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76TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INSTITUTE OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING OF SOUTHERN AFRICA 2 4 - 2 6 Oc tob er 2 0 1 2 , G eorge, W ester n C a p e

SEALING IN WINTER www.colas.co.za


The South African Water Research Commission Your knowledge resource for water-related issues The Water Research Commission (WRC) actively contributes to South Africa’s water knowledge base by funding fundamental water research, growing scientific capacity and disseminating knowledge to important stakeholders through various formats. WRC-funded projects directly address the country’s water challenges by investigating new technologies and methods to enhance water and sanitation supply, supporting policy and legislation, and providing much-needed guidance to implementers. The organisation funds research touching all aspects of the water cycle, including water resource management, aquatic ecosystems, water use and waste management, and the use of water in agriculture. The WRC also looks at aspects like climate change that may affect our water resources in the future. The WRC provides free access to over 4 000 resource material items which could assist local government in solving water-related challenges. Typical examples of resource material: • Development of a generic water safety plan for small community water supply (Report No TT 415/09) • A simple guide to the chemistry, selection and use of chemicals for water and wastewater treatment (Report No TT 405/09) • Guideline for the implementation of sanitation and hygiene education programmes in informal settlements (Report No TT 365/08) • A desalination guide for South African municipal engineers (Report No TT 266/06) • Basic sanitation services in South Africa (Report No TT 414/09)

How to access these documents To access these and other WRC knowledge products:

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IMESA

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ECSA A substantial discount is given by the Engineering Council for IMESA members.

To promote excellence in municipal engineering amongst its members for the benefit of the community.

Overview

Annual conferences Members can gain valuable information and insight into issues facing the municipal engineering fraternity at IMESA’s annual conference. Members will benefit from the topical papers presented, the associated exhibitions, as well as the opportunity to share and discuss ideas with like-minded engineers.

The Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa (IMESA) aims to promote the knowledge, art, science and practice of municipal engineering in local governments. It further promotes the interest of municipal engineers and their profession, and creates a platform for the exchange of ideas and viewpoints on all aspects of municipal engineering. Since its formation in 1961, IMESA has grown to represent over 1 000 individual members and many companies from several countries in Southern Africa that are involved in the field of municipal engineering and the built environment.

Bursary scheme In 2000, IMESA established a bursary scheme for full-time studies in the field of civil engineering for students from designated groups, as well as dependants of members of IMESA. The aims of the scheme are: • To provide financial assistance to students from designated groups who would not otherwise have been able to afford to study. • To contribute towards the purpose of the Employment Equity Act. • To recognise achievements of students and prospective students who are dependants of IMESA members. • To provide for the direct and reasonable needs of the student. Since the establishment of this scheme, at least 10 bursaries have been awarded per year.

Bene its and services IMIESA Journal Members of IMESA are granted free subscription to the IMIESA Journal, a high-quality monthly publication that serves as a mouthpiece to the engineering fraternity. It disseminates up-to-date information on technical news and developments. The IMIESA Journal has received the prestigious PICA Award for the best journal in the urban management, civil construction and infrastructural development categories.

IMESA/CESA Excellence Awards The achievements of municipal engineers are numerous and can be witnessed in towns and cities around us. To give recognition to some of the achievements, IMESA issues a biennial award for the ‘Best Engineering Achievement’, as well as ‘Best Community Based Project’ with CESA.

IMESA website The IMESA website, www.imesa.org.za, offers members and potential members a forum for opinion, news and support relating to the municipal engineering industry. The regularly updated site contains hot debate topics, latest industry news, an events calendar, member profiles and more.

Services (to municipalities and the community) Since 1961, IMESA has played a significant role in municipal engineering, acting as a catalyst to share and develop new initiatives. Municipalities are key role players in identifying, prioritising, funding and implementing integrated development planning and community-based programmes. The Institute also advises councils on municipal engineering matters and serves the broader community through representation on a number of bodies where it provides input from the municipal engineer’s perspective.

IMESA STRUCTURE PRESIDENT DEPUTY PRESIDENT

National and international af iliates IMESA is also a member of the International Federation of Municipal Engineers (IFME) and attends international conferences and workshops in order to keep track with global developments in the industry.

VICE PRESIDENT OPERATIONS

TECHNICAL DIRECTORS

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Seminars Branches organise regular full- and half-day seminars, which feature speakers from both the technical and contemporary arenas. These seminars are also used as opportunities to introduce new products in the technical field, as well as to brief members and politicians.

Mission statement

VICE PRESIDENT TECHNICAL

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OPERATIONS DIRECTORS

- Water, Sanitation & Environment

- Constitution, By-laws & Ethics

- Computer Application & Knowledge Base - Infrastructure Asset Management - Buildings, Structures & Town Planning - Roads, Transportation & Storm Water - Project & Business Management - Training & Skills Development - Job Creation

- Marketing & Communications - Strategic Liasons - CPD & Bursaries

CONTACT DETAILS The head office of IMESA is situated in Durban (KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa) and the address is as follows:

Street address: IMESA House, 2 Derby Place, Derby Downs Office Complex, Westville, 3629, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Postal address:

ADMINISTRATION

PO Box 2190, Westville, 3630, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Contact numbers:

MEMBER

Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 • Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 • Cell: +27 (0)71 608 1480

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COLAS

The East London branch of Colas South Africa successfully completed a 24 km section of road between Viedgesville and Mqanduli using Rubspray 70/3.

Recent successes of Rubspray in the winter months

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pproximately 300 000  ℓ of Rubspray emulsion was applied on this contract during the period from April to June 2012. The original specification for this 13.2 mm reseal contract was SBS modified bitumen conforming to the requirements for an SE-1 binder. The road was closed overnight to traffic during the first night of the seal. However, due to the cold winter temperatures (especially at night), Babereki Consulting Engineers, on the recommendation by Colas

South Africa, decided to change the specification to Rubspray with a further application of a light fog spray on top of the completed chipped surface. S-E1 modified binder requires a minimum road surface temperature of 25˚C before surfacing can commence. During the winter months, road surface temperatures seldom

reach 25˚C. The window period for surfacing with hot binders is thus very small. When using Rubspray emulsion, surfacing operations can commence when the road surface temperature reaches 10˚C and more. The low overnight temperatures experienced during the contract were conducive for the use of Rubspray 70/3 rather than the use of

East London The low overnight temperatures experienced during the contract were conducive to the use of Rubspray 70/3 rather than the use of the SBS modified bitumen

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COVER STORY

Hopefield The emulsion was applied at an application rate of 1.6 ℓ/m2 and chipped up the SBS modified bitumen. This contract was completed to the satisfaction of the client, Coega Development for Eastern Cape Department of Roads and Transport, by Mapitsi Civils, Space Construction and Colas South Africa. At another contract – 20  km of 9.5  mm single seal from Hopefield to Velddrift in Cape Town – was also recently completed over a pe-

• Bloemfontein streets in conjunction with Razzmatazz • Harrismith in conjunction with Razzmatazz. Successful trials were also carried out recently using Rubspray 70/3 on a 19.0 mm single seal in Harburg, KwaZulu-Natal on the P156/2 road on 29 May 2012. When the surfacing operation commenced, 70/100 penetration grade bitumen was initially used as a tack coat for the 19 mm aggregate. With the cold night temperatures experienced at the time, chip loss occurred on the sections surfaced with the penetration grade bitumen. Colas recommended the use of CRS70 emulsion. It was decided that a trial section using Rubspray 70/3 would be carried out to evaluate the application procedure and performance thereof. The full-scale trial was performed on a cool cloudy day, with occasional periods of sunshine. As it was not possible to keep the road closed overnight, the road was opened to traffic in the late afternoon. During the night some heavy rain showers occurred, but fortunately no stone loss occurred. Two months later, the section is performing very well with no sign of chip loss. Stone retention is exceptionally good due to the tenacious adhesion provided by the latex component.

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WHAT EXACTLY IS RUBSPRAY?

These trials once again showed that surfacing work can be performed successfully with Rubspray riod of 14 days, also using 70/3 Rubspray. The emulsion was applied at an application rate of 1.6 ℓ/m2 and chipped up. No traffic was allowed on the seal overnight. The following day a diluted fog spray was applied over the seal and the surface was opened to traffic once the fog spray had dried. In Bloemfontein, Colas is working on the Kuruman to Kathu contract where Rubspray 70/3 is used as tack coat in a 19.0 + 9.5 mm double seal. There are also several other contracts in progress in this area. These include: • N14 Kuruman in conjunction with Group Five • N9 Noupoort in conjunction with Haw & Inglis • N5 Bethlehem in conjunction with Raubex

Harburg A 70/100 penetration grade bitumen was initially used as a tack coat for the 19 mm aggregate and applied at a hot application rate of 2.2 ℓ/m2

Rubspray is a high viscosity cationic spray grade bitumen emulsion modified with SBR latex. Rubspray is used in cold, wet climates for resealing roads with surface cracks less than 5 mm without pretreatment. It can also be used in new construction and reseals where traffic accommodation is not a problem. Rubspray has much enhanced residual binder properties while the lower viscosity of the emulsion improves the flow of the binder into lightly cracked surfaces without the risk of run-off on steep inclines. Rubspray is environmentally friendly with no evaporation of paraffin or risk of explosion, making it safe to work with. It can be stored for long periods at ambient temperature without risk of polymer thermal degradation. Emulsions allow for better quality work in less than ideal conditions

These trials once again showed that surfacing work can be performed successfully with Rubspray during low temperature conditions allowing contractors to spread the use of bitumen to when it is more readily available. For more information about Rubspray contact: Kobus Louw or Premala Singh t +27 (0)21 531 6406

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IMESA

PUBLISHER Elizabeth Shorten ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Ferdie Pieterse EDITOR Richard Jansen van Vuuren HEAD OF DESIGN Frédérick Danton SENIOR DESIGNER Hayley Moore Mendelow CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Claire Nozaic SUB-EDITOR Patience Gumbo PRODUCTION MANAGER Antois-Leigh Botma PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jaqueline Modise FINANCIAL MANAGER Andrew Lobban (ACIS, FCIBM) ADMINISTRATION Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTION SALES subs@3smedia.co.za PRINTERS United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________ ADVERTISING SALES Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 ___________________________________________________ PUBLISHER: MEDIA No. 4, 5th Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail: richard@3smedia.co.za www.3smedia.co.za

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Proceedings of the 76th Annual Conference of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa IMESA president’s welcome

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IMESA chairman’s message

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Housekeeping

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Conference programme

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Sponsors

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PPC Cement

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Aurecon

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Royal HaskoningDHV

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Vela VKE

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BORDER BRANCH Secretary: Melanie Matroos Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2401 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 E-mail: melaniem@buffalocity.gov.za

WorleyParsons

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DPI Plastics

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EAST CAPE BRANCH Clarine Coltman Tel: +27 (0)41 505 8019 Fax: +27 (0)41 585 3437 Cell: +27 (0)71 276 5986 E-mail: clarinec@africoast.com

Osborn Engineered Products

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PD Naidoo and Associates

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BKS

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Colas

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Southern Mapping

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© Copyright 2012. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS IMESA Administration Officer: Ingrid Botton P O Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: imesa@webstorm.co.za Website: www.imesa.org.za

KWAZULU-NATAL BRANCH Secretary: Rita Matthews Tel: +27(0)31 311 6382 E-mail: rita.matthews@durban.gov.za NORTHERN PROVINCE BRANCH Secretary: Rona Fourie Tel: +27 (0) 82 742 6364 Fax: +27 (0) 86 634 5644 E-mail: imesanorth@vodamail.co.za SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO BRANCH Secretary: Henrietta Oliver Tel: +27(0)79 390 7536 Fax: 086 536 3725 E-mail: imesa.southcape@gmail.com WESTERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Erica van Jaarsveld Tel: +27 (0)21 938 8455 Fax: +27 (0)21 938 8457 E-mail: erica.van_jaarsveld@capetown.gov.za FREE STATE AND NORTHERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27(0)83 457 4362 Fax: 086 628 0468 E-mail: imesa.fsnc@gmail.com REST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA Representative: Andre Muller E-mail: imesa@webstorm.co.za

Exhibitors

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Exhibitor floor plan

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Speaker profiles

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Abstracts

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Index of papers

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Papers

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IMESA information

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3S Media

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All material herein is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.

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76th IMESA Conference 2012 Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa President’s welcome It is with much pride that I, as your incoming President, have the honour of welcoming you to the 76th IMESA conference, which is being held here in the beautiful town of George with its magnificent surroundings. Our conferences seem to reach higher standards yearafter-year and are usually held in the larger cities around the country, and the Southern Cape/Karoo Branch is thus to be admired for bravely taking on the task of organising the 2012 conference. The theme of this conference, “Municipal Engineer in a Changing Environment”, could hardly be more appropriate given the ongoing challenges and difficulties being faced by municipalities and their technical staff throughout Southern Africa. IMESA’S conferences are known and admired both nationally and internationally (e.g. by the likes of the

International Federation of Municipal Engineers) for the wealth of knowledge sharing and networking opportunities afforded by municipal technicians, technologists and engineers as well as supporting consultants, contractors, suppliers and sponsors annually. Having had feedback on the activities of the conference organising committee over the past months and based on the impressive programme that they have prepared, I am convinced that delegates are about to be treated to three very fruitful and rewarding days. Thank you for attending the conference and please enjoy! FRANK STEVENS Pr Eng, Fellow Member IMESA, Fellow Member SAICE

South Cape – Karoo LOC address The quality and quantity of resources are dwindling, while a growing population has greater needs and demands. The lack of infrastructure investment in rural areas, together with poverty, has led to ever-increasing migration and urban influx, increasing the burden on already overtaxed metros and municipalities. Municipal entities are increasingly focusing on political output, while politicians don’t always grasp that this is directly linked to service delivery output, which requires technical resources and infrastructure orientated budgets. The result is that smaller municipalities are severely lacking in the fastest growing scarce resource – skilled technical resources, while income is reducing due to increasing poverty levels and growing demands for improved services. ‘Engineering for Change’ is aimed at improving technology to address these shortcomings. Reduced skilled personnel means an increasing need for simplified, automated technology requiring less skilled resources to operate and maintain, while reducing expensive energy and other material input. Dwindling natural resources coupled with escalating demands, require energy and resource efficient innovation, protection and reuse of natural resources, recycling, improved project life expectancy and ensuring sustainability to meet current and future demands. The South Cape – Karoo IMESA branch wishes to welcome all involved in municipal engineering, as well as those who can assist in improving the municipal engineering environment. Today’s innovation creates tomorrow’s sustainability, which can be achieved through ‘Engineering for Change’.

It is a privilege for the South Cape – Karoo IMESA branch to host the 76th annual IMESA conference for the third time. The biennual IMESA awards will also be presented at the opening cocktail function, recognising project and engineering excellence and innovation. The presidential address will include the formal announcement of Frank Stevens as the new IMESA president for the next two years. The conference will offer attendees the unique beauty of the Garden Route, the Klein Karoo and the Greater Karoo. The branch includes the municipal areas of George, Mossel Bay, Knysna, Plettenberg Bay, Hessequa, Oudtshoorn, Beaufort West and Prince Albert. Although geographically extensive, the branch members are committed, meetings are well attended and the branch won the first branch-of the-year award in 2010. The conference is aimed at affordability, providing delegates with professional papers on relevant engineering topics, introducing and sharing technology with more than exhibitors, allowing attendees to meet, communicate and exchange experience, technical tours showcasing top engineering and award winning projects, while providing social functions that will provide relaxation and enjoyment. The companion’s tour includes a varied and unusual programme to encourage attendees to bring their partners to share in the privilege of a visit to the Southern Cape. The theme for this year’s conference is ‘Engineering for Change’. Technological advancement is occurring at the greatest rate ever. Emphasis is on continually improving efficiency and output while increasing the life expectancy of products, with less input, and use of natural resources. Natural resources not only include raw materials, but increasingly include labour and most importantly technical skills.

Lindsay Mooiman Chairperson: South Cape – Karoo LOC

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Housekeeping notes Parking and transport at the Outeniqua Transport Musuem

Airport transfers and return When arriving at the domestic arrivals hall at George Airport, you will find a well-branded and easily accessible IMESA Conference courtesy desk for access to the IMESA Shuttle, which will provide transport to the hotels on the shuttle route, namely: The Hyatt, The Town Lodge, Protea King George, Protea Outeniqua and Oakhurst. Those who have booked at alternative venues must please ensure that they utilise one of the licensed taxi services positioned in the arrivals hall and just outside the front door.

There is limited secure parking at the Outeniqua Transport Museum. Please share vehicles where possible. An information desk will be provided at the conference venue for transportation requirements

Smoking and cellphones

Tours for South Africa Shuttle Service and Tours of the Southern Cape & Surrounds: +27 (0)44 873 5700 or 083 282 7320. www.toursforsouthafrica.com Zeelie Taxis: +27 (0)44 8746707

Please note that smoking is not permitted within any enclosed area or within close proximity to exits. However, IMESA has ensured that there is an accessible route to a smoking area near the tea/lunch area for those who wish to smoke outside.

Delegates wishing to arrange return transfers to George Airport must check out of their room before the conference begins on the day they are leaving. A secure lock-up facility will be provided at the conference venue for delegates who need to bring their luggage with them on the day of their departure. On Friday, a shuttle service from the conference venue to the airport will be available for all delegates, regardless of where they stayed.

IMESA requests that all cellphones be switched off during the sessions as they are disruptive and can interfere with the audio-visual system.

Facilities • Autobank facilities: A map has been provided indicating the closest ATM sites. • General practitioners, dentists or emergency care: a list of local practitioners is provided on your delegate badge. Should you require additional assistance, please alert the conference organisers so that attention can be given to your requirements. • Shopping: The Garden Route Mall is approximately 2 km from the conference venue and provides a large variety of retail outlets, banks, cinema and restaurants. Parking is free. • On-site catering: There are NO restaurants or bar facilities at the conference venue; a list of recommended restaurants has been provided on your delegate badge, please make use of these for any alternative entertaining or refreshments you may require. • Car Hire: The George Airport offers a car hire facility.

Accommodation The IMESA local organising committee has negotiated special rates for delegates wishing to make use of the accommodation at The Hyatt, Town Lodge, Protea King George, Protea Outeniqua and Oakhurst Hotel. The shuttle service will ONLY operate between these hotels and the conference venue at the Outeniqua Transport Museum. Delegates staying at other venues are required to arrange their own transport to and from the venue.

IMESA Annual General Meeting (AGM)

Briefcases, laptops and valuables

Everyone attending the conference (members and non-members) are invited to the IMESA AGM. This AGM will take place in the Outeniqua Transport Museum (conference area) at the conclusion of the day’s session on Wednesday, 24 October 2012.

Please do not leave your valuables unattended at your stand or in the conference venue. All cases etc. should be placed inside cupboards at your stand and delegates are requested to keep their laptops and valuables with them at all times.

CPD accreditation: The Continuing Professional Development (CPD) accreditation number for this conference is IMESA12-CO1NPR. Attending the conference ensures one credit per full day. A delegate will receive 2.5 CPD points for attending the whole conference. Delegates are requested to have their delegate badges with them at all times as barcode scanners will record their attendance at the beginning of each daily session.

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General information Info kiosk

Name Tags and Lanyards

Branch secretaries and informed members of the local organising committee (LOC) are stationed at the information kiosk in the exhibitor hall. Membership information and application forms are available at this kiosk. The Reflections book is also on sale from this point.

Your name badge serves as your ‘ticket’ to all events pertaining to the conference and social functions. Delegates and companions are requested to wear their badges at all times for security purposes and for identification of the events they have registered for.

Spotting the local organising committee

Lucky draws

Members of the conference organising committee will be dressed in red shirts or red body-warmers for easy identification during the conference. Please feel free to speak to them and they will do their best to assist.

A lucky draw prize will be awarded at the end of each session by one of the gold sponsors. Only registered delegates are eligible and the winning delegates must be present to activate the award. If not, the prize will go to the holder of the next ticket drawn.

CPD points

Content is king

You will earn a 1/2 CPD point per morning/afternoon session. Please make sure to scan your delegate badge on entering the conference venue.

As in previous years, a respected panel of judges will judge the presenters and the best presentations will be rewarded on the last day of the conference. The proceedings will once again be loaded onto CDs and distributed in the conference bag at registration.

Presenters’ presentation room Presenters must load their final presentations (if this varies from the presentation submitted) onto the main laptop facility before 07:00 on the day that they are presenting in order to ensure that switch over between presentations is professionally managed and that the presentations are in sequence for the day. A speaker’s preparation room has been located close to the auditorium and will be well marked for ease of access. Speakers’ lapel microphones will be fitted in the GREEN ROOM during the break prior to their session. The stage will have two podiums, one for the MC and session chairs, and one for the speakers.

The presentations from each of the five different technical tours have been provided on the Aurecon flash drive you receive with your PPC Cement backpack.

Technical tours Thursday, 26 October 2012 There are five different technical tours on offer this year. All technical tours leave from the conference venue.

Meals and refreshments

1. Touw River Pipeline – Eco Development Presented by: WorleyParsons

All meals and refreshments are catered for in the general exhibition area to facilitate networking and interaction with exhibitors. Round cocktail tables are located throughout the exhibition area for those wishing to make use of a table.

Emergency flood damage pipeline project through indigenous forest. Inaccessible to construction plant, using labour-intensive methods. Innovative labour-intensive engineering in a pristine area in the Wilderness National Parks creating a solution to an engineering challenge and upgrading a conservation area by providing a pipeline covered by a boardwalk to also provide tourist access, promoting economic activity in the Wilderness area.

Security The LOC has organised security for the evenings, but stand owners are requested to be extra careful with their personal valuables. IMESA cannot be held responsible for the loss of any items.

Awards: Kudu Award Winner 2009 and Impumelelo Sustainability Award winner 2010

Exhibitions

2. PetroSA Presented by: PetroSA

Delegates are kindly requested to support the conference exhibitors, who not only put huge effort into their exhibitions, but are the most significant sponsors and subsidisers of the conference. The LOC has also arranged for all meals and refreshments to be served in this area.

The Petroleum, Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (SOC) Limited (PetroSA) is South Africa’s national oil company. It owns, operates and manages South Africa’s petroleum industry commercial assets. A pioneer in Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology, PetroSA owns and operates one of the

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world’s largest GTL refineries. GTL technology is recognised throughout the world for producing the ‘cleanest’ fuels, through an environmentally friendly process. A number of tours are available at PetroSA: • procurement of one-of-a-kind emergency vehicle • demolition of the lead facility • overview of the expansion of gas fields offshore. NB: All visitors will be required upfront to supply a copy of their ID documents. Anyone entering PetroSA’s premises is required to undergo a compulsory breathalyser test.

3. Mossel Bay 15 Mℓ per day seawater desalination plant Presented by: Royal HaskoningDHV Emergency Drought relief project - accelerated programme Special Challenges: • two water users Mossel Bay Municipality (10 Mℓ/day), co-funder PetroSA (5 Mℓ/day), and funding from DWA • designs went through thorough HAZOP study and the final designs were done parallel to the execution of construction Awards: 2010 CESA Engineering Excellence Award for Projects between R50 million and R250 million.

4. George indirect reuse of effluent via ultra-filtration Presented by: Royal HaskoningDHV and Aurecon First indirect waste water reuse for potable purposes in South Africa. • EPWP extensively used for pipeline construction The installation consists of intake works from the treated effluent stream from the WWTW, balancing storage, the ultra-filtration plant with high pressure pumps and 300 membrane packs. A pump station and 7,8km pipeline conveys filtrate to discharge into Garden Route Dam. Awards: CESA – Glenrand 2010 IMESA – The CESA Excellence in Engineering Award 2010 Community Upliftment

5. Wilderness Stormwater Project Presented by: Aurecon Approximately 23m high coastal stormwater outfall / primary dune stabilising structure consisting of a gabion structure and 5 energy dissipating manholes, with a wooden staircase to provide public access to the beach, in a restricted and sensitive coastal area.

Companions programme 24 to 26 October 2012 An exciting gourmet experience has been specially put together this year, with a cause & effect wine tasting with celebrity chef Francois Ferreiria, a shopping trip to Knysna and an entertaining demonstration with Francois Ferreira at socialite Sally Boon’s magnificent home at Oubaai Golf Resort. Please note the following: • wearing comfortable shoes is advisable on all excursions • be sure to bring something warm along as the weather changes quickly and the wind can be cold. Prepare for four seasons in one day!


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Programme MONDAY, 22 OCTOBER 10h00-17h00

11h35

PVC Piping in water and wastewater systems – Mr Bruce Hollands: Chairman of the USA PVC Pipe Association

12h05

Questions from the floor

IMESA COUNCIL MEETING including lunch (Venue: The Hyatt at Oubaai)

12h15

Gold Sponsor Address & Lucky Draw: Royal HaskoningDHV

Osborn Engineering Golf Day at Oubaai Golf Resort, The Hyatt (11h00 Shotgun start)

12h20

Lunch in the Royal HaskoningDHV Exhibitor Hall

IMESA EXCO MEETING (Venue: The Hyatt at Oubaai) TUESDAY, 23 OCTOBER

10h00-14h00

10h00

12h00-18h30

SESSION 3 Water & Sanitation Session Chair: Mr Willem Hofmeyer

Registration at Conference Venue: Outeniqua Railway Museum, 2 Mission Road, George Presidential Address with Excellence Awards & DPI Plastics/Incledon Opening Cocktail Function (Venue: Outeniqua Railway Museum, George)

18h30

WEDNESDAY, 24 OCTOBER 07h00-08h00

08h20

Registration (Conference Venue: Outeniqua Railway Museum, George) Master of Ceremonies: Introduction & announcements

13H20

Motivational Speaker: Gavin Sharples

14h20

New Waterborne Sanitation Guidelines – Prof Marco van Dyk: University of Pretoria

14h50

Water Memory – an aid towards understanding water quality problems – JJ van der Walt: BIGEN

15h20

Questions from the floor

15h30

Gold Sponsor Address & Lucky Draw: Aurecon

15h35

Refreshments in the Royal HaskoningDHV Exhibitor Hall

SESSION 1 Welcome & Keynote Addresses Session Chair: Mr Frank Stevens 08h30

Welcome and opening by IMESA President: Mr Frank Stevens

08h40

CESA President address: Naren Bhojaram

08h55

Keynote Speaker: Sean Rodrigues – Energy Specialist: SDR Group

09h25

SESSION 4 Environmental Engineering Session Chair: Mr Nick Pretorius

16h00

Towards water sensitive urban settlements – integrating design, planning and management of SA's Towns and cities – Prof Armitage: UCT Urban Water Management Group

PPC – Platinum Sponsor Address & Lucky Draw

16h30

Conduit hydropower potential in a city's water distribution system – Prof Marco van Dyk: University of Pretoria

09h30

Promotional presentation for 2013 IMESA Conference to be hosted in Port Elizabeth

17h00

Questions from the floor

09h35

Refreshments in the Royal HaskoningDHV Exhibitor Hall

17h15

IMESA Annual General Meeting Evening at Leisure

SESSION 2 Water & Sanitation Session Chair: Mr Leon Naude 10h05

Water & Sewer Master planning in the dynamic George Environment – Harold Basson: George Municipality

10h35

How to reduce stormwater ingress into sewers – Peter Silbernagl: PDNA

11h05

Guidelines for municipal engineers to meet the challenges of changing source water quality and quantity – Chris Swartz: Chris Swartz Water Utilisation Engineers

THURSDAY, 25 OCTOBER 07h00

Coffee in Royal HaskoningDHV Exhibitor Hall

07h55

Master of Ceremonies: Announcements

SESSION 5 Roads Session Chair: Mr Johan De Beer

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08h00

Increase in the Service Life of Asphalt Highways – Jim Walton, Director: International Sales, Roadtec Inc

08h30

High accuracy 3D mobile mapping for road design – Altus Strydom: Global Geomatics

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THURSDAY, 25 OCTOBER (Cont)

FRIDAY, 26 OCTOBER

SESSION 5 Roads Session Chair: Mr Johan De Beer (Cont) 09h00

"Ultra Thin Reinforced Concrete Pavements – Rassie Otte: Royal HaskoningDHV & Pieter Myburgh: Mossel Bay Municipality"

09h30

Physical Stormwater Modelling – Prof Fanie van Vuuren: University of Pretoria & MVD Consultants

10h00

Questions from the floor

10h15

Gold Sponsor Address & Lucky Draw: Vela VKE, part of the SMEC Group

10h20

Refreshments in the Royal HaskoningDHV Exhibitor Hall

07h30

Coffee in Royal HaskoningDHV Exhibitor Hall

08h00

Master of Ceremonies: Announcements

SESSION 7 Transport/Traffic Engineering Session Chair: Mr Barry Martin

08h10

City of Cape Town's Transportation reporting system – Reggie Springleer: City of Cape Town & Neil Slingers: Vela VKE part of the SMEC Group

08h40

BRT Infrastructure: coming to a road near you – André Frieslaar: HHO Africa Infrastructure Engineers

09h10

Development of guidelines for public transport facilities within the eThekwini Municipality – Sekadi Phayane: Vela VKE, part of the SMEC Group

09h40

Questions from the floor

09h50

Refreshments in the Royal HaskoningDHV Exhibitor Hall

SESSION 6 Stormwater Management Session Chair: Mr Pieter Myburgh 10h50

Motivational Speaker: Torsten Henschel

11h20

Infrastructure Asset Management Computerised Systems – Roger Byrne IMESA AM Mentor & Leon Naude: Director AM

11h50

12h00

SESSION 8 Financial & Legislation Session Chair: Mr Johan Basson

DELEGATES DEPART for PETROSA TECHNICAL TOUR (a finger lunch will be provided by PetroSA)

10h20

Pilot artificial wetland system to remove storm water & sewage from Swartkops – Martin Hough: SRK Consulting

Wagging the Dog: How service delivery can lose its way in the procurement maze – Dr Kevin Wall: CSIR

10h50

Addressing operations and maintenance challenges in smaller municipalities – Johan van der Mescht: Aurecon PE

12h30

Compilation of a Stormwater Master plan – Jannie Koegelenberg (Royal HaskoningDHV)

12h50

Questions from the floor

11h20

13H00

Gold Sponsor Address & Lucky Draw: WorleyParsons

Water Research Commission Project – Investigation into the Cost and Water Quality Aspects of South African Desalination and Reuse – Paul Gaydon: Royal HaskoningDHV

11h50

Questions from the floor

12h00

PANEL DISCUSSION: Frank Stevens (Chairperson) Members: Dr Kevin Wall, Dr Heidi Bolton, Roger Byrne, Alwyn Laubscher, Ambrose Ngcobo

12h45

Presentations and Appreciations

13H00

CONFERENCE CLOSURE

13h05

Lunch in the Royal HaskoningDHV Exhibitor Hall WorleyParsons TECHNICAL TOURS for afternoon

14h00

DELEGATES DEPART for ALL other TECHNICAL TOURS

16h30-17h30

Delegates return to Conference venue from Technical Tours

18h30-19h00

VELA VKE, part of the SMEC GROUP, GALA FUNCTION at De Vette Mossel – Groot Brak

LUNCH AND DEPART

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2012/08/07

5:29 PM

SPONSORS & EXHIBITORS

A102084 BRAND AD hr fa.pdf


Building a GREENER tomorrow today with best practice PVC products for water reticulation & conveyance

Member of the Dawn Group


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Sponsors PLATINUM

Job creation and skills development are vital in the context of high national unemployment and a number of our initiatives seek to address this issue. “Everything that PPC does as a brand is about building a strong country for the future. It is founded on the bedrock of this country’s past, and its growth is a mirror of its strong economic advancement and development,” concludes Richard Tomes, PPC customer executive: Cement Sales and Marketing.

PPC Cement

Contact details 180 Katherine Street, Barloworld Extension, Sandton Tel: +27 (0) 11 386 9000 E-mail: Mosele.maloleka@ppc.co.za Web: www.ppc.co.za

Established as the first cement plant in South Africa in 1892, Pretoria Portland Cement (PPC) celebrated its centenary as a JSE-listed company on 24 February 2010. Today, PPC is the leading supplier of cement in Southern Africa with eight manufacturing facilities and three milling depots in South Africa, Botswana and Zimbabwe, producing almost eight million tonnes of cement products each year. PPC is firmly committed to black economic empowerment in South Africa and recognises that meaningful participation by black people in the mainstream economy is essential to sustain the country’s socio-economic objectives.

GOLD Aurecon SA

PPC – the brand The history of this iconic brand is closely linked to the growth and development of South Africa itself. PPC has produced cement for many of the country’s most famous landmarks and construction projects, including the Union Buildings, Gariep Dam, Van Stadens River Bridge, the Gautrain, Medupi Power Station, and some of the newly built stadiums around the country. The PPC cement brands include the market-leading SureBuild, Botswana’s Botcem, Zimbabwe’s Unicem and PMC, as well as OPC, a special-purpose, rapid-hardening cement that guarantees strength and consistency, giving the assurance of successful building results.

Aurecon provides engineering, management and specialist technical services for public and private sector clients globally. The group’s government industry team supports cities, regional and national governments in providing a comprehensive range of services. The team’s technical competencies span the entire infrastructure life cycle – from planning, design and construction to operations and maintenance – and encompass services related to energy, housing, transport, solid waste, and sanitation, as well as water and wastewater. Aurecon’s integrated, one-stop approach to meeting service delivery challenges extends beyond engineering solutions and includes indepth expertise on a range of operational, institutional and environmental aspects of infrastructure delivery. In the planning phase, attention is given to optimising long-term costs and the available resources towards sound infrastructure investment decisions, positioning assets to meet long-term service delivery priorities and accommodating longterm growth. Specific competencies include: • integrated planning, which involves spatial, transportation and infrastructure services • land and ownership issues • community engagement and stakeholder management • disaster and risk management • environmental management. Clients are assisted in managing their assets and services by offering: • infrastructure asset assessment, planning and management • organisational development and advisory services • financial management • training and development of staff. The group is renowned for its ability to partner with government entities, whether cities and other municipalities, regional or national government bodies, that are committed to providing communities with high quality, cost-effective and sustainable services. These agencies

PPC’s Kambuku way of life At the heart of PPC lies the Kambuku philosophy; a people management system that not only looks to empower PPC’s employees, but also the communities in which it operates. This is why “building the nation” is more than just a slogan; it’s a way of life. Meaning ‘great tusker’, Kambuku is a Tsonga word that refers to an elephant bull, whose characteristics of tenacity and loyalty sums up the company’s value-based management system. The passion and unconditional commitment of our employees is the catalyst for our growth and transformation. This approach epitomises our philosophy, which forms the basis of how PPC is managed. The company adopted an elephant icon as part of the PPC Cement logo. The icon is a symbol of strength, great stature and dependability, with powerful associations of wisdom, maturity, familyorientation and loyalty. A company with a conscience In keeping with its brand vision of helping to build a strong country for future generations, PPC has been socially and environmentally aware many years before it became a global trend, and has invested significantly in community upliftment. To ensure long-term sustainability, we believe in partnering with beneficiaries for three to five years. Being a good corporate citizen is not just about giving money; it is important that beneficiaries are assisted in achieving financial independence and becoming productive members of society, and this takes time.

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require integrated, cost-effective solutions that take account of their broad-based project and policy objectives. Aurecon is recognised for planning and community consultation that leads to successful development outcomes, and has developed a number of consultation techniques to support this, including community surveys, workshops, public meetings, forums and focus groups. Aurecon South Africa also has world-class expertise across the entire social infrastructure market and is a certified Level 2 BBBEE contributor.

coming from the African region. They will look forward to handling major mining, hydroelectricity and biomass (waste-to-energy) projects, and will be looking seriously at renewable energy in the near future. The BBBEE rating of Royal HaskoningDHV remains at level three. This rating, as well as the company ownership structure, remains unchanged. Contact details Tel: +27 11 798 6000 E-mail: corporate@rhdhv.co.za Website: www.rhdhv.co.za

Contact details Aurecon Centre, Lynnwood Bridge Office Park, 4 Daventry Street, Lynnwood Manor, 0081 Tel: +27 (0) 12 427 2000 E-mail: government@aurecongroup.com Web: www. aurecongroup.com

Vela VKE (Part of the SMEC Group)

Royal HaskoningDHV Vela VKE is a multidisciplinary engineering firm providing award winning technical solutions for its clients throughout Southern Africa, and has a rich and successful history spanning over 60 years. Over the years, the company has diversified from civil and structural engineering into areas such as project management, facilities management, property development, town planning and management consulting in the infrastructure sector. Since its inception in 1947, Vela VKE has maintained an equal opportunity policy for all its staff, and is committed to providing the level of expertise that has seen the firm emerge as a truly world-class provider of engineering solutions, offering these services locally, in other African countries and overseas. This we will continue to do while supporting the principles of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment, and we are currently a Level 2 BBBEE contributor. Through energy, passion and commitment, Vela VKE strives to build a better, sustainable world through the design, delivery and maintenance of infrastructure that works for people. This is achieved by our leadership and technical expertise, innovative design and appropriate world-class engineering solutions, delivering and maintaining quality infrastructure. On 1 July 2012 Vela VKE merged with SMEC, a global leader in the provision of high quality engineering consultancy services on major infrastructure projects. An international award winning company, SMEC provides consultancy services for the life cycle of a project to a broad range of sectors including: transport, water, geotechnical, mining and tunnelling, natural resources and environment, urban development, energy and renewables, government and advisory services, and social development. Currently, the SMEC Group has over 5 000 employees and an established network of over 70 offices in 36 countries throughout Australia, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Pacific, North and South America.

Enhancing Society Together The award-winning South African company SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants (Pty) Ltd now operates as Royal HaskoningDHV. This follows a merger between the DHV Group – which was SSI’s major shareholder – and the Dutch engineering group Royal Haskoning, providing SSI with a strong base of international expertise for the expansion of its existing markets both locally and in the rest of Africa. The combined Royal HaskoningDHV group carries out more than 30 000 projects every year in planning, transport infrastructure, water, buildings, maritime, aviation, industry, energy and mining, with teams of engineering and consulting experts – nearly 8 000 professionals providing services worldwide from 100 offices in 35 countries. Locally, the company reciprocates with its 90-year legacy and vast experience in the Southern African region, which is of particular importance in the developing economies of Asia where similar social, economic and development challenges exist. Because of its specific experience, the South African mining operation will now become a knowledge centre for all mining-related activities within the group worldwide. The local company has a 23 office branch network across South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique, employing over 1  000 specialists and support staff in the region and intends to capitalise on projects successfully completed in the East African countries of Uganda Tanzania and Kenya, thereby extending its geographical footprint on the continent. The company is very conscious about its own environmental footprint and is passionate about its corporate and social responsibilities to society. As an example, Royal HaskoningDHV has been running a Saturday Schools programme for disadvantaged learners since 2007. More than 150 pupils each year benefit from this university entrance focused initiative and so far more than 700 children have benefited from the programme in South Africa. SSI celebrated its 90th anniversary this year, and the new group – regarded as a “merger of equals” – enjoys about 15% of its turnover

Contact details 65 Riebeek Street, Cape Town, 8001 Tel: +27 (0) 21 417 2900 E-mail: jaco.engelbrecht@smec.com Web: www.smec.com; www.velavke.co.za

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SPONSORS

WorleyParsons

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SILVER DPI Plastics

WorleyParsons is a global company, with a strong local footprint, providing solutions and services to our local and global customers in four sectors: • hydrocarbons • energy • minerals, metals and chemicals • infrastructure & environment. Having operated in South Africa for more than 34 years, we understand the local markets and our local customers’ needs, and we bring best practice to our projects. Our infrastructure and environment team in particular provides services to our national, provincial and local authority clients in the following sub-sectors: • environmental & waste management • transport & rail • water resources and treatment • civil and structural • ports and marine terminals • electrical & mechanical • geoscience • master planning and programme management • pit to port • restoration • unconventional gas. WorleyParsons’ infrastructure group has the proven ability to deliver technically outstanding, cost-effective solutions to some of the most challenging projects in the world. These projects span the entire project life cycle from feasibility through to decommissioning and have been completed in diverse geographic and cultural settings. Our comprehensive engineering and scientific capabilities, hands-on knowledge and experience, understanding of project issues and customer-focus have formed the foundation for project success. Our emphasis and long-term solutions come from our commitment to safety, constructability, operability and sustainability. WorleyParsons works in all five phases of an asset’s life cycle, namely identity, evaluate, define, execute and operate. Each phase corresponds to a customer’s decision gate for project sanction. We are an experienced EPCM provider and use an integrated team approach to successfully implement optimum project solutions with the lowest total life cycle costs. WorleyParsons has delivered successful solutions for both new projects and infrastructure upgrades, in addition to providing the complete engineering infrastructure platform for global resource development projects. From local municipalities to global energy companies, our customers have seen the benefits that the WorleyParsons group can provide. The phased project approach is underpinned by the requirement to optimise the level of front end loading and thereby maximise project value. WorleyParsons’ project systems are fully aligned to this process and are ISO 9001/2008 certified.

