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The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa


WINNER Non-professional n proffess e ion nal wri writer of the year HIGHLY COMMENDED Publishing Excellence




increases output in the

INSIGHT UTRCP - a case study

O&M Cost-effective maintenance

SAGI Leading Lidar evolution

“W offer our clients a saving in time and overhead costs, and we are competitive “We on direct cost with conventional methods.” Willie de Jager, MD, Corestruc I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 V o l u m e 3 8 N o . 2 • F e b r u a r y 2 0 1 3 • R 5 0 . 0 0 ( i n c l VAT )






17 Municipal operations


46 Dam construction

45 Water treatment

UTRCP challenges

Municipal operations Challenges faced by smaller municipalities

promenade Panel



Road operation and maintenance SABITA


78 55 57

Saied Solomons

Infrastructure mapping for municipalities Leading the evolution of Lidar The sole distributor for region

28 31 32


Cementing the need for

Cover Story A Metso Lokotrack train is meeting high tonnage aggregate demands on a Mpumalanga road rehabilitation project, with the contractor, WK Crushing, achieving consistent downstream product quality.

concrete roads


Geocontainers provide containment platform


3 5

Editor’s comment President’s comment


61 62



Nico Pienaar SARF Logashri Sewnarain


Water and wastewater Water treatment for remote areas

45 Basil Jonsson

Meeting power demand through sustainability


Grouting contract nears completion


Specialist contractor cleans power station Zero tolerance boosts safety



Alta Walker Arup




Deon Pagel

Peet Venter

SANRAL Carbon emission management

National Asphalt


Dinesh Chaithoo

49 51

Salberg Concrete Products


Dr Rudy Absil

Cover article


VSI achieves base course

Fixing municipal finances



Insight UTRCP challenges and solution


Hot seat Specialist precast solutions

in the



Lafarge industries


Dr Reinhold Amtsbücher

Products and services


Effective solution for pavement drainage

Mike McDonald


Controls for network sewage station


73 75

Pavers used for Umhlanga

“We offer our clients a saving in time and overhead costs, and we are competitive on direct cost with conventional methods.” Willie de Jager, MD, Corestruc


IMIESA February 2013


Increased number of strikes against poor services delivery in 2012, numerous reported failures of water supplies, sewerage conveyance & treatment systems, and poor road maintenance conditions, are pointers of warning, that serious turn-around strategies are required in South African municipal service delivery.

23 - 25 October 2013

This will be required from institutional structures and financial management right up to the operation and maintenance of quality service delivery to the people. Hence the theme for 2013:

Municipal Engineering: Meeting Peoples’ Needs


Authors are requested to think innovatively, base new ideas on case studies (local and elsewhere), be practical in approach and indicate how their proposed paper will support the conference theme. • • • • • •

Political and Legislation Ecological / Environmental Financial Transport and Traffic Water and Sanitation Roads and Storm Water

Submissions of extracts in the prescribed format by Friday, 26 April 2013 to Dup van Renen email: Download abstract forms from

Tel: 031 266 3263


PUBLISHER Elizabeth Shorten EDITOR Richard Jansen van Vuuren HEAD OF DESIGN Frédérick Danton SENIOR DESIGNER Hayley Mendelow CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Claire Nozaïc SUB-EDITOR Patience Gumbo CONTRIBUTORS Johan RasmusOtte, Pieter Myburgh, Johan van der Mescht, Marius van Jaarsveld, Bryan Perrie Corne Oberholzer, Candice Landie PRODUCTION MANAGER Antois-Leigh Botma PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise FINANCIAL MANAGER Andrew Lobban (ACIS, FCIBM) MARKETING AND ONLINE MANAGER Martin Hiller ADMINISTRATION Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS PRINTERS United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________

The challenges faced by small municipalities

ADVERTISING SALES Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 ___________________________________________________

Throughout the country, several smaller municipalities struggle on a daily basis to effectively operate and maintain their services infrastructure in a cost-effective and sustainable manner.

PUBLISHER: MEDIA No. 4, 5th Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail:


ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R530.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS IMESA Administration Officer: Ingrid Botton P O Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: Website: BORDER BRANCH Secretary: Melanie Matroos Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2401 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 E-mail: EAST CAPE BRANCH Elsabé Koen Tel: +27 (0)41 505 8005 Fax: +27 (0)41 581 2300 E-mail: KWAZULU-NATAL BRANCH Secretary: Rita Zaayman Tel: +27(0)31 311 6382 NORTHERN PROVINCE BRANCH Secretary: Cornel Taljaard Tel: +27 (0)82 899 8341 Fax: +27 (0)11 675 1324 E-mail: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO BRANCH Secretary: Henrietta Oliver Tel: +27(0)79 390 7536 Fax: 086 536 3725 E-mail: WESTERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Erica van Jaarsveld Tel: +27 (0)21 938 8455 Fax: +27 (0)21 938 8457 E-mail: FREE STATE AND NORTHERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27(0)83 457 4362 Fax: 086 628 0468 E-mail:

’M DELIGHTED TO advise readers that this issue forms the basis of a paper authored by Johan van der Mescht and Marius van Jaarsveld that is published in this edition of IMIESA. The authors point out that service delivery challenges in small rural municipalities are often exacerbated by human resource issues, ranging from the difficulty to recruit suitably qualified and experienced professionals to unstructured or weak disciplinary procedures. Within the case study discussed in their paper, the situation is no different and it makes for fascinating reading (page 17). In this edition, we also discuss a carbon emission management system for South African conditions. It comprises a guideline document and software system for the measurement of carbon emissions by all operations associated with the manufacturing and application of bituminous products in South Africa’s road industr y. The guidelines are now available for implementation (page 36). It is with pride that I can report that 3S Media will be organising and hosting the second national Public-Private Infrastructure Forum, which is scheduled to take place from 19 to 20 June 2013. Building on the success of last year’s event, the event will focus on how the public and private sectors can work together to ensure the successful implementation of the infrastructure plan that has been adopted by government and spearheaded by the Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Commission.

Richard Jansen van Vuuren

Expert speakers from government, stateowned entities and the private sector are being invited to give presentations on what the challenges are, what progress has been made to date and what future solutions are being proposed to drive the plans to address ser vice deliver y issues and infrastructure construction backlog. Delegates from the public and private sector will be able to pose questions to the speakers. Speakers and delegates will then participate in workshop sessions to identify sustainable solutions to these problems. The event will not just be another run-of-the-mill conference, but an opportunity for local, regional and national role players, together with the private sector, to workshop solutions to issues affecting infrastructure development.

REST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA Representative: Andre Muller E-mail:

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.

Cover opportunity

In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the t cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings contact Jenny Miller on tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223.

IMIESA February 2013




nelson mandela bay PORT ELIZABETH

23 - 25 OCTOBER 2013 Theme: Municipal Engineering – Meeting Peoples’ Needs EARN 2.5 CPD POINTS BY ATTENDING The 2013 IMESA Conference will be hosted at the brand new Boardwalk Hotel & Conference Centre on the beautiful Port Elizabeth beach front. A variety of exciting technical tours are being arranged to SA Breweries, Koega Harbour, VW Factory and Van Staden’s Wind Farm. Register and pay early to qualify for excellent Early Bird Discounts! Included in conference fee: •

Opening Cocktail Function with Presidential Address

3 Day Conference with local and international experts

Techncial Tours

Access to 80 industry suppliers at their exhibition stands

Gala Function: the best networking opportunity

Additional fees for: • Golf Day at Humewood before Conference opens • Companion to join at social functions or to participate in 3 Day Companion Tours For information: Tel: 031 2663263 Email:



Local challenges not unique Towards the end of 2012, I had the pleasure of representing IMESA as a board member of IFME (the International Federation of Municipal Engineering) in Pauanui, New Zealand.


S WE WORKED through the agenda and after much interaction with fellow board members representing countries such as New Zealand, Australia, Scotland, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and Canada, I realised that the challenges that we face and agonise over continuously at IMESA and within South Africa’s local authorities are not isolated to this country but are being experienced globally. The value of being a member of IFME was unmistakable as we compared problems, experience and solutions. I feel that sharing some of my observations would be of benefit. IFME is finding it difficult to attract new members – especially from poor countries and young people. A solution may be to offer a reduced fee structure based on affordability and have a scheme whereby new members younger than 35 will pay half-price if they are “accompanied” by a full paying member. The Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia (IPWEA) – Australia’s equivalent to IMESA – made the interesting observation that today’s potential new members are Generation X and Generation Y youngsters who demand a very IFME board meeting held in Pauanui, New Zealand

clear indication of the benefits they’ll enjoy (such as financial or time saving) by joining institutes as opposed to the older “baby boomers” who in their day joined more for the “old school tie” sense of belonging. IPWEA has successfully embraced this change by, for

result of a skills shortage in New Zealand, the use of shared services where a particular team would carry out the operation of wastewater treatment plants or the maintenance of GIS systems for a group of towns, for example, is becoming more and more popular. Members confirmed that

The value of being a member of IFME was unmistakable as we compared problems, experience and solutions example, improving their website by adding features such as “ask your mate”, which has been vastly popular and effective, especially among asset managers. Basically, if you have an engineering problem, you enter your question and it is highly likely that you would attract a number of responses. As a

shared services are also gaining momentum in the Nordic countries and throughout the UK. Other comments included: • councillors think they are engineers – they interfere – and councils change every two years • poor community buy-in • poor political buy-in

• unrealistic expectations by those being served • the pool of municipal technical skills is continuously shrinking. Regarding the skills shortage being experienced internationally, I close with an extract from an article that Chris Champion, the CEO of IPWEA, wrote in the institute’s official journal Public Works recently (with Champion’s kind permission): “The pipeline of new engineers and other technical staff simply isn’t strong enough to see the shortage eased, unless government and industry come together with new solutions. Addressing the shortage will improve Australia’s chances of building a modern economy that can thrive beyond the current boom. “We also know that pressure from the skills shortage is affecting our members – and the wider profession – through longer hours, stress and being unable to properly cope with our professional responsibilities. “If we want to address climate change, sustainability issues and build the infrastructure our communities need for the future, then Australia needs significantly more professional engineers and other technical staff. “The profession still does not receive the recognition it deserves for the key role it plays in Australian society.”

IMIESA February 2013




VSI achieves base W

A Metso Lokotrack train is meeting high tonnage aggregate demands on a Mpumalanga road rehabilitation project, with the contractor, WK Crushing, achieving consistent downstream product quality.

ORK IS NOW at an advanced stage on a major road upgrade on the R50 between Leandra and Standerton, which is being rebuilt on a solid foundation by Bloemfontein based contractor Nucon Roads & Civils. WK Construction Group entity, WK Crushing, was appointed as the crushing and screening contractor and has been responsible for supplying all road aggregate materials on this fast-tracked rehabilitation project, which commenced in Januar y 2012 and is due for completion by the end of March 2013. Meeting the material specifications over this 26 km section, WK Crushing’s contract scope entails the dedicated supply of approximately 230 000 t of -38 mm G2 base course as well as +9.5 mm and 19 mm road stone amounting to a further 3 000 and 8 000 t, respectively. By November 2012, the bulk of the G2 quantities had been supplied to site, with all road stone materials sourced from a

TOP A side view of the Metso Lokotrack LT1100 LEFT WK Crushing’s site manager, Dirk van Schalkwyk (left), and Barloworld Equipment Metso Mobile’s sales consultant, Lantie van der Merwe. In the background is WK Crushing’s Metso Lokotrack LT1100 cone crusher and screen on one chassis (forming the closed circuit) feeding into the LT7150 VSI


IMIESA February 2013


tonne. The IC system also prevents overloading caused by process fluctuations, as well as from damage caused by misuse. Advanced fault diagnostics immediately pinpoint any potential problem, so there is minimal standing time. In the closed circuit, +38 mm material is fed to the LT1100 cone for reduction to -38 mm and then passes through the VSI. Screened material below -38 mm also passes through the VSI to generate fines material, an essential ingredient for optimum road base compaction. “Although placed at the end of the process

An illustrated cross-section of the Metso Lokotrack LT7150 showing material passing through the machine’s on-board Barmac VSI

as steel slag, which is commonly used as an aggregate in South African road construction, can also be optimally processed via VSI technology. “Barmac VSIs are unique among all vertical shaft impactors due to their pure rock-on-rock crushing principle, an autogenous crushing process that produces the best cubically shaped aggregates on the market today,” explains Barloworld Equipment Metso Mobile

course optimisation WK registered dolerite borrow pit situated outside the town of Leandra. This pit is currently being mined to around 10.5 m from sur face and has substantial dolerite reser ves below this depth to meet other downstream WK material supply contracts in the region for concrete, road aggregate or pipeline bases. WK Crushing is a leading contractor in the crushing and screening sector, and over the years has successfully completed a number of quarr ying and crushing operations in mining, concrete readymix, road building and civil engineering within South Africa as well as cross-border, backed by a modern equipment fleet. WK’s mobile process train set-up at the Leandra borrow pit starts with a Metso Lokotrack LT105 primar y jaw crusher feeding into a secondar y cone crusher and from there to a tertiar y Metso LT1100 cone crusher and screen on one chassis (forming the closed circuit), with a Metso LT7150 VSI (vertical shaft impactor) per forming final stage crushing. These Metso units communicate via onboard IC (Intelligent Control) automation and work as one seamlessly integrated system. Automation makes it possible to run machines at constant, specific per formance rates to achieve the best cost per aggregate

train, the VSI has the most important job to do in per forming final product shaping. Plus being at the tail end, the LT7150 must keep place with the ongoing material throughput flowing from the primar y stage,” explains Dirk van Schalkwyk, WK Crushing’s site manager. During G2 production, WK Crushing’s train has typically averaged around 170 to 180 tph and up to 210 tph at peak, depending on variables in blasted material sizes and densities. “And we’ve achieved these figures with consistently high availability from our Metso units,” he continues.

Barmac VSI

sales consultant, Lantie van der Mer we. “Compared to other OEM designs, this means that impeller shoes or impact anvils are not needed to achieve reduction, which in turn helps to lower overall operating costs.” Metso’s VSI design centres on its Barmac DTR deep rotor. The development of deep rotor technology, combined with long-life wear parts and segmented tip assemblies dramatically reduces downtime associated with wear part replacement. The LT7150’s Barmac VSI 840 DTR rotor accepts feed size up to 66 mm, accelerates material and continuously discharges it into the crushing chamber, with particle exit velocities ranging between 45 and 70 m/s. This high-velocity impact crushing, together with high-pressure attrition grinding, results in superior concrete and asphalt aggregates, with the ability to fine-tune this process by simply changing rotor speed. “Experience has shown that the key to profits in the aggregate production industr y lies in the ability to produce consistent products of high quality, which in turn leads to the construction of durable roads that last,” adds Van Schalkwyk.

“Although placed at the end of the process train, the VSI has the most important job to do in performing final product shaping”

Powered by a Cat Acert C13 engine, Metso’s LT7150 is the first Lokotrack model to be fitted with a Metso Barmac VSI crusher on-board, in this instance a B7150M unit. Configured as a VSI unit, the LT7150 is an ideal third or fourth stage crusher, which combines high velocity impact crushing with attrition crushing to produce cubical aggregates, road base and prime manufactured sand. In fact, field tests have proven that less cement can be used in road bases and stronger concrete created by using Barmac VSI products. Waste products such

IMIESA offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a two-page cover story and a cover picture to promote their products to an appropriate audience. Please call Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223 to secure your booking.

IMIESA February 2013




Afri-Infra AJ Broom Road Products Arup SA Aurecon AECOM Bigen Africa Group Holdings BMK Consulting Bosch Stemele Bosch Munitech BVI Consulting Engineers CBI Consulting Engineers Civilconsult Consulting Engineers Civil & Blasting Solutions Concrete Manufacturers Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa CSIR Built Environment Davies Lynn & Partners Development Bank of SA DPI Plastics EFG Engineers Elster Kent Metering EnviroServ Waste Management Geotechnologies GIBB GLS Consulting Goba Hidrostal SA Huber Technology Hydro-comp Enterprises I@Consulting Iliso Consulting Infraset Jeffares and Green Johannesburg Water Kgatelopele Consulting

Knowledge Base Lektratek Water Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates Maragela Consulting Engineers Much Asphalt Nyeleti Consulting Odour Engineering Systems PD Naidoo & Associates Consulting Engineers Power Construction Pumptron Pragma Africa Rocla Royal HaskoningDHV SBS Water Systems Sektor Consulting Sight Lines SiVEST SA SNA Inc Siza Water Company SMEC Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology SRK Consulting Sulzer Pumps Wastewater Syntell Thm Engineers East London TPA Consulting UWP Consulting VIP Consulting Engineers WorleyParsons WSP Group Africa WSSA WRP Zebra Surfacing



Can we build it? Yes we can! The employer’s objectives of this case study was to upgrade gravel roads in the Brandwag Community to surfaced standard, with preference to UTRCP, constructed by means of labour intensive construction methods and where possible materials. By Johan Rasmus and Pieter Myburgh*


ROM THE ONSET it was clear that the design and documentation needed to be adapted in order to maximise the interest of the community as well as ensure a quality product. Well-balanced use of equipment and local labour was vital to the success of the project as extensive training was done before the specific tasks were programmed to commence. On-site design changes were possible due to the flexibility of the “Spin Screed” being used, with resultant innovative techniques that result both in time saving as well as improved constructability and quality. Quality control of both virgin and modified materials before, during and after construction needs a higher level of supervision, which must not be underestimated. A direct cost comparison was possible to conventional methods as this was part of the project scope. Crucial to the success and sustainability of this method, however, is long-term commitment from authorities, with guaranteed financial and technical support.

Project specifications The road was upgraded to a surfaced standard to the widths, alignment and structural capacity as specified for low volume roads taking local conditions into account: • existing material was reused and reworked to form part of the support layers to the cemented base • the base was constructed using mainly existing material and consisted of a 100 mm thick cement stabilised layer to C3/C4 standards by means of labour-intensive construction methods • this was followed by an application of a bituminous emulsion application to improve durability and limit the water susceptibility of the stabilised layer • the surface layer consisted of a 50 mm thick UTRCP (mesh 200 x 200 x 5.6 mm nominal FIGURE 1 Location of Brandwag Community

reinforcing) with batch mixing of the concrete on-site with concrete mixers • as part of the works, kerbs and channels were removed and reused, where those could be successfully salvaged.

