Page 1

Winner of the 2011 PICA Non-professional writer of the year

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa



SprayPave Need we say more? in th he e

Housing Holistic solutions

Mogale City WWTW expansion

Insight e-Toll examination

Peet Venter, product sales manager for Astec Equipment “The quality of

our machines goes hand-in-hand with customer satisfaction.” ISSN 0257 1978 Volume 37 No.4 • April 2012 • R40.00 (incl VAT)


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Road Longevity And Performance



16 18 Road defects

Sustainable housing


16 A bitter pill to swallow

65 No-Dig India Summit 2012 67 Popular pipeline technology

18 ‘Green Street’ retrofit 23 Towards greener infrastructure



71 Reflections: A journey through

27 Low-cost machines for standard

70 IMESA bursary student plans his future IMESA


Mogale City

People and events

35 36 39 40

72 An update on industry events


Alleviating traffic congestion WWTW expansion Increasing load capacity Integrated township development Keeping up with water demand


Project news

3 5

43 CFA piles address slippage

Editor’s comment President’s comment

Cover article 6

Covering the full road construction value chain

Housing 9

Gap market subsidies good for some

Government perspective 12 A good start to the year

Hot seat 14 The quest for continuous improvement

Piling challenge

Insight Housing sustainability

SprayPave is an innovative and fully integrated industry leader. Since its establishment over 30 years ago, it has become renowned for its dynamism and successful completion of a variety of exciting and challenging contracts.


Traffic congestion

and appointments

Products and services 73 Culverts for Sishen railway 73 Plug-in seals available 74 AfriSam now a level 2 BBBEE contributor

74 Skid steers and telescopic

Panel discussion 45 Introduction: quality road construction


75 Valves for Qatar 75 New generation lubrication system

47 Fibertex South Africa: Rod 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63

Claus Colas: Thierry Madelon Jeffares & Green: Paul Olivier C&CI: Bryan Perrie Lafarge Industries: Reinhold Amtsbuchler Much Asphalt: John Onraet Zebra Surfacing: Jonathan Pearce PPC: Steve Crosswell Osborn: Peet Venter

77 77 78 80 80 81 83

Pump range launched PERI invests in SA Shaping mobility Fundamentals of concrete Red-hot red dot design Advanced composite cements Bell welcomes Liebherr to the family

84 Drill rig with rollover feed system IMIESA APRIL 2012


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PUBLISHER Elizabeth Shorten EDITOR Richard Jansen van Vuuren CREATIVE CHIEF EXECUTIVE Frédérick Danton SENIOR DESIGNER Hayley Moore Mendelow SENIOR SUB-EDITOR Claire Nozaic SUB-EDITOR Patience Gumbo CONTRIBUTORS Candice Landie, Tony Stone, Nick Alcock, Shian Saroop, Dhiren Allopi, Mike Butcher PRODUCTION MANAGER Antois-Leigh Botma PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jaqueline Modise FINANCIAL MANAGER Andrew Lobban (ACIS, FCIBM) ADMINISTRATION Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTION SALES Nomsa Masina PRINTERS United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________

Richard Jansen Van Vuuren


’M SURE IMIESA readers noticed that In addition, last year we began publishing our March edition looked subtly “differInsight articles written by former IMIESA editor ent”. You probably couldn’t pinpoint the Tony Stone. changes to our design and layout, but With the public sentiment against e-tolling that’s the point. Certain design elements have reaching boiling point, Tony has taken a step been tweaked while other smaller ones have back from the aspects of the controversial open been completely revised in a way to modernise road tolling plan and examines the construction and keep our design identity aesthetically pleasof a certain section of the N1 highway stretching ing to you. from Beyers Naude off-ramp to Rivonia. What he On the front cover of our February edition we found will surprise many. Tony’s Insight article is featured our first “Hot Seat” interview. This on page 16 of this edition. new aspect of IMIESA will be featured every Plans for future editions include a new section month as we believe the content is relevant and in IMIESA for public transport, low- and middlenewsworthy to you. Then cost housing as well as in March we rang in the power reticulation (including changes mentioned above. alternate power supply). Our page headers have In this edition of IMIESA been redesigned, the marwe feature two articles in gins have been increased our Housing Sustainability and we are using more phosection. The first, on page tographs and illustrations 18, outlines how 30 lowto make the page design income homes in Cato lighter and more reader Manor, Durban, were refurfriendly. I’d to thank our bished to be ‘green’ homes. design team for the great The project has been dubbed Page 18: sustainable housing job they have done. the ‘Green Street’ retrofit Regarding the content, we have made and and involved the provision and installation of will continue to revise sections and features solar water heaters, energy efficient lighting in in IMIESA. Last year we introduced a Panel both the homes and the surrounding streets, Discussion section where we analyse a topical ceiling insulation, heat insulation cookers, rainsubject with industry experts. So far this year we water harvesting systems and food gardens. have we featured “Good cents for municipalities” The second article is a paper penned by on page 61 of the January edition of IMIESA, in Shian Saroop, an associate at SSI Engineers the February edition “Integrated waste manageand Environmental Consultants, and Dr Dhiren ment plans” was on page 67 and in the March Allopi, associate director at Department of edition “The key to sustainable water resources” Civil Engineering and Surveying, Faculty of on page 61. In this edition the Panel Discussion Engineering and the Built Environment: Durban conducted by contributor Candie Landie focuses University of Technology. on “Quality road construction: concrete and bituTheir paper examines the growing need to men” – a subject many in the road construction for the coordination of design, sustainability, and rehabilitation sector will find interesting due economic and environmental requirements for the recent bitumen shortage. infrastructure projects.

ADVERTISING SALES Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER: MEDIA No. 4, 5th Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail: ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R480.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2012. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS IMESA Administration Officer: Ingrid Botton P O Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: Website: BORDER BRANCH Secretary: Melanie Matroos Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2401 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 E-mail: EAST CAPE BRANCH Elsabé Koen Tel: +27 (0)41 505 8005 Fax: +27 (0)41 581 2300 E-mail: KWAZULU-NATAL BRANCH Secretary: Rita Zaayman Tel: +27(0)31 311 6382 NORTHERN PROVINCE BRANCH Secretary: Cornel Taljaard Tel: +27 (0)82 899 8341 Fax: +27 (0)11 675 1324 E-mail: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO BRANCH Secretary: Henrietta Oliver Tel: +27(0)79 390 7536 Fax: 086 536 3725 E-mail: WESTERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Erica van Jaarsveld Tel: +27 (0)21 938 8455 Fax: +27 (0)21 938 8457 E-mail: FREE STATE AND NORTHERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27(0)83 457 4362 Fax: 086 628 0468 E-mail: REST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA Representative: Andre Muller E-mail:

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.


PICA the 2011 of the year Winne of Winner nal writer Non-p Non-professio

Instit ute Africa ern zine of the al maga eerin g of South The offici cipal Engin of Muni


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In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story on pages and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings contact Jenny Miller on tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223.

r 3 • Ma 37 No.






24 - 26 October Book online TODAY!

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How can IMESA contribute? This month, I will be looking at the State of the Nation Address (SONA) delivered by President Zuma – specifically at those aspects dealing with job creation through infrastructure development.


HE NATIONAL PLANNING Commission was established in 2009 and was mandated to draft a National Development Plan, informed by the countr y’s Constitution. The plan looks at where we want to be as a nation in 20 years’ time and identified higher growth and job creation as the solution for reducing – and ultimately eradicating our two national scourges of poverty and inequality. In 2010, the government launched a New Growth Path framework in which it identified the most important job creation drivers as infrastructure development, tourism, agriculture, mining, manufacturing and the green economy. I will be focusing on infrastructure development, as this is an area where most IMESA members can play a significant role. President Zuma invited the nation “to join government in a massive infrastructure development drive”, building on the project management expertise gained during the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup. In the National Budget Review, the Minister of Finance, Pravin Gordhan, dedicated an entire chapter to infrastructure. The infrastructure plan will be driven and overseen by the Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Commission (PICC), which was established in September 2011 and brings together ministers, premiers and metro mayors under the leadership of the president and the deputy president. The PICC has identified, clustered, sequenced and prioritised a ‘pipeline’ of strategic integrated projects, five of which are geographically focused programmes, while others are projects focusing on health and basic education infrastructure, information and communication technologies and regional integration. The five geographically focused projects in particular provide major opportunities for IMESA members. These projects are:

• The development and integration of rail, road and water infrastructure around two main areas in Limpopo: the Waterberg in the western part of the province and Steelpoort in the eastern part. This will unlock the mineral belt of coal, platinum, palladium, chrome and other minerals, which will, in turn, facilitate increased mining and the beneficiation of minerals. In addition, rail transport will be expanded in Mpumalanga, which will connect coalfields to power stations and provide a solution to the breakdown of roads in Mpumalanga caused by excess freight. The eastern parts of the North West province will also benefit from the greater focus on infrastructure connected to mining and mineral beneficiation. • The development of a Durban-Free StateGauteng logistics and industrial corridor, which will connect the major eco-

trans-shipment hub for sub-Saharan Africa. • The development of a major new south-eastern node to improve the industrial and agricultural development and export capacity of the Eastern Cape region; this will also expand the province’s economic and logistics linkages with the Northern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. A dam will be built in what was the former Transkei area of the Eastern Cape, using the Umzimvubu River as the source; this will help expansion of agricultural production. The implementation of the Mthatha revitalisation project (a presidential special project) will continue, as well as the improvement of water, sanitation, electricity, roads, human settlements, airport development and institutional and governance issues in the area. • The expansion of the rollout of water, roads, rail and electricity infrastructure in the North West. Ten priority roads will be upgraded. • The improvement of infrastructure along the west coast of the country in order to unlock its largely untapped potential. Plans include the expansion of the ironore rail line between Sishen in the Northern Cape and Saldanha Bay in the Western Cape, which will create large numbers of jobs in both provinces. The planning and implementation of all the above key infrastructural projects will require the input and expertise of the engineering community, but we also need to find the right balance between investing in new infrastructure and spending on the management and maintenance of our assets to avoid disruption of existing services.

We need to find the balance between spending on new infrastructure and on maintenance of our assets nomic centres of Gauteng and Durban/Pinetown with each other and improve export capacity through KwaZulu-Natal’s sea-ports. Transnet has announced a Market Demand Strategy, which involves investing R300 billion in capital projects over the next seven years; R200 billion of this amount is destined for rail projects and most of the remaining balance to projects in the ports. Through the development of this corridor, South Africa will be positioned as a regional





Replicating success SprayPave is one of South Africa’s leading manufacturers, suppliers and applicators of bituminous road binders and emulsions.


N ITS QUEST to be the primary choice for fulfilling all bituminous requirements of the Southern African road construction and waterproofing industries, the company consistently supplies premium quality products, professionally and reliably. SprayPave is an innovative and fully integrated industry leader. Since its establishment over 30 years ago, it has become renowned for its dynamism and successful completion of a variety of exciting and challenging contracts. As a subsidiary of the Basil Read Holdings group of companies, SprayPave forms an integral part of one of South Africa’s leading construction companies. In 2006, Basil Read (Pty) Ltd concluded a deal that would significantly enhance the future capabilities of its roads division when it acquired a controlling stake in



SprayPave, a strategic move that has proven to have optimal results for both companies.

World-class manufacturing To meet the high standards the company has set for itself, all products are manufactured at SprayPave’s world-class manufacturing facility located in Gauteng. In addition to its fully calibrated weighbridge and a state-of-the-art emulsion plant that facilitates the in-house production of all anionic and cationic emulsions, it is fully equipped to manufacture polymer modified binders (PMBs), as well as environmentally friendly primes and pre-coats. SprayPave’s drumming facility has been designed to accurately fill the maximum number of drums in the shortest possible time. Every pipe that makes up the product transport

system is colour-coded for easy identification. The company also utilises an oil heating system to ensure products are maintained at the ideal temperature. The storage facility has a capacity of over 500 000 ℓ, ensuring that sufficient quantities of product are consistently and readily available in order to facilitate the shortest turnaround times possible.

Versatility and reach By now it is a well-known fact that SprayPave is continuously taking steps to secure its dominance within the market, as seen with the opening of its coastal branch in Botha’s Hill, KwaZulu-Natal. “Our ability to extend our reach through the acquisition of our coastal branch has certainly given us a competitive edge in our ability to supply a market that before was largely inaccessible due to both price and time restrictions,” says managing director, Steven Single. Being in close proximity to two of South Africa’s major oil refineries had already given this little plant a substantial edge; however the decision was made last year to give the facility a complete upgrade that would be sure to engrave SprayPave’s name firmly on the KwaZulu-Natal market. To be relaunched mid-April, the facility


will not only produce all of the world-class products that SprayPave has come to perfect, it will also have the awe-inspiring aesthetics of a proudly SprayPave plant. One addition that is sure to please many of SprayPave Coastal’s clients is its very own PMB plant that will allow it to manufacture the very popular SE-1 and SE-2. “In a region where the supply of PMBs has been largely monopolised for some time, we are extremely excited to offer the coastal market an alternative option to procuring a very in-demand product,” says Single. “Furthermore, we are extremely proud of our ability to not only replicate the impressive facility we have in Johannesburg but, through vision and inspiration, take it one step further and improve on it." Extending its reach even further is the stateof-the-art, mobile emulsion plant that allows SprayPave to manufacture adequate quantities of emulsion on distant sites for lengthy periods of time, such as in Gobabis, Namibia, where it has been situated for the past 15 months. In addition, the company’s close association with all refineries in Southern Africa enables it to provide fit for purpose products to any destination in Southern Africa. Using world-class plant and equipment, SprayPave has the ability to successfully take on any project regardless of form or magnitude. From the smallest of rural roads to the largest of national routes, no job is too big or too small. Last, but certainly not least, is SprayPave’s pride: its ever-growing fleet of haulers and world-class bitumen distributors. The company currently has nine distributors, five of which are powered by modern and sought-after Scanias, and all are fitted with the technically advanced Etnyre Spray-Bar system – the impressive site of a red and white sprayer working on a road construction site is becoming ever more common. Then there are the haulers, an indication of SprayPave’s commitment to servicing their valued clients as effectively as possible. “Where many other companies focus primarily on their distributors, they are forced to rely on subcontracted haulers to transport their client’s bulk products. Naturally this creates the need to possibly charge less competitive haulage rates, as well as opens the door to potential logistical problems that are somewhat out of their control,” says Commercial Manager Phil Chirnside. Operations manager Quentin de Ridder adds: “Although we still make use of external haulers, by not relying on them 100% we are able plan more effectively and decrease lead times for urgent deliveries. This also allows us to mitigate any unforeseeable delays far more readily and effectively”.

SprayPave’s current hauler fleet consists of six vehicles dedicated to supplying clients, as well as distributors on site, and two brand-new haulers that will be solely dedicated to transporting bitumen from the refinery to SprayPave’s manufacturing facility

products include: • CAT60, 65 and 70: cationic emulsions with 60%, 65% and 70% binder content, as well as diluted variants • SS60: anionic emulsion with 60% binder content, as well as its diluted variant SS30

Above A glimpse of the upgraded emulsion plant at SprayPave Coastal Opposite page Not just a name, but a brand to be proud of

in Alrode South, Johannesburg. These impressive machines are powered by the latest R500 Scania horses and coupled with the most modern and technically advanced tankers. These

• Opti-Prime: SprayPave’s very popular and environmentally friendly cold prime • SP1i: SprayPave’s invert cold prime • Opti-Cote: SprayPave’s answer to quality and

The state-of-the-art, mobile emulsion plant allows SprayPave to manufacture adequate quantities of emulsion on distant sites for lengthy periods of time tanks have 34 000 ℓ capacities and come fitted with EBS (electronic braking system), Weweler air suspension and axle lifting device, as well as a computer management system that communicates pertinent information to the cab while in transit. “We are very proud of these vehicles and are confident that they will go a long way in facilitating our requirements to achieve both logistical optimisation as well as ‘marketleading’ customer service and satisfaction,” says De Ridder.

effective pre-coating • SE-1 and SE-2: effective and reliable polymer modified binders • SC-E1 and SC-E2: effective and reliable modified emulsions. Over and above these manufacturing products, SprayPave also supplies all-penetration grade and cutback bitumen. “All these products are manufactured according to very specific industry specifications, but what sets us apart from our competitors are our extremely high standards and exceptional

housekeeping,” says Chirnside. An enviable range of quality products “We are very proud of SprayPave’s growth, as SprayPave has a wide range of bituminous well as extremely impressed with the innovative products with various grades, but SprayPave Tel: +27 (0)11 868 5451 • some of its leading

IMIESA offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a two-page cover story and a cover picture to promote their products to an appropriate audience. Please call Jenny Miller on +27(0)11 467 6223 to secure your booking.





ABS Afri-Infra AJ Broom Road Products Arup SA Aurecon Bigen Group Africa BKS Consulting Engineers BMK Consulting Bosch Stemele Bosch Munitech BVI Consulting Engineers CBI Consulting Engineers Civilconsult Consulting Engineers Civil & Blasting Solutions Concrete Manufacturers CSIR Built Environment Davies Lynn & Partners Development Bank of SA DPI Plastics EFG Engineers Elster Kent Metering EnviroServ Waste Management Geotechnologies GLS Consulting Goba Hidrostal SA Huber Technology Hydro-comp Enterprises I@Consulting Iliso Consulting Infraset Jeffares and Green Johannesburg Water Kgatelopele Consulting Knowledge Base

KV3 Engineers Lektratek Water Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates Maragela Consulting Engineers Much Asphalt Nyeleti Consulting Odour Engineering Systems Power Construction


Pragma Africa


SBS Water Systems

Sektor Consulting

Sight Lines Pipe Survery Services

SiVEST SA SNA Inc Siza Water Company SRK Consulting SSI


Thm Engineers East London

TPA Consulting

UWP Consulting

Vela VKE WSP Group Africa



Zebra Surfacing



Gap market subsidies good for some

The subsidy specified within the National Budget to help people earning between R3 501 and R15 000 a month will not benefit ever yone, only a limited few – and on a first come, first ser ved basis.