DPI Plastics is a leading manufacturer of PVC and HDPE water reticulation and drainage piping systems, with two ISO 9001 certified South African factories based in Johannesburg and Cape Town. A founding member of SAPPMA & SAVA, DPI supports ‘best practice PVC’ usage as recommended by the Green Building Council of South Africa. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 957 5600 E-mail: info@dpiplastics.co.za Web: www.dpiplastics.co.za

Osborn Engineered Products

Osborn is South Africa’s foremost manufacturer of mining and quarrying equipment, offering a full range of crushers, feeders, screens, mineral sizers and conveyors. The company also specialises in skid-mounted crushing and screening plants. Osborn is a member of the Astec Industries group of companies, which supplies the asphalt, road building, pipeline and utility trenching ranges of equipment that Osborn distributes locally in Africa. The Roadtec Shuttle Buggy is but one of the large line-up of road surfacing equipment Osborn now supplies. Others include road millers, asphalt pavers, cold-in-place recycling plants and asphalt plants. Osborn also offers a full range of horizontal directional drills and auger borers that enables companies and local municipalities to drill tunnels under roads, as opposed to the old practice of digging a trench through the road itself, adding considerably to the lifespan of the road surface. Contact details Peet Venter Tel: +27 (0)11 820 7719; +27 (0)82 307 5321 E-mail: pventer@osborn.co.za Website: www.osborn.co.za

Contact details Corner Corobay & Aramist avenues, Waterkloof Glen, Pretoria, 0181 Tel: +27 (0) 12 745 2000 E-mail: pretoria.office@worleyparsons.com Web: www.worleyparsons.com

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PD Naidoo & Associates

Colas South Africa

Stand 23

Multidisciplinary consulting engineering firm PD Naidoo & Associates was established in South Africa in 1986 and has since become a market leader in engineering and technology solutions for both South Africa and the rest of Africa. With a network of 12 offices and more than 600 employees, the company has aspirations to expand its footprint globally, unlocking opportunities and providing its world-class services to clients across the globe. It currently works with some of the best global technology houses on prestigious projects. The company prides itself in building services that improve lives, in projects that contribute to the development of Africa, and in a commitment to ‘green’ engineering.

Colas South Africa is a nationwide supplier and applicator of binders, including bitumen emulsions, modified bitumen, bitumen rubber and cut backs. The company is engaged with its partners on the whole bitumen supply chain to find reliable solutions for the customers’ bitumen supply. Our core values are safety, ubuntu, quality, continuous innovation and customer focus. We strive to reflect these in our actions inside and outside our company. We operate in Namibia, Zambia, Kenya and Uganda, through subsidiaries there focused on the supply, logistics and application of binders. We have major emulsion and modified binder plants in Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg, which are ISO 9001 certified. Our plant in Cape Town is ISO 14001 certified; another proof that bitumen can be environmentally friendly. We also have depots in Port Elizabeth, East London, Bloemfontein and Hectorspruit, which give us a true nationwide coverage. We operate a fleet of state-of-the art sprayers, bitumen rubber blenders and micro-surfacing machines throughout South Africa, supported by haulers and mobile storages.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 566 8300 E-mail: shaunr@pdna.co.za Web: www.pdna.co.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0) 82 887 8804 E-mail: singh@colas.co.za Web: www.colas.co.za

BRONZE BKS

Southern Mapping BKS Group, a Level 2 BBBEE contributor, is a leading multidisciplinary consulting engineering and management company, and a real worldclass leader in the art of sustainable development solutions. With over 45 years’ experience in the areas of infrastructure, planning, design and construction management, BKS’s excellence and quality on project delivery is exhibited through achievement of quality standards certification, ISO 9001, in all its offices. BKS fully supports South Africa’s socio-economic transformation agenda and adoption of its principles and requirements. This is demonstrated through its commitment to: employment equity, empowerment, technology transfer and capacity building of historically disadvantaged individuals.

Southern Mapping specialises in mapping using Airborne Lidar, Hyperspectral technology, Satellite Imagery and GIS. Southern Mapping also provides Geographical Information solutions (GIS). It covers many market sectors, including mining, infrastructure, transport, environmental, energy and urban development, for high specification engineering design criteria. The company provides data and analysis for plant site selection, baseline studies, environmental audits, line route selection, etc. Since 2007, Southern Mapping has completed over 287 projects in 30 countries.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0) 12 421 3681 E-mail: siyandan@bks.co.za Web: www.bks.co.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 467 2609 E-mail: dumi@southernmapping.com Web: www.southernmapping.com

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Exhibitors 3S Media

Stand 78

comprehensive spectrum of specialist, technical and professional expertise to municipalities for water abstraction, treatment, bulk supply and water quality monitoring for domestic, industrial and agricultural use. Its core aim is to assist local government in the effective development and sustainable operation and maintenance of safe, reliable water supply and wastewater services in the Eastern Cape. Amatola Water operates 11 plants and seven sub-regional, bulk distribution networks. Its gazetted service area includes substantial portions of the Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities, together with smaller portions of the Cacadu and Joe Gqabi district municipalities.

3S Media is a leading media company that was formed as an expansion of Shorten Publications. It is one of the largest business-to-business publishing houses in Southern Africa, with an over 50-year track record of business, trade and technical publishing excellence and proven entrepreneurial skills. The company’s mission is to provide the highest quality print and online products that serve the information needs of our business communities and offer advertisers maximum exposure in their relevant target markets. Its mission to its advertisers is to provide qualified and effective reach, through precise distribution mechanisms, while offering excellence service.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)43 707 3700 E-mail: cbuso@amatolawater.co.za Web: www.amatolawater.co.za

AUMA

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 E-mail: martin@3smedia.co.za Web: www.infrastructurene.ws

4Water Supplies

AUMA is an electric actuator specialist. Proven by a 40-year track record, Auma supplies a wide range of electric actuators and gearboxes. With wide ranging applications requiring individual solutions, technology that is advanced, easy-to-use and flexible is needed to meet precise requirements. Auma South Africa, based in Springs, Gauteng, has fully fitted workshops, and competent and experienced sales and technical departments to cater for all valve-actuator needs. The company covers the sub-Saharan Africa market.

Stand 24

4Water Supplies is a leading supplier of Technolog pressure relief valve controllers, pressure and flow loggers, water level loggers and many other specialised logging applications. 4Water has a full range of water leak detection equipment, including some of the world’s most advanced products like the N3 noise loggers and P250 computer assisted leak noise correlators. Location of all underground utilities is something that 4Water carries out, as well as the supply of related equipment to find items such as plastic pipes, damage to catholically protected pipelines and the survey of underground pipes and cables. An important aspect of 4Water’s business is the supply of accredited training; this covers aspects such as pressure management, leak detection and related spheres.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)43 363 2880 E-mail: mark@auma.co.za Web: www.auma.com

Aurecon

Stand 3

Aurecon provides engineering, management and specialist technical services for public and private sector clients globally. The group’s government industry team supports cities, and regional and national governments in providing a comprehensive range of services. The team’s technical competencies span the entire infrastructure life cycle – from planning, design and construction to operations and maintenance – and encompass services related to energy, housing, transport, solid waste, and sanitation, as well as water and wastewater. Aurecon’s integrated, one-stop approach to meeting service delivery challenges extends beyond engineering solutions and includes in-depth expertise on a range of operational, institutional and environmental aspects of infrastructure delivery.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 385 0077 E-mail: davidw@4water.co.za Web: www.4water.co.za

Amatola Water

Stand 2

Stand 79

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 427 2716 E-mail: Lungi.Mbanga@aurecongroup.com Web: www.aurecongroup.com

Amatola Water is a state-owned, non-profit making business enterprise accountable to the ministers of Water Affairs and Environmental Affairs. It serves as a multi-service, bulk water services provider offering a

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Aveng Manufacturing Infraset

Bosch Stemele

Stand 69

Aveng Manufacturing Infraset manufactures a diverse range of precast concrete products for the development of infrastructure. These include products such as pipes, culverts, retaining blocks, paving, roof tiles, prestressed poles, masts and railway sleepers.

Bosch Stemele provides specialised multidisciplinary engineering services through focused business units embracing roads, urban engineering services, water, agriculture/irrigation, wastewater, housing, environmental and solid waste. The company provides innovative engineering and project management services, which are supported by an ISO 9001/2008 certified Quality Management System.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 876 5500 E-mail: eayers@infraset.com Web: www.infraset.com

BKS

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)31 535 6000 E-mail: turners@boschstemele.co.za Web: www.boschstemele.co.za

Stand 68

BVi BKS Group, a level 2 BBBEE contributor, is a leading multidisciplinary consulting engineering and management company, and a real world-class leader in the art of sustainable development solutions. With over 45 years’ experience in the areas of infrastructure, planning, design and construction management, BKS’ excellence and quality on project delivery is exhibited through achievement of quality standards certification, ISO 9001, in all its offices. BKS fully supports South Africa’s socio-economic transformation agenda and adoption of its principles and requirements. This is demonstrated through our commitment to: employment equity, empowerment, technology transfer and capacity building of historically disadvantaged individuals.

Stand 41

BVi is a multidisciplinary engineering firm that was established in 1967 and is registered with CESA. BVi offers professional services in the fields of civil, structural, electrical and mechanical engineering, as well as project management, town planning and EPCM services. BVi has 15 offices across South Africa and four international offices. Today, the level 2 BEE company has a 47% black ownership status and is 300 head strong. BVi specialises in providing a full range of professional engineering services to local government with special focus on infrastructure development. The company’s labour-intensive approach does not only create employment, but also involves the community.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 421 3681 E-mail: siyandan@bks.co.za Web: www.bks.co.za

Bosch Munitech

Stand 49

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 940 1111 E-mail: mdp@bviho.co.za Web: www.bvigroup.co.za

Stand 49

Cachet

Stand 58

Bosch Munitech provides specialist operations and maintenance services to the municipal engineering sector and currently undertakes work in support of municipal water, wastewater and solid waste management services. We work hand in hand with municipalities to provide integrated and practical value for money solutions that balance the technical and social needs of the communities we serve. Cachet International, a member of the Iliad Group of companies, is a specialist wholesaler of building hardware tools, plumbing and ironmongery to the sub-Saharan African merchant trade. We have three distribution centres in South Africa situated in KwaZulu-Natal, Gauteng and Cape Town. We also have representation in every major town and city across the country. Cachet will be showcasing its range of copper tube fittings and stylish taps at the conference.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)31 535 6000 E-mail: info@boschmunitech.co.za Web: www.boschmunitech.co.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)31 240 8100 E-mail: rossa@cachet.co.za Web: www.cachet.co.za

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Cement and Concrete Institute

Civilworks

Stand 31



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Civilworks was established in 2002 as a niche supplier of: • Fiber cement stormwater pipes – offering several advantages and cost savings to user and installer. Sizes range from 150 to 1 800 mm. • Manholes – precast concrete manholes, as well as FC manhole solutions for sewer, water and electrical/telephony installations (drawboxes). • Precast concrete specials – SABS provider of polymer (non-metal) frames, lids, gratings and municipal products. • Sewer channels – alternative to vitreous clay channels, with corrosionresistant dolomite. Civilworks is SANS accredited and carries the SABS marks on all applicable products.

The Cement and Concrete Institute (C&CI) is a marketing organisation that promotes sustainable concrete by providing advice, education and information to all interested in concrete in South Africa. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 315 0300 E-mail: info@cnci.org.za Web: www.cnci.org.za

CESA

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Stand 29 Contact details Tel: +27 (0)72 020 8302 E-mail: sandyrushmer@civilworks.co.za Web: www.civilworks.co.za

Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA) has a proud history of being at the forefront of driving positive change within the industry. Founded in 1952, CESA is proud to celebrate its Diamond Jubilee in 2012, celebrating 60 years of service to the industry. Strides have been made in terms of transformation of the industry, procurement practices, client liaison, quality management, ethics and business integrity. Expansion has taken the form of the School of Consulting Engineering, the Young Professionals Forum and the development of the Built Environment Professions Export Council. CESA remains committed to serving clients by: enhancing the professional and business interests of members; improving quality of life for all South Africans through promotion of engineering excellence; and serving clients with professionalism, integrity and independence of judgement.

Colas

Colas South Africa is a nationwide supplier and applicator of binders, including bitumen emulsions, modified bitumen, bitumen rubber and cut backs. We are engaged with our partners on the whole bitumen supply chain to find reliable solutions for our customers’ bitumen supply. Our core values are safety, ubuntu, quality, continuous innovation and customer focus. We strive to reflect them in our actions inside and outside our company. We operate in Namibia, Zambia, Kenya and Uganda through subsidiaries there, all focused on the supply, logistics and application of binders. We have depots in Port Elizabeth, East London, Bloemfontein and Hectorspruit that give us a true nationwide coverage. We operate a fleet of state-of-the art sprayers, bitumen rubber blenders and micro surfacing machines throughout South Africa, supported by haulers and mobile storages.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 463 2022 E-mail: general@cesa.co.za Web: www.cesa.co.za

CIDB

Stand 45

Stand 25 Contact details Tel: +27 (0)82 887 8804 E-mail: singh@colas.co.za Web: www.colas.co.za

The Construction Industry Development Board (cidb) is a schedule 3A public entity established by Act 38 of 2000 of Parliament and reports to the minister of Public Works. It was established to promote construction delivery capability to boost South Africa’s social and economic growth, and a transformed industry that delivers to global standards of performance. The objectives of the cidb include leading industry stakeholders towards improved performance in meeting construction demand and delivering best value to clients and society with a strong transformation agenda.

DBSA

Stand 75

The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) was established in 1983. The mandate of the DBSA is to provide financial, technical and other forms of assistance towards the fulfilment of the organisation’s vision and mission. The main focus of the DBSA’s investment activities is on infrastructure funding as broadly defined. The DBSA also seeks to act as a catalyst to help

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 482 7200 E-mail: cidb@cidb.org.za Web: www.cidb.org.za

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maximize opportunities for private sector funding. The main objectives of the DBSA are centred on the promotion of economic development and growth, human resource development, institutional capacity building and the support of development projects in the SADC region.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 957 5600 E-mail: info@dpiplastics.co.za Web: www.dpiplastics.co.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 313 3911 E-mail: rosemarym@dbsa.Org Web: www.dbsa.org

Department of Public Works

Elster Kent

Stand 81, 82 Elster Kent Metering retains its position as Southern Africa’s leading water metering company by constant innovation to meet the ever-changing challenges of the South African market. Many of the solutions derived at can be transferred to the rest of the continent, thereby giving the company the competitive edge in Africa. The product range encompasses: domestic semi-positive and multijet meters (both brass and plastic bodied), meter boxes (surface type, above ground and wall mounted), commercial water meters, automatic meter reading options on all of the above and prepaid metering for domestic housing.

The national Department of Public Works is mandated by government to coordinate the implementation of Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP), which aims to address the following: creation of work opportunities, training and skills development and emerging contractor development. These interventions are aimed at alleviating poverty through promotion of labour-based methods in construction and maintenance of public infrastructure. The EPWP encompasses four sectors as follows: infrastructure sector, environment and culture sector, social sector and non-state sector.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 470 4940 E-mail: keith.bailey@za.elster Web: www.elstermetering.co.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)76 862 4551 E-mail: nontyatyambo.manyisane@dpw.gov.za Web: www.epwp.gov.za

DFC

Emanti Management

Stand 71

Stand 34

Emanti Management is a Level One Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) water and environmental engineering company, based in Stellenbosch and King Williams Town, with access to specialist partners throughout South Africa. Emanti focuses on proactively assisting both public and private sector clients in finding effective and holistic solutions to the water and environmental management responsibilities they face in their daily operations, and in particular, uses software-based tools to meet client requirements. Emanti aims to be the preferred partner in the application of environmental management technologies for the improved utilisation, protection and management of water resources, water services and the natural environment.

Dynamic Fluid Control (Pty) Ltd, which is the largest valve manufacturer in Southern Africa, caters for various industries such as waterworks, mining, sewerage/effluent, industrial, mineral processing and process control, and has been operational (under various names) for more than 60 years. DFC’s waterworks division manufactures the following range of valves: VOSA, RSV gate valves, wedge gate valves, butterfly valves, nonreturn valves and float valves. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 748 0200 E-mail: charlm@dfc.co.za Web: www.dfc.co.za

DPI Plastics

Stand 11 & 12

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 880 2932 E-mail: reception@emanti.co.za Web: www.emanti.co.za

Stand 61

Fiberpipe

DPI Plastics is a leading manufacturer of PVC and HDPE water reticulation and drainage piping systems with two ISO 9001 certified South African factories based in Johannesburg and Cape Town. A founding member of SAPPMA & SAVA, DPI supports ‘best practice PVC’ usage as recommended by the Green Building Council of South Africa.

Stand 22

Fiberpipe is the sole manufacturer in sub-Saharan Africa of Flowtite™ and Vectus glass fibre reinforced (GRP) pipes and fittings. The company manufactures pipe and fittings locally, at its manufacturing plant in Germiston, for the use in potable, raw, sea, industrial, waste, sewer and bulk

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water applications. Fiberpipe’s mission is to be the leading manufacturer and supplier of GRP pipes and fittings to users, owners, installers, traders and utility managers in civil engineering, mining, industrial, and agricultural market segments located in sub- Saharan Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands. Its vision is to be the preferred supplier of piping solutions in sub-Saharan Africa through its GRP product range.

Global Geomatics

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Stand 51

Global Geomatics is a multidisciplinary survey, mapping and GIS concern. The company is involved in asset management, data capturing by mobile mapping and other methodologies. We manage large survey projects, topographical, high definition 3D mobile mapping, 3D laser scanning, underground services detection, bathymetric surveys. Our staff complement is 54 personnel, 18 professionals with tertiary education.

Stand 70

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 763 7173 E-mail: global@geoinfo.co.za Web: www.geoinfo.co.za

GOBA

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)31 736 7100 E-mail: rcl@fibertex.com Web: www.fibertex.com

Stand 74

GOBA is an independent, progressive South African consulting engineering firm that offers multidisciplinary service packages to meet each client’s project requirements. The organisation provides expertise in the fields of transportation, mining, structure and water. At GOBA, we commit ourselves to working closely with clients, creating cost-effective and sustainable solutions, and enabling the acquisition of new quality assets. The firm’s track record in this regard is best reflected through awards that have been received over the years for technical and business excellence. We believe in the pursuit of excellence in client service, employee welfare and career enhancement.

Stand 47 & 48

Gast provides a complete spectrum of services, from design and supply to installation, in both the civil and construction industries. Gast is a premier provider of over 250 different products, servicing 15 different countries worldwide.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 236 3509 E-mail: leratom@goba.co.za Web: www.goba.co.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 660 1616 E-mail: info@gast.co.za Web: www.gast.co.za

GIBB Engineering and Science

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Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 519 4659 E-mail: scnaidoo@gibb.co.za Web: www.gibb.co.za

Fibertex South Africa is the largest manufacturer of non-woven needle punched staple fiber geotextiles in South Africa, and is based in Hammarsdale, KwaZulu-Natal. The ISO 9001: 2008 accredited company has a state-of-the-art production line with a fully automated process and integrated quality control system ensuring the manufacture of quality geotextiles. Fibertex geotextiles can be manufactured from either virgin polypropylene or recycled polyester fibres. The geotextiles are unique, owing to a combination of needling and thermal process. The comprehensive range of geotextiles is ideally suited for the use in civil engineering and building applications. The Fibertex range of products is available through Geotextiles Africa regional sales offices in Johannesburg and Cape Town or the Fibertex regional office in Hammarsdale, KwaZulu-Natal.

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solutions across a diverse range of markets and has the technical knowhow to achieve the best results for its clients.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 065 2300 E-mail: sales@fiberpipe.co.za Web: www.fiberpipe.co.za

Fibertex South Africa

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Herrenknecht AG

Stand 19 & 20

Stand 35

Herrenknecht AG, located in Germany, is a technology and market leader in mechanised tunnelling. As the only company worldwide, Herrenknecht delivers cutting-edge tunnel boring machines for all ground conditions and with all diameters – ranging from 0.10 to 19 m. The Herrenknecht product range includes tailor-made machines for traffic and transport

GIBB has been independently rated as a market leader in the consulting engineering industry. The company has been operating since 1923, with the South African chapter of starting in 1956. It delivers world-class

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IMQS

tunnels (traffic tunnelling) and supply and disposal tunnels (utility tunnelling). The company also provides state-of-the-art deep drilling rigs, to bore to a depth of 6 000 meters (Herrenknecht Vertical). Contact details Tel: +49 (0) 7824 302-8952 E-mail: oberlander.christian@herrenknecht.de Web: www.herrenknecht.com

Huber

IMQS is helping to build better infrastructure and therefore a better world for all. By supplying market leading reporting software to municipal and private sector customers, infrastructure managers have a better knowledge of the integrated nature of their asset master planning, asset maintenance planning, asset condition and useful life, as well as better control over their budgets, priorities and infrastructure asset registers. As a result, investment capital is better utilised and the infrastructure is improving as a whole. From company CEOs, municipal councillors, municipal engineers to technical practitioners, IMQS provides the right information on which to make informed decisions and to deliver service excellence.

Stand 60

Huber Technology is a subsidiary of Huber SE in Germany and is a world leader in supplying innovative equipment and machinery manufactured completely from stainless steel for the municipal and industrial water and wastewater treatment industry. Huber Technology was established in 1992 in South Africa by Fritz Stammer and introduced fine screening into the market, which is currently the norm in the industry. Our main focus is liquid/solid separation in general and inlet works equipment in particular. We offer a comprehensive line of stainless steel equipment ranging from the inlet works down to the sludge handling, and we are one of the leaders in the water and wastewater industry in Southern Africa.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 880 2712 E-mail: willem@imqs.co.za Web: www.imqs.co.za

Incledon

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)44 878 0140 E-mail: cs@hubersa.com Web: www.hubersa.com

Hydro-Comp Enterprises

Stand 1

Stand 61

Established in 1906, Incledon is today a leading supplier of over 14 000 engineering products, including pipes and fittings in various materials; flanges; valves; surface and submersible pumps; windmills and hand pumps; water meters; actuated valves; and residential, golf and commercial irrigation solutions. A Dawn member company, Incledon distributes nationally through branches in all major South African cities.

Stand 76

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 323 0800 E-mail: info@incledon.co.za Web: www.incledon.co.za Hydro-Comp is an international information technology and consulting group of companies specialising in integrated management system and related consulting services for utilities and water services providers. Hydro-Comp provides a unique combination of engineering, consulting services and management systems aimed at improving overall utility performance and efficiency. Its consulting services range from network optimisation to non-revenue water reduction, management systems, assets management, work order and maintenance management as well as integrated engineering analysis. Currently the company operates in Africa, Europe and Asia, with offices in South Africa, Botswana, Cyprus, Egypt, the Middle East and India. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 304 9420 E-mail: mokgosi@edams.co.za Web: www.edams.com

Johannesburg Water

Stand 77

Johannesburg Water is a municipal entity owned by the City of Johannesburg, mandated to provide water and sanitation services to the residents of Johannesburg. The entity supplies some 650 000 domestic, commercial and industrial customers and serves an estimated 3 million people. It stands firmly on a vision to become the leading water utility in South Africa and the mission to provide all people of Johannesburg with access to a quality water and sanitation services. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 688 1601 E-mail: mopeli.puleng@jwater.co.za Web: www.johannesburgwater.co.za

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JOAT Group

Much Asphalt

Stand 54

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Much Asphalt remains the market leader by entrenching itself as the preferred supplier of hot mix asphalt, thereby ensuring sustainable earnings and value creation. The company specialises in, and focuses on, the manufacture of hot, warm and cold mix asphalt from both static and mobile plants strategically located throughout Southern Africa, and is the region’s single largest supplier. As an independent commercial supplier, Much Asphalt is able to competitively service all major contractors. We will continue to achieve sustainable earnings by maximising growth opportunities through the strategic positioning of our plants, management of risk, tactical alliances, technical superiority, effective marketing, operational excellence and world-class human capital capability.

Offering expertise in the water industry spanning more than a combined 50 years, the JOAT Group of companies specialises in all aspects of water management, instrumentation and control, including related equipment sales. Competent and professional staff is available to provide assistance in specialised water demand management consulting, instrumentation installation and commissioning, as well as the sale of flow measuring, data transfer and electronic equipment. Our focus is on producing sustainable solutions for local conditions, drawing on experience and technology not only from South Africa, but also from an established international network of partners. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)31 700 1177 E-mail: sales@joat.co.za Web: www.joat.co.za

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Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 900 4400 E-mail: john.onraet@murrob.com Web: www.muchasphalt.co.za

Stand 63

National Cold Asphalt

Stand 30

(PTY) LTD

Lesira Teq specialises in the supply, installation and maintenance of intelligent water meters.

At National Cold Asphalt, we have adopted a philosophy, mission and commitment that go way beyond the supply of high quality cold/warm mix materials to simply fill potholes. It is a subsidiary of the Raubex Group and, as such, a key objective to ensure the development of all SMMEs, in particular those from CIDB 1 to 6. This is not a short-term, mandatory obligation, but a long-term directive to help ensure that self-sustainable, qualified teams will emerge that specialise in maintaining and developing our road infrastructure. Besides offering a top quality, storable cold mix asphalt, available in fine and base grades, bagged or bulk, we have recently introduced LT40 ASPHALT (hot mix in a bag) to the South African market. Incorporating an additive made from 100% natural and renewable resources, LT40 ASPHALT allows contractors ease of use of quality asphalt in a bag, offering results comparable to hot mix asphalt (HMA). The product is perfect for edge breaks, trench reinstatements, patching and pothole repairs and is carried out in the same manner as a traditional HMA repair.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 440 9885 E-mail: dawn.r@lesira.co.za Web: www.lesira.co.za

LTE Consulting

Stand 57

LTE Consulting is a South Africa-based holding company with a diverse portfolio of vibrant entities that provide a comprehensive range of services. The group is active in a number of sectors, has extensive operations across South Africa and is actively venturing into Africa. The companies within the LTE Group have grown formidably in the areas of engineering, finance, energy and information technology. Services include: civil and structural engineering, renewable and alternative energy solutions, low carbon modular building, architecture, healthcare, innovative funding solutions, rail and hydrocarbons, town and regional planning, communication, and project management.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)84 357 5580 E-mail: shane@nationalcoldasphalt.co.za Web: www.nationalcoldasphalt.co.za

Odour Control Group

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 635 8600 E-mail: thulanim@lteconsulting.com Web: www.lteconsulting.co.za

Stand 38

Malodours arise as by-products of production and waste handling processes. Since odour control solutions can be capital intensive coupled with the treatment of complex and often open systems, the implementation of ill-conceived solutions invariably result in disappointment. The Odour Control Group was established to provide well engineered and pedigreed odour control solutions to effectively handle these issues.

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PPC

Members of the group specialise in the design, installation and maintenance of odour control systems for municipal, industrial and commercial applications. The group also offers emergency and temporary odour control treatments. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 552 9799 E-mail: Hennie@vitacure.co.za Web: www.odorcure.com

Osborn

Stand 32, 33

Did you know that PPC Cement now makes 15% more concrete? The new PPC Surebuild 42.5N and OPC 52.5N has the following sustainability advantages: For general purpose: – lower carbon footprint of concrete durable sustainable structures higher local material content reduced packaging and transport cost-effective concrete high performance concrete economical housing. For businesses: – improved profitability guaranteed performance flexible mix designs lower carbon footprint. Visit our stand to find out more!

Stand 59

Osborn is South Africa’s foremost manufacturer of mining and quarrying equipment, offering a full range of crushers, feeders, screens, mineral sizers and conveyors. The company also specialises in skid-mounted crushing and screening plants. Osborn is a member of the Astec Industries group of companies, which supplies the asphalt, road building, pipeline and utility trenching ranges of equipment that Osborn distributes locally in Africa. The Roadtec Shuttle Buggy is but one of the large line-up of road surfacing equipment Osborn now supplies. Others include road millers, asphalt pavers, cold-in-place recycling plants and asphalt plants. Osborn also offers a full range of horizontal directional drills and auger borers that enable companies and local municipalities to drill tunnels under roads, as opposed to the old practice of digging a trench through the road itself, adding considerably to the lifespan of the road surface.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 386 9000 E-mail: contactus@ppc.co.za Web: www.ppc.co.za

Professional Provident Society (PPS) Insurance Company Ltd

Stand 72

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 820 7719 E-mail: pventer@osborn.co.za Web: www.osborn.co.za

PD Naidoo & Associates

Stand 23 PPS is the specialist financial services provider to graduate professionals providing insurance, investments and healthcare solutions tailor-made to their lifestyles. With over 200 000 members, PPS is the largest multidisciplinary group of graduate professionals in the world, operating under the ethos of mutuality. All PPS members, with PPS Provider policies, exclusively share in the profits of PPS.

Multidisciplinary consulting engineering firm PD Naidoo & Associates was established in South Africa in 1986 and has since become a market leader in engineering and technology solutions for both South Africa and the rest of Africa. With a network of 12 offices and more than 600 employees, the company has aspirations to expand its footprint globally, unlocking opportunities and providing its world-class services to clients across the globe. It currently works with some of the best global technology houses on prestigious projects. The company prides itself in building services that improve lives, in projects that contribute to the development of Africa, and in a commitment to ‘green’ engineering.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 644 4347 E-mail: mimeyer@pps.co.za Web: www.pps.co.za

Pragma

Stand 15

Pragma is a physical asset management engineering company. Our purpose is to “improve the performance of physical assets”. We enter into long-term partnerships with responsible asset owners, where our role is to actively drive asset care and performance improvement initiatives through an Asset Care Centre (ACC) based on our best practices and business processes. Clients are assigned to an ACC where a team of

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 566 8300 E-mail: shaunr@pdna.co.za Web: www.pdna.co.za

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Robor

professional engineers (with the necessary supporting infrastructure, tools, technology and administrative support) are 100% responsible for each client’s asset care needs and the asset management improvement process. Hence, we facilitate long-term improvement of asset performance throughout its life cycle.

Stand 16

Rand Water prides itself on the important role it plays in the economic heartland of South Africa. Our current record indicates that we supply approximately 12 million people with world-class water. Rand Water intends to provide to other parts of the country, most notably towards the resolution of the challenges that face local authorities in adjacent provinces. We are acutely aware of the necessity to play an increased role within the water sector. A pivotal part of Rand Water’s strategy is the pursuit of growth within the mandate given to us by the Water Services Act. Our customer base includes metropolitan municipalities, local municipalities, mines and industries. We have an internationally acknowledged reputation for supplying water of a quality that ranks among the best in the world.

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Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 971 4300 E-mail: gavinf@robor.co.za Web: www.robor.co.za

Rocla

Stand 8

Rocla is Southern Africa’s leading manufacturer of precast concrete products for infrastructure, including pipes, culverts, manholes, poles and various other related products. We have an extensive network of factories throughout South Africa, Namibia and Botswana. Every factory has a Quality Assurance Management System and is listed in terms of SABS/ ISO 9001:2008. In addition, all of the products from Rocla factories that are governed by SABS specifications bear the SABS mark of approval. We are also able to design and manufacture special products at customer request. This is made possible through the technical expertise and quality controls we have in place after more than 90 years of experience in the precast concrete field.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 682 0911 E-mail: customerservice@randwater.co.za Web: www.randwater.co.za

Road Material Stabilisers

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Robor is the largest steel, tube and pipe manufacturer in Southern Africa. The company manufactures and supplies welded tube and pipe, precision tube, pipe systems, galvanizing services, scaffolding, structural solutions, carbon steel coil, plate, sheet, structural profiles and cold formed and rolled steel profiles, and many value added services. Robor Pipe Systems supplies both coated and uncoated steel pipe, innovative jointing systems and pipeline accessories such as fittings, flanges and couplings for the successful installation of complete water pipelines. Robor Pipe Systems’ answer to abrasive and erosive water challenges, such as coarse mine water and Hydro transport pipelines, is its Steel Polypipe product. Robor Pipe Systems utilises corrosion protection, abrasion and cathodic protection, as well as additional products that add a longer lifespan and functionality to pipelines.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 318 0641 E-mail: nico.mabaso@pragmaworld.net Web: www.pragmaworld.net

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Stand 14

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 670 7600 E-mail: celeste.dutoit@murrob.com Web: www.rocla.co.za

The LBS Asphalt system, developed by Road Material Stabilisers, is designed to stimulate job creation and modelled around the Expanded Public Works Programme. The system has been successfully implemented on numerous labour-intensive road surfacing projects since 2005, complies with TRH8 specifications and is endorsed by the International Labour Organisation.

Royal HaskoningDHV

Stand 26 & 27

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 309 3499 E-mail: info@roadmaterial.co.za Web: www.roadmaterial.co.za Royal HaskoningDHV (formally SSI Engineers & Environmental Consultants) provides services that span planning and transport, delta and water technology, maritime, aviation, industry, energy, mobility, infrastructure and buildings; all supported by a vigorous commitment to the environment. In a rapidly changing world our society faces many challenges, including urbanisation, climate change, scarcity of food and water, and the quest of

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SASTT

affordable energy. These are just a few of today’s grand challenges that call for innovative, pragmatic, sustainable solutions. To provide solutions to these challenges, size matters. With a 1 000 technical and support staff and a 90-year legacy in Southern Africa, we are able to apply our multidisciplinary skills, knowledge, experience and history in support of our public sector clients, reinforced with the global resources of the Royal HaskoningDHV Group with 8 000 people in 100 offices in 35 countries.

SASTT (Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology) promotes the use of trenchless technology for providing and rehabilitating and maintaining underground services with a minimum surface and environmental disruption.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 798 6548 E-mail: pauline.makama@rhdhv.com Web: www.royalhaskoningdhv.com

Saint Gobain

Stand 9

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 567 4026 E-mail: director@sastt.org.za Web: www.sastt.org.za

SBS Water Systems

PAM, previously known as Saint-Gobain pipelines, is part of the SaintGobain Pipe activity – the number one producer of pipe systems worldwide. PAM designs, produces and markets a complete range of solutions dedicated to drinking water supply, sewerage and evacuation of wastewater. For 150 years, its reputation in the pipe industry has been based on its know-how, the reliability of its products and on the performance of the service offered to customers. PAM manufactures products to optimum quality in compliance with European, international and local standards. Ductile iron pipe withstands any incidents that occur during transport, handling, installation and operation, and complies with the customer’s specifications. Municipal castings combine excellent strength, innovative design and durability. The Super Cast range of pipes and fittings for the evacuation of wastewater are safe, and easy to install and efficiently meet the requirements of project managers.

Stand 44

SBS Water Systems, a proudly South African-owned and operated company with a Level 2 BBBEE certification, is focussed at providing prefabricated water storage solutions for Africa. SBS achieves its motto by being a manufacturer, supplier and installer of premium quality Prefabricated Zincalume® Steel panel tanks with proprietary internal liners. The SBS range of prefabricated products on offer is vast and covers capacities from small tanks of 10 kℓ to large bulk storage reservoirs of over 3 Mℓ. During 14 years of operation SBS has supplied reservoirs into numerous industries including: mining, municipalities, food and beverage, fire protection, wastewater, water treatment and agriculture. SBS tanks transport easily, erect quickly and are very affordable.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 657 2800 E-mail: nicolas.fuchs@saint‐gobain.com Web: www.saint‐gobain.co.za

SA Leak Detection Distributors

Stand 43

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)31 716 1820 E-mail: info@sbsgroup.co.za Web: www.sbsgroup.co.za

Stand 83/84

Sensus We are the sole distributors, repair agents and training facilitators for Sewerin water leak detection equipment, sensors and software ground penetrating radar solutions, cam-cam and mini-cam CCTV pipe inspection cameras in Southern Africa. Pinpointing the leak is not enough; we supply unique technology to seal leaks using Nu Flow liquid epoxy – an innovative green technology to rehabilitate the inner infrastructure of deteriorated or failing water piping systems using an array of cured-in-place epoxy pipe lining solutions. SA Leak Detection Distributors also offers both leak detection and utility location training at our training centre in Benoni, Gauteng.

Stand 52

Sensus is reportedly the largest water meter manufacturer with factories and outlets located worldwide. It specialises in the supply of bulk and domestic water meters and water management equipment to municipalities and water authorities. Formerly known in South Africa as Meinecke Meters, Sensus has been the principal supplier of meters and logging equipment for the past 30 years. As a leader in the development of the next generation of ‘intelligent’ meter reading devices or AMR, Sensus aims to improve the cost-efficiency of water resource management.

Contact details Tel: + +27 (0)11 425 3379 Web: http://leakdetectionsa.co.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 466 1680 E-mail: sales.za@sensus.com Web: www.sensus.com

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EXHIBITORS

Sika

Stand 66

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Sika is a global company with a worldwide network of subsidiaries active in the fields of speciality chemicals for construction and industry. Sika is committed to quality, service, safety and environmental care. Our worldleading branded products are all proven solutions and are based on our core capability in the following areas: sealing, bonding, damping, reinforcing and protecting. Each product and service reflects our commitment to the three core values that define our company: innovation, consistency, and partnership. We speak from experience and with a global understanding. We talk knowledgeably about the local and geographical issues faced by our customers. We respond to our customers quickly, wherever they are, in an approachable and friendly way.

Stand 42

SRK Consulting is a South African founded international organisation of professional engineers and scientists providing a comprehensive range of consulting services to the natural resource industries. SRK’s mission is to provide focused advice and solutions to clients requiring specialised services, mainly in the fields of exploration, mining due diligence studies, engineering studies, competent person’s reports, tailings and waste, water, groundwater, environmental and social issues, geotechnics, mining related civil and structural engineering, municipal engineering and rail and special projects. Through the talent, expertise and experience of its highly skilled staff, SRK works with its clients and provides specialist solutions to meet their needs. SRK prides itself on an impressive track record that spans over 38 years.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)31 792 6500 E-mail: littley.bronwyn@za.sika.com Web: zaf.sika.com

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 441 1111 E-mail: johannesburg@srk.co.za Web: www.srk.co.za

Structa Technology

Stand 17

Sobek Engineering is a multidisciplinary consulting engineering and management firm operating in the infrastructure sector of sub-Saharan Africa, helping states, public and private organisations to develop their physical infrastructure, both independently and in partnerships. Sobek offers a reliable and professional insight in facility and utilities management in the water and infrastructure sector. We offer a very high level of practical experience, know-how, quality and confidentiality. We deliver our services in an international context but with a local understanding of the environment.

