealGrid can reduce traffic-induced crack propagation by as much as a factor of greater than seven.” Prior to installation, contractor Hillary Construction spray-applied a tack coat (CAT 65 latex modified emulsion) on to the area. As soon as the emulsion had properly broken, SealGrid was installed and rolled with


IMIESA January 2017

a pneumatic tyred roller to ensure adequate adhesion. Paving of the asphalt layer proceeded immediately thereafter. As SealGrid is flexible and conforms around shallow milled irregularities, no levelling layer is required; the paving fabric acts as padding between the milled surface and the glassfibre grid.

Section 17 on the N1 between Ventersburg and Kroonstad, where Kaytech’s highly versatile SealGrid was used. SealGrid may be applied under or between asphalt layers in many situations, e.g. where high stresses occur, on road-widening schemes with differential settlement, or where stress cracking is possible over expansive clay subgrades

Bidem solutions for Witfontein

between the dumprock and imported material. (Bidim is a continuous filament, nonwoven, needle-punched geotextile manufactured from 100% recycled polyester.) Voids in the dumprock layer were left open to facilitate the drainage of water. Thereafter, King Civil Engineering Contractors installed 583 m2 of bidim A8. Since bidim allows water under confining pressure to pass through into the free-draining base material, while retarding movement of particles, up to 50% less fill material is required when using it as a separation layer. “In fact, bidim has the highest possible throughflow rate, while providing excellent filtration characteristics,” says James.

Another layerworks challenge also needed to be overcome during the K105 upgrade between P91-1 (Modderfontein Road) and the new access road to Witfontein Extension 77, a light industrial area under development in Gauteng, when the contactor encountered unsuitable in situ material in conjunction with a localised high water table. Upon inspection, VIP Consulting Engineers deemed the subgrade on this section of the K105 unsuitable to support new layerworks. A robust geotextile that would provide separation, as well as good drainage, was required, with Kaytech’s high-grade bidim A8 being selected. The scope of works entailed the removal of the unsuitable material to an approximate depth of 800 mm below the original roadbed level, and the installation of a layer of bidim A8 to provide the necessary separation

Spitskop Effective drainage was also a priority during a routine road rehabilitation project on a section of the N4 Spitskop in Mpumalanga, where excavation problems were encountered. This section of the N4, from Pretoria to Middelburg, is a four-lane, dual-carriage, tolled freeway and carries heavy traffic.

Road Recycling & Resurfacing

Trans African Concessions (TRAC) N4 approved the project, which included milling and reinstating the surface, as well as upgrading drainage both above and below the road surface. The drainage specifications by SNA Civil and Structural Engineers included Megaflo 300 for a specified section of subsoil drains. Megaflo is a geocomposite panel drain system comprising an HDPE core wrapped in bidim, which James says is a cost-effective solution for a wide variety of subsoil drainage applications, including leachate collection, as its core provides high chemical resistance. The formed invert at the base of the Megaflo panel prevents any water loss into base soils, while its high vertical crush strength allows for reduced cover depths even under highway applications. As its name implies, Megaflo, with its unrestricted, open waterway, provides high flow rates and rapid response times, thereby

Spitskop N4 upgrade: after first removing the bidim wrapping, Megaflo was installed above a 19 mm levelling layer of stone placed at the bottom of the trenches. The high crush resistance of Megaflo greatly assists installation, as the panel will not buckle or J

reducing the time moisture remains in the pavement. In the original specifications, the bulk of the drains on the N4 upgrade were to comprise trenches, 1 m deep by 600 mm wide, lined with polyethylene sheeting, into which crushed stone and 150 mm drainage pipes were to be installed. However, during excavation, the contractor, Raubex, encountered extremely hard compacted road layers, as well as a previously installed cement stabilising layer that, over time, had hardened even further. An alternative installation approach using Megaflo required a trench 1Â m deep by

Megaflo, with its unrestricted, open waterway, provides high flow rates and rapid response times

only 150 mm wide, and was, thus, far more efficient. The chain trencher deployed easily excavated several metres of trenching per day. Given that a concrete channel was to be cast above the drain, the trenches were subsequently filled to within approximately 100 mm of the surface course of the road. By completion of the project, a total of 4 250 m of Megaflo 300 subsoil drains were installed along the roadside. It is noteworthy that these Megaflo panel drains required trenches of less than a third of the width of conventional drains.

IMIESA January/ 2017








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roads & bridges

The pursuit of worker wellness


anral’s landmark wellness programme is now accessible to more than 2 000 workers on the agency’s national routine road maintenance (RRM) projects. South Africa’s construction industry is adversely affected by the depletion of skills, most notably caused by HIV/Aids and opportunistic infections such as TB. The prevalence of these illnesses and preventable substance abuse is often a result of poor social awareness and is linked to structural factors inherent in the construction sector – solitary work environments, extended periods spent away from home, and inadequate access to healthcare. In light of this, Sanral has launched a national wellness programme for workers employed on its RRM projects. The implementation of this national programme, which focuses on issues from

substance abuse to lifestyle diseases management and prevention, is designed to assist workers with general wellness management by providing tools, one-on-one counseling, and a hotline. The programme now covers all construction workers – including subcontractors and their immediate families – working on Sanral’s roads maintenance projects nationally. Workers from both the Western and Northern Cape have already benefitted from the programme over the past three years, as part of an initial pilot project. “As a key role player in the roads construction industry, Sanral has an important role in leading the sector in promoting the wellness of our workers through education and providing opportunities for them to the being regularly tested for HIV/Aids and TB, and maintaining a treatment programme

post diagnosis,” says Kobus van der Walt, regional manager: Western Cape, Sanral. “Poverty and the lack of access to proper healthcare in rural areas mean that people aren’t always aware of the dangers of illhealth or the impacts that it has for the broader community. The increase in infections means that the Aids pandemic is not over, and it is not limited to individuals anymore but is fast becoming societal as families lose bread winners. This means that we are not able to break the poverty cycle. It also prevents South Africa from closing the industry’s already widening scarce skills gap with essential jobs like graders and digger-loader operators.”

Custom culverts remediate ‘deathtrap’


e-occurring potholes from flooding in the Limpopo province over the last few years, and damage from the constant weight of heavy articulated trucks, made the rehabilitation of the D528 road in George’s Valley near Tzaneen essential. In addition to the quickly deteriorating road surface and bridge, a sinkhole had developed under the road’s surface, threatening a complete collapse of this section of the D528. Polokwane-based Batlagae Investments was awarded the contract to commence the rehabilitation of the D528 road in April 2016 for completion by November 2016. “This 30 km section of the road became known as the ‘deathtrap’ because of the disintegrating bridge and road surface,” says Thapelo Chuene, project manager at Batlagae Investments. Challenges faced by

the contractor included the accommodation of fibre optic lines, bad weather, the development of a ‘safe road’ for the duration of the project and excavation of 30 000 m3 of soil. 93 units of Rocla’s 2 000 x 2 000 SAR culverts (5 m to 10 m fill height) were supplied for the flood-damaged bridge element of the project, and were custom designed to meet the site requirements. “When handling any concrete products, it is important to remember that, as concrete is a heavy and somewhat brittle material, bumps or shock loads of any description are liable to damage the product. When

Rocla’s 2000 x 2000 SAR culverts were supplied for the flood-damaged bridge element on the D528 rehabilitation project, and were custom designed to meet the site requirements

offloading custom-designed products such as our SAR culverts, and while placing the product on the ground, no portion of the culvert should be suspended in the air. While offloading individual culverts one-by-one for the D528 project took some time, it was essential to maintain the integrity of the culverts at all times,” comments Robert Hill, sales representative for Rocla in Limpopo. The SAR culvert is ideal for stormwater applications with high loadings, but can be applied in any application where excessive fills must be accommodated. Units consist of a deck and two legs, which are placed on a concrete base. This base can be cast in situ or prefabricated.

IMIESA January 2017



BURSARY SCHEME Institute of municipal engineering of Southern Africa (IMESA) (IMESA) offers a bursary scheme for full-time studies in the field of Civil Engineering. Other engineering disciplines may be considered only at the discretion of the Executive Council of IMESA.

The aims of the scheme are:

IMESA For more information contact us on:

031 266 3263 031 266 5094 E: bursaries@imesa.org.za W: www.imesa.org.za

To provide financial assistance to students who would otherwise not have been able to afford to study To recognise the achievements of students and prospective students who are dependants of IMESA members

Applications for 2018 will open in June 2017. Closing date for applications is 15 September 2017.

equipment | road recycling

Mastering surface course rehab A German road project demonstrates the value of Wirtgen’s advanced milling technology for Southern African infrastructure programmes.

MODEL OPTIONS In the Wirtgen Compact Class, customers can choose from no less than eight models with standard milling widths ranging from 1.0 m to 1.5 m and milling depths of up to 330 mm. Combined with the Flexible Cutter System, milling widths of 8 cm to 1.5 m are possible. The entire machine range – encompassing the W 100 CF/W 100 CFi, W 120 CF/W 120 CFi, W 130 CF/W 130 CFi and W 150 CF/W 150 CFi models – delivers on performance and economic efficiency. It covers classic small milling machine applications such as partial road repairs, as well as the removal of entire road pavements – a task that is normally the preserve of large milling machines.


ORO, a milling contractor based in Kassel, Germany, brought the versatility of the W 100 CFi Wirtgen compact milling machine into play when rehabilitating the surface course of a federal highway. The B3 extends over a distance of 755 km, from Buxtehude in the north of Germany through to the border with Switzerland in the south. The job involved milling areas of damaged asphalt on one side of the highway in the vicinity of the municipality of Jesberg in the federal state of Hesse. As the project

progressed, a free flow of traffic had to be maintained on the opposite lane. A total of 1 200 m² of asphalt surface course had to be removed to a depth of 4 cm. The entire milled area was divided into 13 individual sections, each 3.5 m wide and located at intervals of 50 m to 100 m. “We decided to use a Type W 100 CFi Wirtgen compact milling machine for this job as it achieves a high area output with low fuel consumption and, with its compact design and manoeuvrability, it can be easily transported from one job site to the

The Wirtgen W 100 CFi can describe very small turning circles and the hydraulically operated folding discharge conveyor can be swiftly folded up, making this machine an excellent choice for confined conditions

next,” explains Alexander Emde, operations manager, VORO Straßenfräsdienst.