WELCOME THE government’s initiative to provide a housing subsidy of up to R83 000 for people earning between R3 501 and R15 000 a month, so that they may be able to buy a property. I have been calling for years for measures to assist the people in the so-called gap market to become land and home owners, for these are the hard-working people, often nurses, teachers and policemen, who are able to contribute towards our economy and pay for services, yet find it difficult to afford a house. However, the subsidy will need to be drawn from the Western Cape government’s budget allocation and we will not be given any extra funding for this. As such, the amount of subsidies we will be able to offer will be limited and offered on a first come, first served basis. I would

welcome an increase in the Western Cape Human Settlements budget in order to better serve the gap market. The statement of R83 000 for everyone must be clarified. Those earning R3 501 per month

The Department of Human Settlements has a massive housing backlog that it needs to address

assets, and lowering the costs of their mortgages, we will avoid a financial crisis bought upon by the collapse of the middle-income property market, as was recently seen in the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the Unites States. As such, I would like to see a much greater amount made available for this fund, so that the hundreds of thousands of earners in this category in our province can be assisted and people can be quickly empowered with asset ownership. I also welcome the president’s initiative to

We have received no clarity or guidance from the National Housing Fund regarding implementation will qualify for the full subsidy of R83 000, which will be decreased on a sliding scale as the income of the applicant increases, with the possible result of those earning R15 000 receiving around R4 000. My view is that through stabilising the property market and transferring assets into the hands of more people who can pay for and maintain these

provide a R1 billion fund to help people with poor credit history get mortgage approvals. However, I doubt that the program will begin in April, because in order to implement this program, we need to be ready with the policy and administrative structures to implement the initiative and as of yet, we have received no clarity or guidance from the National Housing Fund Corporation



24 - 26 October 2012 GEORGE 031 2663263

The Southern Cape/Karoo Branch hereby issues

THE CALL FOR PAPERS 2012 Municipal Engineering in a Changing Environment •

Political and Legislation

Ecological / Environmental


Transport and Traffic

Water and Sanitation

Roads and Storm Water

Submissions by 31 May 2012 to Harold Basson


Right An ambitious plan to eradicate all informal settlements by 2014 is realistically not going to be accomplished Below Reasons for lack of housing delivery at a municipal level include lack of professional capacity and poor forward planning of housing needs

regarding implementation. The sooner we clarify this, the better as this will raise unrealistic expectations from the public. I visited several municipalities earlier this year to ensure the accelerated delivery of housing opportunities to the people who most need them, with a strategic focus on the provision of basic services. I am very concerned about the slow pace of housing delivery at the municipal level and am committed to visiting and working with the municipalities to ensure effective delivery in this regard. The municipalities to be visited are Oudsthoorn, Bitou, George, Mossel Bay, Swartland, Breede Valley, Drakenstein and Stellenbosch. The department is on track to spend 100 % of its budget of R1.638 billion by the end of this financial year and has approved and allocated funding to municipalities to implement their housing plans. The department has a target of delivering 12 652 houses and is on track to deliver 12 050, or 95%, of the houses. However, it also has a target of delivering 13 059 serviced sites, yet with the current rate of delivery, only 8 555 sites will be completed. Housing delivery is interdependent on efficient and well-functioning municipalities, which submit their housing plans to the provincial government for approval and funding, and upon approval, are expected to implement their housing plans with immediate effect. The department has an oversight role to ensure that the sites and houses are delivered, whereas local government, or municipalities, are responsible for the on-the-ground work. Reasons for lack of housing delivery at a municipal level include lack of professional capacity and poor forward planning of housing needs. My department has recently created Professional Resource Teams, consisting of professional personnel, to assist municipalities in the planning and technical aspects of housing delivery. The department is also placing a greater emphasis on project pipelines so that if any housing projects become blocked or stalled, there are back-up projects ready to go. These interventions will ensure the accelerated delivery of housing opportunities. It is expected that through ministerial intervention, housing delivery can be accelerated and the targets can be met.



xtensive consultations on the development of a long-term Human Settlements Master Plan are under way at the three districts in Mpumalanga. The consultation of municipalities is aimed at obtaining information on the state of human settlements delivery, backlog and plans for consolidation to deliver improved human settlements in the province. The consultations form part of the resolution of the recently held Human Settlements Indaba at Nkangala municipal offices. The plan is envisaged to assist in the development of sustainable human settlements and the development of a multi-year master plan. The department is responsible for promoting sustainable integrated and supporting municipalities to optimally deliver improved quality of household life. The indaba, held under the theme ‘From Housing to Human Settlements’, was aimed at sharing ideas on how to deliver on the redefined mandate. The broadened order requires the department to deliver not only houses, but engage all social partners to provide the required social amenities that qualifies a human settlement. In order to meet these objectives, the department has to take on board all municipalities, professional structures and institutions within the built environment. The envisaged master-plan will have to assist the department not only to deliver houses, but involves other services such as schools, clinics, water, sanitation, roads and other infrastructure. The department is requesting all municipalities to provide information which include: • Land audit report: to assist in checking availability of land that can be developed to replace informal settlements, develop rental stock and promote mixed-income grouping covering low- and middle-income earners and other challenges on land issue. • Availability of social amenities: a critical element of an adequate shelter in access to basic services such as: community halls, child care centres and other such services. • Spatial development framework: promotion of local development, economic opportunities in the municipalities. The objectives of these consultations are expected to give a sense of current human settlements delivery status for proper for Human Settlements development and in accelerating delivery of housing opportunities. The first phase of the engagements took place between 10 and 20 January 2012 and the second round was concluded in February 2012.





A good start to the year Corruption robs the poor of their dignity, Minister of Human Settlements Tokyo Sexwale stated at the recent launch of Klarinet Integrated Housing Project.


HE R3,5 BILLION mixed housing project will produce 12 000 houses over the medium- to long term and is a partnership between the National Department of Human Settlements, its provincial counterpart, the Department of Energy, ABSA and the eMalahleni Local Municipality. “My job is to follow the money,” Sexwale told those present.

the housing queue in the squatter camps, which creates problems for government. The Klarinet Integrated Housing Project will comprise of more than 11 969 housing units that include 5 699 subsidised housing units, 2 322 institutional housing units and 3 948 bonded units. The settlement will also have a clinic, schools and a librar y, among other facilities. eMalahleni Local Municipality execu-

pressure on our housing and infrastructure development programme,” said Sithole. General manager for ABSA Development Company Luthando Vuthula told the gathering that the bank was committed in partnering with government to contribute in the development of the countr y. “We don’t intend to deliver just houses. We want to build schools, clinics and other social amenities to create sustainable human settlements,” explained Vuthula. Sexwale previously stated that the primary aim of his department is to deracialise South African urban areas and create new ones. This was said at the Leadership Development Programme, which is offered by the University of Cape Town (UCT) for the executive mayors and municipal managers of the country’s metropolitan municipalities. “That is what we are doing here, it’s a huge

“Government has a responsibility to provide human settlements as much as tenants have a responsibility to pay rent” Tokyo Sexwale Minister of Human Settlements “Please make sure that you report any kind of corruption that takes place because it is the poor whose dignity gets eroded when such activities occur.” Mpumalanga MEC for Human Settlements Siphosezwe Masango appealed to the more than 400 beneficiaries not to sell their houses and then go back and register in

12 1 2


tive mayor Salome Sithole said Witbank was experiencing an economic boom and this was putting pressure on the city’s housing programme as it had to find shelter for the people flocking to the city in search of opportunities. “Our municipality has to start planning for another new city because the construction of the Kusile power station is going to add

The Department of Human Settlements has adopted a more holistic approach to the provision of housing


for DOHS rectification of what we call the correction of the apartheid spatial development waste,” he told the local government leadership. President Jacob Zuma’s announcement of a massive infrastructure programme, announced during the State of the Nation Address in Februar y, provides an opportunity to build new towns and cities that will not have townships, but rather integrated and sustainable human settlements. Sexwale said it did not make sense to recognise the Western Cape area of Franschhoek with 3 000 houses as a town, while Cornubia in KwaZulu-Natal, with over 50 000 houses, was not. The countr y’s massive infrastructure project is breaking new ground, especially in the mineral belt of Limpopo where massive investments are to be seen in roads, railway, telecommunications and massive electrification programme. “That is going to bring a new impetus to the economy and new cities are going to come up. The first one we identified is Lephalale. It’s a new city and it’s going to be a city without a township,” said Sexwale. Turning to the UCT programme, he said it offered an important opportunity for the senior leadership teams in each city to grapple with the socioeconomic challenges facing the countr y. “One of the things I would like to urge, perhaps coming from this gathering, is to join up what we proposed as human settlements to the Treasur y and the AuditorGeneral with courses in basic management for those who get elected at local level. “Our leadership has to have basic skills in management, in how projects come about and budgeting. It’s all about costs accounting. People have got to learn some basics and acquire skills on cost accounting, cost control, cost containment and cost reduction,” said Sexwale. He also believes the provision of medium- to high-density housing projects is one of the main solutions in dealing with the management

of spatial integration in urban areas. At the launch of the Southernwood Square Social Housing project in East London he stated that: “For us to make a difference in the lives of people who fall within the GAP market (those who earn too much to qualify for free government subsidy, but also earn too little to apply for housing finance from banks) we need to have more of these projects.” The project is spearheaded by the Department of Human Settlements and is managed by one of its housing entities, the Social Housing Regulator y Authority (SHRA), and is partly funded by the National Housing Finance Corporation (NHFC). “Our mandate is to approve spaces with dignity where people can feel safe and thrive. We are afforded this function through an annual capital grant that we receive from the Minister of Human Settlements,” said SHRA chairperson Zhora Ibrahim. This was echoed by Samson Moraba, the CEO of the NHFC. “Affordability is key in these establishments; our mandate is to ensure that we fund the best possible projects that

“Affordability is key. Our mandate is to ensure that we fund the best possible projects” Samson Moraba, CEO of the National Housing Finance Corporation will allow people to live in areas where they can be productive. We are under the watchful eye of the minister to deliver more projects of this nature.” Sexwale also touched on the State of the Nation Address in reference to Mzukisi Mali, a resident of Grahamstown and a public servant, who was looking for a home. “There are many Mali’s in our midst that feel left out because they earn too little to qualify for a bank mortgage loan and too much to get a government-subsidised house. We are saying to them that projects like these are for you. We

Top For government to make a difference in the lives of people who fall within the GAP market, more projects such as the Southernwood Square Social Housing project need to come on line Above It is almost impossible to separate politics from the provision of housing

want you to know you deserve homes just like the rest of South Africans,” said Sexwale. During the launch, some residents demonstrated their dissatisfaction on what they called structural defects of some units. Sexwale addressed this group explaining that they had a right to voice their dissatisfaction. “Clients must be satisfied. That is why we are here, to listen and find out how they feel about this development. You must also highlight the positives, you must tell us about the good things that are happening here as well.” Sexwale also encouraged tenants to pay rent for their units. “Things don’t come for free. People must keep paying rent. Government has a responsibility to provide human settlements as much as tenants have a responsibility to pay rent,” he said. Southernwood Square consists of 57 bachelor flats, 78 one-bedroom flats and 114 two-bedroom flats. The project caters for households earning between R2 500 to R7 500 per month. During construction, 140 jobs were created and 90 of these were from the local community.





Osborn’s quest for continuous Osborn’s line-up of EarthPro horizontal directional drills (HDDs) offers reliable design, proven performance and serious security – and a whole lot more. Candice Landie chats to Osborn’s product sales manager for Astec Equipment, Peet Venter, on what makes this range tough as nails.


OUNDED IN 1972, the vision of Astec Industries back then was the same as it is today: apply creative thinking and stateof-the-art technology with a strong emphasis on customer ser vice excellence. It is through these principles that the Astec Industries group of companies has become synonymous with the manufacture of renowned equipment in the asphalt road building, aggregate processing and pipeline and utility trenching industries in the United States (US). Osborn, a member of Astec Industries and the official dealer of American Augers’



HDDs in South Africa, applies the same exceptional level of commitment to its local customers. Manufacturing operations are handled at its head office in Elandsfontein, Gauteng, and the company boasts a comprehensive distribution network with sales staff working out of wellestablished branches in Cape Town, Durban and Witbank. Further countr ywide and international distribution is handled by agents in Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia and Ghana. The DD-10 HDD at the Osborn Open Day in November last year


improvement With regard to the American Augers line of underground construction equipment, what products are available from Osborn, and can you provide a brief overview of each one? PV All American Augers are manufactured in the US and imported to South Africa. Included in the local range are: • Auger boring machines, which boast an enormous range of thrust, torque and horsepower to meet the demands of a tough environment • Maxi-rig HDDs – track machines or trailer skid mounted configurations; each drill is designed with maximum horsepower for an increased working life • Mid-size HDDs – self-contained drilling systems with a guarantee on performance and durability for the toughest trenchless jobs • Oil and gas drilling rigs – a vertically launched HDD, namely the rack and pinion designed VR-500 • Mud pump and cleaning systems – designed for jobs of every size and includes standalone mud pumps that can be used to power the biggest mud motor.

The Astec EarthPro C Series HDD represents commitment to quality and customer satisfaction. Has the company placed a guarantee or stamp of approval to substantiate this commitment? Yes, we have. Astec’s EarthPro

HDDs now come standard with the Astec 357 Protection Plan. This means that all new machines carry a three-year warranty on workmanship, a five-year warranty on the engine and a seven-year warranty on the rack. As the protection plan is a standard feature, there is no additional cost to the client. This is just one of the many ways that Astec shows its commitment to serving our customers, as well as the belief in our equipment.

How important is quality control at Astec and what protocols are followed before a machine is delivered to the client? The quality of our machines goes hand-in-hand with customer satisfaction and it is therefore an extremely important aspect to us. Astec engineers regularly respond to customer feedback and we are always looking for new ways to increase the durability, reliability, performance and ergonomics of our machines, such as by adding grease fittings and pivot points to enhance durability and performance. Part of this quest for continuous improvement includes the sourcing of more reliable components and the strengthening of frames and hardware. Additional checks and balances have been added to the quality control procedure and, as a final step before shipping, every machine undergoes an intensive 37-point final check to ensure that all areas meet certified quality standards. This check covers everything from fluid levels and hardware to systems verifications and safety equipment.

What are the smaller compact models

introduced to the Astec EarthPro C Series HDD range?


The smaller models, which were introduced in 2004, kicked off with the DD-3238 machine and now include five models ranging in thrust/pullback variants. These are the DD-65 Mini Max, DD-1416, DD-2024 and DD-3238. The DD-4045 is a new design that boasts impressive features, including a maximum thrust/pullback of 18.14 t, a rotary torque of 6 101 Nm, cruise control, LCD multi-function operating screen, a quad rack and pinion carriage drive, and the ability to carry 158.5 m of drill pipe.

American Augers • is committed to manufacturing equipment that helps to preserve the sanctity of the global environment and has done so by reducing noise and/or emissions outputs. This emphasises the fact that its trenchless technology equipment requires little or no open cutting, which has very minimal impacts on natural surfaces, features or habitats. • was the first HDD manufacturer to eliminate chains and utilise a rack and pinion carriage design, which is now the industry standard. The rack and pinion drive provides smoother carriage movement, more precise operating control, long system life and no complicated parts.

What are some of the impressive features that a client can enjoy on an American Auger HDD? As mentioned earlier, mechanical and technological excellence comes standard across all our products, but the DD-10 HDD also offers a state-of-the-art operator’s cabin. The cabin is climate controlled and features a microprocessor control system, mud pressure gauge, digital mud flow meter and rotary tachometer, pressure control for rotary/thrust, variable rotary speed and ergonomic joystick. The quick disconnect anchor plate on this model allows for multiple drilling angles while the Quiet Pak system is the latest in noise reduction.

“Every machine undergoes an intensive 37-point final check to ensure that all areas meet certified quality standards” Peet Venter

For more information, contact Peet Venter on +27(0)11 820 7600 or e-mail: .





A bitter pill to swallow South Africans, already taxed to the extreme, are furious. With widespread fraud and corruption in the public sector and price collusion in the private sector, anger is growing. e-Tolls have simply added fuel to the fire.


N AUGUST last year it was widely reported in the press that stretches of Johannesburg’s ring road freeway system, part of the Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project (GFIP), was showing signs of defects, especially the N1, north and south, between the 14th Avenue and Rivonia interchanges.

Defects in the road construct In two spots along the north-bound N1, patches of asphalt on the left shoulder had been stripped off right down to the old concrete road surface by passing traffic. These have since been repaired. JJE Liebenberg, Dennis Rossmann and Enrico Fletcher, in their paper “Asphalt mix design and construction, a selection of possible pitfalls”, state that stripping occurs when the bitumen loses its adhesion to aggregates in the asphalt mix or the base course. Shoving, as it is technically referred to, or warping as it was widely reported in the media during August last year, has turned usually straight yellow lines into squiggly yellow lines for varying distances along a 12 km stretch. Sizeable wave-like deformations (corrugations) in the asphalt make it a bumpy ride, especially at 120 km/h. Shoving is caused by instability in the asphalt layers when the mixture is too rich in asphalt, has too high a proportion of fine aggregate, has coarse or fine aggregate that is too rounded or too smooth-textured, or has asphalt cement that is too soft. Corrugations and shoving may also be caused by excessive moisture, contamination caused by oil spillage or lack of curing time between placing seal treatments. Along the N1 north and south there are patches of bleeding. As one passes the Malibongwe Interchange and approaches the William Nicol Interchange it becomes quite visible. This distress is caused by excess

asphalt in the surface layer. Other contributing factors include insufficient or excess covering stone, lack of proper rolling during placement or failure to protect a newly constructed surface from traffic until the asphalt has cured sufficiently.

Fixing the problems As reported in The Star, a road engineer, who wished to remain anonymous, said that rectifying the problem would need much more work than the South African National Roads Agency (SANRAL) had indicated and that was being done. “The road is a big disaster. It’s over long sections and fixing this problem will be more expensive than if it had been done it properly in the first place. They are going to have to cut out and redo large sections of the road.” This has already been done along the inside lane, straddling the emergency lane, for a short distance on the N1 north-bound approach to the Rivonia Interchange. These repairs were down to the base course level; similar repairs will be needed elsewhere. An angry public Despite not knowing what the technical reasons for these defects are, motorists nonetheless realise that something is wrong. Usually problems like these would not concern motorists, but because GFIP is to be subjected to tolling, and unreasonably so, the problem has added to the furore raging around the e-toll plans. Motorists feel they are being ripped off. Gauteng freeway tolling will go ahead in April this year, but at lower tariffs made possible by the R5.75 billion handout to SANRAL announced by the Minister of Finance Pravin Gordhan earlier this year. The new fees are reflected in Table 1.

WARPED AND BLEEDING Road warping and bleeding indicates a fault with the asphalt used in the construction of a road, and in some cases even the base construct of a road




IS THAT ENOUGH? on for years – back to the With the construction industry exposed for collusion, price fixing, the Above left A road planer days of the arms deal scanexchange of commercially sensitive information and rigging tenders, it is Above right The squiggly yellow dal, and before. In December no surprise that the Competition Commission described the industry as lines and corrugations removed 2010, Vusi Pikoli, the former ‘corrupt’. According to evidence from informants and company affidavits National Prosecuting Authority Director said: “South Africans are not before the commission, construction bosses admitted that for more than ‘angry’ enough about corruption. They are not doing enough to combat 30 years ‘the party’, which included CEOs, executives and senior and junfraud and corruption in the private and public sectors.” Perhaps the e-toll ior managers from big and small construction firms, had operated as ‘one saga will be the straw that breaks the camel’s back! big organisation’ – a ‘family’ as opposed to competitors. This, quite clearly, And, as reported in the Sowetan newspaper in November 2011, more is not acceptable and has left motorists feeling betrayed. than 15 million of an estimated 50 million people in Africa’s biggest In March this year, the Congress of South African Trade Unions declared a nationwide strike and marched in TABLE 1 SANRAL GFIP e-toll fees per km (with e-tag) protest over the e-toll Vehicle Class Original Tariff Adjusted August 11 Adjusted March 12 system, labour broking Motorcycles R0.30 R0.24 R0.20 and job losses. Radio Finance Minister, Light motor vehicles R0.495 R0.40 R0.30 702’s John Robbie and Pravin Small heavy vehicle R1.49 R1.00 R0.75 Redi Thladi established Gordham Large heavy vehicle R2.97 R2.00 R1.51 that more people would Additional fuel levy Cosatu protests e-toll have joined the march R0.20 per litre

if it had been purely Maximum charge R550.00 about the e-toll system. per month The Democratic Alliance Note: Vehicles without e-tags will pay roughly 92% more per km announced that it would be taking the matter to court. The Freedom Front Plus stated that it economy receive some kind of state welfare. At the time, President Jacob would also be taking steps to oppose the e-toll system. The Automobile Zuma said: “We cannot be a welfare state. We cannot sustain a situation Association and the Road Freight Association (RFA) have come out strongly where social grants are growing all the time and think it can be a permaagainst e-tolling and, as the RFA’s Gavin Kelly recently said on radio, the nent feature.” organisation would fight e-tolling in court. He is quite correct. What country in the world can afford to build and Killing the goose that lays the golden eggs give its people free houses, water, electricity, provide free education and The South African Institute of Professional Accountants stated earlier this medical services, and sustain itself. At some point, it will implode. Even year that the government risks destroying South Africa’s tax compliance so, politicians carry on making promises – the implications of which they culture with the amount. Many people are becoming angry with the increassimply do not understand given their generally poor levels of education. ingly harsher tax regime and with more direct and indirect taxes, being And when people flock to the cities demanding these freebies, and don’t loaded onto the average taxpayers, they are inevitably going to look for get them, they burn down and pillage what tax payers have already worked ways (legal and otherwise) to reduce and avoid tax. Why? hard to pay for. Unsustainable political promises and white collar crime in the public and There is a real danger that the middle-class and working taxpayer will private sectors, as well as uncompetitive practices such as price collusion, soon have no more to give. The goose that lays the golden eggs will be are draining the pockets of the tax-paying public. able to lay no more. If we reach this point, history will repeat itself. Sadly According to Gordhan, endemic levels of fraud and wasteful expenditure this will be a direct result of the actions of the arrogant and – and in some in government exceeded the R20 billion rand mark in 2011, enough to instances incompetent – people pursuing misguided ideologies and our pay the entire costs of the GFIP project. However, this has been going inability to learn from the mistakes of others.