Stand 37

Structa Technology, manufacturer of water storage Prestank, is a specialist in domestic and industrial water storage solutions for municipalities, mines, power stations, water affairs and hospitals. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)16 362 9100 E-mail: rodney@structa.co.za Web: www.structa.co.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 472 9294 E-mail: ilva@sobek.co.za Web: www.sobek.co.za

Southern Mapping

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Tel: +27 (0)11 467 2609 E-mail: info@southernmapping.com Web: www.southernmapping.com

SRK Consulting

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Sulzer Pumps Waster South Africa Pty Ltd

Stand 18

Stand 50 ABS, associated with innovation and well-proven solutions for wastewater handling, is a product brand of Sulzer. Strong customer service combined with extensive application expertise in solving wastewater challenges is the foundation of this strong global brand. Contact Sulzer for more information.

Southern Mapping specialises in mapping using Airborne Lidar, Hyperspectral technology, Satellite Imagery and GIS. Southern Mapping also provides geographical information solutions (GIS). We cover many market sectors, including mining, infrastructure, transport, environmental, energy and urban development for high specification engineering design criteria. We provide data and analysis for plant site selection, baseline studies, environmental audits, line route selection, etc. Since 2007 we have completed over 287 projects in 30 countries. Contact details

Contact details Tel: 086 177 2277 E-mail: sales.abs.za@sulzer.com Web: www.sulzer.com

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Total Geospatial Information Solutions (TGIS)

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)31 700 4143 E-mail: lara@utility-systems.co.za Web: www.utility-systems.co.za

Stand 67

UWP TGIS is a market-leading land, infrastructure and systems management professional. TGIS was the first company in Southern Africa to acquire 3D mobile mapping technology. It still leads the field in the application of the technology and software required to extract and deliver value to clients. We deploy asset register software and services to achieve both clean audits as well as long-term asset management benefits. TGIS is a GIS software and data expert with a host of specialist applications, tools and skills to meet your every need.

UWP Consulting is a South African consulting engineering practice, which has been active throughout Southern Africa since 1972. In 2012, the company celebrated 40 years of being in business. In this time, the company has developed into a well-respected and dynamic multidisciplinary firm with a total staff complement of 300 in 17 offices across South Africa and in neighbouring African countries. Initially formed as a partnership under the names of the founding members, Uhlmann Witthaus and Prins; UWP Consulting takes particular pride in its reputation as being a highly motivated and innovative firm with a passion for doing its work well and providing its clients with the best service possible. UWP is owned by its internal shareholders active in the business and Contralesa Investment Holdings. The company has over 30% black ownership.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 991 3624 E-mail: info@tgis.co.za Web: www.tgis.co.za

TT Innovations

Stand 80

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 792 8385 E-mail: claudiap@uwp.co.za Web: www.uwp.co.za

As a specialist trenchless technology contractor, TT Innovations applies extensive experience with state-of-the-art innovation to deliver viable solutions to meet the underground requirements of its varied clients. TT Innovations’ specialised rehabilitation and installation equipment combined with qualified, experienced staff and backed by a client-focused, research driven approach, translates into a reliable and highly competitive trenchless technology service that is able to meet the most demanding challenges. TT Innovations was established in 2005 as part of the Martin & East Group of companies and enjoys the full backing and support of this reputable organisation.

VAG Valves

Stand 56

VAG Valves is a 140-year old valve manufacturing company based in Germany. VAG Valves South Africa is based in Johannesburg, with a branch office in Cape Town. It offers a complete range of valves for the water and wastewater sectors, including gate valves, butterfly valves up to DN 4000, non-return valves, plunger and pilot operated control valves, air valves for water and wastewater as well as a complete range of sluice gates and penstocks. VAG has dedicated technical support teams working in pressure management, power plants, dams and hydro, water and wastewater, and providing specialist support to these market segments throughout the world.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 761 3474 E-mail: info@tt-innovations.co.za Web: www.tt-innovations.co.za

Utility Systems

Stand 4

Stand 13

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 917 1843 E-mail: m.devilliers@vag-group.com Web: www.vag-group.com

Vela VKE (part of the SMEC Group)

Utility Systems is an industry leader in the field of domestic volumetric water control – offering products that are modular and thus interchangeable and upgradeable. It is a supplier of electronic control valves that can be fitted to most makes of domestic pulse output water meters. The Utility Systems Water Management Device is a low cost, intelligent, electronic control valve that is capable of controlling the flow of water to a domestic consumer at full pressure. This product has been successfully installed in a number of different environments over the last 10 years; there are in excess of 500 000 units currently operational in the field.

Stand 7

Vela VKE is a multidisciplinary engineering firm providing award-winning technical solutions for its clients for over 60 years. In July 2012, Vela VKE merged with SMEC, a global leader in the provision of high quality engineering consultancy services on major infrastructure projects. SMEC

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EXHIBITORS

Wasteman Sight Lines

provides consultancy services for the life cycle of a project to a broad range of sectors, including: transport, water, geotechnical, mining and tunnelling, natural resources and environment, urban development, energy and renewables, government and advisory services, and social development. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 417 2900 E-mail: engelbrechtj@velavke.co.za Web: www.velavke.co.za

Vetasi

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Sight Lines Pipe Survey Services is a division of Wasteman Holdings and specialises in complete pipeline infrastructure investigation, qualification, management and maintenance activities. It has its head office in Midrand, operation depots nationally and cross-border activities. It is a Level 4 BBBEE and CIBD Level 7. For all pipeline surveying and maintenance requirements, contact Sight Lines Pipe Survey Services.

Stand 36

Contact details Tel: 086 117 4448 E-mail: sales@sightlines.co.za Web: www.sightlines.co.za; www.wasteman.co.za Vetasi provides the world’s leading service, work and asset management solutions for municipalities using IBM Maximo. Municipalities use these solutions to optimise service delivery across all asset classes to its stakeholders. Unlike other offerings, IBM Maximo has an open architecture and business model, which leaves asset owners free to work with complimentary software solutions, service providers or asset management consultants of their choice. We are experts in mobile work and asset management solutions and provide seamless geospatial enablement with ESRI products. Our customers include South Staffs Water, South East Water, Midvaal Water, Eskom, and Northern Ireland Electric, among others.

Water Research Commission

The Water Research Commission (WRC) operates in terms of the Water Research Act (Act 34 of 1971). Its mandate is to support water research and development as well as the building of a sustainable water research capacity in South Africa. The WRC serves as the country’s water-centred knowledge ‘hub’ leading the creation, dissemination and application of water-centred knowledge, focusing on water resource management, water-linked ecosystems, water use and waste management and water utilisation in agriculture. Being an innovative organisation, the WRC is continuously providing novel ways of packaging and transferring knowledge into technology-based products for the water sector and the community at large, both locally and globally.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)82 333 4245 E-mail: south-africa@vetasi.com Web: www.vetasi.com

WAMTechnology

Stand 67A

Stand 73

WAMTechnology cc was established in 1995 and specialises in the provision of professional information and technology services to the water and health industries. In partnership with WISA, the eWISA.co.za water information website was created in 2005. The eWISA website has since grown into a very popular reference site for students and professionals, and we recently celebrated the one millionth visit. The Municipal Assistant software system supports asset management, including inventory assessments and audits, and the scheduling of preventative maintenance; water and wastewater management, including classification, water quality, inspections and documentation, and task scheduling; and water demand, including domestic, commercial and industrial usage. WAMTechnology also provides services related to the assessment of the condition of infrastructure, compilation of layout and process diagrams and treatment facility advisory services.

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 330 0340 E-mail: hlengiwec@wrc.org.za Web: www.wrc.org.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)21 887 7161 E-mail: tduplessis@wamsys.co.za Web: www.municipalassistant.co.za

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Water Solutions Southern Africa

WorleyParsons

Stand 55

WorleyParsons is the preferred provider of technical, project and operational support services to customers in South Africa and beyond. Supported by the global business, WorleyParsons RSA prides itself on understanding and committing to its clients’ goals. The expanded breadth of services, which now exists within our South African operations, has created a hub for the delivery of small studies through to mega projects. We are active across all manner of urban infrastructure and support major resource infrastructure projects both in South Africa and the broader African region. WorleyParsons has been active for 34 years in South Africa, and has 23 offices within South Africa and activities in five countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Our intimate knowledge of the region’s unique challenges enables us to tailor our solutions to deliver maximum value to our customers, providing master planning, engineering, design, project management, and construction management services for both public and private sector clients.

Water Solutions Southern Africa (WSSA) is a South African company that specialises in management, operations, maintenance and administration of water and wastewater systems within the municipal, industrial and mining sectors. WSSA employs over 1 800 people and operates throughout South Africa and Southern Africa. It has CIDB ratings of 7ME, 7CE, 6SO and ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001 as well as OHSAS 18001 certificates. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 209 9200 E-mail: jhlapane@wssa.co.za Web: www.wssa.co.za

WISA

Stand 53

Stand 46

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)12 745 2000 E-mail: pretoria.office@worleyparsons.com Web: www.worleyparsons.com The Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA) is a voluntary non-profit association comprising water-sector professionals, companies, government departments, educational and research institutions, other associations, municipalities and water utilities as members. WISA’s mission: ‘Building expertise, sharing knowledge and improving quality of life’ by providing platforms for the promotion, integration and application of scientific, engineering and management knowledge and skills in the water sector through its newsletters, workshops, conferences and websites. WISA members enjoy many benefits centred on capacity building and knowledge sharing, including: • the prestige of membership of a professional organisation where members have to satisfy strict entrance criteria • networking at WISA events with the association’s peers and colleagues from the water sector • free copies of the alternate-monthly WISA magazine, Water & Sanitation Africa • monthly WISA members newsletter containing international and local news, conferences and events, job vacancies, research items etc • listing in the annual WISA Directory, which is an essential handbook for the water sector • the opportunity to attend branch and divisional meetings, conferences, study tours and workshops • attendance at national and specialist conferences and exhibitions at discounted rates. WISA is calling to all active within the water sector to become part of this dynamic association by applying for membership.

Zitholele Consulting

Stand 21

Zitholele Consulting offers innovative solutions in the fields of engineering, environmental management and communication strategy. Our expertise ranges from concept to post-commissioning, and our services include: water and wastewater treatment, process engineering, structural engineering, municipal infrastructure and roads, construction management, integrated environmental management planning and auditing, environmental impact and basic assessments, water use licensing, waste management, communication strategies, as well as stakeholder participation and engagement. Zitholele is an accredited BBBEE contributor, and operates within a Quality Management System. Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 207 2072 E-mail: elizmae@zitholele.co.za Web: www.zitholele.co.za

Contact details Tel: +27 (0)11 805 3537 E-mail: admin@wisa.org.za Web: www.wisa.org.za; www.ewisa.co.za

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EXHIBITORS

Outeniqua Railway Museum CONFERENCE LAYOUT PLAN Royal HaskoningDHV Exhibitor Hall zx

78 24 79 2 3 69 68 49 41 58 31 29 25

28 45 75 34 61 11 & 12 71 70 22 47 & 48 35 51 74 19 & 20 60 76 1 77 54 63 57 10 30 38 59 23 32 & 33 72 15 81 & 82 16 14 39 & 40 8 26 & 27 83 & 84 9 43 44 52 66 17 50 42 37 18 67 80 13 4 56 7 36 73 5&6 46 47A 53 67A 55 21

3S Media 4 Water Supplies Amatola Water AUMA Aurecon South Africa Aveng Manufacturing Infraset BKS Bosch Stemele & Bosch Munitech BVI Consulting Engineers Cachet International Cement & Concrete Institute CESA Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Civil Works COLAS DBSA Dynamic Fluid Control Incledon Elster Kent Metering EMANTI Management Fibertex South Africa Fiber Pipe Gast International SA Gibb Engineering & Science Global Geomatics GOBA Herrenknecht AG Huber Technology Hydro-comp Enterprises IMQS Software Johannesburg Water SOC JOAT Sales & Services Lesira Teq LTE Consulting Much Asphalt National Cold Asphalt Odour Control Group Osborn Engineered Products PD Naidoo & Associates PPC Cement PPS Insurance Company Pragma Africa Public Works Rand Water Road Material Stablisers Robor Rocla Royal HaskoningDHV SA Leak Detection Distributers Saint Gobain Construction Production SASTT (Trenchless Technology) SBS Water Systems Sensus SA SIKA South Africa SOBEK Southern Mapping SRK Consulting Structa Sulzer Total Geospatial Info. Solutions TT Innovations Utility Systems UWP Vag Valves Vele VKE with SMEC Vetasi WAM Technology Wastman Sightlines Water Institute of SA Worldwide Information Services Worley Parsons Water Research Commission Water Solutions Southern Africa Zitholele Cons

INFO KIOSK

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83 84

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53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 63 64

67A

TEA BREAK & LUNCH AREA

GREEN ROOM

ENTRANCE TO CONFERENCE HALL

ENTRANCE TO CONFERENCE HALL

CONFERENCE HALL

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PPC Surebuild 42 42,5 5 N go goes further than regular 32,5 general-purpose cement to give you 15% extra* concrete for your ur home-building project. For example, instead of using 115 bags of regular 32,5 general-purpose cement you will now only need 98 bags of PPC PC Surebuild 42,5 N for the same volume of concrete*. This means you can buy less cement or do more on your project. Imagine how much further h your vision could ld go with 15% extra.

TJDR 53617

*Yield is at least 15% more using the industry standard mix designs for different strength classes.

For more information call our toll-free line on 0800 023 470 or visit www.ppc.co.za

Dial *120*886*3# to calculate your cement savings (charges 20c/20 sec)


SPEAKERS & PAPERS


Saving Water, Saving Lives YARD WATER METER OVERVIEW

The Intelligent Water Meter and the supporting Meter Management System (MMS) provides a revolutionary approach to Water Demand Management. The Intelligent Water Meter ensures significant water savings through consumption management and leak detection with the added benefit of no billing costs. Bad debt is reduced and the lower consumption contributes towards reduced demand on reticulation and treatment plant.

FEATURES

• Intelligent Meter options ― Conventional Mode: Revenue collection via standard billing. The client can check the status of his/her debt at any given time ― Pre-paid Mode: the client buys credit in advance from a vending point ― Post-Payment Mode: the user is assigned a negative credit limit in litres or rand value ― Flat rate Mode: fixed amount per month for unlimited volume • Optional metered Lifeline flow (40 ℓ/hr) when credit runs out • High air flow detection and correction • Insensitive to lightning, freezing water, ambient temperatures up to 700 C, water hammer and dirt particles in water • Optional built in radio for AMR (no loose wires or antenna) • Arrears collection via User Tag (mode dependent)

COMMUNITY STANDPIPE OVERVIEW

The Community Standpipe Water Meter and supporting Meter Management System (WAS) is designed to offer a solution to the provision of water at communal water supply points. It requires low capital investment and can be used in both rural areas and informal settlements. One Meter can typically serve up to 40 households. The unit consists of a Class B multi jet water meter with electronic read out and built in flow control valve. A patented valve system ensures extended battery life. The unit is meteorologically sealed and provides a high level of resistance to physical tamper and is immune to magnetic tamper. Should the meter become faulty, it can be replaced in the field within ten minutes.

FEATURES

• Eight programmable tariff steps • Physical tamper resistant. Full encryption and copy protection • Immune to magnetic interference • Meter accuracy unaffected by sand particles • High air flow detection and correction • Adjustable Free Basic Water • Daily consumption limit for water-scarce areas • Full calendar clock • Patented low power consumption system • Battery can provide 90 000 valve applications • Robust metal housing with security screws • Delivered fully assembled and pressure tested to 20 bar • SANS 1529-1 and SANS 1529-9 approved

HANDHELD VENDING UNIT OVERVIEW

The Handheld Vending Unit is used in conjunction with the Intelligent Water Meter and Community Standpipe. It provides the link between the Meter and the Meter Management System (MMS). A network of conveniently located Vending Units provides the customer with easy access to “point of sale” where credit can be purchased. Each transaction is supported by a receipt printed from a dedicated printer.

523 Church Street, Provisus Building, Arcadia, Pretoria, 0083, South Africa Tel: +27 12 440 9885 | Fax: +27 12 440 9751 Naphtali Motaung | +27 72 736 2995 info@lesira.co.za | www.lesira.co.za

FEATURES

• • • • •

56 MB internal data memory, LCD display Single membrane keypad with standard key functions Built in battery with battery charge-level indicator Charged batteries provide 8 hours continuous operation Re-chargeable from a 220V AC source using the supplied charger. A car charger can also be used • High level of security with password protection • Theft risk is low as only dedicated functions are provided • Weighs approximately 350 g • Supplied with dedicated printer • Optional increased internal data memory (up to 2GB) • Optional GPRS module for automatic real-time downloading of data and online transactions • Optional collection of capital repayments and service charges

(PTY) LTD


SPEAKER PROFILES

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Speaker profiles Keynote speaker: Sean Rodrigues

HHO Africa in their Transportation Division. Andre is a Professional Engineer and is a member of SAICE and ITE. He has extensive experience in the transport planning and traffic engineering fields, having worked on a wide range of projects, including the Cape Town Convention Centre, the Victoria and Alfred Waterfront, the Foreshore Freeway Completion Scheme and major shopping centre transport impact assessments. He has been involved with numerous studies for the Port of Cape Town, which included transport planning studies, traffic studies, conceptual planning studies and infrastructure design projects, mostly with regards to the Container Terminal Reconfiguration Project. Andre is also experienced in the planning design and implementation of various public transport, non-motorised transport and Bus Rapid Transit projects, the most recent of which is the Atlantis Corridor Integrated Rapid Transit project, which is part of the Phase 1A rollout of the Cape Town Integrated Rapid Transit Network. He is the project leader on the Atlantis Corridor IRT project (CAPEX value of approximately R1.4 billion), the concept designer and traffic engineering specialist. Subsequently, he has also been involved as a specialist advisor to the National Department of Transport on BRT infrastructure and has been involved with the latest update to infrastructure chapters of the International BRT Planning Guide. Andre has presented over 15 technical papers both locally and internationally on traffic and transportation projects. He is a regular post-graduate lecturer in various transport planning aspects to master’s degree students in the departments of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning at the University of Cape Town.

In-depth technical knowledge and experience gained in the US in energy efficiency, the monetisation of energy efficiency in the built environment as well as net zero energy development and financing has made AIA (American Institute of Architects) award-winning architect Sean D Rodrigues a leader in the design and development of net zero energy environments. His hydrogen-based zero energy development concept, located in Monterey, California, is an AIA award-winning project. Ongoing research and application in energy efficiency, fuel cells and renewable energy gained through practical experience and courses studied at the Pacific Energy Centre in San Francisco, California, have enabled Sean to develop his whole building methodology in creating net zero energy projects. Specialising in green mixed-use design and development strategies, Sean’s Shiloh Sustainable Village Project in California was selected to participate in the US Green Building Council’s LEED Neighbourhood Development Pilot programme, one of a limited number across the US. In addition, the project was awarded a grant through the Enterprise Foundation’s, Green Communities Initiative. As CEO of the SDR Group, Sean is guiding the company in the investment and development of net zero energy projects worldwide. The SDR Group and its subsidiaries, Sky Blue Capital and Bankable Energy, offer full turnkey solutions, in the financing, development and renewable energy supply of net zero energy buildings and communities. Sean’s objective is to create best in class net zero energy mixed-use developments, guaranteed to reduce and/or omit the occupants’ energy costs. This will create a competitive advantage for their owners, by reducing operating costs, via high performance building solutions incorporating low energy and water use. His expertise in whole building design, coupled with his integrated financing strategies, can assist clients in saving money, reducing operating costs and increasing return on investment, while doing well for the planet. Sean has been an invited speaker and panellist at many ‘green’ conferences on the US west coast, including West Coast Green in San Francisco, Discover Brilliant in Seattle, Green Finance and Investment Forum West in San Francisco and other climate change conferences in Santa Rosa, Monterey and Windsor California. Sean has a Professional Bachelor of Architecture degree from the University of the Witwatersrand (1992) and has been a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Accredited Professional since 2003.

Bruce Hollands Bruce Hollands is executive director of the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association, a non-profit organisation representing North American manufacturers of sustainable PVC pipe for water, sewer and irrigation infrastructure. He is the primary liaison with all levels of government and regulatory agencies and is responsible for developing public policy, technical standards and establishing the association’s strategic direction. Before assuming his position at Uni-Bell, Bruce spent eight years as a government relations consultant, including time as senior advisor for Ottawa Mayor Bob Chiarelli and the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association. He also served as vice president of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities from 1994 to 2001, which included regular contact with the National League of Cities in the United States. Bruce has combined his Canadian experience with US water industry knowledge to formulate a North American approach for non-corrosive, sustainable and affordable PVC.

www.sdrgroupllc.com

Andre Frieslaar Andre Frieslaar completed his undergraduate degree in civil engineering from UCT in 1989. After two years on site with Murray and Roberts, he joined Hawkins Hawkins and Osborn Consulting Engineers (now HHO Africa) in Cape Town, in their traffic and transportation division. He was awarded the International Road Federation Scholarship in 1996 and attended Texas A&M University, US, where he obtained his MSc in Civil Engineering, majoring in Transportation. He returned to South Africa, where he is now a director at

Chris Swartz Chris Swartz is a consulting water utilisation engineer specialising in potable water treatment and drinking water supply projects. He has his own consulting water utilisation engineering practice in Mossel Bay (since 1991) where he is involved in projects for the Water Research Commission, local authorities and provincial government.

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Chris obtained his BEng degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Pretoria in 1983, after which he completed his honours degree in Water Utilisation Engineering and his master’s degree in Water Utilisation Engineering under supervision of Prof At Pretorius at the same university. Chris worked for the Division of Water Technology of the CSIR in Pretoria for a number of years before he relocated to Mossel Bay where he started his own consulting engineering firm. He is currently involved in a number of research projects for the Water Research Commission, mostly on improving the operation, management and sustainability of water treatment systems, and on exploring and evaluating new and alternative water resources and technologies. He recently completed work on a five-year project for the European Commission in collaboration with the Water Research Commission where comprehensive investigations took place to provide water supply solutions and technologies to address the future long-term challenges caused by rapidly changing impacts on water supply worldwide.

Erik Loubser Erik Loubser has, for the past 20 years, been the project leader for the completion of water and sewer system analysis and planning for several municipalities, ranging from small towns to large cities in Southern Africa. His team at GLS has successfully implemented and maintained several fully fledged water services management information systems

at various clients, which include continuous updating of water/sewer models and master plans, water loss management information and integration with other water service data. Erik is a co-founder (1989) and director of GLS Consulting, GLS Software and IMQS, and has been instrumental in the design and development of the software packages used by GLS and its clients, which include Wadiso, Sewsan, Swift and IMQS. He obtained BEng (Civil) Cum Laude, Hons BEng Cum Laude and MEng Cum Laude degrees from the University of Stellenbosch, and a PhD from Colorado State University in the US. At the University of Stellenbosch, he received the Chancellor’s medal for best postgraduate thesis, and his PhD thesis received the American Water Works Association Academic Achievement Award for best doctoral dissertation in 1985.

Harold Basson Harold Basson has a BEng (Civil Engineering) from Stellenbosch University and is registered as a Professional Engineer with the Engineering Council of South Africa. He is a member of the South African Institution of Civil Engineers and a corporate member of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa. Harold served on the executive committee of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa from 2006 to 2008 and was chairman of the South Cape Karoo Branch during the same period. He is currently director of Civil Engineering Services at George Municipality.

Jannie Koegelenberg Jannie graduated from the University of Stellenbosch in 2001 with a BEng degree cum laude. He joined BKS in 2002 for 18 months where he worked as a Hydrology and Hydraulics Design Engineer on stormwater projects in South Africa, Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia. Jannie then moved to Stewart Scott International (SSI) from mid-2003 until the start of 2006. He was the resident engineer on the raising of the Roodefontein Dam, the Helderberg stormwater retention facilities and the training of the Lourens River. He also worked on pipelines, residential development projects and the maintenance of the 2 Military Hospital. Jannie then joined Black & Veatch in the United Kingdom for a year as a Lead Design Engineer on waste water treatment works upgrade and bulk pipeline projects. During 2007 he worked as an Infrastructure Engineer at Walsh Associates in London. He designed complex services for high rise and multi storey developments. In 2008 Jannie rejoined SSI, which recently rebranded to Royal HaskoningDHV. He is now a principal associate and the office manager of the George branch. In 2010 Jannie completed his BCom Financial Management degree at the University of South Africa. During his current employment Jannie was responsible for the construction of several sewage pump stations, pipelines and the upgrade of the three George Water Treatment Works and the compilation of the George Stormwater Masterplan.


SPEAKER PROFILES

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Jurie van der Merwe

Neil Armitage

Jurie van der Merwe has over 20 years of experience in water and sewer system analysis and master planning. Projects include municipalities ranging from small towns to large cities in Southern Africa. He has been instrumental in implementing and maintaining several fully fledged water services management information systems at various clients, including the continuous updating of water/sewer models and master plans, water loss management information and integration with other water service data.

Originally from Zimbabwe, Prof Neil Armitage holds a BSc(Eng), MSc(Eng) and PhD degrees from the universities of Natal, Cape Town and Stellenbosch respectively. He has more than 25 years’ experience – both as a consultant and an academic – in a wide range of water-related fieldwork, including urban water supply, sanitation, urban drainage, river modelling, water and wastewater treatment, hydrology and coastal engineering. Currently he is deputy dean of the Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, and an associate professor in the Department of Civil Engineering Department at the University of Cape Town. He also leads an interdisciplinary urban water management research group.

Marco van Dijk Marco van Dijk is a lecturer in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Pretoria and a principal researcher for WRC research projects. He graduated from the University of Pretoria with a degree in Civil Engineering in 1996 and worked as an engineer for Ninham Shand Consulting Engineers. He completed his BEng(Hons) degree in 1998 and joined the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Pretoria in 2000. He obtained a MEng degree in Water Resource Engineering in 2003 and he is currently registered for a PhD. He obtained the SAICE Water Engineering Award in 2002 for his significant contribution in software development and technology transfer in the water engineering field (a joint award with Prof SJ van Vuuren). He has compiled numerous technical reports and journal publications in the field of pipelines, waterborne sanitation systems, hydropower generation and water distributions systems.

Martin Hough

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Peter Silbernagl Peter Silbernagl (PrEng CEng PrCPM) joined PD Naidoo & Associates Consulting Engineers in 2005. He graduated from UCT with a BSc Eng, GDEng and an MBA. His fields of expertise include project management, management of multidisciplinary teams and subconsultants in general project management, but particularly in the areas of water and waste management. He has developed expertise

Liveable cities, resilient communities

Martin Hough is a Professional Engineer and has BSc in Civil Engineering from the University of Natal (Durban). He has been involved in the field of civil engineering for the past 39 years and his specialisation is reinforced concrete structures and commercial and industrial buildings. Martin is a member of the Concrete Society of South Africa and his expertise includes project management and contract administration, civil engineering design and contracting, and industrial and commercial project construction. He currently works for SRK Consulting in Port Elizabeth as a senior engineer.

Mias van der Walt Mias van der Walt is a Professional Engineer with a BEng and MEng (cum laude) in mechanical engineering and a DEng in civil engineering (water treatment). He started his career at Rand Water, later moved to Magalies Water and joined Bigen Africa in 1997 where he currently holds the position of Managing Principal – Water and Sanitation.

Aurecon assists clients in planning, developing and sustaining liveable communities for a wide range of government and private sector projects globally. The group’s broad-based group of engineers, planners and advisory specialists act as integrated teams to service projects that span multiple markets across Africa, Asia Pacific and the Middle East. The group’s commitment is to allocate resources and skills aimed at improving the quality of life of the communities in which we operate. This ranges from sophisticated, hightech solutions to the provision of basic services in rural areas. Aurecon leverages such construction projects as opportunities to foster the development of small contractors and create long term jobs for local teams. Make Aurecon your partner in meeting today’s most critical service delivery challenges. Aurecon South Africa (Pty) Ltd is a certified Level 2 BBBEE contributor. For more information, contact us at tel: +27 12 427 2000 or email: government@aurecongroup.com


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Stefanus Albertus Strydom

in human resource and organisational development. He was also a contributor to the FIDIC Guide on Improving the Quality of Construction. He is a past president of the South African Association of Consulting Engineers, an accredited mediator and, in his private capacity, has served as a councillor for a local municipality and also chaired a local residents’ association. He has been a member of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa (since 1984), Institution of Civil Engineers (UK), the Institute of Waste Management of South Africa and a Fellow of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering. He has delivered papers at international conferences in Cape Town, Zambia and Botswana, and has coauthored several other papers. He has acted as facilitator and rapporteur at four FIDIC international conferences.

Stefanus Albertus Strydom is a professional land surveyor with a BSc (Survey) from the University of Pretoria (1976) and Environmental Impact Assessment Course of Potchefstroom University (1999). His professional memberships include: • member of the South African Coucil for Professional Land Surveyors and technical surveyors (PLATO – PLS 0593) • member of the South African Geomatics Institute (SAGI) • member of the Geo-Information Society of South Africa • reciprocal member of the institute of mine surveyors of south Africa • chairman of the council of the northern branch of SAGI. Stefanus is an external examiner for the University of Pretoria and Technicon Pretoria, and is a member of the Roodepoort Chamber of Commerce (past president). His experience includes management and survey of large survey, mapping, GIS data capturing projects such as mass survey of Soweto (83 000) stands, Gurue-Lichinga Powerline (±900 km), Transnet Durban-Johannesburg pipeline (±700 km), Soweto land regularization project (GIS data capturing and rectification of cadastral data ±120 000 erven). He has been in private practice since 1978 and to date projects have been executed in more than 20 African countries and South America.

Rassie Otte Rassie Otte is an Associate and Professional Engineer, pavement engineering, with the transport sector, based in the Southern Cape, with more than 25 years’ experience in pavement engineering. This includes research on pavement behaviour with the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) and investigative reports at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). His construction experience as resident engineer for Consulting Engineers includes road- and bridge rehabilitation as well as reconstruction. He joined the Department of Transport and Public Works, Western Cape, as materials engineer and later as deputy chief engineer, before joining the private sector again. Here he gained experience in design and tender documentation for municipalities using conventional construction methods as well as upgrading of streets using labour-based construction methods for the construction of an ultra-thin reinforced concrete pavements and was also involved in supervision on ultra-thin friction coarse surfacing at George Airport.

Therese Luyt Therese Luyt graduated from Cape Peninsula University of Technology with a BTech in Urban Engineering. She completed a three-month Advanced Management Training & Industrial Placement in Bavaria, Germany, in 2011. Part of the training was a seven-week industrial placement at Finsterwalder Umwelttechnik GmbH. Experience was gained in biogas production from organic waste, co-fermentation of organic liquid waste and sludge at a WWTW and landfill aeration. She is currently employed by PD Naidoo & Associates Consulting Engineers in the Solid Waste Management Division. Her major experience includes integrated waste management plans and bulk infrastructure master plans. She is also involved in the design of a waste transfer station in Tygerberg, Cape Town.

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ABSTRACTS

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Abstracts WATER AND SEWER MASTER PLANNING IN THE DYNAMIC GEORGE ENVIRONMENT

four-stage strategy for reducing the extraneous flows, including the ingress of stormwater, into sewers in a sustainable manner. The proposed strategy shows that the bulk of the costs, other than the initial investigations, need not be carried by the municipality, but rather by those on whose premises the extraneous flows largely originate.

H Basson, E Loubser, J van der Merwe In the early 1990s, the then George Municipality was one of the first in South Africa to establish comprehensive water and sewer master plans based on computer modelling. Since then, these models and master plans have been kept up to date, despite the fact that the planning environment has changed significantly along the way. Let us first consider the political environment: In the mid-1990s there was a dispensation change that resulted in George first incorporating the Pacaltsdorp and Thembalethu townships, then later also the Wilderness area. Recently, the towns in the district management area of Eden District Municipality (Uniondale and Haarlem) were also acquired. Every time, the master plans had to be extended to accommodate the larger area. Secondly, the economic environment: Based on the Southern Cape property boom in the early 2000s, almost every developer identified land in the area for potential development, and the master planning had to be extended to cover all the potential land developments. Since then, this relatively unrealistic scenario was trimmed down significantly, resulting in major changes to the proposed works in the master plans. Thirdly, the modelling environment: Over the last two decades there have been vast improvements in computer hardware and software, resulting in many additional aspects that could become part of the modelling and planning environment, such as GIS, integration with other systems and processes, water loss management, optimisation and time-simulation. This paper describes the changes in these environments and the effects of the drought in 2009/10 as they relate to planning, and the dynamic processes and modelling techniques that have been put in place to accommodate them and to keep the George master plans relevant and up to date.

GUIDELINES FOR MUNICIPAL ENGINEERS TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF CHANGING SOURCE WATER QUALITY AND QUANTITY CD Swartz Water Supply Authorities (WSAs) in South Africa are currently facing two major challenges with the sustainable supply of sufficient quantities of high-quality drinking water to their consumers. On the one hand is the deteriorating quality of raw water sources, coupled with increasingly stricter standards for tap water quality. Equally challenging is the highly variable availability of raw water due to changing weather patterns, resulting in prolonged drought periods (spatially and temporally) and intermittent flooding periods. To address the raw water shortages and quality challenges, WSAs are increasingly looking at alternative raw water sources, of which water reclamation (from secondary treated wastewater) and desalination (both seawater and brackish water desalination) are the most important supplemental water sources. A further option to increase the quantity of drinking water supplies is to upgrade existing water treatment plants by application of technologies and techniques to increase the treatment capacity. Targeted upgrading of existing treatment plants, which includes improving the management systems and water quality monitoring programmes, will at the same time also address the problem of poor service delivery. The paper identifies and discusses the current challenges with raw water sources and water treatment in South Africa, and on how this affects the choice of water supply systems. It provides an overview of a new project in which guidelines are being compiled for municipal engineers to address the challenges of changing drinking water source quality and quantity.

HOW TO REDUCE STORMWATER INGRESS INTO SEWERS

THE PVC PIPE EXPERIENCE IN NORTH AMERICA – LESSONS FOR SOUTH AFRICA

P Silbernagl, T Luyt It is accepted that the ingress of stormwater occurs in sewers. Design manuals typically recommend an allowance of 15% for stormwater or infiltration in sewers, in addition to the Peak Dry Weather Flow (PDWF). However, experience, as documented in reports (Tshwane and Cape Town for instance), and as already reported (IMESA 1994), has shown that the ingress often exceeds 100% of the PDWF and that the amount is rainfall dependent. Excess stormwater has several negative impacts (health due to sewage spillages, pumping and treatment costs and environmental). Closer examination shows there are four sources of extraneous flows into sewers: infiltration of groundwater, ingress of stormwater, illegal connections and leaks from taps and cisterns. The paper will examine the legal obligations of municipalities (Water Services Act, National Building Regulations, etc.). It will demonstrate a method of data analysis which reveals whether the extraneous flows are from infiltration, ingress, etc. Lastly, the paper will set out a

B Hollands America’s economic well-being and public health are dependent upon reliable and financially viable water and wastewater systems. But corroding metallic pipes are creating an epidemic in water main breaks, many of which were installed in the last 20 years. In total, corrosion of US water and sewer infrastructure carries a US$50.7  billion annual price tag, including 2.6 trillion gallons of lost drinking water every year, US$4.1 billion in wasted electricity annually, traffic disruptions, depleted water supplies, skyrocketing insurance claims, political upheaval, etc. Other countries with large inventories of corrosion-prone piping systems are facing similar challenges. There is a solution and the future need not look so bleak.  PVC pipe is poised to make the 21st century a corrosion-free era.  It is already the number one selling pipe in North America with over 40  000

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communities benefiting from its exceptional safety, durability and environmental attributes. And PVC pipe’s cost-effectiveness and high performance characteristics substantially reduce a utility’s capital and operating costs, helping keep water and sewer rates down. This presentation will discuss the history of PVC pipe use in the water and sewer sector in rural and urban North America since the 1950s, providing an overview of PVC pipe and fittings, and an update on trenchless technologies and products. The technical, communications and government relations activities of the PVC Pipe Association (PVCPA) will also be reviewed, as well as the importance of promoting open competition for piping in a world with limited resources and increased scrutiny by ratepayers. Finally, how all of these factors are relevant to the South African experience as the country grapples with pipe renewal and the need to bring water and sewer services to millions of its people.

information regarding the design and operation of their sewer systems. Furthermore, the standards and guidelines used in practice in South Africa in the design and operation of waterborne sanitation systems were reviewed. Many sources of information were consulted and a synthesis of the material was tailored to South African conditions to produce comprehensive guides on waterborne sanitation systems. The four main waterborne sanitation systems that are described in these guides are: • conventional gravity sewer • vacuum sewer systems • small-bore sewer • simplified sewerage. Municipal sanitary sewage collection and conveyance systems are an extensive, valuable and complex part of the country’s infrastructure. To provide further classification and background information photos, videos, software and additional literature were included on an accompanying SewerAID DVD (Van Vuuren et al 2011a).

WATERBORNE SANITATION GUIDELINES M van Dijk

WATER MEMORY

The general health of the population improves when people have access to basic clean water supply and sanitation. The safe disposal of human excreta and greywater is vitally important in the control of infectious and other communicable diseases, and the design and construction of appropriate sanitation systems is of paramount importance in contributing to the safe disposal of human excreta. However, on its own, the proper planning and construction of sanitation systems does not provide a guarantee that the general health of the population will improve. A holistic approach to health care is required, with the provision of suitable sanitation being just one of the necessary components thereof. The function of a waterborne sanitation system is to collect and convey wastewater in a hygienic manner. To assist designers and engineers in the planning and selecting of the most suitable sanitation option, two guidelines were compiled namely: Waterborne Sanitation Design Guide (Van Vuuren and Van Dijk, 2011a) and Waterborne Sanitation Operation and Maintenance Guide (Van Vuuren and Van Dijk, 2011b). In order to streamline the planning and design process in South Africa, a three-tier philosophy is utilised for sewage collection system planning and designs (Jacobs and Van Dijk, 2009). This three-tiered philosophy could be used as a basis to derive a best management practice for sewer system planning and design. The authors collaborated with a number of local authorities in South Africa and gathered

M van der Walt In the technological age where computers are part of our daily existence, the word ‘memory’ is often associated with the memory chip in a personal computer – not with water. Water memory is a fascinating concept. The human brain, for instance, is an array of billions of neurons and the conducting fluid between the neurons consists of about 80% water. The connection between water and memory is therefore not too difficult and in fact a concept pervasive to our existence. This paper will explore the relationship between ‘water’ and ‘memory’ from a different perspective. The basis of the paper is to demonstrate the concept of water ‘memory’ and that the origin of water can to a large extent be determined by decoding the ’memory’. The correct decoding of water memory has significant practical implications in terms of water cycle management. The concept of water memory was developed and applied during a number of studies including distribution system water quality root cause analysis, mine water management and a water treatment plant dosing strategy.