Documentation Works specifications: Variations and additions to the standardised specifications were included to distinguish between machine- and labourintensive methods. The items shown in Table 2 were included for quantifying the type and amount of works carried out by means of LIC. TABLE 1 Road numbers and lengths



Road 1


Road 3


Road 4


Short project description The project scope was the upgrading of some gravel roads in Brandwag to surfaced standards using Ultra-Thin Reinforced Concrete Pavement (UTRCP), constructed by means of labour-intensive construction (LIC) methods, to maximise the use of local labour.

Project location The Brandwag community, Part of Ward 7, is situated approximately 11 km north of the N2 and Trunk Route 33, section 2 (TR33/2) and the intersection en route to Oudtshoorn as shown in Figure 1.

Road numbers The roads are numbered in Table 1 for ease of reference with the following approximate lengths constructed: *Johan Rasmus Otte, associate: pavement engineering, Royal HaskoningDHV Pieter Myburgh, operational manager, streets and stormwater at Mossel Bay

IMIESA February 2013



Construction of stabilised base This section covers the construction of a layer of concrete, 50 mm thick continuously reinforced with 200 x 200 x 5.6 mm welded mesh (Ref 193) on an emulsion cured stabilised layer. See Table 2.





• Spin Screed to replace vibrating screed beam for compaction of the concrete • movable bridge to prevent walking on mesh for placing and screeding concrete • broom with extended handle to provide texture • concrete saw with a blade of suitable width for cutting longitudinal and construction joints • equipment for sealing joints • bull float.


Materials • aggregate to comply with relevant SANS • 32.5 CEM I cement complying with SANS requirements • concrete to be used after submission and approval of trial mix* to 30 MPa after 28 days • welded wire mesh fabric conforming to SANS 1024 – 1991 (6 x 2.4 m sheets) • water to comply with relevant SANS • curing compound or plastic sheeting for curing • emulsion for treatment of joints • cold applied polymer modified emulsion with 8% rubber on bitumen for treatment of joints or similar approved • granular rubber crumbs to Sabita Manual 4 for slurry for sealing of joints or similar approved. * On-site batch mixing on-site was used and if the desired consistency was not achieved, ready-mix would be used.

Equipment • wheelbarrows, shovels, steel squeegees • mixer for batch mixing/ready-mix concrete TABLE 2 Construction of stabilised base




Mixing of gravel, cement and water


Wheelbarrow haulage


Spreading and levelling


Construction of sub-base


Screening of sub-base

Construction procedure • set up side forms/shutters to specified line and levels on the prepared support layer • placement of welded mesh on cover blocks as specified • concrete placement ensured adequate area for truck to turn without damaging the constructed layers • spread concrete evenly between shutters using steel squeegees/rake • compact concrete with Spin Screed • once the concrete was compacted, a bull float was used to achieve required surface finish CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT PHOTO 5 Spin Screed PHOTO 7 Spin Screed attachment PHOTO 8 Operating the Spin Screed PHOTO 6 Vibrating beam

PHOTO 1 9.5 mm aggregate for concrete PHOTO 2 Polypropylene fibres PHOTO 4 Ref 200 steel mesh (100 x 100 mm) PHOTO 3 P900 plasticizer

• once concrete had set sufficiently, the surface was broomed transversely to provide the required texture finish • covered with plastic sheeting to cure concrete • saw-cut joints as instructed • seal joints as instructed, with approved sealant.

Quality control A slump test had been conducted on each batch and cubes prepared as requested by the engineer. For tender purposes, the slump test for hand vibration was to be between 70 and 120 mm and for vibration beam was between 30 and 70 mm. After the trial section, the tolerances on slump test had been specified at 100 mm for the Spin Screed. Design requirements were: • 28 days cube strength: 30 MPa • cement to water ratio not more than 1:9 • minimum cement content 310 kg/m3 • flexible strength 3.8 MPa (mix)

TABLE 3 Construction tolerances





Placing of shutters


Placing and fixing of welded mesh


50 mm ultra-thin reinforced concrete


Extra over for construction of bell mouths and intersection


Anchor beams


Sawing of joints


Sealing of joints

IMIESA February 2013

7 5 6



Construction tolerances • Thickness of concrete: 5 mm (min 45 m) • Level and grade: 5 mm over 10 m • Top cover to mesh: 2 mm (Min cover 15 mm) See Table 3.

Late amendments After consultation with the CSIR, the latest techniques and methods were implemented as far as possible. This included the adjustment of the concrete design. The photos (1 to 4) show the aggregate, fibres, plasticizer and mesh used. Another change was the use of a Spin Screed (Photo 5) instead of the vibrating beam (Photo 6) to compact and finish off the concrete layer. The Spin Screed consists of an aluminium pipe, up to 6.4 m in length, with an electric power head that spins the pipe in the opposite direction to the direction it is being advanced so that concrete rolls up in front of the screed, cutting off high spots and filling in low spots. The aluminium pipe screed can be purchased or cut into any length up to 6.4 m, making screeds tailor-made for various jobs. The advantages of using the Spin Screed • handles easily and quick to assemble • lightweight, only two persons to handle • no vibration means shutters stay in place, ensuring accurate layer thickness • position of steel reinforcing is not negatively impacted as with the vibrating beam • no excessive fines brought to the surface, no segregation • length of the Spin Screed eliminates half-width construction. Contractors can switch from one length of pipe to another in just a matter of seconds by means of quick disconnects. See photos 7 and 8. The TRH4 catalogue design was used as reference design for comparison with the CSIR approach for the UTRCP. The design pavement structure is shown in Figure 2 as well as the amendment made during construction.

FIGURE 2: Design and amended cross section for UTRCP








taken to construct both the base and UTRCP to a width that the kerbing would be constructed on top of the finished UTRCP. This was due to the time consuming efforts in fixing the shutters to the correct horizontal alignment. An added advantage was the elimination of a longitudinal joint along the road and kerbing. The kerbing was then changed from a CK5 (combination) to a Figure 8 (mountable kerb).

PHOTO 10 Batch mixing in progress PHOTO 11 Off loading concrete mixture PHOTO 13 Spin Screed at work PHOTO 15 Hosepipe used to water the layer PHOTO 14 Plastic covering being placed PHOTO 12 Spreading with squeegees

Construction PHOTO 9 The emulsion being applied 9

Due to the quality of the material on Road No 3 and guidance from CSIR, the existing layer was tested with the in-situ densities exceeding the required values needed as the supporting layer. With the use of the Spin Screed that exceeds the width of the road, it was decided to construct the road in full width with no longitudinal joint on the centre line. A further change came in with the decision

Stabilised C3/C4 layer Utilising the existing layer works resulted in a higher finished road level than designed by 100 mm.The imported G4 material stabilised with cement was mixed off-site, transported, spread by hand and compacted by walkbehind rollers. Shuttering was placed to construct the layer to very tight vertical tolerances.

IMIESA February 2013



two weeks of practical implementation and operations as well as quality control of the UTRCP technique.

Training content



PHOTO 16 Kerbs constructed using previous method

The layer was finished off with the application of a diluted emulsion as shown in Photo 9.

18. Photo 19 shows the completed sidewalk and finished road. One month after construction, some sections showed cracking similar to that of a stabilised base and it was suggested that cores be drilled to establish the extent as well as the reinforcement position (Photo 20).

50 mm UTRCP

Training and job creation

To maximise local labour, mixing of the UTRCP was done by on-site batch mixing as shown in Photo 10. For this operation, eight workers were employed. Due to the properties of the mixture, placement needed to be as soon as possible and therefore was tipped into a TLB. The mix was then carefully distributed onto the prepared surface with the reinforcing in place and well supported by spacers. Note the bridge to prevent stepping onto the reinforcement in Photo 11. Spreading with squeegees (Photo 12) prevents segregation and compacting with the Spin Screed (Photo 13), provided the quality finish needed. For this process 11 trainees were employed. Once the broom finish had been completed, the layer was covered with a canopy of plastic (Photo 14), for the curing process. This is one of the most critical aspects and the layer should be kept moist for at least seven days. This was done by watering the layer with a hosepipe (Photo 15), but unfortunately no record of this was kept.

A well-structured training programme was initiated and supported by the provincial government of the Western Cape, Chief Directorate EPWP: CIIE. A special acknowledgement to Yolanda Ngcongca and Mzwandile Dlammanzi for their contribution to ensure that training of the highest standard was achieved. SAVE (South African Value Education) was awarded the training project for 20 learners with the contractor Urhwebo e-Transand, which added valuable experience to the project. A development objective of Mossel Bay Municipality regarding unemployment, poverty rate and skills shortage is to reduce it by 2% per annum and this will lead to the achievement of the 2014 millennium goal of reducing these three issues by 50%.

PHOTO 17 Implemented kerbing construction

Kerbing and sidewalks With the construction method used, kerbs were constructed on the finished UTRCP by using a water-cement paste and screed. This gives the following advantages: • eliminating of longitudinal joints next to the kerbing, no sealing to be done • cost-saving by using Figure 8 instead of CK5 • aesthetically pleasing • reduces routine road maintenance The previously used method, as shown in Photo 16, needs to be sealed properly, whereas the implemented construction strategy as shown in Photo 17 does not need to be. Once the kerbing had been implemented, the sidewalk layerworks were constructed as shown in Photo


IMIESA February 2013

Structure of the technical support • The training consisted of a theoretical as well as a practical component. • The venue for theoretical component was provided by the community. • The practical component was provided at the Brandwag site. • The practical component included an onsite mentor for the learners provided by the contractor. • Mentors provided were on-site for the first

The theoretical training covered the following topics: • calculations of quantities for consumables and material • equipment required, hired and non-hired • construction cost • preparation of mix designs • team balancing • preliminaries. Practical training initially made provision for a 20 m strip, but eventually 80 m was constructed due to changing of the reinforcing and climatic conditions prevailed at the first section. The practical training covered the following activities: • concrete mixing • shuttering work • steel fixing • using the Spin Screed • finishing of the UTRCP • protection and curing of the layer • kerbing. All learners were provided with a training manual that covered the topics under the training. The learners were allowed to keep the training manual for future reference.

Quantity of learners and their skills areas The number of learners was 20 and they received the following group training: • 1 x skilled person from the main contractor • 1x concrete hand • 1 x shutter hand TABLE 4 Percentages spent of approved budget

BUDGET ITEM Total construction cost Professional fees Total project cost (approved budget)



1 635 444


497 556


2 133 000


ANTI-CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT PHOTO 20 Typical crack patterns PHOTO 18 Sidewalk in progress PHOTO 19 Sidewalk completed




TABLE 6 Conventional vs.UTRCP

TABLE 5 Percentages spent of construction cost




Training of local labour including wages

81 600


Labour Section 100: Stabilised layer

59 606


Labour Section 300: UTRCP

50 086


Plant for labour-intensive construction

88 058


Sub-total Total construction cost

279 350


1 635 444

• 1 x steel fixer • 1 x supervisor for the construction process.



By providing a business plan and with persistent communication by the Mossel Bay Municipality, the project was approved a budget of R1.8 million for professional fees and construction. Mossel Bay Municipality contributed an additional R330 000 towards the project. See Table 4, which gives the summary of the project cost. Table 5 indicates spending as a percentage of the construction cost. It must be emphasised that a portion of this project was done conventionally and this has an influence on the percentages shown above. Table 6 shows a comparison between conventional (S13) surfacing and 50 mm UTRCP done labour intensively.


UTRCP Rate/m2

In-situ compaction



Cut to spoil from:



Supply of G5 material from commercial quarry



Natural G4 - unstabilised (150 mm)





Natural G4 - stabilised (100 mm LIC) (incl. plant and labour)

Project costs


Construct base with graded crushed stone (G4) Application of diluted emulsion

36.90 -


Prime coat:








Extra over for CSIR design Total

9.00 R170.65


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Corestruc designs, manufactures and constructs precast concrete structures that are ideally suited to the infrastructure deliver y construction industr y. Richard Jansen van Vuuren speaks to Corestruc’s MD, Willie de Jager, about the company and its products. Please provide a brief background to Corestruc Corestruc is part of a group of companies whose main business was initially property development, building and civil construction. As developers and contractors, we realised that constructing structures in precast concrete instead of the conventional methods saved time on projects and created savings on direct cost because of the use of more technologically advanced methods. Two years of research was done before the concept was finalised. Most of this research was done in Europe.

“ Constructing structures in precast concrete instead of the conventional methods saved time on projects and created savings on direct cost” 14

IMIESA February 2013

What is the core function of the business? Corestruc’s main business is the design,

manufacturing and construction of precast concrete structures in South Africa and neighbouring countries. Typical projects are reser voirs, water treatment works, sewerage works, sports stadiums, bridges, office blocks, industrial warehouses, shopping centres, etc.

Please give an outline of your installation capabilities Corestruc focuses on the total solution in terms of design manufacturing and installation. An important part of the installation is proper contract management of the project. We tr y to anticipate from experience where precast will influence the project

beforehand, and coordinate and programme/plan accordingly with the main contractor to ensure that the advantages of precast are used to its full potential. The installation teams consist of experienced site agents and rigging super visors ensuring quick installation times without unexpected surprises. Our standard operating procedures are also well documented and new employees well trained.

Please highlight a few projects that Corestruc has supplied, with a brief description work


for each project as well 50 Mℓ Krugersburg (Polokwane) Reservoir and 45 Mℓ Longridge (Bloemfontein) Reservoir – The roof structure was approved as per our alternative. The structure consists of 11 m high 460 mm x 460 mm square pre-stressed precast columns; precast pre-stressed I-beams that are 460 mm wide by 770 mm deep, ranging from 8.4 to 11 m with 250 mm deep hollow core floors spanning 11 m. All precast elements were designed and manufactured class 1 because of the corrosive environment. Various spor ts stadiums, in particular Sekgopa and Lebaka sports complexes, with precast columns, raker beams and seating benches. Precast beams and bridge barriers for the Polokwane Municipality. Honda showroom – The total structure was precasted with various precast elements ranging between square and bull nose columns, square T and I-beams, rectangular crash barriers and 150 to 250 mm deep hollow core slabs. The quality of the off shutter finish of the structure

prompted the client to omit the paint finish specified. We omitted 38 columns from the in-situ design because of the costeffective use of pre-stress enabling longer spans. University of the North lecture halls – We used our 320 mm deep hollow core slab on three-storey building with a clear span of 13 m with a live load of 5 kN/m2.

What are the advantages Corestruc offers to clients and contractors? We offer our clients a saving in time and overhead costs and are competitive on direct cost with conventional methods. The use of pre-stressed hollow core slabs and pre-stressed beams can accommodate ver y long spans, resulting in flexible open spaces with fewer walls and supporting columns.

What areas of municipal infrastructure does Corestruc supply prod-

ucts and services to? Corestruc’s products include bridge beams, bridge barriers, precast reser voir roof structures, sports stadiums, etc. – all used in municipal infrastructure. We congratulate Polokwane Municipality for the foresight to use structural precast concrete in so many of its projects and thus supporting the development of new technology in the South African construction industr y. Our structural system offers distinct advantages in the construction of a wide variety of projects. These elements benefit from superior quality control achievable at a production plant where conditions can be controlled and managed. Cost savings are realised by using compressive strength of concrete with the high tensile strength of steel strand that is pre-stressed. The use of standard products/elements that is duplicated continuously and thus constructed in record times is

the recipe for the cost-effective structures. Precast creates sustainable employment for skilled workers.

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT 50 Mℓ Krugersburg Reservoir with precast roof structure 50% complete before the first lift on the wall is completed. The photograph shows the overlap of trades caused by the use of precast A completed showroom constructed for Honda KR Motorcycles precast structure comprising continuous precast columns, T-beam and 250 mm hollow core slabs with 9 m x 9 m grids Precast elements used in an urban artwork installation

IMIESA February 2013


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Challenges in smaller municipalities At present, several smaller municipalities are struggling to operate and maintain their ser vices infrastructure in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. By Johan van der Mescht and Marius van Jaarsveld


HE END RESULT is predictable: rapid deterioration of assets, followed by catastrophic component failure, and regular and prolonged disruptions in service delivery. This article identifies and examines some of the challenges that exist in a typical small rural municipality. A local municipality in the Eastern Cape is used as a case study. It must be emphasised though that there is no intention to discredit this particular municipality or any of its employees. Instead, the findings should be viewed against the background that there are numerous other local authorities across the country that are experiencing similar or even worse difficulties. The solutions offered are specifically aimed at improving the working conditions of municipal staff who are confronted with numerous impediments in their current work environment. A number of issues, ranging from financial constraints to institutional deficiencies and personnel problems, are highlighted. Current utilisation of grant funding and some municipalities’ dependency on funding agencies are also debated. The main theme of the paper is, however, more focused on finding workable solutions to ensure that best practice is applied in operating

and maintaining municipal services infrastructure in a sustainable manner. The second part of the paper explores possible short- and longterm options, including support from consulting engineers and outsourcing of essential services to the private sector.

Crisis in local government In 2008 the (then) National Department of Provincial and Local Government (DPLG) received a report from the Afrikaanse Handelsinstituut (AHI), alerting the department on service delivery problems in a number of municipalities throughout South Africa. The report highlighted several problems that these municipalities were experiencing at the time, including: • challenges in the general rendering of services to the community • procedures followed when appointing new staff members • irregularities and deficiencies with procurement procedures • leakages and overflowing of sewerage systems • a general lack of consultation and of cooperation

between the municipalities and the business community, in particular the AHI-affiliated business chambers of the AHI. A rural municipality in the Eastern Cape was listed in the AHI report as one of the local authorities where water and sanitation services were on the verge of collapse. Aurecon was subsequently tasked by the DPLG to report on the state of water and sanitation services in this particular municipality. The initial investigation confirmed that municipal service delivery was totally ineffective and in certain areas non-existent, especially with regard to essential services such as refuse removal, sewerage conveyance, and treatment and supply of potable water. At the time, one of the major concerns was the discharge of raw sewerage, overflowing from non-functional pump stations and wastewater treatment plants, into the river systems and dams that supply water to other local authorities located in the downstream

IMIESA February 2013



catchment areas. The conclusion reached was that the poor condition of water and sanitation infrastructure was as a result of: • insufficient funding allocation for the rehabilitation and/or replacement of components that have reached the end of their design life • inadequate maintenance budgets, which could be attributed to the municipality’s limited income base. Part of Aurecon’s brief by the DPLG was to provide technical assistance to the municipality, especially with regard to operations and maintenance (O&M). Data on O&M was secured mainly through field observations and by conducting informal interviews with technical staff. Informal discussions were also held with members of local business chambers, to obtain some insight on municipal service delivery from a ratepayer/consumer perspective. Some of the findings of this investigation are presented and discussed in this paper. The principal outcome of the original assignment was the approval of municipal infrastructure grant (MIG) funds to the value of R44 million, to be allocated over three consecutive financial years, for the rehabilitation of existing bulk water and sanitation infrastructure. This project is now nearing completion, but a real concern is the fact that O&M remains a low priority within the municipality’s technical department. The stark reality is that repairing dysfunctional infrastructure without addressing the factors that impact negatively on O&M is simply not a sustainable option in the medium to long term.