With the furore raging around the e-toll plans, motorists feel they are being ripped off




HAPPY AND GREEN A resident of the 'Green Street' in Cato Manor outside his retro-fitted house

with little consideration for ‘green’ issues. This has resulted in people in low-cost housing spending a disproportionately high proportion of their income on energy needs and having a number of health and safety problems associated with extreme temperatures and cooking and heating using fuels such as paraffin. The project thus addresses a number of pressing imperatives facing South Africa, including: • improving the quality of life of the poor while ensuring the least impact on the earth and its resources • adapting to climate change and mitigating against its affects through reduced greenhouse gasses • improving water and food security • creating work opportunities and skills training • establishing more sustainable human settlements with reduced energy costs.

Housing profile The 30 RDP houses that were targeted were built in 2006, mainly in the form of semidetached houses with fibre cement roofs. The houses were built with flush toilets and showers, but had no hot water systems or ceilings. Electricity was prepaid with no reticulation, which resulted in a number of dangerous home electrical systems and fittings. Most people

‘Green Street’ retrofit for Cato Manor Ahead of COP-17, thir ty low-income homes in a street in Cato Manor, Durban, under went a ‘green’ refurbishment to demonstrate the range of possible social, economic and environmental benefits. Nick Alcock, project manager at Khanyisa Projects. Photographs courtesy of the Green Building Council of South Africa


OUTH AFRICA’S FIRST ‘Green Street’ retrofit was led by the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA) in collaboration with the eThekwini Municipality and the World Green Building Council (WGBC). It was endorsed by the South African Department of Environment, and the main funding for the project was provided by the British High Commission. The project involved adding solar water heaters,



energy-efficient lighting in homes and in the street, insulated ceilings, heat insulation cookers, rainwater harvesting systems and food gardens. Project implementers Carbon Programmes focused on energy efficiency interventions, and Khanyisa Projects managed the rainwater-harvesting systems, food gardens and planting, and overall local implementation and stakeholder engagement. In the last 15 years, South Africa has built up to 2,5 million low-income houses

were heating water with a kettle or two-plate stove and some were cooling their houses with fans. There is an average of five people living in each formal unit.

Green retrofit elements These included the following: • Solar water heaters and related plumbing. These were affordable, SABS-approved 100 ℓ, low-pressure, evacuated tubes with


no electrical backup. The product delivers balanced cold/hot pressure, safe tempered water at 50 to 60°C and has a lifetime guarantee against corrosion. More than 85% of the components are South African made. • Insulated ceilings were provided to reduce temperature fluctuations. • New electrical reticulation was provided to replace dangerous wiring systems. • Energy-efficient lighting was achieved through the provision of four compact florescent lighting bulbs in each house. • Heat retention cookers and training on how to use them was provided. • When installing the rainwater harvesting systems, conventional gutters could not be used on the houses so an adaptation using flexible agricultural pipe was installed and connected to 2 500 ℓ tanks. The tank base was constructed out of recycled tyres and sand. The systems provide water for food gardens and washing. • Several homes established food gardens using the ‘double dig’ method of bed preparation as well as other permaculture practices. • One hundred and twenty container gardens were made out of recycled water containers and tyres. • One retaining wall was built with tyres, which holds a mixture of bank stabilising grasses and vegetables. • Landscaping included the planting of 15 indigenous trees, 80 fruit trees and over 950 smaller plants. • Thirteen light emitting diode (LED) fittings replaced the conventional street lights in order to improve energy efficiency.

Role of eThekwini Municipality eThekwini Municipality came on board during the initial conceptualisation of the project,

represented by Derek Morgan of the Energy Office. A planning meeting was held with representatives of various eThekwini departments and it was at this stage that commitments were made. Without the input of these departments, the project would not have achieved the success it eventually did. The key inputs were as follows: • Community engagement was achieved through the effort of public participation, Councillor Mngadi (Ward 29) and various local structures.

Carbon savings The energy efficiency interventions in Cato Manor are estimated to reduce carbon emissions by 110.7 t of CO2 per year. This calculation is based on the ‘suppressed demand‘ approach, which looks at what upwardly mobile people in low-cost housing would be spending if they started using appliances such as traditional electric geysers. This might be a relatively small amount of

South Africa has built more than 2.5 million lowincome homes in the past 15 years • The water department provided consumption data in order to assess water usage behaviour and payment levels. • The electricity department assisted with prepaid meter consumption data to establish a historical baseline for electricity consumption and the installation of the LED streetlights. • The solid waste department assisted with various clean-up campaigns and a planned waste recycling project. • The Agricultural Management Unit established food and container gardens. • City Architects assisted with the installation of the temperature and humidity recorders, and with the evaluation of the results. • Environmental Management helped with the clearing of invasive alien plants through the efforts of the Working for Fire project team. Indigenous plants and trees were planted by the Botanic Society. • The Coastal, Stormwater and Catchment Management Department investigated the erosion of the river banks, which is threatening a sewer line and some of the houses. A plan to stabilise the bank and outlet areas is being rolled out at present.

carbon savings compared with other high-income housing or commercial/industrial/agricultural interventions, but when the number of low-cost houses is considered as a whole, the potential gains become apparent. South Africa has built more than 2.5 million low-income homes in the past 15 years and is targeting a further three million by 2025.

Carbon income The carbon credits from the carbon emission reduction or avoided emissions are being registered as a Voluntary Emission Reduction (VER) project on the voluntary carbon market, through Credible Carbon, an independently audited registry. It is a small-scale project and the sale of credits will generate only a small level of carbon revenue, but it has important symbolic value, as the bulk of this carbon finance will be going back into benefitting the community. Below left A house retro-fitted with solar water heaters and a rainwater harvesting tank Below right The installation of ceiling insulation




Thermal comfort improved Temperature loggers were installed to measure the thermal comfort. The initial feedback indicates that during the recent summer months, the temperature in houses with an insulated ceiling installed was about 3°C cooler than houses without an insulated ceiling. Further temperature results and analysis will be forthcoming.

Water efficiency and conservation Energy efficiency might be essential for climate change mitigation, but water efficiency and

conservation is also very important for adapting to climate change impacts, such as irregular rainfall and droughts. A shower flow rate of over 10 ℓ/min is regarded as inefficient. Tests in the houses revealed a rate of 5 to 6 ℓ/min for these low-pressure systems. Residents have been advised to be careful with their water use, especially now that they have hot water for the first time, so that they can keep their consumption low. The 2 500 ℓ rainwater harvesting tanks are able to hold a total of over 29 000 ℓ of water during the course of an average year of currentlevel rainfall. This equates to over three months’ worth of free basic water allocation from the municipality. A full tank of rainwater is equivalent to almost R30 of municipal water in terms of financial savings. The water will be primarily used for gardens and washing, and will also help with boosting water security and keeping water costs down in periods of municipal water shortages.

Rainwater harvesting tanks can hold up to a total of 29000ℓ of water per year

Food security Future research will reveal the impact of the new

Energy consumption reduction With the retrofit having just been completed recently, there has not been sufficient time yet to conduct comprehensive research into energy savings. However this research is currently under way and the case study for this project will be available in April 2012 on the GBCSA’s website:






food gardens in terms of: • reducing each household’s current expenditure on food • people eating more nutritious, locally grown fresh fruit and vegetables.

Job creation Residents from the ‘Green Street’ and surrounding areas are employed for a range of roles, including energy-efficiency installations, clean ups and acting as marshals. There is about 615 ‘person days’ worth of work generated by this project, excluding project management. In addition, a recycling initiative supported by Durban Solid Waste will investigate the potential to establish small businesses that would generate income from waste that has value. The way forward Funding has been committed by the Australian government to support an extension to the project during 2012. A case study is currently being produced to document findings and lessons learned during the project, including aspects such as: • energy and other savings

Environmentally friendly solutions have enhanced the living standard of the residents of Cato Manor

• changes to housing conditions and quality of life • behavioural changes. This case study will be used as an advocacy tool to demonstrate the multiple benefits possible from greening new low-income housing, as well as green retrofits of existing homes. The Green Street, now named ‘Isimosezulu COP17 Place’ by the community, is an ongoing demonstration site established for people to see multiple green interventions in one place. At this stage, no other city in South Africa has the equivalent of this project. Several site tours have already been conducted for officials, politicians, researchers and media – and many more visits are sure to follow. The Green Street project also provides a platform for the eThekwini departments to work collaboratively and to test new approaches and technologies.




Aurecon provides engineering, management and specialist technical services for government and private sector clients globally. The group has been involved in SURMHFWVWKDWVSDQPXOWLSOHPDUNHWVDFURVV$IULFD$VLD3DFLoFDQGWKH0LGGOH(DVW We work collaboratively with our clients throughout the entire asset life cycle, from pre-feasibility and business case preparation through to the operation and maintenance phases.

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Nature will thank you



Towards greener infrastructure

It is globally acknowledged that there is a growing need for the coordination of design, sustainability, economic and environmental requirements on infrastructure projects. By Shian Saroop and Dr Dhiren Allopi


HE PROVISION of civil infrastructure has a major effect on the natural environment and on quality of life. Improvement in the awareness of eco-efficiency concepts is urgently needed among policy makers, planners and decision makers. However, the criteria applicable to, and measures for developing, eco-efficient and sustainable infrastructure are yet to be fully identified (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2006). The lack of appropriate tools and skills for sustainable infrastructure design is often seen as a barrier to sustainable design. Infrastructure development has been focused mainly on financing issues and engineering aspects in the region. Mainstreaming environmental aspects and incorporating the eco-efficiency concept into various stages of infrastructure development have not been

considered as much as they should have been. Engineers need to look at greener technologies, rather than simply using traditional engineering solutions. This paper focuses on the concept of ecoefficiency in infrastructure design that promotes the use of the greener engineering options, to enable a choice of the one likely to yield the best per formance with the least environmental impact. It looks at a number of recommended green practices in infrastructure ser vices design that are environmentally sound, placing fewer burdens on the environment. By using this green approach, the sustainable design of township infrastructure ser vices can be achieved by enforcing the consideration of resources, environmental impacts of design decisions, innovation, maintenance and materials at the design stage of a project.

Consulting engineers have a responsibility to explore 'green' options

The need to implement green technology As the custodians of existing infrastructure and the developers of future infrastructure, consulting engineers recognise a responsibility to innovate, improve the products of their efforts and understand the importance of instituting a dialogue with the rest of society on these subjects (FIDIC, 2009: p.12). In the area of sustainability, there is an urgent need to apply technologies and methods that deliver better and more sustainable per formance in a way that is cost-effective. Sustainability and adaptive and mitigative approaches to climate change in the design of infrastructure are therefore important steering elements (FIDIC, 2009: p.44). Relatively few designers have as yet explored the transformative potential of ecological design and have preferred to remain apolitical and unconcerned with the distributional impacts of design as they affect the health of humans and ecosystems (Van Wyk, 2009). Infrastructure elements such as roads, water and sewage and stormwater can result in the loss of critical ecosystems and biodiversity. There is a need to create an eco-sensitive infrastructure design that encourages and promotes the use of ‘softer’ design solutions.





In terms of utilising improved environmentally friendly design methods, this study aims to introduce environmentally friendly design decisions prior to the infrastructure design approval process. This increases overall competitiveness by bringing a whole new class of productive solutions to problems, while at the same time adding a fresh perspective to the traditional infrastructure design process.

Civil engineering Facilities management Environmental & Energy M&E services Structural engineering Industrial engineering

Objectives In view of the inadequacy of tools to assess the environmental impacts of infrastructure design decisions, the aims of this paper are as follows: • to ensure greener infrastructure with minimal impact on the environment • to incorporate environmentally friendly, ecologically sensitive, innovative design at the design stage of township infrastructure projects • to define green infrastructure solutions among engineers by establishing a common language and standard of measurement • to raise awareness of green engineering benefits and the environmental impact of consultants’ design decisions, in order to reduce the environmental impact of development • to introduce environmentally conscious



Ecological design has yet to be fully explored

design decisions at the inception stage, where they are influenced the most.

The influence of early design decisions A sustainable project is managed by taking control of the client’s decision-making processes as early as possible to provide the certainty of decision-making. This should be done by involving clients completely in the process. Diligent attention to greener infrastructure solutions from the very earliest phases of a project will help guarantee that quality design environmental solutions are ‘built in’ from the beginning. It is essential that the environmental issues be integrated into achieving the most appropriate solutions. It is important to implement the environmental management from the early stages of the process, since the ‘freedom’ to make decisions that are of importance for the environment decreases with the progress of the project. Green design elements Innovative approaches to planning and design can greatly mitigate the negative impacts of


infrastructure services on the environment. Various green technology concepts were researched and modified to suit township infrastructure projects, with the aim of reducing the impact of civil engineering infrastructure on residential developments. Green technology that can be used on infrastructure projects may include the utilisation of natural or engineered systems that mimic natural landscapes in order to capture, cleanse and reduce stormwater runoff. Greener stormwater infrastructure solutions can include rain gardens, rain barrels, green roofs, wetlands, permeable pavements and other methods intended to reduce the amount of stormwater runoff entering the sewer system and our water ways significantly. Roads present many opportunities for green infrastructure application that incorporates a wide variety of design elements, including street trees, permeable pavements, bioretention and swales. Eco-efficent water infrastructure opportunities include a reticulated recycled water supply, water-efficient fittings, intermediate storage, etc.

Advantages of the eco approach to infrastructure design Green township infrastructure technologies will contribute to greenways and green corridors and provide linkages between habitats and wetlands. Green technologies have a number of environmental, economic and community benefits. The benefits of this approach are: • conser ving natural resources • reducing the ecological footprints of roads, sewer, stormwater and water, allowing ecosystems to function more naturally • using energy-efficiency systems and materials • minimising imper vious sur faces, reducing soil erosion • enhancing and protecting ecosystems and biodiversity • conser ving and reusing water and treating stormwater runoff on site • recharging groundwater flow for streams, conser ving water supplies. Conclusions As can be seen in this paper, there are numerous opportunities for improving eco-efficiency in infrastructure design. A new paradigm for infrastructure design is required in order to maintain environmental sustainability and mitigate flooding or ABOUT THE drought. Green techniques provide adaptation AUTHORS benefits for a wide array of circumstances, by conserving and reusing water, promoting groundwater recharge and reducing surface water discharges that could lead to flooding. Taking a greener approach to infrastructure development not only mitigates the potential environmental impacts of development, Dr Dhiren Allopi, associate director, but makes economic sense as well. By sofDepartment of Civil tening the environmental footprint, avoiding Engineering and waste and finding efficiencies, clients and Surveying, Faculty of Engineering and the local governments can increase their longBuilt Environment: term sustainability. Durban University of Technology

References: [1] FIDIC, 2009. FIDIC State of the World Infrastructure Report 2009. [2] United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 2006. Sustainable Infrastructure in Asia [online]. [3] Van Wyk, L. 2009. EcoBuilding: Towards an Shian Saroop, associate at SSI

Appropriate Architectonic Expression, In Green Building Handbook for South Africa [online].



Agile, Powerful, Prepared And Determined.

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T WAS RECOGNISED that to be widely accepted, a low-cost, portable unit was desirable and the first Australian gyratory compactor, the Gyropac, was produced in that year to meet these requirements. Following a period of investigation and development, Australian Standard AS1289.2.2 for preparing asphalt specimens by gyratory compaction was published in 1995, and a number of state road authorities have now replaced the Marshall compaction method in their standard asphalt specification documents.

Gyropac Australian experiments in the early 90s (Kadar, 1992) showed that, although fairly wide variations in vertical stress and the speed of gyration could be tolerated, the gyratory angle was critical. To enable specimens to be produced quickly and reduce the effect of cooling, a gyratory

speed of 60 cpm for the Gyropac was selected. It was found that by using lower vertical stress and higher gyratory angles, the load on the machine’s components could be reduced. A vertical stress of 240 kPa and a gyratory angle of two degrees for the 100 mm diameter specimen and three degrees for the 150 mm diameter were selected and this allowed for lighter construction of the machine, thereby achieving the goal of portability and low cost.

Description and operation The Gyropac uses a pneumatic actuator to apply the vertical stress and achieves the gyratory action of the mould mechanically. The gyratory shear action on a specimen is generated by the combined movement of the mould and both top and bottom platens. The mechanical geometry is such that the mould applies 70% of the shear while the top and bottom platens contribute the

remaining 30%. The machine is fully automatic and can compact to a given density or for a selected number of cycles.

Asphalt mix design Gyratory compaction is an integral component of the Australian Draft Asphalt Mix Design Guide. Three levels are incorporated into the design, corresponding to light (level one), medium (level two) and heavy (level three) traffic. An evaluation by ARRB Transport Research related 35, 50 and 75 Marshall compaction blows to 50, 80 and 120 Gyropac cycles respectively (Oliver, 1993). These cycle levels match the design levels and subsequently 350 cycles has also been selected to represent an effective refusal density. An optional compaction index calculated from the early slope of the voids versus cycles compaction curve is included in the design guide. This index or workability indicator is thought


Low-cost machines for standard applications By Mike Butcher, supervising asphalt scientist at the South African Department of Transport

After considering a number of investigative reports on asphalt compaction devices, Australia adopted the gyratory compactor as an agreed industry standard in 1992. IMIESA APRIL 2012


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to indicate the likely ease of compaction in the field.

DOT investigations Mix design experimentation (Butcher, 1994) with dense mixes by changing aggregate proportions and sand ratios indicated gyratory compaction curve shape was essentially dependant on the proportion of filler (percentage passing the 75 micron sieve). Change of binder content and other variables, except percentage filler, appeared to only displace the curve vertically on a voids cycles plot. Further investigations (Butcher, 1996) showed that the percentage of filler appeared to have a strong influence on the compaction index. This did not appear to be the only factor and mastic (binder and fines) lubrication appeared to have a significant contribution to the change of workability. Servopac When attempting to operate the Gyropac at the lower gyratory angle and higher vertical stress specified by Strategic Highway Research Programme (1.25 degrees and 600 kPa respectively), it was found that with stiff mixes, the machine components flexed under load, causing the gyratory angle to reduce during compaction. Although the SHRP specification on tolerance for gyratory angle (±0.02 degrees) is a static setting, the fact that the angle can change during compaction with some mixes may be a significant source of error. It was recognised that more work is necessary to properly evaluate the optimum settings of the critical gyratory compactor parameters, and it may be advisable to change the settings when compacting different mixes. Early work had also indicated that the setting of gyratory angle is more sensitive at the lower gyratory angles used by some European groups and as specified by SHRP (1.0 to 1.25 degrees). Although some of the gyratory compactors currently available are of heavy construction, it is possible that the components of these might also flex when compacting stiff mixes, causing the gyratory angle to reduce while operating under load. Although most of the machines provide a means for adjusting the gyratory angle, this is usually a process requiring mechanical adjustment and it can be time consuming to achieve accurate settings. The Servopac was designed to automatically compensate (under servo-feedback control) to maintain the gyratory angle constant during compaction and to provide a means to simply and quickly adjust the critical parameters. This enables it to provide more accurate and consistent

results, as well as provide a powerful tool to evaluate optimum parameter settings, and will allow for ready adjustment should future work indicate that settings be changed. The Servopac is a servo-controlled gyratory compactor designed to apply a static compressive vertical force to an asphalt specimen, while simultaneously applying a gyratory motion to a cylindrical mould containing the asphalt. The vertical compressive force is applied using a digital servo-controlled pneumatic actuator, and a load cell measures the applied force for

flexing of the machine’s components. A number of ergonomic features have been included in the design of the machine that ensure operator safety and minimal manual exertion in handling the hot and heavy asphaltfilled moulds. The mould may be slid from a bench (at the same height) directly into the compaction chamber and against two stop pins, which locate the mould on the centre of the mould carrier. Operation of a ‘mould lower’ button pneumatically lowers the mould onto a base plate, and

The Servopac was designed to automatically compensate to maintain the gyratory angle constant feedback control of the vertical stress during compaction. The mechanism connecting the actuator to the top platen allows it to move freely in two dimensions and follow the circle scribed by the top of the specimen, with minimal friction. The loading platens remain perpendicular to the vertical axis of the machine at all times. The gyratory motion is implemented with three

this is followed by the operation of a ‘mould lock’ button, which securely clamps the mould to the mould carrier with pneumatic actuators. Activating the ‘start button’ on either the control pendant or the PC automatically closes the chamber door, lowers the vertical shaft to apply the controlled stress and then starts the controlled gyratory action. This continues until

digital servo-controlled pneumatic actuators, each operating under displacement feedback control. The actuators are connected, via precision ball joints, to the periphery of the mould carrier, at a spacing of 120 degrees. The actuators move with a sinusoidal vertical action of controlled amplitude, and by driving them with a phase difference of 120 degrees, they force the centre line of the mould carrier to scribe a conical motion. The amplitude and frequency of the sinusoidal displacement create a gyratory motion at the prescribed angle and speed. Individual displacement transducers connected to the mould carrier at each actuator connection point are used to measure and control the gyratory motion. This mechanism enables the gyratory angle to be accurately controlled during compaction, irrespective of load and of minor

one of the termination criteria (cycles, height or density) is reached, when the actuators move the mould so that it is parallel with the machine axis and normal to the platens, and motion stops. The mould is then unclamped, the vertical shaft is raised and the mould is raised to the chamber floor. The safety door is then opened ready for the operator to slide it to a pneumatically operated specimen extraction device. An emergency stop button can be activated at any time. An integral, high-speed data acquisition and control system is accessed through a ‘control pendant’ or via an optional PC. The LCD display and keypad of the ‘control pendant’ allow basic functions such as vertical stress, gyratory angle and speed to be accessed and altered. The servo control operation of the machine allows




these basic functions to be selectable over the full range and also to be altered quickly when required. Termination criteria such as cycles or height may also be input through this device. Test data for the last 12 tests may also be retrieved via the pendant. The optional PC Windows interface provides a screen to input test parameters and allows



the user to display and plot in real time either height, density or angle against gyratory cycles. Test data may be stored as ASCII files, which may be retrieved or transferred to other analysis-type packages.