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TOWARDS WATER SENSITIVE URBAN SETTLEMENTS – INTEGRATING DESIGN, PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA’S TOWNS AND CITIES

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CAN WE BUILD IT, YES WE CAN! … ULTRA-THIN REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS (UTRCP) JR Otte, PGJJ Myburgh

K Carden, L Fisher-Jeffes, D Coulson, NP Armitage The employer’s objectives of this project was to upgrade gravel roads in the Brandwag community, near Mossel Bay, to surfaced standard with preference to ultra-thin reinforced concrete pavement, constructed by means of labour-intensive construction methods, to maximise the use of local labour and to create jobs in an area with a high unemployment rate. From the onset it was clear that the design and documentation needs to be adapted in order to maximise the interest of the community as well as ensuring a quality product. Well-balanced use of equipment and local labour was key to the success of the project as extensive training was undergone before the specific tasks were programmed to commence. On-site design changes were possible due to the flexibility of the ‘spin-screed’ being used with resultant innovative techniques, which result both in time saving as well as improved constructability and quality. Quality control of both virgin and modified materials before, during and after construction needs a higher level of supervision, which must not be underestimated. A direct cost comparison was possible to conventional methods as this was part of the project scope. Crucial to the success and sustainability of this method however, is long-term commitment from authorities, with guaranteed financial and technical support.

South Africa is a rapidly urbanising country facing complex water management challenges, including significant resource shortages, environmental issues and fragmented institutional structures. Water security is of particular concern; an average supply shortfall of 17% is predicted by 2030, with the bulk of increased demand expected from cities (Barilla Group et al, 2009). A new paradigm in urban water management is required if serious economic and socio-political threats are to be averted. Building on initial research into sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) in South Africa, the Water Research Commission is funding a study aimed at developing a strategic framework and identifying tools for a more integrated approach to managing the three urban water streams – namely stormwater, water supply and wastewater. Issues of water conservation, surface and groundwater protection, and the use of wastewater and/or stormwater as a resource, are central to this research. This paper discusses international current thinking in terms of using Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) concepts in a transition to Water Sensitive Urban Settlements. It proposes the use of a vision and an approach to engage stakeholders, and provides examples of existing case studies to highlight critical issues for consideration in the South Africa context. The research aims to demonstrate how South Africa could, by way of an interdisciplinary process like WSUD – which encompasses design, planning, institutional arrangements and management – move towards the development of multifunctional urban areas that are resilient and adaptable to change.

DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF A PILOT ARTIFICIAL WETLAND SYSTEM TO REMOVE STORMWATER AND SEWAGE POLLUTANTS ENTERING THE SWARTKOPS RIVER ESTUARY VIA THE MOTHERWELL CANAL, NELSON MANDELA BAY, SOUTH AFRICA

HIGH ACCURACY 3D MOBILE MAPPING FOR ROAD DESIGN A Strydom

M Hough, WI Stewart, KF Uderstadt, A Wood

Without accurate geographical (survey) information, no construction project, whether it be roads, civil works, buildings, plant, electricity or any other project, can proceed. All professionals need reliable data for planning, design, execution and as-built purposes. Survey work on most construction projects can be categorised as: • pre-construction – this is the planning and design phase • construction – this consists mostly of setting out quantities and confirmation of construction • post-contruction – supply of as-built plans and data • rehabilitation – detail high accuracy data for design. Historically, the surveyor supplied this data by means of ground survey with conventional equipment and aerial survey methods. Over the past few years, the construction industry has been introduced to airborne lidar mapping and terrestrial (ground-based) lidar mapping. 3D Mobile mapping is the latest development in fast (70 km/h), accurate (1 cm) data capturing.

SRK Consulting conceptualised, designed and supervised the development of a R 7.5 million artificial wetland for the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality in the Eastern Cape, which may herald a new approach to the natural cleaning of polluted water entering South African rivers and estuaries. The pilot scheme is believed to potentially be the first of its kind in South Africa. The Motherwell stormwater canal was designed to discharge stormwater into the Swartkops River estuary, but becomes contaminated at times with sewerage spills emanating from the Motherwell residential area. The Swartkops River estuary is ranked as the top temperate estuary in terms of subsistence value and the eleventh most important estuary in South Africa (Turpie & Clark, 2007). Prior to the commissioning of the artificial wetland system, the quality of the water entering the Swartkops River estuary from the Motherwell Canal exceeded the Department of Water Affairs general guideline for recreational use by between ten and five hundred-fold. The construction of the wetland included a rock-filled reinforced concrete structure 65 m long by 8 m wide as the primary element in the cleaning process. Water percolates through the aggregate and begins the biological polishing process. It then flows under gravity through two reed beds planted with Typha capensis reeds. To date, the artificial wetland system has resulted in a marked

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BRT INFRASTRUCTURE, COMING TO A ROAD NEAR YOU!

reduction in the concentration of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms.

A Frieslaar

STORMWATER MASTER PLAN – PROCESS/GUIDELINE

Municipal engineers have to deal with a new reality – the insertion of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) infrastructure into city streets. The challenge is to build infrastructure that meets the operational needs of the public transport operator, at a reasonable cost and with materials that will require minimal ongoing maintenance. National government policy dictates that cities need to pursue the provision of Integrated Rapid Transit Networks. A key element of this intervention is the use of BRT systems, which require specialised infrastructure. BRT infrastructure comprises busways, stations, terminals, bus stops and bus depots. Currently, the overall infrastructure cost for BRT projects is approximately R60 million per dedicated busway kilometre, so wise investment in this infrastructure is critically important. The paper introduces BRT and explains why it is the mode of choice for implementation. Thereafter, the various BRT infrastructure elements are discussed. There is also a brief description of the MyCiti Interim Service that was launched in May 2011. The presentation concludes after key lessons learnt from the Phase 1A implementation of the MyCiti infrastructure are highlighted.

C Madell, J Koegelenberg The flooding experienced in the Southern Cape region during 2006 and 2007 resulted in significant damage to municipal infrastructure and private property. Rapid urbanisation, as well as the age, condition and capacity of the existing stormwater infrastructure resulted in stormwater run-off from developed areas. This had a negative impact on existing municipal infrastructure, private property and river embankments. To mitigate the impact of possible changing weather patterns and increasing run-off caused by urbanisation, the George Municipality required a single database where all stormwater data could be viewed, queried, stored, added, maintained and expanded. This database would facilitate the compilation of a Stormwater Master Plan, which, in turn, would identify the necessary upgrades to stormwater infrastructure to meet current and future infrastructure needs. The George Municipality, together with co-funders the Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA), the Eden District Municipality and the Department of Local Government Western Cape, undertook the inception phase of the George Stormwater Master Plan. To date, 181 km of network has been topographically surveyed, 151  km hydraulically modelled and 21  km condition assessed. This was a pilot stormwater investigation-type project outside the large metros and can therefore be useful to other municipalities with similar needs.

IMESA’S VISION & PROGRESS TOWARDS A NATIONAL SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE ASSET MANAGEMENT (SIAM) PROGRAMME R Byrne, L Naudé In this paper and presentation, Roger and Leon will outline the steps IMESA has taken (and plans to take) to assist its members and their municipalities to better manage our vital infrastructure asset portfolio’s and the services they deliver. The talk will cover the following subjects: • The National Municipal Programme • AMPLE web-based knowledge support system • AMPLE training programmes • IIMS - Helping members get “clean valuation audits” • Programmes being implemented across the nation • NAMSza National Asset Management Strategy - South Africa. If you got a qualified audit, are thinking of starting your IAM programme, or you have started and would like to see how it relates to IMESA’s national programme approach, this paper will give you some great ideas…

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PAPERS

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Wednesday, 24 October SESSION 2: WATER & SANITATION - Session Chair: Mr Leon Naude 10h05

Water & Sewer Master planning in the dynamic George Environment – Harold Basson : George Municipality

10h35

How to reduce storm water ingress into sewers – Peter Silbernagl : PD Naidoo & Associates

11h05

Guidelines for municipal engineers to meet the challenges of changing source water quality and quantity – Chris Swartz : Chris Swartz Water Utilisation Engineers

11h35

PVC Piping in water and wastewater systems – Mr Bruce Hollands : Chairman of the USA PVC Pipe Association

SESSION 3: WATER & SANITATION - Session Chair: Mr Willem Hofmeyer 14h20

New Waterborne Sanitation Guidelines – Prof Marco van Dyk : University of Pretoria

14h50

Water Memory – an aid towards understanding water quality problems – JJ van der Walt : BIGEN

SESSION 4: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - Session Chair: Mr Nick Pretorius 16h00 16h30

Towards water sensitive urban settlements – integrating design, planning and management of SA's Towns and cities – Prof Armitage : UCT Urban Water Management Group Conduit hydropower potential in a city's water distribution system – Prof Marco van Dyk : University of Pretoria

Thursday, 25 October SESSION 5: ROADS - Session Chair: Mr Johan De Beer 08h00

Increase in the Service Life of Asphalt Highways – Jim Walton, Director: International Sales, Roadtec Inc

08h30

High accuracy 3D mobile mapping for road design – Altus Strydom : Global Geomatics

09h00

Ultra Thin Reinforced Concrete Pavements – Rassie Otte : Royal HaskoningDHV & Pieter Myburgh : Mossel Bay Municipality

09h30

Physical Storm Water Modelling – Prof Frans van Vuuren : University of Pretoria & MVD Consultants

SESSION 6: STORM WATER MANAGEMENT - Session Chair: Mr Pieter Myburgh

12h00

Infrastructure Asset Management Computerised Systems – Roger Byrne IMESA AM Mentor & Leon Naude : Director AM Pilot artificial wetland system to remove storm water & sewage from Swartkops – Martin Hough : SRK Consulting

12h30

Compilation of a Storm Water Master plan – Jannie Koegelenberg (Royal HaskoningDHV)

11h20

Friday, 26 October SESSION 7: TRANSPORT / TRAFFIC ENGINEERING - Session Chair: Mr Barry Martin 08h10

City of Cape Town's Transportation reporting system – Reggie Springleer : City of Cape Town & Neil Slingers : Vela VKE part of the SMEC Group

08h40

BRT Infrastructure: coming to a road near you – André Frieslaar : HHO Africa Infrastructure Engineers

09h10

Development of guidelines for public transport facilities within the eThekwini Municipality – Sekadi Phayane : Vela VKE part of the SMEC Group

SESSION 8: FINANCIAL & LEGISLATION - Session Chair: Mr Johan Basson 10h20 10h50 11h20

Wagging the Dog: How service delivery can lose its way in the procurement maze – Kevin Wall : CSIR Addressing operations and maintenance challenges in smaller municipalities – Johan van der Mescht : Aurecon PE Water Research Commission Project – Investigation into the Cost and Water Quality Aspects of South African Desalination and Re-use – Paul Gaydon : Royal HaskoningDHV

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WATER AND SEWER MASTER PLANNING IN THE DYNAMIC GEORGE ENVIRONMENT

1.3 Using consultants The presenting author contacted the co-author who, in 1989, started the company Geustyn Loubser Streicher Inc (now GLS Consulting) with two other partners. GLS was then the owner of the original Wadiso and Sewsan software for modelling and planning water distribution and sewer reticulation systems, and had completed its first two “citywide” analyses for Edenvale and Alberton (now part of Ekurhuleni).

Harold Basson1), Erik Loubser2), Jurie van der Merwe3) 1)

Director Technical Services: George Local Municipality Director: GLS Consulting 3) Senior Technologist: GLS Consulting 2)

2. THE FIRST MASTER PLANS (1990 – 2000) ABSTRACT In the early 1990s, the then George Municipality was one of the first in South Africa to establish comprehensive water and sewer master plans, based on computer modelling. Since then, these models and master plans have been kept up to date, despite the fact that the planning environment has changed significantly along the way. Let us first consider the political environment: In the mid-1990s there was a dispensation change which resulted in George first incorporating the Pacaltsdorp and Thembalethu townships, then later also the Wilderness area. Recently, the towns in the district management area (DMA) of Eden District Municipality (Uniondale and Haarlem) were also acquired. Every time, the master plans had to be extended to accommodate the larger area. Secondly, the economic environment: Based on the Southern Cape property boom in the early 2000s, almost every developer identified land in the area for potential development, and the master planning had to be extended to cover all the potential land developments. Since then, this relatively unrealistic scenario was trimmed down significantly, resulting in major changes to the proposed works in the master plans. Thirdly, the modelling environment: Over the last two decades there have been vast improvements in computer hardware and software, resulting in many additional aspects that could become part of the modelling and planning environment, such as GIS, integration with other systems and processes, water loss management, optimisation and time-simulation. This paper describes the changes in these environments and the effects of the drought in 2009/10 as they relate to planning, and the dynamic processes and modelling techniques that have been put in place to accommodate them and to keep the George master plans relevant and up to date.

2.1 Software, models and computers Wadiso at the time was a command-line program for the analysis, timesimulation and optimisation of water distribution networks. There was no graphical display of model elements, only a text-type database that represented all the pipes, nodes, pumps, valves and tanks in the model, and their topology (i.e. how they all connected to each other). Sewsan was a similar program for analysis and time-simulations of sewer reticulation systems. At the time there were severe limitations on computer memory and computational speed, resulting in the requirement that only skeletonised models of “citywide” systems could be simulated. Model layouts had to be drawn on scale on (say) an A0 paper or film, with contour backgrounds from (say) orthophoto prints. Each pipe and junction was given an ID. The lengths of pipes had to be measured on the drawing, and the elevations of junctions had to be interpolated from the contours. The model database was then constructed by typing this information into the data editors. The layout and some data pages of the 1990 George water master plan model are shown in Figure 2. 2.2 Study area and spatial development framework (SDF) In the early 1990s, George Municipality included only the town of George, but was an external water supplier to Herold’s Bay, Pacaltsdorp, Thembalethu, and the Kraaibosch/Wilderness area (see Figure 2). There was already a great demand for development, resulting in a growth rate of almost 5% per annum. A substantial number of potential future developments had been identified, which at the time represented more than double the existing service area (also seen in Figure 2). 2.3 Water demands and sewer flows George Municipality kept records of five bulk water meters, which measured the total inflow from the cluster of main reservoirs into the reticulation system. On the basis of these records the total annual average daily demand (AADD) of the entire system, including the external supplies, was estimated at 16 Mℓ/d. The bulk sewer flow measured at the two wastewater treatment works (WWTW - Outeniqua and Gwaiing) amounted to 13 Mℓ/d. There was no means or software available at the time to analyse the water sales and water losses. However, the land uses, number of occupied stands, and number of vacant stands, were available from town planning for all the established developments in George. Unit water demands (UWD) and sewer unit hydrographs (UH) were assumed for the various land use types, and calibrated to match the metered bulk flows.

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 George Local Municipality The George Local Municipality (LM) location and boundaries are shown in Figure 1 (all figures and tables are at the back end of this paper). George is a major player in the economy of the Southern Cape, and is regarded by National Treasury as a “Secondary City”. The current population is estimated at around 190 000, with demographics ranging from informal settlements to luxury estates. Over the last ±20 years George has been one of the fastest growing areas in South Africa. George is presently the Water Service Authority (WSA) and also the Water Service Provider (WSP) for the area under its jurisdiction. George is responsible for its own water sources and treatment facilities, and this responsibility extends to the final treatment and release of treated water into the river systems.

2.4 Calibration of the water system model Several flow and pressure tests were done on the water system to establish the roughness coefficients of the pipes in the model. Since the model was a skeletonised representation of the actual system, the roughness coefficients determined from this calibration also reflected the fact that not all pipes were modelled.

1.2 Need for master planning In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the presenting author of this paper was the water and sanitation engineer for George. Due to the very fast growth rate certain elements and components of the then George’s water and sewer systems were beginning to falter. The need for master plans to facilitate the implementation of reinforcements and extensions to the systems was evident.

2.5 Format of reporting The George water master plan presented in 1990 was probably the last Afrikaans report produced by GLS! In all other respects it also looks very

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different from modern reports, which are done with all sorts of new technology such as management information systems (MIS), CAD, GIS, scanned images, fancy word processors, etc. Yet, the gist of the report is amazingly similar to what is still required and produced today, and the proposals and master plan items from the report remained relevant for many years, despite the fact that it was in essence a once-off exercise (at the time). Figure 2 gives an idea of what the original report format looked like.

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Wilderness is a very mountainous environment, with the sea being the southern boundary. At the time there was a considerable backlog in the sewer system, with only on-site sanitation on many stands. The large number of hills represented a new level of complexity in the water modelling and planning (where there is also an additional WTP), and the reticulation and discharge of sewer flows at sea level did the same in the sewer modelling and planning. A complete revamp of all the models and master plans was done for this amalgamation.

2.6 Main aspects of the first water master plan The main problems addressed in the water master plan in 1990, was the integration of a new water treatment plant (WTP) which was under construction at the time, pressure problems in the high-lying area near the main cluster of reservoirs in the George zone, and lack of storage and pressure problems in the Blanco area (where Fancourt Golf Estate had just been developed). Furthermore, the substantial supplies into Thembalethu and Pacaltsdorp went straight into their reticulation networks, without reservoir storage for strategic and balancing purposes. The main aspects of the master plan were therefore: • A pumping system from the new WTP to the main cluster of reservoirs; • A western main from the cluster of reservoirs into and through the George zone; • Reinforcement of the main pipe to the Blanco zone; • An additional reservoir in Blanco; and • Reservoirs for Pacaltsdorp and Thembalethu, to even out the load they placed on the reticulation. The sum of all the works proposed in the master plan would increase the capacity of the bulk and distribution mains systems from the then 16 Mℓ/d AADD to a future (± 2010) 42 Mℓ/d AADD.

3.3 Addition/impact of Uniondale and Haarlem Recently, the towns of Uniondale and Haarlem (see Figure 1) were also incorporated into George LM. These are two “free-standing” separate towns which as such, did not influence the previous modelling and master planning per sé. Yet, new models and master plans had to be established for these towns, in order to align them with the rest of George. 4. CHANGES IN THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 4.1 Original scope and horizon for planning The scope of the original master planning in 1990 is shown in Figure 3. At the time occupation of vacant stands and future developments represented an increase in AADD from 16 Mℓ/d to 42 Mℓ/d, estimated to take place over a period of ±20 years at a growth rate of ±5% p.a. As it turned out, this was not far from the mark, since the actual AADD in 2008 (before the effect of the severe drought – see par. 6.1) was ±35 Mℓ/d. 4.2 Economic/property boom of the 2000s and its impact on the master plans More or less between 2000 and 2008 there was a tremendous boom in the property/development market in George, as in the rest of South Africa (even more so). This was mainly fuelled by the credit/property bubble, which resulted in the world-wide crash in 2007/8. The boom had a significant impact on the master planning for George’s water and sewer systems. Suddenly every developer (and his dog) had identified land for development, and wanted to urgently proceed. Meanwhile, Thembalethu and Pacaltsdorp were also growing fast. Some of the boom time developments did come to fruition (Oubaai, Kraaibosch, Garden Route Mall, Le Grand), but there were many others on the table that remained in the “planning” stage. Many of these proposals were leapfrog developments that were far removed from existing bulk services, which would have placed tremendous strain on the water sources, if they materialised. Yet, George LM had to be prepared for these developments, and therefore a major revamp of the master plans was required around 2005. The extent of the planning area is shown in Figure 3. At the time, the actual AADD in George was in the region of 26 Mℓ/d, with a total planning area future AADD of 107 Mℓ/d. The revamped master plans included many aspects and projects that were not in the original plans, the main ones being: • An eastern main from the cluster of reservoirs into and through the George zone, to serve the Mall and the Kraaibosch area; • Various new pumping zones in the sewer system; • New WTP’s for developments on the eastern and western fringes of the planning area (even desalination of seawater for e.g. Lakes Eco Resort, and recycled water for Lagoon Bay); and • New package plants for the developments outside the existing WWTW drainage basins.

2.7 Main aspects of the first sewer master plan Whereas some ad-hoc sewer problems were modelled and solved through the 1990s, it was only around 2000 that the first total sewer master plan was completed. This was a number of years after the first water master plan, and already included Thembalethu and Pacaltsdorp. The main aspects of the sewer master plan were: • Gwaiing outfall system and pump station to Gwaiing WWTW; • New Kraaibosch bulk outfall system and pump stations; • Six new pump station drainage areas in Pacaltsdorp and Thembalethu; and • Upgrading of the existing WWTWs. 3. CHANGES IN THE POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT 3.1. Addition/impact of Pacaltsdorp/Thembalethu The first change in the political environment took place in mid-1990, when Thembalethu and Pacaltsdorp were incorporated into George (see Figure 1). This did not have much of an impact on the water master plan since the bulk supplies to these two areas had already been taken into account for the original plan. The master plan simply had to be extended to also include the reticulation networks of the two areas. The addition did, however, have a major impact on the sewer system and actually prompted the first complete sewer master plan. The largest portion of these two areas lie on the southern side of the two main WWTWs, and is at a lower elevation. This required careful planning of the collector and pumping systems. 3.2 Addition/impact of Wilderness area The next change in the political environment was around 2000 when the Wilderness area (Wilderness, Wilderness Heights, Hoekwil, Touwsranten and Kleinkrantz) was incorporated into George (see Figure 1). Until then, George’s only concern was to provide sufficient capacity for the bulk supply point into the Wilderness/Kraaibosch area.

4.3 Cutting back on planning scope after the boom Then came the credit/property bubble burst in ±2007/8! Implementation of the boom time master plan projects placed a serious economic burden on George LM, especially given that the bubble burst meant that

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development dried up and repayment of capital loans could no longer be supported through levying of capital services contributions (CSC). This called for yet another adaptation of the master planning – i.e. to cut back to a more realistic scenario representing organic growth. The planning area boundaries were shrunk; to especially exclude those proposed leapfrog developments on the far eastern and western perimeters. These planning boundaries are shown in Figure 3 and are still the planning boundaries today. They represent a future AADD of 94 Mℓ/d, i.e. a significant reduction from the boom time horizon of 106 Mℓ/d. George had to bite the bullet hard, but due to the adaptability of the master planning it is now very well positioned for the normal organic growth that has been prevalent since the boom.

instance, GLS runs a master plan model for the City of Tshwane that consists of ±180 000 pipes. The removal of these limits has allowed much more detail to be worked into the water and sewer master plans for George. Micro problems (e.g. interconnection between two small diameter pipes) are now addressed in the same modelling environment as the macro problems (WTW/WWTW capacities, new reservoirs, etc.).

5. CHANGES IN THE CLIMATIC ENVIRONMENT 5.1. Drought Coinciding with the credit/property crash, George was subjected to the worst drought in human memory, lasting from 2008 to 2010. The main source of water for George, namely the Garden Route Dam, dropped to a level of only 17%. This called for the investigation of many emergency measures, all of which had to be integrated with the bulk and reticulation master plans, and with previous water resource studies.

6.3. Billing analysis Towards the late 1990s, GLS developed the Swift software for the importing and analysis of billing and bulk meter data. Each record in the billing system is analysed and a land use, a suburb category, a link with the cadastre, and actual water sales are determined. With geospatial correlation, each record is linked to the nodes in the water model, and the manholes in the sewer model. This results in a very accurate representation of the loads on the existing systems. Further integration with the bulk meter data allows for the accurate determination of water losses, which is done on a “city-wide” basis, a distribution zone basis, or even down to the level of small metering sub-zones. Continuous reporting on unaccounted-forwater (UAW) and non-revenue-water (NRW) is therefore possible. This allowed refinement of the existing and future loads on the systems, and a resultant improvement in the accuracy of the master planning.

5.2 Water resources plan with emergency drought measures A water resource plan (Ninham Shand, August 2005) was developed in 2005. The plan was integrated with the bulk and reticulation master plans, in the sense that Garden Route Dam, the main George WTP, and the main cluster of reservoirs still had to remain the primary input points for the water distribution system. Therefore, projects like the Kaaimans and Malgas river transfer schemes (which pump into the Garden Route Dam and balancing dams at the WTP), as well as the heightening of the dam wall and the indirect reuse of wastewater, were all conceptualised and planned with this in mind. The same applied to the emergency measures that were added to the resource plan, including the introduction of borehole supplies.

6.4. Reporting formats The advancement in modelling techniques, the modelling environment (GIS), and integration with other data and processes have all but relegated the old style bound paper reports to extinction. The models and master plans are now reported in a fully integrated MIS, where it can be viewed in conjunction with other services’ models and plans (electricity, roads, and storm water). PDF reports are still generated in addition to the graphical user interface, but these are typically accessed straight from the MIS and are not bound anymore. Schematic representations of the models and master plans allow easy interpretation of modelling results, master planning proposals and water loss data. Figure 5 shows some excerpts from the current MIS reporting environment.

5.3 Effect of drought austerity measures on AADD The drought management included severe tariff penalties and restrictions on water use. This resulted in a significant drop in AADD, as is evident in Figure 4. In the master planning context the debate was whether this change in water demand habits was going to be permanent, or whether there would be a gradual return to old UWD levels over time as the drought faded in memory. Cautiously, the latter was assumed and no major adjustments to the planning were undertaken.

6.5. Once-off studies versus continuous updating Another reason for having relegated the old style bound documents to extinction is the fact that the new software and modelling environment allow for the continuous updating of the models and plans. Any bound document is therefore rendered outdated almost after only 3 months. As-built information is continuously captured and added to the existing models. Simultaneously, where such as-builts represent the implementation of a master plan project or a future development area, such elements are easily removed from the master plan or future “layer”. Changes in the SDF (which as documented above is very dynamic) can also quickly be modelled and incorporated into the master planning models and reports. Modelling and planning have therefore become continuous processes, as opposed to the intermittent once-off studies of earlier days.

6. CHANGES IN THE TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 6.1. Modelling software Since 1990 there have been tremendous advances in modelling software. Increased memory and computational speed now allow the modelling of all pipes (i.e. skeletisation is no longer required), and CAD and GIS user interfaces allow for accurate geo-positioning of model elements, as well as comprehensive mapping. The same two programs (Wadiso and Sewsan) used for the 1990 master plan are still being used today, but both are now running in a GIS environment, where the models can be integrated with various other map and data sources such as aerial photo imagery, cadastral layouts, and billing systems.

6.6. Integration between models and other data, systems and processes Advances in technology have also allowed the integration of the models and master plans with many other datasets and processes prevalent in the LM. A few examples are mentioned below: • By capturing valve and hydrant positions, and integrating all information with the cadastre, field books can be developed which assists field staff with operation and maintenance of the systems; • Information from the models is integrated with information from the maintenance management system into an algorithm that prioritises individual pipes or “rolled-up” areas of pipe for replacement/ refurbishment; • Information from the models is integrated with the municipal asset

6.2. Modelling and other databases Whereas there was a severe limitation on model extents in the early 1990s, this has almost been entirely eliminated. The 1990 water model of George consisted of 335 pipes, and the current master plan model has ±22 000 pipes. This does not even begin to approach the limits, as, for

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register, which can also be presented spatially; • Integration with the bulk meter database and billing system allows accurate modelling of the loads on the system, as well as accurate determination of and reporting on water losses, and revenue enhancement; • Relevant elements in the models can be linked to “tags” in the SCADA system, allowing access to trend reports; • Relevant elements in the models can be linked to URL’s in websites such as MyCiti and ZedNet, where continuous records and graphs of monitored flow meters and pressure gauges can be viewed; • The URLs of the Blue Drop and Green Drop are on the website of the Dept. of Water Affairs (DWA) for each logging position are associated with the relevant elements in the existing system model, allowing direct access from the model to the website; • The list of master plan projects emanating from the planning can be reconciled and integrated with the budgeting process, as well as the subsequent project management processes during implementation; • Town Planning receives applications for new townships on a frequent basis, which can all be superimposed on the existing models in order to determine if, and then which, master plan items are required for approval; and • Data as required for the water services development plan (WSDP) can easily be examined from the model and billing databases.

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• • • • •

Replace the Herold’s Bay maturation ponds with WWTW; Upgrade Kleinkrantz WWTW; Upgrade Uniondale WWTW – prerequisite for housing project; Upgrade Haarlem WWTW; 66 New pump stations and rising mains to accommodate future developments; • New sewers to incorporate existing stands not serviced in Wilderness, Uniondale and Haarlem; and • Upgrade existing pump stations to accommodate future developments.

7.5. Format of reporting The models and master plans are continuously updated, and therefore the reporting is through an MIS (developed/maintained by GLS affiliate company IMQS). The MIS provides access to various PDF reports, graphs and maps of the systems. The primary views (among many available views) are: Water and sewer system: • Map of existing system, with data for each element available in property box; • Map of existing system, showing pipes themed in accordance with diameter, flow or capacity; • Map of master plan system, with data for each master plan item in property box; • Map of master plan system, showing pipes themed in accordance with diameter, flow or capacity; • PDF master plan reports for each bulk system and/or distribution zone; and • Master plan item and master plan project tables, with budget costs and implementation year.

7. THE UP-TO-DATE MODELS AND MASTER PLANS TODAY 7.1. Water model The current water model for George LM is shown in Figure 6. It consists of ±15 000 pipes representing a total length of 860 km. There are 51 reservoirs, 3 water towers, 22 pumping stations and 5 WTPs in the model. The total AADD is 33 Mℓ/d. Replacement value of the system is estimated at R 770 million (which excludes all raw water facilities). 7.2. Water master plan The water master plan model for George is also represented in Figure 6. There are 945 master plan items in this model, to be implemented over a ±45-year period at a total cost of R 750 million. The AADD modelled in the master plan is 94 Mℓ/d. The main aspects of the master plan are: • Additional George WTP; • Upgrade existing bulk supply to Herold’s Bay zone; • Upgrade existing bulk supply to Thembalethu zone; • Complete Eastern bulk distribution main to Kraaibosch zone; • Upgrade existing bulk supply from Kraaibosch to Wilderness; • Network upgrades for densification of George CDB; • Upgrade Uniondale bulk supply to existing reservoir sites; • Upgrade Haarlem bulk supply to existing reservoir site; • 18 New reservoirs, 1 new tower and bulk supply systems to accommodate future developments.; and • Upgrade Wilderness Heights and Hoekwil rural systems.

Billing system: • Map of cadastre, with every stand themed in accordance with AADD; and • Map of all distribution zones, with each zone themed in accordance with UAW%.

7.3. Sewer model The current sewer model for George LM is shown on Figure 6. It consists of 15 900 pipes representing a total length of 732 km gravity mains and 68 km rising mains. There are 97 pumping stations and 9 WWTWs in the model. The total peak day dry weather flow (PDDWF) is 21 Mℓ/d. Replacement value of the system is estimated at R1 140 million.

8. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MASTER PLAN ITEMS AND PROJECTS

7.6. Bureau service GLS has been involved in the modelling and master planning of the George water and sewer systems since 1990, and is still involved in the form of providing a “bureau” type service towards the updating of the models and master plans. The service extends beyond just the technical aspects related to modelling and planning, since assistance and “institutional memory” is available on a continuous basis. This has proven to be very successful in the current municipal environment, where lack of capacity and high staff turnover can potentially seriously hamper planning processes and implementation if attempted in-house.

8.1. Water system One of the main features of the long-term master planning process in George is that it has not only been theoretical, but practical in the sense that many projects have actually been implemented. The main water projects emanating from the master plan and which have already been implemented are shown in Figure 7 and listed below:

7.4. Sewer master plan The sewer master plan model for George is also represented in Figure 6. There are 850 master plan items in this model, to be implemented over a ±45 year period at a total cost of R815 million. The PDDWF modelled in the master plan is 70 Mℓ/d. The main aspects of the master plan are: • Upgrade Gwaiing WWTW; • Upgrade Outeniqua WWTW;

Raw water supply • Kaaimans weir and pumping station transfer scheme to the Garden Route Dam; • Malgas weir and pumping transfer scheme to the Balancing Dams at the WTP;

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9.4. Blue Drop/ Green Drop - WSDP - AM The data from the models and master plan has assisted George to comply with the requirements of the Blue Drop, Green Drop and WSDP systems of DWA, as well as with the asset register requirements of the Auditor-General. Consequently, since its inception, George ranks in the top ten in the annual assessments for Blue/Green Drop ,and has achieved an unqualified audit for the last financial year.

• Outeniqua WWTW sewer purification and pumping transfer scheme to the Garden Route Dam; and • 18 New boreholes, 3 operating. Bulk supply • Western distribution main from cluster of reservoirs at the WTP’s to the Kraaibosch/Wilderness area; • Eastern distribution main from cluster of reservoirs at the WTP’s to Pacaltsdorp/Herold’s Bay area; • Blanco bulk supply line from the old WTP to Blanco/Fancourt area; • Upgrade of the Herold’s Bay/Oubaai bulk supply system; • Upgrade Saasveld bulk supply system; and • Upgrade of the Wilderness bulk supply system from the Ebb-and-Flow WTP.

10. CONCLUSION The complete and continuously updated model and master plan (even in the very dynamic and changing political, economic and technological environment) with links to various other systems and processes have assisted George LM in the proper operation, assessment, planning and management of its complex and extensive water distribution and sewer reticulation systems. (The same methodology is also being applied in other large SA metros like Tshwane, Cape Town (Streicher et al, 2011), Johannesburg, and Ekurhuleni, as well as in ± 40 smaller SA local municipalities).

Reticulation • Many smaller reticulation systems; and • Pipe rehabilitation in accordance with master plan.

REFERENCES • Steicher, JJ and De Bruyn, J (2011). Integrated master planning for the City of Cape Town. Journal of the Institution of Municipal Engineering of South Africa (Jan 2011). • GLS Inc. Rekenaaranalise van bestaande waterverspreidingstelsel en meesterplan vir toekomstige uitbreidings (Des 1990). • GLS Inc. Computer analysis and master planning of water distribution system (Mar 2001). • GLS Inc. Computer analysis and master planning of sewerage system (Aug 2001). • Ninham Shand. George bulk water supply planning study (Aug 2005) • GLS Inc. Computer analysis and master planning of water distribution system (Jun 2006). • GLS Inc. Computer analysis and master planning of sewerage system (Jun 2006). • GLS Inc. Computer analysis and master planning of water distribution system (2010/11). • GLS Inc. Computer analysis and master planning of sewerage system (2010/11). • GLS Inc. Computer analysis and master planning of water distribution system (2011/12). • GLS Inc. Computer analysis and master planning of sewerage system (2011/12).

8.2. Sewer system The main sewer projects emanating from the master plan and which have already been implemented are shown in Figure 7 and listed below: • Upgrade of Outeniqua WWTW; • Thembalethu township bulk outfall system and pump stations; • Upgrade of Pacaltsdorp bulk outfall sewer and bulk pump stations; • New Hansmoeskraal/Le Grand outfall sewer and upgrade of existing pump system; • New Kraaibosch bulk outfall system and pump stations; • Breakwater Bay township bulk outfall system, pump stations and WWTW; and • Gwaiing outfall system and pump station to Gwaiing WWTW. 9. ADVANTAGES FOR GEORGE 9.1. Sustainable infrastructure development The water and sewer master planning in George has demonstrated the economic advantages of organised and planned implementation of infrastructure, rather than using ad-hoc, reactionary processes, through good budget planning and financial management of capital projects. Good infrastructure planning is an essential element of the IDP process. Without such a process sustainable development in a fast growing area such as George would be impossible. 9.2. Facilitation of developments With the master plans in place, facilitation of developments was simplified. Each application for a new development can be evaluated in the context of available capacity (or not) in the existing systems, and in the context of which long-term (not ad-hoc) master plan items are required for approval. Proper technical comment can be provided for the approval processes. The master plans are also used as a sound technical basis for development agreements and levying of capital services contributions. 9.3. Catalyst for economic growth The readiness of George to accommodate future developments has to a large degree been a catalyst for economic growth. Not only is it the lovely natural environment that attracts developers to George, but also the fact that the infrastructure in the town is on standard, and that plans are in place to implement extensions as-and-when required. It is possible to provide a professional service to potential developers, and developers are provided with the required information to do the feasibility studies with regard to service provision with a high degree of accuracy.

Figure 1: George LM locality plan and progression of water/sewer service area over time

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Figure 4: Historical and projected AADD

Figure 2: Excerpts from original 1990 George water master plan report

Figure 5: Improved reporting formats in a MIS

Figure 3: Scope and study area of George water/sewer master planning over time

Figure 6: George LM present and future water and sewer system models (2012)

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THE PVC PIPE EXPERIENCE IN NORTH AMERICA – LESSONS FOR SOUTH AFRICA

The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) began certifying PVC pipe for potable water in the 1960s and in this period PVC water pipe began appearing in the municipal market. By the 1970s additional standards were adopted by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) for water pipe and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for sewer pipe. In the 1970s PVC pipe became the dominant pipe material (displacing clay) in the North American sewer market owing to higher performance standards introduced by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) addressing infiltration and ex-filtration, which were sources of environmental pollution. Today 87% of all new sewer installations are PVC. PVC water pipe’s market share grew throughout the latter part of the 20th Century and larger and larger diameters became available. Today PVC water pipe enjoys a dominant share of the North American water pipe market.

Bruce Hollands, PVC Pipe Association America’s economic well-being and public health are dependent upon reliable and financially viable water and wastewater systems. But corroding metallic pipes are creating an epidemic in water main breaks, many of which were installed in the last 20 years. In total, corrosion of US water and sewer infrastructure carries a US$50.7 billion annual price tag, including 2.6 trillion gallons of lost drinking water every year, US$4.1 billion in wasted electricity annually, traffic disruptions, depleted water supplies, skyrocketing insurance claims, political upheaval, etc. Other countries with large inventories of corrosion-prone piping systems are facing similar challenges. There is a solution and the future need not look so bleak. PVC pipe is poised to make the 21st century a corrosion-free era. It is already the number one selling pipe in North America with over 40 000 communities benefiting from its exceptional safety, durability and environmental attributes. And PVC pipe’s cost-effectiveness and high performance characteristics substantially reduce a utility’s capital and operating costs, helping keep water and sewer rates down. This presentation will discuss the history of PVC pipe use in the water and sewer sector in rural and urban North America since the 1950s, providing an overview of PVC pipe and fittings and an update on trenchless technologies and products. The technical, communications and government relations activities of the PVC Pipe Association (PVCPA) will also be reviewed as well as the importance of promoting open competition for piping in a world with limited resources and increased scrutiny by ratepayers. Finally, how all of these factors are relevant to the South African experience as the country grapples with pipe renewal and the need to bring water and sewer services to millions of its people.

Some attributes and benefits of PVC pipe Quality commitment The quality of PVC pipe is assured by a wide array of tough standards, control tests and independent certifications. American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standard C900 PVC pipe receives a minimum of 28 quality control checks daily on each extrusion line. A hydrostatic proof test is performed on each water pipe, which is tested at twice its pressure rating or higher. Independent inspection agencies can prevent shipment and initiate recall of non-conforming products. Health and safety PVC water pipe meets or exceeds all required health and safety standards and regulations governed by the US and Canadian Safe Drinking Water Acts and other international statutes – and government bodies like the US EPA ensure its safety through mandatory regular testing. Additionally, organisations like the US Food and Drug Administration and Consumer Product Safety Commission have confirmed that PVC is a safe product. Some 10 million quality control tests have been conducted on water carried through PVC pipe since it was introduced in North America and around the world. All of them confirm the product is safe and beneficial to public health.