Generation X The Wirtgen W 100 CFi is equipped with a powerful 257 kW diesel engine and the drive

IMIESA January 2017


equipment | road recycling

unit is designed for a maximum milling depth of 33 cm. “Wirtgen’s Generation X point-attack cutting tools cut through the 4 cm surface course with ease and produced very smooth and excellent milling results,” reports Sigbert Werner, milling machine operator, VORO. The new operating concept, with a multifunctional armrest and fully integrated Level Pro Plus levelling system, guarantees optimum milling results, allowing the operator to focus almost entirely on the milling work itself. Important information displayed includes the compilation and visualisation of job data. Four “favourites” buttons integrated into the armrest can be programmed with any of 20 different functions. In addition to the steering wheel, the operator also has access to an extremely sensitive, fingertip steering function in the

multifunctional armrest. The large number of added and automated functions makes life easier for the operator and also saves time. For example, the automatic, buttonactivated folding-in of the compact milling machine’s right rear crawler track also speeded up the milling work on the B3. The track can be folded in without lowering the milling drum or manually loosening a bolt. In addition to the basic position, the new “outside” position, in which the right rear crawler track is located within the cutting diameter of the drum, enables the machine to be easily positioned along the right-hand milled cut. The “folded in” position is also possible. To support the levelling and milling process, the milling machine operator is also able to use an automatic lowering function when positioning the W 100 CFi

Wirtgen's Generation X point-attack cutting tools cut through the 4 cm surface course with ease

in the milled cut. When the milling drum unit reaches the surface to be milled, the lowering speed is adjusted automatically so that the drum slowly penetrates the material down to the set depth. In addition, the height of the crawler units can be adjusted in steps of 1 mm or 5 mm using the new millimetre height function to precisely set the milling depth. The most frequently used parameters can be stored in three user-defined heightadjustment settings and called up quickly at any time. The chassis of the W 100 CFi is distinctly narrower and affords the operator a better front view. In addition, the operator’s stand can be hydraulically displaced 200 mm beyond the edge, thus providing a perfect view ahead of the milling drum assembly and on to the front right-hand crawler track. Thanks to the camera system, the left-hand milled edge or material discharge is always clearly visible to the machine operator on the high-resolution display.

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Market Reporting Consulting Events

equipment | Construction

“The larger LP7505 is exactly what the market has been looking forward to.”

The larger, fully hydraulic LP7505 duplex roller from Atlas Copco offers superior compaction capacity

The flip-up hoods of the LP7505 duplex roller ensure easier access to service points

LP6505 duplex roller’s big brother


he LP6505 and LP7505 are updated versions of the company’s LP6500 fully hydraulic duplex roller, which enjoyed a decade of success, explains Kjell Helgesson, product and application specialist: Light Compaction. Bringing light to the decision to launch the latest edition to the range, Neville Stewart, business line manager: Construction Tools Division, says: “While there is already an established market for 750 drum rollers, the larger LP7505 is exactly what the market has been looking forward to – a fully hydraulic model that offers superior compaction capacity, a popular choice where there are demanding jobs but where the contractor does not want a ride-on roller. Moreover, the larger machine delivers better centrifugal force and the wider drum allows the unit to cover more ground. This means fewer passes and more time saved.”

Strength and userfriendliness all in one The LP7505 incorporates all the same features enjoyed in the LP6505. The LP7505 can deliver 27.3 kN centrifugal force per drum, giving a total of 54.6 kN, which, Stewart points out, ensures high productivity for contractors. The controls are

Following on the heels of the LP6505 walkbehind duplex roller, launched little over a year ago, Atlas Copco Construction Technique now introduces its “big brother” – the LP7505. conveniently situated where they can be easily reached by the operator and a reduction in vibration reduces operator fatigue, making for both a safer and more productive working environment.

New scrapers Both machines have been fitted with new scrapers. Stewart explains that these more open scrapers reduce the risk of material getting stuck between the scraper and the roller and adhering to the drums, which causes drag and ultimately slows down compaction.

Improved cooling The roller features a built-in hydraulic oil cooler, which allows the machine to stay cooler

for longer in hot working environments, thus improving productivity and prolonging the life of parts. Furthermore, polymer items such as seals and rubber retain their function, which prevents the machine from leaking. Atlas Copco is currently the only manufacturer to deliver this type of hydraulic oil cooler.

Manual to auto Manual brakes have been replaced by new, automatic hydraulic brakes in the drums, which make it easy to control. The location of the crank in the front of the roller eliminates the need for removing the roller from the trench when restarting after a break.

Easy maintenance From a service and maintenance point of view, the flip-up hoods of the LP6505 and LP7505 duplex rollers ensure easier access to service points for procedures such as engine maintenance and battery charging. “Time is money for contractors. If the job can be done quicker, with a reliable roller that costs less to maintain, then contracts become more profitable. The LP7505 can deliver and, along with the support offered by our network of service centres, there offers peace of mind to contractors and rental companies alike,” concludes Stewart.

IMIESA January 2017


FMX equals construction

Advanced truck configurations for the Southern African infrastructure market provide more power and work flexibility. By Alastair Currie


olvo Trucks’ research and development (R&D) teams continue to improve the brand’s classleading powertrains, with ongoing refinements to Volvo’s proprietary I-Shift automated manual transmission system. Volvo’s A Series I-Shift system was first introduced globally in 2002 and has subsequently transitioned to the current F generation. For this Swedish original equipment manufacturer, the view is that manual gearboxes will rapidly disappear as an option within the premium segment, where Volvo is a dominant player. “Drivers are increasingly


IMIESA January 2017

involved in the purchasing decision, since their deliverables and remuneration are frequently performance-related, so they are fully behind this development – as automation makes their lives far easier,” explains Malcom Gush, sales director: Volvo Trucks, Volvo Group Southern Africa. Advancements in the I-Shift onboard software systems translate into faster and more efficient changes, with the intelligent analysis of each gear shift according to the road and load. “The software enables rapid and intelligent data analysis, which provides shifting skills that are impossible for even

Volvo’s penetration of the African infrastructure market will be spearheaded by the FMX range

the best drivers to match.” There is also a series of software add-ons available, e.g. ’Distribution and Construction’, with smart functions for close-quarter manoeuvring, and ‘Heavy Duty Transport’, optimising I-Shift for heavy gross combination weights. Another Volvo innovation is Eco-Roll – a proprietary feature that automatically disengages to neutral when driving downhill,

Equipment | Construction Vehicles

resulting in up to a 2% overall fuel saving, which is available as standard on all models. Volvo Trucks currently offers both Euro 3 and Euro 5 vehicles to the Southern Africa market.

Dual-clutch works seamlessly The latest-generation I-Shift gearbox is available with dual-clutch technology, which can be described as “two gearboxes with two clutches”, integrated into one unit. “We are talking about seamless power shifting with no braking power interference, and the speed and responsiveness are comparable to those of high-per formance sports cars. This is ver y advanced technology, which is the hallmark of the Volvo brand,” says Gush. “The improvements of powertrain responses are remarkable. For example, an existing 440 hp engine’s performance is comparable to that of a 480 hp – due to improved driveline efficiencies, with no gap in shifts across the rev range, thanks to continuous power on demand. Another benefit is that the onboard controller keeps the truck within the optimal range.” Dual-clutch technology is not intended for heavy haulage trucks, but proves ideal for vehicles up to 70 tonnes. Above this gross vehicle mass threshold, the standard I-Shift system is still the best option and there have been recent developments to refine output and vehicle-use flexibility. This follows the introduction of the standard I-Shift with either one or two optional, additional crawler gears. These crawler gears are designed to greatly improve star tability and gradeability, especially when operating under heavy load in the tough conditions typically found in construction. Being able to shift from crawler gear to standard I-Shift mode means that fleet owners can now interchange the truck’s role from on-site construction tasks to open-road cruising, as required.

FMX developments Apart from its dominance in the long-distance market, Volvo is now focusing on expanding its penetration of the Southern African and broader continental construction markets, which will be spearheaded by the FMX range. Volvo’s FMX trucks are specially built for arduous mining and construction applications, and are gaining strong ground among customer segments in both these industry sectors. The FMX series is complemented by Volvo’s FH16 truck, which is well suited to abnormal load transport, such as the movement of earthmoving machines. Combined unit sales for South Africa is approximately 1 750 units annually, with 250 going cross border and into Africa. Volvo’s vision is to increase its African distribution from 250 to 1 000 units over the next 36 months. The general truck market in South Africa has contracted by some 10.4% during 2016. However, Volvo is optimistic that the outlook will steadily improve during 2017 and into 2018, driven by greater infrastructure spend.

Advancements in the I-Shift onboard software translate into faster and more efficient gear changes

ABOVE Schematic of an I-Shift automated manual transmission system with crawler gears

Zambia and Kenya During 2017, a new dealership will be opened in Lusaka, Zambia, plus Volvo is investigating the feasibility of a completely knocked-down (CKD) assembly facility in

Kenya to service the East African region. For the Southern African market, trucks will continue to be supplied via Volvo’s CKD plant in Durban. “Kenya is a buoyant market, attracting investors, so we see great potential,” says Gush. “Interestingly, our sales are being driven by demand from local fleet owners for technological innovations

FMX truck tractors: Engine options – Euro 3 D11A: 330 hp, 370 hp, 430 hp D13A: 420 hp, 440 hp, 480 hp, 520 hp Gross combination weights 44 tonnes to 120 tonnes Combinations * 4 x 2: 330 hp baseline * 6 x 4: 330 hp baseline * 8 x 4: 370 hp baseline * 10 x 4 for 45 tonne payload – this is a modified 8 x 4 adapted with an extra axle designed for offroad use

that will drive down their overhead costs. Used Volvo buyers are transitioning to new, as they experience the benefits of maximum uptimes and good residual values. “Contrar y to what people might think, an investment in premium technology ends up being more price-competitive from a life-cycle-costing perspective. When Volvo first entered the Chinese market, for example, there was initial resistance based on price, which has shifted to increasing demand based on proven performance. ”In terms of technology acceptance and fleet management trends, South Africa is on par or ahead of Europe in many areas, and this trend is expected to repeat itself as the large-scale projects anticipated in the African construction and resources markets begin to gain traction.”

IMIESA January 2017


Equipment | Construction Vehicles

Quester range

Trucks push through tough market conditions As the economy remains unstable, with little to no growth forecast for the foreseeable future, the truck market has taken a knock. By Danielle Petterson


he local truck market has certainly gone through several cycles of ups and downs, and remains under pressure in 2016. According to Rory Schulz, managing director, UD Trucks Southern Africa, sales are continuing to decline mainly due to the challenging local macro-economic conditions. The market is down 10% from 2015, marking a second year of decline after a 3.2% drop in 2015, spelling tough times for manufacturers. However, with a mild upward trend expected for 2017, with a GDP growth of 1.2%, Schulz hopes that this low point is the “bottoming out” and that the truck market will pick up moving into 2017. According to Schulz, GDP growth in 2016 is the lowest South Africa has seen since 2009.

Gert Swanepoel, acting vice-president, UD Trucks Southern Africa


IMIESA January 2017

But despite this, UD Trucks’ performance for 2016 has far exceeded that of 2009. In 2009, the company sold roughly 19 000 units in South Africa, but is looking at approximately 25 000 units in 2016. “Some positive GDP growth of 3.3% during the second quarter of 2016 is certainly worth noticing, and we are keenly looking to see what effect this, and some more possible growth, will have on the truck market going forward,” explains  Schulz. Despite most truck segments taking a knock, the bread-andbutter heavy commercial vehicle segment has remained stable throughout these challenging times, says Schulz. The light commercial vehicle segment, on the other hand, is dramatically down, which he considers a general indicator of tough economic times. Within the extra-heavy commercial vehicle segment, a decline in specifically the construction and mining industries has certainly negatively impacted this portion

UD Trucks has added three new models to its Quester range

of the market – particularly new vehicle sales. “In spite of the situation being pretty tough out there, I think the truck market, generally speaking, has done quite well,” concludes Schulz.