IMIESA February 2013

Without basic maintenance, most of the newly refurbished plants could be in a derelict state within five years. The existing culture of deferred maintenance in the municipality will need to be abolished in favour of a strategy that ensures that adequate technical and financial resources are made available for O&M. The primary benefits of changing the status quo will be a drastic reduction in infrastructure life cycle costs and the ability to deliver a consistent and satisfactory level of service to consumers.

The extent of the crisis from an O&M perspective A detailed report on O&M deficiencies within the technical department of the municipality falls outside the scope of this article. However, to provide some perspective on the severity of the problem, some of the more obvious failings are listed below in no particular order: • non-compliance with existing health and safety legislation • the current infrastructure life cycle scenario can be described as “run to destruction” because of a total lack of routine and preventative maintenance; the unfortunate outcome is premature asset failure • failure to remove screenings at sewer pump stations and at the inlets to wastewater treatment works results in downstream blockages, clogging of pump impellors and eventual mechanical breakdowns • failure to respond to sewer blockages within a reasonable time leads to the

discharge of raw sewage into sensitive natural environments • failure to respond to water pipe bursts promptly results in considerable water losses and lengthy interruptions in water supply • because of supply chain bottlenecks, water purification chemicals at remote water treatment plants are often in short supply, resulting in poor drinking water quality • due to an acute shortage of funds for O&M, repairs to a defective pump unit is often postponed until the second (standby) unit fails. (It is common practice to install pump units in both water and sewer pump stations in a duty/standby configuration, to ensure continuous operation should one unit become defective.) The inevitable outcome is prolonged interruptions in service delivery and consequential inconvenience to local residents, as well as health risks associated with sewage spills • the municipality’s asset register is not up to date, which makes it difficult to (1) trace missing plant and equipment, and (2) compile maintenance plans. Prior to discussing possible solutions to change the status quo, it is necessary to list and examine some of the more critical aspects that impede efficient O&M within this particular municipality.

Factors that impact negatively on O&M Human resource issues Service delivery challenges in small rural municipalities are often exacerbated by human resource issues, ranging from the difficulty to recruit suitably qualified and experienced professionals to unstructured or weak disciplinary procedures. With this case study the situation is no different. Some of the more pertinent personnel issues which have a direct bearing on the technical department’s ability to meet its O&M obligations include the following: • There is no institutional memory within the department due to high staff turnover at management level – the department has had four different directors/acting directors in a period of three years. • Technical directors are appointed on fiveyear contracts, a policy that overlooks the importance of long-term infrastructure planning. In this particular municipality both consultants and government agencies are relied upon to assist senior staff with strategic planning. The inevitable result is the implementation of ad hoc solutions

that, due to uncoordinated planning, add unnecessary burdens on operating staff and maintenance teams. • The department lacks the capacity to mentor young inexperienced technicians. Without the opportunity to gain worthwhile work experience, the technicians’ usefulness to the institution remains low and their contribution to improving service delivery negligible. Past experience has shown that newly appointed civil engineering technicians soon resign to pursue better career opportunities elsewhere. • Judging by the poor condition of components at several plants and pump stations, there seems to be a critical deficiency in mechanical and electrical competency in the department. This makes the municipality totally dependent on outside service providers to repair mechanical and electrical equipment. • Absenteeism, where personnel at certain treatment plants fail to report for duty, is a common occurrence. Yet there seems to be reluctance in the municipality to take disciplinary action against transgressors. This

in turn impacts negatively on discipline and on productivity. • The department’s current post structure makes no provision for the appointment of experienced staff at middle-management level (superintendent or similar). This is a critical shortcoming as some of a superintendent’s primary responsibilities are to: • ensure that O&M functions are performed in an efficient manner • identify potential infrastructure failures in time and take the necessary remedial actions to prevent interruptions in service delivery • provide technical support and guidance to artisans and plant operators on a daily basis • report to line managers on all operational

There seems to be a critical deficiency in mechanical and electrical competency

issues with regard to the provision of municipal engineering services.

Financial lenges


The municipality’s income – expenditure statement for the 2010/11 financial year, as provided in its annual report for 2010/2011, is depicted in Table 1. A cursory examination of the municipality’s revenue versus expenditure for the period 1 July

IMIESA February 2013


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2010 to 30 June 2011 reveals the following: • Government grants and subsidies formed 71% of total income, an obvious indication that the municipality is dependent on grant funding to remain solvent. • Revenue from property rates and service charges, which should be the municipality’s primary source of income, represented only 23% of total income. • Proceeds from the remaining revenue items (fines, rental income, etc.) made up the balance of 6%.


• Personnel costs (excluding remuneration of councillors) comprised 24% of total expenditure, which is not excessive. However, what is of concern is that the income from property rates and service charges is just sufficient to cover personnel costs, leaving no surplus for O&M. • Repairs and maintenance expenditure was only 1% of total costs, which confirms that O&M is of low priority in this municipality. (The accepted benchmark is that an O&M budget should be in the order of 1 to 4% of the total asset value.) Table 1 shows a surplus of almost R11 million, which in theory should be more than adequate to cover annual maintenance costs, including breakdowns. Unfortunately, observations made during routine site visits to water and wastewater plants during the period 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012 revealed that very little, if any, of the surplus funds were used for maintaining vital water and sanitation infrastructure assets.

Operational deficiencies Field observations revealed several deficiencies

IMIESA February 2013





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within the technical department that impact on O&M. Some of the identified shortcomings are discussed below in no particular order. Because of budget constraints, maintenance of service vehicles and construction plants is neglected. Vehicle and plant breakdowns are therefore a common occurrence and, together with the non-availability of replacements, hamper the municipality’s ability to perform elementary O&M tasks and to respond to infrastructure failures in time. At most water and wastewater treatment plants, basic equipment such as spanners, screw drivers, brooms, shovels, rakes and wheelbarrows – necessary to perform routine tasks – are missing. Personnel at these plants are often expected to do hazardous work without being issued with the required protective clothing. The most extreme example observed was at a wastewater treatment plant where operators were cleaning inlet screens without wearing rubber gloves. A number of wastewater treatment plants do not have a potable water supply, making it impossible for operators to wash screens, scum



Property rates


7 943 164


14 554 633


157 991


1 465 002


287 493


68 754 069


Other income

1 337 956


Interest on investment income

1 990 845


96 491 153


Service charges Rental of facilities & equipment Income from agency services Fines Government grants & subsidies

Total revenue

EXPENDITURE Personnel Remuneration of councillors Depreciation & amortisation Impairment loss Finance costs

20 888 317


2 041 502


8 863 221


13 904 894


153 700




931 978


1 743 535


Collection costs Repairs and maintenance Bulk purchases Contracted services Grants and subsidies paid

1 538 154


26 721 068


General expenses

8 753 328


Total expenditure

85 539 697



10 951 456

baffles and overflow weirs, or hose down equipment to prevent sludge accumulation. Needless to say, non-compliance with Department of Water Affairs’ (DWA) standards for treated effluent is the norm. Poor housekeeping is common at most of the water and wastewater treatment plants, with sites littered with junk, overgrown with weeds and equipment covered in dust. This could be an indication that supervision is lacking and that operators are left to their own devices. Tedious supply chain management procedures within the municipality add to the frustrations of technical personnel stationed at remote sites. Feedback from supervisory staff revealed that obtaining an order number for fuel or spares is no simple task due to poor interdepartmental communication and cooperation. This limits the ability of maintenance teams to respond to infrastructure failures without delay. Senior managers are reluctant to delegate authority to supervisory staff, which is probably an internal arrangement to limit unauthorised expenditure. All requests for fuel, spares, water purification chemicals, etc., need to

TABLE 1 Income – expenditure statement for the 2010/11 financial year


be approved by a senior manager, regardless of the extent of the emergency. The unfortunate consequence is lengthy delays in attending to breakdowns when managers are on leave or out of town.

Support from other government agencies – a blessing or a curse? Secondment of personnel There have been several attempts to address the lack of experience and skills in the municipality’s technical depar tment. This has mainly been in the form of assistance through the deployment of technical personnel from the Development Bank of Southern Africa, the district municipality and the provincial department responsible for

local government. It was observed that some of the engineers and technicians who were seconded to this municipality for short periods during the past three years had limited knowledge of municipal engineering and were thus not capable of assisting operating staff with technical matters. It was further noted that they had no clear mandate and were not given measurable performance targets. Their contribution in supporting municipal staff was therefore limited and was probably not worth the expense. An additional concern with the secondment of personnel from other government agencies is that it could encourage a dependency culture among municipal staff, which will further inhibit the local authority’s capability to become selfsufficient and sustainable. The willingness of government agencies to assist struggling municipalities is commendable. Also, the concept of secondment of experienced and competent personnel is sensible and should be supported. However, the ad hoc manner in which it is currently carried out needs to be reviewed.

IMIESA February 2013


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Equitable share

Provincial Government

Financial Management Grant (FMG)

National Government

Department Local Government Grant (DPLG)

Provincial Government

Municipal Infrastructure Grant (MIG)

National Government

District Municipality Grant



22 754 154


2 542 451


4 87 987


33 040 858


District Municipality

2 40 200


Integrated Development Plan (IDP)

Provincial Government

2 19 972


Municipal Systems Improvement Grant (MSIG)

National Government

3 12 808


Department of Housing Grant

Provincial Government

9 155 639


68 754 069



TABLE 2 Grants and subsidies received for the 2010/11 financial year

Grants and subsidies

As indicated in Table 1, grant funding constituted 71% of the municipality’s income in the 2010/11 financial year. The 2010/11 annual report provides a breakdown of the respective grants received and this information is reflected in Table 2. A detailed analysis of the data provided in the table above falls outside the scope of this paper. However, the question that needs to be asked is how much of this money was available for O&M. About 6% of the grants/subsidies were allocated for administrative or

financial support and thus unavailable for O&M. Equitable share, MIGs and the housing grant made up the remaining 94%. The equitable share grant is paid by the provincial government to subsidise free basic services to poor households and is a recognised source of revenue for local authorities that need to cover their costs in the provision of such services. By default, a portion of this income is committed to O&M through the payment of salaries, the purchase of water purification chemicals, etc. The MIG was allocated for the provision of new and for the upgrade and/or rehabilitation of existing services infrastructure. Current policy dictates that MIG funds may not be used for O&M. The housing grant was for the funding of a new housing development and none of it was used for O&M. Because of its limited income base, this municipality, like many others in rural areas, is unable to fund capital projects from its own revenue. It is therefore totally dependent on MIG funding for the construction of new facilities (community halls, sport fields, etc.) and new services infrastructure (roads, water, sewerage, stormwater, etc.). This is the norm in most rural municipalities and the concept of the MIG programme is not disputed. However, the question that needs to be asked is whether municipalities are prepared to adjust their operating budgets upwards to allow for the maintenance of new (additional) MIG-funded infrastructure assets. With insufficient funding available for O&M and an increasing asset base, maintenance backlogs will eventually reach a level where assets will need to be replaced long before they have reached the end of their design life. Considering the importance of O&M, it is recommended that the current policy of allocating grant funding for capital projects only, be reviewed as a matter of urgency.

Suggested short-term interventions to address O&M challenges Assistance from the private sector Municipalities need to acknowledge that the private sector has the necessary expertise and resources available to support them in performing their O&M obligations. A large number of former municipal engineers are currently in the employment of private consulting firms and their wealth of knowledge could be invaluable to struggling municipalities. The possible deployment of such experienced professionals from the private sector to advise and assist municipalities with O&M needs to be considered. The primary aim during a deployment period would be to ensure that skills transfer, especially with regard to O&M functions, takes place. Additional support could include, but should not be limited to:


IMIESA February 2013


• the establishment of an institutional memory through the collection of accurate as-built data • providing guidance with regard to the updating of asset registers • assisting with the recruitment and appointment of technical staff • assisting with the mentoring of newly appointed personnel • compiling of maintenance plans and schedules • assisting with budgeting for O&M • advising on the purchasing of suitable plant and equipment • assisting technical managers with strategic infrastructure planning • providing management support. The issue with such a proposal is obviously the availability of funds to pay for services rendered. Should a municipality be unable to foot the bill, the possibility of securing external funds, including grant funding, should be considered.

maintenance is often neglected or deferred in municipalities. The first step in the establishment of a maintenance culture is therefore to ensure that sufficient funds are made available to support O&M. In small municipalities with a limited income base this could present quite a challenge. However, there is an alternative that could easily be implemented if the commitment to improve O&M exists. Municipalities are entitled to reclaim the VAT on MIG-funded projects. At this stage there is no legislation in place that stipulates how the reclaimed VAT money should be spent. It is suspected that more often than not these funds are used to pay the salary bill and other general expenses, instead of using it for infrastructure improvement. The possibility of rather ring-fencing this money for O&M is worth considering. The case study is used to illustrate the potential impact of this option. Total MIG funding in the 2010/11 financial year amounted to R33 million (refer to Table 2). The VAT reclaimable on this amount is

Lack of financial resources is probably the reason why maintenance is often neglected

Securing sufficient funds for O&M Lack of financial resources is probably the primary reason why

IMIESA February 2013



approximately R4 million. It is obvious that should such an amount be ring-fenced and used specifically for repairs and maintenance – an item where actual expenditure was less than R1 million in 2010/11 – the municipality’s ability to provide a satisfactory service to consumers will improve significantly.

Proposed long-term solutions to ensure sustainable O&M practices Repair and maintenance programmes in the Department of Public Works – a success story Aurecon has been extensively involved with the development and implementation of repair and maintenance programmes (RAMP) within the Department of Public Works (DPW). These projects have been implemented over a period of about 10 years, with a total value of more than R1 billion. Typical projects included: • water and sewerage treatment plants • water and sewerage reticulation networks • mechanical and electrical equipment (pumps, boilers, air-conditioning units, etc.) • buildings and other structural elements • forensic laboratories for the South African Police Service (SAPS). A typical RAMP project consists of an initial repair phase – during which the installations are repaired to a functional state – followed by a three-year operations and maintenance period. A contractor is thus appointed after an open tendering process to repair and/or refurbish existing infrastructure at one or more sites, and thereafter to operate and maintain it for a fixed (three-year) period.

During the maintenance period the contractor is paid monthly for operating and maintaining the repaired infrastructure. The payment amount is based on the contractor’s performance during the preceding month and is determined after an inspection by an Aurecon engineer. The engineer, in consultation with the contractor, draws up a 10-point scorecard of each installation. Scoring is done in the presence of the contractor and the client (DPW), and the contractor is then paid accordingly. With regards to maintenance, the contractor is expected to do the following: • routine preventative maintenance (cleaning and servicing of equipment) • corrective maintenance (rectify faults) • breakdown maintenance (repair after a failure has occurred). A brief explanation of the contractor’s maintenance liabilities in a typical RAMP project is provided below. Routine preventative maintenance is aimed at the minimisation of breakdowns and entails the rendering of services and servicing of equipment according to a predetermined maintenance control plan. The contractor’s responsibilities are to: • replace and service components of equipment, units or parts thereof for each installation at prescheduled moments regardless of condition • readjust, reset, clean and corrosion protect all components of equipment, units or parts thereof for each installation • perform all implied actions to maintain installations in a functional condition.

The appointed contractor takes responsibility for the day-to-day operating of services infrastructure Corrective maintenance requires regular observation of the equipment; identifying pending breakdowns, mal-adjustment or anomalies of equipment, units or parts of installations; and subsequent action to restore installations to the original functional condition as specified. Breakdown maintenance entails repair and/ or replacement of defective equipment, units or parts of installations following a breakdown that leaves the installation inoperable or unsafe, and subsequent action to restore installations to a functional condition as specified, within the maximum downtime allowed. The contractor is expected to perform breakdown maintenance within a specified minimum period as determined by the engineer.


IMIESA February 2013

Breakdowns are classified as fatal, emergency or ordinary, and the maximum allowed downtime for each are as follows: • fatal – requires an immediate response (e.g. standby water pump breakdown) • emergency – to be attended to within 48 hours (e.g. a sewer blockage) • ordinary – to be attended to within seven days (e.g. a leaking tap). Breakdowns are reported to a call centre where the entire repair process is monitored. Repairs completed are verified by the engineer before closing a particular case. Penalties are applied if the permissible downtime is exceeded. The call centre is operated 24 hours a day, seven days a week. In addition to his maintenance liabilities, the appointed contractor takes full responsibility for the day-to-day operating of services infrastructure as prescribed in his contract. Typical examples are water treatment plants, wastewater treatment works and pump stations. At a water treatment plant for instance, the contractor will purchase the required treatment chemicals and apply them in correct dosages to ensure full compliance with the national standard for drinking water quality. Penalty clauses in the contract will come into effect whenever there is deterioration in water quality that results in non-compliance with the required standard. Performance monitoring is thus a crucial component of the contract.

Outsourcing of critical operations and maintenance functions in municipalities It is suggested that the RAMP concept be adopted and implemented to overcome current service delivery challenges in small municipalities. Municipalities need to take cognisance of the following: • The required technical and management capabilities to operate and maintain municipal infrastructure in a sustainable and affordable manner is available in the private sector. • The RAMP model is particularly suitable for water and wastewater treatment plants where a contractor’s performance can be measured directly against the Blue Drop and Green Drop scores achieved. • RAMP projects can be implemented in a local authority within a short time frame, given that outsourcing of services is not a novel concept in municipal procurement systems. • With the roll-out of RAMP projects, there should be no need to retrench municipal staff. Employees, such as water and wastewater plant operators, could be trained by the contractor to assist with daily operations, including


routine maintenance. This will ensure that proper skills transfer takes place on site, which will benefit the municipality in the long term. Also, utilising available municipal staff in a productive manner could result in a significant cost saving to the municipality. The establishment of a call centre in the municipal environment is a relatively simple task, as resources could be shared with existing municipal emergency services.