Effect of angle It is widely acknowledged that gyratory angle

has a significant effect on compaction and therefore this aspect was investigated in some detail. The angle effect was examined for a Department of Transport (DOT) AC14 dense mix and an AC40 dense mix used by the South African DOT in its construction works. In an effort to align with other work carried out in this area, a variety of mixes essentially complying with European specifications were also tested. Two major sets of testing parameters were adopted for these investigations. These were essentially the European/SHRP set and the Standards Australia set. A large quantity of 2 ℓ tins were filled with either the DOT AC14 or the AC40 asphalt sampled from an asphalt delivery vehicle containing the appropriate asphalt mix. The tins were filled to approximately the same level so as to contain a similar mass and allowed to cool to room temperature. Previously, tins that contained similar masses were monitored for temperature increase from room temperature in the laboratory oven. It was found that after two hours, at the particular oven setting, the samples reached 150°C


at the centre of the tin. A test program was therefore adopted where each sample was heated for two hours and then the test mass weighed into the mould and tested immediately. This was in lieu of monitoring the temperature of each sample, which tends to lead to delays through sensor reaction times and associated complications. The DOT AC14 was tested in the 100 mm mould and the AC40 in the 150 mm mould.

Density The voids shown above are determined through ‘mensuration’ density. This density is calculated on the basis of asphalt specimen mass, a volume from the gyratory mould internal diameter and the height of the specimen as it is compacted in the mould. The actual final voids of the specimens were determined and correlated against the ‘mensuration’ voids. A consistent relationship was found for a variety of test situations, in that between high mensuration voids to approximately 5% mensuration voids, a linear relationship was obtained.

Below 5% mensuration voids a new region occurs where it is assumed that a progressive exudation of binder from the specimen occurs. The excess binder fills the surface voids in this region and hence the change in relationship. Two 150 mm specimens, 140 mm high, were also examined for density variation. Both specimens were vertically sub-cored to give 100 mm diameter specimens and then one of these specimens was ‘sliced’ vertically into four equally thick slices, while the other was further sub-cored to give a 50 mm diameter specimen.

Road Base Mixture (Grave Bitume), hot rolled asphalt (HRA), stone mastic asphalt (SMA), porous asphalt (PA), a low gyratory resistance mix (Le Mans) and a Bétons Bitumineux Semigrenus 0/14 (BBSG 0/14). The mixes are, in effect, a good cross section of the different asphalt mixes available. It should be noted Grave Bitume and PA have previously been referred to as high shear resistant mixes. With all of these mixes, a similar response to angle was found as with the DOT mixes, i.e. a plateau of response was obtained between two

Gyratory compaction compacts specimens from the centre, both radially and vertically These results confirm the results of previous investigations in this regard that gyratory compaction compacts specimens from the centre, both radially and vertically.

European mixes Mixes were prepared to what were assumed to be gradations for mixes referred to in Europe as

and three degrees. The following ranking was determined in terms of cycles to reach a specific voids value (least cycles is ranked lowest): • Le Mans • BBSG 0/14 • Grave Bitume • PA. Both the SMA and the HRA mixes are initially






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stiffer than Grave Bitume but the slope of the void cycle trace of these two mixes is such that after less than 10 cycles they cross the Grave Bitume void cycle plot. The HRA mix terminates at a position above the Le Mans and BBSG mixes while the SMA eventually crosses these mixes as well. The DOT AC14 mix in comparison has a similar slope to the PA mix, but the trace is displaced such that it initially begins its void cycle trace fairly close to Grave Bitume but terminates in a position above the HRA, BBSG and Le Mans mixes.

Effect of pressure To investigate the effect of pressure, the angle was varied between 0.1 and 3 degrees for pressure values of 400, 200 and 100 kPa (all at 30 cpm) for the DOT AC14 asphalt mix. Data for the 600 kPa level was available from the previous angle investigation. Again, the voids at selected cycles as well as the cycles were determined to reach a specific void percentage. While a voids pressure relationship appears to be linear and not of concern, when this is viewed from a cycles versus pressure relationship a different perspective is obtained. It can be seen that for high voids, when the vertical pressure is above 200 kPa a fairly flat response is obtained. As the voids decrease, however, the response changes so that for, say, 5% voids, a 1% change in pressure around 600 kPa would cause a 7% change in cycles. For lower angles this effect increases and it is estimated that for around one degree gyratory angle a 1% change would at least double the effect to be over 14% change in cycles. The precision implications are covered more fully later in Section 6 but again, the effect points to the need for gyratory angles to be above two degrees to keep variations to a minimum. The Australian selection of 240 kPa appears to be in a highly variable area and an increase in pressure probably to 600 kPa is warranted. Effect of rate of rotation The effect of the rate of rotation was evaluated with a series of tests on the DOT AC14 mix where all other parameters were held constant with the exception of speed of rotation which was varied. The speeds of rotation per minute selected were 60, 40, 30, 20 and 10 cycles per minute. The tests were all carried through to 200 cycles and the variation in time was just over three minutes for 60 cpm to 20 minutes for 10 cpm. The longer-term tests tended to make specimen extrusion more difficult, indicating some heat loss during the test, which made

comparison between the different speed settings difficult. The results confirmed previous SHRP work (Cominsky et al, 1994) that little variation in response was obtained through different rates of rotation and this appeared to be applicable at any angle. The Australian selection of 60 cpm appears to be advantageous in that less heat is lost during a test and a better production of sample quantity can be achieved. The need to insulate

adaptive level control to stabilise the gyratory angle to the desired target level. A maximum divergence from the target angle over the range of angle tested (0.01 to 3 degrees) was 0.01 degree and after the three or four initial cycles, a standard deviation less than 0.004 degrees is achieved. This excellent accuracy and precision, however, was not achieved with vertical stress. The divergence from the target of 600 kPa ranged from an excess of 1.4 kPa at 0.1 degrees gyra-

Little variation in response was obtained through different rates of rotation or have a temperature-controlled chamber is also obviated.

Gyratory angle and pressure stability The Servopac uses displacement transducers to measure the positions of the individual pneumatic actuator shafts and computes from these the gyratory angle applied to the mould carrier.

To optimise these measurements, the displacement transducers measure directly on the polished spherical steel ball joints at the point of connection of the actuators with the mould carrier. Each actuator operates under continuous displacement feedback control to ensure that the amplitude of its sinusoidal displacement waveform remains constant. A second adaptive level control operates to adjust the amplitude on a cycle by cycle basis, should the loading conditions change radically. The gyratory angle displayed on the PC screen is computed from the mean of the three actuator displacements. The vertical stress measured with a load cell, is similarly under continuous feedback control. Three or four cycles are required for the

tory angle to an excess of 11.2 kPa at three degrees. The standard deviation ranged from 0.81 kPa at 0.5 degrees gyratory angle to 5.32 kPa at three degrees. There are indications that as more stress is generated through an increase in gyratory angle, the reactive forces affect the vertical stress values. The manufacturer was unaware of the

magnitude of this variation and has indicated that a simple software modification will significantly improve the accuracy and precision for vertical pressure.

Precision Curve fitting techniques allow the development of mathematical equations representing the discrete data points and, in turn, these equations can be utilised to represent the possible variation in either cycles or voids for a variation in either angle or pressure. A further variation of 0.05 degrees is included in the table as a proposed tolerance in gyratory angle. If the SHRP tolerance setting of 0.02 degrees at 1.25 angle is interpreted as the desirable target, it can be seen that the proposed




tolerance of 0.05 degrees at two degrees angle is equivalent. The current Australian tolerance is equivalent to SHRP at three degrees. Except for the value at 10 cycles, the proposed angle tolerance is equivalent or better than the SHRP tolerance at 1.25 degrees and the current Australian tolerance is equivalent at a value between two and three degrees. Using the SHRP angle tolerance setting of

and at gyratory angle value of two degrees would fall inside the target value. The SHRP tolerance of 18 kPa with a vertical pressure setting of 600 kPa is estimated to exceed the acceptable voids value by three to four times at all values. The Australian tolerance value would meet the target value at 240 kPa. The proposed tolerance value of 5 kPa at 600 kPa and at gyratory angle value of two degrees would be half the target

it is the choice of tolerance on cycles and voids that is the true determinant for the machine requirements

The work here has used ±0.1% voids and ±2 cycles as the machine tolerances. While these may seem tight, if the machine tolerances can be eliminated from the manufacture of specimens, the possibility of consistent test results is significantly increased. It can also be seen from the tables that there is not a unique choice of parameters to satisfy the cycles and voids tolerances. A choice of small angle would require tight tolerance on angle, which could be matched by larger angles with wider tolerances. The same applies to vertical stress. Acknowledgments: The author thanks the chief execu-

0.02 at 1.25 degrees as a guide, a variation in voids through machine variation is assessed as ±0.1%, and a variation in cycles as ±2 cycles. The SHRP tolerance of 18 kPa with a vertical pressure setting of 600 kPa is estimated to exceed the acceptable cycle’s value by four to five times at lower voids values. The Australian tolerance value similarly would exceed the target value by a large amount. The proposed tolerance value of 5 kPa at 600 kPa





value. It should be noted that the tight setting of angle tolerance in SHRP and draft European specifications would be masked by the variation from the pressure contribution. Also shown is the variation computed from the tolerances proposed as a result of these investigations. While a proposal is made for angle and pressure settings and tolerances, it is in the choice of tolerance on cycles and voids that is the true determinant for the machine requirements.

tive of the South Australian Department of Transport, Rod Payze, for permission to publish this paper. In addition, the author wishes to thank the laboratory staff for their assistance and cooperation in the various phases of the investigations. The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Department of Transport. * This paper has been edited and shortened, please contact the editor should you wish to read the full version.



Alleviating traffic congestion around Lanseria Airport Commissioned by the Gauteng Depar tment of Roads and Transpor t, phases 2 and 3 of the dual carriageway project from Sandspruit to Provincial Freeway (N14) are currently under way. IMIESA takes a look at this road construction project.


S A RESULT of increased traffic headed towards the North West and Lanseria Airport, this roads project involves the construction of a fourlane dual carriageway along the Provincial Road P103-2 (K29) between the Provincial Freeway N14 and Road K31 (Lanseria Airport). Phase 1 of the project, which included the construction of single carriageway, bridge and related ramps over the N14, was completed in May 2010 – in time for the FIFA World Cup – and construction of phases 2 and 3 are currently under way. Phase 2 involves the construction of approximately 3.8 km of dual carriageway road from Sandspruit to Provincial Freeway P-158 (N14), including the construction of a new bridge 5 552 over Sandspruit. Phase 3 of the project involves the upgrade of Malibongwe Drive (K29), including the construction of 5.8 km of dual carriageway and the construction of a bridge over the N14 freeway.

Project details Servicing Lanseria Airport and surrounding areas, such as the gateway to the North West province including Sun City, the scope of works on phases 2 and 3 is as follows:

• The construction of an additional bridge over the N14 and related access ramps between N14 and K29 • The construction of five intersections for access roads along K29, which include two surfaced access roads and nine gravel access roads • The construction of eight taxi lay-byes (bus stops), i.e. two per intersection along K29 and also located at Hertford Shopping Centre, the K33 intersection with Lanseria extensions 26 and 27 Development, and the K31 intersection (Lanseria Airport). • The construction of a 5 km-long concrete pavement using mesh and 25 MPa concrete for the pedestrian/cyclist walkway along K29. Dominant materials used in the construction include hot-mix asphalt concrete, crushed stone base, cemented sub-bases, self-compacting concrete for the bridge decks, ordinary concrete and steel reinforcement.

Ringing in at a cost of R307.5 million, phases 2 and 3 of the dual carriageway construction project are scheduled for completion in September 2012.

PROJECT DETAILS • Employer: Gauteng Department of Roads and Transport • Consulting engineer: Aphane Consulting Cc • Contractor: Roadcrete Africa (Pty) Ltd • Tender amount (CPA and VAT Inclusive): R375 383 215.11 • Final Amount (CPA and VAT Inclusive): R307 499 606.50 • Contract commencement date: 23 February 2009 • Original contract period: 87 weeks • Original contract completion date: 29 October 2010 • Revised contract completion date: 30 September 2011 • Delays to date: 54 days inclement weather, 71 days for restricted access to site • Extension of time granted: 139 Days (restricted access, strike, abnormal rain and public holidays) • Practical completion date: 14 May 2011 • Expiry of defects liability period: 29 September 2012

Right and below Aerial views of project elements





Making provision for 25 000 Features of the capacity upgrade of the Driefontein WWTW are: • A new inlet works to cater for Module 1 (existing), Module 2 (new 25 Mℓ/d Module) and the future 25 Mℓ/d Module 3 • Two primary sedimentation tanks to cater for Modules 1 and 2, with provision for one future primary sedimentation tank • Conversion of the two existing Module 1 primary sedimentation tanks to covered volatile fatty acid fermenters, including odour control • One balancing tank consisting of two compartments sized to serve the ultimate 80 Mℓ/d capacity of the WWTW • One 25 Mℓ/d biological nutrient remover (BNR) activated sludge reactor. The process configuration is a four-stage BNR process and includes pre-anoxic, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones. Aeration is provided by electrically driven mechanical surface aerators, while the solids in the non-aerated zones are maintained in suspension by mechanical mixers. Provision has been made in the

Commissioned by Johannesburg Water, the Driefontein WWTW is currently undergoing a capacity increase that will suppor t future development within the Driefontein Drainage Basin. IMIESA takes a look at this project.


N ORDER to cope with future growth, Johannesburg Water decided in 2007 to proceed with plans to extend the capacity of the Driefontein Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTW). The scope of the project entails the construction of the first of two 25 Mℓ/d treatment modules, which includes the complete process chain to final effluent disinfection. The major features of the new module are as follows: • inlet works • screening and degritting facilities • two primary clarifiers • flow balancing tank • two primary sedimentation tanks • 25 Mℓ/d biological nutrient removal reactor • chlorine contact channel • two secondary clarifiers • disinfection contact tank • one sludge belt press



• four control buildings, waste activated sludge, • return activated sludge, raw sludge • final effluent and thickened sludge pump stations • all associated pumps, pipelines, conveyors, control and ancillary equipment • access road and fencing.

Process design The design of the new Module 2 and future Module 3 has been based on the well-established Johannesburg Process. The design was pioneered by engineers of the City of Johannesburg and developed to its current state over the last three decades. The advantage of this process is that a highquality effluent is produced without the addition of iron salt – as demonstrated by the recent extension of Johannesburg Water Northern Works Unit 5.

design for a second future 25 Mℓ/d activated sludge reactor • Two secondary clarifiers with provision for two future secondary clarifiers • Two chlorine contact channels to cater for modules 1 and 2 with provision for a future chlorine contact channel • Final effluent discharge to the river • Chlorine (disinfection) dosing installation • Installation for standby supplemental chemical addition of metal salts • Waste-activated sludge screening installation • Two gravity waste-activated sludge thickeners • Primary sludge, fermented sludge, waste activated sludge, return activated sludge, final effluent and thickened waste activated sludge pump stations • Various other buildings and structures, including a substation/motor control centre rooms, effluent monitoring room, workshop and stores


additional households • Process control via PLC (programmable logic controller)/PC-based supervisory control and data acquisition system.

Civil works The new inlet works will be constructed adjacent and to the east of the existing inlet works. The existing inlet works will be demolished once the new inlet works is commissioned. The primary sedimentation tanks will be situated on a new terrace adjacent and to the west of the existing balancing tank. Two primary sedimentation tanks will be constructed and sufficient space will be made available on the terrace to accommodate one future primary sedimentation tank. The existing Module 1 primary sedimentation tanks will be converted to covered and odour-controlled volatile fatty acid fermenters, which will have sufficient capacity to serve the ultimate 80 Mℓ/d capacity of the Driefontein WWTW. The new balancing tank will be positioned on a new terrace adjacent and to the west of the primary sedimentation tank terrace. The existing Module 1 balancing tank will be connected to the existing stormwater attenuation dam to increase the stormwater attenuation capacity of the WWTW. The new 25 Mℓ/d bioreactor will be constructed to the west of the administration building on the site of an old, decommissioned module, which will be demolished. The secondary clarifiers will be situated on a new terrace located adjacent and to the west of the existing Module 1 secondary clarification tank. Two secondary clarifiers will be constructed, with sufficient space allowed on the new terrace for two future secondary clarifiers. The chlorine contact channels will be positioned to the north of the new secondary clarification tank terrace. The treatment plant includes connecting pipelines, site services, borehole/potable water, effluent reticulation, a new paved access road to the works from the north as well as a new internal road network and paving, and stormwater drainage including culverts for electrical, control and instrumentation cables. Various pipelines and upgraded bulk electrical power are also required. To reduce maintenance costs, the plant will be paved where possible. The architectural style of the buildings will match that of the existing buildings of the Driefontein WWTW.

Mechanical works All equipment is specified and selected for energy efficiency and low, long-term maintenance of the plant and equipment. Special attention is paid to corrosion protection of all mechanical equipment. Included in the mechanical equipment are: • mechanical screens • actuated valves, penstocks, hand stops and adjustable weirs • compressors • mixers and aerators • centre drive scraper bridges, scum baffles and V-notch weirs • centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, dosing pumps, axial and Archimedean screw pumps • macerators • HDPE, UPVC and stainless steel piping. Monitoring and instrumentation The philosophy used in the design is to reduce operating requirements through the utilisation of automated PLC systems, together with supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) as provided on the existing WWTW controls, and will be incorporated into the existing WWTW SCADA system. Cost-effective nutrient removal demands that the biological process is exploited to its maximum. To achieve this, the instrumentation (including online monitors for selected parameters of the final effluent) will be installed in a new monitor room. Dissolved oxygen (DO) probes will be installed at in the aerobic zone to continuously measure DO levels in order to automatically control the aeration. Meters for measuring mixed liquor suspended solids and a composite sampler on the final effluent will also be installed. Electrical The existing Eskom bulk power supply to the Driefontein WWTW will not be able to cater for the expansion of the works. An up-rated supply has been applied for and will be provided by Eskom, and a new incoming switchgear building to provide bulk power to both the existing and new feeds will be built as part of the expansion. New ring feeds will be provided to provide bulk power for the expansion. The medium-voltage system is an 11 kV system and the low-voltage

system is rated a 400/230 V, three-phase fourwire system. The motor control centres will be able to facilitate manual and automatic modes of operation, while the automatic modes of operation will be controlled by PLCs. The R394 million Driefontein WWTW expansion project, scheduled for completion in March 2014, will support the equivalent of approximately 25 000 additional households.