Quester expands into rigid market Building on the stability of the heavy vehicle segment, UD Trucks has added three new additions to its Quester product range. Already available, these include a rigid 4x2, a rigid 6x2 and a 6x4 dedicated compactor chassis with Allison transmission fitted as standard. According to Gert Swanepoel, acting vicepresident, UD Trucks Southern Africa, the company has seen steady growth in sales for the Quester range over the last few months, prompting an expanse into the construction and waste markets. “Our strategy to promote the Quester in the rigid segments such as construction and waste, as well as the municipal

Equipment | Construction Vehicles Table 1 UD Trucks’ sales growth

Segment Light duty Medium duty Heavy duty Bus TOTAL

Market leaders

2016 YTD 6 912 4 573 10 050 1 058 22 593

2015 YTD 8 434 4 550 11 156 905 25 045

business, has certainly proved successful since the product range was launched in South Africa in 2015. So, we are expanding this strategy to offer our customers what they need and adapting to market needs,” he elaborates.

Growing market share Despite the economic challenges, Southern Africa is the largest market for the UD Trucks brand outside of Japan, making the region of great strategic importance. With this in mind, the company announced that it is focused on expanding and growing its business within Southern and East

Light duty Hino Isuzu Mercedes-Benz Medium duty Isuzu UD Trucks Hino Heavy duty Mercedes-Benz Scania Volvo

Growth -18.0% 0.5% -9.9% 16.9% -9.8%

Jacques Michel, president: Group Trucks Asia Sales

26.5% 22.4% 14.3% 27.8% 18.6% 16.8% 22.7% 16.9% 16.1%

Market share as at end October 2016

Africa. “We have great expectations for the future of the brand within the region and are confident that we will continue to be successful as we have been over the last five decades,” says Jacques Michel, president: Group Trucks Asia Sales. “UD Trucks has a versatile product offering, with a dedicated network of 62 dealers across the region who are ready to support customers with parts and service solutions whenever needed.”

Swanepoel adds that UD Trucks Southern Africa will focus a lot more on export countries in Africa going forward. The Quester range was recently launched in Ethiopia, and will be introduced in several markets within the Southern and East Africa region, beginning with Kenya, within the next year. Michel expressed hope that the Southern African market would grow to one day surpass the Japanese market, making it UD Trucks’ largest market globally.

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Market Reporting Consulting Events

CONNECTING AFRICAN COMMUNITIES homes for living buildings to work roads to travel bridges to connect schools to educate



The efficient and cost-effective management of our roads is essential, ensuring optimal maintenance planning and delivery. VNA is at the cutting-edge of this country’s built environment service delivery, contributing to the continent’s emergence as a meaningful economic powerhouse. The use of Pavement Management Systems assists decision-makers to develop strategies for maintaining road surfaces in serviceable conditions for as long as possible, with the least cost. Central to these systems is the effective collection and analysis of road condition data for the identification of surfaces in distress. Engineering specialist, VNA Consulting, believes that automated road surface

condition surveys are the way of the future for South Africa and beyond. Working in conjunction with international leaders in the field, we are a part of the global move towards embracing road surface survey automation. We have invested extensively in hardware and software for the best practice in automation and streamlining of data collection and processing, designed to enhance this country’s road and bridge solutions into the future. Combining our excellent capabilities, expertise and efficient technologies with our new fleet of survey vehicles, all kitted with sophisticated, state-of-the-art equipment, we are ideally positioned to meet South Africa’s most demanding road surface condition survey and infrastructure mapping requirements.



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For further information regarding our national and regional offices, please visit our website: www.vnac.co.za

Fleet Management

Fuel management works

Fuel costs for a lightduty vehicle can represent in excess of 55% of the monthly operating costs – about a third of the total cost of ownership (TCO). So, why does it not get the attention it deserves? By Nigel Webb*


fuel company claimed in its marketing that one in eight fuel transactions has an element of abuse and fuel management specialists expect to achieve savings approaching 10%. Fuel loss isn’t just about theft. It’s about inefficient vehicles, poor mechanical condition and wasted kilometres… but you don’t know it’s happening unless you can measure it. The first step in managing fuel consumption is to have a fuel policy. Define where you fill up, weekend/after-hours fills, administration processes and payment methods, and be sure to always fill to the top to facilitate consistent analysis. Importantly, this policy, and any management outcomes, must be incorporated into fleet and disciplinary policies.

Where to fill up? Fuel procurement is a supply chain function, but remember that diesel prices are negotiable and petrol prices fixed. Defining where you fill up is a vital first step. If this step is not taken, it reduces your buying power and results in you paying more than potentially negotiated rates. Then of course there is debate on whether to refuel on road or at home base. A home-base depot may offer the advantage of improved pricing but requires serious security, stock management and on-site pump management, whose costs may offset the perceived benefit. Off-site refuelling brings up the matter of “dead kilometres” – vehicles travelling unnecessary distances to reach a refuelling point. This costs time and money. For a heavy vehicle, that cost can be in the range of R10 to R15 per km TCO, and the cost of vehicles being out of service. So, if you choose on-road refuelling, how do you decide on your supplier and how do you pay? The supplier will be selected through supply chain management processes, with price, location, convenience and your procurement policy kept top of mind.

IMIESA January 2017


How to pay? There are at least three viable payment options: bank fuel card; electronic, card-free systems; and purchase orders. Purchase orders are administratively intensive and deny you access to the required transactional information, so I won’t discuss them further. Bank fuel cards are extremely attractive but critics are concerned about security and the need for good businesses practices. However, they are widely accepted, and provide flexibility and excellent and accessible electronic transactional data, which facilitates consumption analysis and ongoing security checks. Electronic, card-free systems have inbuilt security systems that identify the vehicle but can only be used at specified refuelling points. Being electronic, there are a range of additional security features available but, unlike cards, there is an equipment purchase cost. Additionally, the quality of transactional information, specifically kilometre readings, and their ongoing management must be understood.

expenditure and consumption provide insufficient detail to fully manage fuel. Analysis on a fill-by-fill basis and comparison to consumption benchmarks facilitate prompt management intervention. Further analysis will identify the cost of consumption in excess of benchmarks and its aggregation provides enabling trend analyses. This analysis identifies problem vehicles and drivers. Proper replacement planning contributes to improved service delivery and cost reduction. Technology has reduced the fuel consumption of vehicles in recent years; e.g. a reduction of 2 litres per 100 km saves R7 200 per annum based on 30 000 km per annum. This simple analysis further demonstrates the benefits of a modern  fleet. The long-term trend for fuel prices increases is 13% PA and the recent drop in the crude oil price has been offset by tax increases and a depreciating rand. Fuel will continue to be your largest fleet expense and price increases will expose you to increasing risk. Fuel management is a necessity.

Time to analyse Now that you have the transactional data, what do you do with it? Monthly summaries of

*Nigel Webb is the owner of Latitude Fleet Services.


New frontiers for plastic pipes

Advances in technology have made PVC-O pipes an optimal choice when it comes to ease of installation, strength and longevity. These developments have expanded the range and application for large-diameter, high-pressure trunk water systems. By Mike Smart*


arge-diameter, high-pressure trunk water pipelines, for both potable and raw water conveyance, have historically been made of steel and ductile iron pipes. Although thermoplastic pipes solved many of the problematic characteristics of these materials, they were unable to achieve the large diameter and pressure capabilities required for these applications. These limitations have been solved with the latest generation of oriented unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC-O) classification 500 pipes. These range from 630 mm OD PN 25 bar, up to 800 mm OD PN 20 bar and soon 1 000 mm OD PN 16 bar. PVC-O thermoplastic pipes are technically adequate and commercially competitive for largediameter, high-pressure trunk water pipeline infrastructure applications. Historically, largediameter, high-pressure PVC-O pipes were imported, along with the associated exchange rate and logistics issues. These issues have

been solved with the opening of a new, state-of-the-art factory by Sizabantu Piping Systems, in conjunction with Spanish technology partner Molecor Canalisations, in the Richards Bay IDZ to manufacture TOM 500 PVC-O pipes. Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) pipes have undergone significant improvements over the last 65 years – from PVC-U to PVC-M and PVC-O – with larger diameters and higher pressures made possible with a substantially increased allowable design stress (σ) as can be seen in Table 1. While both fabricated from iron, cast iron and ductile iron differ, in that ductile iron has been chemically modified to improve its mechanical strength. Likewise, PVC-M

(modified PVC) has been chemically modified with impact modifiers and exhibits tough characteristics. Although its strength is exactly the same as PVC-U, they have a common creep rupture regression cur ve, as seen in graphs 1 and 2. Note the improvement in the MRS (minimum required strength) at one year (438 000 hours) in the PVC-O curve from Graph 1 for classification 450 material, compared to the PVC-O curve from Graph 2 for classification 500 material. Consider coal and diamonds: they are both carbon, but a diamond’s structure has been modified by the mechanical actions of heat and pressure. Likewise, PVC-O’s structure is formed by mechanical actions of heat and pressure to increase its mechanical

The embedded energy of PVC-O – i.e. all the energy used in its manufacture – is between 15% to 25% less than that of the alternative materials

IMIESA January 2017



Table 1 PVC improvements – PVC-U, PVC-M and PVC-O


Applicable standard SANS 966-1 SANS 966-1 SANS 966-2 SANS 16422

Design stress (MPa) 10 12.5 18 36 – 32 – 25

OD (mm) 16 – 90 110 – 630 50 – 630 315 – 630

Pressure (bar) 4 – 20 6 – 20 6 – 25 12.5 – 25

Safety factor 2.5 2.0 1.4 1.4 – 1.6 – 2.0

Table 2 PVC-O classification and allowable design stress

PVC-O standard SANS 16422 SANS 16422 SANS 16422 SANS 16422 SANS 16422

PVC-O classification 315 355 400 450 500

strength characteristics – it remains PVC, chemically.

Molecular orientation In the manufacture of PVC-O, the initially extruded, pro forma PVC-U pipe is approximately half the diameter and twice the wall thickness of the required PVC-O pipe. The pro forma pipe moves in line into the molecular orientation chamber where the bi-axial orientation process is performed in line with temperature and pressure, using air not water, making the process environmentally friendly and causing less pollution. Molecular orientation of PVC thermoplastic is carried out at temperatures well above the glass transition temperature

Design stress (MPa) 20 – 16 22 – 18 25 – 20 32 – 28 – 23 36 – 32 – 25

Safety factor (C) 1.6 – 2.0 1.6 – 2.0 1.6 – 2.0 1.4 - 1.6 – 2.0 1.4 – 1.6 – 2.0

(+75°C) and results in improvements of the physical and mechanical properties. With the in-line process, the thick-walled tube, directly after the extrusion process, is conditioned in line at the orientation temperature, and by means incorporated to activate the orientation process in the circumferential and axial directions. After the orientation process, the pipe is cooled quickly to the ambient temperature. The orientation of the molecules creates a laminar structure with the ability to withstand brittle failure emanating from minor flaws in the material matrix, or from scratches on the surface of the pipe. Therefore, PVC-O may be considered to be highly resistant to notches and there is no risk of long-line RCP

MRS (MPa) 31.5 35.5 40.0 45.0 50.0

(rapid crack propagation). Furthermore, PVC-O has improved hoop strength and excellent impact resistance. PVC-O does not have a universal MRS (minimum required strength). It has one of five possible values – 31.5 MPa, 35.5 MPa, 40.0 MPa, 45.0 MPa and 50.0 MPa – which are dependent upon the degree of orientation. This value determines the classification – whether 315, 355, 400, 450 or 500, respectively – as in Table 2. The MRS is dependent upon the degree of bi-axial

Did you know?