Improved service delivery will increase customer satisfaction and boost investor confidence

Benefits of outsourcing The roll-out of RAMP projects in the DPW resulted in a significant improvement in service delivery at government facilities such as prisons and police stations. With the outsourcing of services in line with the RAMP concept, a client municipality and its ratepayers will benefit as follows: • Scheduled preventative maintenance will increase the lifespan of costly municipal assets such as water pumps, sewage pumps, electrical switchgear and dosing

systems at water treatment plants. • Preventative maintenance will reduce the risk of fatal breakdowns and the resultant interruptions in essential services such as water supply and sanitation. • Best practice is applied in the operating of services infrastructure to ensure full compliance with current occupational health and safety and environmental legislation. • With outsourcing, the contractor’s monthly performance is strictly monitored and

measured against a predetermined specification. This is to ensure that a high standard of service delivery is maintained throughout the maintenance period. • Improved service delivery will increase customer satisfaction, boost investor confidence and be a strong countermeasure against potential civil protests and/or campaigns that endorse the nonpayment of municipal rates and taxes. • Outsourcing will reduce the workload of municipal employees. This could have a significant positive impact on smaller municipalities in rural areas that struggle to recruit and retain competent and experienced personnel. • Outsourcing provides an ideal opportunity to transfer much-needed skills from the private to the public sector. An inherent advantage of the scheme is that municipal personnel can be trained by the contractor’s operating staff on site, until the necessary competency levels are achieved. • A maintenance culture will be established.

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Construction equipment firm drives African expansion The Ammann Group has been indirectly involved in the South African market for the past 25 years through dealerships mostly supported by Europe.


HEN MARKETS worldwide were under extreme financial pressure in late 2011, Ammann took the bold step to enter the South African and sub-Saharan African markets by opening a dedicated local office – Ammann Construction Machinery South Africa. Ammann Construction Machiner y South Africa, under the leadership of Rocco Lehman, has been tasked with marketing a full range of products throughout the sub-Saharan region. The company is renowned as a supplier of high quality and technologically superior asphalt plants, with an extensive and complete range of compaction equipment and asphalt pavers. Being a leader in the asphalt industry brings about a more serious global issue: the environment. “We pride ourselves in being at the forefront in development with greener technologies such as warm mix asphalt and various options for the extensive use of recycled asphalt,” explains Lehman. Asphalt plants are now marketed and sold directly to clients, and parts and services are also operated by the Ammann South Africa’s technical team, which is suppor ted by more than 100 years of extensive experience in the asphalt industr y. “To keep in touch with our clients we constantly improve and upgrade our

technology via our research and development team,” adds Lehman. Zac Zacchino is well known in the South African paving and compaction industry. He recently joined Ammann South Africa, bringing with him his vast knowledge of the local markets. “He will certainly be an asset and instrumental in the planned growth of the company over the next couple of years,” states Lehman. The compaction and paver products will be distributed and serviced by a network of dealers. This decision has been made with the customer in mind. “Carefully selected regional dealers understand the customer base in the areas they service and will offer the Ammann customer a complete service package with Ammann Construction Machinery in support,” explains Lehman. To ensure that Ammann Construction Machinery South Africa can take care of the customers’ needs, it has the following operational dealers in place: • Force 8 in Cape Town • JIT Plant in the Free state • Eric’s Rollers in Gauteng • HDM in Ghana, which supports West Africa with sales parts and services.

Asphalt plants are now marketed and sold directly to clients

TOP The world famous Ammann AP240 Pneumatic Tyred Roller ABOVE Production of the Ammann Tandem Rollers BELOW Ammann Asphalt Technology all over the world

Construction Machinery South Africa t +27 (0)11 849 3939/3333

IMIESA February 2013




Infrastructure mapping for Sur veyors have been around since the earliest recorded times and have under taken small- to large-scale projects, some with the most extreme engineering of its day. SAGI epitomises this most noble profession and its constantly evolving dynamics in the industr y.


HE SOUTH AFRICAN Geomatics Institute (SAGI) is a voluntary public benefit organisation of statutory registered persons working in the domain of land surveying, engineering surveying, photogrammetry and geographical information systems (GIS), and land management, including the associated aspects of planning and remote sensing. SAGI was formed in 2004; however its foundations are built on much older institutions such as the various provincial land survey institutions and ITESSA (Institute of Topographical and Engineering Surveyors of South Africa), which represented the technical surveyors. Over the decades, various changes have developed

at an organisational level so that today theree is (through the amalgamation of the abovee institutes) one body that represents the inter-rests of all geomaticians – the modern term m for surveyors. SAGI is represented in South Africa throughh a system of five branches that cover the ninee provinces. This is necessary so that members,, clients and the public can have the best pos-sible service and access to SAGI members at a relatively local level. Surveying is a specialisedd field and there are not many surveyors in Southh Africa – our branches thus reflect equilibrium m between surveyors in all provinces. Our structure is such that these regional

FROM TOP Three versions of a scene are depicted here through the various technologies: photograph, mobile scan, CAD rendering BELOW TGIS IP-S2 Stable


IMIESA February 2013


municipalities branches are administered by committees, which are elected by local members. The national council is drawn from representatives from these branch committees. Ever ybody needs a surveyor at some point, so it’s hard to distinguish the main entities as SAGI services a wide sector of the economy. From a public spend perspective, the main industries for surveyors are municipalities, provincial and national government departments, engineers, architects and construction companies. From a private sector perspective, it would be developers, homeowners, mines and private business. South African surveyors (geomaticians) are

recognised the world over as being among the best, a trait SAGI continues through its activities and membership requirements. SAGI only admits persons registered in terms of the PLATO Act (Professional and Technical Surveyors Act 40 of 1984), which covers students, newly qualified candidates and fully registered technical and professional surveyors. The latter two categories being the only categories of surveyor entitled to work for their own account. As in most professions, the geomatics industry is facing challenges with this aspect as well as from persons operating outside of the provisions of the PLATO Act. In addition, SAGI has very strict conduct rules

SAGI is represented in South Africa through five branches

and only attract members that are passionate about geomatics, through this it ensures that the public is protected and it further enhances the reputation of a SAGI surveyor. Advanced GPS systems, sophisticated robotic laser total stations and terrestrial lidar scanners are becoming mainstream equipment for surveyors. Likewise, sophisticated software developments have made image recognition and point cloud processing available to the average surveyor. Surveyors are constantly on the lookout for better solutions and the current technological environment offers a range of future technologies that are almost at the market place. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are on our doorstep and will allow members to supply additional services such as environmental monitoring services, rapid response photography in disaster management, documentation of informal settlement growth (on a daily basis if need be), aerial accident scene photography, mapping, land use monitoring and planning enforcement, among others – all at a remarkably cheap cost in comparison to traditional methods.

IMIESA February 2013


New Oblique Imaging Changing the Rules for Municipal Mapping Pictometry

3D City Models

Specialising in:

Pictometry® | 3D City Models | SiteSee™ LiDAR | Digital Photography | GIS Capability

Above: 3 of the 12 views available with Pictometry oblique imagery





Southern Mapping Geospatial, South Africa’s only Level 1 BEE aerial survey company, is proud to announce the recent purchase of its third Lidar system.


HE DECISION TO purchase another system was taken due to the growth of the company’s business over the past 12 months and will enable it to keep a system permanently stationed in South Africa, while the other two units will cover projects outside of South Africa. This will enable Southern Mapping Geospatial to respond even more rapidly to requests for mapping, as well as providing an unparalleled redundancy of systems. In addition to operating three systems on the continent, the company’s long-standing relationship with Canadian Lidar technology leader Optech allows it access to a loan unit should one of Southern Mappings systems require repairs or servicing. Southern Mapping Geospatial prides itself in delivering complete solutions to clients To achieve this, it has not only airborne Lidar sensors, but also offers vehicle mounted mobile Lidar as well as several tripod-mounted terrestrial Lidar scanners – in conjunction with its partners, EPA Survey and Trail Surveys. Hyperspectral mapping is a technology that is being recognised as a major provider of hardto-obtain geospatial information, and Southern Mapping is at the forefront of providing this service to Africa. In the past year, Southern Mapping Geospatial has analysed mining drill

core for target minerals, provided maps of mineral potential, oil spills, alien vegetation, hazardous minerals and water quality, as well as concentrations of uranium and gold in tailings dumps. Access to a wide variety of satellite imagery at a range of resolutions complements the company’s high-accuracy airborne products and allows it to provide cost-effective geological and topographic mapping. Products include visible spectrum colour, and black and white imagery, as well as colour and infrared multispectral imagery and elevation information. Not only does Southern Mapping Geospatial order this imagery on demand, but it is also able to provide imagery from providers’ archives, ranging from very recent imagery that provide for a rapidly delivered product, to older images going back several decades, providing a historical perspective and change mapping possibilities. Southern Mapping Geospatial’s elevation modelling products include accuracies ranging from 15 to 1 m, while it also offers radar-based surface displacement monitoring services, accurate in the millimetre range. Over the past 16 years, the staff of Southern Mapping has provided geospatial services to a wide variety of market sectors, including municipal clients such as Johannesburg and Mogale City.

Souttherrn Mappping g Geosspattial priddess itsellf in deeliveering g complette sooluttionns to cllieents

FIGURE 1 Hyperspectral cameras have the ability to map water quality by accurately mapping levels of chlorophyll a and b in water bodies and rivers, thus pinpointing organic pollution sources. By also accurately measuring water turbidity, which is generally a function of erosion and mining activities, it is possible to discern not only organic pollution sources but also those from mining and construction sectors FIGURE 2 Results from a water quality analysis of municipal water treatment plants

The high-resolution imagery (5 to 50 cm resolution) and accompanying height measurements delivered by a Lidar system allow for efficient engineering design for township establishment, road, rail, power, sanitation and water bulk service infrastructure projects. The same airborne Lidar data used for engineering design is also being utilised by other municipal departments, for example, disaster risk management. By utilising high-resolution Digital Elevation Models in flood modelling software, flood risk maps are easily generated, as shown in Figure 1. Southern Mapping collects information from a wide variety of sources, fusing disparate datasets to tailor a solution specific to every client and presenting this data in almost any format. Its processors and training department make sure that clients are trained in the use of information as well as free open source GIS software, to ensure that full value is obtained from their investment.

IMIESA February 2013




Sole distributor for Southern Africa Afgen is a specialist company that focuses on the supply, service, maintenance, installation, support and marketing of surveying related products.


FGEN WAS ESTABLISHED in 1946 and has proved over the years that it is a consistent and reliable company. The company offers its clients the best quality products available in the market, together with technical know-how and backup to ensure seamless integration from purchase throughout each product’s life, through being able to offer excellent product knowledge backed up by a fully operational ser vice centre staffed by trained technicians. Afgen has been the sole distributor for Pentax sur veying equipment in Southern Africa since 1970. Of the existing companies that supply sur veying products in Southern Africa, Afgen regards itself as one of the most well-equipped and proficient suppliers in


IMIESA February 2013

the Gauteng area. Afgen has the basic infrastructure and technical expertise to become a market leader in the mining, construction, surveying and machine control sectors of the Southern African economy. The company’s clientele is spread over the whole of Southern Africa and its business premises are ideally located in Gauteng. It strives for service excellence and ultimate client satisfaction. Afgen is committed to continuous research and development inhouse. It also partners with its sole supplier to focus on training TOP Bramor_A LEFT Tripod - wheel - GPS RIGHT Digicat 550i

and developing new products. Its main goal is to keep up with technology and become the market leader for all offered instruments and systems. Afgen is committed to service excellence and customer satisfaction. Its workshop is SABS accredited with competent technical expertise, and its committed sales team sells only the best quality product available on the market. The company’s mission is to serve the construction, mining, surveying and heavy-duty equipment industry with the best technology available to provide the right tool for the right application at the right time – guaranteed.




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New branch to launch innovative product SprayPave has announced that it will be opening a branch in the Western Cape, through which it will launch an innovative new product to the market.


HE NEW BRANCH will also assist the company to supply the road construction market with 50/70 penetration grade bitumen – ultimately assisting SprayPave’s national product offering – together with the new-to-South Africa product that it will be launching. More information regarding this development will be released in coming months. SprayPave is one of South Africa’s leading manufacturers, suppliers and applicators of bituminous road binders and emulsions. In its quest to be the primary choice in fulfilling all bituminous requirements for the Southern African road construction and waterproofing industries, the company consistently supplies premium-quality products, professionally and reliably. SprayPave is an innovative and fully integrated industry leader. Since its establishment over 30 years ago, it has become renowned for its dynamism and successful completion of a variety of exciting and challenging contracts. As a subsidiary of the Basil Read Holdings Group of Companies, SprayPave forms an integral part of one of South Africa’s leading construction companies. In 2006, Basil Read concluded a deal that would


IMIESA February 2013

significantly enhance the future capabilities of its roads division, namely its acquisition of a controlling stake in SprayPave – a strategic move that has proven to have optimal results for both companies.

calibrated weighbridge and a state-of-the-art emulsion plant that facilitates the in-house production of all anionic and cationic emulsions, the company is fully equipped to manufacture polymer modified binders, as well as environmentally friendly primes and precoats. SprayPave’s drumming facility has been designed to accurately fill the maximum quantity of drums in the shortest possible time. Every pipe that makes up the product transport system is colour coded for easy identification. The company also utilises an oil heating system to ensure products are maintained at the ideal temperature. The storage facility has capacity of over 500 000 ℓ, ensuring that sufficient quantities of product are consistently and readily available in order to facilitate the shortest turnaround times possible.

The company currently has nine distributors, five of which are powered by modern and soughtafter Scanias World-class manufacturing To meet the high standards the company has set for itself, all products are manufactured at SprayPave’s world-class manufacturing facility based in Gauteng. In addition to its fully

Versatility and reach

It is a well-known fact that SprayPave is continuously taking steps to secure its dominance within the market, such as with the recent acquisition of its Coastal Branch in Botha’s Hill, KwaZulu-Natal. “Our ability to extend our reach through the acquisition of our Coastal Branch has most certainly given us a competitive edge in our


CLOCKWISE FROM ABOVE An interior view of SprayPave’s SS60 plant A SprayPave sprayer on the waybridge at the company’s Alrode facility Tow of SprayPave’s advanced haulers on route to a project

ability to supply a market that before was largely inaccessible due to both price and time restrictions,” says the MD, Steven Single. Extending the company’s reach even further is the state-of-the-art mobile emulsion plant that allows SprayPave to manufacture adequate quantities of emulsion on distant sites for lengthy periods of time, such as in Gobabis, Namibia, where it has been situated for the past 15 months. The company has also recently acquired two new sprayers, adding to its ever expanding fleet.In addition, the company’s close association with all refineries in Southern Africa enables it to provide ‘fit for purpose’ products to any destination in Southern Africa. Using world-class plant and equipment, SprayPave has the ability to successfully take on any project regardless of form or magnitude. From the smallest of rural roads to the largest of national routes, no job is too big or too small. The company currently has nine distributors, five of which are powered by modern and sought-after Scanias, and all of which fitted with the technically advanced Etnyre Spray-Bar system – the impressive site of a red and white sprayer working on a road construction site is becoming ever more common. Then there are the haulers, an indication of SprayPave’s commitment to servicing their valued clients as effectively as possible.

An enviable range of quality products SprayPave has a wide range of bituminous products at various grades, but some of its leading products include: • CAT60, 65 and 70: cationic emulsions with 60, 65 and 70% binder content, as well as diluted variants • SS60: anionic emulsion with 60% binder content, as well as its diluted variant, SS30 • Opti-Prime: SprayPave’s very popular and environmentally friendly cold prime • SP1i: SprayPave’s invert cold prime • Opti-Cote: SpraPave’s answer to quality and effective pre-coating • SE-1 and SE-2: effective and reliable polymer modified binders (SBS)

• SC-E1 and SC-E2: effecitve and reliable modified emulsions. Over and above these manufacturing products, SprayPave also supplies all-penetration grade and cutback bitumen. “All these products are manufactured according to industry specifications but what sets us apart from our competitors are our extremely high standards and exceptional housekeeping,” says Philippe Chirnside, company commercial manager.

t +27 (0)11 868 5451/2 ¶•

IMIESA February 2013




Carbon emmission management A guideline document and software system for the measurement of carbon emissions by all operations associated with the manufacture and application of bituminous products in South Africa’s roads industry is now available for implementation.


DAPTED FOR South African conditions by the UK’s Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), the Asphalt Pavement Embodied Carbon Tool (asPECT) facilitates the carbon footprinting of asphalt products and operations, and of product-to-product comparisons and project carbon assessments. The system is made up of protocol and guidance documentation and software applications that were originally developed in the UK in a collaborative undertaking between national and local highway construction clients, trade associations for mineral products and bitumen, and the TRL. The formal context for greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting is rapidly being established. At the world climate talks in Copenhagen in 2009, South Africa as a nation agreed to cut carbon

emissions by 34% by 2020 (based on 2009 levels), subject to certain conditions. These commitments will inevitably filter down to individual product supply chains and the prospect of a carbon tax provides further incentive to measure and ultimately cut carbon generation. The asPECT protocol defines the methodologies that are to be applied to the calculation of carbon dioxide and other GHG emissions from asphalt mixtures per tonne. The calculations are specific to individual mix formulations from individual production units incorporating all constituent materials. GHG contributions as carbon dioxide equivalents are accounted for whether they are directly generated by the operator or indirectly by subcontractors or suppliers. The accompanying asphaltCALC software provides a framework that contains the necessary

TABLE 1 10 steps to the asphalt life cycle


Raw Material Acquisition

Acquiring raw materials from the natural environment with the input of energy


Raw Material Transport

Transporting acquired raw materials to processing


Raw Material Processing

Crude oil refining, rock crushing and grading, recycled and secondary material reprocessing


Processed Material Transport

Transporting processed raw materials to site of manufacture of bitumen bound highway components


Road Component Production

Production of bitumen bound mixtures


Material Transport to Site

Delivery of materials to site



Placing materials at the construction site, mobilisation of plant and labour


Scheme Specific Works

Installation of other specified materials direct to site (e.g. aggregates and geosystems)



Interventions to maintain the road: overlay, surface dressing works, patching, haunching etc.