TOPICS AND SUBTOPICS THE PVC PIPE INDUSTRY Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association Founded in 1971 as a non-profit organisation, PVCPA is the authoritative source of information on PVC pipe and serves the engineering, regulatory, public health and standardisation communities. Its mission is to support the use of longer-life, lower-maintenance, cost-effective and corrosion-proof PVC piping in water and wastewater systems – for sustainability and long-term asset management. PVCPA provides users with information on the design and installation of PVC pipe, produces technical publications and is active in standards-development organisations. Research sponsored by the Association in the areas of buried pipe deflection, pipe longevity, and cyclic performance has substantiated PVC’s applicability for water and sewer systems. The PVC pipe industry contributes in excess of US$14 billion annually to the US economy and supports more than 25 000 jobs. With over two million miles in service, PVC pipe is the product of choice for buried water, sewer, drainage, and irrigation infrastructure.

Environmental footprint PVC piping is one of the world’s most sustainable products, making it ideal for long-term use in underground infrastructure. It requires less energy and fewer resources to manufacture than old technology materials, and its production creates virtually no waste. Moreover it is produced with sustainable and abundant resources: chlorine, which is derived from salt, and domestically produced natural gas, which helps reduce the consumption of imported oil. PVC pipe manufacturing is extremely efficient, with virtually 100% of the PVC compound being used. It takes four times less energy to make than concrete pipe, and half that used for iron pipe. PVC pipe’s ecological credentials have been demonstrated by numerous life-cycle assessments, which scientifically assess the impact of a product, from raw material extraction to end-of-life. Its light weight and ease of installation reduce transportation and installation costs, yielding further benefits to the environment. But PVC pipe’s greatest environmental attribute is perhaps its exceptional durability and corrosion resistance—leading to better water conservation and lower replacement, maintenance and repair costs.

History of PVC Pipe in North America PVC water pipe has been available in North America since the 1950s – earlier than ductile iron pipe which began service only in the 1960s. PVC pipe’s first major market was in the rural water sector, owing to its costeffectiveness and high performance characteristics. Today 95% of all rural water pipe is made of PVC. “There would be no rural American water systems without PVC pipe,” says Sam Wade, Executive Director of the American Rural Water Association:

Longevity The AWWA Water Research Foundation study confirms life expectancy of PVC water pipe to be in excess of 110 years. Tests performed on PVC

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water pipe excavated in Germany in 2004 determined PVC pipe’s longevity at 170 years.

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the forefront of fostering competitive bidding in the pipe procurement process and is cited as an example all municipalities should follow. By opening up the bidding process in the spirit of “let the best technology win,” municipalities can let competition decide the future of their underground water networks. RUS’s assistance programme for rural water systems should serve as a template for federal, state, and local government agencies to set specifications for truly competitive bidding, concludes the report. Cities that have opened up their bidding process to alternative pipe materials like PVC have benefitted from the competition. One option public official do not have is to continue business as usual.

MARKET CONDITIONS World PVC pipe and fittings demand was 15 million metric tonnes in 2010, representing 2.3 million kilometers of PVC pipe with an average diameter of 200 mm. Annualised growth of the industry worldwide since 1990 was 4.7%. More than two million miles of PVC pipe are in service in North America, representing some 520 million gasketed joints.

Market penetration There are over 50 000 utilities in the United States. The acceptance rate for PVC water and sewer pipe is higher in smaller diameters than larger ones. In the top 100 cities by population it is estimated that 52% use PVC water pipe up to 300 mm in diameter and 88% use sewer pipe up to 375 mm in diameter. For sizes above these (considered large diameter pipe), the acceptance rate in the top 100 cities drops to 33% for PVC water pipe and 45% for sewer. Mid- to small-sized municipalities tend to use PVC more extensively. Specifically, as diameters increase to 750 mm and 900 mm PVC water pipe acceptance drops to 5-10% and is even lower as we reach 1 200 mm in size. Part of the reason for this is that PVC water pipe in larger diameters is a relatively new product. By the mid-1980s it was available up to 600  mm, in the 1990s up to 900  mm and in the last 10 years up to 1 200 mm. PVC water pipe in 1 400 mm and 1 600 mm diameter sizes will be available on the market shortly.

Utah State University, Buried Structures Laboratory Another study supporting the greater use of PVC pipe in the United Sates, Water Main Break Rates in the USA and Canada: A Comprehensive Study, April 2012, undertaken by University of Utah State’s Buried Structures Laboratory, creates a measurement to judge pipe performance and durability and helps prudent decision-making as it relates to repairing and replacing underground pipes. There were a total of 188 respondents to the survey, representing approximately 10% of installed municipal water main pipe capacity in the US. Major findings include: corrosion is a major cause of water main breaks; 75% of all utilities have corrosive soil conditions; when comparing between cast iron and ductile iron, thinner-walled ductile iron pipe is experiencing failures more rapidly than older thicker-walled cast iron pipe; the cause of PVC pipe failures relate to improper installation practices, not a defect in the pipe; PVC pipe was shown to have the lowest overall failure rate of all pipe materials studied. A 1993 study by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada reported that the average break rate per 100 miles of pipe for ductile iron is 15.87 and for PVC it was only 1.17 breaks per 100 miles. The report confirms that ductile iron pipe breaks 13.57 times more than PVC pipe, resulting in significant repair cost differences.

The corrosion crisis The is a corrosion crisis in the US due to the materials used in America’s underground pipe networks over the last 100 years. At first cast iron was used, with thinner-walled ductile iron gradually replacing it. Both now suffer from the ravages of corrosion since much of the ductile iron pipe was installed without corrosion controls. And this practice continues today because higher priced ductile iron is unable to compete with PVC when effective corrosion mitigation is included in the costing of infrastructure projects. According to a 2002 congressional study, corrosion costs the US economy over US$50.7 billion annually, or more than US$1 trillion over the next 20 years. These costs are calculated in terms of water main break repair, lost water, replacement of corroded pipes and implementation of corrosion-mitigation measures. Leaking pipes lose some 2.6 trillion gallons of drinking water every year, or 17% of all water pumped in the US. This has presented a tremendous opportunity for the PVC pipe industry since each US$1 billion spent on non-corrosive PVC pipe translates into an estimated US$500 million in avoided corrosion costs (Gregory Ruschau, Ph.D., Corrosion Expert).

Municipal casestudies Numerous case studies highlighting the advantages of PVC over other pipe materials exist. What is interesting are stories of US municipal politicians getting involved in the pipe material debate in an effort to reduce costs.

STUDIES

Schenectady, New York In 2010 Schenectady (NY) Mayor Brian Stratton, who also served as CoChair of the US Conference of Mayors Water Council, a national municipal organisation, directed his municipal engineers to open up Schenectady’s bidding process to alternative pipe materials. He said, “The traditional habit of using one or two pipe materials exclusively is no longer satisfactory. Local officials need to compare all proven pipe materials on a life cycle basis before choosing the best pipe for the city.” At the time Schenectady used only ductile iron pipe in its water system but today PVC pipe is now used.

Competitive Enterprise Institute Report A recent study by the Competitive Enterprise Institute, a Washington DC think tank, entitled, Fixing America’s Underground Infrastructure: Competitive Bidding Offers a Way Out, says that the problems afflicting America’s underground water systems stem for deteriorating, corrosion-prone metallic pipes. Moreover, pipe networks represent the single largest component of a utility’s infrastructure assets and significantly affect operations and maintenance costs, which are increasing annually by 6% above the rate of inflation. Inserting some market discipline into the pipe procurement process is essential to address the crisis in an affordable fashion. The report says the US Department of Agriculture’s Rural Utility Services (RUS), which provides financial assistance to rural utilities, has been at

Pleasanton, California In a recent article, which was published in US Mayor, Pleasanton (CA) Mayor Jennifer Hosterman, Co-Chair of US Conference of Mayors Water Council, discusses her community’s experience with PVC pipe and her support of open competition: “As a solution to corrosion and to better control costs, Pleasanton began using corrosion-proof PVC pipe in the mid-1980s because it doesn’t need coatings, liners, or other materials to ensure strength or sustainability. PVC pipe is about 70% cheaper than ductile iron pipe... Pleasanton’s demonstrated progress and outside recognition have come from being adaptive, flexible and open to better technologies such as PVC pipe...”

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Indianapolis, Indiana Most recently, another article on the subject of competitive procurement and the use of PVC pipe appeared in the US Conference of Mayors Water Council Newsletter, entitled Underground Water Infrastructure: Getting Results in Indianapolis through Continuing Improvement and Modern Materials Procurement Practices, written by Indianapolis Mayor Gregory Ballard. Mayor Ballard talks about how his municipality changed its thinking about materials procurement “because the repair and replacement of collection systems and water supply distribution systems was driven by aging pipes that were corroding and leaking water.” They found through life cycle analysis “that PVC pipe has both a longer useful life than traditional pipe materials, and has a lower cost to both install and maintain.” Using non-corrosive materials was found to be the key to keeping longterm maintenance costs down and to minimising Indianapolis’ capital replacement budgets: “PVC pipes in our system have a failure rate 2.5 times less than traditional pipe materials, helping our city realise significant cost savings for ratepayers,” concludes Ballard.

A full line of PVC pressure-pipe fittings is available from 4-inch through 48-inch diameters. The use of PVC fittings with PVC pipe ensures a corrosion-free system. The suitability of PVC water pipe for drinking water usage is assured by conformance to NSF Standard 61. NSF has listed PVC pipe for potability since the 1960s. PVC’s health attributes are not compromised during the pipe’s service life, as there is no internal corrosion that could degrade water quality. Pressure pipe: sewer forcemains PVC’s most important advantage in sewer pipelines is its immunity to corrosion. PVC is completely unaffected by hydrogen sulfide gas and the resulting sulfuric acid. Conversely, ductile iron’s mortar lining is destroyed by H2S, exposing the underlying iron to attack. Concrete pipe suffers a similar fate, with the crown of the pipe eaten away by the acid. Compared to ductile iron, PVC is much less subject to installation damage. PVC has no fragile lining that could be damaged by rough handling at the job site. Pressure pipe: reclaimed water In North America, reclaimed water is color-coded purple. PVC pipe’s purple pigment is uniform through the full thickness of pipe wall, while traditional pipe materials employ marginally effective external methods such as a thin purple coating, a purple plastic wrap, or a fragile purple ID tape installed above the pipe. Other comments on reclaimed water piping are the same as for potable PVC water pipe. Non-Pressure Pipe: Sanitary Sewer PVC has dominated the North American sanitary sewer market for many years, in large part due to its watertight bell-and-spigot gasketed joints. These joints do not allow exfiltration (which causes groundwater pollution), infiltration (which requires increased costs for sewage treatment), or root intrusion (which increases operating and maintenance costs). An added benefit is PVC pipe’s ease of installation. Compared to older materials, PVC is easier to handle (due to its longer lengths and lighter weight), faster to cut, and simple to assemble. Lateral connections are easily accommodated and there are several watertight options to connect to manholes. PVC is flexible but strong and does not have the high breakage percentage of vitrified clay pipe. As mentioned earlier in the sewer forcemain discussion, immunity from corrosion is a significant advantage for PVC pipe. A full line of corrosion-free PVC sewer-pipe fittings is available from 4-inch through 48-inch diameter sizes. Deep-socketed fittings are available for deep-bury applications. Pipe-to-fittings joints meet the same stringent leakage requirements as pipe-to-pipe joints, ensuring a leakfree system.

PVC PIPE PRODUCT OVERVIEW In North America, major markets for gasketed PVC pipe include pressure pipe (potable water, sewer forcemains, and reclaimed water) and nonpressure (sanitary sewer). In addition to traditional open-cut installations, PVC pipe is used in trenchless applications. Pressure pipe: potable water PVC is now the market-share leader in potable water transmission and distribution piping. Among the reasons for PVC’s ascendancy are its costcompetitiveness, its immunity to corrosion, and the convenience for a utility to make the transition from ductile iron use to PVC use. PVC is very cost-competitive with other materials. In North America there is a continent-wide network of distributors for PVC pipe, so typical projects receive competitive quotes from multiple PVC pipe manufacturers. (This is not always the case with some pipe materials, where a competitive environment is not assured.) Immunity to corrosion is the primary advantage of PVC over ductile iron. PVC does not need linings to ensure water quality and to maintain flow characteristics. PVC does not require coatings, wraps, or cathodic protection to prevent external corrosion. PVC does not need to be handled with extreme care to prevent corrosion-inducing damage to internal linings and external coatings. It is also not subject to improper field-installation of corrosion-prevention measures and does not require costly corrosion repair and remediation. PVC pipe is compatible with installed ductile iron pipe. North American utilities that have made the move from ductile iron to PVC have found the transition to be smooth and seamless: • Outside diameter – for the municipal water market, PVC pipe and ductile iron pipe are manufactured in the same cast-iron outside diameter regimen. • Fittings, valves, and appurtenances – the same slip-on or mechanical joint fittings and valves used with ductile iron go directly onto PVC pipe in the same manner. Since PVC is now the dominant pipe material, some appurtenances have been updated to perform better on PVC pipe. • Appurtenance manufacturers – the same manufacturers produce items needed for both PVC and ductile iron pipelines, ensuring that the style of product and manner of installation will be familiar to the waterworks professional. • Suppliers – all items needed for PVC water systems are available from the same suppliers that provide the ductile iron alternatives. • Repairs – parts for typical repairs are interchangeable. Installation of PVC pipe is more convenient and less costly than installation of ductile iron pipe. PVC is easier to handle, easier to cut, and easier to assemble. The same backfill material and compaction is required for both.

Trenchless Applications PVC pipe provides a wide range of options for trenchless construction. Segmented gasketed bell-and-spigot pipe is available for sliplining and insertion through casings. Externally restrained joints are used for casing installations. Internally restrained joints and butt-fused pipe are used for a wide range of trenchless methods, including pipe bursting and horizontal directional drilling (HDD). PVC pipe has been used successfully for many decades for open-cut installations. PVC’s proven performance record has translated into similar success in trenchless projects, in both pressure and non-pressure applications. EXPANDING THE USE OF PVC PIPE IN NORTH AMERICA The PVC Pipe Association is very active in the promotion of PVC pipe throughout North America. To become more effective, however, the organisation has developed a comprehensive communications and business development strategy as well as the tools to accomplish its objectives.

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One-page issue and technical briefs have been produced which succinctly address frequently asked questions about PVC pipe products. The Handbook of PVC Pipe Design and Construction, the leading industry publication on PVC pipe, has been completely updated and contains four new chapters. More importantly, it is now produced and sold through a publishing firm in New York City which will more aggressively promote the book than the Association was able to do. The Association web site has also been updated to simplify access to technical information and to better promote the benefits of PVC pipe. PVCPA is also actively involved in social media and has a Facebook page with almost 20 000 followers. Many Facebook ‘friends’ are ratepayers who are now taking the issue of corrosion and lack of open competition to their local officials and indirectly assisting the PVC pipe industry with its business objectives. Perhaps the most important tool developed is the municipal database, which contains over 26 000 senior municipal contact from the 2 500 largest municipalities in the US. It is maintained in-house and greatly facilitates communications to industry stakeholders and customers. Contacts include: Mayors; City Councilors, Water and Wastewater Utility Board Members; City Managers; Chief Financial Officers; Directors of Purchasing; Directors of Water and Wastewater Utilities; Chief Water and Sewer Engineers; Project Engineers for Water and Wastewater Services; and Engineering Consultants. Contact information is continually being added and updated so that the association’s communications capabilities remain very effective.

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This proposed Act serves to ensure that open procurement procedures are utilised in the selection of piping materials for water and wastewater infrastructure projects undertaken by state or local agencies where state funding is used.

Media is taking notice A growing number of newspapers and other media have covered the corrosion crisis affecting underground infrastructure as well as the lack of open bidding for piping. Most interestingly, the use of corrosion-prone piping materials came under scrutiny in a bond markets’ publication. On December 28, 2011 an article in the Chicago Tribune addressed the need the cut wasteful spending in 2012 and called on water utilities to stop replacing old corroded metallic pipes “with new ones made of the same or similar materials, which also corrode.” Most recently, an editorial on July 31, 2012 in the Baltimore Sun highlighted Baltimore’s water main break epidemic and the need to use PVC instead of iron pipe. Perhaps the best summary on the need to use more PVC in US underground infrastructure comes from an article which appeared in December 2011 in the esteemed AWWA JOURNAL, which is published by the American Water Works Association: Sometimes, the best medicine is just a matter of making a lifestyle change or, in this case, a material selection change. PVC and similar materials are 30-70% less expensive, easy to install, some with 50-year warranties, environmentally friendly, noncorrosive, and durable with an expected design life of more than 100 years without the extensive and expensive corrosion treatments. PVC meets the demands and expectations of sustainable water infrastructure by reducing maintenance, operational, and capital budgets without degrading water quality or jeopardising the public health. It is time to fight the epidemic of corrosion as part of our asset management capital-replacement strategies.

OUTREACH Since funding for water and wastewater infrastructure in the United States comes from three levels of government, it is necessary to undertake a comprehensive government relations and outreach programme with many organisations to be effective at advancing the interests of the PVC pipe industry.

LESSONS FOR SOUTH AFRICA

US Congress As such, the Association’s Executive Director is regularly in Washington, D.C. to meet with federal lawmakers. The objective is to get Congress to include open procurement stipulations in future water and wastewater bills so that municipalities receiving federal funding will have to include PVC in their bidding processes.

Affordability Matters In the United States the average cost to install one mile of ductile iron pipe is US$1.5 million while installing the same length of PVC pipe costs US$400 000. The math is clear and so are the reasons for using PVC pipe: and therefore it should be included in all bids for water and wastewater infrastructure. The same arguments hold true for South Africa, perhaps more so since there is even greater need to bring running water and sanitary sewer services to millions without it either.

Working with Partners The PVC Pipe Association has partnered with several key organisations that share the same views on competitive procurement and who are equally concerned about corrosion in underground infrastructure: the American Legislative Exchange Council; National Taxpayers Union; US Conference of Mayors Water Council; Water Finance Research Foundation; Competitive Enterprise Institute; Water Environment Federation

Open Procurement Supports Sustainability As has been discussed, corrosion and water loss is not sustainable. PVC pipe requires less energy and fewer resources to manufacture. It’s light weight and ease of installation reduce transportation and installation costs, yielding further benefits for the environment. PVC pipe’s ultrasmooth surface reduces pumping costs and its leak-free joints eliminate water loss. But PVC pipe’s greatest and environmental attribute is perhaps its exceptional durability and corrosion resistance, leading to better water conservation and lower replacement, maintenance and repair costs. You can make a difference. Update your design specifications and include PVC if you are not doing so.

The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) ALEC is a national organisation whose members are elected officials from state legislatures across the United States. Membership also includes private companies and other organisations with an interest in promoting particular issues with state governments. Through ALEC it is possible to develop model legislation which can then be promulgated in state legislatures. ALEC recently passed the Open and Fair Competition Act for Water and Wastewater Projects. The Act reads: It is the intention of this Act to ensure that all proven and acceptable piping materials must be included in all bids for water and wastewater projects. This promotion of free competition will ensure limited government resources are being used to the greatest advantage. The goal is to construct a project at the best price and best value for system customers and taxpayers.

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WATERBORNE SANITATION GUIDELINES

500 years. Most renowned of these early construction efforts were the aqueducts of Rome. The water carried by these aqueducts was used primarily for drinking. The aqueducts were also used to carry sewage through Rome’s main sewer, the Cloaca Maxima (the name means Greatest Sewer). Built in 800 BC, and constructed mainly of stone masonry and natural cement, the Cloaca Maxima was the first known man-made waterborne method of sewage disposal. After 2 800 years, sections of this stone sewer are still being utilised. Crude, but functional, sewers also existed in the ancient cities of Babylon, Jerusalem, Byzantium and Paris. Very little theoretical pipeline technology existed prior to the 19th century (OCPA, 1997). The precursor of the modern formula for relating velocity of flow and head loss due to friction in open-channel flow was developed by Antoine Chezy, a French engineer and mathematician. Principles of sanitation developed by Edwin Chadwick, an Englishman, were refined by engineers of that time and contributed to the design of properly sized and aligned sewers, with adequate facilities for cleaning and maintenance. Sewage disposal methods did not improve until the early 1840s when the first modern sewer was built in Hamburg, Germany. It was modern in the sense that houses were connected to a sewer system. For the first time, sanitary sewers were separate from storm sewers. Paris officials had begun to design sewers at the start of the 19th century to protect its citizens from cholera. The modern toilet is widely credited to Thomas Crapper (who was only improving on the original design developed by Sir John Harrington in 1596), who installed one for Queen Elizabeth I in 1880. In the 1820s, the first flush toilet was invented by Albert Giblin, acting as a forerunner to today’s modern cistern. In South Africa the first waterborne sanitation system, with sewers, was used in the Great Karoo town of Matjiesfontein, founded in 1884 by a Scottish man named James Douglas Logan. The sanitary sewer system is a major capital investment made by a community. The system’s function is only vaguely recognised by the public due to its underground installation, except for the manhole covers or when the system doesn’t function properly. Sanitary systems are essential to protect the public health and welfare in all development areas. Every community produces wastewater of domestic, commercial and industrial origin. Sanitary systems perform the vitally needed functions of collecting these wastewaters and conveying them to points of treatment and disposal (ASCE, 1982). It is generally accepted that the general health of the population improves when people have access to basic clean water supply and sanitation. The safe disposal of human excreta is vitally important in the control of infectious and other communicable diseases. The construction of appropriate sanitation systems is of paramount importance in contributing to the safe disposal of human excreta. However, the proper planning and construction of these sanitation systems alone does not provide a guarantee that the general health of the population will improve. A holistic approach to health care is required, with the provision of suitable sanitation being just one of the necessary components thereof. Sanitation is a complex system of interrelated factors and is successful when the factors affecting the health and social organisation of the community are effectively linked. A sanitation system is deemed suitable when it is: • reliable • acceptable • appropriate • affordable. In the late 1960s, the cost of conventional gravity systems in smaller communities was found to be high compared to the cost of treatment and disposal. According to the Water Environment Federation (WEF, 2008) the capital cost of a conventional sewage collection system was averaging almost four times the cost of treatment. The operation and

M van Dijk1, SJ van Vuuren2 and JN Bhagwan3 1

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0001, e-mail: marco.vandijk@up.ac.za 2 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0001, e-mail: fvuuren@eng.up.ac.za 3 Water Research Commission, Private Bag X03, Gezina, 0031, e-mail: jayb@wrc.org.za

Abstract The general health of the population improves when people have access to basic clean water supply and sanitation. The safe disposal of human excreta and greywater is vitally important in the control of infectious and other communicable diseases and the design and construction of appropriate sanitation systems is of paramount importance in contributing to the safe disposal of human excreta. However, on its own, the proper planning and construction of sanitation systems does not provide a guarantee that the general health of the population will improve. A holistic approach to health care is required, with the provision of suitable sanitation being just one of the necessary components thereof. The function of a waterborne sanitation system is to collect and convey wastewater in a hygienic manner. To assist designers and engineers in the planning and selecting of the most suitable sanitation option, two guidelines were compiled namely: Waterborne Sanitation Design Guide (Van Vuuren and Van Dijk, 2011a) and Waterborne Sanitation Operation and Maintenance Guide (Van Vuuren and Van Dijk, 2011b). In order to streamline the planning and design process in South Africa a three-tier philosophy is utilised for sewage collection system planning and designs (Jacobs and Van Dijk, 2009). This three-tiered philosophy could be used as a basis to derive a best management practice for sewer system planning and design. The authors collaborated with a number of local authorities in South Africa and gathered information regarding the design and operation of their sewer systems. Furthermore, the standards and guidelines used in practice in South Africa in the design and operation of waterborne sanitation systems were reviewed. Many sources of information were consulted and a synthesis of the material was tailored to South African conditions to produce comprehensive guides on waterborne sanitation systems. The four main waterborne sanitation systems that are described in these guides are: • conventional gravity sewer • vacuum sewer systems • small-bore sewer • simplified sewerage. Municipal sanitary sewage collection and conveyance systems are an extensive, valuable and complex part of the country’s infrastructure. To provide further classification and background information photos, videos, software and additional literature were included on an accompanying SewerAID DVD (Van Vuuren et al. 2011a). 1. INTRODUCTION Historical records include many references to engineering feats undertaken by ancient civilisations to collect and convey water. Archaeological explorations indicate that an understanding of drainage principles existed very early in history. For example, a sewer arch constructed about 3750 BC was unearthed in an excavation at Nippur, India. Another excavation in Tell Asmar, near Baghdad, exposed a sewer constructed in 2600 BC (OCPA, 1997). The first sewers in Rome were built between 800 BC and 735 BC, preceding the first aqueduct by about

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maintenance costs followed similar trends because of the greater number of pump stations required per unit length of pipe, owing to the increased lengths of pipe needed to service the less densely populated areas. In these guides some of the more commonly used alternative collection systems (ACS) such as vacuum, small-bore and simplified sewerage systems are also described and guidelines are provided for the design of these systems. Because of their relative newness, all ACS types have shown lack of proper design, installation, management, use and application. Some engineers might be hesitant to recommend these new technologies and thus the purpose of this guide is to provide sufficient information on all available technologies and useful tools to assist engineers in overcoming these concerns and to guide them in selecting, planning and designing the most appropriate system to solve existing wastewater problems and reduce the cost of wastewater management for new developments. In order to develop a guide for the design and operation of waterborne sanitation for South Africa a good understanding of the existing waterborne sanitation standards and specifications is required. A number of local authorities were visited and data gathered in order to determine the various standards applicable throughout South Africa. Information has been synthesized from a wide variety of sources and tailored to South African conditions. Some existing sources were incorporated when compiling these guides. These include the documents Guidelines for the Provision of Engineering Services and Amenities in Residential Township Development (CSIR, 2003); Alternative Sewer Systems (WEF Manual of Practice, 2008); the USEPA (1991) manual entitled Gravity Sanitary Sewer Design and Construction; and the Sewer Design Manual (ASCE, 1982). The covers of the two waterborne sanitation guides are depicted in Figures 1 and 2.

Figure 1: Waterborne Sanitation Design Guide (Van Vuuren et al, 2011a)

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Sewage collection system planning is regarded as the systematic process of planning a sewer network in terms of cost, applicability, hydraulic and operational performance while subjecting it to existing and potential future development loading. The approach followed in planning sewer systems in South Africa is usually one of ad hoc application of whatever level of service is considered necessary, affordable or the system that the designer feels comfortable with designing. In order to streamline the planning and design process in South Africa a three-tier philosophy reflected in this guide is proposed for sewage collection system planning and design. As described by Jacobs and Van Dijk (2009) this philosophy used originates from the field of transport engineering where three different ‘solution levels for design procedures’ are documented in the South African Code of Practice for the Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts (TMH 7) (Department of Transport, 1986). Adopting this concept for the planning and design of sewage collection systems leads to three technical tiers. This three-tiered philosophy could be used as a basis to derive a best management practice for sewer system planning and design. Throughout the guides the information provided is partitioned into these three tiers (levels), see Table 1.

Table 1: Three-tiered philosophy for sewer system planning and design Level 1 – General information The first tier is termed Level 1 and comprises presenting of the most basic information and design rules. The approach is intended to provide information on planning and design for use in cases where limited technical skill is available, or the scope of work is relatively small with negligible risk. This approach is sufficient only in smaller municipalities and small towns with limited sewer infrastructure. Very often Level 1 is dominated by minimum requirements for some parameters rather than hydraulic considerations. A typical example would be use of a minimum pipe diameter without conducting any hydraulic analysis, being driven simply by the required size needed for rodding and to prevent clogging. Level 2 –Detailed design Level 2 entails a more sophisticated approach incorporating design theories that take into account the hydraulics of system elements, requiring a basic analysis of the system or parts thereof. This level will utilise typical design parameters and standards and apply these in the planning and design of the sewage collection system. Level 3 – Specialised/Advanced design Level 3 is the most advanced and requires advanced skill and software tools to conduct specialist and detailed analysis of components and/or the sewer distribution system. The planning and design for Level 3 would be, for instance, where a siphon is designed which requires a detailed hydraulic analysis of the various flows through the siphon systems ensuring cleaning velocities on the upward limb and the calculation of head losses through the inlet and outlet structures. The planning, design and analysis of complicated sewer systems with a variety of users and discharge patterns would also fall under Level 3.

Figure 2: Waterborne Sanitation Operation and Maintenance Guide (Van Vuuren et al, 2011b)

The design engineer should consider the community’s choice of collection system type during the planning stages of a sewage collection system project. The final choice should be based on the results of a costeffectiveness analysis although sometimes this is purely based on the preference of the client or community. Where the terrain is applicable to a gravity system, the engineer may not even consider other systems. However, while gravity systems may appear to be less costly in these situations many factors considered collectively may result in one of the other alternative systems actually being the proper choice.

2. PLANNING CONSIDERATION In order to place the designer in a position to make a decision on what the appropriate sanitation system for the specific application would be the following planning steps are required for wastewater collection system design: • Evaluate and select potential collection systems. • Prepare the layout of the collection system. • Estimate future population and wastewater flow. • Perform a preliminary design (pipe sizes, interceptor tanks or vacuum stations, etc.) for each of the potential alternative systems. • Determine the cost and conduct a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to compare the alternatives.

3. WATERBORNE SANITATION SYSTEMS The vision of providing sanitation in South Africa as set out in the Draft White Paper on Water Services (DWAF, 2002a) reads as follows:

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Water is Life, Sanitation is Dignity • All people living in South Africa have access to adequate, safe and affordable water and sanitation services, practise safe sanitation and use water wisely. • Water supply and sanitation services are sustainable and are provided by effective and efficient institutions that are accountable and responsive to those whom they serve. • Water is used wisely, sustainably and efficiently in order to promote economic growth and reduce poverty.

changes in design standards were usually brought about by changes in the applicable technologies and political or socio-economic changes (Stephenson and Barta, 2005). A summary of the main standards applicable to waterborne sanitation design, are provided in Table 3.

Table 3: Design standards of sanitation systems (Adapted from Stephenson et al. 2005) Title Guidelines for the Provision of Township Services in Residential Townships (‘Blue Book’) Towards Guidelines for Services and Amenities in Developing Communities (‘Green Book’) Proposed Development Guidelines for Housing Projects (‘Brown Book’) Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries RSA/KwaZulu Guidelines

Water and sanitation are interdependent and interrelated in terms of sanitation provision in South Africa. Although waterborne sanitation systems are usually perceived as the highest level of service, these systems may not necessarily be sustainable due to the lack of water resources. Improving household sanitation is not something that happens once in a lifetime. It is a continuous process in which a family should be able to obtain the type of sanitation for which it is willing to pay and use the system correctly to ensure proper functioning thereof. The National Sanitation Policy (DWAF, 1996) is the point of departure for successfully interpreting and implementing the Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997). Its objective is to ensure that in the provision of sanitation: • end-users play a central role in all decisions which affect them; • the service is appropriate to the environmental conditions in an area; • the service is sustainable and cost effective to the users, on a long-term basis; and • the service results in improved hygiene and environmental health conditions. A sanitation service needs to offer a complete, holistic and developmental approach to the community, which includes health and hygiene improvements, environmental health considerations and infrastructure development.

Table 2: Classification of sanitation systems (adapted from CSIR, 2003) Conveyance of excreta to a wastewater treatment works No water added Group 1 Bucket latrines, chemical toilets

Water added

Group 3 Conservancy tank systems, shallow sewers, conventional waterborne sewerage systems, vacuum sewerage

Description Year The document 1983 provides practical guidance for the design with relevant formulae and descriptions

CSIR

Mostly used as a planning guide

Cape Provincial A design guide Administration

A companion to the Manual of British Water Engineering Practice used as British Standard It provides design standards for several different systems founded primarily on the Guidelines for the Provision of Township Services in Residential Townships and was developed for Durban and Pietermaritzburg metropolitan areas. Guidelines for CSIR A manual widely the Provision of used in the design Engineering Services and development of and Amenities municipal services. The in Residential manual was based on Township the Guidelines for the Development (‘Old Provision of Township Red Book’) Services in Residential Townships and Towards Guidelines for Services and Amenities in Developing Communities. Guidelines for CSIR supported A design manual Human Settlement by the SA widely used in Planning and Design Department of the design and (‘New Red Book’) Housing development of municipal services although lacking in technical guidance and definite design criteria.

3.1 Classification of sanitation systems One way of classifying sanitation systems has been to distinguish between the use of water and the disposal procedure for the excreta (CSIR, 2003). This classification reflects the four groups shown in Table 2.

Use of water

Authors CSIR for Department of Community Development

Treatment of excreta on site Group 2 Unimproved pit latrines, ventilated improved pit latrines, reed odourless earth closet latrines, ventilated improved double pit latrines, ventilated vault pit latrines, continuous composting latrines, anaerobic digesters, biological/electric toilets Group 4 Conventional septic tank systems, aqua-privies, biogas digesters, solidsfree sewer systems/smallbore sewer

Institution of Water Engineers and Kawata RSA/KwaZulu Development Programme (RKDP)

1988

-

1983

1990

1994

2000 (Revised in August 2003)

Some local authorities would in general prescribe the Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design (CSIR, 2003) adding some additional criteria and guidelines applicable to their specific needs for a waterborne sanitation system. A few of these guidelines and other standards are listed in Table 4.

HISTORY OF DESIGN STANDARDS AND CRITERIA In South Africa most of the sewerage infrastructure has been designed in accordance with the relevant standards, applicable local requirements and municipal by-laws pertinent to the specific development. The

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These guidelines and standards have assisted in the planning and design of numerous waterborne sanitation systems throughout South Africa.

Authors The South African Bureau of Standards

Year 1982

The South African Bureau of Standards

1982

The South African Bureau of Standards

1993

City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM)

2007

City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality

2003

Johannesburg Water (Pty) Ltd

2007

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- Fall through manhole - Terminal cleanouts • Erf connections • Field testing and inspection. Although it is aimed to avoid sewage pumping stations where possible this is not always possible. The guide provides details to assist in the design the sewage pumping stations to match the operation and hydraulic characteristics of the collection system it is serving.

Table 4: Other relevant guidelines and standards Title Standardised Specification for Civil Engineering Construction Section LD: Sewers. SANS 1200 LD:1982 (SABS, 1982a) Code of Practice for Use with Standardised Specifications for Civil Engineering Construction and Contract Documents Parts 2 to 5 Section LD: Sewers. SANS 10120-2 to 5 (SABS, 1982b) SANS 10252-2:1993 - Water Supply and Drainage for Buildings, Part 2: Drainage Installations for Buildings (SABS, 1993) General Principles and Guidelines for Design and Construction of Water and Sanitation Systems in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality Area City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality: Sanitation By-Laws (CTMM, 2003) Guidelines and Standards for the Design and Maintenance of Water and Sanitation Services (Draft) Guidelines for the Design of FoulWater Sewers (Ethekwini, 1987) Design Standards for Waterborne Sanitation

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The pump station itself should be as simple as possible but all reasonable measures should be taken in the planning and design to minimise the incidence and consequences of any pollution as a result of wastewater overflows. The exterior of a pumping station does not have to reflect the contents of the inside thereof, Figure 3

Figure 3: Aesthetically inspiring sewage pumping station designs The typical themes covered to assist design engineers in the design of a sewage pumping station include: • sewer pump station design criteria • general requirements • facility capacity and hydraulic design criteria • system design and pump selection • piping and appurtenances • sumps • net positive suction head • electrical, controls, and instrumentation • ancillary equipment • wet and dry well installations • rising/force main • pump-station building and site. The pumping configuration should be determined based on analysis of the pump vs. system curves. Detail of meeting typical design criteria listed below is covered in the guide. • The pump-station structure is to have a 100-year design life; • Be integrated with the local authority’s telemetry system; • Be designed with minimisation of long-term maintenance and operation costs in mind; • Meet current environment protection guidelines and regulations; • Have two complete pump sets and associated pipe work with one on duty and one on standby, but capable of operating simultaneously and both capable of pumping raw sewage; • Cleaning and removal of equipment to be achievable without entering the pump station; • Have sufficient storage capacity to prevent frequent pump on-and-off switching; and • Minimise noise pollution. All the major components of the pumping station design is discussed in the guide with examples of design calculations, Figure 4.

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5. WATERBORNE SANITATION GUIDELINES The compiled Waterborne Sanitation Design Guide (Van Vuuren et al. 2011a) contains details of four main types of waterborne sanitation systems. The conventional gravity sewer is the most common waterborne sewerage system in South Africa. The other types included in the guideline are vacuum sewer systems, small-bore sewers and simplified sewerage. The inclusion of the relatively unknown ACS types should hopefully encourage the design engineers to consider these alternatives with the guide providing sufficient information and tools on these technologies. 5.1 Conventional gravity sewer The typical topics covered to assist design engineers in the design of a conventional gravity sewer include: • Sewer system planning • Gravity sewer system design (reticulation, link and main) • Design of sewers - Design criteria - Design-flow calculations - Extraneous flows - Hydraulics of sewers - Pipe material - Alignment of sewers - Pipe cover - Loading conditions - Bedding and backfill - Corrosion • Maintenance holes and transitions - Manhole location and spacing - Shape and dimensions - Construction material

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The major components of the vacuum-collection system are defined below and are depicted in Figure 7. • Main line – larger-diameter trunk lines that enter the vacuum station • Branch line – smaller-diameter lines that connect to the vacuum main • Service lateral – 75 mm vacuum line that connects the valve pit to the vacuum main • Valve pit – point of connection for customer • Vacuum station – heart of the system, where the vacuum is produced and wastewater is collected.

Figure 4: Typical dry-well pump station (courtesy CED) Within the sanitary sewer system there are numerous special structures serving particular needs. These special structures include inverted siphons crossing rivers, streams, depressed highways and other obstructions. Silt traps which are designed to trap sand and grit. Details of the design of these special structures are also described in the guide. Figure 7: Major components of vacuum system The guide provides details of the planning of a vacuum sewer system, design criteria for each of the major components and details of the design of a vacuum collection system and vacuum station by means of step-by-step design procedure including a worked example. The WRC was involved with the pilot vacuum sewer project in Kosovo in the City of Cape Town, Figure 8, from which valuable social, institutional and operational lessons were learnt.

Figure 5: Typical inverted siphon The need for a hands-on step-by-step design procedure evolved during the development of design procedures for local municipality structures involved with the decision making and design of waterborne sanitation systems. The guide provides a step-by-step set of procedures, Figure 6, to be followed to initiate and complete a design of a conventional gravity sewer system from the house connection to the main sewer.

5.2 Vacuum sewers In some parts of the world, there are established standards for vacuum sewers. According to Water Environment Federation (WEF 2008) Australia has a 2004 standard called the Vacuum Sewerage Code of Australia (WSA 06-2004), and Europe has the 1997 European Norm Vacuum Sewerage Systems Outside Buildings (EN-1091). In the United States there is no national vacuum sewer system standard and in South Africa due to the limited use of this technology there is also no such a document. The guide attempts to address this shortcoming in South Africa. PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED Step 8 NO YES Step 7 Step 6 Step 3 Step 2 Step 1 Step 4 Step 5 NO PROBLEM AREAS

Figure 8: Kosovo vacuum station in the City of Cape Town (catering for 353 full-flush toilets)

5.3 Small-bore sewers Small-bore systems or small-diameter gravity (SDG) sewers or solidsfree sewers (SFSs) are also called septic tank effluent gravity (STEG) sewers, and these systems convey effluent by gravity from an interceptor tank (or septic tank) to a centralised treatment plant or pump station from where it is conveyed to another collection system (Pisani, 1998), as

Figure 6: Flow diagram – conventional gravity main sewer design

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depicted in Figure 9. Another variation on this alternative sewer system is the septic tank effluent pumping (STEP) concept. All these systems utilise smaller-diameter pipes placed in shallow trenches following the natural contours of the area thus reducing the capital cost of the pipe as well as excavation and construction costs. The on-site tank could be a septic tank, aqua-privy or anaerobic digester. The sludge remaining in the tank must be removed by means of a vacuum tanker and transported to the treatment works.