About 100 000 tonnes of PVC-O is produced globally in over 23 countries.

IMIESA January 2017


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Graph 1 Creep rupture regression curves

orientation of the pipe and its magnitude is determined in accordance with ISO 9080 and ISO 12162, as stated in the applicable standard SANS 16422: ‘Pipes and joints made


of orientated unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC-O) for conveyance of water under pressure – Specifications’. The design coefficient (C), or safety factor, is also determined in

accordance with SANS 16422 Annex B and may be either 1.4, 1.6 or 2.0 according to the criteria set out therein. It must be remembered that ISO 2045, cited therein, is applicable to PVC-U and higher strain levels are developed by the higher operating stresses in PVC-O. The higher socket strength, produced by the in-line process socket formation, and extra depth of engagement to prevent pull-out of the joint determines the design coefficient. The socket geometry, formation and resulting design coefficient can be seen in Diagram 1. The Forsheda 576 Anger-Lock locked-in double-ring seal from Trelleborg, Sweden, comprising a stiff polypropylene retaining ring and a soft-lipped EPDM seal, is the industry’s most reputable. All seals are rated at 25 bar, irrespective of the pipe pressure rating they are inserted into, and fill the extra housing length in the socket. The seals have a negative pressure capacity greater than the ISO 13844 requirement in SANS 16422, where negative pressures up to -0.8 bar must be sustained for over 30 minutes.

IMIESA January 2017

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ID and celerity advantage

Diagram 1 Socket details

The engineer has a number of advantages with PVC-O during the design process and the resultant project feasibility. The internal diameter (ID) of a PVC-O pipe compared to an equivalent PVC-M pipe is about 5% larger and about 10% larger than PVC-U pipe, giving capacities of about 12% and 23% more respectively. As far as surge conditions are concerned, PVCO’s higher design velocity is due to a lower celerity value – about one third that of steel and ductile iron – which produces a lower surge pressure. The combination of these two attributes – ID and celerity – results in a greater pipeline capacity. Furthermore, according to CEN 15223, the allowable combined operating and surge pressure is twice the rated pressure of the pipe, which may negate a pressure class increase. The engineer’s energy concerns, when considering a higher velocity, are mitigated by the superior hydraulics, lower friction factor of PVC-O has been in use for PVC-O (15%), and its negligible over 40 years and there has deterioration over time – less been significant improvement than one third that of other matein the product since its rials. PVC-O pipes have a lower introduction. rugosity due to the manufacturing process. The embedded energy of PVCO, defined as all the energy used to manufacture the product, including that of the raw material, is between 15% to 25% less than that of the alternative materials. And, to further reduce PVC-O’s environmental impact, it may be recycled, as specified by clause 5.2 of SANS 16422, the organisation’s ISO 9001 QMS, SABS audits and SAPPMA audits. PVC-O does not require cathodic protection, except in cases of railway or power line servitude construction, eliminating both the capital and maintenance costs. This item, where necessary, varies from about 5% to over 40% of the pipeline cost, depending on the magnitude of the stray currents and the soil resistivity. PVC-O pipes are lightweight and do not require large and expensive plant for handling and laying, even with larger diameters, making them appropriate for labour-intensive construction methods.

Did you know?

National PVC-O coverage Engineers have specified and installed kilometres of PVC-O pipes throughout South Africa, of various diameters and pressure ratings. The new Sizabantu/Molecor factory will create jobs, transfer skills and import the latest technology to South Africa. To be allowed to construct the factory in the Richards Bay IDZ, the building had to be designated a green building, the production designated green technology, and the company had to comply with government’s target procurement policy. The fittings, made of 300 μm sintered epoxy-coated fabricated steel, are also manufactured locally to ensure control of the process, enabling a complete piping system to be offered to the market. *Mike Smart is a retired professional engineer who now heads up Genesis Consulting.

dams & reservoirs

Mnjoli Dam service spillway TOPS gate opened to pass flood water

Getting more from our dams


outh Africa's water scarcity, which has been accentuated by the prolonged and devastating drought experienced last year. While the measures put in place to save water are essential, we nevertheless need to increase our storage capacity to provide water security for our country and economy. The challenges are multifaceted and include increased water demand for: • The population, which is growing rapidly due partly to improved health facilities reducing mortality rates, as well as an influx of people from other countries. The government has undertaken to provide water to nearly all citizens, thereby increasing the demand to millions of people who previously did not have piped supply. Further, most people’s lifestyles have improved considerably, which increases water usage. • The increasing supply of industry, mining and power-generation to meet a growing South Africa. • Agriculture, which accounts for more than 60% of water usage in South Africa. South Africa has always suffered from periods of extreme rainfall, from floods to droughts, and dam engineers take this into account when determining the assured yield of a dam. However, there is now growing evidence that the extremes in climate are increasing. This is attributed to the effects of global warming. With increased temperatures, evaporation and demand are higher.

South Africa has more than 5 100 dams, 1 170 of which are defined as medium to large. Nearly all of South Africa’s water resources are committed and there are very few possibilities left for new dams. However, demand for water is increasing rapidly and losses are unacceptably high; so how can we get more out of our existing dams? By Peter Townshend, AmanziFlow Projects With increased frequency of flood-producing rainfall of high intensity, dams are filled to overflowing and valuable water is lost to the sea. Further, sediment loads increase from erosion due to extreme floods. At the other extreme, the durations of low rainfall are also increasing, leading to prolonged droughts, as presently experienced. These all adversely affect dams and the assured yields reduce as a consequence. We also have considerable losses of water due to: • ageing and leaking pipelines and fittings • illegal abstractions from rivers and urban distribution systems • sedimentation – dam capacity is increasingly being reduced by sediment build-up. In order to extend our water resources, we need to reduce losses; reduce usage; reuse

effluent water; undertake inter-basin and cross-country transfers; introduce desalination; and increase storage in existing dams. Increasing storage in existing dams is probably the quickest and most costeffective means to gain more valuable water storage capacity.

Capacity enhancement techniques The methods to increase dam capacity are essentially done by either using conventional construction; or installing electromechanical or automatic spillway gates: and/or removing sediment. Conventional construction is generally more expensive and takes longer to impound the water. Gated spillways do, however, meet this requirement, but most of the gates used previously are electromechanical and have

IMIESA January 2017


proved unreliable in some instances. This is compounded by inadequate maintenance – especially problematic in remote areas. Fuse gated spillways can be used, but these will fail under extreme floods and the storage in the dam will be lost as a consequence. However, there are automatic, self-operating spillway gates in operation that ser ve the purpose well: the gates open automatically to pass floods and then close again to retain the FSL. These gates, which are designed and developed in South Africa, are also non-electromechanical, do not require operator inter vention and need minimal maintenance. These gates are reliable, have built-in redundancy, and have been proven at a number of installations over a period exceeding 30 years.

Diagram 1 The schematic operation of the scour gate for the Luika Dam in Tanzania enabled the close-off of a 2.3 m wide by 1.3 m high scour tunnel under 12 m head of water


IMIESA January 2017

Electromechanically operated gates are often problematic, especially in developing countries They are also generally more cost-effective and quicker to install than fixed-type spillways. The following recent case studies provide practical examples.

Avis Dam The Avis Dam in Windhoek, Namibia, was built in the early 1900s and served as the town’s main water supply in earlier years. Today, Avis functions mainly as a flood control dam. The original spillway was inadequate and the consultant required a side channel spillway cut through the left-hand flank. In order to maintain the FSL, automatic TOPS spillway gates were installed. These two gates are 11 m long by 3 m high. They are arranged to open automatically for as little as a 0.15 m rise in water level. The gates have already opened twice since 2001 and closed automatically after the flood had passed to retain the FSL.

Mnjoli Dam The Mnjoli Dam on the Mbuluzi River in Swaziland has six TOPS gates fitted to an auxiliary spillway and one on the service spillway. The TOPS gates raise the FSL water level by 1.5 m to give an additional 22 million m3 of water for irrigation. This has resulted in a 17% increase in dam capacity. The service spillway gate has opened and closed a few times since installation in 2009.

Sediment removal Valuable storage can be saved or recovered by using automatic scour gates, which open during floods to remove sediment while it is still in motion. The scour gate can be retrofitted to existing weirs to recover lost storage. A number of scour gates have been installed, the biggest to date being on the Matsoku weir on the prestigious Lesotho Highlands Water Scheme serving Katse Dam. These automated gates are generally more cost-effective than fixed spillway modifications and are quicker to install. Under the current infrastructure budget constraints, they will be able to address the urgent need in South Africa for additional water, quick and affordably.

Avis Dam, Namibia: two TOPS gates used to retain the FSL in the side channel auxiliary spillway

Water & Wastewater | Profile

The new frontier in wastewater treatment Equally at home as a technical visionary and an administrator, ERWAT’s new managing director, Tumelo Gopane, knows exactly where he wants to take the company and what he wants to accomplish. He talks to IMIESA about the challenges and opportunities faced, and outlines his plans for the future.


opane, an electrical engineer by trade, left his position as deputy municipal manager: Infrastructure and Technical Ser vices at uMhlatuze Municipality to take ERWAT to new heights. ERWAT provides bulk wastewater conveyance and a highly technical and proficient wastewater treatment service to some 2 000 industries and more than 3.5 million people. According to Gopane, wastewater treatment is a key issue – ahead of even electricity generation. It talks to hygiene and if poorly managed, negatively impacts the environment. “ERWAT needs to be a model example and a leader in the field of how to manage wastewater treatment and how not to damage the environment,” says Gopane. “In so doing, we can share this with the rest of South Africa, even Africa, and perhaps the world. Given the complexities of Africa, with its multifaceted socio-economic issues, this desire to influence and effect positive change is well placed.”

R&D to lead the way In his new role, Gopane would like to put research and development high on the agenda. ERWAT has implemented some of the latest technologies and processes in the world, such as the Nereda wastewater treatment process. In the Nereda process,


IMIESA January 2017

the bacteria used to treat the wastewater produce compact granules rather than flocs (flocculent sludge), which then settle much quicker in the wastewater. There is no need for pumps to drive in bacteria for each different process and the different bacteria do their job of removing pollutants at the same time. This means the process is faster, less energy intensive and much more compact in terms of plant size. The system uses a PC-based controller to control reactors and optimise the batch process depending on water flow and temperature. With a significantly smaller physical footprint and reduced operating costs, Nereda is a smart solution. This innovative technology was developed in Europe, but Gopane believes that ERWAT is quite capable of developing its own innovative technologies and processes. To do this, it needs to exploit its own extensive knowledge base and its decades of experience and collaborate, do the R&D, present its findings at conferences and forums, and continuously develop, test and improve its own innovations. “The foundation obviously has to be natural science but we have to look to innovation. We need to beneficiate.”