End of Life

Excavation and material management, mobilisation of plant and labour use




IMIESA February 2013

formulas, emissions factors and default data to calculate the GHG emissions of asphalt products in accordance with the protocol clauses and the information provided here. The guidance document, the protocol and the software constitute asPECT. “Fundamentally, the principal of carbon footprinting remains the same whether measured in the UK or in South Africa,” says Saied Solomons, Sabita’s CEO. “The regulatory context for GHG reporting is becoming ever more rigorous, and in Europe large energy consumers, local authorities and local authority partnerships now have to report carbon emissions to comply with various statutory requirements.” He adds that while South Africa’s Air Quality Act governing GHG emissions is in place, the pending carbon tax legislation is a strong incentive for the bituminous products industry to be more aware of emissions and better able to measure and thereby control its production of carbon dioxide by variation in the type of energy used or the type of asphalt mix produced. “It must be remembered that the South African bituminous products industry has already made important self-driven contributions towards minimising GHG emissions through the development of warm mix asphalt, which significantly reduces the temperature at which the asphalt mix is manufactured and applied, with measurable savings in fuel usage and GHG emissions. Another recent initiative is the implementation of high modulus asphalt, a highly durable long-life pavement system that offers a reduced carbon footprint by significantly extending the period after which maintenance and reconstruction would be required,” says Solomons. The asPECT software is a stand-alone executable built on the Microsoft .NET platform, and users can download a free copy, subject to a licensing and conditions of use agreement, from the Sabita website for use on their computers. The software is able to analyse carbon dioxide equivalents emissions associated with the fuel used in any specific operation in the asphalt production and application chain from the production and delivery of raw aggregate or bitumen to the manufacture of asphalt, the preparation of roadwork layers to the paving of the final wearing course..



Cementing the need for concrete roads Reports that another bitumen shortage is looming in 2013 indicate that South Africa should consider the full potential of concrete as a road-building material. This is the view of BRYAN PERRIE, MD, Cement & Concrete Institute (C&CI).


SHORTAGE OF about 20% of the country’s bitumen requirements is reportedly expected, with suppliers having to rely on costly imports to try to meet demand. Road construction companies are also said to be spending millions of rand in storage facilities to prepare for further future bitumen shortages. “It is time that South Africa faced reality: bitumen production for asphalt roads is not likely to be a top priority for oil refineries. This means that regular shortages will occur. The C&CI believes that both concrete and bitumen have roles to play in road building in this country. South Africa should develop a road building industry in which both types of building material are considered for roads, with concrete considered already at the

design stage to avoid major disruptions as is now happening,” says Perrie. “Concrete and asphalt could also be combined – either vertically, horizontally or longitudinally – to ensure that the best attributes of each material are used to full advantage. This concept has already been successfully used on a number of projects in South Africa,” he continues. Perrie adds that concrete is the ideal choice for environmentally sensitive and economically sustainable highways. The use of virgin materials and natural resources could be reduced by the incorporation of recycled materials and secondary products, such as fly ash and slagment, into the concrete mix for road construction.

Conccrette is thee ideaal chhoicce fo or enviroonmeentallly senssittivve highhwayys

“Concrete highTOP The C&CI believes that both ways also offer concrete and bitumen exceptional lonhave roles to play in gevity, eliminating road building the need for freABOVE C&CI MD Bryan Perrie quent pavement believes it is time resur facing and for South African rehabilitation, road construction participants to face and the consumpreality: bitumen tion of valuable production for asphalt resources. The roads is never likely lighter colour of to be a top priority for oil refineries concrete roads also reduces the electrical power needed to adequately illuminate roads while the durability and wear-resistance of concrete roads ensure that the roads stay quiet, fuel-efficient and safe for decades,” maintains Perrie.

IMIESA February 2013


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Geocontainers provide containment platform Upgrading South Africa’s national road network is often beset with challenges, a regular one being the difficulties of working on bridges where there is usually little or no adjacent working space to access the bridge.


N ORDER TO ease the traffic flow along Sanral’s N2 Section 11, Coega to Colchester, which includes the Sundays River Bridge, construction of a two-lane twin bridge alongside the existing bridge to carry westbound traffic was planned. Kaytech’s geocontainers came to the fore when a temporary construction platform was to be constructed within the river and suitable erosion protection of the earth embankment was necessitated. The main reason the application was made for the bidim geocontainers was that they could be formed into a bag shape. The bidim A6 was glazed prior to manufacture of the bags, ensuring an intact surface was facing the water flow, which could get up to 2.5 m/s and also making them more durable in

submerged conditions. Another advantage is that bidim can be customised to a particular project as in this case and were quick and easy to move around. The two-lane twin bridge alongside the existing bridge under construction

IMIESA February 2013



Quality. In quantity.

No matter what you’re looking for, there’s a Volkswagen for you. Volkswagen offers every customer world-class quality and precision German engineering in every vehicle. Always inspirational, always fascinating and continually reinventing itself, Volkswagen represents premium mobility for every vehicle category. Our uncompromising drive to produce classleading innovations relevant to our customers ensures we make a real difference in their lives, providing accessible motoring for all South Africans, now and in the future. Contact us on 0860 434 737 or to experience the power of Volkswagen’s innovation.

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Viable treatment for remote areas The semi-arid and barren climate across Southern Africa has created a unique demand for a new and innovative approach to water supply.

LEFT Modular plants are built to match the unique capacity requirements of each installation TOP ASE treatment plants are designed and built for the harsh conditions typical of sub-Saharan Africa ABOVE Biodigestion, clarification, filtration and other treatment technologies typically make up modular plants from ASE


QUA SERVICES and Engineering (ASE) has answered this need with a series of water and wastewater treatment systems that turn wastewater into a resource – freeing up unused water to be distributed to where it is most needed. The company’s flagship trickling filter technology is well under way to becoming the leading solution to wastewater treatment in the region. Regarded as one of ASE’s most innovative projects on the continent, a trickling filter plant was installed to treat wastewater from a mine camp at African Barrick Gold’s North Mara Gold Mine in Tarime, northern Tanzania. “Newgeneration, fixed-film trickling filter technology allows for far more robust operation in the harsh sub-Saharan environment and produces a final effluent that complies with stringent environmental specifications,” says Christian Stöck, MD at ASE. “New advancements mean that water quality and production rates are kept consistent, fewer skilled operators are required and

operation is automated to a point of being almost foolproof.” These plants are available in containerised units of varying sizes, almost on a ‘plug-andplay’ basis, making them ideal for remote locations such as mine or military camps. They are easy to install and maintain, and can be used in parallel to cope with increases in demand. They are also highly mobile and can be moved to new sites if needed. “Once commissioned, trickling filter plants require only the service of submersible pumps as the system features few moving parts. Our systems come standard with duty and standby pumps,” says Stöck. “The plants we have already commissioned upgrade domestic wastewater for reuse in dust suppression, process water for mining, or for irrigating gardens and lawns,” he says. Other projects where ASE has proven its capabilities include the flagship sewage-topotable water plant, the Goreangab Water Reclamation Plant in Windhoek, operated by WINGOC, of which Veolia Water is also a major

shareholder. WINGOC has been operating this plant successfully since 2002. “It is still the only direct reuse plant in the world and serves as a prime example for solving sub-Saharan Africa’s complex potable water problems in arid regions,” says Stöck. Contracted by the Namibian Department of Agriculture, Water & Forestry to produce potable water from river water, the Katima Mulilo Filtration Plant Upgrade, set to be commissioned in 2013, will eventually replace the old Namwater filtration plant and will supply 530 m3/h of potable water into the Caprivi pipe system. In 2011, a pumping station was commissioned in Mupini, 20 km west of Rundu, which now pumps 4 800 m3/h of river water from the Kavango River to the Sikondo irrigation bulk water supply project. “The construction involved building a foundation below the river’s water level. This was achieved by constructing a coffer dam inside the Kavango River, to cast the foundation on the solid bedrock of the river bank,” maintains Stöck.

IMIESA February 2013



The Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme is the largest hydropower and tunneling project under construction in Southern Africa


surge tanks, four drainage and ventilation shafts and over 14 km of tunnels, is the largest hydropower and tunneling project under construction in Southern Africa. The excavation work, which comprised approximately 2.20 million cubic metres of surface and underground excavation, commenced in September 2008 and is substantially complete, with only two surge tanks remaining. In January 2012, the excavation of the machine hall was completed followed by the concrete encasement of the first draft tube in August 2012. The preparation for the installation of the first spiral case installation is ongoing and the spiral case was transported to the erection bay on 15 August. One of the greatest difficulties that was faced by the project team was overcoming the steep gradient of the two 6.1 m excavated diameter headrace tunnels that are both 1 940 m long and each with a 970 m long section at an inclination of 1:2.2. Tracked machinery was required for all excavation phases but the long average time for the mucking contributed to a final advance of only 1.1 m/d. Installation of the 5.1 m diameter steel lining of these tunnels has now started. The contractor plans to place the concrete encasement of the lining by pump from the bottom of the tunnels and it remains to be seen if this will be successful. “We are very proud and happy to be part of the largest hydropower and tunneling project in the region. This further highlights the trust that the industry has in GIBB and the caliber of work we continue to produce on every project that we embark on,” concludes Wilson.

Meeting power demand through sustainability The Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme Project in Little Drakensburg reached some significant milestones in 2012.


ITH A DESIGN set to contribute to South Africa’s power demand in a way that will enhance maximum power generation efficiency, the Eskom project is in line with meeting government’s sustainability commitments. Situated in the Drakensberg range of mountains between Harrismith and Ladysmith, work on the project commenced in 2004 and will be completed in 2015. According to Andrew Wilson, technical executive for dams, hydropower and underground works at GIBB, the team, which is a joint venture between GIBB,


IMIESA February 2013

Royal HaskoningDHV and Knight Piésold, has made significant strides on the project. “The site was chosen after being identified in previous studies as the optimal location for a large pumped storage scheme, based on technical, environmental and social criteria,” says Wilson. “It takes advantage of the significant difference in elevation between the inland, Highveld region and the bottom of the escarpment.” The project, which includes the 40 m high Braamhoek Dam and 50 m high Bedford Dam, both completed in 2011, two caverns, four



Grouting contract nears completion Esorfranki Geotechnical is about to complete a curtain grouting subcontract at the Cengane Dam.


HE CONSTRUCTION OF a new dam wall is planned as part of the OR Tambo District Municipality’s Upper Culunca regional water supply scheme. This leading geotechnical services company has provided about 600 m2 of dry curtain grouting under pressure to fill any cavities before Norland Construction begins work on the dam wall. Grout curtains are used under dams where the foundation would otherwise pass too much seepage, or create dam instability. A grout curtain usually consists of a row of vertically drilled holes filled with pressurised grout. The holes are drilled at intervals and in such a way that they cross each other, creating a curtain. Grout is injected into these holes with grouting jets, which use a highpressure fluid stream to erode TOP LEFT Drilling of primary a cavity. and secondary holes to a depth of approximately 17 m “This is the first job of its TOP RIGHT Charging up kind that we’ve undertaken for and blasting of rock using the some time and we regard it as a Boulder Buster step in the right direction as part BELOW Typical grouting of our strategic plan to re-enter setup and operation for the grouting market,” says Anton curtain grouting

Naude, director at Esorfranki. “Past contracts include curtain grouting of an earth wall at Sun City and at Lydenburg Dam.” Before the Esorfranki team could begin work at the Cengane Dam site, they had to blast a number of large boulders using a “Boulder Buster” to create a workable surface. The primary holes were introduced at 3 m intervals, with secondary holes at 1.5 m intervals and tertiary holes at 7.5 m intervals. Naude says no major leaks were identified and only minor grouting was required.

Specialists in the manufacturing of domestic and industrial water storage


Storage MEYERTON 0861STRUCT (787828) Fax: 016 362 3608

IMIESA February 2013


IMIESA February 2013




Specialist contractor cleans power station Specialist rope access solutions provider Skyriders has assisted a large power generation plant in Limpopo in repairing downpipe infrastructure, located inside six units more than 60 m above ground.


KYRIDERS’ MARKETING manager, Mike Zinn, notes that a total of six power station units required repairs to their downpipe’s joints. “The joints and the sealant had been installed more than 20 years ago and were therefore old, brittle and failing. During heavy rains, water in certain areas leaked onto electrical plant components causing maintenance challenges.” Zinn highlights the fact that the downpipes ran from the roof of the power station units down through the power station building in a zigzag formation into the ground. “This was a highly challenging job, as it was almost like a maze. The Skyriders team of rope access technicians were responsible for accessing and inspecting all areas, before taking photos, removing the old sealants, cleaning it up, installing new sealants and taking more photos,” he continues. In total, repairs on 255 joints were completed more than two weeks ahead of the client’s stated deadline. “Although the scope of work was relatively simple, the access constraints with regards to height, confined spaces and a fully operational plant made for a challenging work environment. The team did an excellent job from a planning and execution point of view. We explained to the client that rope access was a far quicker and more cost-effective method than scaffolding, and this method ensured that the Skyriders team was able to seal the 400 mm pipes from the 30 m level to the 60 m level in 26 days,” adds Zinn. What’s more, Zinn points out that all six

power station units remained fully operational throughout the project. “Skyriders’ scope of the project was to undertake structural inspection and repairs of the downpipes without creating any costly disruptions whatsoever. As a result, the team had to make sure that ropes were never anywhere close to the conveyors and any other moving parts. Due to an abundance of structural steel on-site, the team was able to access all six power station units from above, thereby reducing the risk of any safety issues and potential disruption.” Although the project has proven to be an over whelming success, Zinn admits that the downpipes will have to be checked regularly to ensure that the sealant remains effective. “Heavy rains create a lot of dirt in piping systems, and Skyriders is committed to continually undertaking regular site visits to ensure that the sealant remains effective under any type of weather conditions.” With a zero-fatality record spanning more than 22 years, Skyriders has developed a reputation of being the leading provider of rope access-aided inspection, non-destructive testing and maintenance-related ser vices to the South African power generation industr y. Looking to the future, Zinn is optimistic that the company can expand its industr yleading expertise to power stations across the African continent. “Scaffolding has proven to be the triedand-trusted method for above-ground applications in the African industr y over the decades. However, in industries such as

Skyriders has a zero-fatality rate spanning more than 22 years

FROM TOP Down pipes launder 16 m An indication of the flexibility of the down pipes Down pipes have to be checked regularly to ensure that the sealant remains effective

power generation, rope is a far more efficient means of gaining access to a particular high elevation section of a site as installation is considerably faster and cheaper, while technicians are provided with more flexibility and safety.”

IMIESA February 2013



Zero tolerance boosts safety Esor franki Pipelines is proving that a zero tolerance approach in the workplace really works, even under the most tr ying circumstances.


HEQ MANAGER FOR Esor franki Geotechnical in KwaZulu-Natal, John Chetty, believes that the excellent safety record on the Woodmead pipelines project is due entirely to the adoption of this mindset. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The contract in the iLembe District, north of Durban, began in March last year. The pipeline runs through a private farm, which added an important environmental dimension as we had to be aware of the presence of the sugar cane under cultivation,â&#x20AC;? Chetty says. Adding to these difficulties was heavy rainfall, the presence of continuous groundwater and working close to the river. Despite all this the project, which has an average of 51 people on-site, has progressed well without a single lost time injury.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;We are maintaining a high level of safety awareness on the project, holding regular awareness sessions in the form of toolbox talks and stressing the importance of risk assessments before a task commences.â&#x20AC;? Chetty credits the high safety standards shown so far on the project to the dedication of Esorfranki Pipelinesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; management as well as the strength of the on-site team who have

Esorfranki Pipelinesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; team at the Woodmead contract. Front row from left: Faith Mdadane and Yolan Govender. Middle row from left: Ntokozo Mthethwa and Daniel Yimba. Back row from left: Martin Hughes, Oliver Woodward, Howard Alfreds and V Nexle

ensured that even the most unskilled workers understand that the objective is to go home safely at the end of the shift. IMIESA February 2013




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Fixing municipal finances In the 2010/11 financial year, for example, the Auditor General of South Africa (AGSA) found that only 13 of 283 municipalities achieved a clean audit. By Corne Oberholzer


required to suppor t sound financial management and corporate governance. These range from proper record keeping and reconciliation controls to regular and accurate repor ting, compliance with the legislative framework, ef fective leadership culture and oversight responsibility, as well sound HR and IT management. Effective financial management is critical to any organisation. In the context of local government, a lack of sound financial management will have a direct adverse impact on service delivery as there is a strong correlation between sound financial management and effective service delivery. To support service delivery and provide the necessary accountability, municipalities should create and maintain authentic, reliable and usable records. These are essential to help ensure a clean audit. Ideally, an integrated electronic document management system should be used. The next crucial area of focus should be timeous and regular reporting. Financial activities need to be reported daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly â&#x20AC;&#x201C; depending on their scale and frequency. This allows for better preparation for audit. The principles of reporting (transparency, accountability and stewardship) should underlie the preparation and presentation of financial statements that are required to give a true and fair view of the financial posiCorne Oberholzer tion and performance of a municipality. is part of the The Municipal Finance Management Act Deloitte local and reporting guidelines add to the onus government team

HERE ARE MANY factors that contribute to achieving a clean audit, starting with political will from a leadership core that can be held accountable, but also a sense of ownership by all departmental staff, especially senior staff and managers. The most important ingredient, however, is sound financial management. This requires the deployment of suitably skilled people at the right places and a continuous building of internal capacity rather than a reliance on external parties such as consultants. A lack of proper financial management leads to most of the problems identified by the AGSA as the nature and causes of qualified audits. Chief among these is the need to make adjustments to annual financial statements during the audit process. This means municipalities rely on auditing firms to identify errors and omissions. Other problems include a failure to comply to acceptable accounting standards, an incomplete fixed asset register and a failure to reconcile the ledger with underlying supporting schedules. But the biggest direct threat to the viability of a municipality is a failure to collect and adequately measure revenue. Another is having accounting officers fail to take reasonable steps to prevent irregular, wasteful or fruitless expenditure. The AGSA identifies more than a dozen basic internal controls that are


IMIESA February 2013

A lack of proper financial management leads to most of the problems of quality and relevance of financial reporting. They emphasise the importance of preparing regular, accurate and complete financial and performance reports that are supported and evidenced by reliable information. Finally, provincial government needs to put in place governance and oversight functions over municipalities to monitor and report on progress made by municipalities to resolve challenges. Where such systems exist, they need to be used effectively. Equally important is the need to align service delivery, performance management and reporting. The framework for municipalities to improve financial management, governance and ultimately service delivery is in place. What municipalities require is guidance through partnerships to help them implement the framework and to use that opportunity to build their own capacity. The technical and complex nature of financial management may require a municipality to partner with a consultant. But when they do, municipalities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; or government in general â&#x20AC;&#x201C; must build skills transfer as an element of the service level agreement to ensure that the municipality is left with requisite capacity at the end of the contract period.