MATERIALS USED • • • • • •

Earthworks: 290 000 m³ Concrete: 19 900 m³ Formwork: 65 000 m³ Reinforcing: 2 550 t Paving: 35 500 m² Roads: 4 400 m

PROJECT DETAILS • CONTRACTS AWARDED Demolition of old structures: VF Munisi Civils was awarded the contract in June 2010 at an amount of R2 300 121 (incl. VAT) Civil works: Concor Holdings was awarded the civil works contract in May 2011 at an amount of R223 935 589.24 (incl. VAT) • MECHANICAL WORKS Tender 1 (JW 9018): SAME was awarded the first mechanical works contract in May 2011 at an amount of R10 966 914 (incl. VAT) Tender 2 (JW 9019): Eigenbau was awarded the second mechanical works contract in June 2011 at an amount of R18 868 505.19 (incl. VAT) • ESTIMATED START AND COMPLETION DATES Construction work started on 30 June 2010 and the anticipated completion date of the project is 27 March 2014 • DEMOLITION WORK CONTRACT JW9022 Commencement date: 30 June 2010 Completion date: 29 September 2010 • CIVIL WORKS CONTRACT JW10005 Commencement date: 16 May 2011 Anticipated completion: 28 October 2013 • MECHANICAL WORKS CONTRACT JW9018 Commencement date: 3 June 2011 Anticipated completion: 30 November 2013 • MECHANICAL WORKS CONTRACT JW9019 Commencement date: 7 July 2011 Anticipated completion: 30 November 2013 • ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENTATION (TO BE APPOINTED) Commencement date: 30 July 2012 Anticipated completion: 27 March 2014 • FENCING CONTRACT (TO BE APPOINTED) Anticipated completion: 27 March 2014





Increasing load capacity Population growth in Kagiso and Munsieville, as well as increased power requirements for the recently refurbished Percy Stewar t WWTW, motivated the need for an upgrade of the 20-year-old Krugersdorp substation. IMIESA takes a brief look at this project.


ITH A PROJECT value of R40 million, the scope of works on the Krugersdorp substation project includes the installation of two new transformers, a 5.5 km-long cable and construction of a new building for the substation. Completion of the substation upgrade is scheduled for May 2012. SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants completed the design work on the substation in July 2010 and the tender was awarded to Roshqott in November 2010. The laying of an underground cable rather than overhead supply was the desired option as a job creation initiative by Mogale City Municipality, which although providing a secure environment, presented challenges in the traversing of existing ser vices over the 5.5 km route. A separate civils contract was awarded to BEE contractor, KP Civils, for the construction of this building, assisted by Roshqott and SSI site personnel.

Scope of upgrade The work entails the installation of two new transformers: 33 kV to 11 kV, and 33 kV to 6.6 kV (Delporton). A 5.5 km-long cable feeds a completely new substation at Delporton, which is the main feed for the Percy Stewart Wastewater treatment Works (WWTW). The contract makes provision for the supply, deliver y, off-loading, installation, erection, commissioning and handing-over in a proper working condition of the following: • upgrading at the Krugersdorp Nor th 33/11 kV substation • extension of 33 kV bus bars • two additional 33 kV line feeder bays • one complete additional 20 MVA 33/11 kV transformer bay (transformer excluded) • control and protection panels for the new 1 x 20 MVA transformer

• 11 kV switchgear extend an existing switchgear panel • new 110 V DC batter y charger and batteries • extension of the existing switchgear building • new ripple control unit for the third 20 MVA transformer including the 11 kV feeder panel for the supply • 6.6 kV (rated 11 kV) switchgear to extend an existing switchgear panel, including a trans-

The Krugersdorp substation is being upgraded due to increased demand

• • • • • •

former breaker for the additional 11/6.6 kV, 7.5 MVA transformer new 220/380 V chop-over supply in new control building all single core and multi-core (low-voltage cabling) extension of the earthing and earth mat decommissioning and repositioning of the existing 20 MVA 33/11 kV transformer No.1 all related civil works at the Krugersdorp North 33/11 kV substation Substation quality of supply metering at Krugersdorp North 33/11 kV substation – the metering must meter the quality of supply from all three 20 MVA transformers Integration into the substation of one 20 MVA, 33/11 kV and one 7.5 MVA 11/6.6 kV

transformers that will be supplied and installed under separate contracts.

Muldersdrift 33/11 kV substation • Supply and installation of two new ripple control units for the two existing 20 MVA TRFs, including the two 11 kV feeder panels for the supply. Metering (quality of supply) Supply, installation, test and commissioning of new substation quality of supply metering at the following 33 kV substations: • Condale substation • Krugersdorp North substation • Libertas substation • Muldersdrift substation • Chamdor substation • Boltonia substation • Spruit substation • Factoria substation • Jackson substation. Network upgrading: 11 kV • Supply and installation of 11 kV switchgear, batter y charger and batteries for the new Delporton 11 kV substation. Construction of a new switch room for the Delporton substation will be done under a separate contract. • Supply and installation of 2 x 185 mm² copper core PILC 11 kV cables, plus a 12-core pilot cable between the Krugersdorp North substation and the Delporton substation. • Supply and installation of 11 x 95 mm² copper core PILC 11 kV cables between the APF substation and the Percy Stewart WWTW.

PROJECT TEAM • Consultants: SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants • Contractors: Roshqott and KP Civils • Supplier of transformers: Powertech





Sustainability, economic growth and social enrichment Chief Mogale settlement sets a benchmark for service delivery with the municipality. The total development yields 9 315 residential units and the priority phase has already been completed and allocated.


HIEF MOGALE, the integrated human settlement in Mogale City Local Municipality (MCLM), is a joint initiative between the MCLM, the Gauteng Department of Human Settlements and ABSA DevCo. Chief Mogale’s development concept gives impetus to government’s Breaking New Ground development strategy and is fast emerging as a pulsating neighbourhood in which infrastructure provision, economic growth and social enrichment are in balance and result in sustainable development and equity. ABSA DevCo, the implementing agent, is supported by a dynamic team of specialists headed by infrastructure development company, Bigen Africa Services, which fulfils the role of project and development manager and civil and electrical engineer.

Project overview With an overall project value of R1.2 billion, the Chief Mogale housing project will yield 9 315 residential units, of which 4 244 are subsidised, 2 539 are institutional and 2 532 are affordable free market (bonded) housing units – all of which seamlessly blend into the social and commercial facilities such as schools, clinics, crèches, parks, sports precincts, shopping centres and



public open spaces. As such, this development transcends the traditional concept of just providing shelter and aspires to reduce the housing backlog by more than a third within the MCLM, by virtue of the variety of housing options and tenure opportunities. Complementarily, Chief Mogale offers the opportunity for integration with the neighbouring communities, providing for economic, service and social linkages.

Progress to date Thus far, 725 families have already been allocated subsidy homes and have access to all municipal services. In addition, the development boasts a community centre donated by ABSA Bank that comprises a hall seating 500 people, facilities for social workers, a boardroom,

an amphitheatre, an industrial kitchen able to house a catering school, a computer room and two lecture rooms. The Chief Mogale Integrated Development project provides employment and skills training for approximately 2 000 people, 90% of which will be local. The total project development will be completed over a period of five years and will be funded through various sources of public and private financing. The development provides variety, flexibility and visual excitement, while at the same time being ecologically sound. Chief Mogale transforms the existing fragmented framework inherited by the apartheid regime and manifests into a safe, spirited, pulsating community that is socially, economically and fiscally affordable and sustainable.

PROJECT TEAM • Client: Joint initiative between the Mogale City Local municipality, the Gauteng Department of Human Settlements and ABSA DevCo • Project manager: Bigen Africa Services • Engineers: Bigen Africa Services • Civil contractors: Mivami and Moseme Construction/Lonerock • Electrical contractors: Tshepang • House builders: Uvuko Civils and Kgoni Trading • Community centre contractor: BP Masanabo



Keeping up with demands To accommodate the additional sewage flow from the Ga-Mohale and Magaliesburg areas, Mogale City Local Municipality is extending the Magaliesburg Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTW). conducted in September 2009 revealed that most of the mechanical equipment was nonoperational and in need of maintenance/refurbishment, which Mogale City has addressed.

Infrastructure development goals The existing Magaliesburg WWTW is a relatively small facility with limited redundancy and backup, and the plant upgrade and expansion will create additional infrastructure redundancy and the necessary back-up facilities. The aim of the project will be to improve the reliability of the plant operation and performance. The flow arriving at the treatment plant emanates from properties in Magaliesburg and Ga-Mohale, and is predominantly domestic in nature, although a few small industries contribute to the hydraulic and organic load. The project will aim to utilise robust, efficient and reliable treatment technologies, which have a proven record of accomplishment with MCLM. At the same time, new technologies, which can serve the works facilities for the next few decades, will be considered. The MCLM supports the initiatives being rolled out to provide infrastructure that addresses the efficient use of electrical energy and the selection of treatment technologies will be influenced by energy

FIGURE 2 Flow measurements at the plant since 2002



1200.0 1000.0 800.0 600.0 400.0 200.0

















raw water


FIGURE 1 Chemical composition of


Existing infrastructure

The existing Magaliesburg WWTW was constructed in 2002 by the Western Gauteng Services Council. The works was constructed to have a capacity of 1 100 m³/d and utilises an activated sludge process. The biological treatment system comprises of the following components: • inlet works consisting of a mechanical screen and degritting system • flow measurement chamber • racetrack-type biological reactor • Dortmund-type clarifier • sludge lagoons • sludge recycling • constructed wetlands/reed beds • disinfection (chlorine). The majority of the flow entering the works is pumped with three transferring pumping stations (graphically presented in Figure 1). Tankers are also used to transfer sewage to the works with a makeshift drop-off point provided outside the boundaries of the WWTW. Flow measurements taken downstream of the inlet works indicate that the plant has not been operating close to its capacity yet. Figure 2 represents flow measurements taken since the plant has been operational in 2002. The poor performance of the WWTW is thus not a result of the inflow exceeding its capacity. The dire situation that the WWTW is in, however, can be attributed to the poor condition of the mechanical equipment. A site visit



RO-PLAN Consulting Engineers was initially appointed by the Mogale City Local Municipality (MCLM) to provide full engineering services for the design and construction of the required extension at the Magaliesburg WWTW from 3 to 4 Mℓ/d. Since the Municipal Infrastructure Grant registration, the additional flow has been identified and it is estimated that the extension required will be two 3 Mℓ/d modules, i.e. an additional 6 Mℓ/d in two phases. The following processes are under way: • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) scoping report: the EIA is being conducted by external environmental consultants • Geotechnical investigation: a geotechnical investigation will be carried out and a final report will be compiled and submitted • Topographical survey: a topographical survey of the existing WWTW, as well as the area available for the new module has been carried out • Licensing of the WWTW: the licensing process will be done in conjunction with the EIA and will be submitted to the Department of Water Affairs by the environmental consultants.





TAlk (mg/ℓ of CaCO3)

Cl (mg/ℓ)

EC (mS/m)

TDS (mg/ℓ)

NH3-N (mg/ℓ)

NO3-N (mg/ℓ)

O-PO4 (mg/ℓ as P)

T-PO4 (mg/ℓ as P)

COD (mg/ℓ)

SS (mg/ℓ)

TKN (mg/ℓ)












































95th percentile














70th percentile














TABLE 1 Chemical composition of raw water Peak factor

Existing 1.1 Mℓ/d

Extension of 6 Mℓ/d

Ultimate capacity (7.1 Mℓ/d)

Average dry weather flow





Peak dry weather flow





Peak hourly flow





Flow rate

efficiency. The municipality plans to reduce energy usage per unit of wastewater treated with the plant expansion project. In addition, the project will consider the environmental footprint and will mitigate the potentially negative impacts, including treated wastewater discharge quality, uncontrolled wastewater discharges during unusual WWTW operating conditions (such as during electrical power interruptions) and the release of foul odours, which is mainly related to the sludge handling process.

Project design The expected flow for the developments is 5.4 Mℓ/d. It is therefore recommended that that plant be extended by 6 Mℓ/day, with two 3 Mℓ/d treatment trains. MCLM is monitoring the effluent at various stage of the process on a weekly basis. Water quality data was received from MCLM and analysed to

TABLE 2 Expected flows

obtain a clear picture of the quality of the incoming flow, as well as the performance of the treatment process. The data received spans the period October 2002 to July 2009. Table 1 indicates the weekly minimum, maximum, average and 95th percentile of key constituents measured. For the size of the developments that will be served, the peak factors and resulting peak flows as indicated in Table 2 will be accommodated in the design of the extension of the WWTW. The design will thus accommodate the attenuation of these flows as they vary throughout the day. The flow will continue to be predominately domestic in nature. It was noticed that the organic loading in the incoming flow was excessively high. After investigating, the cause of the spikes in data was pinpointed as ‘honeysuckers’ were dumping their loads right at the entrance to the plant. This has since been slightly improved by insisting that the dumping be done further upstream of the plant. However, it is recommended that water be provided to dilute this flow in order to minimise the organic loading on the treatment works. Another option is to discontinue the practice as the minimum level of service for the area is waterborne sewage reticulation.

Process overview Raw sewage entering the works will be split ahead of the existing inlet works where 1 Mℓ/d will be routed to the existing works and 6 Mℓ/d will be routed to the new works. The 6 Mℓ/d inlet works will be built in Phase 1 A new 2 Mℓ balancing tank will attenuate flows entering the new extensions Internal recycles will comprise of the following: • from aerobic to anoxic (a-recycle) – 1:6 (average) • from anoxic to anaerobic (b-recycle) – 1:1 (average) • underflow from the clarifier will be recycled back to the anaerobic zone 1:1 ratio (average) (s-recycle) via the recycle PS • Effluent (MLSS) from the activated sludge reactors will flow to the clarifiers • Overflow from the new clarifiers will be collected and transferred to the chlorine contact channels • Waste sludge from the aerobic zone and clarifier will be wasted into a sludge collection box and thickened in two sludge thickeners, before entering the existing sludge lagoons.





CFA piles to address slippage Esorfranki Geotechnical has completed a project for Transnet Capital Projects that required the design and construction of a contiguous piled wall at a railway cutting at Mahalumbe.


HE RAILWAY LINE passing through Mahalumbe is part of Transnet’s strategic 580 km CoalLink that collects coal from Mpumalanga’s 44 coal-rich mines and descends from the Highveld through rural KwaZulu-Natal, terminating at Richards Bay. The line supports coal-carrying trains of up to 23 000 t gross weight. Esorfranki Geotechnical’s Byron Field explains that the bank on one side of the railway line at the Mahalumbe cutting had started to slip due to an abundance of ground water. Slippage of the bank was causing the railway line to lift. “Various methods had been attempted to address this problem, including removing the railway line at this section, levelling the ground and then re-establishing the line,� says Field. “However, because this did not address the underlying cause, the bank soon began slipping again.

Piling six metres away from an active railway line can be hazardous. Every precaution must be taken to ensure that work continues safely

Transnet recognised that a more permanent solution was required and put the project out to tender.� Esorfranki Geotechnical was awarded the contract in February 2011 and Field says he believes the project went his company’s way because theirs was the most technically appropriate solution. “Our solution involved installing a 200 metre-long contiguous piled wall along the full length of the slip,� he explains. “We installed 600 diameter Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) piles at 1.5 m intervals, from ground level down to bedrock, which varied from 12


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FROM ABOVE LEFT High-voltage power lines were operational 24/7 and in some cases were as close as three metres from the crane The top section of each pile must be carefully trimmed to the correct level so that the capping beam can be constructed over the top A continuously reinforced 0.8 m by 0.8 m capping beam connects all of the piles so that the entire wall works together. Recessed sockets were installed at 1.5 m intervals to make allowance for anchors to be installed at a later date should they be necessary

to 15 m. We then cast an 800 mm by 800 mm capping beam across the top of the piles at ground level to ensure that all the piles would act in unison if a further slip occurred.� In this event, the ground behind the piles would move only as far as the piles and be firmly retained as this type of pile can withstand immense loads. “As a further safeguard against the unpredictable ground movement, we left recesses in the capping beam at 1.5 m intervals to make allowance for the possibility of installing anchors at a later stage,� continues Field.


“If the bank should continue to slip, we would be able to install anchors through these sockets for further reinforcement.� CFA piling is an Esorfranki Geotechnical speciality and offers the benefits of high productivity and economy in certain soil conditions as well as being vibration-free. There is limited noise levels and there are no requirements for the casings or drilling fluids required with conventional bored piles. The CFA process ensures that during the drilling stage, the drilled walls remain supported by either the drill auger or the fill material.


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Concrete and bitumen


HEN IT COMES to road construction, the durability and sustainability of bitumen and concrete make them the two most popular choices of material. Even though it was a costly exercise to import bitumen toward the end of 2011 (due to the recent shortage at local refineries resulting mainly from maintenance complications), clients were just happy that the product was available locally, proving its popularity. Concrete, on the other hand, has been hailed as a sustainable and economically viable material

for use in construction. But while there’s no denying that concrete is the most commonly used building material on the planet, its initial high manufacturing cost could be cause for concern. And although concrete is such a widely used product globally, bitumen has dominated in the construction of many national roads throughout South Africa. Despite this, numerous durability tests have been performed on both products, so there’s no denying the strength in asphalt and concrete, ultimately leaving the decision up to the consultant/contractor of the project.

By Candice Landie

With ageing infrastructure and increased road maintenance costs being such a costly affair, Candice Landie facilitates this panel discussion, which addresses the issue of quality road construction. The discussion looks at the preferred choice in road construction material, the latest advances in cement and bitumen, the issues surrounding sustainability and durability of both road construction materials, the environmental impact in the manufacturing processes, and the stabilisers, seals and pavement polymers currently available in the marketplace.



Since its inception at the beginning of July, the new IMIESA weekly e-newsletter is proving to be hugely popular, with a total of 5 640 subscribers already receiving their copy directly every week.

Su ubsscribe now to the weekly IMIESA e-new wsleƩer or the most up-to-daate news in the indu ustry! fo To subscribe e-mail | Send your press releases & event information to

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QUALITY ROAD CONSTRUCTION ROD CLAUS – Technical marketing manager – FIBERTEX SOUTH AFRICA Q What is your core business function? RC Fibertex South Africa is an ISO 9001 accredited company that manufactures the international range of Fibertex geotextiles and is a supplier of geosynthetic products. These are used in construction, road rehabilitation, waste disposal sites, erosion control and hydraulic applications. Fibertex works closely with Geotextiles Africa cc as our national distributor of Fibertex geotextiles, which in turn collectively markets and sells the range of geosynthetic products.

Bitumen and asphalt continue to dominate the construction of national roads in South Africa. Why so? National, provincial and municipal surfaced road systems are designed and constructed to a set of minimum engineering standards to withstand traffic volume and loading. Roads have a projected life cycle before a determined minimum rehabilitation is undertaken. The rural gravel roads system is constructed utilising the best locally available gravel material. Maintenance is assessed and undertaken on an annual basis by means of reinstating the existing material to a suitable ride and quality. There is an increased requirement for the upgrading of gravel road systems to a surfaced quality. This is, once again, undertaken to the prescribed design standards, requiring engineered layers and surfacing, be it asphalt or concrete. There is ongoing research into usage of alternative materials and techniques in road construction and surfacing, particularly in low-volume roads. Road rehabilitation geotextiles have been successfully used for

the past 25 years internationally and locally in the upgrading of these gravel roads. However, acceptance has been limited locally due to ‘conservatism’ and also bound by regulatory engineering practice.

What are the challenges facing the road industry, and what new developments are currently under way? Challenges facing the road industry are the ageing road infrastructure and high volumes, together with a lack of maintenance and funds. Poor drainage is another root cause. The funds being allocated by national, provincial and municipal treasuries on an annual basis will never reduce the backlog in the rehabilitation of our road system. We are still awaiting the full roll-out of the promised ‘multi-billion rand pot hole repair initiative’ by national government. Maintaining our surfaced roads system is generally undertaken by repairing potholes, which invariably have to be repaired again in short succession. There are also crack-sealing techniques, which have limited effect and longevity.