Figure 10: Construction of inspection chamber (Eslick and Harrison, 2004) These systems have shown that there are significant cost savings when compared to conventional gravity sewers. Operation and maintenance requirements are similar to those of conventional sewers. To be able to successfully implement a simplified sewer system in a community a model for implementation is required. In a report by the Palmer Development Group (Pegram and Palmer, 1999), a model for implementation based on a successful international model was adopted and applied to a South African project. The components include: • Institutional and community arrangements; • Cadastral and social characterisation; • Health and hygiene education; • Design, task planning and agreements; • Works implementation; • System consolidation; • Evaluation; • Maintenance (social and physical). During the implementation of the simplified sewer system, community organisation and participation are obtained in the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of the system. The community come together to own and manage the system; in other words, the condominial pipeline is privately and collectively owned by the community themselves. The detailed design criteria describe the following components: • Layout • Hydraulics • Service connection • Depth of sewers • Manholes • Material • The design engineer is guided through the design philosophy and design procedure by means of a step-by-step worked example.

Figure 9: Solids-free sewer system (Alvéstegui, 2005) The guide provides details on the various system components listed below, the design criteria and step-by-step design procedures. • Building sewers/house connections • Interceptor tanks • Pumps and controls • Service laterals • Collector mains • Cleanouts • Valves and vents There are numerous septic tank and conservancy tank systems that have the potential to be upgraded reducing the operational costs.

5.4 Simplified sewerage Heavy reliance on high-cost conventional sewers has produced inadequate sanitation service coverage in many urban areas. In the recent past, low-cost, on-site systems have been gaining increased acceptance as alternatives; however, in areas where housing densities and levels of water consumption are high, waterborne solutions are required. A modified approach to sewer design based on hydraulic theory, satisfactory experience elsewhere, and redefinition of acceptable risk has been developed. Systems designed according to these new criteria are known as ‘simplified sewers’. Bakalian et al. (1994) indicated that they operate as conventional sewers but with a number of modifications such as: • The minimum diameter is reduced. • The minimum cover is reduced. • The slope is determined by using the tractive force concept rather than the minimum velocity concept. • Sewers are installed under sidewalks where possible. • Many costly manholes are eliminated or replaced with less-expensive cleanouts (Figure 10).

6. SEWERAID When setting out to produce the Waterborne Sanitation Design Guide and the Waterborne Sanitation Operation and Maintenance Guide an additional aim was to provide an innovative education component in parallel to the guides. SewerAID is a useful design application tool that provides the readers/users of these guides with additional relevant information in the form of: • Additional literature • Drawings • Photo gallery • Movie clips • Software. SewerAID, depicted in Figure 11, provides additional valuable information to assist the designer in planning, design and implementation of the most appropriate waterborne sanitation system.

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Foul-Water Sewers. Ethekwini Municipality. Durban, South Africa. • Jacobs HE and Van Dijk, M 2009. Conceptual Description of a Novel Three-Tiered Philosophy for Sewer Network Master Planning in South Africa. CCWI, September 2009, University of Sheffield, UK. • JW (Johannesburg Water) 2007. Guidelines and Standards for the Design and Maintenance of Water and Sanitation Services (Draft). Johannesburg Water, Investment Delivery Division. City of Johannesburg. • OCPA 1997. Concrete Pipe Design Manual. Ontario Concrete Pipe Association. Available online: www.ocpa.com [Accessed 1 August 2007]. • Pegram G and Palmer I 1999. The Applicability of Shallow Sewer Systems in South Africa. WRC Report No. TT 113/99. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. • Pisani JE 1998. The Operation and Maintenance of Settled Sewerage (SS) Systems in South Africa. WRC Report No. 708/1/98. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. • SABS 1982a. Standardized Specification for Civil Engineering Construction Section LD: Sewers. SANS 1200 LD:1982. The South African Bureau of Standards, Pretoria, South Africa. • SABS 1982b. Code of Practice for Use with Standardized Specifications for Civil Engineering Construction and Contract Documents Parts 2 to 5 Section LD: Sewers. SANS 10120-2 to 5 LD SET:1982. The South African Bureau of Standards, Pretoria, South Africa. • SABS 1993. Water Supply and Drainage for Buildings, Part 2: Drainage Installations for Buildings. SANS 10252-2:1993. The South African Bureau of Standards, Pretoria, South Africa. • Stephenson D and Barta B 2005. Guidelines on Reduction of the Impact of Water Infiltration into Sewers. WRC Report No. TT 239/05. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. • USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) 1991. Alternative Wastewater Collection Systems. EPA-625/1-91-024 U.S. EPA. Office of Research and Development, Office of Water: Washington, D.C. • Van Vuuren SJ and Van Dijk M 2011a. Waterborne Sanitation Design Guide. WRC Report No TT481/11. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. • Van Vuuren SJ and Van Dijk M 2011b. Waterborne Sanitation Operation and Maintenance Guide. WRC Report No TT482/11. Water Research Commission. Pretoria, South Africa. • WEF (Water Environment Federation) 2008. Alternative Sewer Systems (2nd edn.). WEF Manual of Practice No. FD-12 (2008). Water Environment Federation: Alexandria, Virginia. WEF Press. McGraw Hill.

Figure 11: SewerAID

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research presented in this paper emanated from a study funded by the Water Research Commission (WRC) whose support is acknowledged with gratitude. 8. REFERENCES • Alvéstegui A 2005. Alternative Technologies for Water and Sanitation Supply in Small Towns. Water and Sanitation Program. Available online: www.wsp.org/filez/pubs/lac_tecnologias_en.pdf [Accessed 1 August 2007]. • ASCE 1982. Gravity Sanitary Sewer Design and Construction. American Society of Civil Engineers and the Water Pollution Control Federation. Report No 60. New York. • Bakalian A, Wright A, Otis R and Netto J de A 1994. Simplified Sewerage: Design Guidelines. UNDP-World Bank Water & Sanitation Program. Washington, DC, USA. • CSIR 1983. Guidelines for Engineering Services and Amenities in Residential Township Development. CSIR Division of Building Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. • CSIR 1994. Guidelines for the Provision of Engineering Services and Amenities in Residential Township Development. Pretoria, South Africa (Red Book). • CSIR 2003. Guidelines for the Provision of Engineering Services and Amenities in Residential Township Development. Pretoria, South Africa (Red Book). • CTMM (City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality) 2003. City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality: Sanitation By-Laws. • CTMM (City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality) 2007. Guideline for the Design and Construction of Water and Sanitation Systems. Public Works and Infrastructure Development Department: Water and Sanitation Division. Pretoria, South Africa. • Department of Transport 1986. Code of Practice for the Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts in South Africa. Technical Methods for Highways. TMH7 Parts 1 & 2. Pretoria, South Africa. • DWAF 1996. National Sanitation White Paper. Available online: www. dwaf.gov.za [Accessed 1 August 2007]. • DWAF 2002a. Draft White Paper on Water Services. Available online: www.dwaf.gov.za [Accessed 1 August 2007]. • Eslick P and Harrison J 2004. Lessons and Experiences from the Ethekwini Pilot Shallow Sewer Study. WRC Report No. 1146/1/04. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. • Ethekwini Water and Sanitation 1987. Guidelines for the Design of

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added all at the same time and if the river water was characterised at a number of different locations along its course the ‘water memory’ could be read in sequential order to read the ‘water story’. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how ‘water memory’ can be read and how this concept assisted a number of water users to understand their respective ‘water stories’.

Mias van der Walt Bigen Africa, PO Box 29, The Innovation Hub, 0059, 012 843 9085 (T), 012 843 9000 (F) mias.vanderwalt@bigenafrica.com

3. THE WATER MEMORY MECHANISM Abstract In the technological age where computers are part of our daily existence, the word ‘memory’ is often associated with the memory chip in a personal computer – not with water. Water memory is a fascinating concept. The human brain, for instance, is an array of billions of neurons and the conducting fluid between the neurons consists of about 80% water: The connection between water and memory is therefore not too difficult and in fact a concept pervasive to our existence. This paper will explore the relationship between ‘water’ and ‘memory’ from a different perspective. The basis of the paper is to demonstrate the concept of water ‘memory’ and that the origin of water can to a large extent be determined by decoding the ’memory’. The correct decoding of water memory has significant practical implications in terms of water cycle management. The concept of water memory was developed and applied during a number of studies including distribution system water quality root cause analysis, mine water management and a water treatment plant dosing strategy.

3.1 Water memory generation Any constituent that is added to water changes its pure form and contributes towards its unique character referred to as the ‘water memory’. Rain water falling on a grassland with loose soil will generate muddy runoff with some dissolved metal content. Potable water supplied to consumers, which already contains a memory due to its mineral content, builds up additional memory through its use by domestic consumers by the time it is discharged into the sewer system. 3.2 Water memory fading In some cases water memory can fade with time due to natural and technological processes. After a heavy thunderstorm in the Drakensberg turbid water flows down a creek and is gradually cleaned as the suspended solids are retained in pools along the river. The sedimentation effect fades the suspended solids memory. In other cases organic compounds in the water are transformed through natural biological processes that fade the water memory. One the most common processes that are prominent in polluted environments is nitrification and de-nitrification; during these processes anthropogenic ammonia and nitrates are transformed to nitrates and nitrogen gas respectively. Other processes that can fade water memory include oxidation, precipitation, and various other physio-chemical and biological processes.

1. INTRODUCTION During an extensive investigation in the City of Tshwane distribution system (Van der Walt, Cronje & Coetzee, 2009) it was concluded that there is a body of ‘hidden’ information in water quality data that needs to be ‘mined’ to identify trends and changes in the water sources, the water and waste water treatment plants in the catchment area and the distribution system. Consumer complaints require ‘decoding’ in order to understand the root cause(s) of water quality problem. If more than one source is supplied into a distribution system, the level of mixing needs to be controlled and the consequence of mixing needs to be understood. A number of subsequent studies lead to the development of the ‘water memory’ concept. This paper will proceed in explaining the concept, the mechanism and illustrate the application of the concept by a number of recent case studies.

3.3 Erasing water memory In natural processes water memory can fade, but it is seldom erased completely. However, technology makes it possible to erase water memory almost completely. The memory of seawater with a high concentration of dissolved minerals can be erased using reverse osmosis technology. Many other examples exist where the memory of very polluted water can be semi-erased with advanced treatment technology. 3.4 Water memory blocks Water memory is read by performing analysis of water samples taken from the water system under consideration. The types of analyses that are performed depend on the type of water story that is expected to unfold. The water story on a mine will be different from the water story in a water distribution system of a large city with many water sources. For the purpose of this paper the following convention will be used: Water memory can be presented by a memory block. The memory block contains memory areas (neurons) for suspended, dissolved (organic and inorganic) and biological characteristics. Each block also includes a neuron for a spatial reference (location in a specific water system) and a time stamp (the date and time of the sample). Figure 1 is an example of a water memory block. The areas can be further sub-divided into the individual analysis parameters.

2. THE WATER MEMORY CONCEPT The literal meaning of the words ‘water’ and ‘memory’ provide some clue to the concept ‘water memory’. According the Oxford Dictionary the following meanings are provided: • WATER / wᴐ:tǝ(r) noun, a liquid without colour, smell or taste • MEMORY / ‘memǝri/(pl. ies) noun, the part of a computer where memory is stored Water is a pervasive and universal carrier of various materials around the globe. Consider for instance the contents of a river just after a heavy thunderstorm; a mixture of various soluble and suspended organic and inorganic materials. The type of constituents in the water course essentially characterises the water source. This is why a river in the Drakensberg will contain different soluble and suspended matter compared to a river downstream of an industrialised mining town. Once the constituents are added to a river course the unique character remains relatively unchanged. This means that the characteristics of a Gauteng river will not change to that of a Drakensberg river even if it is left for an indefinite period. The ability of water to ‘remember’ the constituents that were added to it is referred to as ‘water memory’. Some readers may also refer to this as ‘water fingerprinting’ or ‘water DNA’, but for the rest of this paper the term ‘water memory’ will be used. The constituents in the water are not necessarily

Figure 1 – Water Memory Block

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Once the water memory was read from grab samples additional information can also be learned by taking additional samples over an extended period of time. A number of techniques can be used to analyse sequential water memory. Time-series analysis can be used to understand cyclical trends, percentile distributions can be used to understand variability trends and artificial neural networks can be used to identify hidden or more complex relationships between water memory neurons. The following example demonstrates how natural and anthropogenic constituents build up water memory found in a typical urban runoff and reuse system. The four colour coded blocks indicate from left to right the suspended solids, dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic and biological concentrations. A spatial reference and time stamp blue colour represents low concentrations and a red colour represents high concentrations.

memory. Some of the memory is removed during sewage treatment, impoundment and treatment. If freshwater with low dissolved inorganic content is not bled into the system at part (2), the continuous reuse will lead to a salt trap and the water memory will continue to build up until dissolved inorganic compounds will have to be removed from the system with expensive desalination equipment.

4. APPLICATION OF THE CONCEPT Most of the municipal officials are of some start point of the water memory and water story business. The key challenge is that the water memory blocks are often not in place, making the memory thread incomplete and the practitioner unable to read the water story. Another challenge is that often only the final memory block is known (the separation) forcing the practitioner to read the water story in reverse. The case studies that follow will demonstrate how the water memory concept was used to solve water management problems.

3.5 Water memory threads Water memory blocks taken at different times or different locations in a water system are referred to a water memory thread. Figure 2 represents the water thread of a typical municipal water system. The thread can become fairly long and complex to analyse in large water systems.

4.1 Case study 1 - Distribution system root cause analysis When faced with a number of complaints from consumers, a large water authority embarked on a study to understand the root cause(s) of the complaints. (Due to the sensitivity of the information the authority and the individual sources will not be named). The study initially focussed on an isolated area of the network, but it was soon realised that all the sources feeding into the entire network need to be assessed. During the investigation water quality samples taken at consumer locations, where complaints were detected, were separated from non-complaint related samples. It became evident that the water memory of the complaint related samples showed different characteristics from the water supplied from the water source that was originally suspected to be the root cause of the complaints. Figure 4 indicates how for instance the percentile distributions of chloride concentrations of four different sources were used to fingerprint the origin of water sources in the distribution system. Chlorides could not uniquely fingerprint all sources.

Figure 2 – Water Memory Thread

3.6 Water memory story Combining a number of water threads in time and space can build up into a water story. Potable storage

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Water memory constituents were therefore also identified by analysing the water memory of all complaint and non-complaint related samples using artificial neural network (ANN) classification software. Reading the water memory using this advanced neural network technique enabled the water authority to understand the problem causing substances in each of the four sources supplied into the distribution system. The ANN was also used to uniquely identify six different sources using chlorides, iron, magnesium and copper concentrations as water memory fingerprints. Figure 5 shows that all sources with chloride levels lower than 16.5 mg/ℓ was either from source 1 or source 4. Iron levels below 2 mg/ℓ isolated source 1. A further distinction was possible between sources 1a and 1b based on the copper

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Figure 3 – Typical urban water cycle water memory build up As an example of a water story, figure 3 portrays a typical urban water cycle. It is evident from Figure 3 that after potable water was supplied into a domestic water supply network at part (1), a significant amount of suspended solids, inorganic, organic and biological constituents are added to the water

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concentrations. Sources 2 and 3 could be distinguished based on the magnesium levels.

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improved iron and manganese removal processes, improved dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, improved taste and odour removal, improved management of supernatant recycle and alignment of disinfection technology. The importance of a water safety plan and the implementation of an integrated early warning system that informed operators of rapidly changing raw water characteristics should improve pro-active adjustment of treatment, mixing and distribution strategies.

4.2 Case 2 - Mine water management In an effort to reduce potable water consumption a water balance study was commissioned by a platinum mine in the North West province. The study initially focussed on performing a quantitative water balance based on historical meter readings, but shortly after commencing with the study it was realised that the water cycle management at the platinum mine presented a number of challenges and that additional sampling was required in order to understand the full water story. After collecting additional samples and reading the water memory in conjunction with historical surface and ground water memory a very interesting story emerged. The majority of the water used at a platinum mine is used in the concentrator process where ore is mixed with various chemicals to change the surface characteristics of the target mineral and removal by induced air flotation. A large portion of water is required in the milling and flotation processes and subsequent transported as tailings (slurry) to a tailing storage facility. As can be imagined the concentrating process add a significant amount of water memory. The concentrating processes are often operated very efficiently in order to extract as much of the platinum group metals as possible. The water memory of the water reaching the tailings dam therefore does not normally exhibit high levels of heavy metals, but very high levels of chlorides, calcium, magnesium, nitrates and sulphates. Water from the tailings dam is recovered from a return water dam and returned to the concentrator plant for reuse in processes that do not require clean water. By re-using the return water dam potable water consumption can be reduced, but eventually leads to a continuous build-up of water memory and results in a gradual increase of the salts. Water captured from the tailings dam is the largest source feeding the return water dam. The return water dam also captures effluent from the sewage treatment works, limited storm water as well as surplus water generated from underground operations. The return water dam is often high in algae concentration as a result of high nitrates, and phosphate levels and abundance of sunlight.

Figure 5 – Water Source fingerprint of 8 different water sources Apart from concluding that no single source was responsible for the customer complaints, the water memory from the different sources also emphasised the importance of controlled mixing and uniformed treatment approaches of different sources in the distribution system. During the investigation the water memory was not only read in the distribution system, but the raw water source feeding the system as well as the water memory after treatment. The water memory at the three different steps in the water cycle provided not only insight in the typical water quality problems that could be expected from the source, but also highlighted process and operational deficiencies experienced at the various treatment plants and in the distribution system. The water memory approach could also trace if the root cause was source related, treatment related or distribution system related: • Source related problems included high dissolved manganese, high iron and high ammonia as well as unpleasant taste and odour compounds. • Treatment related problems included dissolved and suspended manganese and iron spikes, low Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Potential (CCPP), nitrification, non-uniform disinfection methodology and poor disinfection control. • Distribution system related problems included poor disinfection control, uncontrolled mixing of different sources, elevated iron levels, nitrification, rapid disinfectant decay and high bacteriological activity. In a dynamic system such as a water distribution system where the demand and supply from each source changes continuously the water memory in the distribution system showed temporal and spatial variation depending on the movement and mixing of water through the distribution system. Using the water memory concept enabled the authority to trace the origin of the complaint back to the source or treatment process. The source related problems uncovered using the water memory were identified as follows: • The mixture of sources 1, 2 and 4 showed low CCPP and occasional high iron concentrations. • Source 3 showed occasional low residual chlorine and manganese concentration spikes. • 65% of complaints originated (at the time of the study) from a mixture of source 1 and 2. • Sources 2 and 3 showed high levels of ammonia that caused nitrification, high bacteriological activity and low chlorine residual in the distribution system. • The disinfection strategies and technology of all sources were not aligned. Not all sources used chloramination as the disinfection method causing secondary complications when mixed with non-chloraminated water. The insight gained by reading the water memory enabled the water authority to initiate immediate actions and this led to a number of infrastructure upgrade projects such as ammonia mitigation in the catchment areas,

Figure 6 is a significant schematic of a platinum mine water system.

Figure 6 – Typical simplified platinum mine water cycle

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In order to understand where water memory was added in the water current a number of samples were taken across the entire surface and underground water circuits. It emerged that the calcium, magnesium, chlorides and sulphates originated from the operations at the concentrator and the processing of the ore. High levels of nitrates and ammonia originated from the underground operations as a result of the use of ammonium nitrate based explosives. The surface and underground systems were linked through the surplus underground water discharged into the return water dam. The key questions that arose in an effort to reduce the water demand were as follows: • Can potable water use be reduced by more efficient water use? • If efficiency cannot be improved, can water be treated and reused to reduce potable water demand? • What is the origin of surplus underground water? • Can ground and surface water circuits be separated in order to limit the spreading of nitrates across the entire water system? It was established that the reuse of water from the return water dam was the most appropriate abstraction point for a water reclamation plant required to reduce the potable water demand. The treatment technology was determined by the water memory of the return water dam which contained remnants of the concentrating process and the underground mining process. After reassessing the water use requirements of the different equipment used in the concentrating process it was established that a number of processes do not require potable water, but could be supplied from water treated to a lower standard. The return water dam reclamation plant was therefore designed to produce two different classes of water; one to a potable standard and one to an industrial standard. It did, however, became evident that in order to achieve SANS 241 potable standards, the high level of nitrates (above 150 mg/ℓ) required a multi-stage reverse osmosis (RO) treatment process while at the same time only a single stage RO was required to remove other salts. A reduction of the nitrate source feeding the return water dam would therefore reduce the need for expensive treatment technology significantly.

the ‘fissure water’ at level 1 (closest to open cast pit) and the water memory of the open cast pit water revealed that the ‘fissure water’ originated from the open cast pit directly above the level 1 haulage. By separating the level 1 water circuit from the rest of the process water used in the mine the nitrate load to the return water dam can be reduced significantly and the cost of the reclamation plant can also be reduced significantly. Not only will the mine save in terms of treatment cost, but significant savings can result by circulating less water and at a lower water pressure up and down the shaft. The net water pumped will reduce by at least 30% and the pumping head of the ‘fissure’ water will reduce by at least 12 levels or 300 meters. In the case of the mine it was realised that water is not an infinite resource and the only option was to reuse water. As a result of significant build up memory from accumulation of minerals in the water captured from tailings dam, the advanced technology was required to erase some of the water memory in order to meet water quality requirements. Analysis of surface and ground water memory assisted in identify a significant short-circuiting in the mine water circuit and will reduce the cost of treatment and reuse.

4.3 Case 3 - Water treatment dosing strategy Water quality results and operator log sheets are often accumulated in the hope of using it productively in the future. This is exactly what was done at a large water supplier where large quantities of accurate water quality data and operator log sheets were available and the operator issued a request for proposal to understand the water memory and read the water story in order to implement a coagulant dosing control strategy. Thousands of analysis spanning several years were analysed including raw water quality, chemical dosing rates, treatment method and operational aspects in order to establish if the water memory could be used for the prediction of chemical dosing rates given the raw water quality and treatment process. After analysing the data using time series analysis no significant cyclical trends were observed. Percentile distribution analysis shows significant variations of turbidity, Chlorophyll-a, colour and faecal coliform. An artificial neural network was constructed (Naidoo & van der Walt, 2012) to read the underlying relationships of the raw water memory and the impact on chemical dosing rates. By assuming a simple relationship between turbidity, alkalinity and dosing rate it can be seen from figure 8 that the predicted chemical dosing showed similar trends to the actual dosing rates, but the accuracy was not acceptable. Additional refinement to the model improved the predictability with a prediction error of less than 1 mg/ℓ for polymer as shown in figure 4.

Figure 7 – Surface to shaft water short circuit

Figure 8 – Actual versus predicted ANN polymer dosing prediction using basic inputs

The water memory concept was applied by conducting a detailed investigation to understand the linkage between surface and underground water cycles. It was noted that during the early development of the mine (this is often the case in the Western Limb) that open cast pits have been developed some of which were rehabilitated and others left open. As these pits are not dewatered they fill with rain water. The water in these man-made aquifers now exerts significant pressure on exploratory drillings that are in some cases linked to shafts and haulages. The net effect is that rain water contained in the open cast pits are short-circuiting with the underground water circuits as shown in Figure 7. Detailed analysis of the water memory of

Figure 9 – Actual versus predicted ANN polymer dosing prediction using advanced inputs

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This example showed that in some cases it will not be sufficient to read the water memory directly as the ‘shutter speed’ at which the memory is read maybe too short. A large data set of many years (long shutter speed) is sometimes required to understand trends, cycles and hidden relationships. In this particular case very little trends or cycles were observed by visual analysis, but a strong relationship was found between raw water turbidity, colour, alkalinity, treatment process and coagulant polymer type using an advanced water memory reading tool such as ANN. Unpacking the water memory at the large water treatment plant tells a very interesting story and resulted in a very useful water management tool that was considered not possible before its application.

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for a range of water management problems. Accessing water memory can be a rich source of information, and viewed in context, can often uncover a very interesting ‘water story’. Analysing water quality results should therefore not a boring exercise, but an interesting journey experienced by a few water drops encountering many interactions along its journey in a water system. Reading water status is not difficult, it just requires a bit of curiosity.

6. REFERENCES 1 Naidoo, P and van der Walt JJ (2012) Artificial Neural Network budgeting tool, WISA 2012 Conference, Cape Town (accepted for publication) 2 Van der Walt, JJ, Cronje, P & Coetzee, L (2009) Unravelling the customer complaint riddle, 2nd WISA Drinking Water Quality Conference, Port Elizabeth, 2009

5. CONCLUSIONS Water memory may at first appear to be a strange concept, but after applying the concept it was demonstrated that the concept can be applied

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TOWARDS WATER SENSITIVE URBAN SETTLEMENTS – INTEGRATING DESIGN, PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA’S TOWNS AND CITIES

urgent development constraint facing South Africa.” South Africa is located in a semi-arid part of the world and has low levels of rainfall – about 50% of the global average – and this rainfall is seasonal (Barilla group et al, 2009). Fast growing urban demand is outpacing supply; in the base case scenario undertaken by the 2030 Water Resources Group, South Africa could face an average gap of 17% between projected demand and supply by 2030, with some catchments predicted to face gaps of almost 40% (Barilla group et al, 2009). These effects could be further intensified by the effects of climate change which is likely to be responsible for an increase in extreme weather events (droughts and floods) as well as reductions in freshwater availability and rising sea levels (Satterthwaite et al, 2007). Whilst many countries are subject to water stress, the situation in South Africa is exacerbated by the fact that it is a developing country with major discrepancies between the rich and the poor, as highlighted by a Gini coefficient of 0.65 (CIA, 2005). Basic services do not exist for a large proportion of the population and many are living below the official poverty line – some 38% in Cape Town for example (City of Cape Town, 2008). Significant backlogs in infrastructure also contribute to issues of environmental degradation and pollution of surface and groundwater resources. Alternative approaches to conventional urban water management which account for water supply and quality constraints, as well as the impacts of extreme weather-related events, will be required if serious economic and socio-political threats are to be averted. One such approach, known as Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) considers the environment in conjunction with infrastructure planning, design and management at the earliest possible stage of any decision-making process (McAlister, 2007). WSUD is a multidisciplined approach to urban water management aimed at ensuring that the urban water cycle is managed in a more sustainable manner which in turn will improve water security. It does this by focusing on the interaction between the urban built form and water resources management (Wong, 2006). By considering all aspects of the water cycle and their interaction with urban design, WSUD aims to be the medium through which sustainable urban water management (SUWM) can be achieved, where the sustainability objectives in this regard can be described as “satisfying water related needs … at the lowest cost to society whilst minimising environmental and social impacts” (White & Turner, 2003).

K Carden, L Fisher-Jeffes, D Coulson and NP Armitage Urban Water Management group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701 ABSTRACT South Africa (SA) is a rapidly urbanising country facing complex water management challenges, including significant resource shortages, environmental issues and fragmented institutional structures. Water security is of particular concern; an average supply shortfall of 17% is predicted by 2030, with the bulk of increased demand expected from cities (Barilla Group et al, 2009). A new paradigm in urban water management is required if serious economic and socio-political threats are to be averted. Building on initial research into sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) in SA, the Water Research Commission is funding a study aimed at developing a strategic framework and identifying tools for a more integrated approach to managing the three urban water streams – namely stormwater, water supply and wastewater. Issues of water conservation, surface and groundwater protection, and the use of wastewater and/or stormwater as a resource, are central to this research. This paper discusses international current thinking in terms of using Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) concepts in a transition to Water Sensitive Urban Settlements. It proposes the use of a vision and an approach to engage stakeholders; and provides examples of existing case studies to highlight critical issues for consideration in the SA context. The research aims to demonstrate how SA could, by way of an interdisciplinary process like WSUD – which encompasses design, planning, institutional arrangements and management – move towards the development of multifunctional urban areas that are resilient and adaptable to change. Keywords: Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD), Water Sensitive Cities (WSC), Water Sensitive Urban Settlements (WSUS), Sustainable Urban Water Management (SUWM).

2. BACKGROUND TO RESEARCH The Urban Water Management (UWM) research group at UCT recently completed a project on sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) for the Water Research Commission of South Africa (WRC). The project was aimed at developing new and appropriate, practical and affordable alternative stormwater technology for South Africa. Stormwater/rainwater harvesting was identified as a potential source of water for the country. Thus, as follow-on to this project, the UWM has been tasked by the WRC to develop a strategic framework for WSUD in South Africa and to identify tools for a more integrated approach to urban water management including water conservation measures, surface and groundwater protection, and the use of wastewater and/or stormwater as a resource. The research aims to provide recommendations on how to overcome obstacles to WSUD implementation, develop local guidelines and identify appropriate modelling tools. Considering that water management is itself multi-faceted, an interdisciplinary team was established with academics from several disciplines (engineers, anthropologists, environmental scientists, urban planners, political scientists, landscape architects, etc.) and a number of collaborating organisations including four major municipalities (Tshwane, Cape Town, Johannesburg and eThekwini). In this way, an attempt has been made to engage a representative cross-section of those involved in the three different components of WSUD – design, planning and management – towards the achievement of Water Sensitive Urban Settlements. The research premise as outlined in this WRC project is that the multiobjective approach offered by WSUD could offer a way forward for South

1. INTRODUCTION South Africa is a middle income, developing country facing a range of challenges with respect to water management including significant resource shortages, basic services backlogs, environmental issues and fragmented institutional structures (RSA, 2011; UNEP, 2010). Rapid urbanisation further complicates the situation as it “affects many resources and components of the environment in urban areas and beyond” (Marsalek et al, 2008). Currently more than 60% of South Africa’s population live in urban centres that account for only 1.5% of the country’s surface area, and this figure is predicted to increase to over 70% by 2030 (Haldenwang, 2010). The result has been, and continues to be, an increasing demand for all resources, including water. Whilst urbanisation offers important opportunities for growth and development, it also results in the natural water cycle being altered (AMEC Earth and Environmental et al, 2001) in terms of increasing surface imperviousness, changes in runoff conveyance networks, and increasing water consumption (Marsalek et al, 2008). Urbanisation also generates high demand and significant challenges for the delivery of basic services such as housing, water and sanitation. The issues being faced by cities are particularly challenging in South Africa where water scarcity poses a major threat to the country’s well-being. The critical nature of South Africa’s water situation is highlighted by Scholes (2001) who notes that “… the availability of water of acceptable quality is predicted to be the single greatest and most

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Africa to meet the challenges of water resource constraints and service delivery by facilitating a change within cities from water wasteful to water sensitive environments. South Africa presents an interesting case-study for the implementation of WSUD in a context which may require very different approaches to those adopted in countries such as Australia. Whilst the notion of WSUD is gaining momentum in some sectors, political acceptance still has to be sought, and is likely to be based on the creation of ‘green’ jobs to alleviate high unemployment, and on the prevention of economic decline as a result of a lack of water (Ward et al, 2012).

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Sensitive Urban Settlements, the concept gives an idea of the direction that needs to be taken. As urban water management develops, the goals and vision for these may shift or evolve (Centre for Water Sensitive Cities, 2011). Understanding the current state of urban water management and the associated socio-political drivers is important to gauge the progress towards achieving Water Sensitive Urban Settlements.

4. WHY WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN IN SOUTH AFRICA? The promotion of Water Sensitive Cities in South Africa – through the adoption of WSUD – could offer the potential to mitigate the negative effects of water scarcity, manage and reverse water pollution, develop social equity, develop intergenerational equity, sustainability, and develop resilience to natural disasters and climate change within water systems. The fact that water needs to be a priority is widely acknowledged. What is missing though is a fresh approach to the planning, design and implementation of urban systems that would improve the use of water with regard to levels of consumption and quality. WSUD provides a means of doing this. Implementing WSUD in South Africa presents both opportunities and challenges. A series of workshops aimed at identifying these opportunities and challenges as well as introducing the concept of WSUD to key municipal officials was held in one local and four metropolitan municipalities around South Africa during July 2011 (Fisher-Jeffes et al, 2012). The following issues were discussed:

3. WHAT IS WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN? The term Water Sensitive Urban Design comprises two parts – ‘Water Sensitive’ and ‘Urban Design’. Urban Design is a well-recognised field associated with the planning and architectural design of urban environments. It covers issues that have traditionally appeared outside of the water field but nevertheless interact with or have implications for environmental effects on land and water. Wong & Ashley (2006) describe ‘Water Sensitive’ as being an integration of the various disciplines of engineering and environmental sciences associated with the provision of water services and protection of aquatic environments in urban areas, taking into account community values and aspirations. In a South African context it is suggested that the term should at all times acknowledge that: • Water is a finite and vulnerable resource; • Access to water is a basic human right; • The management of water should be based on a participatory approach; and • Water should be recognised as an economic good. WSUD brings ‘sensitivity to water’ into urban design, i.e. it aims to ensure that water is given due prominence within the urban design processes. The adoption of WSUD extends further than the purely engineering approach to the construction of specific features such as wetlands or retention basins. There are a wide range of strategies which can be used to effectively incorporate WSUD into planning and design, and these relate to three streams: sustainable water supply options (including both water conservation/demand measures, as well as water supply alternatives such as rainwater/stormwater harvesting and aquifer storage); wastewater quality improvement (and the use of treated wastewater/recycled water); and sustainable stormwater management (SuDS), including the enhancement of amenity and biodiversity. The strategies include a variety of design options, Best Planning Practices (BPPs) and Best Management Practices (BMPs). BPPs are considered the best practical approach to achieving specific management objectives in the urban context (BMT WBM, 2009). They can be implemented at both the strategic and design phases of a project. At the strategic level they address broader planning and policy contexts while at the design level they relate to the design approach (McAlister, 2007). BMPs are defined as the components of water management that prevent, collect, treat, convey, store and re-use water to achieve SUWM (Engineers Australia, 2006). They are thus associated with WSUD implementation, either in the form of physical infrastructure, or by non-structural means, e.g. projects or programs that promote source control and pollution prevention (NCDENR, 2007). The ultimate goal of WSUD is to achieve SUWM within the urban built form by promoting Water Sensitive Urban Settlements (also referred to in this paper and in international literature as Water Sensitive Cities). A formal definition of the concept of a Water Sensitive Urban Settlement is yet to be established, but it should at least ensure the following (Water by Design, 2009): • Environmental protection and restoration; • Water supply security; • Public health and economic sustainability; • Social and institutional investment into urban water management; and • A diverse suite of sustainable technologies. Despite the lack of a comprehensive and broadly accepted vision for Water

i) Institutions: The fragmented ‘silo-management’ of different aspects of the urban water cycle – as epitomised by stormwater management largely being undertaken by municipal roads departments – has resulted in poor communication and integration of services. Stormwater is seen as hazardous water that needs to be disposed of as rapidly as possible, rather than a potential resource. In one workshop it became evident that different departments within the same city were unaware of pilot projects being undertaken elsewhere in the city, making it difficult for them to learn from each other. ii) Champions: The workshops demonstrated that identifying and supporting ‘champions’ (usually someone in a position of authority) within municipalities will likely be essential to introducing and embedding a WSUD approach in South Africa. In Cape Town for example, an extremely proactive stormwater department was instrumental in the passing of the first municipal by-laws in the country requiring the treatment of stormwater and thereby encouraging the use of SuDS techniques. Unfortunately the institutional silos described above have precluded these initiatives from being followed by the water and sanitation department in the city. Butterworth et al (2011) propose the use of Learning Alliances (“platforms that bring together stakeholders from a range of institutions: Municipalities, service providers, universities, and in some cases NGOs and user groups – to think, act and learn together, using action research to test ideas”) as a means of breaking down silos within municipalities and helping to introduce innovative approaches to water management. iii) Ecosystems goods & services: The valuation of ecosystems goods and services, i.e. assessing the benefits arising from the ecological functioning of healthy ecosystems, has been proposed as motivation for the adoption of the WSUD approach (Butterworth et al, 2011). The South African workshops emphasised that while this approach may be useful in developed countries, it is unlikely to have as much impact within the South African context. Given the widespread poverty and inequality in this country there could be considerable political resistance to providing added emphasis (and funding) on protecting the environment when so many people are living in inhumane conditions without basic services. In this regard, it is useful to consider how the benefits of WSUD should be presented to different stakeholders in South Africa. Table 1 indicates the likely areas of interest for the various target audiences in this regard.

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Table 1: Areas of interest for different stakeholders Stakeholder Politicians City officials Private developers Community interest groups Environmental interest groups Private individuals

Area of interest Provision of basic services; job creation Costs and ease of maintenance Increased profit/public image Job creation; public health and safety Protection of the environment Additional costs/benefits per household

iv) Equity: Includes issues of dignity, ownership and respect. In South Africa, this could easily be classified as a ‘wicked problem’ – one that has “multiple and conflicting criteria for defining solutions, solutions that create problems for others, and no rules for determining when problems can be said to be solved’ (Rittel & Webber, 1973). South Africa already faces a ‘wicked problem’ in the delivery of services to the previously disadvantaged. Attempting to do this in a ‘green’ or water sensitive manner adds another layer of complexity. It will be difficult for the government to implement ‘green projects’ when basic services do not exist, unless accomplished simultaneously. v) Adaptability: South Africa has technical capacity and skills constraints at local and national government level, and it is crucial that any developments do not in the long term ‘lock’ the country into overly complex technologies. vi) Mitigation: The impacts of urbanisation should be managed by reducing energy and carbon use. South Africa needs to manage its environmental impacts. According to the World Bank (2011) South Africa has the 42nd highest (out of 224) output of CO2 per capita. This is a powerful argument for a WSUD approach. vii) Uncertainty: There is a great deal of uncertainty about the future including, inter alia, the impacts of climate change, politics, demographics and the resulting water demand patterns. Any proposed solution must be flexible and adaptable. viii) Capacity: There is a critical need for capacity building – initially amongst municipal officials in particular, but thereafter amongst policy makers, consultants and communities. It was concluded from the workshops that there is an urgent need for information transfer and capacity building around the notion of WSUD – initially among municipal officials in particular, but thereafter amongst policy makers, consultants and communities (Fisher-Jeffes et al, 2012). The successful implementation of WSUD in South Africa will require a combination of ‘tools’ (the identification of context-appropriate WSUD options for South Africa), ‘transfer’ (the promotion of material to assist in knowledge transfer), ‘trials’ (pilot studies to demonstrate practical results) and ‘tactics’ (to persuade power brokers within local authorities of the benefits of WSUD) in order to realise the full potential of the opportunities WSUD presents for this country (Fisher-Jeffes et al, 2012).