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IMIESA February 2013




Road operation and maintenance by Candice Landie

Roads infrastructure continues to play a pivotal role in shaping the economic and social pillars of our countr y.


S ROADS AND BRIDGES continue to age and deteriorate, all levels of government are struggling to pay for maintenance and upkeep, not to mention investments in much-needed upgrades and new projects. A significant amount of research and development is required to turn visions into reality, with the need for better sustainable products, services and technology to ensure minimal maintenance and rehabilitation

over the long term. We showcase the latest industry products, trends and technology taking precedence in the roads construction industry. What services and products are available to aid the sustainable development of roads infrastructure and maintenance? What â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;smart solutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; products are currently being developed? Most importantly, what do associations such as The Southern African Bitumen Association (Sabita) and the South African Road Federation

have to say about the state of South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roads infrastructure? And letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not forget Sanralâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s involvement with the private sector and the latest on Gautengâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s e-tolling system. This issue of IMIESA features an exclusive panel discussion that addresses all these issues while highlighting smart solutions for the construction and maintenance of roads, bridges and stormwater.

IMIESA February 2013



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Southern African Bitumen Association Tel: + 27 (0)21 531 2718 Fax:+ 27 (0)21 531 2606 e-mail: info@sabita


SMA A RT INF F RASTR R UCTUR R E SO O LU U TIONS Saied Solomons | CEO | SOUTHERN AFRICAN BITUMEN ASSOCIATION (SABITA) Sabita is always striving for innovative road surfacing products. Can you tell us more about the new system for measuring carbon emissions? SS Yes, a guideline document and software system for the measurement of carbon emissions – the Asphalt Pavements Embodied Carbon Tool (asPECT) – is now available for implementation. It is applicable to all operations associated with the manufacture and application of bituminous products in South Africa’s roads industry. Adapted for South African conditions by the UK’s Transport Research Laboratory, asPECT facilitates the carbon footprinting of asphalt products and operations, and of product-to-product comparisons and project carbon assessments. The software is able to analyse carbon dioxide equivalents emissions associated with the fuel used in any specific operation in the asphalt production and application chain, from the production and delivery of raw aggregate or bitumen to the manufacture of asphalt, the preparation of roadworks layers to the paving of the final wearing course.

2020 (based on 2009 levels), subject to certain conditions. These commitments will inevitably filter down to individual product supply chains, and the prospect of a carbon tax provides further incentive to measure and ultimately cut carbon generation. The asPECT protocol defines the methodologies that are to be applied to the calculation of carbon dioxide and other GHG emissions from asphalt mixtures per tonne. The calculations are specific to individual mix formula-

GHG reporting is becoming ever more rigorous and in Europe, large energy consumers, local authorities and local authority partnerships now have to report carbon emissions to comply with various statutory requirements. In other parts of the world, it is becoming common for client organisations to impose carbon awareness requirements on their suppliers for consideration at the procurement stage, which has made carbon awareness another potential marketing tool for industry.

membered that the South African bituminous products industry has already made important selfdriven contributions towards minimising GHG emissions through the development of warm mix asphalt, which significantly reduces the temperature at which the asphalt mix is manufactured and applied – with measurable savings in fuel usage and GHG emissions. Another recent initiative is the implementation

The pending carbo on tax is an incentivve for the bituminou us products industrry to be awarre of emission ns

Carbon emissions are a huge cause for concern in the ‘green’ arena. How does asPECT efficiently calculate carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions? It is a problem and reducing carbon emissions must be addressed now. The formal context for greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting is rapidly being established. At the world climate talks in Copenhagen in 2009, South Africa agreed to cut carbon emissions by 34% by

tions from individual production units incorporating all constituent materials. GHG contributions as carbon dioxide equivalents are accounted for whether they are directly generated by the operator or indirectly by subcontractors or suppliers. The accompanying asphaltCALC software provides a framework that contains the necessary formulae, emissions factors and default data to calculate the GHG emissions of asphalt products in accordance with the protocol clauses and the information provided. The guidance document, the protocol and the software constitute asphalt asPECT.

What implication(s) does carbon tax have on the bitumen industry? While South Africa’s Air Quality Act governing GHG emissions is in place, the pending carbon tax legislation is a strong incentive for the bituminous products industry to be more aware of emissions and better able to measure and thereby control its production of carbon dioxide by variation in the type of energy used or the type of asphalt mix produced.

What is the industry doing to reduce GHG emissions? It must be re-

of high modulus asphalt – a highly durable long-life pavement system that offers reduced carbon footprint by significantly extending the period after which maintenance and reconstruction would be required.

Is the asPECT software widely available locally? The software is a stand-alone executable built on the Microsoft .NET platform and available at a minimal fee, subject to a licensing and conditions of use agreement, from the Sabita website for use on customers’ computers.

Sabita is a non-profit organisation that represents producers and How do the local emission standards differ from those in developed countries? Fundamentally, the principal of carbon footprinting remains the same whether measured in the UK or in South Africa. The regulatory context for

applicators of bituminous products, consulting engineers and educational institutions. It emphasises maintenance and improvement of roads infrastructure and the creation of sustainable jobs. Through its Local Councillor Programme, Sabita has given local government decision-makers a solid technical understanding of how maintaining road networks can improve overall service delivery. Similarly, Sabita introduced a Health, Safety and Environment Charter, which undertakes to implement the best techniques to protect the health, safety and wellbeing of all employees and conserve the environment during the handling and application of bituminous materials.

IMIESA February 2013



SMA A RT INF F RASTR R UCTUR R E SO O LU U TIONS Deon Pagel | Business Development Manager | NATIONAL ASPHALT

National Asphalt has developed many ‘firsts’ in the road construction industry. Can you take us through a few of these highlights? DP Yes, as the second largest supplier of asphalt in the country, we have been instrumental in developing a few industry firsts. The two that stand out have to be our contributions to warm mix asphalt (WMA) and high modulus asphalt (HiMA). The first WMA trials were carried out in eThekwini, where we also took bitumen foaming to new heights. Foaming of bitumen happens when hot bitumen comes into contact with water at ambient temperature, which literally results in the bitumen becoming foam, and this then achieves better coating of the stone aggregate particles due to the larger surface contact TOP Asphalt recently supplied onto Bakwena N4 resurfacing project near Pretoria BELOW One of National Asphalt’s plant capable of doing 50% RA

area. At our plant, foaming was initially achieved by means of a bitumen and water chamber (foam pot) that was designed and built in-house. HiMA, on the other hand, revolves largely around the very specific characteristics and design of asphalt with a view to prevent rutting, especially in hot conditions with high volumes of heavy vehicles. For the initial trial, materials were shipped to Colas and Shell laboratories in France, where a South African design was done and finalised in collaboration with the CSIR. Guidelines for HiMA are also being developed under the auspices of the Southern African Bitumen Association (Sabita) and the CSIR.

What are the advantages of WMA and HiMA? The first trial resulted in a reduction of 20°C in temperature compared to the mixing temperature required when using normal hot mix asphalt (HMA). In later trials, temperatures were reduced by up to 30°C. The main advantage of WMA, however, lies

in the energy savings and the environmental benefits arising from the lower temperatures. HiMa is implemented with the sole purpose of achieving longer life for asphalt pavements, i.e. to prevent premature failure of conventional asphalt through rutting and shoving. Thanks to the receptiveness of the industr y, we are able to reap the benefits of modern developments in asphalt technology.

How does WMA contribute to the overall ‘green’ factor? The temperature difference of about 30°C is main source for ‘green’ benefits as the environment is harmed less through reduction in energy consumption and emissions; it is also more user friendly and safer working conditions. We are a proud member of the Warm Mix Asphalt Interest Group which exists under the auspices of Sabita, and aims to ensure that WMA has proper industr y standards and guidelines.

As an expert in the road and pavement industry, what other best practice methods do you recommend to municipalities? Definitely recycling (or reclaiming) of old asphalt! And it is pleasing to note that many municipalities are now using reclaimed asphalt (RA) as opposed to dumping it. The reclaimed material can be incorporated into new asphalt

mixes, thus eliminating the need for 100% virgin materials and contributing towards sustainability. I believe this is the future; reclaimed asphalt will soon be incorporated into asphalt mixes as standard practice – it cuts down on costs and these savings benefit the consumer.

Is National Asphalt equipped to handle the technological advances that come with WMA and HiMA? Yes, we most certainly are! Our own Econat and Foamtech, together with other commercially available WMA technologies, allow us to really give our clients a wide selection of asphalt mixes. On the RA side, the use of EcoNat as a rejuvenator has had a major impact on the local market in terms of highlighting the need for rejuvenation of “old” bitumen binder in mixes that contain high percentages of RA. We have also recently invested in excess of R1.5 million towards obtaining modern DSRs (dynamic shear rheometers) and other bitumen testing equipment so that we can conform to the Per formance Grading system that will be implemented in South Africa shortly. Most recently, two asphalt plants with the capacity of achieving 50% RA have been ordered, giving us a total manufacturing capacity of nearly two million tonnes of asphalt per annum.

National Asphalt commenced operations in 1988 and has been a member of the JSE-listed Raubex Group since 2007. Specialising in the manufacture and supply of all types of asphalt, the company has grown exponentially and operates throughout Southern Africa using state-of-the-art mobile units to service contacts and clients in more remote regions. The company employs more than 450 people and prides itself on the fact that staff turnover has been less than 5% for the past 10 years.

IMIESA February 2013



IMIESA February 2013


SMA A RT INF F RASTR R UCTUR R E SO O LU U TIONS Peet Venter | Product Sales Manager | OSBORN (ASTEC EQUIPMENT) In terms of new equipment and/or technology, what has Osborn done thus far? Anything new in the pipeline? We supply imported products that are designed and manufactured in the US. All the factories have dedicated engineers who are constantly looking at improving the quality of their products and using new technologies.

Going ‘green’ is big in the road and pavement industry at the moment. What are Osborn’s green initiatives, either from a manufacturing or practical perspective? Astec has

positive trends have you noticed in the local road and pavement construction industry? The quality

what we call the Green System, which is patented and is the only system of its kind that utilises high-pressure water to create a warm asphalt mix.

of the roads has improved in cases where the contractors have used our Roadtec Shuttle Buggy. When using these roads, you will clearly notice that they are much smoother, which creates a better driving experience for

South Africa is probably steps behind developing countries, but what

the driver and, over the long run, saves the user costs on fuel, maintenance and tyres. Inevita-

bly, it also cuts down costs on road maintenance.

Can you tell us more about Osborn’s biggest and most recent municipal project or deal? We are busy negotiating with municipalities about our Astec Asphalt Plant and our Green System to

BELOW Asphalt rubber blending systems BOTTOM Shuttle buggy

We don’t just sell products, but rather we sell solutions to suit customers’ needs.

The quality of the roads has improved in cases where the contractors have used our Roadtec Shuttle Buggy

Every Watson-Marlow Bredel hose is precision-machined to ensure repeatable performance

improve roads and road lifespan, which will save money in the long run.

Osborn is a member of the Astec Industries group of companies, a leading American manufacturer of plant and equipment for aggregate processing, asphalt road building, pipeline and utility trenching. From design concept and manufacture to installation and commissioning, Osborn provides the global mining and quarry markets with a full range of crushers, feeders, screens and conveyors. With its reputation as one of South Africa’s foremost materials handling contractors, Osborn also specialises in skid-mounted crushing and screening plants. One of the company’s most popular road construction equipment is the Roadtec Shuttle Buggy – a material transfer vehicle that can store and transfer hotmixed asphalt material from a truck to a paver for continuous paving.

IMIESA February 2013




Nico Pienaar, director, ASPASA and SARMA

Please explain how natural aggregate is found. NP Natural aggregate is one of the nation’s most poorly understood resources. It is easy to regard a quarry as a hole in the ground. The average person, typically, does not put much thought into the subject of aggregates. Many people think of mining as a single event – somebody acquires a piece of property, mines it for its important mineral resources and leaves a hole in the ground or a scar on a mountainside once complete. But that is seldom the case. The mining industr y (particularly the aggregate industr y) is ver y active in reclaiming its property. This is done not just to make the property look good again, but to offer a beneficial use to society for the long term.

So what exactly are aggregates? Aggregates are different types of rock fragments, such as rock, sand and gravel. These materials are obtained from the earth through a process called sur face mining, commonly referred to as open cast mining. After these materials are mined, they are usually washed and sorted by size before being sold. In cases where natural sand and gravel is unavailable, commercial ag-


IMIESA February 2013

gregates are created by crushing large stones or by drilling and blasting massive rock formations and processing them into various sizes of rock and manufactured sand. This process is called quarrying. When drilling and blasting of massive rock formation is required to produce aggregates, all the materials produced by this process are called crushed stone. Unlike smooth, natural aggregate, crushed stone tends to be angular with sharper edges.

appropriate materials that don’t have any geographic obstacles for effective vehicle or foot travel. Any road construction contract starts with the removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting. The task also involves building of embankments, bridges, tunnels

What is the role of aggregates and sand in the road construction industry? With road trans-

and, in the course, elimination of vegetation. Proper designing, approval and planning follows to meet various government standards. Construction aggregate or simply ‘aggregate’ is a broad category of coarse particulate

port dominating, highways form the backbone of most countries and South Africa needs to maintain a remarkable network of such highways. We’ve helped the countr y immensely in its endeavours to maintain a fine connectivity by taking on and completing construction works. With decades of experience, expertise and required workforce, Aggregate and Sand Producers Association of Southern Africa (Aspasa) members have consistently supported the cause of national highway construction locally. Road construction is all about creating an unbroken passage of

Aggregate acts as a reinforcement adding strength to the overall composite material

material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined material globally. As a component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete, aggregate acts as a reinforcement adding strength to the overall composite material.

In what applications are aggregates most commonly used? Due to the relatively high hydraulic conductivity value as compared to most soils, aggregates are widely used in draining applications such as foundation and French drains. The product is also used as a base material under foundations, roads and railroads. In other words, aggregates are used as a stable foundation or road/rail base with predictable, uniform properties (e.g. to help prevent differential settling under the road or building), or as a low-cost extender that binds with more expensive cement or asphalt to form concrete.

Aspasa is a voluntary membership, private sector producers’ association. Aspasa represents its members with regard to policy positions, through various organisations of national and provincial government. To effectively achieve the industry’s needs, regulation and control is required, with particular emphasis on: • the control of borrow-pits • the granting of commercial licenses • offering a strategic and advisory business role • a wide range of services through working committees, which render services and advice to members. Aspasa also covers aspects around health and safety advice, and the ISHE (Initiating Safety, Health, Education) programme: Environmental advice, guidance and the About Face RAS audit programme; education and training advice through the involvement in CLAS (Cement, Lime, Aggregate and Sand); the Human Resources Committee; technical advice and guidance through the very effective technical committee; and legislation advice, sharing of changes and representation of new bills, regulations and code of practice.



How does your product aid in the construction or maintenance of roads, bridges or stormwater? NP Buildings and pavements that stand the test of time through their extreme durability and low maintenance requirements have a significant sustainable advantage over other structures. The water and cement in concrete chemically combine to form a paste that binds the sand and stone together producing the necessary strength and durability to provide serviceability in a wide range of environmental conditions. The manufacture of high-quality concrete at the proper consistency is a process that requires the right mix proportions of quality materials. To achieve this, the batching plants have to be of a specific standard and regularly maintained. All Southern African Readymix Association (Sarma) members are subject to plant audits in order to ensure compliance with the Sarma Health and Safety, Quality and Environmental Standards. These audits are based on SANS 878, ISO 9001-2000 quality management system, OHSAS 18001-safety management and the ISO 14000 environment management system. By contracting a Sarma member, you can be assured that you are dealing with a credible readymix concrete (RMC) supplier.

Does readymix concrete have any sustainable characteristics? Yes, RMC is ‘green’ and the following explains how so: • concrete is produced locally from abundant natural resources

• recycled materials in concrete reduce embodied carbon dioxide and landfill use • pervious concrete percolates stormwater into soil, recharging aquifers and preventing polluted runoff from overwhelming streams and lakes • use of insulating concrete forms for above-grade wall system provides for increased cost efficiency, reduction in heating and cooling, and lowered infrastructure costs • concrete’s thermal mass reduces temperature swings in buildings, therefore conserving energy • concrete’s light colour reduces the heat island effect, thereby lowering urban energy use • concrete can be made with reclaimed industrial materials that would otherwise burden landfills • at the end of a concrete building or pavement’s usable life, concrete can be recycled • impervious concrete roofs support green landscaping, reduce water run-off and heat island effect.

make concrete when RMC is not utilised. RMC holds many advantages over site mix concrete and is thus favoured. Clients are free from the burden of arranging storage space on site for the basic materials. At the same time, the need to hire plant, machinery and additional labour is reduced. Sites also remain free from wastage, noise and dust pollution – all the factors associated with mixing concrete on site, saving both time and money. In my opinion, the use of readymix in road construction is also far more superior to the usual bituminous type roads. RMC roads maintain a long life cycle and zero maintenance costs. These types of concrete roads maintain

and owners are seeking efficient, innovative building solutions that conserve non-renewable resources. Increasingly, concrete is being recognised for its strong environmental benefits in support of creative and effective sustainable development. When considering the lifetime environmental impact of a building material – extraction, production, construction, operation, demolition and recycling – concrete is an excellent choice to meet these goals.