The more substantial rehabilitation is by means of use of different types of surface seals and overlays. These are also constructed to certain national, provincial and municipal standards using mechanised construction techniques. On more deteriorated roads, milling of the existing surface and then reconstruction are undertaken. However, the rehabilitation is often short-lived due to inadequate

pre-treatment and sealing of the existing road prior to the overlay. The use of geotextile stress-relieving and waterproofing interlayers would eliminate this problem. The use of alternative methods and labour-based initiatives are continually being looked at for construction and rehabilitation, where geosynthetics are ideally suited, becoming more accepted and have a greater role to play. Fibertex is continually striving to improve existing products offered and create new solutions. One area pertinent to the road sector is subsoil drainage where conventional subsoil drains are replaced with composite fin drains or geocomposite drainage systems. The second is the range of ‘road rehabilitation’ products and solutions that directly address potholing, cracksealing and full-width sealing prior to resurfacing. On more stressed road pavements, the use of the

projects itself, but supplies materials to contractors undertaking projects for municipalities and government departments. One project was the new interchange at the intersection of the N2 at Ballito on the KwaZuluNatal North Coast. A geotextile was used as a separation and filter layer for the new on- and offramps at the interchange. Our vast international experience, professional advice and forthcoming assistance ensured our involvement with the Polokwane airport road project rehabilitation. A stress-relieving and waterproofing geotextile was placed below the new asphalt concrete overlay.

We are still awaiting the full roll-out of the promised ‘multibillion rand pot hole repair initiative’ by national government

reinforcing geosynthetic systems and products can also be used. A third area is the use of cellular systems, which are used in construction of a concrete, flexible, cast in-situ paving system. This is an ideal labour-based system.

Your top two biggest municipal projects undertaken by Fibretex? Fibertex does not undertake

With regard to road construction, what solutions can you offer municipalities? Fibertex and its distributor Geotextiles Africa offer a costeffective and proven range of

Far left Ballito Interchange KNS construction From left Polokwane Airport road rehabilitation

products, which meet international specifications for road reconstruction and rehabilitation. This is backed up with experienced and qualified personnel who offer full technical advice. The products are based on the most cost-effective solutions and international best practice.




COLAS PAVING THE WAY FORWARD with Colmat, a cold microsurfacing paving system The Colas cold microsurfacing paving system is the most economical way to repair and waterproof paved road surfaces. s s s s


Branches South Africa Cape Town Durban Johannesburg Port Elizabeth Kenya Nairobi Namibia Okahandja Zambia Ndola Depots Bloemfontein East London Hectorspruit


QUALITY ROAD CONSTRUCTION THIERRY MADELON – Managing director – COLAS Q What is your core business function? TM Colas in South Africa is a nationwide supplier and applicator of binders, including bitumen emulsions, modified bitumen, bitumen rubber and cut backs. We are engaged with our partners on the entire bitumen supply chain to find reliable solutions for our customers’ bitumen supply. Our core values are safety, ubuntu, quality, continuous innovation and customer focus. We strive to reflect them in our actions inside and outside our company.

There is much talk about the sustainability of concrete, but how does bitumen fair on the ‘green’ marker? The bitumen industry has worked for a long time to make our products more environmentally friendly. Our company’s name comes from ‘Cold asphalt’ and came about in the late 1920s with the advent of bitumen emulsions which made road maintenance cleaner and safer. Emulsions today are the basis of many environmentally friendly construction and maintenance techniques; seals, stabilisation and resurfacing can be carried out at ambient temperatures in a safe manner. Bituminous pavements are also very easy to recycle: an ageing premix pavement can be milled and the material reused to manufacture new material, which eliminates waste and saves aggregates and bitumen. Modern premix plants can incorporate 30% of recycled material on a routine basis and up to 50% for some mixes. Those are rates which compare very favourably to any other industry. There is also a push across the industry to lower application temperatures, reduce emissions and increase worker safety with

warm-mix techniques for premix and emulsions for seals. There is always work to do, but bitumen is getting greener.

Bitumen and asphalt continue to dominate the construction of roads in South Africa? Why so? Cost: bitumen-based techniques like thin premix or seals are still the solutions requiring smaller cash outlays for many types of roads. It is hard to think of a technique that can compete with a single seal for the surfacing of a secondary road, for instance. Ease of maintenance: bituminous pavements are easy to maintain in terms of cost and minimal inconvenience to users. An existing premix road can be milled, patched and resurfaced in the course of one or two shifts, with traffic being allowed on the construction area during peak travel times. As we mentioned above, bituminous pavements are also 100% recyclable, a definite plus for the environment and owners’ budgets. Quality and performance for drivers: bituminous pavements are flexible, allowing projects to proceed successfully, even if there is some settling of the sub-grade (there are limits of course). Premix pavements give an unmatched comfort to the users in terms of noise and overall ride quality. Seals and premix overlays can be designed to guarantee long-lasting ruggedness, texture for shorter braking distances and increased safety.

technology are currently under way? We have to match the bitumen supply available in South Africa to the increasing demand. We are working with many other industry members on this and are confident that solutions are being worked out and implemented. We also have to focus on attracting and training young people. Infrastructure construction and maintenance is one of the sectors where there can be significant and broad-based growth of employment that can benefit society at large. Recruiting and training is a must for our companies as our skilled workforce is ageing; this should be an opportunity for young people who are eager to learn and contribute. The current debate about funding is also critical for our industry. Should infrastructure be paid for through taxes or user fees, or a mix of both? The only thing I would say is that infrastructure cannot be taken for granted and that dedicated source of funding must be allocated to its construction and maintenance. If not, it decays (potholes, cracks in bridges) and then dies (bridges fall, roads are

Premix pavements give unmatched comfort to the users in terms of noise and overall ride quality

impassable). I would also add the industry does have an excellent asset in many of its people; from South Africa National Roads Agency Limited to the smallest municipality, from the biggest contractor to the smallest SMME firm, you can find hardworking and dedicated people who really care about what they do and who come up with sensible and creative ideas in the best interest of the public. They will find solutions to these challenges.

What is your market share and what does the major plant and equipment owned by Colas include? We operate in Namibia, Zambia and Kenya through subsidiaries there, all focused on the supply, logistics and application of binders. We have major emulsion and modified binder plants in Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg, which are all ISO 9001 certified. Our plant in Cape Town is ISO 14001 certified – another proof that bitumen can be environmentally friendly. We also have depots in Port Elizabeth, East London, Bloemfontein and Hectorspruit that give us a true nationwide coverage. We operate a fleet of state-of-theart sprayers, bitumen rubber blenders and micro-sur facing machines throughout South Africa, supported by haulers and mobile storages.

What challenges is the road industry facing, and what new developments/ IMIESA APRIL 2012





QUALITY ROAD CONSTRUCTION PAUL OLIVIER – Director – JEFFARES & GREEN Q With regard to road construction/ rehabilitation, what services do you offer? PO Jeffares & Green offers the full spectrum of consulting services for new or greenfields roads, as well as for the rehabilitation and upgrading of existing roads. The services include feasibility studies, route determination, preliminary design, initial and detail assessment for rehabilitation purposes, detail design, tender documentation, construction administration and supervision, road and pavement management systems, as well as expert witness services. Jeffares & Green has experience in all types of urban and rural roads such as gravel, upgrading from gravel to surfaced, local township networks, major urban arterials, rural single carriageways and urban and rural highways.

There is much debate over the use of concrete versus bitumen in road. What are your thoughts on the use of these two materials? We will probably continue to have this debate for many years to come. They both provide excellent road building materials and surfaces, as long as they are used in the correct application. Each has its advantages and disadvantages, and it is important to ensure the correct specification for a particular application. I believe that we will continue to see them both being used for the foreseeable future. Bitumen is an excellent waterproofing binder and also improves material strengthening to create asphalt, the flexible properties of which ensure our ability to build cost-effective roads. Cement, on the other hand, is a marvellous product from which we can

manufacture the concrete used to construct pavements, and it’s hard-standing, hard-wearing and durable, and it requires less maintenance.

Bitumen and asphalt continue to dominate the construction of national roads in South Africa? Why so? They continue to provide us with the two of the best road construction materials we have for both bases and surfacing. Our national road network covers many climatic regions, rainfall areas, geological formations and, hence, subgrade conditions, as well as traffic intensity and types of heavy vehicles. As a result of this, there will continuously be the need for implementing two pavement types, namely, flexible and rigid.

Dynatest is a leading international company which develops road condition measuring equipment and systems. It is my view that the latest and exciting developments in laser imaging of the road surface will dominate for the next decade.

What are your top two roads projects since 2010 and the materials chosen for each one? The first project is most certainly the 80 km dual carriageway rehabilitation design of the National Route 1 (N1) from Pretoria going north to Bela Bela. The road was built in the 70s

There will continuously be the need for implementing two pavement types, namely, flexible and rigid

actions have been carried out since then. We have recently completed an intensive design process and are currently supervising construction through a number of phased contracts. The rehabilitation actions are typically heavy rehabilitation of the slow lane and resur facing of the fast lane and shoulders. Asphalt has been chosen for the base and sur facing for the following main reasons: moisture sensitivity, flexibility and load carr ying capacity. Our second project is the elimination of the block paving at three toll plazas on the National Route 2 (N2) in KwaZulu-Natal. The specifics of the plazas were such that we have designed a different type of concrete pavement at each of the three plazas, namely a ‘typical’ jointed pavement, a ‘typical’ continuously reinforced pavement and the latest new developing technology of an ultra-thin continuously reinforced concrete pave-

What challenges is the road industry facing, and what new developments/ technology are currently under way? Given the backlog we now have with maintaining our road network asset, the immediate challenge is to ensure that the current condition of our road networks is well captured and documented so that the optimum benefit is obtained from the funds we have to spend across the network. Since the early 90s, we have collaborated with Dynatest International, through our joint venture company, in pavement data collection and processing through management systems to provide optimal fund allocation for maintenance and rehabilitation of road networks.

N1 road rehabilitation

and had to undergo extensive rehabilitation in the 80s as a result of the damage caused by the extensive clay sub-grades present. Various rehabilitation

ment. Concrete was chosen due to its ability to withstand slow moving and braking, or accelerating heavy vehicles, as well as its hard wearing sur face and its low maintenance over a long design period.



Choosing a concrete road is choosing a sustainable solution marketing sustainable concrete through advice, education & information


QUALITY ROAD CONSTRUCTION BRYAN PERRIE – Managing director – CEMENT AND CONCRETE INSTITUTE Q What is the Cement and Concrete Institute’s core business function?

construction of concrete pavements, which includes the use of the software. In addition, a number of free publications are available. More recently, sustainability has become a hot topic and in addition to a general publication on concrete sustainability, a new book on sustainability of concrete pavements was recently launched.

Although concrete has been hailed as a sustainable construction material due to its long lifespan, its initial manufacturing cost is still cause for concern. How true is this statement?

risk analysis in pavement design utilising the Monte Carlo simulation technique. This takes into account the variability of each input by combining the variability the individual inputs to generate a probability distribution for the LCCA cost. The results then are not just one value, but a whole distribution on what possible values could be. This approach has been used in cncPave, the mechanistic design procedure for concrete pavements developed by C&CI.

Concrete is a widelyused building material, but its dominance seems to lack in the South African road construction industry. Why is this?

The initial investment cost is often and misguidedly used as a primary economic criterion. This approach can be erroneous in purely economic terms if the costs of maintaining the new structure are excessive. The useful lifetime of a pavement clearly plays an important role. There are mathematical and probabilistic models that can provide support for decision-makers taking strategic long-term decisions of this kind in the context of short-term budgetary restrictions. The life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is an example of a decision-support technique that helps in assessing the long-term return of alternative investment options. One of the main problems with a deterministic approach to LCCA is that it uses single values for the inputs and calculates a single value for the output. An approach is to use a probabilistic-based

Despite all the benefits and advantages that concrete roads have, consultants and contractors are resistant to change and tend to stay with what they are comfortable doing. There is also a perception that concrete is only suitable for heavily loaded roads, such as those on the national routes. This is not the case and there are a large number of projects to prove that concrete pavements are suitable for all types of roads. The C&CI has a focus area dealing with the promotion of concrete roads to change perceptions of clients, consultants and contractors. In support of these efforts, C&CI has developed easy-to-use software called cncPave. This software is available for free download at EN/Content/Pages/Roads-andPaving/cncPave. The Institute also runs a course on design and

One of the biggest challenges is convincing roads authorities and their political masters of the huge financial benefits of timeous maintenance and rehabilitation of road infrastructure and not waiting until serious distress is apparent. Another challenge is the lack of capacity within most road authorities and their ability to spend their allocated budgets. It is critical that the large amount of money budgeted for infrastructure is actually spent. Concrete pavements have a crucial role to play in the provision of new infrastructure because of all the sustainable benefits mentioned previously and even more so in

BP The Cement and Concrete Institute’s (C&CI) core business function is to grow the market for concrete. It does so by providing information, technical, education and research services to potential and existing users, decision makers and influencers in South Africa. Information is available from a very well-equipped information centre or via the free advisory service offered. The School of Concrete Technology offers a wide range of courses at all levels.

There are a large number of projects to prove that concrete pavements are suitable for all types of roads

What challenges is the road industry facing, and what new developments/ technology are currently under way?

the upgrading of existing pavement infrastructure. Concrete overlays and inlays provide an ideal solution for the upgrading of existing asphalt and unsurfaced pavements for all categories of traffic. The development of ultrathin concrete pavements has added to the various types of concrete pavements available to the design engineer. The C&CI believes there is an extremely important role for concrete pavements in conjunction with other pavement types to utilise the best qualities of each material. In this regard, the Institute is promoting the use of composite pavements as opposed to an ‘all or nothing’ approach. This approach allows for a transverse, longitudinal or vertical combination of pavement materials. In the transverse case, concrete can be used in the slower lanes carrying heavier traffic with asphalt in the fast lanes; in the longitudinal case, concrete can be used in the area of steep grades where rutting of asphalt is a problem. In the vertical option, concrete can be used to provide a long-life supporting structure with an asphalt overlay to address serviceability issues.







QUALITY ROAD CONSTRUCTION DR REINHOLD AMTSBÜCHLER – Head of the Quality Department of Southern Africa – LAFARGE INDUSTRIES SOUTH AFRICA Q What is your core business function? Dr RA Lafarge is the world leader in building materials and is at the forefront of building innovation in the cement, concrete, aggregates and gypsum markets. The company offers its customers stateof-the-art products at exceptional prices and with excellent service. Innovation is the cornerstone of the Lafarge business with the company continually inventing socially responsible products, which promote sustainable construction to enhance the preservation of the planet.

Although concrete has been hailed as a sustainable construction material due to its long lifespan, its initial manufacturing cost is still cause for concern. How true is this statement? It is important to note that concrete has long-term benefits. So despite the fact that it is initially more expensive, the maintenance costs associated with concrete roads are much more affordable when compared to other road surfaces. Well-designed and constructed concrete offers exceptional durability and long life in any structure. The sustainability of concrete can be linked to the use of Lafarge’s extended cement range which decreases CO2 emissions, resulting in positive environmental, social and economic impacts. The industry is also looking into ways of recycling concrete.

Concrete is a widely used building material, but its

dominance seems to lack in the South African road construction industry. Why is this? This is mostly cost dependent. The growing infrastructure in South Africa requires many more kilometres of roads. Since decisions are often made based on finances available, tar roads are often the preferred choice as they are more affordable. Unfortunately, the maintenance of the road then becomes expensive in the long term. Lafarge has supported the Concrete and Cement Institute in undertaking various concrete road studies. The result of one of these studies was the use of ultrathin, high-strength overlays that strengthen the top surface of the road, which has been highly successful. Ultrathin concrete overlays have an extended life expectancy of about 40 years, which is aided by the fact that it is resistant to oils, chemicals and high temperatures. It requires resurfacing once or twice in its lifetime, whereas a typical asphalt road needs a strict maintenance programme to keep it in good condition, starting within two years of placement. In order to improve on the quality of the tar road network in South Africa, Lafarge launched a specialised cementitious binder called Roadcem, which enhances soil stabilisation in the base of the road. Stabilisation is used to overcome deficiencies in available material by enhancing the material properties for pavement design

purposes. Roadcem is a specially designed road binder that controls the plasticity and enhances the strength of various road making materials to ensure even road travelling.

What are the challenges that the road industry is facing, and what new developments/technology are currently under way? The major challenges are centred around costs and sourcing shortterm cost-effective solutions to

The result of one of these studies was the use of ultra-thin, high-strength overlays that strengthen the top surface of the road meet the increasing traffic in South Africa. The mindset of the road industry needs to change to better understand the long-term benefits of concrete with its known long-term durability properties. A

good start would be to use the ultra-thin concrete overlays and soil stabilisation, which offer a much more sustainable and long-term cost saving in terms of maintenance.

Based on internal and external analysis in 2010, Lafarge was the world’s third largest producer of aggregates and second largest producer of ready-mix concrete. To what does the company owe its dominance and success in the marketplace? The core of Lafarge’s success can be attributed to its innovative culture, which results in technical expertise generating solution-based products to suit our customers’ needs. Our worldrenowned Research Centre in Lyon, France, has engineered and patented many successful products to support the demands of our markets.

Upgrading Section 19 of the N12 Freeway on the eastern side of Johannesburg: The interesting aspect of this project is the use of ultra-thin continuously reinforced concrete paving (CRCP). Lafarge Cement supplied the Powercrete Plus for the CRCP mix and Rapidcem, its innovative CEM II, for the ultra-thin CRCP




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QUALITY ROAD CONSTRUCTION JOHN ONRAET – Director: Marketing – MUCH ASPHALT What is your core business function? JO Much Asphalt is Southern Africa’s largest commercial supplier of hot and cold asphalt products to the road construction industry. The company strives to achieve sustainable growth by forming tactical alliances and partnerships, and by strategically positioning static and mobile mixing plants in the developing regions of sub-Saharan Africa.

There is much talk about the sustainability of concrete but how does asphalt fare on the ‘green’ market? Great strides in asphalt manufacturing technology have resulted in lower emissions during the production process, reduced temperature mixes, lower energy usage, high modulus (stiffer) and longer-lasting products, the inclusion of high volumes of recycled asphalt, warm and half-warm asphalt mixes using foamed Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project

bitumen and sophisticated, efficient dust collection and gas management systems.

asphalt, particularly when recycling is factored into the life cycle costing.

Why does bitumen dominate the local road construction industry?

What are the challenges facing the road industry and what new developments/technology are currently under way?

(1) The ratio of ‘greenfields construction of new roads’ to ‘maintenance, rehabilitation and upgrading of existing roads’ is approximately 15%:85%, and asphalt is by far the quickest and easiest option in the maintenance and rehabilitation context. (2) In the rehabilitation context, recycling and reuse of asphalt that has exceeded its design life is now the norm and comprises up to 50% of the new mix in some cases. This saves cost and makes a valuable contribution to saving our natural resources. (3) The cost-effectiveness of

Challenges include the availability of bitumen, which has become an enormous problem in South Africa in recent years, as well as the ability of government to unlock infrastructure spend and the shortage of skilled road construction people. New developments include low-energy-use products (warm mix asphalt) and more durable, longer-lasting asphalt mixes.

Recycling and reuse of asphalt that has exceeded its design life is now the norm and comprises up to 50% of the new mix in some cases

Who makes up Much Asphalt’s customer base and does the company have any accreditations?

In terms of the marketplace, Much Asphalt is positioned to supply a large variety of asphalt products for all types of roads, from short access roads to commercial parking areas, tennis courts, private developments and factory yards, as well as pedestrian walkways and domestic driveways, municipal streets, provincial proclaimed roads and national freeways and highways. Much Asphalt also has the capacity and capability to design and supply complex asphalt mixtures to airports and runways of all sizes. The company applies specialist technologies to provide high-stress resistant asphalt for industrial flooring, including factor y flooring, road transport storage depots, militar y bases for tanks and cable yards for electrical equipment. With regard to accreditations, Much Asphalt is SABS ISO 9001 (2008) Quality Management Systems listed and a SANS 17025 (2005) accredited testing facility, as well as a Level 3 B-BBEE contributor.