Figure 1: Urban water management transition states (Brown et al, 2008) There are currently no examples of a Water Sensitive City anywhere in the world (Brown et al, 2008). South African cities mostly fall somewhere between the ‘water supply’ and ‘drained city’ states on the transitions framework. This is largely as a result of the fact that there are many informal settlements in all of these urban areas where the provision and management of water-related services is often undertaken in an ad-hoc and reactive manner. This raises the question of whether the vision of a Water Sensitive City is a realistic one for a country like South Africa. While it may not seem to be wholly achievable, it should be remembered that it is a long term vision with no specific deadlines. Having a vision means that as far as possible, South African local authorities are encouraged to continuously attempt to improve the planning, design and management of their urban water systems in order to move ‘closer’ to becoming Water Sensitive Cities. A vision will ensure that alternatives to conventional urban water management systems will always be considered. An alternative framework (or ‘vision’) for transitioning to Water Sensitive Urban Settlements is suggested for the South African context – to take into account the impacts of a number of unique factors on the urban water cycle (Figure 2). In particular, it accounts for the different approaches that are required to transition in the densely-settled informal areas where services are non-existent or dysfunctional.

5. THE GOAL – TRANSITIONING TO WATER SENSITIVE CITIES Brown et al (2008) developed an urban water management transitions framework that highlights the critical stages cities will go through in progressing towards water sensitivity with the adoption of WSUD (Figure 1). The framework identifies six urban water transition states and their associated socio-political drivers and service delivery functions.

Figure 2: South African urban water management transition framework (adapted from Brown et al, 2008) Worldwide, the ecological focus of WSUD has been a major driving force for its implementation. In Australia, for example, it came into being as a

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result of a combination of rising environmental consciousness, increased research and development into ecosystem management strategies as well as local urban water management policies (Brown, 2005). This is not the only driver however – public perceptions, social amenity value, and public health benefits were cited as other factors that promote the implementation of sustainable technologies (Brown & Farrelly, 2008). Society plays one of the most significant roles in advocating the principles of sustainability, as without community support there is little that can be done in the way of implementing WSUD in urban areas. This point is critical in the South African context – the apartheid policies of the past as well as the country’s neoliberal economic stance have marginalised the poor majority. The post-apartheid government has failed to significantly improve social equity and there is significant unrest in South Africa in response to poor service delivery. A major challenge to the implementation of WSUD in South Africa will be managing the adoption of such an approach in both the formal and informal areas in the cities. Societal perceptions towards these technologies, particularly those of the poor majority, will be critical to the advancement of WSUD in South Africa, as they shape political action towards institutionalising development strategies in the country.

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that this system saves 580 Mℓ of potable water annually. The spring water is also used to drive a hydro-electric water wheel to generate electricity for use in the park and to showcase renewable energy. The environmental education and demonstration centre incorporates green building principles and renewable energy technologies. It furthermore promotes sustainable living through interactive and experiential education programmes, exhibitions and guided tours. Unique gardens and wetland areas showcase biodiversity, endangered vegetation types and plants used for food and medicine. The Green Point Urban Park could be viewed as an example of the implementation of socially-specific, people-oriented WSUD strategies, designed with people in mind and with the ultimate aim of increasing both amenity and biodiversity value.

7.2 SuDS options (Armitage et al, 2012) Century City is an upmarket development covering an area of 250 ha in Cape Town that was designed and built in the mid 1990s. It includes medium-high density residential and commercial areas, public transport interchanges, educational facilities, private open spaces, as well as a large shopping mall, a theme park and a multi-purpose constructed wetland collecting stormwater runoff from the area. The wetland comprises four main treatment cells, two large seasonal salt pans, and an adjoining canal network. It makes use of a SuDS ‘treatment train’ comprising rocky swales, bio-retention areas, infiltration trenches, silt traps and large retention ponds. It was constructed with the aim of conserving the rare Fynbos habitat, preserving the breeding heronries of waterbirds, and naturally filtering and purifying water from the development’s canals. During the rainy season, base flows supplement the wetland through the canal network and underlying aquifer. The system was originally designed so that treated sewage effluent from the nearby Potsdam wastewater treatment works could be used to maintain water levels in the wetland during the dry season. This practice was halted after about a year of operation however due to a rapid increase in phosphorous levels throughout the wetland. Water from the canal is now pumped into the wetland in the summer season. Water quality is a major problem and an ongoing maintenance and monitoring programme is required to prevent widespread ecological destruction – including annual draining and dredging, removal of alien invasive vegetation and fish species, introduction of measures to reduce nutrient loading, and the removal of bird faeces beneath the heronries. In 2007, two multi-use sports fields at the University of Witwatersrand (WITS) were converted into parking areas and permeable paving was implemented, using a PCBP scheme. The system appears to be able to handle most of the stormwater runoff from the site. There were however some design and construction errors which have resulted in a build-up of sand and silt in the lower parking area. This clogs the paving blocks in that section causing a portion of the infiltration capacity to have been lost. Stormwater infiltrates into the sub-base from where it is discharged, without provision for harvesting. The Anglican Diocese of Natal approached consultants in mid-2009 regarding a sustainable upgrade of their Cathedral Centre parking lot. A combination of asphalt pavement and PCBP was selected for the paving system, with approximately 12% of the total drainage area being laid with permeable paving. Stormwater is temporarily stored in the base course of the paving prior to being discharged into a 375 mm diameter municipal stormwater pipe in the adjoining street. Whilst this results in considerable attenuation of the peak storm flows and reduces nuisance conditions on site, no consideration was given to designing an integrated system. The first major permeable paving scheme in the Western Cape – using permeable concrete block paving (PCBP) – was implemented in 2010 at the City of Cape Town’s Grand Parade which flanks the City’s central business district. Only 15% of the total area of the site was required to be laid with permeable pavers to handle the stormwater runoff for the entire parade surface. Whilst the scheme has improved flooding conditions on

6. SINGAPORE AS AN EXAMPLE OF AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO WSUD Singapore is a city state with a land area of approximately 680 km2. The country is considered to be water stressed and their water supply has been predominantly sourced from neighbouring Malaysia, supplemented by water from local catchments. Recognising that these sources were not adequate to ensure a stable and sustainable supply, Singapore began to look at alternative water supply options in the form of recycled water through the NEWater scheme, and desalinated water (Khoo, 2009). Approximately half of Singapore’s total land area is currently used as a catchment for stormwater with rainwater being collected by a network of drains, rivers and stormwater collection ponds feeding into Singapore’s reservoirs (Khoo, 2009). The wastewater recycling scheme uses a portion of its treated effluent to produce potable water (Luan, 2010). This NEWater currently supplies 30% of the total water demand (Singapore Government PUB, 2011). The success of Singapore’s water management initiatives can largely be attributed to strong governance (Luan, 2010). Water management has not been limited to diversifying water supply options. Singapore has adopted multiple approaches to water management policy. The approaches consist of physical infrastructure, legislation and enforcement, water pricing, public education, and research and technology (Luan, 2010). Singapore’s residents have a high level of awareness regarding water scarcity and the importance of a diverse suit of water supply options to ensure resilience (Wong & Brown, 2008). The simultaneous emphasis on supply and demand management, stormwater and wastewater management techniques, institutional effectiveness and strong political will has a significant impact on the success of the water management system (Tortajada, 2006). 7. SOUTH AFRICAN EXAMPLES OF SELECTED WSUD STRATEGIES The following sections describe examples of the implementation of specific WSUD strategies at various sites throughout South Africa, highlighting some successes as well as several missed opportunities for a more integrated approach. 7.1 WSUD strategies for increasing amenity and biodiversity value The 10.5 hectare Green Point Urban Park in Cape Town was opened in 2011 as a ‘people’s park’ – one that provides recreational, educational and ecological facilities (City of Cape Town, 2011). Water is channelled to the park from artesian wells in the suburb of Oranjezicht so as to meet the irrigation needs of a total area of 63 ha, including the urban park/‘commonage’, golf course, playing fields and the Mouille Point beachfront. It is estimated

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the Grand Parade by attenuating sheet flows, no provision was made to capture and use the rainwater runoff which flows to a low lying portion of the site where it infiltrates into the permeable surfaces and is subsequently collected and discharged by a perforated drainage pipe into the stormwater system.

There are numerous strategies which can be adopted to meet the aims of WSUD including, inter alia, demand management and alternative water sources based on a fit-for-purpose approach. WSUD primarily influences urban form through the application of best planning, design and management practice. Best planning practice involves the integration of land and water planning at all stages of the design process. The design process needs to incorporate a wide range of professionals that bring different perspectives, principles and strategies to the design process, and management should ensure that the needs of all affected individuals are being considered. WSUD can be incorporated at all scales of development, from an individual building, to entire metropolitan regions.

7.3 Water Conservation (WC)/Water Demand Management (WDM) Many cities in South Africa have implemented WC/WDM programmes as part of their Water Resources Strategy planning processes, and to reduce costs in the water services supply chain. Whilst some of these schemes have made impressive savings, they are conducted in isolation from other WSUD initiatives and are therefore limited in their overall impact on the sustainability of the urban water system. Examples include: i) The long-term WC/WDM strategy adopted by the City of Cape Town, which targets a saving of 323.8 Mℓ/d. This is to be achieved by way of inter alia a comprehensive reticulation management programme (using pressure reduction), reducing NRW, retro-fitting water saving devices and leak repairs, effluent recycling, and rainwater harvesting (City of Cape Town, 2007). The city has had some success with the programme although it is still a way off achieving the targeted savings. Issues of budgetary constraints and limited human resource capacity to manage the programme have been suggested as reasons for this. ii) The eThekwini Municipality has a WC/WDM programme in place covering a wide range of measures for reducing losses and improving the efficiency of water use (Smit, 2010). These include billing improvements, active leak detection, pressure reduction with PRVs and advanced pressure management, and a R2 billion AC pipe replacement project (1 750 km of pipes replaced with an estimated saving of R248 million a year through reduced water losses).

The critical factor for identification is how to promote the large-scale implementation of WSUD in South Africa. Pressing societal needs (such as cholera epidemics) have historically driven the development of urban water management by providing broad-based community support for the development of water management infrastructure. One could argue that environmental degradation, resource depletion, and climate change are suitable crisis drivers in this country; however these have not yet produced the widespread and entrenched public response necessary to trigger large-scale adoption of sustainable urban water management practices. In order to successfully implement WSUD in water management strategies in South Africa there needs to be an effective agent of change. The rise of environmental consciousness has been one of the most significant influences to promoting WSUD in other parts of the world. Prominent individuals within water management institutions who drive the process of transitioning towards sustainability, can also play an important role in institutionalising WSUD. These ‘champions’ can potentially overcome administrative inertia and institute change. One of the most important drivers however, is the establishment of Learning Alliances (LAs). The LA approach should form a central part of WSUD strategies. They have the potential to transcend the institutional inertia associated with the lack of communication and cooperation between water management institutions. LAs can provide the medium through which the principles and objectives of WSUD can achieve large-scale implementation in South Africa’s urban areas.

8. DISCUSSION The examples from South Africa show that the implementation of individual WSUD strategies without an integrated consideration of design, planning and management components will go some way towards improving the sustainability of specific aspects of an urban water system. It is however unlikely to significantly influence a transition to Water Sensitive Urban Settlements. There are four inter-related issues that are instrumental to advancing the concept of WSUD (Wong, 2006b): i) Regulatory frameworks relate to the role of local, provincial and national government departments in facilitating the implementation of WSUD in urban development and renewal projects; ii) Assessment and costing of WSUD initiatives are linked to issues related to life-cycle costs of these initiatives and the nexus with external benefits; iii) Technology and Design to innovate and provide a range of functional technical solutions; and iv) Community acceptance and governance are important to ensure broad-based support for WSUD concepts and will also have a major impact on political decision making. Water scarcity is one of the most significant challenges facing South Africa. Current urban water management strategies place little value on the environment and do not manage water resources in a sustainable manner. The concept of WSUD provides a useful methodology to deal with these issues, as it promotes sustainable development by integrating urban planning with the protection of the water cycle, ensuring that urban water management is sensitive to natural hydrological and ecological processes. The principles of WSUD can be grouped into three primary categories: i) Promoting the more efficient use of available or potential water resources to reduce the pressure placed on fresh water supplies; i) Minimising the generation of wastewater; and ii) Protecting and enhancing the functioning of the natural environment as well as its amenity value through effective water management strategies – usually through the application of SuDS.

9. SUMMARY South Africa has one of the largest inequality gaps in the world; and whereas service delivery and social upliftment are high on the political agenda, the challenge will be to promote this social and economic equity whilst simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability. South African water management policies and legislation have identified the need for sustainable water management practices, and many local authorities have begun to implement specific WSUD strategies as part of their water management systems. However, current organisational structures of water services authorities are not geared towards the integrated design, planning and management of all aspects of the water cycle. Fragmented responsibilities, a lack of capacity within water authorities, and funding constraints are just some of the factors contributing to the institutional inertia associated with adopting the principles of WSUD. The challenge for decision-makers in South Africa is going to be creating a national and municipal policy context that supports and promotes the broad implementation of WSUD, with a view towards establishing Water Sensitive Urban Settlements. It must take into account the different areas of interest of the various stakeholders – politicians, local authority officials, developers, interest groups and residents – and ensure that the benefits of WSUD are presented to each target audience accordingly. This paper proposes the use of a vision and an approach in this regard, to engage stakeholders in an effort to move towards the development of multi-functional urban areas that are resilient and adaptable to change.

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10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This project is being funded by the Water Research Commission of South Africa (WRC) under Contract number K5/2071.

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documents/english/icwedece.html [accessed July 2012]. • Khoo, T., 2009. Singapore water: yesterday, today and tomorrow. In Biswas, A. (eds.) Water management in 2020 and beyond. Springer Verlag, Berlin, ISBN 978-3-540-89346-2. • Luan, I., 2010. Singapore Water Management Policies and Practices. Water Resources Development Vol. 26 (1), 65-80. • Marsalek, J., Jimenez-Cisneros, B., Karamouz, M., Malmquist, P., Goldenfum, J. & Chocat, B., 2008. Urban water cycle processes and interactions. Volume 2 in Urban Water series – UNESCO-IHP Publishing, Paris, France. ISBN 987-0-415-45347-9. • McAlister, T., 2007. National Guidelines for Evaluating Water Sensitive Urban Developments. BMT WBM Engineering and Environmental Consultants, Queensland, Australia. • NCDENR, 2007. North Carolina Division of Water Quality: Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, USA. • Rittel, H. & Webber, M., 1973. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences Vol. 4(2), 155-69. • Republic of South Africa (RSA), 2011. National climate change response white paper. Government Notice 757 of 2011 – October 2011. Government Printer, Pretoria, South Africa. • Satterthwaite, D., Huq, S., Pelling, M., Reid, H. & Lankao, P., 2007. Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The possibilities and constraints in low and middle-income nations. International Institute for Environmental Development, London, UK. ISBN 978-1-84369-669-8. • Scholes, R., 2001. Global Terrestrial Observing System: Regional Implementation Plan for Southern Africa. CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa. • Singapore Government PUB, 2011. Local Catchment Water. [Online]. http://www.pub.gov.sg/about/ historyfuture/Pages/NEWater.aspx [accessed Nov 2011]. • Smit, P. 2010. Demand exceeding supply in Durban. Engineering News, Creamer Media. [Online]. http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/ article/projects-aim-to-increase-durbans-potable-water-availability-2010-03-12 [accessed Mar 2011]. • Tortajada, C., 2006. Water management in Singapore. Water Resources Development Vol. 22(2), 227-240. • United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), 2010. “Africa Water Atlas”. Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA), UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. • Ward, S., Lundy, L., Shaffer, P., Wong, T., Ashley, R., Arthur, S., Armitage, N., Walker, L., Brown, R., Deletić, A. & Butler, D., 2012. Water Sensitive Urban Design in the City of the Future. 7th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design, 8pp, Melbourne, Australia. • Water by Design, 2009. Concept Design Guidelines for Water Sensitive Urban Design Version 1. South East Queensland Healthy Waterways Partnership, Brisbane, Australia. ISBN 978-0-9806278-1-7. • White, S. & Turner, A., 2003. The role of effluent reuse in sustainable urban water systems: Untapped opportunities. National water recycling in Australia Conference, Brisbane. http://www.isf.uts.edu.au/ publications/ whiteturner2003effluentreuseopportunities.pdf [accessed April 2011]. • Wong, T., 2006. Water sensitive urban design – the journey thus far. Australian Journal of Water Resources Vol. 10(3), 213-222. • Wong, T. & Ashley, R., 2006. International Working Group on Water Sensitive Urban Design submission to the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, IWA, London. • Wong, T. & Brown, R., 2008. Transitioning to water sensitive cities: ensuring resilience through a new hydro-social contract. 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, UK. • World Bank, 2011. CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) for South Africa. [Online]. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC [accessed Oct 2011].

11. REFERENCES • AMEC Earth and Environmental, Center for Watershed Protection, Debo & Associates, Jordan Jones & Goulding and Atlanta Regional Commission, 2001. Georgia Stormwater Management Manual Volume 1: Stormwater Policy Guidebook First Edition. Manual prepared for the Atlanta Regional Commission, USA. • Armitage, N., Vice, M., Fisher-Jeffes, L., Winter, K., Spiegel, A & Dunstan, J., 2012. Alternative technology for stormwater management. WRC Project no. K5/1826 (report in press). Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. • Barilla Group, The Coca-Cola Company, The International Finance Corporation, McKinsey & Co., Nestlé S.A., New Holland Agriculture, SABMiller plc, Standard Chartered Bank & Syngenta AG, 2009. Charting Our Water Future: Economic frameworks to inform decision-making. 2030 Water Resources Group, McKinsey & Co. http://www.mckinsey.com/client_service/sustainability/latest_thinking/charting _our_water_future [accessed August 2012]. • BMT WBM, 2009. Evaluating options for Water Sensitive Urban Design: A national guide. Joint Steering Committee for Water Sensitive Cities, Queensland, Australia. • Brown, R., 2005. Impediments to integrated urban stormwater management: The need for institutional reform. Environmental Management, Vol. 36 (3), 455-468. • Brown, R., Keath, N. & Wong, T., 2008. Transitioning to Water Sensitive Cities: Historical, Current and Future Transition States. 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, UK. • Brown, R. & Farrelly, M., 2008. Sustainable Urban Stormwater Management in Australia: Professional Perceptions on Institutional Drivers and Barriers. 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, UK. • Butterworth, J., McIntyre, P. & da Silva Wells, C. (eds.), 2011. SWITCH in the City: putting urban water management to the test. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Hague, The Netherlands. • Centre for Water Sensitive Cities, 2011. Water Sensitive Cities: How do we get there? [Online]. http://www. watersensitivecities.org.au/about-us/ water-sensitive-cities/how-do-we-get-there/ [accessed Oct 2011]. • CIA, 2005. Human Development Reports. The World Factbook: Africa, South Africa. [Online]. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/geos/sf.html [accessed Oct 2011]. • City of Cape Town, 2007. Long-term water conservation and water demand management strategy summary document. Water Services directorate, City of Cape Town. • City of Cape Town, 2008. City Statistics. [Online]. http://www.capetown. gov.za/en/stats/Pages/ CityStatistic.aspx [accessed Oct 2011]. • City of Cape Town, 2011. An uncommon jewel. CONTACT - the newsletter for the staff of the City of Cape Town, No. 45, February/March 2011. • Engineers Australia (ed.), 2006. Introduction. Australian Runoff Quality: A Guide to Water Sensitive Urban Design (pp. 1-8). National Committee for Water Engineering, Engineers Australia. • Fisher-Jeffes, L., Carden, K., Armitage, N., Spiegel, A., Winter, K. & Ashley, R., 2012. Challenges facing implementation of Water Sensitive Urban Design in South Africa. 7th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design, 8 pp, Melbourne, Australia. • Haldenwang, B., 2010. Key demographic trends for South Africa to 2030. Institute for Futures Research presentation at the World Future Society SA Conference, 6-7 May 2010, Cape Town. • ICWE, 1992. The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development (p. 4). [Online]. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/hwrp/

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HIGH ACCURACY 3D MOBILE MAPPING FOR ROAD DESIGN

2. SANRAL SPECIFICATIONS Most road construction surveys need to adhere to SANRAL (TMH11) specifications, especially accuracies. These accuracies are summarised in Table 1:

By Altus Strydom, Global Geomatics ABSTRACT Without accurate geographical (survey) information no construction project, whether it be roads, civil works, buildings, plant, electricity or any other project, can proceed. All professionals need reliable data for planning, design, execution and as-built purposes. Survey work on most construction projects can be categorised as: • Pre-construction – this is the planning and design phase; • Construction – this consists mostly of setting out quantities and confirmation of construction; • Post-construction – supply of as-built plans and data; and • Rehabilitation – detailed high accuracy data for design. Historically, the surveyor supplied this data by means of a ground survey with conventional equipment and aerial survey methods. Over the past few years the construction industry has been introduced to airborne LIDAR mapping and terrestrial (ground based) LIDAR mapping. 3D Mobile Mapping is the latest development in fast (70 km/h) accurate (1 cm) data capturing.

Feature Kerbing and edge of asphalt Road surface (Seal/Asphalt/ Concrete) Storm water pipes Lined drains Gravel road surface General topographic detail of the road prism Off the road prism Detail accuracy

Horizontal Accuracy Vertical Fixing Accuracy 50 mm 10 mm 50 mm 10 mm 50 mm 50 mm 100 mm 100 mm

15 mm 15 mm 30 mm 10 mm

150 mm

50 mm

The position of all well-defined detail shall be plotted in relation to the coordinate grid so that the positional error of the detail shall not exceed 0.5 mm on the plan.

The most stringent specification is 10 mm and therefore equipment and work execution should be conducted to achieve these accuracies.

1. INTRODUCTION Without accurate geographical (survey) information, no construction project whether it is buildings, plant, civil works, electricity or any other project, can proceed. All professionals need reliable data for planning, design, execution and as-built purposes. Historically the surveyor supplied this data hrough ground survey with conventional equipment and aerial survey methods. During the past few years the construction industry was introduced to airborne LIDAR mapping and terrestrial (ground-based) LIDAR mapping. The latest development is High Resolution 3D Mobile Mapping.

Existing information Prior to survey it is necessary to gather and investigate existing information including: • Aerial or lidar surveys and data of survey; • Existing ground surveys if any; • Existing SANRAL benchmark data; • Existing SANRAL surveys; and • Cadastral/road reserve data. Benchmarks An accurate benchmark system is the basis of any survey. The benchmark system ensures that that the pre-construction, construction and as-built surveys are all on the same system. The benchmark survey typically consists of: • Confirmation of existing benchmarks x and y by GPS or total station and z by electronic levelling; • Building of new or rebuilding of existing benchmarks. SANRAL specifies that the existing benchmark system must be confirmed and used. This must be included in the survey quote; and • If existing information needs to be used, it must be confirmed by ground checks.

Definition of LIDAR Light Detection and Ranging. It is a three dimensional laser scan and each pixel that is scanned is assigned an x, y or z value which allows for accurate 3D mapping. What is 3D Mobile Mapping? 3D Mobile Mapping is a 3-dimensional mobile scanning unit that comprise laser sensors, navigation sensor (IMU) and high resolution cameras. This mobile mapping range of equipment enables a rapid accumulation of data at speeds of up to 70 km per hour. Accuracies are in the same order and better than conventional ground survey methods. The equipment can be mounted on any moving vehicle including trolleys (railway lines) and boats. Data can be extracted automatically or manually and the software has unique object recognition abilities to identify objects such as road signs and markers.

Strip survey This must be tied in to the benchmark system and consists of two types of surveys which are detailed below: • Road prism, which includes kerbing, edge of road, topographic detail of road prism and asphalt surface. This is a high accuracy (10 mm) survey. These accuracies cannot be achieved by an aerial survey and so ground survey methodologies are necessary. In the past, this was only done by total station equipment, but recent technological developments have enabled this to be done by lidar scanning equipment, including mobile or terrestrial scanners; and • Road corridor, which is the area between the edge of road and the road reserve boundary. 3. GROUND SURVEY METHODOLOGY The key advantages of a ground survey are that it is relatively cheap, especially on smaller projects, and that the surveyor is on the ground, ensuring that as little as possible detail is missed. The biggest

Fig. 1

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disadvantages of current ground survey methods are: • Safety: roads are busy and extensive traffic control measures are necessary to ensure safety of personnel and road users. These measures slow down the survey process; • Completion time: the survey process is always on the critical path because the engineer needs the design data; • Cross sections at 20 m intervals: road surface data between cross sections is seldom recorded; and • For surveys outside the road reserve it is necessary to obtain access from property owners.

4. MOBILE MAPPING SOLUTION In general the mobile mapper is used for road prism surveys but with its reach it can easily cover most of the road reserve of up to 50 m depending on the terrain. This reduces the ground survey part to infill surveys only. The most significant advantages of the mobile mapping option are: • Independent tests have proved that certain mobile mapping systems can achieve accuracies that comply with the TMH11 specification of which the most stringent is 10 mm height accuracy; • Turnaround time of projects is reduced due to the speed of travel and less safety requirements; • High resolution photography which reduces site visits; • The survey of the road surface can be done from the safety of a vehicle. The vehicle is travelling at a speed of up to 70 km, minimising impact on traffic flow; • The density of the points is well distributed, with typical densities of 1 000 points/m2 on the road surface; • The survey platform enables the use of heavier equipment and certain mobile mapping systems are equipped with a laser sensor which has a useful range of up to 200 m; • The scanner is mounted on a vehicle and can be lifted using a lifting platform to increase the angle of incident of the laser sensor. This increases the accuracy of the survey and enhances the ability of the scanner to penetrate through vegetation and grass; • Mobile mapping was developed with roads in mind and the software is well suited for the creation of line maps, contour drawings, break line creation, intelligent point thinning and so on; and • A typical strip survey using the mobile mapper is a continuous point cloud with a high degree of accuracy. The military grade IMU ensures that the data set is homogeneous and the typical up-down effect of a registered terrestrial laser scan is largely eliminated. The disadvantages of the mobile mapping options are infill surveys. Infill surveys off the road prism are still necessary, especially in areas of dense vegetation. Fortunately traffic control measures are a minimum in this area. As for deliverables, the data is available in any industry standard format and will be processed up to the level required by the engineer. These formats are: • Vector Data is available in 2D or 3D CAD format and exportable to AutoCAD, Microstation, Smallworld, Civil Designer, Modelmaker, Caddy or any other industry standard software; • 3D – Point clouds to be exported to AutoCAD or Microstation 3D format; • Triangles are exported to GMS or TOT file standards; and • Geo-referenced high resolution photography with index of photography in CAD and Google Earth.

Fig 2 – Scan

Fig 3 – Photograph

Fig 4 – 3D CAD

Fig 5 – Contours & Break lines

Typical Deliverables:

5. TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING Detailed design of bridges and tunnels is required for most projects. Terrestrial laser scanning is used where the mobile mapper cannot

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reach or enter. Terrestrial laser scanning can also be used for the road prism survey because the accuracies are better than 10 mm. The advantages of terrestrial laser scanning are as follows: • Detail – high density data ensures that bridges, tunnels and structures can be accurately modelled; and • Reach – the scanners can reach areas where no survey prism can be held.

A useful guideline is as follows: • 0.25 m contours: survey grid of 5 m (400 pts per ha) to 10 m (100 pts per ha), depending on terrain; • 0.5 m contours: survey grid of 10 m (100 pts per ha) to 20 m (25 pts per ha); and • 1 m contours: survey grid of 20 m or more depending on terrain. Note: Take note of the work load between 400 pts per ha and 25 pts per ha. If you do not specify the survey grid, surveyors might calculate costs on incorrect assumptions.

6. AERIAL LIDAR SURVEY Where re-routes are required or where access is not available yet, it might be necessary to use airborne lidar. (Note: It is essential that enough ground control and ground truthing surveys are executed to ensure that the aerial model is on the ground). The advantages of aerial lidar survey are as follows: • It covers a wider strip than necessary and wider mapping is possible where re-routes are necessary; • For record and information purposes, the photography is a valuable tool; and • It is necessary for overall planning and can be used for other purposes such as route planning, EIA studies, and stormwater design to name but a few. The disadvantages of aerial lidar survey are as follows: • Accuracy – a rehabilitation survey requires high accuracies on the road prism, accuracies that cannot be met by airborne methods; • Not all detail is covered – ground survey is still necessary; • Mobilisation – it takes time to mobilise and weather can be a time factor; and • Aerial surveys are often executed well ahead of construction and are often not tied to benchmarks close to the project area. As a result, the aerial survey is often not on the same survey date as the subsequent surveys. It is the client’s responsibility to ensure that the tender specification allows an aerial survey that is tied to benchmarks on the ground.

7.5 3D Mobile survey There are many factors that influence mobile surveys and accuracies are a combination of: • GPS Post Processing accuracies; • Laser sensor range accuracies; • IMU angular accuracies; • IMU drift rates; • IMU initialisation quality; • System calibration accuracy; and • Survey tie-point interval and accuracy. Typical specifications for a 3D high definition mapping system are outlined in Table 2. TABLE 2 Equipment specifications Laser Scanner: Standard Pulse Rate and Range Range Accuracy (at mid-range) Precision/Repeatability Field of View Angular Resolution Angular Accuracy Beam Footprint (Gaussian definition) Beam Divergence Environmental Rating Eye Safe Online Waveform Analysis Shots

7. SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD SURVEYS When writing specifications for road surveys, the following should be taken into consideration: 7.1 Surveyor The work should be executed by a PLATO-registered surveyor or under his/her supervision. The advantage is that the person is qualified and can be held responsible for incorrect work.

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU): Update Rate Velocity Accuracy Pitch and Roll Accuracy True Heading Accuracy Gyro Bias Random Drift

7.2 Equipment The equipment used should be suitable for the project. Ask for specifications of equipment to be used and confirm with suppliers that the equipment can achieve the accuracies claimed. This is essential with GPS and LIDAR equipment because there are literally hundreds of different types of equipment designed for different levels of accuracy and applications.

GPS:

7.3 Benchmarks It must be understood that an accurate benchmark network is the backbone of every survey. The engineer must clearly specify at what density benchmarks should be erected and what accuracies need to be achieved. TMH11 covers this extensively.

Horizontal Vertical

200 KHz at 200 m 10 mm at 150 m 5 mm Full 360 Tender Specification 0.009 0.001 7 mm on exit 0.3mrad IP64 Class 1 – eye safe Increased Accuracy on Ground

250 Hz 0.005 m/s 0.004 0.01 0.03 per hour 0.005 per hour 1 cm + 1 PPM 1 cm + 2 PPM

Ground control Benchmark system check levelled to a 2 mm per km closure. Ground control Benchmark system check levelled to a 2 mm per mm closure. Pre-marks or lidar control (similar to photo control points) are to be specified at regular intervals per project but not more than 500 m apart. These should be connected to the BM system and check levelled to a 2 mm/km closure. This is not necessary for unpaved road surfaces. It is a client`s right to ask for Quality Control reports and check values.

7.4 Strip Survey Ground survey – It must be clearly stated at what density and accuracy the topographical grid should be surveyed. It is of little use to specify 1 m, 0.5 m or 0.25 m contours, because that merely determines the level of interpolation.

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7.6 Terrestrial Scanning The benchmark system should be sufficient to cover overlaps of set-ups but not more than 200 m apart. The benchmark system must be check levelled to a 2 mm/km closure. With regards to the scanner it is important to specify what accuracies are needed, and to insist that the scanner, make, model and specifications are part of the project proposal. 7.7 Airborne Lidar Surveys An airborne LIDAR system also consists of a scanner, IMU and GPS. Due to the accumulative error in these three instruments, it is very difficult if not impossible to get better than 10 cm accuracies which are outside of most SANRAL specifications. It is essential that a benchmark system is surveyed on site and that the survey is connected to the benchmark system. The ideal is that the benchmarks are pre-marked and surveyed to a height accuracy of better than 33% of the specified survey accuracy. For example: for 10 cm accurate ground points, the benchmarks need to be surveyed to 3 to 4 cm accuracy. After data has been supplied, it is advisable to do a “ground truthing survey”, such as at least one cross section at each benchmark. 7.8 Photography (Air or Ground Survey) A big advantage of scanning whether it is aerial, mobile or terrestrial is that there are normally cameras attached to the system. Ask for sample photography to ensure that you get the quality needed. It is of little use if you want to capture road furniture and you cannot zoom in to identify street names. 8. CONCLUSION Clearly there is no ultimate survey methodology and every project needs be judged according to its own unique requirements. Mobile and terrestrial scanning are “new tools in the toolbox” and can certainly assist surveyors, engineers and planners in executing their tasks more effectively. The challenge therefore is whether surveyors, engineers and planners can adapt to these new technologies.

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CAN WE BUILD IT, YES WE CAN! … ULTRA THIN REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS (UTRCP)

1.3. Road Numbers The roads are numbered in Table 1 for ease of reference with the following approximate lengths constructed:

JR Otte Pr. Eng1 and PGJJ Myburgh Pr.Eng2

Table 1: Road Numbers and Lengths ROAD No. Road 1 Road 3 Road 4

1

Associate, Pavement Engineering, Royal HaskoningDHV 2 Head: Operational Manager, Streets and Stormwater, Mossel Bay Municipality

LENGTH (m) 230 180 60

2. PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS The road was upgraded to a surfaced standard to the widths, alignment and structural capacity as specified for low volume roads taking local conditions into account by: • Existing material was reused and reworked to form part of the support layers to the cemented base; • The base was constructed using mainly existing material and consisted of a 100 mm thick cement stabilised layer to C3/C4 standards by means of labour intensive construction methods; • This was followed by an application of a bituminous emulsion application to improve durability and limit the water susceptibility of the stabilised layer; • The surface layer consisted of a 50 mm thick UTRCP (mesh 200 x 200 x 5.6 mm nominal reinforcing) with batch mixing of the concrete on site with concrete mixers; • As part of the works, kerbs and channels were removed and reused, where those could be successfully salvaged.

The Employer’s objectives of this project was to upgrade gravel roads in the Brandwag Community, near Mossel Bay to surfaced standard with preference to Ultra Thin Reinforced Concrete Pavement (UTRCP), constructed by means of Labour Intensive Construction (LIC) methods, to maximise the use of local labour and to create jobs in an area with a high unemployment rate. From the onset it was clear that the design and documentation needs to be adapted in order to maximise the interest of the community as well as ensuring a quality product. Well-balanced use of equipment and local labour was key to the success of the project as extensive training was undergone before the specific tasks were programmed to commence. On-site design changes were possible due to the flexibility of the “spinscreed” being used with resultant innovative techniques which result both in time saving as well as improved constructability and quality. Quality control of both virgin and modified materials before, during and after construction needs a higher level of supervision, which must not be underestimated. A direct cost comparison was possible to conventional methods as this was part of the project scope. Crucial to the success and sustainability of this method however, is long term commitment from authorities, with guaranteed financial and technical support.

2.1 Documentation Works specifications: Variations and additions to the standardised specifications were included to distinguish between machine- and labour intensive methods. The following items were included for quantifying the type and amount of works carried out by means of LIC: 2.1.1. Construction of stabilised base

1. PROJECT DESRIPTION 1.1. Short project description The scope of this project was the upgrading of some gravel roads in Brandwag to surfaced standards using Ultra Thin Reinforced Concrete Pavement (UTRCP), constructed by means of Labour Intensive Construction (LIC) methods, to maximise the use of local labour.

Payment Items P106 P107 P108 P109 P110

1.2. Project Location The Brandwag community, Part of Ward No.7 is situated approximately 11 kilometres north of the National Route 2, (N2) and Trunk Route 33, section 2 (TR33/2) intersection on route to Oudtshoorn as shown in Figure 1.

Activity Mixing of Gravel, cement and water Wheelbarrow haulage Spreading and levelling Construction of subbase Screening of subbase

2.1.2. Construction of Ultra Thin Reinforced Concrete Pavement This section covers the construction of a layer of concrete, 50 mm thick continuously reinforced with 200 x 200 x 5.6 mm welded mesh (Ref 193) on an Emulsion Cured Stabilised layer. • Materials – Aggregate to comply with relevant SANS – 32.5 CEM I cement complying with SANS requirements – Concrete to be used after submission and approval of trial mix * to 30 MPa after 28 days. – Welded wire mesh fabric conforming to SANS 1024 – 1991 (6 m x 2.4 m sheets ) – Water to comply with relevant SANS – Curing compound or plastic sheeting for curing – Emulsion for treatment of joints – Cold applied polymer modified emulsion with 8% rubber on bitumen for treatment of joints or similar approved – Granular rubber crumbs to Sabita Manual 4 for slurry for sealing of joints or similar approved.

Figure 1: Location of Brandwag Community

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* On-site batch mixing on site was used, and if the desired consistency was not achieved, ready-mix would be used. • Equipment – Wheelbarrows, shovels, steel squeegees – Mixer for batch mixing/ready mix concrete – Spin-screed to replaced vibrating screed beam for compaction of the concrete – Movable bridge to prevent walking on mesh for placing and screeding concrete – Broom with extended handle to provide texture – Concrete saw with a blade of suitable width for cutting longitudinal and construction joints – Equipment for sealing joints – Bull float. • Construction procedure – Set up side forms /shutters to specified line and levels on the prepared support layer – Placement of welded mesh on cover blocks as specified – Concrete placement, ensured adequate area for truck to turn without damaging the constructed layers – Spread concrete evenly between shutters using steel squeegees/rake – Compact concrete with spin-screed – Once the concrete was compacted, a bull float was used to achieve required surface finish – Once concrete has set sufficiently the surface was broomed transversely to provide the required texture finish – Covered with plastic sheeting to cure concrete – Saw-cut joints as instructed – Seal joints as instructed, with approved sealant

Photo 2 : Polypropylene Fibres

Photo 3 : P900 Plasticiser

Photo 4 : Ref 200 steel mesh (100 mm x 100 mm)

Another change was the use of a “Spin-screed” (Photo 5) instead of the vibrating beam (Photo 6) to compact and finish-off the concrete layer. The Spin Screed consists of an aluminum pipe, up to 6.4 m in length that is caused to spin by an electric power head opposite to the direction it is being advanced so that concrete rolls up in front of the screed cutting off high spots and filling in low spots. The aluminum pipe screed can be purchased or cut into any length up to 6.4 m making screeds tailor made for various jobs.

• Quality Control A slump test had been conducted on each batch and cubes prepared as requested by engineer. For tender purposes the slump test for hand vibration to be between 70–120 mm and for vibration beam between 3070 mm. After the trial section the tolerances on slump test had been specified at 100mm for the “spin-screed”. Design requirements were: – 28 days cube strength : 30 MPa – Cement Water ratio not more than 1:9 – Min cement content 310 kg/m3 – Flexible strength 3.8 MPa (Mix) • Construction Tolerances – Thickness of concrete 5 mm (Minimum 45 metres) – Level and grade 5 mm over 10 m – Top cover to mesh 2 mm (Minimum cover 15 mm) Payment Items P306 P307 P308 P309 P310 P311 P312

Photo 1 : 9.5 mm Aggregate for concrete

Photo 5 : Spin-screed

Photo 6 : Vibtrating Beam

The advantages of using the spin-screed • Handles easily and quick to assemble • Lightweight, only two persons to handle • No vibration means shutters stay in place, ensuring accurate layer thickness • Position of steel reinforcing not negatively impacted as with the vibrating beam • No excessive fines brought to the surface, no segregation • Length of the spin-screed eliminates half-width construction. Contractors can switch from one length of pipe to another in just a matter of seconds by means of quick disconnects. See photos 7 and 8 below.