ABOVE ERWAT’s Hartebeestfontein wastewater treatment plant

Wastewater treatment plants process two natural components – water and solid, carbonaceous waste, both of which can be beneficiated. As South Africa is a water-scarce country, innovations in water reuse must be a priority. As for solid waste, this can be processed to produce a non-toxic, virus- and bacteria-free agricultural fertiliser or used as is to generate electricity, using a DC plasma arc furnace. The Hartebeestfontein plant uses approximately 14 MW. “If we are smart, we could become our own independent electricity producer,” Gopane expands. However, the underlying principle and driver of R&D innovation is that it must always be application oriented. For example, the municipality is responsible for the customerto-pump-station pipeline. ERWAT is responsible for the pump station to its wastewater treatment plant. By installing a FOG (fat, oil and grease) trap at the point of entry to

Tumelo Gopane, ERWAT’s new managing director

Water & Wastewater | Profile

the plant, FOGs can be recovered and sold as additives to the fuel industry. No matter what the innovation, it demands that the man-machine interface also be put under the microscope, the purpose of which, in working together, is to achieve greater efficiencies and reduced costs – the ultimate goals.

figure 1 The Nereda treatment process (Source: Royal HaskoningDHV)

Success lies in people Gopane suggests that most problems involve people, some within municipal administration and others in the application and operation of wastewater treatment plants. For example, in many rural and peri-urban areas, there is no proper spatial planning, which results in inadequate facilities. And, looking across the wider spectrum of wastewater treatment, the very people who are on the ground, operating wastewater treatment plants – those with the hands-on knowledge and experience – are least likely to be consulted when it comes to budgeting. Typically, financial people set the budgets without consulting the people on the ground. As 80% of budgets are spent operationally, adequate budgeting would resolve 95% of the problems. “If cross-communication, collaboration and teamwork do not exist, it has a negative, counterproductive effect,” he says. Moreover, Gopane believes that one of the most important changes needed in South Africa’s public sector is in its work culture – the way in which things get done, typically in a relaxed and unhurried manner. “Per formance management’s focus on compliance rather than productivity and compliance nurtures this inefficient culture. Setting goals and objectives to meet IDP

FOG trap with baffle (Source: Endura)

requirements isn’t a problem; but, measuring individual performance against timebased goals and objectives is, along with understanding the impact of project overruns, exceeding budgets, poor-quality deliverables or not delivering at all. Being technically competent is fine, but being attitudinally challenged isn’t. This has to change.” Skills development and training, to empower workers and effect change, must include soft skills, not just hard skills, emphasises Gopane. He argues that training needs are best identified by operational management and engineers, not executives in unrelated departments where adherence to the standard chart of accounts takes precedence over everything else. This is an instance in which bottom-up management applies. “As a developing nation, and to be effective, we need multiskilled, mission-directed work teams. That must and will be a key focus. We should also remember that success is achieved through people. The

wellness of employees is critical to performance and the effective management of human capital.”

A brighter future for ERWAT “Five years from now, ERWAT will be seen as a highly successful and internationally recognised innovator in wastewater treatment. For this, we have Joe Mojapelo, ERWAT’s chairman, and the board of directors to thank, for presenting the future as an opportunity to develop and grow. And, in knowing what we can achieve, given this opportunity, ERWAT can only but flourish – technically and commercially,” Gopane enthuses. “Africa is the new frontier; thereafter, it’s the world.”


The Hartebeestfontein WWTW

IMIESA January 2017


CESA Infrastructure Indaba

Harnessing the three Cs ‘ Working towards improved delivery of infrastructure and engineering services’ was the theme for the 2016 CESA Infrastructure Indaba. By Alastair Currie


pening the Consulting Engineering South Africa (CESA) 2016 Infrastructure Indaba, held in Durban, Lynne Pretorius, president, CESA, said, “We’re meeting at a somewhat chaotic time in South Africa’s history.” By definition, an indaba is a meeting to discuss key issues, and at the CESA conference, the platform for dialogue was created to bring together what Pretorius refers to as the three Cs – consulting engineers, contractors and clients. Opportunities for the African construction and infrastructure sector, skill levels, procurement and supply chain management practices and constraints, transformation and the impact of the political environment all came under the spotlight. Doing more with less has become the reality. One of the overriding messages increasingly emphasised at South African industry conferences is the need for greater public and private sector cooperation. “We need to accelerate change and investment to further South Africa’s social and developmental goals,” says Pretorius. In many infrastructure areas, the PPP model is one of the ways to achieve the National Development Plan goals, given a more favourable investor climate that demonstrates more macro-economic certainty. South Africa’s changing landscape is a challenging one, both politically and economically, and this view is supported by the results of the CESA Bi-annual Economic and Capacity Survey for the period January to June 2016, which is set against the backdrop of a subdued global economy that is currently trading at levels

Accelerated rates of investment are required in South Africa


IMIESA January 2017

on a par with the conditions experienced in 2008/09, when the bottom fell out of the market. The report, presented at the indaba by Elsie Snyman, CEO, Industry Insight, focuses on the major sentiments and financial indicators gathered from a sample group of CESA member firms, now collectively numbering more than 537, which generate a combined fee income of approximately R25 billion annually. Confidence levels measured are a reflection of market sentiment, and the survey results between larger and smaller firms do differ, with some reporting more favourable conditions than others and a correspondingly buoyant outlook. While medium and smaller-size firms improved earnings by 15.1% and 10.6%, respectively, larger firms repor ted a decline of 5.3%. Profitability is being compounded by payments outstanding for more than 90 days, which rose to 25% in the January to June 2016 period, marginally up from 23% and 24.5% in the previous two surveys. This equates to around R7 billion outstanding out of a total CESA annual fee income of R25 billion. At 25%, this is the highest recorded level since 1999. Around 54% of major firms expect profit margins to start stabilising, and the report states that 64% of firms are satisfied with current levels of profitability, compared to just 22% in the previous survey. According to the report, “Respondents expect earnings to increase by 6% in nominal terms during the last six months of 2016, compared with the first six months of the year.” At this stage, salary and wages represent approximately 63% of firm earnings. Employment contracted by 1% and demand for engineers remains flat. The private sector accounts for around 42% of the fee income

generated by CESA firms, with public and SOEs contributing the balance at 58%, and these percentage splits remain fairly constant year-on-year. Local government is the biggest client, at approximately 23%. This is the area where CESA firms need to work more closely with their public sector clients to collectively plan and implement projects. Quoting a recent CESA media statement, “Service delivery, especially at municipal level, remains a critical burning issue. Lack of attention to maintain infrastructure poses a serious problem for the industry, with infrastructure being left to deteriorate to such a state that maintenance becomes almost impossible.”

Earnings by sector As a fee-earnings segment, transportation is currently the largest, increasing to 33% during the review period. At present, some R291 billion is allocated to transport and logistics in terms of the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF). The next biggest revenue earner is the commercial sector, which dropped from 24% to 13% – indicative of private sector confidence levels within the context of slower trading conditions, with a contraction across retail, industrial and commercial projects. The water segment has increased slightly to around 18% in terms of earnings, while housing currently represents approximately 8%, and energy some 5%. The report states that, “Expenditure on water and sanitation is projected to increase by 10% (nominal) over the MTEF period, from an average growth of 5% in the 2015 budget.” The contribution of the consulting engineering profession as a percentage of GDP is around 0.6%. Overall, earnings in South Africa rose by 7% in the first six months of 2016 versus a 23% contraction in cross-border fees – a trend indicative of the slowdown in commodity prices and mining activity. However, 10 years ago, fees earned from cross-border

CESA Infrastructure Indaba

figure 1 Deloitte’s Africa Construction Trends Report 2016

Southern Africa





Number of projects





Value (US$ bn)





With 85 projects, Southern Africa – which includes Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe – represents 29.7% of all projects in Africa, and 28.9% in US dollar terms, valued at $93.4 billion. South Africa continues to account for the largest amount of infrastructure and capital project activity in Southern Africa with 48.2%, followed by Angola with 12.9%, and Mozambique and Zambia with 10.6% each. South Africa also has the most projects, by country, in Africa with 41 projects.

work were hovering at around 10%, so the figure has increased substantially and the future outlook is still promising, with the infrastructure potential estimated at around US$100 billion annually.

South Africa’s nuclear programme One of the highlights of the CESA Infrastructure Indaba was the presentation by keynote speaker Dr Kelvin Kemm, chairman, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa). Kemm provided a fascinating presentation on South Africa’s proposed nuclear programme, with three new power stations planned – the Eastern Cape’s Thyspunt site being one of the locations selected. “We need to double the amount of electricity consumed in South Africa to build capacity, and nuclear power is a clean, cost-efficient and safe alternative,” says Kemm. Koeberg, currently Africa’s only nuclear power station,

generates around 50% of the electricity required for the Western Cape, with the balance coming from South Africa’s coal fields. “This is not a sensible scenario. If you want to double the size of the South African economy, you don’t do it by doubling the reliance on all the coal that sits in the far north.” Necsa’s nuclear reactor Safari-1 in Pretoria has been running for more than 50 years and is currently the most effectively utilised in its class worldwide. South Africa is also the second largest producer of medical isotopes in the world. Every three seconds,

someone around the world is injected with nuclear medicine from Pretoria and Necsa exports to more than 60 countries. Eskom and Necsa will be jointly responsible for the procurement of the new nuclear power stations and there has already been extensive engagement with interested parties worldwide. Each of the three stations will be among the largest in the world, at some 3 000 MW per station. Each one will have two or three nuclear reactors per site. These are 10-year projects. On an upbeat note, there is a target for 50% localisation, and these projects will create substantial allied infrastructure work, which is good news for consultants and contractors if the necessary funding can be raised.

CESA members generate a combined fee income of approximately R25 billion annually

Lynne Pretorius, president, CESA, presenting at the 2016 Infrastructure Indaba


We live in a changing world. Statistics from South Africa (1990 - 2014)

DIEPSLOOT DENSIFICATION Images have been sourced from the City of Johannesburg



Mining Footprints (+12%)

We live live in in aa changing changing world. world. We (+220%) We live in afrom changing world. Statistics SouthAfrica Africa (1990(1990- 2014) 2014) South from Statistics from South Statistics South Africa (19902014)


Informal Settlements (+118%)

Formal Settlements (+17%)



Business Intelligence:


Impact of mining activity on Landscape dynamics in

Southern Africa

Business Intelligence: Intelligence: Business Business Intelligence: Impact of mining activity on Landscape dynamics in Impact of of mining mining activity activity on on Landscape Landscape dynamics dynamics in in Impact

Southern Africa Africa Southern

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activity across 11 countries in Southern Africa, from Tanzania Africa, Africa, Africa, to South Africa. Combine Africa. this Africa. Africa. with current socio-economic and environmental data to support decision making and business intelligence. Have human settlement patterns changed with mining activity? What are the downstream impacts of mining activity on the environment? Has mining activity impacted agriculture in an area?