The long and winding road


Almost three decades of experience in road projects lays testament to a solid reputation for innovation and effectiveness. It proves that Zebra Surfacing is a sought after provider of black top surfacing, road rehabilitation and road maintenance services to the public and private sector. For more information contact us at: T +27 (0)21 761 3474 E


QUALITY ROAD CONSTRUCTION JONATHAN PEARCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical manager â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ZEBRA SURFACING Q What is your core business function? JP Zebra Surfacing provides black top surfacing, road rehabilitation and road maintenance services to the public and private sector.

What are the main reasons for bitumen's dominance in the local road industry? The adhesive and waterproofing properties of bitumen have reportedly been used since the third millennium BC. What makes bitumen unique is its viscoelastic properties, which enable it to operate in some ways like a thick liquid and in some ways like an elastic. To date, we have been able to use bitumen in combination with graded aggregates and other components to produce asphalt layers and seals that are able to cope with almost any traffic loadings. It is important to note that sur face seals are designed purely to protect the underlying granular layers and do not provide any structural strength. Asphalt, on the other hand, can provide the structural strength to replace failed layers in a pavement structure, which makes it ideal for rehabilitation and maintenance. The inconvenience to road users resulting from an asphalt maintenance or rehabilitation operation is a fraction of what could be expected from the replacement of granular layers. The only other sur facing material that provides a significant challenge to asphalt is concrete and there have been recent attempts to develop thinner, stronger concrete layers to tr y and compete with the cost of asphalt sur facing while providing a more durable sur face. The asphalt industr y is watching these developments with keen interest, but does not expect to see significant changes

in the volume of bitumen and asphalt used.

What are the challenges facing the road industry and what new developments are currently under way? The high cost and tenuous availability of aggregates and bitumen have featured in the media recently and there is still no real consensus on the long-term solution for these issues. Rapidly increasing traffic volumes and vehicle loads are placing ever-increasing strain on road networks and sur faces that were never designed to cope with them. There has also been a significant loss of skills and expertise in the construction industr y in general. With the road construction industr y possibly being the least attractive of all construction disciplines, this has hit hard right where the rubber meets the road! Zebra Sur facing has worked hard at retaining and developing skills, and I believe we are uniquely placed as an experienced sur facing contractor with the right mix of experience and innovation. Keeping up with international best practice and new products and processes has always been important to us, and a strong focus on research and development continues to be one of our strengths. This includes continuing interest in the development of warm-mix asphalt, high modulus asphalt and the increased use of reclaimed asphalt.

Cite the top two biggest municipal projects undertaken by Zebra Surfacing? In terms of complexity and the sheer scale and visibility of work, the two projects that spring to mind are the sur faced routes associated with the new Cape Town Stadium and associated works, and the sur facing works on the Integrated Rapid Transit corridors, which is still ongoing. The sur facing around the new stadium was per formed under immense pressure in terms of deadlines and at a time when previously unheard-of volumes of construction work were taking place simultaneously. The IRT system was subject to similar deadlines linked to the 2010 World Cup tournament and some innovative products were called for and supplied, including a variety of texture treatments and colours.

Surface seals are designed to protect the underlying granular layers and do not provide structural strength

With regard to road/ pavement construction,

what solutions can you offer municipalities in terms of cost-effective and quality service? Some municipalities are completely over whelmed by the backlog in road maintenance. Coupled with a serious skills shortage at construction and management level, this can lead to a situation where infrastructure managers find it hard to quantify the problem and budget requests are hard to justify. Zebra Sur facing provides a comprehensive ser vice that can include any or all of the following: preparation of a tender document suitable for maintenance and reseal operations, physical assessment of roads and production of budget estimates, the engagement and development of emerging contractors, and professional application of proven sur facing materials by skilled and experienced personnel. In addition, Zebra Sur facing has developed a range of sur facing products specifically to address the issues that have become common in our experience, such as the cost-effective resur facing of lightly trafficked roads and restoring skid resistance to higher-speed routes.

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For more information call our toll-free line on 0800 023 470 or visit

amount of regular 32,5 N general-purpose cement. Imagine how much further your vision could go with 15% extra.

strength properties which allow you to make at least 15% more bricks or blocks of the same strength, compared with the same

You can now make 15% more bricks when you buy improved PPC SureBuild 42,5 N cement. SureBuild 42,5 N Cement has improved


QUALITY ROAD CONSTRUCTION STEVE CROSSWELL – Technical support manager (Coastal) – PPC CEMENT Q What is your core business function? SC PPC’s core business function is the manufacture of cement, lime and aggregates. The company manufactures Portland cement, CEM I 52.5 N, under the trade name OPC; Portland composite cement, CEM II B 42.5 N, under the trade name SureBuild; various lime products; ground-granulated corex slag in the Western Cape; and aggregates in the Gauteng area. It also manufactures cement in Zimbabwe and Botswana, and supplies aggregates in Botswana. PPC is the largest cement manufacturer in Southern Africa.

Although concrete has been hailed as a sustainable construction material due to its long lifespan, its initial manufacturing cost is still cause of concern. How true is this statement? I don’t think the initial manufacturing cost of concrete is too much of a cause for concern. One has to cost a pavement over its

lifetime, including all maintenance costs and salvage value, if any. Depending on traffic loadings, soil conditions and location, concrete pavements will be either the most economical option or they won’t be. I think a greater cause for concern at the moment is the shortage of bitumen, which is causing serious delays and cost overruns on many current projects. As far as the sustainability of concrete is concerned, the Cement and Concrete Institute (C&CI) has recently published a book called Sustainable Concrete, which is available for download at no cost on its website:

the most economical option. Historically, South Africa has followed British design practice in many fields of engineering and ‘modern’ concrete pavements only developed in Britain after World War II. In Germany and the United States, however, there is a much longer history of successful use of concrete pavements. The first concrete freeway in South Africa was only constructed in the late 1960s, and one can see that since then there has been quite extensive use of concrete for heavily trafficked routes in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng. The credit for this must go to the work done by the C&CI, by Louis Marais and Bryan Perrie in particular. PPC encourages the promotion of concrete paving – and concrete block paving – through its support of the C&CI and the Concrete Manufacturers’ Association.

I don’t think the manufacturing cost of concrete is too much of a cause for concern

Concrete seems to lack dominance in the South African road construction industry. Why is this so? The reasons are partly historical and partly practical in that concrete paving is not always

PPC’s De Hoek factory where kiln 6 is being upgraded as part of PPC’s Western Cape capacity expansion plan

What are the challenges facing industry, and what

new developments are currently under way? I believe the main challenges will be skills and project management issues rather than materials issues. The main problem, in my opinion, will be finding suitably qualified and experienced people to manage projects, both from the contracting side and, probably more critically, on the clients’ (mostly government) side. As far as PPC is concerned, the company is investing heavily in training and details can be found on our website at www. and in our annual report, which is also available on the website.

Briefly outline PPC’s involvement in the Western Cape Expansion (Riebeeck Project). It is solely a PPC project to replace old capacity. This is to ensure that there is modern, efficient and environmentally friendly capacity to ensure supply for all development in the Western Cape. The project is on track and details can be found on our website and in our annual report.




QUALITY ROAD CONSTRUCTION PEET VENTER – Product sales manager – OSBORN* Q What is your core business function? PV Osborn provides the world mining and quarry markets with a full range of crushers, feeders, screens and conveyors. We are reputed to be one of South Africa’s foremost materials handling contractors, and we also specialise in skid-mounted crushing and screening plants. In addition, Osborn is the official South African original equipment manufacturer (OEM) dealer for Roadtec – supplier of the Shuttle Buggy materials transfer vehicle (MTV). Roadtec is a part of Astec Industries, a corporation known as a world leader in asphalt technology.

Ageing road infrastructure is a huge cause for concern. What developments/ technologies can assist with this problem? The SB-2500 Shuttle Buggy MTV, the biggest in its range, can store and transfer hot-mixed asphalt material from a truck to a paver for continuous paving. A patented anti-segregation auger remixes materials just before they are delivered to the asphalt paver. The 25 t surge capacity of the Shuttle Buggy MTV allows trucks to unload material immediately and return to the

asphalt plant – adding that extra convenience and time-saving factor, which is essential in road construction. According to a case study documented with the Washington State Department of Transportation (USA), “The detrimental effects of low compaction temperatures or aggregate segregation have been documented for at least 40 years. Lower compaction temperatures are directly related to an increase in air void content, which decreases the strength of the paved road surface. Even with a perfect mix design, if the mix is not properly compacted in the field, the final product will not last for its intended length of time.” The study also found that although no one single piece of equipment or operation will guarantee that temperature differentials will not occur, techniques can be utilised to offset the effects of the temperature differentials. This is where the intelligent store and immediate transfer of hot-mix asphalt and anti-segregation mixers on the SB-2500 Shuttle Buggy

offered by Roadtec? comes into play: aiding in alleviating the problems associated with temperature differentials.

What other products are available in the Roadtec range? Roadtec offers an extensive line of pavers that we consider to be the most reliable and maintenancefree pavers in the industry. They are simply designed and well balanced for maximum tractive effort and can be equipped with a variety of screeds, all with electric heat as standard equipment. Products include asphalt pavers, asphalt screeds, transfer vehicles, milling machines, in-place recycling and brooms. Each product features different machines designed to specification. Full product information, descriptions and specifications are available on

"If the mix is not properly compacted in the field, the final product will not last for its intended length of time”

With regard to parts and services, what support is

Full support is provided by Osborn for all Roadtec units sold in RSA and neighbouring African Countries. In addition, service procedure documents for the Shuttle Buggy are available for download on the Roadtec website. These include hydraulic pressure settings, engine fault code diagnostics, brake release procedure, lower procedure and manual hood raise procedure. In addition, Roadtec also maintains a complete supply of replacement parts for Roadtec and competitive brand equipment, as well as a parts catalogue for competitive branded parts. Even more impressive is the Roadtec Rebuild service, which offers the following: • rebuild all major brands of pavers, MTVs, cold planers and stabilisers • rebuild components of all equipment • rebuild equipment • technical training programmes to help staff assess wear and performance • complete component exchange programmes for conveyors, hydraulics and more • machine updates and aftermarket upgrades. *Official OEM dealers for Roadtec in South Africa

Right The infrared photographic evidence of paving with and without a Shuttle Buggy MTV. The photo at the top is without a Shuttle Buggy, the bottom with a Shuttle Buggy Below Another successful commissioning of the Shuttle Buggy MTV in South Africa



SASTT contact details: Web: President: Andries Lรถtz Tel: (011) 688 1483 Fax: (011) 688 1524 E-mail: Honorary director: Joop van Wamelen Tel: (012) 567 4026 Fax: 086 668 4026 E-mail:


No-Dig India Summit 2012 The International Society for Trenchless Technology (ISTT) has announced that No-Dig India Summit 2012 is to be held in Bangalore, 14 to 15 May this year.


HE EVENT is one of a series of regional education and training events organised by ISTT. The conference features the ISTT Trenchless Masterclass – a programme of presentations by international experts Dr Samuel Ariaratnam and Dr Dec Downey, who will share their expertise on a broad range of trenchless installation and repair techniques. The programme will also include practical

examples of case studies to complement the masterclass topics. “India’s programmes to modernise its underground utility systems present exciting opportunities for the trenchless industry to introduce new products and techniques in this rapidly expanding market,” comments Ariaratnam, chairman of ISTT. “The masterclass programmes have been extremely well

received in other countries and we are looking forward to presenting to a new audience in India where early indications suggest that a top-quality educational programme will be welcomed.” No-dig India Summit 2012 is organised on behalf of ISTT by UK-based Westrade Group Ltd. For more information visit



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Pipeline technology popular in Africa Over the past couple of years, the Rare Group has undertaken numerous Swagelining projects for the mining sector across the continent.


INES IN AFRICA have limited resources in terms of reliable local service companies, so they often make use of South African companies that happen to be on site and have the necessary skills and equipment to help out with engineering problems beyond the scope of the work they’re there to do in the first place.

Rare Congo, our affiliate company at Kolwezi,” explains Van Coller. Swagelining technology is used for corrosion prevention and life extension of new and existing pipelines used in a range of industry applications, such as mining slurry, gas, potable water, sewage, water injection, crude oil, cement and chemicals.

The aim is to maximise pulling lengths, which leads to reduced numbers of connections and excavations

Looking down a 870 m section of rehabilitated pipeline

“Our involvement in Africa began when we installed a new Swagelining slurry pipeline at a mine near Kolwezi just over a year ago,” says Rare operations director Wally van Coller. “Mine management was so satisfied with the service they got from us that they asked us to do a couple of other small jobs since we had the people and equipment on site. This rapidly escalated into bigger projects and today we have over 100 people employed at

leads to reduced numbers of connections and excavations. The Swagelining technique uses a naturally reverting recovery system after installation. The liner is installed into a host pipe by pulling it through a reduction die using a winch, which temporarily reduces its diameter, allowing for easy installation. Once it is pulled completely through the pipe, the pulling force is removed and the liner returns to its original diameter, pressing tightly

The Swagelining system is the insertion of liners into pipelines of up to 60” (1.52 m) in diameter for structural and non-structural applications. It works by installing a tight-fitting polymer liner into new or existing pipelines by designing and constructing a liner that has an outside diameter slightly larger than the inside diameter of the pipe to be lined. The aim is to maximise pulling lengths, which in turn







Swagelining is an interactive tight fitting HDPE liner extending the service life of pressure pipes and is suitable for the rehabilitation of: Sewer Pumping Mains Water Distribution Mains Petrochemical & Gas pipelines Mine Tailings pipelines

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against the inside wall of the host pipe. The tight-fitting polymer liner results in a flow capacity close to that of the original pipeline. The Swagelining system uses high-density polyethylene liners (HDPE), which offer a range of benefits to the mining industry with regard to asset integrity. The polymer is highly resistant to abrasion, which increases the lifespan of the pipeline. The smooth surface of the polymer liner decreases resistance, which reduces the overall power consumption required to run the pipe. By rehabilitating existing corroded

surface, as well as pipe rehabilitation, is mostly undertaken with Swagelining technology, a method of lining steel pipe with a HDPE liner to extend pipe life far beyond steel pipe’s normal life expectancy, especially in the case of slurries. “We have the sole right in Africa to this British technology,” says Van Coller. “Originally, it was developed to rehabilitate leaking cast iron gas piping in England. Today we use Swagelining technology on all types of applications where corrosion and abrasion impacts dramatically

This lining with its lower friction improves flow, which in turn reduces the power requirement

Pipeling rehabilitation under way

pipelines with structural liners, the liner can take the working pressure off the pipe. This can result in significant cost savings and operational efficiencies for the pipeline operator. “Naturally, these projects are more than just pipes and pipelines,” adds Van Coller. “Besides partnering with a local company which does the civil work, we had to tap from our in-house experience or employ people who could do the work required. For example, we’ve just completed a large ore-pass 500 m underground for this opencast copper mine, which also has an underground shaft. Although this was outside the scope of our usual work, we simply employed people who could design and install the civils, wear linings and conveyors systems to complete the job in seven months – a third of the time that a previous contractor took to build an ore pass. New pipeline work, installed above or below

leaking steel, asbestos and fibreglass water pipelines,” adds Van Coller. “The CIPP process is mainly for larger diameter pipe and consists of a process where a ‘sock’ of special needle-punched polyester material soaked with tailor-made resins is pulled through the pipe, followed by either hot water or steam to cure the resin in the sock to form a new liner.” These liners can also structurally restore the original pipe. All these technologies are brought to customers through a total cost of ownership scheme, which the Rare Group calls the Xtender management programme. “Our business model is unique in that we not only supply all the equipment you need to get water from the dam to the tap in your home, but we’ve introduced several technologies to rehabilitate systems cost-effectively,” states Van Coller.

on pipe life.” The traditional method of rehabilitating a pipeline is to dig it up and replace it, which incurs a major expense and is extremely difficult in the case of old pipe that may now run under built-up areas. “Depending on the condition of the pipeline we can either use the Swagelining process or the CIPP (cured in place pipe) process to re-line the inside of the pipe to extend the pipeline life another lifetime,” explains Van Coller. “The Swagelining process applies tight fit or interference fit HDPE liner inside the pipe in situ to protect it from further corrosion while cathodic protection will protect the outside. This lining with its lower friction improves flow, which in turn reduces the power requirement from the pumping side. “We’ve just completed a 900 mm diameter concrete sewerage pipeline in Port Elizabeth, but CIPP technology can also be used to fix



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IMESA bursary student plans his future Scylagh Clunie received an award for achieving the highest overall marks for five major fields in his final year. IMIESA catches up with him. Please outline your studies in detail I initially started my studies at the University of the Witwatersrand where I was offered a full bursary from the university for my first year as a result of my academic achievements at high school and completed my first year there. I completed my studies at University of Johannesburg. I ended last year having achieved


the highest overall marks for the five major fields of studying in my final year. These were urban hydraulics, geotechnical engineering, project management, structural engineering as well as urban management.

When did you receive the IMESA bursary? I received the IMESA bursary for the last three years of my studies.

Are you currently employed? I am currently working for Klunene cc. We specialise in stormwater, road, sewer and water design.

What are your professional ambitions over the next five years? I want to stay with Klunene cc for at least five years and to register professionally.

What, in your opinion, are great engineering feats accomplished in the last decade? The Water Wheel in Falkirk, Scotland, is one of my favourite engineering feats. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a rotational, boat-moving structure that links two canals that are on two different levels. The principles used in balancing the two arms of the structure are exquisite.




journey through time

We take this opportunity to invite you to purchase this collectors item: Contact IMESA at 0312 66-3263f or more info.

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Reflections A journey through IMESA IMESA’s coffee table book, Reflections, was launched at last year’s conference to coincide with the institute’s Golden Jubilee celebrations.


HE BOOK PROVIDES a comprehensive histor y of IMESA from its founding through to its standing today. The author, Professor Johannes Haarhoff, has combined his 35 years of experience in engineering and his passion as a historian to outline in great detail various insights into the histor y of municipal engineering. This article is the first of a series outlining the content of the book.

The need for municipal engineering The fate of the municipal engineer is inextricably linked to the efficiency of local government and the public recognition of its authority. The 19th centur y in England provides an ideal example of how the structures of local government first had to be established before the engineers could tackle the unprecedented overcrowding and unsanitar y conditions in the cities. The South African War (1899-1902) was a catalyst for the orderly evolution of local government in South Africa. During reconstruction efforts after the war, engineers from England were called on for assistance and a large number decided to stay on – making South Africa their new home. Consequently, at the turn of the 20th centur y the majority of municipal engineers in South Africa were originally of English descent. By 1905, there were enough members of the Association of Municipal Engineers in the countr y to warrant the formation of an African District within the association. The formation of the AMSE In 1873, the Association of Municipal and Sanitar y Engineers (AMSE) held its inaugural meeting at the Institution for Civil Engineers in London. By 1898 the association had a membership of 877 and by 1922 this number had ballooned to 3 202. This remarkable growth was as a result of England recognising that specialised disciplines had risen from parent institutions. By this stage the Sanitar y

Institute had been formed in addition to the likes of: • Institute of Sanitar y Engineers • British Association of Water Engineers • Association of Managers of Sewage Disposal Works.

Municipal progress in South Africa The urbanisation of England began in the middle of the 18th centur y; in South Africa it began around 100 years later. The urban centres outside of Cape Town were small and few amid the largely rural and agricultural economy. However this changed rapidly with the discover y of diamonds in Kimberley (1876) and gold on the Witwatersrand (1886). Large communities sprang up overnight and there is a plethora of evidence that unsanitar y and chaotic conditions in these mining towns prevailed. The development of local government under these conditions was impeded and proved to be a long and painful process. The development of water supply and sanitation in most urban centres in South Africa followed a consistent pattern of bitter political rivalr y and fierce resistance by inhabitants to sanitar y reforms that would be considered self-evident today. The role of the municipal engineer during these formative years has only recently been studied in some detail. The early municipal engineers often seemed to have borne the brunt of public frustration with urban problems not necessarily related to the provision of proper municipal ser vices. Anecdotal examples include: • Emil Lutz, the first town engineer of Pretoria, was accused in 1897 of exceeding his powers in the awarding of tenders. When his conduct was investigated it was found that to be an unclear definition of his

responsibility. • The first town engineer of Johannesburg, WH Miles, had his salar y reduced by 50% through no fault of his own – the city experienced financial problems in 1890. He was then forced to take on the additional duties of health inspector for no extra remuneration. When it was pointed out that Miles could not possibly cope with this workload, President Kruger himself suggested he be fined if he did not cope. Unsurprisingly, Miles was fired in July 1892 for not properly discharging his duties. • Miles’ successor, GR Grey, was fired one year later for recommending a tender that was not the lowest, but motivated by other reasons. Despite these political problems there is evidence of an informal network among the technical officers of the different cities. In 1891 the health committee of Johannesburg engaged other large cities about their sanitation systems for comparison. In 1898, Durban’s town engineer visited Pretoria to give advice on the selection of road-building materials, the best method to construct sidewalks and to give an opinion on an effective drainage system for the city. A year later, a deputation from Pretoria visited Cape Town and Bloemfontein to gain municipal experience from their peers.