What would you say are some of the advantages of using RMC in infrastructure development? The advantages would definitely have to be: • Quality – With readymix, you don’t have to worry about this as it all comes quality assured, meaning it lives up to the high standards you’d expect. Sarma audits its members’ readymix plants annually. The audit process looks at aspects of employee health and safety, quality of the transportation trucks, environmental impact and product quality. • Time saving – many companies still use concrete that has to be mixed on site and unfortunately this is a time consuming exercise. With RMC, this is eliminated. • Availability – with RMC from a Sarma member, you can receive as much or as little material as required at any given time, to get the job completed.

By contracting a Sarma member, you can be assured that you are dealing with a credible readymix concrete supplier

Why do you recommend readymix concrete over bitumen in road construction? RMC in road construction utilises concrete that is manufactured in a batching plant and then dispatched to a worksite. RMC is usually selected over on-site concrete mixing for the reduction in worksite confusion. The product reaches a site in a freshly mixed plastic or unhardened state. Concrete is a mixture of Portland cement, water, sand, gravel or crushed stone – and all these materials are collected separately to

the life span of 40 to 50 years as opposed to the 10 to 15 years in bituminous roads. More so, RMC roads are eco-friendly and show great resistance to harsh weather conditions, oil spills, etc. Its light colour offers a highly reflective road surface, for increased driver visibility. More so, RMC roads maintain greater skid resistance.

Does readymix meet today’s needs without compromising the future? In response to growing environmental and economic forces, architects, engineers, developers

SARMA represents all the reputable readymix companies and is also responsible for promoting the readymix industry and establishing readymix as the preferred construction material. In brief, Sarma’s purpose is to set standards and guidelines with regard to environmental, safety and quality issues. To be a member of Sarma, these stringent policies must be met and adhered to. In additional, members are regularly audited against standards that have been put in place.

IMIESA February 2013




Logashri Sewnarain President, SARF

In terms of developments and technology within the road industry, what are some of the new trends/ approaches to projects? Some of the initiatives that the road industry is currently implementing include: • sustainable road construction and exploring green road initiatives • the use of alternative road construction material such as building masonry. With regard to road rehabilitation projects, some national and municipal road authorities are using up to 40% reclaimed asphalt to minimise the use of natural materials. Another popular trend in the industry is warm mix asphalt (WMA), which is new asphalt that is manufactured and laid on the roads at a reduced temperature, thereby ensuring reduced energy consumption, less risk of burns, longer window period for transporting and laying the final product and reduced carbon footprint. There is also negotiation around the development of the South African Pavement Engineering Manual to ensure uniformity and best engineering practices.

Going ‘green’ is big in the road and pavement industry at the moment. Is SARF involved in any green initiatives? Yes SARF is represented on the Greenroads South Africa Interim Board that has been formed to establish a Greenroads Council for South Africa. The purpose of the Council is to promote sustainable roads, and particularly the facilitation of energy efficient, resource efficient and environmentally responsible road construction, maintenance and rehabilitation practices, including education and training thereto, the development and operation of sustainable rating systems for roads, research, events and conferences, and general activities to raise awareness of environmentally sustainable roads. We currently have two road environmental management courses on offer.

SARF is one of the partners of the FleetWatch Brake and Tyre Watch initiative and an active member of the International Road Federation. Tell us more about your involvement with these initiatives. SARF is very concerned with the dreadful road safety statistics in South Africa. Trucks constitute 30% of the vehicles on major routes and are to blame for a large percentage of the serious crashes along these

roads. The Brake and Tyrewatch initiative has been developed to empower traffic officials with specialised knowledge, enabling them to better perform in their profession and intervene more frequently in getting unroadworthy vehicles off the roads. Traffic officers have gone away from the training with a new appreciation and awareness of trucks on the road and the need for roadworthiness to reign supreme. To date, training courses have been run at 18 locations where 1 145 traffic officers have been trained; 396 trucks were inspected, of these 273 were discontinued by the team – revealing a shocking 69% failure rate.

SARF awards bursaries to suitable applicants. Please explain this programme in more detail. We advertise our bursaries on our website, at road conferences, to our members and at universities and universities of technology. Applications close at the beginning of October each year. All the applications are scrutinised according to their exam results, after which bursaries are awarded to suitable applicants for full-time or part-time postgraduate and undergraduate studies. Twenty bursaries were awarded in 2011 and 18 in 2012.

Who is eligible for membership with SARF? What are the organisation’s values and ethics? All road authorities, firms, closed corporations, companies, partnerships, organisations, individuals or other specialist groups with an interest in the objectives of our federation may apply for membership. The SARF council has the authority to approve or decline the admission of applicants. SARF members Decade of Action 2nd Southern African Road Safety Conference


IMIESA February 2013

Basil Jonsson, operations director, SARF

commit themselves to a code of ethics, which encompasses the values of integrity, professionalism and social responsibility. Through adherence to these principles, our members are committed to promoting economic wellbeing of the country, enhancing the quality of life and complying with government legislation at all times.

What is SARF’s relationship with government and what would you like to see change going forward? Positions in SARF Exco, Council and Regional Committees have representation from local, provincial and national government road agencies. From our highest position, namely SARF president, through to committee members, representatives hail from all levels of government. However, it is our goal to increase membership and presence, both locally and provincially. We have signed memorandums of understanding with various authorities to increase skills levels, promote safer roads and ensure timely maintenance is on our country’s road assets.

What training courses are offered by SARF to the roads industry? SARF organises and presents a number of courses (registered for CPD points with the Engineering Council of South Africa) pertinent to the design, construction, maintenance and administration of roads. These courses, which vary in duration from one to four days, are generally of a theoretical and practical

Is SARF involved in addressing South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

dismal road safety record? We are an active member of the International Road Federation (IRF) and responded to the call for support for the Decade of Action by arranging a very successful road safety conference on 7 and 8 June 2011 in Tshwane. The conference â&#x20AC;&#x201C; entitled â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Road Safety Initiatives towards a Decade of Actionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; was hosted in conjunction with the South African Road Traffic Management Corporation, with endorsements from the IRF, the Global Road Safety Partnership, the Road Accident Fund, the South African National Roads Agency and the Department of Transport. A conference declaration and action plan was developed, which was endorsed by various government departments, NGOs, institutions, organisations and suppliers. The Decade of Action Second Southern African Road Safety Conference was held from 23 to 24 October


nature. They are presented at various venues in the main centres throughout Southern Africa on a regular, rotational basis. Courses can be presented to individual organisations at their convenience. Currently, 35 courses are presented by SARF, addressing the following main categories: â&#x20AC;˘ traffic engineering â&#x20AC;˘ road pavement design, construction and maintenance â&#x20AC;˘ environmental management of roads and asphalt plants â&#x20AC;˘ geographic information systems (GIS) â&#x20AC;˘ geometric design of urban and rural roads â&#x20AC;˘ non-motorised planning and design â&#x20AC;˘ urban road stormwater drainage â&#x20AC;˘ procurement for engineering projects.

2012 in Ekurhuleni, Gauteng, to reflect on actions that were implemented during the year, while also focusing on 2012 resolutions and the way forward.

Does SARF organise any international conferences? SARF has submitted a bid to the International Road Federation (Geneva) to host the

Warrick Avenue Viaduct, eThekwini Municipality

2017 World Roads Meeting in Cape Town. The World Roads Meeting is held every four years and draws between 2 500 to 4 000 delegates from around the globe. The World Roads Meeting has never been held in Africa and this will be a huge boost for Cape Town and our country.

The South African Road Federation aims to promote the interests of its members through: â&#x20AC;˘ the influence of government policies and legislation to promote safe and economic transport of people and freight by road â&#x20AC;˘ the dissemination of information and development of standards â&#x20AC;˘ the provision of education and training â&#x20AC;˘ the promotion of sustainability in road provision, operations and the roads sector in general.

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Please supply caption

CPD accredited Training Courses R Road Pavement Design, Construction & Maintenance Practical Road Pavement Engineering Soil Stabilisation Geometric Design Compaction of Road Building Materials Routine Road Maintenance Road Pavement Rehabilitation Introduction to Road Building Materials Engineering Gravel Road Design, Construction & Maintenance Design and Construction of Surfaced Low Volume Roads Flexible Pavement Design Techniques Concrete Road Design & Construction Pavement Rehabilitation by Recycling/Bitumen Stabilisation Riding Quality and its effect on Road Transport Managing Routine Road Maintenance Projects (6 Months Program) Traffic Engineering Traffic Signal Design Road Traffic Signs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Design& Implementation Traffic Calming Measures

Roadwork's R Traffic Management Non-Motorised Planning and Design Optimizing Intersections Environmental Management Environmental Management in the Construction of Roads Environmental Management in the Asphalt Technology Design and Application of Hot Mix Asphalt Design of HMA (Hot Mix Asphalt) Latest Developments in Asphalt Technology Overview of Hot Mix Asphalt Stand alone Courses Stormwater Drainage Geographic Information Systems The Preparation of Contract Documentation and Administration of Civil Engineering Contracts Bridge & Culvert Inspectorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Visual Assessments Analysis and Assessment of Test Data Mechanics of Heavy Duty Truck Systems Procurement for Construction and Engineering projects â&#x20AC;&#x201C; informed by the CIDB Construction Procurement Regime

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Sureroad is available directly from PPC Ltd. For more information call our toll-free line on 0800 023 470 or visit

Because we understand that the foundation for durable road construction is important, weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve created PPC Sureroad CEM II 32.5 Cement. Sureroad is made especially for excellent performance with a range of soil types. Sureroad is made for long lasting road stabilisation and gives you the right start for the longevity of your project. PPCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s continual innovations in service and technology for all construction applications has made PPC the leading brand for over 120 years.



SMA A RT INF F RASTR R UCTUR R E SO O LU U TIONS Alta Walker | R&D Specialist | PPC In terms of new developments and/or technology, what has PPC done thus far? Anything new in the pipeline? AW After the launch of our improved range of products in 2011 and 2012, offering 15% more concrete, we launched our specialist application SureRoad product in 2012. The South African specifications for the modification and improvement of the quality of the soil used for road building substrate layers are based on the per formance of historical products. This resulted in the guidelines for Cementitious Stabilisers in Road Construction (TRH13 Handbook), which prescribes a 32.5 cement product for road stabilisation purposes. Although our 42.5 Surebuild products per form ver y well in the construction of cement-stabilised roads, we had to reconsider our product range to meet the technical standards. As a result, SureRoad cement was launched for the specific purposes of road construction. The CEM II Portland-composite cements are ideal for the construction of cement-stabilised substrate layers for roads. SureRoad is a CEM II product, manufactured with the addition of an extender or blend of extenders (fly-ash, blast-furnace slag and/or limestone). The addition of 2 to 3% of the cement to the substrate will increase its strength and improve durability. Per formance testing shows excellent results with a range of soil types and different road classes.

Going ‘green’ is big in the road and pavement industry at the moment. What are PPC’s green initiatives, from both a manufacturing and application perspective?

When we consider ‘green’, the best approach is to use a lifecycle approach in assessing the full ecological impact of any construction project. This means we have to consider a number of aspects in addition to the carbon footprint of the construction project and not just the carbon footprint of materials. This includes the impact of local material sourcing, transport, durability and socio-economic impact on the communities. Concrete offers a sustainable solution for road building, especially if you can combine this with skills development, local economic empowerment and improved durability of road sur faces. In addition, concrete road pavements improve fuel consumption of vehicles, an important factor in energy efficiency.

tries are addressing responsible manufacturing and construction. One positive trend we have seen is growth in the segmental block paving market, for both heavyduty and aesthetic applications – not that these need to be mutually exclusive. This is positive both from a concrete perspective and from a job creation point of view. Exposed aggregate concrete paving and permeable concrete paving are other positive trends we have seen. On the contract management side, clients and consultants seem to be more willing to look at alternative materials and designs, particularly if there is a potential cost saving. A new body, the Green Roads Council of South Africa was recently formed with the purpose of developing a system rating the sustainability of road design and construction in the countr y. The rating system will include an added chapter in its rating tool, namely socioeconomic impact, owing to the

SureRoad cement was launched for the specific purposes of road construction

South Africa is probably several steps behind developed countries, but what positive trends have you noticed in the road and pavement construction industry? While South Africa still has some way to go in managing sustainable construction in a holistic way, awareness is growing and indus-

countr y’s skills development and job creation targets.

Can you tell us more about the company’s biggest, and most recent project? PPC delivers its product to a number of major projects, supporting local infrastructure. Some examples of road construction are the N7 project north of Cape Town and the R27 rehabilitation project between Calvinia and Brandvlei in the Northern Cape.

Moving forward, what changes would you like to see in the industry with regard to local government, and why? Accelerated deliver y of infrastructure facilitated by all levels of government will not only grow the local economy but supply infrastructure to large portions of the population who need it. Local government is key to this deliver y and we would like to see, in addition to deliver y, a professional focus on quality and standards. This focus will reduce the motivation to buy sub-standard construction materials, which give the construction industr y and materials a bad reputation. Mutually beneficial partnerships with the private sector will also improve deliver y.

PPC Cement is the market leader in cement manufacturing in Southern Africa, with a product range that encompasses all applications and a technical services team that is on hand to provide industry solutions. The company’s cement brands include the marketleading SureBuild brand in South Africa, BotCem in Botswana, UniCem in Zimbabwe and Obras in Mozambique. PPC is currently expanding its operations into Ethiopia and Rwanda.

IMIESA February 2013


We shape a better world We believe in being at the forefront of innovation, enabling us to provide holistic, sustainable solutions for every project we engage in.

Project Image: Polokwane Bridge Johannesburg +27 11 218 7600


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Cape Town +27 21 409 3500

Durban +27 31 328 8700

Mauritius +230 206 0592

Botswana +267 395 3494


SMA A RT INF F RASTR R UCTUR R E SO O LU U TIONS Dinesh Chaithoo | Associate: Highways and Bridges | ARUP How do your services aid in the construction or maintenance of roads, bridges and stormwater? Underpinned by 40 years of technical highways and bridges experience, our services include planning and procurement, refurbishment and management of existing assets, development of policy and strategy for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) infrastruc-

skills by providing innovative solutions to challenging projects.

What specialised technology do you have on offer? Research and advanced analysis are central to our work – we bring to bear the sharpest insight to address intractable problems. Arup’s research, knowledge and skills management specialists in the highway discipline draw on


areas of specialisation. We are the creative force behind many of the world’s most innovative and sustainable designs, from the built environment through to infrastructure development.

Tell us more about some of Arup’s large project successes. 1 N14/R512 Interchange: Arup was appointed as a specialist

4 Gautrain Rapid Rail Link: The Gautrain Rapid Rail Link is an approximately R35 billion state-ofthe-art rapid rail network, offering a world-class solution for public transport. Arup was appointed as the Independent Certifier, due to the firm’s extensive global



ture and tolling, and management of operation and maintenance periods. Arup is in a unique position to help pave the way for project financing and public-private partnership initiatives by drawing on genuine highway sector experiences. Our advice can improve focus on key issues, help mitigate risk and enable key investment decisions to be made, thus creating an integrated highways and bridges solution for a sustainable future with a focus on best-value and technical integrity.

What construction related services do the company offer? Arup provides a professional construction supervision/ monitoring service, specifically tailored to safeguard the successful completion of projects by highly experienced personnel. Project management in the construction environment is offered and is applied to planning, design and construction management, from inception through to completion of projects – all for the purpose of controlling, scheduling and managing the scope of works within budget, time and quality. We offer our broad-based knowledge and

close relationships with leading international establishments to stimulate outcome-focused projects. We use technology with care so that it benefits both road users and the environment. Whether innovating with technology or updating existing highways to extend their useful life, our holistic mindset generates new and robust solutions. As the transport sector evolves, new challenges arise that require non-traditional approaches and innovative solutions. We are committed to developing strategic, innovative, transparent and clientorientated solutions to complex challenges, thus adding value over the entire life cycle of a project. Our advanced technology, research and software development teams challenge the conventional – producing new ideas, technologies and software solutions for better and more efficient performance. Highways are just one of our


sub-consultant for the design and construction supervision of the new bridge and geometric improvements to the interchange 2 Coega Industrial Development Zone (CIDZ) and port: Arup provided technical, procurement, programme and project management services for the CIDZ and deep-water port. Arup prepared the conceptual master plan for the roads, utilities, rail, materialhandling facilities and stormwater, as well as the undertaking of design reviews. 3 Western Bypass Road, Botswana: The dual-carriageway network involved a new Western Bypass Road and Nyerere Drive extension together with the upgrade of Nelson Mandela Drive, Molepolole Road and Old Lobatse Road. Arup was involved in the design and supervision of the 21 km of urban dual carriageway within the city.

rail and local building experience, as well as planning and management experience of large infrastructure projects.

Does the company provide an after-sales service? Yes. My opinion is that the satisfaction of a client is so basic that it cannot be considered as a separate function. The essence of client service is central to the entire business. Arup ensures that in the current dynamic and challenging environment, we exceed client’s expectations through effective service offerings. My thoughts are that the after-sales service support is a business opportunity and is key to client satisfaction, loyalty and linked to a profitable business. Arup assures its clients that it stands behind its service offerings and ultimately projects a reliable and high quality image.

Arup is a global firm of designers, engineers, planners and business consultants providing a diverse range of professional services to clients around the world. Through an innovative and fully integrated approach, combined with a full complement of skills and knowledge to bring to bear on any given design problem, the company exerts a significant influence on the built environment. Arup brings together a new approach to creating sustainable communities and economies, supported by robust infrastructure and design settings where people want to be, spaces where people can afford to live, places in which people chose to stay – in short, communities that work. Arup integrates social, economic, environmental and timeframe considerations into projects, whether new or retro-fit, to give communities a sense of social and environmental well-being.

IMIESA February 2013



Innovation in

Precast Concrete

Sewer reticulation Concrete pipes Roads & stormwater Water reticulation Electrical Fibre optics Mining Turn-key projects Bespoke products


Mobile plants

Since 1972

Where we lead, others follow Salberg Park Irene, Gauteng South Africa | t +27 11 357 7600 • f +27 11 357 7635 •



What do you perceive as smart infrastructure solutions? Cost-effective solutions that are sustainable in the longterm and accurately satisfy a specific need. Rapidly developing technologies allow industries with smart leaders who are committed to excellence to constantly identify ways to improve their existing solutions – making their product lines smarter where and how possible, as well as seek new solutions to meet evolving market needs.