Aerial imagery is a highly useful but underutilised source of information that can be used to support policy- and decision-making.


atellite and aerial imagery serves as an independent source of information of the changing landscape and can be used at varying levels within public and private organisations, explains Stuart Martin, director: Business Development, GeoTerraImage. This is particularly useful for municipalities that need to assess population growth and movement in order to ensure adequate service delivery. GeoTerraImage has close to 20 years of experience in providing geospatial insight to clients across a variety of sectors, empowering them to make informed decisions. One such example is a recent project to map the changing landscape of informal settlements for the City of Johannesburg. What GeoTerraImage discovered is that informal settlements have not changed significantly, but there has been a huge increase in the number of backyard structures within the municipality. In Diepsloot, for example, there is an average of two to three backyard structures for every RDP house, posing serious implications for the city and the capacity of its infrastructure. This was all determined simply by extracting information from satellite imagery. “We live in such a dynamic environment where things are changing dramatically and a lot of the work we do is focused on this. We can provide an independent view of where a city has grown, how it has changed, and where there has been a densification over the past 30 years,” says Martin.

www.geoterraimage.com www.geoterraimage.com www.geoterraimage.com




Seeing the bigger picture

Monitoring Land Land Use Use Monitoring Monitoring Land Use change over over time time change change over time Agricultural – Centre Pivots




IMIESA January 2017

Applications in mining Mining is another sector in which imagery can play an important role. Mining activity is a major contributor to landscape change. Satellite imagery can be used to study the impact of various activities on a landscape, including direct physical changes on land cover, and indirect impacts on changes in land use and demographic patterns, influence on resources such as water and air quality, and as a catalyst for infrastructure development and job creation. GeoTerraImage is currently busy with a project to map all of the mining operations across Southern Africa. This can serve as a useful tool for both local municipalities and national government.

Consistency, consistency, consistency The key lies in consistency. “Municipalities need consistent data across an area and in-field data capturers simply can’t ensure this,” says Martin. Satellite imagery is able to provide consistent data and is repeatable over time, meaning GeoTerraImage is able to supply information on the past and present, as well as provide future predictions across a variety of metrics.


Infrastructure Development

Monitoring infrastructure

for positive change If South Africa is to correct past imbalances and move forward, the country needs an integrated and automated approach to planning and delivery, which requires near realtime access to accurate data, says Gauteng Department of Infrastructure Development MEC Jacob Mamabolo. By Alastair Currie


s South Africa enters 2017, the focus on infrastructure delivery is one of the most pressing items on the public sector agenda, as government seeks ways to unlock bottlenecks and create greater transparency and accountability in the way the process is implemented and managed. This also has a direct bearing on improving South Africa’s image locally and internationally as a viable investment destination. The Gauteng Department of Infrastructure Development (GDID) has taken a major step in the right direction with the establishment of Lutsinga Infrastructure House, a project management intelligence nerve centre that focuses on improved delivery, while seeking to eradicate wastage and corruption

Please provide caption for image above

in a province that remains the country’s single largest contributor to GDP. Lutsinga Infrastructure House also seeks to practically measure the positive impact of infrastructure investment on the quality of life of the communities that it serves. Unlike in other South African provinces, the GDID holds a unique position as a dedicated entity, formed in 2009, that runs separately from the Gauteng Department of Roads and Transport. The GDID is responsible for the construction, maintenance and management of public facilities and buildings, including clinics, hospitals, libraries and public schools across the province.

Sector dashboards There are four main system components at Lutsinga Infrastructure House. These systems monitor capital expenditure, health infrastructure maintenance, and property management projects, as well as job creation projects under the auspices of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP). A partnership forged between Statistics South Africa and the Gauteng Provincial Government will identify key drivers and socioeconomic data. Examples include employment created as a direct result of capital expenditure programmes undertaken by the public sector and related industry players. Since Stats South Africa is an independent body, the GDID says that this partnership will ensure that the integrity of its information “will stand the test of time”. The GDID’s creation of an infrastructure monitor will track projects and update the immovable assets register as new facilities are added. This will also provide greater insight into how the use of existing assets

and land can be enhanced. Information is displayed on a continuous basis on screens housed at the Lutsinga nerve centre. A series of refinements have been ongoing since the official roll-out in May 2016, with the new EPWP dashboard recently completed. Lutsinga is now working on its maintenance dashboard. This includes the refinement of the e-maintenance programme – for example, assessment of the faults logged at state hospitals, as well as contingency management in terms of mains and standby water supply. To date, the GDID has coordinated the creation of 25 240 work opportunities through the EPWP. Additionally, in partnership with the private sector, the GDID has placed 5 472 young people in companies through the National Youth Service and the Zivuseni Reloaded programmes, which it coordinates within Gauteng province. The GDID’s processes dovetail with the Infrastructure Delivery Management System (IDMS) managed by National Treasury.

R31 billion portfolio “Lutsinga is not just about monitoring the implementation of bricks and mortar projects, but is mainly about ensuring the high impact of service delivery,” says Jacob Mamabolo, MEC, GDID. “Within our immovable asset register, we have a current property portfolio worth around R31 billion, either for land or builds. That’s why dispensing with archaic, standalone project management processes that function in isolation is essential. Having a high-level overview of this portfolio has now greatly enhanced our future project planning and readiness across the value chain.” Mamabolo joined the GDID in February 2016,

CESA Infrastructure Indaba Infrastructure Development

following a tenure at the Gauteng Department of Human Settlements, where he was instrumental in implementing a turnaround strategy. “We need to focus on infrastructure as a strategic input and ensure that budgets are allocated correctly in responding to the massive and historic backlogs in public infrastructure in core areas such as schools, education and healthcare,” he adds.

Quality control Mamabolo says that the construction industr y is still plagued by massive inefficiencies. “The standard of infrastructure delivery by government occurs in a space comparable to 30 years ago. However, we also frequently encounter situations where, as government, we are not getting value for money due to poor risk identification and management. Poor quality

Jacob Mamabolo, MEC, GDID

is another concern, particularly from subcontractors and suppliers. We are also failing to deliver projects on time and cost overruns are often substantial. Then there are the issues around delayed payment, which compound the problem, plus meeting the needs and expectations of the client. “That’s why all the systems and core processes needed to be brought under one roof, in an integrated format, so that we can view the entire value chain. This should be a seamless process, but without transparency and automation, you don’t have a holistic picture. “Here’s a practical example: when you build a school, you obviously need land and knowledge of the conditions and ownership. However, we’ve had situations in the past where the GDID has approved projects only to discover later that the land acquisition issues were not finalised, resulting in unexpected delays. We won’t have a repeat of this scenario going forward,” he expands. Other developments now being introduced include

Dispensing with archaic, standalone project management processes that function in isolation is essential the conclusion of new service-level agreements with suppliers and contractors to ensure accurate cash projections over a 12-month period. This will ensure prompt payment according to project milestones achieved. “Changing our processes will ensure continuous improvement. In another year, I believe that Lutsinga will have been developed and consolidated into a productive house of infrastructure planning and design, with every new build and maintenance project tracked and reported on,” Mamabolo concludes. “This positively impacts on the construction space and optimises expenditure.” So far, Lutsinga has hosted government delegations from as far afield as Uganda and Botswana, and it invites construction stakeholders to come and view the workings of the nerve centre first-hand.


The face of social housing


onceptualised by non-profit organisation Msunduzi Housing Association (MHA), construction of Aloe Ridge social housing project in Pietermaritzburg began in November 2014 in an effort to provide much-needed, reasonably priced rental accommodation for the lower to middle-income earners in the area. MHA is one of South Africa’s 18 social housing institutions (SHI) under the National Association of Social Housing Oganisations (NASHO) and is mandated to provide affordable, quality, integrated housing for all within the Umgungundlovu District in KwaZulu-Natal. In order to fulfil this mandate, MHA relies heavily on all three tiers of government, explains Ivor Caldecott, CEO of MHA. The Msunduzi Municipality is approached for suitable serviced land, the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Human Settlements for an institutional subsidy and the Social Housing Regulatory Authority for what is known as a Restructuring Capital Grant. These two funding streams are provided for the provision of social housing and are unit based. The balance of funding is applied for by the company from local banks like the National Housing Finance Corporation.

MHA is expected to be self-sustainable after construction and all its operational costs are recovered from the rentals charged.

Social housing in demand According to Caldecott, there is a huge housing demand for households earning between R2 000 and R7 500 monthly, but not enough competitive private sector initiatives meeting this demand. It is difficult for the private sector to get involved as the activities are philanthropic in nature, he explains. “We would appeal to the private sector to assist us with our community development initiatives, which aim to provide tenants with support services such as computer centres, fun days, reading clubs, mentorship groups, and more.” Caldecott believes that the SHIs are doing a fantastic job at providing social housing in South Africa and the institutions meet regularly through NASHO to ensure best practice. However, demand for units is very high and many more units are required to fulfil the need. Caldecott hopes that MHA’s new Pietermaritburg development, Aloe Ridge, will make a significant dent in this market. “In Pietermaritzburg, we would like to reassess demand through the provision of Aloe

Social housing was developed to help restructure society Dr Azar Jammine, chief economist, through Econometrix economic, social, spatial location and functional housing opportunities. In Pietermaritzburg, a new social housing project will soon provide affordable housing for hundreds of families. The first phase of Aloe Ridge in Pietermaritzburg’s Westgate Grange has been constructed from Corobrik’s Burnt Apricot

Ridge and then determine our route forward in terms of further developments.” MHA is currently in negotiations with the Msunduzi Municipality to finalise a memorandum of understanding, which will see more land parcels released to the organisation for the provision of social housing.

Putting the ‘social’ in social housing Aloe Ridge, Pietermaritzburg’s largest social housing project, will soon house hundreds of families. The R355 million project – contracted by Stefanutti Stocks – has received

IMIESA January 2017



funding from the Social Housing Regulatory Authority, the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Human Settlements, the National Housing Finance Corporation, as well as MHA. In addition to the provision of housing, Aloe Ridge will create 500 jobs for unskilled labour during construction, as well as full-time, permanent employment for roughly 22 people. Aloe Ridge, which will house an anticipated 4 000 people, will consist of 952 two-bedroom apartments in three-storey walk-ups, separated into two villages. Of the 952 units, 287 will cater for households earning up to R3 500 per month and the remaining of 665 units will cater for households earning up to R7 500 per month. Each unit, which is approximately 45 m2, consists of an open-plan kitchenette, lounge, bathroom and bedrooms. The site is approximately 14 hectares in size, allowing for large, open spaces and play areas for children. The concept behind the project was to create micro communities within these villages as a way of creating a sense of place. These micro communities will have an individual relationship to those within their courtyard community and a broader relationship to those that live within the rest of the housing development through a major central green space with related facilities for the entire community. The fundamental aim of this concept is to enhance and create a more effective social housing scheme. The incorporation of open spaces forms part of MHA’s goal, which is not just the provision of housing but the provision of “social” housing.

Aloe Ridge is one of South Africa’s biggest social housing developments constructed entirely of facebrick

“It is more about creating communities and ensuring that the living areas are substantial enough to cater for families to integrate properly. If we were to simply supply housing we would be no different to the ‘for profit’ landlord.  We want tenants to experience safe, clean, open areas where their families can flourish,” says Caldecott.  With the entire project expected to be completed by the end of May 2017, the first phase of occupancy became available in late November 2016, with 313 units released. Occupancy of the remaining units will be staggered until mid-2017.

The benefits of facebrick Aloe Ridge is one of South Africa’s biggest social housing developments constructed entirely of facebrick. Corobrik supplied millions of bricks and 2 000 m2 of pavers for the project. The original plan was to construct Aloe Ridge as a plaster and paint development. However, Corobrik’s Rob Jardine was able to demonstrate the benefits of a facebrick development and the life-cycle costing versus plaster and paint swung the selection to facebrick. Lumen Govender of Architechno, who worked in association with Sandhu Architecture on the project, explains the brickwork choice: “We wanted a product that would prove to be affordable in both start-up and long-term costs. Corobrik’s facebrick range covered both criteria, as there are no future maintenance costs related to plastering and painting. Being a social housing project, the drive was to keep costs down while providing quality housing with aesthetic appeal.” In line

What is social housing?