Professor Johannes Haarhoff, author of Reflections, signs a copy of the book for Debbie Anderson of IMESA head office at the 75th IMESA Conference and Exhibition




SAPPMA hosts 3rd annual golf day

The Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA) recently hosted its third annual golf day at the Irene Countr y Club.


TOTAL OF 72 players took to the field on a warm and sunny Friday morning – happy to be out of the office and to spend a perfect summer’s day with friends and colleagues in the plastic pipe industry. “Our golf day grows in numbers, popularity and enthusiastic support each year,” says SAPPMA chairman, Jan Venter.

New communications manager for Lafarge Cement

Above left The winning team were from Global Plastic Welding. Seen here with Louise Muller of SAPPMA are Meyndert de Klerk, Gary Enslin, Craig Hanekom and Eugene Greyling Above right The Protea Polymers team finished in 2nd place and included Jehiel Lawrence, Pieter Swart, Simon Morgan and Ken Morgan

“This year we had 18 teams consisting of SAPPMA members and their clients socialising and networking with each other.

These get-togethers have proven their worth in boosting industry morale and forming lasting partnerships.”

New CEO for SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants (SSI) has officially announced Nyami Mandindi to be the new CEO of the company.


HARLENE LAMB joined Lafarge late last year. She studied communication in South Africa and public relations at the University of California, Los Angeles, in the United States.



SI IS A member of the DHV Group – an engineering group with global influence, operating in 30 countries through 75 offices. Mandindi succeeds Naren Bhojaram, who has been promoted to the position of regional director Africa for the DHV Group. Mandindi intends to entrench the economic, environmental and social relevance of infrastructure projects that SSI Engineering and Environmental Consultants undertakes.

Above Nyami Mandindi, the new CEO of SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants

Her desire is not only for SSI to implement hardcore engineering, but to ensure that the execution of projects speaks to the dreams and aspiration of the people of South Africa. Engineering excellence needs to address social and community needs if the challenge of increasing urbanisation is to be addressed intelligently.


Culverts for Sishen South railway Rocla has been awarded the contract to supply SATS culverts for the Khumani Mine Key Expansion Project and Postmasburg siding of the Sishen South railway upgrade project.


ITH ITS national footprint of factories, Rocla’s ability to produce high volumes met the customer’s demand for 100 t of SATS culverts per day required for stormwater drainage beneath the railway line. This contract was challenging for Rocla, specifically during the winter months, when temperatures reach below 0°C and longer curing periods are required. The company added a nightshift team at its Karoo factor y to meet the tight deadlines of the contract.

“The contract specified for culverts with a fill height of 5 to 10 m and thicker deck and leg requirements. During the contract, there was an adjustment that influenced our planning in that different moulds had to be utilised. Due to Rocla’s flexibility to customise our products

A view of culverts being positioned

to suit customer’s needs, our various facilities were able to adjust the production schedule in order to meet the delivery demands,” explains Andre Pienaar, business manager at Rocla.

Plug-in seals now available The reliability of a submersible pump or mixer will always be as good as the reliability of its seal system.


NLIKE WITH dr y installed equipment, any fluid that manages to leak through the seals will accumulate in the pump or mixer and cannot be drained in operation. The resultant seal leakage will always cause numerous problems. Flygt Plug-in seals are thoroughly pretested for tightness before deliver y. All double-seal components are supplied and assembled in a tandem arrangement incorporated into one single-unit assembly. These seals feature robust seal rings and are solid, with faces formed of the same

Both the seal faces and springs remain protected

material as the rest of the ring. The seals will not warp as a result of temperature changes and there is no risk of bi-metallic effect, ensuring that seal faces do not lose shape or separate from the ring. The seal face is also protected from other deformations caused by expansion or shrinkage. This one-material design maintains a high-quality seal over time, since the faces cannot slip, become detached from the seal ring or warp to a non-sealing shape. The Flygt Plug-in seal is available from ITT.




AfriSam becomes Level 2 B-BBEE contributor AfriSam has been accredited by the National Empowerment Rating Agency (NERA) as a Level 2 B-BBEE contributor.


OMMENTING ON this significant achievement, AfriSam chief executive officer, Stephan Olivier, expressed his satisfaction, pointing out that it was a demonstration of AfriSam’s commitment to being a responsible corporate citizen, intent on contributing positively to the countr y’s socio-economic development. “Two of our main corporate values revolve around ‘people’ and ‘planet’,” Olivier continues. “In obtaining B-BBEE accreditation, we

focused substantial resources on the ‘people’ element as the company, its per formance and success are, ultimately, driven by people.” “It is this conviction that led us to develop an intense corporate social responsibility programme, with a primar y focus on education and conser vation. Projects within this portfolio aim to empower and equip communities with the knowledge, skills, tools and facilities necessar y to become self-reliant and sustainable. This enables communities to develop small

AfriSam places a high value on its people, based on the conviction that the company, its performance and successes are ultimately driven by people

and medium businesses, improve the quality of their own lives and contribute towards uplifting the standard of living of their communities. Becoming a Level 2 B-BBEE contributor falls naturally within the ambit of that philosophy and becomes neatly aligned with our corporate policies.”

New skid steers and telescopic handlers Bobcat Equipment South Africa recently launched the Bobcat M-Series skid steer loaders and the latest generation of telescopic handlers.


HE BOBCAT M-Series loaders feature numerous improvements, including more power ful hydraulics, improved digging and pushing power, increased hydraulic horsepower, increased rollback angle and increased fuel capacity for improved endurance and productivity. Refined hydraulics and the toughest, largest drive chains deliver exceptional drive train



durability, allowing the drive system to provide a lot more tractive effort. The new Bobcat TL range of telescopic loaders offers the best possible performance in terms of engine power and hydraulic pump capacities, while innovative features deliver maximum productivity. A full selection of attachments is available for the new range of Telescopic Handlers, offering the flexibility to do more with one

The new skid steers feature more powerful hydraulics and improved digging and pushing power, as well as increased hydraulic horsepower

machine. Bobcat TL360 and TL 470 telescopic loaders incorporate high-per formance and fuel-efficient engines, combined with refined and power ful, but smooth, hydraulic systems.



Valves for Qatar

ABOVE A batch of Vent-O-Mat valves for Doha North


FC WATER has completed a R9.5 million valve supply order for Qatar’s public works authority, Ashghal, which involves shipping a second batch of 30 stainless steel Vent-O-Mat sewage air release and vacuum valves to the Doha North sewage treatment and pumping works. The valves are identical to an initial batch of 30 valves shipped in late 2010. All 60 Vent-O-Mats are being installed for pipeline protection. The Doha North sewage treatment and pumping works is the largest greenfield wastewater treatment, water reuse and sludge treatment project in Qatar. Designed to treat up to 439 000 m3 of wastewater each day, the works will receive sludge from treatment plants across northern Qatar, meeting the demand of West Bay, Al Dafna, Al Khorayat and Umm Salal for the next 30 years and benefiting an estimated 800 000 people. Treated water from the plant will be used for industrial purposes, while by-products will be used as organic fertilisers and as a supplementary green source of energy.

Lubrication system launched


YDRAULIC HAMMERS require a different lubricant to other lubrication points on an excavator, and are often disconnected for use on other machines. Even though hydraulic hammers are mainly used for ‘rough’ work, they are in fact sensitive devices that must be handled very carefully when lubricated. When a hydraulic hammer fails due to inadequate or insufficient lubrication, the outcome is, in most instances, very costly New generation as failures frequently take place during lubrication system a planned or scheduled operation and solutions for hydraulic hammers from SKF cause interruptions at critical times. Automatic lubrication systems on hydraulic hammers are of vital importance to meet the exact standards and narrow time windows typically encountered in demolition work. SKF has developed a new hydraulic lubrication pump, HS04, specifically for hydraulic hammers.






High-efficiency pump range launched A new range of high-efficiency end-suction pumps for the agricultural and industrial markets, the FPS S-Series, has been launched by Franklin Electric South Africa.


HE FPS S-Series features several upgrades and changes, which include some industr y firsts that will benefit the consumer in South Africa. “Our major focus is on high efficiency,, in line with our continuous improvementt programme, which will also have a positive tive spin-off on cost of operation and total cost of ownership,” explains Br yan Storrier, product

manager at Franklin Electric South Africa (FESA). By incorporating manufacturing methods and materials that are used throughout the world, FESA has been able to raise the efficiency levels of the new range significantly.

The FPS S-Series of pumps is now available

PERI invests in Southern Africa The PERI Group has successfully negotiated the takeover of Wiehahn Formwork and Scaffolding.


IEHAHN has been one of the market leaders in the South African formwork and scaffolding industry for over 40 years and the sole PERI distributor for more than 10 years. Consequently, PERI is already an established brand in the South African market. The know-how of PERI specialists and their experience gained from projects worldwide will give additional impetus for further development of solutions, systems and products for the local market. With the acquisition of Wiehahn Formwork and Scaffolding, PERI is showing a great deal of confidence in South Africa and Africa given the depressed nature of global markets. The company does not only view this acquisition as an opportunity to invest in South Africa, but also to expand its presence and business activities in additional African regions. “The local management of Wiehahn

PERI is providing innovative formwork solutions to a large commercial building in the middle of Rosebank, Johannesburg. Slab tables provide edge protection with integrated soffit profile forming the architectural finish to the upturned soffit at the edge, and SKYDECK, the lightweight aluminium panel formwork system, was used for efficient production of the rest of the slab area

Formwork and Scaffolding has welcomed the acquisition as a vote of confidence and a positive investment in the construction industr y in Africa. Wiehahn’s employees are excited

about joining the ‘PERI family’ and bringing additional ser vice offerings to their market and customers,” says South African managing director, Johan Cilliers.




Shaping the future of mobility With its development of alternative drive systems, Daimler is investing in three technologies – hybrid drive, electric motors and fuel cells – with the goal of achieving emission-free mobility.


OUR VEHICLE brands are concentrated under the Mercedes-Benz South Africa Commercial vehicle stable. These include: • Mercedes-Benz trucks, which are synonymous with first-class product and service



Specialist Waste Management Consultants Sustainable and appropriate engineering solutions with integrity and professionalism. Stanford Drop-off Vissershok Waste Management Facility

Gansbaai Recycling Centre

Velddrif Transfer Station

t t t t t t t t t t t t

Integrated Waste Management Plans Waste Disposal Strategies Identification and permitting of landfill sites Design of General and Hazardous Waste sites Design of Solid Waste Transfer Stations Design of Material Recovery Facilities Optimisation of Waste Collection Systems Auditing of Waste Management Facilities Development of Operational Plans Closure and Rehabilitation of Landfills Quality Assurance on Synthetic Liners Waste Recycling Plans

Hermanus Materials Recovery Facility

Botrivier Drop-off

Jan Palm Consulting Engineers 78

IMIESA Tel APRIL +27 2012 21 982


/ Fax +27 21 981 0868 / E-mail /


quality, cost-effectiveness, reliability and sustainability. Whether the vehicle required is for long-haul distribution or construction site operation, Mercedes-Benz provides individual and reliable solutions in the medium and heavy-duty truck segments. • Mercedes-Benz vans consistently invest in new products and technologies. The Vito and Viano range have been satisfying customers for several years and new models, equipped with BlueEFFICIENCY technology, meet the highest standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental friendliness. Another vehicle, the Vito E-CELL, is the first series-produced electric van on the market, making it the leading exponent of ‘green mobility.’

• Mercedes-Benz bus and coach. Offering bus chassis and the Multego semi-luxury coach, the OF1730 commuter bus, these buses are specifically designed to meet South Africa’s tough road conditions and play an integral part in providing world-class transport services in both the public and private sectors. • In South Africa, Argosy is the vehicle of choice for long-distance haulage. The Western Star brand offers abnormal heavy-duty trucks, which are primarily for use by owner-operators or small fleets. Western Star serves market niches such as special and construction site applications as well as on-highway long-haul transport. • The Mitsubishi FUSO brand has made a name

Opposite page Fleet management is available through Charterway Above left Daimler is exploring alternative drive systems as illustrated by the Vito E-Cell Above An Axor application for the construction industry

for itself worldwide as a quality conscious manufacturer. The vehicles developed and produced by FUSO are not only of high quality, they are also cost-effective and tailored to the requirements of their application areas. • Mercedes-Benz South Africa provides its customers with a full range of automotive financial services including financing, leasing, insurance and fleet management.






CAPE TOWN- 021 380 4740 JOHANNESBURG- 011 975 2369/71 TOLL FREE- 0800 225 466





Updated Fundamentals of Concrete available The updated, second edition of the Cement & Concrete Institute’s acclaimed reference book, Fundamentals of Concrete, is now available.


HE BOOK is intended for students of engineering, building management, quantity sur veying, architecture and other practitioners who require a working knowledge of the subject. The new 308-page edition has been updated and extensively expanded, and now covers

Red-hot red dot design The L220G wheel loader from Volvo Construction Equipment wowed a panel of design exper ts in Essen, Germany, to win a red dot award





sustainability, concrete’s constituent materials, the properties of fresh and hardened concrete, mix design and proportioning, quality control and statistics, formwork, reinforcement, manufacture and handling of concrete, sand-cement mixes, appearance of concrete and special concretes.


HE AWARD SERVES as a seal of high design quality from the world’s largest and most distinguished design competition. The red dot product design awards 2011 honoured outstanding industrial design and celebrated the team behind the concept. Only the very best products, from 15 categories, managed to convince the jury and this year 4 433 products were entered by designers and companies from 60 countries worldwide. The Volvo L220G was entered into the vehicle category, where it was awarded a red dot prize. The L220G wheel loader is part of Volvo’s new G-Series range and stood out from the crowd because of its fuel-efficient and productive design, with 20% increased lifting force, 10% improved breakout force and stronger hydraulics. Entirely Volvo-designed, the machine works in perfect, productive, fuel-efficient harmony.



Advanced composite cements

leader in natural

The 20th century concept of so-called ‘pure’ Portland cement is rapidly becoming obsolete with the development of technologically advanced composite cements far more suited to visionary 21st century needs.

resource and development solutions


E ARE CHALLENGED with balancing the increasing demands of evermore sophisticated business and industry needs with a fragile environment under growing pressure,” Grant Neser, AfriSam’s commercial executive, points out. “We cannot afford to keep producing cement with conventional technologies that generate large quantities of CO2 emissions while we have the option of using more technologically advanced composite cements.” AfriSam has become a globally recognised leader in the production of these advanced composite cements, which use by-products from the steel manufacturing and coal-fired Top left Afrisam has reduced the clinker factor in its Eco Building Cement to 35% making it very environmentally friendly Top right Afrisam has poured considerable capital investment into upgrading its production facilities to produce advanced composite cements Below For the past two decades, Afrisam has been conducting extensive research and development into the production of advanced composite cements

power station industries, together with chemical activators, to improve the characteristics and performance of traditional Portland cement. “For the past two decades, we have been conducting extensive research and development into the production of these advanced cements, replacing the environmentally unfriendly clinker and reducing our carbon footprint dramatically,” Neser continues. “AfriSam has poured considerable capital investment into upgrading its production facilities to produce advanced composite cements. As a result, we have been able to reduce our clinker factor from a world average of some 90% to an average of 60%, with reductions to as low as 35% for Eco Building Cement, which is very environmentally friendly.” According to Neser, using by-products such as silica fume, pulverised fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag produces cements which generate concrete with improved heat of hydration, reduced porosity, improved strength, durability and resistance to chemical attack. “The slag, for instance, binds with chlorides in coastal environments, protecting reinforcing steel from corrosion. Lower heat of hydration means that heat generation can be far better controlled with bulk pours, reducing thermal cracking and resultant porosity. In other words, producing advanced composite cements enables us to control and improve the consistency in the performance of cement to a greater degree” he points out.



Tel: +27(0) 11 441 1111


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The quality of your Drinking Water is our concern The quality of your Drinking Water and Wastewater Service is our concern

Drinking Water Quality (DWQ) Management Information Visit the Blue Drop System (BDS) at

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What impact has the Blue Drop Status had on the quality of drinking water in South Africa?


The Blue Drop Guide in partnership with the Department of Water Affairs will publish in July an in-depth look at the various municipalities that have been awarded Blue Drop Status for 2012. As a service provider, who has assisted in helping these municipalities achieve Blue Drop Status, this publication is a platform for you to showcase your products and services that were used to improve the quality of the drinking water of the municipalities. Take advantage of this unique opportunity and showcase your product and services that has helped municipalities achieve Blue Drop status.




Bell welcomes Liebherr to the family Bell Equipment customers gathered at the Bell Equipment Sales Southern Africa head offices at Jet Park on 17 November last year for the official welcoming of Liebherr excavators to the Bell product offering.


HE SOUTH AFRICAN manufacturer signed a distribution agreement in May 2011 with Liebherr, which will see Bell distributing Liebherr’s tracked hydraulic excavators ranging from 20 t to 85 t – the R906C to the R974C – in the Southern African and African markets. At the launch, Bell Equipment chief executive Gar y Bell said the company was proud and privileged to welcome Liebherr to its family of alliance partners. “Our alliance partners are strong international companies the likes of John Deere, with whom we have been closely affiliated with for over 12 years, and Bomag, which is recognised worldwide as a leader in compaction equipment. One of the reasons that we The display area at the event

have been able to collaborate so well with these partners is because we are all likeminded family businesses with the same family values. I therefore have no doubt that we will be able to develop a strong alliance with Liebherr,” stated Bell. “For many years we have been strategically working towards offering a one-stop shop for equipment solutions for our customers. By having Liebherr as a partner, we have fitted the final piece into the puzzle. While our previous range of excavators per formed exceptionally well for us, we were limited because there wasn’t anything suitable to match our large Bell ADTs, which are used in mining and large construction projects. Now we are finally able to offer our customer larger-sized excavators that are ideal matches to the B35D through to the B50D,” continued Bell.




Drill rig with rollover feed system One of the smallest radio-controlled drill rigs in the Atlas Copco range has now become one of the most versatile thanks to an innovative rollover feed system.


TLAS COPCO’S FlexiROC T15 R drill rig, which is used for a wide variety of small-scale drilling jobs such as preparing building sites and trenching, has now considerably expanded its field of application. The reason is a completely new boom concept that enables the rig to switch from downwards drilling to upwards drilling in one easy

operation. This procedure, called re-pinning, takes just a few minutes and enables the rig to be used in eight different configurations, including toe-hole drilling at various angles, upwards or downwards. The switch is also safe to carr y out as the feed beam is in a resting position while the re-pinning is being done. “The FlexiROC T15 R is now even more valuable to have in the fleet,” says Erik Ahlström,

Atlas Copco FlexiROC T15 R drill is used for a wide variety of small-scale drilling jobs

product responsible service engineer at Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment. “With a great vertical coverage area of 18 m2, it can go from drilling vertical holes to horizontal toe-holes and then to upward drilling, for rock reinforcement for example, all from the same setup.”



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Jeffares & Greens


SBS Water Systems


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Jetvac SA



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Lafarge Industries SA




Cement & Concrete Institute


Le Blanc Jasco




Model Maker Systems




MPA Consulting Engineers


Dick King Lab Supplies


Much Asphalt


Dynamic Fluid Control


National Asphalt


ELB Equipment


Osborn Engineered Products 14, 15 & 62


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TWP South Africa


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Eskom Holdings




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Zebra Surfacing


Elster Kent Metering


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Imiesa April 2012  
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Imiesa April 2012 Edition