Where does SCP position itself in terms of smart infrastructure solutions? Salberg Concrete Products (SCP) positions itself as a market leader in smart solutions. We achieve this because our staff equates ‘smart’ with excellence, and excellence with excitement. Most of the time, the only difference between ‘ok’ and ‘excellent’ is passionn and comcom mitment. We have a reputation for thinking out of thee box and delivering high standard ard smart solutions because wee create an environment conducive ve to such a deliverable. Examples of some off our smart solutions include: • ATM housing chamber, designedd to be blast Dr Rudy Absil, CEO, Salberg Concrete Products

resistant (2012 CMA Award for Innovation) • a waterproof maintenance access chamber, designed for managing telecommunication fibre optics, specifically in dolomitic areas • vent shaft linings • sacrificial column protectors • tower structures for fire and security management.

Are there constraints to developing smart infrastructure solutions? Absolutely! We constantly work towards identifying and managing constraints. Pressing constraints in our industry, for example, include finding innovative ways to manage transport costs, as well as skills constraints in the logistic line that run from nonspecialist decision-makers all the way to unskilled contractors who handle our sophisticated, heavyduty product lines.

What is the role of government go in delivering de smart infrastructure s solutions? Comm Communication! At present, really bepres ing able to understand sta infrastructure problems as well we as solutions is critical to South c Africa being able Afric to meaningfully deme liver on necessary o

ABOVE (left and right) Slotted drains before and after installation RIGHT Kerb Inlet

smart solutions. The government has a vested interest in ensuring we embrace the efficient and more cost-effective solutions being developed both locally and internationally. The role of the Department of Trade and Industry in managing access to international smart technology and solutions is vital for South Africa.

What is the future of smart infrastructural solutions in South Africa? There is an emerging awareness among key public and private stakeholders that smart solutions are not fads but rather essential steps in the process of delivering more effective infrastructure solutions. There is also the growing

awareness that smart solutions are not exclusive to urban infrastructure and/or technologically advanced countries.

What happens if we don’t embrace smart infrastructural solutions in South Africa? We would lose out on the smarter, more cost-effective solutions being developed both locally and internationally.

Salberg Concrete Products strives to be the precast concrete product supplier of choice. For 40 years the company has offered value in terms of service excellence, innovation and product quality and has been committed to delivering personalised service geared to meet clients’ specific requirements and needs. The company offers a full range of sewer and stormwater management products, with all key product lines carrying the SABS mark of approval.

Salberg Group of Companies Salberg Holdings (Pty) Ltd Salberg Concrete Products (Pty) Ltd Salberg Rib Pipe (Pty) Ltd Concrete Towers (Pty) Ltd D.S.F. Water Treatment Salbro Property Holdings (Pty) Ltd

Sewer reticulation Concrete pipes Roads & stormwater Water reticulation Electrical Fibre optics Mining Turn key projects Bespoke products Mobile plants

IMIESA February 2013



SMA A RT INF F RASTR R UCTUR R E SO O LU U TIONS Dr Reinhold Amtsbüchler (PrEng) Manager – Quality Department Southern Africa | LAFARGE INDUSTRIES SA In terms of new developments and technology, what has Lafarge done so far? Anything new on the cards? RA For many years, our versatile general purpose cement, Buildcrete CEM IV/ B-V 32.5R, had been used for soil stabilisation on numerous road projects. Identifying a gap in the market for a cementitious roadbinder tailored to the needs of the road refurbishing and construction industry, Lafarge developed the first specialised road binder, RoadCem CEM II/B-M (V-S) 32.5N, which has proved to be highly successful. For stormwater management, however, Lafarge Readymix recently introduced the unique permeable concrete Hydromedia™ to the local market. This product has been developed by the international Lafarge Group. Hydromedia™ represents a significant technological advance in addressing important environmental issues associated with residential developments and can form part of a cost-effective Sustainable Urban Drainage System. A major ongoing project employing Lafarge Hydromedia™ is the Steyn City mixed-use development at Dainfern, north of Fourways in Johannesburg, which started in September 2012. The product is being used as a sub-surface drainage system underneath paving. Hydromedia™ was the product of choice due to its superior drainage, as well as rapid strength gain and ease of placement. Using the product as a base material under paving layers allows the designer to Hydromedia™ specify the posi- in five different colours was tion of drainage used for levels in the the water play park at layer works at the Forever an early stage. Resorts in The base rapidly Bela Bela channels stormLimpopo

water to drainage points, enabling the contractor to pave horizontal, level surfaces. If correctly installed and finished as a base material, it can also minimise the risk of failure of traditional pavement designs.

ture: it reduces CO2 emissions by 50% compared with traditional ordinary Portland cement.)

Going ‘green’ is big in the road and pavement industry at the moment. What are Lafarge’s green initiatives from both a manufacturing and application perspective? Since

building materials and construction industries are highly regarded and keep abreast of technical developments. The concrete study that is showing exceptional promise is the use of ultra-thin, high-strength overlays in our roads, which have an extended life expectancy of about 40 years. It requires resurfacing only once or twice in its lifetime, whereas a typical asphalt road needs a strict maintenance programme to keep it in good condition, starting within two years of placement.

the introduction of its innovative Rapidcem CEM II 52.5N cement in 2008, Lafarge SA has offered its cement customers a full range of lower carbon footprint cements. Rapidcem provides the precast and construction industry with the benefits of a high-strength performance cement combined with the handling and superior finish properties of a formulation incorporating siliceous fly ash, which is the by-product of coalfired power stations. Another example is the general purpose cement, Buildcrete 32.5R, which is proving its value for soil stabilisation while also being environmentally friendly or ‘green’. (Buildcrete creates less greenhouse gas in its manufac-

What positive trends have you noticed in the road and pavement construction industry? The local

Can you tell us more about your biggest and most recent municipal or commercial project? The introduction of the specialised RoadCem for the road construction sector has been highly successful and the product is increasingly in demand for soil stabilisation on major road refurbishment and upgrading projects such as: • 46 km of the N8 between La-

dybrand and Tweespruit in the Free State • Sections 2 and 3 of the Bakwena N4 toll road upgrade between Brits and Rustenburg • N12 East Driefontein in Potchefstroom • N1 Stormvoel in Pretoria • R33 Marble Hall to Modimolle (Nylstroom) 71 km • N4 at Mooinooi, North West province • N17 in Trichardt, Mpumalanga. A current soil stabilisation cement supply contract for road construction is the R71 Magoebaskloof project. This involves the reconstruction and resurfacing of ±50 km of road between Tzaneen and Polokwane.

What changes would you like to see in the industry and why? Our company has the capability of making a significant contribution to meet the technical needs of South Africa’s roads, bridges and stormwater management. Backed by the unparalleled technical resources of the international Lafarge Group, our Quality Department Southern Africa has pioneered the development of innovative ‘green’ cement formulations incorporating siliceous fly ash.

Lafarge South Africa is a wholly owned subsidiary of the international Lafarge Group, a world leader in building materials. The South African company’s core businesses are the manufacture and supply of cement, aggregates, readymix concrete, plasterboard (Gypsum) and interior building fittings. Lafarge South Africa has a national footprint.

IMIESA February 2013


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SMA A RT INF F RASTR R UCTUR R E SO O LU U TIONS Mike McDonald | Manager – Centre of Product Excellence | AFRISAM In terms of new developments and/or technology, what has AfriSam done thus far? Anything new in the pipeline? As part of its commitment to sustainable innovation, AfriSam recently re-engineered its product portfolio to deliver the most effective, fit-for-purpose solutions to particular applica-

tions. This is the first time ever that the company has introduced product improvements across its full range. Our product range has been changed as follows: • All Purpose Cement has been upgraded from the 32.5N to the 32.5R strength class • Eco Building Cement has been upgraded from 32.5N to 42.5N strength class • High Strength Cement has been upgraded from 42.5N to 42.5R strength class • Rapid Hard Cement has been upgraded from 52.5N to the 52.5R strength class. The overall benefit of these changes is that we have effectively introduced technological advances that have boosted per formance in terms of the strength, presentation, durability and workability, which is associated with advanced composite cements, without sacrificing sustainability.

Going ‘green’ is big in the road and pavement industry at the moment. What are AfriSam’s ‘green’ initiatives, from both a manufacturing and application perspective? AfriSam adopts a proactive approach towards green construction and our initiatives over the years have led the way

in reducing dust emissions, using less coal, enhancing energy utilisation and introducing groundbreaking technology, which resulted in pioneering products for the construction industr y. The company’s initiatives include the installation of emission measuring equipment as well as major equipment upgrades at its operations to reduce the consumption of electrical energy. Indirectly related to energy efficiency is the use of mineral components that are by-products of the energy generation and steel manufacturing processes, to produce our Advanced Composite Cement products. Apart from reducing the carbon dioxide footprint of the cement-making process, this has successfully created a market for a product that may other wise be sent to landfill as waste. The culmination of the company’s significant investment

in research and development has been the manufacture of Eco Building Cement, which more than halves the world’s average carbon footprint for cement without compromising on the quality demanded by SABS for cement in this strength class. In addition to the above men-

As part of its commitment to sustainable innovation, AfriSam recently re-engineered its product portfolio tioned changes in the product line, AfriSam has introduced Roadstab Cement, a new innovative specialist product that is designed for road stabilisation applications. Roadstab is a composite road construction stabilising cement that has been specially formulated to improve the engineering properties of soil by reducing plasticity and

enhancing the strength of road based materials. It improves durability and has been developed and tested to achieve superior stability across a broad range of road material types.

Can you tell us more

about the company’s biggest, and most recent, municipal project? Our significant municipal projects in 2012 were for the Johannesburg Roads Agency, where we supplied approximately 25 000 t of aggregate, as well as for the Roads and Infrastructure Department at the City of Tshwane, where we have a three-year contract to deliver cement to the seven depots within the city bounds. Last year, we supplied over 10 000 t of cement for this project. We also supplied 10 000 t of road stabilisation cement for the Heideveld to Duinefontein Road Project for the City of Cape Town.

AfriSam is a widely spread cement, aggregate and readymix group in the Southern African region, with operations in South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland and Tanzania. The company is South Africa’s largest producer of aggregate and the second largest producer of cement and readymix concrete. It is also the only fully vertically integrated supplier of cement, aggregates and readymix concrete in Gauteng, and has been mining and producing construction materials since 1934.

IMIESA February 2013




Highly effective solution for pavement drainage With the dramatic escalation in urbanisation, efficient stormwater management is an increasing challenge to reduce the risk of flash flooding and sustain natural water cycles.


AFARGE READYMIX recently launched an innovative product to the South African market. Hydromedia is a new fast draining concrete pavement solution, which provides rapid stormwater removal from streets, parking sur faces, driveways and walkways. The advanced drainage technology in Hydromedia has been developed by the international Lafarge group. While this unique product outper forms traditional permeable pavements, it also minimises the cost and long-term maintenance for local authorities and developers of stormwater management infrastructure. “Hydromedia represents a significant technological advance in addressing important environmental issues associated with residential developments,” comments Neville Wearne, Lafarge national marketing manager for Readymix. “This porous pavement concrete is instrumental in recharging groundwater while reducing stormwater runoff and can form part of a cost-effective Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS). It also allows more efficient land use by eliminating the need for retention ponds, catchment basins and other stormwater management devices. In addition, the product acts as a filter mitigating contamination of groundwater by sur face pollutants.” “Water is a scarce resource in South Africa and requires ver y careful management, planning and protection; this includes our precious groundwater, which is often

TOP The product is a breakthrough in paste technology LEFT Hydromedia contains a no-fines concrete that uses sufficient paste to coat and bind the aggregate particles together, forming a system of highly permeable, interconnected voids that drain freely and quickly


IMIESA February 2013

forgotten. In urban areas, permeable paving is an important type of SUDS. The Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA) has welcomed innovative design SUDS solutions that protect and conser ve our environment,” says Manfred Braune, technical executive at GBCSA. The key to the unique proper ties of Hydromedia is Lafarge’s breakthrough in paste technology to create a no-fines concrete that uses sufficient paste to coat and bind the aggregate particles together, forming a system of highly permeable, interconnected voids that drain freely and quickly. The mix is particularly fluid in application but highly robust and resilient after placing and curing. It results in a much simpler application, improving not only the workability of the concrete mix but also its consistency. The rheological properties that have been achieved strike a balance between fluidity and viscosity, producing short-term flexibility and long-term strength. “We are proud to have adapted this worldclass technology for the benefit of South Africa’s construction industr y,” Wearne adds. “We work closely with all players in the construction chain in order to channel our unparalleled technical strength at innovation into improving construction processes,” he maintains. In the case of Hydromedia, this means that in addition to its superior permeability per formance of 150 to 1 000 litres per minute per square metre, the product has high fluidity, making it easy to place as well as staying workable for up to 90 minutes. The final finish is durable, smoother and, together with being available in a range of integral colours, aesthetically more appealing than other permeable pavements.


Sophisticated controls for network sewage stations The new Dedicated Controls solution from Grundfos is a sophisticated monitoring and control solution specifically for sewage pumping stations.


HE DEDICATED Controls are designed for controlling up to two pumps and a mixer/flush valve in sewage pumping stations. This makes them obvious choices for network systems, commercial buildings and similar applications. The Dedicated Controls system builds on Grundfos’ experience with level controls but greatly expands the functionalities. “We have expanded the monitoring functions to include pumped volume and over flow durations. The communication options have also been expanded to offer SCADA and BMS communication using GSM/GPRS. This allows users to communicate with their pumping station by mobile phone,” says Jens Skødt, business developer for Grundfos. “A large graphic display shows a visualisation of the pumping station, making it easy to find the information required, and to adjust any settings,” he explains.

IMIESA February 2013


Specialist Waste Management Consultants Sustainable and appropriate engineering solutions with integrity and professionalism. Stanford Drop-off Vissershok Waste Mana gement Facility

Gansbaai Recycling Centre

Velddrif Transfer Station

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Integrated Waste Management Plans Waste Disposal Strategies Identification and permitting of landfill sites Design of General and Hazardous Waste sites Design of Solid Waste Transfer Stations Design of Material Recovery Facilities Optimisation of Waste Collection Systems Auditing of Waste Management Facilities Development of Operational Plans Closure and Rehabilitation of Landfills Quality Assurance on Synthetic Liners Waste Recycling Plans

Herman us Materials Recovery Facility

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Jan Palm Consulting Engineers Tel +27 21 982 6570

/ Fax +27 21 981 0868 / E-mail / IMIESA IMIESAFebruary January 2013 77


Pavers complete the Umhlanga promenade Corobrik has once again played an impor tant par t in the final phase of the Umhlanga promenade upgrade with its clay pavers being a defining characteristic of the entire 5 km long seafront.


OROBRIK SALES DIRECTOR, Mike Ingram, says the swirl pattern and use of Cederburg, Champagne and Burgundy pavers has been taken through all four phases of the project. This continuity along the entire promenade includes the design, which emanated from the iconic whale bone pier and echoed the unique seafront location with its dunes and breaking waves and the choice of colours and texture that per fectly complemented the landscape. Construction of the final phases of the development indicated a longer term approach to promoting Umhlanga as a prime tourism destination within the ambit of eThekwini. The four th and final phase of the upgrade began in Januar y 2011 and


IMIESA February 2013


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finished in December ahead of the busy festive season. The upgrade, similar to the previous phases, included the walkway (promenade) paving, promenade linkages, alien plants eradication, lighting, street furniture, dune rehabilitation, traffic calming measures along Marine Drive and the increase of

Corobrik clay pavers are extremely durable and skid resistant parking bays at Durban View Park. The project was funded by the eThekwini Municipality’s Economic Development Department and was

a combined initiative with a collaborative team from the city’s Architecture Department –Urban Design & Landscape Architecture Branch, Engineering Units – Development Engineering Nor thern Branch and Electricity Units – Special Lighting Branch. In addition to the building of retaining walls to hold the walkways in the event of further storms and landscaping, the municipality elected to replace the existing concrete block paving with more aesthetically pleasing clay pavers. However, according to Ingram, the choice of clay pavers went far beyond the overall look of the promenade. “Corobrik clay pavers are extremely durable and skid resistant, making them the per fect choice for an area that is exposed to harsh weather and sea spray and is specially created to handle high volumes of pedestrian traffic.” During the fourth phase, 2 005 m2 of Cederburg (50 mm), 1 788 m2 of Champagne, 893 m2 of Burgundy pavers were used, equating to a total paved area of 4 683 m2.



Cement & Concrete Institute


Salberg Concrete Products









Ammann Construction Machinery


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Dynamic Fluid Control






GIBB Engineering & Science


South African Road Federation


Armco Superlite


Jan Palm Consulting Engineers


Southern Mapping







Aveng Grinaker-LTA


Lafarge Industries


Structa Technology


Bagshaw Footwear


Model Maker Systems


Verder Pumps


Barloworld Equipment


Beier Safety Footwear Bell Equipment

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Volkswagen South Africa


National Asphalt


Watertec Africa and Pumps,


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Valves & Pipes Africa 2013




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Bigen Africa


Bosun Brick


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Your one-stop data acquisition solution for water utilities • At any Time • Access Controlled • Login and Password








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• Zednet can be linked to existing GSM and GPRS data logging systems. • Updates immediately on receipt of data from data loggers. • Data can be exported in any required format. • Virtually any type of data can be captured eg. flow, pressure, TDS, conductivity, water levels etc. Receive alarm notification on your standard cell phone via sms text, or e-mailed to your preferred IP address. • Can be used to store and display all historical logging data.



Delivering sustainable infrastructure that improves our world. “DOING GOOD WHILE DOING BUSINESS”

Contact, or the office most convenient to you: Pretoria (012) 842 8700; Johannesburg (011) 802 0560; Bloemfontein (051) 430 1423; Cape Town (021) 919 6976; Durban (031) 717 2571; East London (043) 748 6230; Gabarone; Kuruman (053) 712 2882; Mafikeng (018) 386 2111; Mthatha (047) 532 5234; Nelspruit (013) 755 1421; Polokwane (015) 297 4055; Richards Bay (035) 753 1235; Rustenburg (014) 597 3655; Umtata (047) 532 5216; Windhoek +26 461 237 346.

Imiesa Feb 2013  

Imiesa Feb 2013 edition

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