Social housing aims to contribute towards restructuring South African society through economic, social, spatial location and functional housing opportunities. It aims to achieve economic empowerment, integration, sustainable human settlements and improving the overall functioning of the housing sector by widening the range of affordable housing options available (rental housing). Social housing targets facility-rich areas, all within walking distance or well connected to the transport network. (Source: NASHO)

with new building regulations SANS 10400, heat pumps were installed in all units alongside insulation within the roof spaces. Allin Dangers, sales director: KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape, Corobrik, says that the selection of facebrick would further reduce temperature regulation costs because of the material’s incredible thermal properties. “The thermal insulation properties of our facebrick mitigate the need for artificial heating and cooling – particularly important for the Pietermaritzburg climate,” explains Dangers. “The sound insulation properties also ensure a harmonious living environment for all residents, while the enhanced fire resistance creates a safe living space.” In addition, Dangers said the aesthetic quality of facebrick meant it is a soughtafter product, particularly in the social housing arena. “It is important that every apartment feels like home for the residents; that it is somewhere they are proud to call home.”

IMIESA January 2017














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clay brick construction

Breathing life into structures

Life-cycle cost analysis has proven the long-term benefits of building with brick, making this material an ideal choice for community housing projects, according to the Clay Brick Association. By Alastair Currie


lay brick structures have impressively high load-bearing capacity, dimensional stability and compressive strength. They are also aesthetically pleasing and thermally efficient, standing the test of time through all weather conditions. In fact, the average clay brick structure lasts over 100 years, and the oldest known building in South Africa is the Bell Tower at the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town, which has braved the Cape of Storms since 1684. “Bricks vary in compressive strength ranging from a minimum of 7 MPa for NFP bricks, to greater than 50 MPa for Face Brick Extra and engineering products, making them well suited for a range of structures,” says Jonathan Prior, executive director, Clay Brick Association of Southern Africa (CBA).

Credit: Ocon Bricks

During production, clay bricks are fired at temperatures between 1 000°C and 1 200°C, so they are capable of resisting this level of heat without damage

Thermal mass Clay bricks are thermal batteries, using energy from the sun to provide thermal efficiency in a hot South African climate. “Bricks can ‘self-regulate’, keeping internal space naturally cool in summer and warm in winter.” Thermal capacity is a measure of the degree of heat that can be stored by a wall. High thermal capacity (C) with resistance (R) results in a high CR value that achieves optimal energy efficiency and lowest heating and cooling energy usage. Inherent thermal capacity significantly reduces the need for more expensive insulation materials between the brick leaves. Clearly, the more thermally efficient the building, the greater the energy savings: clay brick in combination with thermal insulation in cavity wall construction easily meets the Deemed-toSatisfy requirements of SANS 204 and SANS 10400-XA: Energy Usage in Buildings. For affordable housing projects not using cavity wall construction techniques, nonstandard, large-size bricks (often called Maxi’s) lower material cost, use less mortar

and have fewer joins per square metre. “With 140 mm wide bricks, one can build a single-leaf wall that meets SABS10400-XA,” points out Prior.

Low thermal movement All building materials undergo daily thermal expansion and contraction that can result in stress cracks over time. The thermal expansion and contraction of clay brick is minimal throughout the year. Depending on the clay mix and firing process, the coefficient of linear thermal movement for brick is between 4 and 8. Movement per 10 m of wall for a 50 degree temperature change is between 2 mm to 4 mm. “The bulk of a clay brick’s expansion takes place in the first six months after manufacture, which is accommodated with vertical movement joints,” Prior expands. “Most building materials suffer structural stress due to changes in air moisture from The first phase Aloerain. RidgeHowever, in alternating sunofand clay Pietermaritzburg’s Westgate Grange bricks rarely exhibit movements due to moishas been constructed from Corobrik’s ture inApricot excess of 1 mm per 10 m of walling.” Burnt Countering moisture is not just a factor for buildings, it’s also vital for the overall health of their occupants, which is where

IMIESA January 2017


With 140 mm wide bricks, one can build a single-leaf wall that meets SABS10400-XA

The density and mass of clay bricks makes them a natural sound barrier with high acoustic protection – ideal for schools and community buildings. Brick homes keep suburbs quiet, even with high-density living. The acoustic insulation of clay brick ranges from 43 db to 49 db

Credit: Bert’s Brick

clay brick construction

figure 1 Comparison of building materials

double-leaf clay brick walls really excel. For example, during a case study on community projects in the Western Cape, clay brick homes were shown to minimise interior condensation during the prolonged winter rainfall experienced in this region. Additionally, clay bricks do not release VOCs (volatile organic compounds) that might potentially impact on indoor air quality. Then there are the socio-economic benefits. “Brick products and manufacturing technologies are not imported; every brick is made here in South Africa under wellregulated quality standards,” adds Prior. “Their widespread production nationally is a stimulus for economic transformation, local job creation and skills development.”


IMIESA January 2017

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waste management 1 A sprawling mess

Bush cell Cell 1 and Cell 2 Contaminated stormwater dam

Roundhill restoration An urgent turnaround strategy was needed when one of Buffalo City’s major landfill sites became environmentally non-compliant: the following pictorial series showcases key milestones on the road to recovery. By Stan Jewaskiewitz* and Nash Dookhi as co-author


he Roundhill landfill site, located within the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, near Berlin in the Eastern Cape, has been in operation since February 2006. The site is permitted and classified as a G:L:B+ site, based on the previous landfill classification system, and currently accepts approximately 600 tonnes per day of general waste and restricted volumes of treated healthcare risk waste (excluding pathological waste of human origin) from East London, Mdantsane township and the surrounding areas. In recent years, the site has experienced global operational challenges, resulting in increased health and safety risks on the site and an increase in the adverse effects to the surrounding environment. As the operational challenges grew greater, the site progressed to a state of non-compliance. Upon receipt of various compliance notices and directives from the Department of Environmental Affairs and the Department of Water and Sanitation, and correspondence from the National Prosecution Services, Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, the permit holder of the site, acknowledged the need for specialist consulting services. Envitech Solutions was then appointed by the municipality, through the applicable procurement processes, to compile a turnaround

strategy and an implementation plan, which would be in line and promote compliance with the landfill permit requirements of the Roundhill site and promote compliance with the prevailing environmental legislation. The images in this article detail the site and illustrate the previous major challenges and the state of non-compliances (as may be experienced typically locally and internationally), while illustrating the works undertaken and progress to a state of compliance. A contractor, Interwaste, was appointed to carry out all the remedial works and ongoing landfill operations. *Stan Jewaskiewitz is a registered professional engineer and director at Envitech Solutions.

2 Slippery slopes

Aerial view of landfill site prior to rehabilitation – illustrating the uncompacted, uncovered, unsafe Cell 1 and Cell 2, the disposal of waste on an unlined area (bush cell) and the contaminated stormwater dam

Landfill site prior to rehabilitation, illustrating the steep, unstable and unsafe side slopes of Cell 1 and Cell 2 – these slopes are a result of limited airspace and end tipping of waste. These steep slopes cannot be compacted and covered

3 Water, water everywhere

Leachate tank including surrounding bund area flooded with leachate – uncontrolled and unmanaged leachate flows around the site, being stored/bunded in unlined areas

4 A smoking gun Landfill site prior to rehabilitation showing burnt waste (blackened) – due to the uncompacted and uncovered waste, the site has experienced various landfill fires, resulting in severe smoke nuisances and health and safety issues. The fires have also damaged the leachate collection pipes, adding to the uncontrolled leachate flow problems

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waste management

5 Unstemmed tides

6 A step forward

Uncontrolled flow of leachate and contaminated stormwater off-site – resulting in negative environmental impacts downstream of the site

Commencement of rehabilitation works. Removal of illegally dumped wastes from the “bush cell” – due to the limited available airspace at the site, a bush cell was created with the disposal of waste on an unlined area with no leachate and stormwater controls. As part of the rehabilitation, a temporary cell was constructed within the shortest time possible, to prevent any further waste from being disposed of on the unlined area. All incoming waste was then landfilled directly in to the temporary cell and all waste from the bush cell was immediately relocated to the temporary cell

7 Pioneering progress

Completed temporary cell; commencement of landfilling of pioneer layer of waste – upon completion of the pioneer layer of waste, all incoming waste was landfilled directly in the temporary cell and all waste from the bush cell was immediately relocated to the temporary cell

8 Shaping up

9 Commencing operations

Completed shaping of Cell 1 and Cell 2 and commencement of temporary capping – illustrating the shaped and compacted side slopes and top of Cell 1 and Cell 2, as well as the terrace control berm at the crest of the slope. The shaping and compaction of Cell 1 and Cell 2 were required prior to the construction of the temporary capping

Landfilling operations on fully commissioned temporary landfill cell – the temporary landfill cell consists of an in situ compacted clay liner, an HDPE liner, a protection layer and a leachate collection system. The operations on this cell are currently progressing well, with wastes being compacted and covered on a daily basis

IMIESA January 2017


waste management 10 Rectification excavation

11 Stemming the tide

Repairs to existing leachate system – illustrating the replacement of damaged/burnt leachate, collection and detection HDPE pipelines, as well as the construction of new leachate collection manholes/sumps

Repairs to existing leachate collection system – during the rehabilitation works, various inconsistencies were found when compared to available as-built drawings, resulting in the complete excavation and exposure of all the leachate management systems for Cell 1 and Cell 2. The rectification of the leachate management system could only commence once all existing leachate infrastructure and its functionality/ efficiency was determined

12 Securing perimeters

13 Layer after layer Placing of a geotextile separation layer on top of shaped and compacted waste prior to the placing of capping materials – the primary geotextile separation layer is required to prevent the gas drainage aggregate layer above from being contaminated by the wastes below

Repairs to existing geomembrane liner system on Cell 1 and Cell 2 – illustrating the severe damage to the existing geomembrane liner along the perimeter edge that needed repairs. In some instances, where no perimeter edge liners and containment berms were found, new containment berms were constructed and lined accordingly

14 Lining up Progressive rehabilitation of Cell 1 and Cell 2 – illustrating the shaping and compacting of waste, the construction of corrective leachate management infrastructure, the laying of a gas drainage layer, separations layers, a geosynthetic clay liner and the placing of topsoil

15 A feather in the cap Rehabilitated Cell 1 and Cell 2 – illustrating the current operational temporary cell on the left with the temporary capped and rehabilitated Cell 1 and Cell 2. Grass growth on Cell 1 and Cell 2 has commenced

16 Before and after October 2015 to May 2016


IMIESA January 2017

SAICE Awards

SAICE awards civil engineering excellence The annual SAICE-SAFCEC Awards gala event for the Most Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievements took place on 13 October 2016, with industry leaders and dignitaries from across South Africa in attendance.


AICE received more than 30 project entries from across the country to compete for these prestigious awards. IMIESA congratulates all of the winners for 2015/2016. The winners are:

on Main Road P104 in Shakaskraal, KZN, from kilometre 9.923 to kilometre 15. Naidu Consulting, together with contractors Crossmoor Transport, maximised opportunities to benefit the local community, even to the point of implementing a local kerb manufacturing yard.

Community-Based Projects Upgrade of Main Road 104 This R54.4 million project comprised the construction of earthworks, layerworks, drainage, surfacing and retaining structures

Commendations • Hlambanyathi River Bridge • Construction of Community Infrastructure in the Southern Region – eThekwini Municipality.

Technical Excellence Projects Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme The multibillion-rand Ingula project is a peaking hydropower station comprising an upper and lower reservoir separated in elevation by 480 m within the Little Drakensberg mountain range. This project – involving Gibb, Royal HaskoningDHV and Knight Piésold as the consulting engineers – has already contributed to stabilising the South African power system. When complete, it will house four 333 MW Francis-type pumps or turbines


and motor generators in its underground powerhouse complex 116 storeys underground. Commendations: • Rehabilitation of the N2 from Umlaas Canal to EB Cloete Interchange • Ashley Drive Break Pressure Tank.

International Projects Of Excellence Where South African Engineers Are Involved

Power. Efficiency. Comfort. Africa’s most respected motor grader brand, Mitsubishi, has changed ownership and is being sold under the new name HIDROMEK. While the name may have changed, HIDROMEK





manufactured in the same factory and can

Mokhotlong-Sani Pass Road Project To complement the upgrade of the Sani Pass Road on the South African side, Lesotho commissioned a new road to replace the 46 km gravel road between Mokhotlong and Sani Pass at a cost of R786 million. Battling challenging terrain and weather conditions, Aurecon and China Geo-Engineering Corporation International ensured that the route now provides all-weather access to the general public in standard vehicles.

still be banked on for power, efficiency and comfort. They remain the perfect machines for increasing productivity, with ample power to spread the heaviest loads, while

Commendations: • Kasane-Kazungula Villages Sanitation Project • Senqu River Bridge.

maintaining the nimbleness to turn in the smallest radius.

Saice Division Awards

This allows HIDROMEK motor graders to

Environmental Engineering: Transport Management Plan for the EcoMobility World Festival MPA Consulting Engineers compiled and implemented the Transport Management Plan for the EcoMobility Festival for the City of Johannesburg. It provided travellers in Sandton with an opportunity to utilise different, more sustainable modes of transport. Despite the challenges of providing alternative transport to car users, the project showed that public transport could be prioritised over private transport on major corridors. Geotechnical Engineering: New Old Mutual Head Office, Sandton The construction of the new R129 million head offices for Old Mutual in Sandton involved WSP Engineers, AECOM Quantity Surveyors, Coffey Projects, Franki Africa and Zero Azania. Situated directly over the Gautrain tunnel, this brought challenges for blasting and foundation work.   Railway and Harbour: Reconstruction and deepening of Maydon Wharf Berths 1–4, 13 & 14 The R760 million rehabilitation of berths at Maydon Wharf in Durban harbour consisted of demolishing the existing quay structure,

dramatically reduce site preparation time and ensure that jobs are completed faster. ELB





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the removal of old timber piles, installing a new steel combination wall with concrete cope beam and back of quay layer works. A first for South Africa, the Müller Verpress Pile was used as an alternative to the traditional dead man anchor solution by project team Transnet Capital Projects, RCE Consultants and Stefanutti Stocks Axsys JV.   Project Management and Construction: Construction of community infrastructure in the southern region – eThekwini Municipality With a project budget of R20.2 million, Nathoo Mbenyane Engineers, with main contractor Afrocon Construction, was appointed to develop accesses and footpaths and to formalise existing sidewalks and footpaths in disadvantaged communities in eThekwini Municipality. Labourintensive construction methods were used to provide for job creation, skills transfer and contracts for emerging contractors.   Structural Engineering: Pacaltsdorp Pedestrian Bridge The 65 m long, continuous, four-span, selfanchored, arch–suppor ted, stress ribbon Pacaltsdorp footbridge in George enables pedestrians from the Pacaltsdorp township to access work opportunities in George and the surrounds. For SMEC South Africa, the challenge was to create a design that attracts pedestrians towards the bridge, and away from the highway. Transportation Engineering: Mokhotlong–Sani Pass Road Project (as above) Water Engineering: Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme (as above)  

Saice Individual Awards SAICE Civil Engineer of the Year Joint winners: Danie Badenhorst (from AECOM) and Danie Brink (from Jones and Wagener) SAICE Young Civil Engineer of the Year Dr Gabrielle Wojtowitz SAICE Technologist of the Year Chiedza Mnguni SAICE Young Technologist of the Year Maanda Mutheiwana SAICE Division of the Year Project Management and Construction Division SAICE Branch of the Year Johannesburg Branch Student Chapter of the Year UJ-Civils

Cement & Concrete

Paving for groundwater


Best practice permeable pavement methodologies from the USA should be more widely adopted in South Africa to meet flood control, water runoff requirements and pollution containment, says The Concrete Institute.


ervious concrete, or permeable block paving in roads and parking areas – which is still relatively underutilised in South Africa – allows rain and other water to percolate through to replenish natural underground water resources. “Boosting aquifers in this manner is important during prolonged spells of drought, as South Africa is currently experiencing – particularly when concern has already been expressed about the alarming decline of our underground water volumes,” says Bryan Perrie, managing director, The Concrete Institute. “Pervious concrete, or permeable block, paving naturally filters out pollutants that come into contact with it, in contrast with the voluminous run-off from impervious surfaces that inevitably ends up in surrounding streams, rivers and dams, resulting in grease and chemical pollution hazardous to animal and human life. Pervious concrete can also be used for stormwater attenuation in place of retention ponds. This will reduce the number and size of drainage infrastructure elements, saving both materials and energy, as well as reducing future maintenance.” He says the US’s National Ready Mixed Concrete Association has described pervious concrete as an “innovative building material with many environmental, economic, and structural advantages’’. In fact, the proper utilisation of pervious concrete is a recognised best management practice by the US Environmental Protection Agency for providing first-flush pollution control and stormwater management. American studies have found that oil that drips on, and into, pervious concrete pavement is contained within the pervious system as a coating on the large surface area of the void system, and at the location of any geotextile fabric separating the pavement from the subbase or sub-grade support. Hydrocarbons, such as oils, then become a food source for many naturally occurring bacteria and fungi

that feed on the oil and biodegrade it into simpler chemical components that are released into the atmosphere. “Research has determined that 97.6% to over 99% of oils introduced into pervious pavements are trapped and biodegraded instead of ending up in rivers and dams,” Perrie states.

Stormwater utility districts American stormwater regulations set limits on the levels of pollution in American streams and lakes. To meet these regulations, local officials have considered two basic approaches: • to reduce the overall run-off from an area • to reduce the level of pollution contained in run-off. Efforts to reduce run-off include zoning ordinances and regulations that lower the amount of impervious surfaces in new developments (including parking and roof areas), increased green space requirements, and the implementation of stormwater utility districts that levy an impact fee on a property owner based on the amount of impervious area. Furthermore, to reduce the level of pollution from stormwater, developers have to provide systems that collect the first flush of rainfall, usually about 25 mm, and “treat” the pollution in this rain prior to release. Pervious concrete pavements can reduce or eliminate run-off and permit such treatment of pollution. By capturing the first flush of rainfall and allowing it to percolate into the ground, soil chemistry and biology can then “treat” the polluted water naturally. Thus, stormwater retention areas may be reduced or eliminated, allowing for increased land use.

Furthermore, by collecting rainfall and allowing it to infiltrate, groundwater replenishment is increased, peak water flow through drainage channels is reduced, and flooding is minimised. In the US, factoring impervious concrete into new property developments has the potential of earning credits in the US Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Building Rating System. Pervious concrete pavement is also ideal for protecting trees in a paved environment, as many plants have difficulty growing in areas covered by impervious pavements, sidewalks and landscaping, because air and water struggle to reach their roots. However, when pervious concrete pavements or sidewalks surround plants and trees, the vegetation receives more growth, stimulating air and water while vehicular and pedestrian use of the pavement is not impaired.

IMIESA January 2017


Cement & Concrete

Admixtures creating greener concrete Greater demands are being placed on concrete to reduce its carbon footprint as well as building costs.


s a result, construction chemical companies are constantly formulating and manufacturing new and improved admixtures that assist in producing concrete that is more suited to the increasingly challenging requirements made by engineers and contractors. According to Marc Plancon, marketing director, Chr yso Group, urbanisation poses a major challenge as readymix plants are situated further from construction sites. There is also a move towards vertical construction in big cities where space is at a premium and there is an increasing need for underground construction. “Traditional concrete simply cannot keep pace with modern requirements and, for this reason, advances in admixtures are becoming increasingly important to produce modern concrete,” says Plancon. There are many drivers behind the requirement for these products, first and foremost being sustainable development, faster construction, and improving the characteristics of concrete. This is being further hastened by new integrated design structures and build-ownoperate set-ups where a builder owns the building and needs the quickest possible return on construction investment. In order to operate profitably, these new-age builders also need durability with less maintenance. “In developed parts of the world, there is a move towards sustainable development, with the use of recycled materials becoming commonplace, as well as the use of more geopolymers and more manufactured aggregate. This has led us to develop new admixture technology to assist with meeting these and many more requirements,” Plancon explains.

Smart solutions Admixtures are essentially concrete per formance boosters that can alter concrete properties such as slump, rheology, early strength, durability and shrinkage. According to Plancon, the admixtures available today are many and the average concrete producer can compile a “toolbox” of admixtures that can enable them to produce almost any kind of concrete required. The admixtures include anything from water reducers, workability enhancers, placeability, finishability and durability enhancers. These allow producers to both save and make money. “Usually, the cost of an admixture is minimal compared to the required outcome,” concludes Plancon.


IMIESA January 2017


Afrimat Shared Services


Aggregate and Sand Producers Association of SA


Ammann Construction Machinery South Africa


Aqua Resources




Argus Africa Cape Town Argus Africa Mozambique Atlas Copco



SBS Water Systems

ELB Equipment (Hidromek)






Sizabantu Piping Systems




Icon Construction




Johannesburg Water


The Concrete Institute



The Rare Group








Model Maker Systems




4 46 IFC 43

TT Innovations Water & Sanitation Services


Buffalo City Municipality


National Asphalt






Wirtgen Group


Comar Plant Design & Manufacturing






A range of products built on the foundation of quality and durability Afrimat Limited is a leading black empowered open pit mining company providing an integrated product offering ranging from ®

aggregates, industrial minerals, concrete products (bricks, blocks and pavers) to readymix concrete. Afrimat has established a strong foothold in contracting services comprising mobile crushing, screening,drilling and blasting. Backed by more than 45 years’ experience,

Investing in diversified growth

Afrimat listed on the JSE Limited in 2006. As part of its continued diversification strategy, the group is expanding its footprint into Africa. The group’s capabilities enable Afrimat to


service projects of any scale from major

Industrial Minerals

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Contracting International

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Concrete Products

through to small private sector contracts.

Readymix Tel +27 21 917 8840 www.afrimat.co.za

Fax +27 21 914 1174




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IMIESA January 2017  

Critical information on infrastructure development, maintenance and service delivery. The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal En...

IMIESA January 2017  

Critical information on infrastructure development, maintenance and service delivery. The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal En...

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