Activity Placing Of Shutters Placing And Fixing Of Welded Mesh 50 mm Ultra thin reinforced concrete Extra over for construction of bell mouths and intersection Anchor Beams Sawing Of Joints Sealing Of Joints

2.2 Late amendments After consultation with the CSIR the latest techniques and methods were implemented as far as possible. This included the adjustment of the concrete design. The following photos, (1-4) show the aggregate, fibres, plasticiser and mesh used.

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3.1 Stabilised C3/C4 layer Utilising the existing layerworks, resulted in a higher finished road level than designed by 100 mm. The imported G4 material stabilised with cement were mixed off-site, transported, spread by hand and compacted by walk-behind rollers. Shuttering was placed to construct the layer to very tight vertical tolerances. The layer was finished off with the application of a diluted emulsion as shown in Photo 9.

Photo 7 : Spin screed attachment

3.2. 50mm UTRCP To maximise local labour, mixing of the UTRCP was done by on-site batch mixing as shown in Photo 10. For this operation 8 workers were employed. Due to the properties of the mixture, placement needed to be as soon as possible and therefore was tipped into a TLB. The mix is then carefully distributed onto the prepared surface with the reinforcing in place and well supported by spacers. Note the bridge to prevent stepping onto the reinforcement in Photo 11.

Photo 8 : Operating the spin screed

The TRH4 catalogue design was used as reference design for comparison with the CSIR approach for the Ultra Thin Reinforced Concrete Pavement (UTRCP). The design pavement structure is shown in Figure 2 as well as the amendment made during construction:

Photo 10 : Batch mixing in progress

Figure 2: Design and amended cross section for UTRCP

3. CONSTRUCTION Due to the quality of the material on Road No.3 and guidance from CSIR, the existing layer was tested with the in-situ densities exceeding the required values needed as the supporting layer. With the use of the spin screed that exceeds the width of the road, it was decided to construct the road in full width with no longitudinal joint on the centre line. A further change came in with the decision taken to construct both the base and UTRCP to a width that the kerbing would be constructed on top of the finished UTRCP. This was due to the time consuming efforts in fixing the shutters to the correct horizontal alignment. An added advantage was the elimination of a longitudinal joint along the road and kerbing. The kerbing were then changed from a CK5 (combination) to a Fig.8 (mountable kerb).

Photo 11 : Off-loading the concrete mixture

Spreading with squeegees (Photo 12), prevents segregation and compacting with the spin-screed (Photo 13), provided the quality finish needed. For this process 11 trainees were employed.

Photo 12 : Spreading with squeegees

Photo 13 : Spin screed at work

Once the broom finish has been completed, the layer was covered with a canopy of plastic (Photo 14), for the curing process. This is one of the most critical aspects and the layer should be kept moist for at least seven days. This was done by watering the layer with a hosepipe (Photo 15), but unfortunately no record of these has been kept.

Can we build it, Yes we can… Photo 9 : Application of emulsion

Photo 14 : Plastic covering being placed

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3.3. Kerbing and sidewalks With the construction method used, kerbs were constructed on the finished UTRCP by using a water-cement paste and screed. This gives the following advantages. • Eliminating longitudinal joints next to the kerbing, no sealing to be done • Cost saving by using Fig. 8 instead of CK5 • Aesthetically pleasing • Reduce routine road maintenance The previously methods used as shown in Photo 16 needs to be sealed properly, whereas the implemented construction strategy as shown in Photo 17 does not need the same.

Photo 16 : Kerbs constructed Previous method used elsewhere

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3.4. Recommendations

Photo 17 : Implemented kerbing construction

Once the kerbing had been, the sidewalk layerworks were constructed as shown in Figure 18. Figure 19 shows the completed sidewalk and finished road.

Figure 18 : Sidewalk in progress

4. TRAINING AND JOB CREATION A well-structured training programme was initiated and supported by the Provincial Government of the Western Cape (PGWC), Chief Directorate EPWP: CIIE. A special acknowledgement to Yolanda Ngcongca and Mzwandile Dlammanzi for their contribution to ensure that training of the highest standard was achieved. SAVE (South African Value Education) was awarded the training project for 20 learners with the contractor Urhwebo e-Transand who added valuable experience to the project. A development objective of Mossel Bay Municipality regarding unemployment, poverty rate and skills shortage is to reduce it by 2% per annum and this will lead to the achievement of the 2014 millennium goal of reducing these three issues by 50%.

Figure 19 : Sidewalk completed

One month after construction some sections showed cracking similar to that of a stabilised base and it is suggested that cores be drilled to establish the extent as well as the reinforcement position. Photos 20 show typical cracks observed.

In total 22 job opportunities had been created on this project

4.1 Structure of the technical support • The training consisted of a theoretical as well as a practical component • The venue for theoretical component was provided by the community • The practical component was provided at the Brandwag site • The practical component included an on-site mentor for the learners provided by the contractor • Mentors provided were on site for the first two weeks of practical implementation and operations as well as quality control of the UTRCP technique.

Figures 20 : Typical crack patterns

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4.2 Training content 4.2.1. The theoretical training covered the following topics: • Calculations of quantities for consumables and material • Equipment required, hired and non-hired • Construction cost • Preparation of mix designs • Team balancing • Preliminaries.

It must be emphasised that a portion of this project were done conventionally and this has an influence on the percentages shown above. This however made a comparison between conventional and labour intensive construction more realistic. Table 4 shows a comparison between conventional (S13) surfacing and 50mm UTRCP done labour intensively. Table 4: Conventional vs. UTRCP

4.2.2. Practical training initially made provision for a 20-metre strip, but eventually 80 metres were constructed due to changing of the reinforcing and climatic conditions prevailed at the first section. The practical training covered the following activities: • Concrete mixing • Shuttering work • Steel fixing • Using the spin-screed • Finishing of the UTRCP • Protection and curing of the layer • Kerbing. 4.2.3. All learners were provided with a training manual that shall cover the topics under the training. The training manual will become the possession of the learner for future referencing.

The direct construction cost of UTRCP only, is 7.3% more expensive than that of a Cape Seal. This compares well with other literature showing a 8.6% difference.

4.3. Quantity of learners and their skills areas: The quantity of learners was 20. The learners received the following group training: • 1 x skilled person from the main contractor • 1x concrete hand • 1x shutter hand • 1x steel fixer and • 1x supervisor for the construction process.

6 THE END This is the end result of commitment from all parties involved, especially the co-operation of the community during the critical phase of fresh concrete.

5. PROJECT COSTS By providing the PWCG with a business plan and persistent communication by the Mossel Bay Municipality the project realised with an approved budget of R1.803 million for professional fees and construction. Mossel Bay Municipality contributed an additional R 330 000 towards the project. Table 2 below gives the summary of the project cost. Table 2: Percentages spent of approved budget. Budget Item Total Construction cost Professional Fees Total Project Cost (Approved Budget)

Amount R1 635 444 R 497 556 R2 133 000

% of Project Cost 76.7% 23.3%

CAN WE BUILD IT, YES WE CAN! …

As mentioned elsewhere extensive training was provided and the document was drafted to distinguish between labour and plant needed for labour intensive construction. Table 3 below indicates spending as a percentage of the construction cost. Table 3: Percentages spent of construction cost Pay Item Training of local labour including wages Labour Section 100 : Stabilised layer Labour Section 300: UTRCP

Amount R 81 600

% of Construction Cost 5.0%

R 59 606 R 50 086

3.6% 3.1%

Plant for Labour Intensive Construction Sub-Total

R 88 058

5.4%

R279 350

17.1%

Total Construction Cost

R1 635 444

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DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF A PILOT ARTIFICIAL WETLAND SYSTEM TO REMOVE STORMWATER AND SEWAGE POLLUTANTS ENTERING THE SWARTKOPS RIVER ESTUARY VIA THE MOTHERWELL CANAL, NELSON MANDELA BAY, SOUTH AFRICA

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of 0.8 ha along the western side of the stormwater canal was immediately available for the construction of the wetland. The size of the necessary wetland to adequately address the pollution levels (Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODs) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BoDs)) and hydraulic requirements was determined at 4.5 ha. Due to the site space constraints, the development of a pilot wetland as a precursor to a potential future series of such wetlands was agreed to by the Municipality. The pilot wetland was designed to filter low flows diverted from the stormwater canal through a series of ponds prior to diversion back into the river (SRK Consulting, 2008).

Hough, M; Stewart, WI; Uderstadt, KF & Wood, A SRK Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd SRK Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd SRK Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd SRK Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd

METHODOLOGY Conceptual design A constructed wetland system is envisaged to operate as a low maintenance system due to its long hydraulic detention times and low overall activity i.e. no mechanical parts other than the valves and transfer pumps (dry weather conditions). Constructed wetlands aim to systematically control and optimise the ability of a wetland system to remove or transform waste-water pollutants and in many cases to also create an aesthetic environment for wildlife and social objectives. Constructed wetlands can mimic natural systems in that water flows over the bed surface and is filtered through the dense stand of aquatic plants, Free Water Surface systems (FWS), or the system can promote subsurface flow through shallow, permeable media in which the plants are established, Subsurface Flow systems (SF). Surface flow marshes are popular in the USA for large waste-water flows and polishing (cleaning) of nutrients, whilst subsurface flow systems are widely accepted throughout Europe, Australia and South Africa. Provision of a permeable media in relation to the hydraulic loading to obviate surface ponding tends to be an expensive component of the subsurface flow systems, and the factor responsible for the majority of problems when permeability is not adequately catered for. The land area and engineering required to establish a Constructed Wetland arrangement is largely related to the degree of treatment required from the system in relation to the social and aesthetic objectives and topography of the site available. The units may operate as surface or subsurface filtration systems to optimise physico-chemical pollutant removal mechanisms and to balance aerobic and anaerobic biological degradation reactions, evapotranspiration and infiltration. FWS systems usually receive pre-treated or secondary wastewaters, while the SF wetlands tend to receive primary wastewaters and are often a component of integrated systems where their discharge passes to a FWS for polishing. The water depth in FWS systems is generally shallow, <500 mm, to encourage plant growth in the free water interface. Consequently, FWS systems tend to require larger surface areas than the equivalent SF system, requiring additional hydraulic consideration to ensure that water optimally flows through the open water areas. Long retention times and an extensive plant material surface area, provide for filtration removal of particulate and organic matter. The sediment, plant biomass and plant litter surfaces are also where most of the microbial activity affecting water quality occurs, including oxidation of organic matter and transformation of nutrients. The slow decomposition of plant matter accumulating on the bed surface, also provides a matrix media of low bulk density, high water holding and cation exchange capacity and thereby a high potential to transform organic material and nutrients through the wealth of resident microbes. SF wetland systems receiving domestic sewage generally function as little more than anaerobic in-situ contact chambers and attached growth biofilters. The media provides the attachment surface for micro-organisms able to anaerobically and/or anoxically (if nitrate is present), reduce organic pollutants into CO2, CH3, H2S etc. and new microbes. The media

ABSTRACT SRK Consulting conceptualised, designed and supervised the development of a R 7,5-m artificial wetland for the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality in the Eastern Cape, which may herald a new approach to the natural cleaning of polluted water entering South African rivers and estuaries. The pilot scheme is believed to potentially be the first of its kind in South Africa. The Motherwell stormwater canal was designed to discharge stormwater into the Swartkops River estuary, but becomes contaminated at times with sewerage spills emanating from the Motherwell residential area. The Swartkops River estuary is ranked as the top temperate estuary in terms of subsistence value and the eleventh most important estuary in South Africa (Turpie & Clark, 2007). Prior to the commissioning of the artificial wetland system, the quality of the water entering the Swartkops River estuary from the Motherwell Canal exceeded the Department of Water Affairs general guideline for recreational use by between ten and five hundred-fold. The construction of the wetland included a rock-filled reinforced concrete structure 65  m long by 8  m wide as the primary element in the cleaning process. Water percolates through the aggregate and begins the biological polishing process. It then flows under gravity through two reed beds planted with Typha capensis reeds. To date, the artificial wetland system has resulted in a marked reduction in the concentration of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms. Introduction The Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality is responsible for the management of the Motherwell Canal, a stormwater canal designed to discharge stormwater into the Swartkops River estuary. However, the canal becomes contaminated at times with sewerage spills emanating from the Motherwell residential area due to blocked sewers and pump station electrical failures. A substantial volume of litter also enters the canal on a continual basis. All of this pollution was entering the Swartkops River estuary via the canal. The Swartkops River estuary is ranked as the top temperate estuary in terms of subsistence value and the eleventh most important estuary in South Africa (Turpie & Clark, 2007), but is threatened by pollution and other impacts. Prior to the commissioning of the artificial wetland system, the quality of the water entering the Swartkops River estuary from the Motherwell Canal exceeded the Department of Water Affairs general guideline for recreational use by between ten and five hundred-fold. SRK Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd. was appointed by the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality in January 2006 to prepare designs for the implementation of a pilot artificial wetland at the end of the Motherwell canal to scrub the stormwater passing through the Motherwell canal and reduce ongoing pollution of the estuary. A portion of land

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also acts as a filter for the retention of suspended solids and microbial solids, which can be degraded and stabilised over an extended period within the bed, so that outflow suspended solids levels are generally low. Where low organic and hydraulic loads are applied to a wetland, a SF system can become a low rate nitrification biofilter, whereby nitrifying bacteria are able to compete for sites on the media with the aerobic heterotrophs. Adequate oxygen to support a degree of nitrification can then be supplied via direct diffusion from the atmosphere as well as that produced by the plants themselves. In order to meet the various objectives, the Motherwell Canal Artificial Wetland System was designed to enable both FWS and an SF and ensure that very limited maintenance would be required.

filled to 100 mm below the top of the structure walls. During the initial flooding of the cell all outlet pipes were closed. The top pair was then opened. This provided the best environment for bacteria to develop in contact with the rockfill. A by-pass pipe system was installed to ensure that during periods of maintenance water supply to the secondary cells could be ensured (see Figure 2).

Detailed design A pilot debris control system (PDCS) was designed and commissioned in the Motherwell Canal to trap and enable the removal of litter, prior to its entry into the wetland. The design of the wetland included a primary (SF) and two secondary cells (FWS) (see Figure 1). A cut-off was installed in the canal to intercept the low flows, diverting flows into the primary cell. A silt trap was included in the primary cell structure. Contaminated water is retained in the cells for a period of time and ultimately discharges at a new outlet at the lower end of the second secondary cell. The second and lower secondary cell is protected by gabions.

Figure 1: The artificial wetland includes a primary reinforced concrete containment cell (right) and two secondary reedbed cells (centre Aand left B) for treatment. Figure 2: The detailed design of the wetland system.

The primary cell consists of a reinforced concrete containment structure with plan dimensions of approximately 65 m long by 8 m wide. The steep gradient of the site and the limited site area available dictated that the structure be partly buried in the slope above the site with excavation depths varying between 1.5 m on the downslope side and 3.5 m on the upslope side. At design stage it was recognised that the silt carried in the incoming flow would be problematic in terms of eventual blockage of the rockfill pore spaces. The primary cell inlet structure therefore included a silt trap.. Take off from the canal was achieved by installing a deflector plate that diverted flows from the canal into a 400 mm diameter pipe inserted into the wall at the canal at invert level. A trash screen at this location provided additional protection against litter and debris entering the system. Flow to the primary cell was controlled by adjustment of a valve in the 400 mm delivery line. A distribution channel was constructed to ensure an even flow into the primary cell A calibrated V notch plate was installed between the silt trap and the distribution channel to provide accurate flow data. Water quality improvement can then be referenced against varying throughputs with a view to optimising the system. The primary cell outlet structure included eight outlet pipes positioned vertically in pairs. The floor of the containment structure was sealed with a high plasticity index clay layer sourced on site. Stone ballast of nominal size 40 mm was used as the rockfill and the structure was

Earth berms were constructed to form secondary cells A and B. These berms included a clay core. The cell bases and side slopes were sealed with a compacted layer of high plasticity index clay. A layer of topsoil, previously stockpiled on site during the site preparation phase, was spread over the clay. A brick and concrete chamber was constructed at the inlet to secondary cell A to receive flows from the primary cell. A distribution pipe was installed to ensure even flows into the cell. Two overflow weirs were constructed in the berm separating secondary cells A and B. These weirs included provisions for adjustments to the overflow level which would serve two purposes: firstly to maintain water depth as the reed biomass increased; and secondly as a means of disturbing any preferred flow paths that could develop that would reduce the retention time within the cell. Scour outlet structures and drain pipes were installed in each cell. Each cell can thus be drained individually whilst ensuring that the remaining cell still receives sufficient water to support the reeds. An outlet structure and discharge pipe were installed in secondary cell B, discharging directly into the Swartkops River estuary. The invert of the discharge pipe was set above spring high tide level. Once construction of the primary cell and secondary cells was complete, reeds were harvested from local wetlands and planted in the

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secondary cells. Typha capensis (bulrush) reeds were chosen as the preferred reed due to availability and their rapid response to increased nutrient load. Sudden increases in leaf growth would be a useful indicator of increased pollution. The reeds were harvested and planted by hand at approximately 300 mm centres. At the end of the 12 month maintenance period, a survey showed almost 100% survival rates and no replacement plants were required. The wetland does not require substantial maintenance. Maintenance of the primary cell is limited to periodic clearance of primary cell silt trap as well as clearance of litter and debris that enters the system and accumulates on the surface of the rockfill. The secondary cell weir overflow levels need to be raised if it is noticed that the water depth has become inadequate and if preferential flow paths have developed. Harvesting of the reed leaf growth stimulates growth and increases water polishing capacity. Consideration has been given to engaging local communities in these activities. This would generate employment and the harvested vegetable matter could be used in the production of compost for use in vegetable gardens that have been established in the Motherwell area.

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Figure 4: Water quality measured as Total Coliform concentrations entering and being discharged from the artificial wetland during the monitoring period.

Conclusions Due to space constraints of available land, a portion of land of only 0.8 ha was available, whereas the hydraulic requirements of the Motherwell canal were determined at 4.5 ha. The system was therefore designed as a pilot, as a precursor to a potential future series of such wetlands. The Motherwell Canal Artificial Wetland System was designed to enabled both free water surface and subsurface flows, which has optimise the potential to remove or transform water pollutants. The institution of litter traps and a sand filter upstream of the wetland ensured that the functioning of the system was not compromised. The design also ensured that very limited ongoing maintenance would be required. A marked reduction in the concentration of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms was achieved during the water quality monitoring period. However, the effectiveness of the system was moderately reduced upon substantial increase in the intake water beyond optimum levels. The ability of the system to assimilate pollution was also reduced upon substantial reduction in intake water quality when coupled with a high intake water rate. The artificial wetland system proved highly effective in removing and transforming bacteriological water pollutants, but operation of the system within its intended capacity is vital to achieving optimal effectiveness. Periodic assessment of the performance of the system is recommended to enable optimisation and ongoing efficacy.

Results Prior to the commissioning of the artificial wetland system, the quality of the water entering the Swartkops River estuary from the Motherwell Canal exceeded the Department of Water Affairs general guideline for recreational use by between ten and five hundred-fold. To assess the efficacy of the artificial wetland system, water quality monitoring was undertaken on a weekly basis for 11 months, which commenced upon initial intake into the system on 19 February 2010 (see Figure 3 and Figure 4). During the evaluation period a marked reduction in the concentration of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms being discharged from the wetland system in relation to intake water was observed. The wetland illustrated increasing effectiveness over the initial four month period. which was attributed to increased microbial and reed colonisation. However, during month four of discharge, the Municipality increased the rate of intake water into the system, which resulted in a moderate reduction in the effectiveness of the system due to reduced residence time. For a six week period from 2 September 2010, the intake water quality was particularly poor, which coupled with the high intake rate, could not be adequately processed by the wetland. However, upon minor improvement in the intake water quality, the system responded positively with an associated improvement in discharge water quality from the wetland system and a return to near 2 September 2010 discharge water quality by 4 November 2010.

References • Turpie, J. and Clark, B. 2007. Development of a Conservation plan for Temperate South African estuaries on the basis of biodiversity importance, ecosystem health and economic costs and benefits. Anchor Environmental Consultants CC, Cape Town. unpublished data • SRK Consulting. 2008. Implementation of wetland: Motherwell canal Preliminary Design Report. Port Elizabeth. unpublished data

Figure 3: Water quality measured as E. coli concentrations entering and being discharged from the artificial wetland during the monitoring period.

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STORMWATER MASTER PLAN – PROCESS GUIDELINE Claude Madell (Pr Tech Eng), Jannie Koegelenberg (Pr Eng)

4 BUDGET REQUIREMENTS The procurement of services is discussed below. In an open market, prices will vary depending on the geographical location, but the following figures can be used for first order budgets:

George Municipality, Royal HaskoningDHV

Description

Cost

Overall management of stormwater process

R30 000 per month

1 ABSTRACT The flooding experienced in the Southern Cape region during 2006 and 2007 resulted in significant damage to municipal infrastructure and private property. Rapid urbanisation, as well as the age, condition and capacity of the existing stormwater infrastructure resulted in stormwater run-off from developed areas, negatively impacting on existing municipal infrastructure, private property and river embankments. To mitigate the impact of possible changing weather patterns and increasing run-off caused by urbanisation, the George Municipality required a single database where all stormwater data could be viewed, queried, stored, added, maintained and expanded. This database would facilitate the compilation of a Stormwater Master Plan, which, in turn, would identify the necessary upgrades to stormwater infrastructure to meet current and future infrastructure needs. The George Municipality (GM), together with co-funders; the Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA), the Eden District Municipality (EDM) and the Department of Local Government Western Cape (DPLG), undertook the inception phase of the George Stormwater Master Plan. To date, 181 kilometres of network has been topographically surveyed, 151 kilometres hydraulically modelled and 21 kilometres condition assessed. This was a pilot stormwater investigation type project outside the large metros and can therefore be useful to other municipalities with similar needs.

Topographical survey of as-builts:

R100 – R150 per structure

Capturing of data into database and compilation of drawing book for operational staff Condition assessment of stormwater network – CCTV Modelling of network

R50 – R100 per structure

Plan book

R11 000 – R17 000 per km R2 500 – R3 000 per km R40 – R60 per km per plan book

Economy of scale affects the prices and a combination of activities will be possible on larger projects. For example, the topographical survey and integration of the data into a database can be done simultaneously. This will be possible if the development of software applications and the procurement of specialised tablet type input equipment is warranted by the establishment cost.

5 PROGRAMME This is a slow process and adequate provision must be made for the execution of the project. The following timeframes can be used as a guideline: Description Topographical survey of as-built Compilation of database and drawing book for operational staff Condition of network – CCTV

2 DEFINE OBJECTIVE A project of this nature is a mammoth task and requires proper planning and coordination. As with most projects, the first step is determining the main purpose of the “Stormwater Master Plan”. Typical questions to ask: • Do you need a drawing book for operational staff for daily maintenance? • Do you experience structural and operation failures and need to know the actual condition of the network to develop a replacement programme? • Do you experience stormwater capacity failures and need to know whether the network is undersized or whether the stormwater inlets are inadequate? • Do you require an asset database to assist with asset management? • Do you need a fully integrated Stormwater Master Plan? In an ideal municipal environment, where budget is not a concern, the complete, fully integrated master plan would be first class, but in reality we need to settle for what our budget allows. Despite budgetary restrictions, a fully integrated stormwater master plan can be achieved with smaller, well planned projects. The first step in estimating the budget required, is to quantify the network length.

Modelling of network Lidar survey Integrated stormwater master plan

Timeframe 1 km per day per survey team 50 km per month 0.15 – 0.5 km per day per camera team 2 km per day 2 to 6 months 8 to 36 months

The collection of network data for database and modelling purposes were undertaken through topographical surveys, visual inspection and closed circuit video inspection (CCTV) inspections.

6 CCTV The CCTV is the most expensive activity of the stormwater master planning process, but it is the easiest and most accurate method to determine the location and condition of underground networks. The technology is constantly improving and a there is a trade-off between cost and value of the inspection. Only 10% of the George stormwater network was CCTV inspected due to the high cost, and it was decided that a topographical survey would be more valuable in the inception phase. The quality of video, camera deployment and standard specification for assessment are a few of the important factors that require attention.

3 QUANTIFY NETWORK LENGTH In general the stormwater network length can be referenced directly to the road network; however, the densities of stormwater networks vary geographically. Adjustments must also be made for rainfall intensities, income demographics and zonings. To illustrate, the stormwater network length in older, central business type areas were found to be double the road network length. This was due to parallel networks that were installed instead of upgrading of the existing networks. The density of structures in central business areas was higher compared to residential areas. The average distance between structures in the George stormwater network was found to be 32 metres.

6.1 Quality of video image and equipment capability The video quality of the CCTV cameras ranges from standard to high definition, however high definition requires all the editing and storage devices to have high definition capability which makes it very expensive. It is extremely important that the video image must be in focus and have adequate lighting to allow the best image quality. Operators must also have adequate experience to ensure that the camera settings are optimal.

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Figure 3: Typical structural and operational defects

Figure 1: CCTV image quality

The CCTV assessment data is comprehensive and is very useful for specific reference. An interface to access the data should be available to allow users to access the data when required. A summary report consisting of various combinations of the overall results is critical to allow management an overview of the information for planning. The CCTV database must be easily expandable to allow for future CCTV data capturing.

The camera equipment and hardware can also have the additional capability to produce continuous side view videos, together with the normal front view videos. This enables easier and more accurate assessments and reporting.

6.2 Camera deployment: The CCTV camera can be deployed manually into the stormwater pipes (conduits) on a wheeled trolley via a fixed line on a spool, or the unit can be self-propelled. A manual unit was used during the George investigations and a line was passed through the conduit either by means of rods for smaller pipes or manually where man-entry could be gained. There are several benefits for the self-propelled unit, but the main benefit is that the operator can stop at any point to view a section of pipe in more detail. Some self-deployed units can be directed into laterals like private connections to determine the source point. The inspection video includes either the pipe length, or the inspected distance which is used as a reference for condition assessment purposes and corrective maintenance. The geographical coordinates of the start and end manhole can be captured, should the topographical survey information not be available. Another possible feature is an inclinometer that measures the incline of conduits. This is used to verify topographical survey information and can identify faulty slope changes along a conduit.

6.4 Problems – blocked pipes Partly silted conduits can be CCTV inspected to a degree, but the circumference of the conduit below the silt cannot be inspected. As even a partial inspection incurs a CCTV cost, this is not cost effective. Silted conduits have a negative impact on CCTV progress and some CCTV subcontractors may not even CCTV inspect if conduits are not clean, due to low production and potential risk of camera equipment damage.

Figure 4: Typical CCTV – problem conduits It is recommended to include a jetting component in the CCTV contract to ensure all conduits can be jetted if found to be silted. Alternatively, all conduits can be jetted just prior to the CCTV inspection. Quality control is another benefit of CCTV inspection after a jetting operation, as it will confirm that jetting was executed as specified. If all jetting and CCTV records are captured on a single database, repetitive problem areas can be identified and the source of failures investigated.

7 TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY Topographical survey was used to capture the details of all the structures and interconnecting conduits. To ensure proper integration of the survey data with future modelling, the surveyor was appointed as sub-consultant to the appointed consulting engineers. This ensured that the consulting engineer took ownership of the survey data received, thereby ensuring accurate modelling and preparation of as-built books of drawings.

Figure 2: Typical self-propelled CCTV camera

6.3 Standard specification for assessment To ensure consistency, the assessment should be based on a specific standard, such as the publication “The Manual of Sewer Condition Classification” (published by the UK Water Research Centre). This standard is compatible with the European Standard for coding of visual inspection data – EN 13508 - 2:2001 (Establishment of the Condition of Drain and Sewer Systems Outside Buildings – Part 2: Visual Inspection Coding System). The scoring system employed by the classification method considers structural and operational defects in manholes and pipes and also provides for threshold values for the computed structural and operational grading scope. Private grading systems do exist and long term consistency must be considered when codes are specified.

7.1 Capturing As-builts It was initially estimated that as-built information from previous developments or municipal projects could be used, but the as-built data was found to be generally inaccurate. It therefore had limited use for modelling purposes, and it was necessary to resurvey. The data could only be used for maintenance purposes or to assist operational staff to locate infrastructure. It is recommended that municipalities make it compulsory that developers supply accurate as-built data. The most practical option is to specify a development condition that as-built surveys must be executed by registered professional land surveyors. The surveyors’ drawings should

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Table 2 : Survey headings

be supplied by the developer, with the as-built plan, before final development approval is granted. Institutional knowledge of the network by the municipality’s maintenance teams was also not properly recorded. By ensuring regular consultation with the operations and maintenance teams, problem areas prioritised for modelling could be identified. Input from the maintenance teams during the survey period also ensured that all structures and pipelines were surveyed.

NAME Y_CO_ORD X_CO_ORD TYPE CL IL_C RL Structure_Number IL_A

7.2 Naming convention A unique identifier must be assigned to each element in the stormwater network. A 10 digit identifier was used for the George network. This identifier indicates the network and suburb/area to which the element belongs. It also provides a unique sequence number and the type of structure (e.g. pipe, manhole) involved. The conduits inherit their identifier from the upstream structure. The figure below indicates the fields from which the identifiers are compiled.

Dia_A-Width Dia_A-Height Barrels_A Type_A CP_INLETW CP_INLETH

DESCRIPTION Y coordinate X coordinate Structure type Cover level Invert level of structure Road level - where surveyed Name of downstream and upstream structures Invert level of conduit to downstream and upstream structures Diameter of pipe or width of box culvert to structure A Height of box culvert to structure A Number of conduits of the same dimensions to structure A Material type of conduit to Structure A Catch pit or grid width Catch pit or grid length

7.4 Topographical problems In a number of cases, problems or inconsistencies were encountered during visual inspection and measurement. The following actions were taken for the various circumstances encountered: Blocked structures:

Instructions were issued for the cleaning of the manhole, after which the necessary inspection and measurement was undertaken. Large cover Many of the manholes had relatively large cover slabs (1, slabs: 5 x 0.55 x 0.125 m thick), which, (at 2 400 kg/m³) weighed up to 250 kg. It is therefore self-evident that this cannot be lifted manually and, while providing a suitably vandalproof solution, it hampered inspection and will certainly encumber maintenance. These large covers have to be mechanically lifted. Municipal maintenance teams and later mechanical lifting (i.e. by JCB/TLB) were used to open the structures. The inspection and measurement of the structure would generally have followed immediately after opening the covers due to public health and safety risks. Additional Where additional manholes were located (i.e. had not structures previously been located during the topographical survey), located: these would be inspected, measured and recorded for subsequent topographical survey. Inconsistencies Where inconsistencies were noted or queries arose and queries: regarding manhole details (e.g. inconsistent levels, irregular or unexpected connectivity), these were recorded and instructions issued for re-survey of the manhole concerned. This included positions where manholes were expected, but had not been recorded in the topographical survey. Potential The estimated positions of potential manholes were structures: captured as nodes. The existence of these nodes were then challenged and hopefully confirmed during the CCTV inspections. Cover slab The structures are mostly aged and can be damaged when failures: opened. Broken cover slabs must be replaced or temporarily patched to prevent it from being a safety hazard. Covered Where structures were covered by either road resurfacing, structures: illegal rubble dumping or paved over in private driveways, the location of the structures were determined using metal detectors and CCTV information. Where practical, the structures were exposed and covers extended to daylight level. Stormwater The layout was not always per current design standards. In network some instances the distance between structures was too layout: great to enable CCTV inspection or cleaning of the pipes using jetting equipment. The equipment that was employed in this study could be operated up to a maximum of 140 metres between access points.

Figure 5: Fields for stormwater element identifier The various options for the structure type are listed below Table 1: Structure types STRUCTURES:

DESCRIPTION:

CP MH

Catch pit - all stormwater structures with a side inlet Manhole -stormwater structures that join stormwater pipes

OP

Outlet point - Any structure (except headwall) or position where stormwater exits or enters the network

GR

Grid - grid inlet

HW

Headwall - headwall structures

ND

Nodes - point where pipes intersect without surveyed stormwater structure/no surveyed stormwater structure at beginning or end of pipe Private connections

PC

The topographical survey was used to determine the position and elevation of all the stormwater structures, including all the connecting conduits to the structures. These details were initially captured in a Microsoft Excel database and then later converted to a full Geographical Information System (GIS) database.

7.3 Information recorded It is important to capture all the information to maximise modelling and database accuracy.

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A number of options exist for obtaining improved survey data: Topographical survey: Airborne laser scanning:

Satellite images:

It is a very accurate, but a time consuming and costly exercise that is therefore not feasible. Also known as LiDAR (light detection and ranging), this is an optical remote sensing technology that measures properties of scattered light to find range and/or other information of a distant target. The prevailing method to determine distance to an object or surface is to use laser pulses. Like the similar radar technology, which uses radio waves, the range to an object is determined by measuring the time delay between transmission of a pulse and detection of the reflected signal. Stereo modelling is capable with today’s satellite images from Worldview 2 and GEOEYE 1, with an accuracy of less than 0.5 meters.

8.2 Recurrence interval for stormwater systems The George Stormwater System is made up of minor, major and secondary infrastructure. In addition, the areas served by the various networks exhibit varying vulnerability to the consequences of flooding. By way of example, parks, residential areas and commercial areas could all be drained by minor infrastructure. The consequences of flooding in residential areas would generally be greater (typically in terms of damage to property) than in parks and greened areas. Similarly, the consequences could be more severe than flooding in commercial areas. The recurrence intervals must take into account this variable. Recurrence intervals selected for the stormwater models were based on the parameters provided in the “Guidelines for Human Settlement Development” (or “Red Book”), as published by CSIR Building and Construction Technology.

Figure 6: Typical topographical survey problems It is recommended for future investigations that the following provisions be made to prevent similar delays and problems: • Include cleaning of manholes as part of the inspection and survey process. Alternatively, the cleaning process should be undertaken prior to the survey exercise. • Include a service for locating and opening manholes. Ideally this service must be under the control and/or management of the parties responsible for the investigation. Service providers must work in advance of inspection and survey teams to locate and open structures. The teams must be equipped with appropriate tools and mechanical means to lift cover slabs and open manholes and must be available to assist at short notice when structures either cannot be located or are located and cannot be opened. It will be beneficial to have a day work rate for opening of these structures. • Funding should also be available to replace, or temporarily patch, the aged cover slabs that are damaged during the survey exercise or are already broken. • Include a provisional sum for the construction of manholes along the lengths of pipes that are too great. The construction itself can be done using the municipal yard tenders or a nominated sub-contractor.

The following recurrence intervals have been used. SWMM stormwater model: 1:5, 1:10 and 1:50 years. Major canals, channels, rivers and streams: 1:50 and 1:100 years.

8.3 Catchment parameters The data required for each sub-catchment by the SWMM software included surface area, catchment width, impervious areas as a percentage of total area, slope of the watercourse (as a percentage), rain gauge and catchment outlet. Catchment area:

Catchment width:

8 STORMWATER SYSTEM ANALYSES (I.E. MODELLING) Hydrological modelling is the deterministic simulation of the stormwater run-off events and the analysis of the capacity of the stormwater system. The calculations are based on input hydrological data, and the assumptions and correctness of the input data is essential for accuracy of the final results.

Impervious areas: Watercourse slope: Flowpath:

8.1 Lidar survey/Contours The accuracy with which sub-catchments can be determined is an important factor in compiling a high quality stormwater model. The accuracy of the catchment areas is, however, at least partially dependent on the quality of the topographical survey. In addition to assisting in determining catchment areas, a detailed, accurate survey can also be used to determine such factors as temporal storage, thus further influencing the accuracy and dependability of the model.

Junction (structure) data:

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Catchment areas (sub-catchments) were grouped around areas of 4 to 20 surface catch-pits and generally have a surface area of less than 0.1 km² (10 ha). These catchments are therefore generally defined around minor branches of the stormwater network and a single discharge for the entire catchment is thus calculated for each such minor branch within a catchment The catchment areas were determined (i.e. “traced”) manually and captured in the GIS software, from where the surface area (in hectares - ha) was calculated. The width was calculated by dividing the catchment area by the overland flow path length which was manually measured using the GIS software. Impervious areas were estimated from the land-use data and from aerial photography. Watercourse slope was calculated using the 10-85% method over the identified flowpath. Flowpaths were determined and entered graphically in the GIS software. The flowpath was selected as the logical path that a drop of rain would follow to a catch-pit (or catchment inlet) closest to the estimated centre of the catchment. Only where such structures were limited to one or two per catchment, would the flowpath to either the most upstream or most downstream catchment inlet be selected. Data required for each junction included name (identifier), junction type (e.g. inlet or outfall); invert level (elevation) and depth.

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Conduit data:

Roughness:

Network links are either pipes, closed culverts (e.g. rectangular portal culverts) or canals (open culverts). Link data was determined from the network plans and survey data. The data required per network link was link name, from and to junctions, link type (e.g. pipe, canal), length, slope and roughness Roughness was estimated per pipe material or channel bed condition for both open channels and conduits.

8.4 Catchment properties –land use Stormwater management planning requires an accurate assessment of current land use/land cover. Remote sensing is a new approach for rapidly documenting watershed characteristics for stormwater management planning and, when combined with GIS, can save labour and reduce time of delivery thereof. The recent availability of commercial high spatial resolution satellite imagery, offers improved land cover characterisation, digital processing capability and data that is compatible with GIS technologies. The following satellite remote sensed data is suited in terms of spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions to successfully and accurately generate (classify) the land use/cover data required for effective stormwater management: • Hyperspectral image (<1m spatial resolution) • Worldview2 image 3 • GeoEye1 image 4 • Ikonos or Quickbird image 5 In all the above mentioned cases, high resolution LiDAR data will improve the classification of land use/cover considerably.

Figure 7: George PCSWMM model

8.7 Pipe flow and overland flow It should be decided whether to include overland flow modelling in addition to the below ground conduit network. Should it be excluded, assumptions must be made to allow for surcharged network conditions. A very accurate surface survey is essential to allow overland flow routing and is not always feasible. 8.8 River modelling – flood lines Flood line determination and river modelling was excluded from the investigation as the elevation of rivers in the George stormwater network are relatively lower than the network and have limited back water impact. River levels are more crucial along the larger rivers and in flatter sections of the country and should be dealt with accordingly.

8.5 Hydraulic modelling engine/calculation The capabilities of the modelling software should be carefully reviewed before modelling large networks. It is important to find a balance between the simplicity of the model for easier modelling and adequate details for accuracy. It is recommended that the modelling software to be used should be specified to allow the municipality easier model integration and further development of the model.

8.9 Linkage to database The model results should not be a stand-alone data set and should be linked back to the stormwater database for better reporting and ease of reference.

8.6 Stormwater model limitations The stormwater model was compiled and analysed in PC SWMM 2011. This analysis was intended to provide a “management” model, and was therefore not a design review of the existing stormwater network. In order to achieve such a detailed “review”, the topographical detail, subcatchment delineation and model compilation would have to be significantly more extensive. What the model and the subsequent results, together with the condition assessments do however permit, is an assessment of capacities (and therefore capacity limitations) and identification of problem areas in the networks. As a management tool, this provides the capability to make informed decisions as to where future development can and cannot be accommodated, as well as where maintenance of existing and construction of new infrastructure should be prioritised. The model can be developed further to predict where interventions will be required during future flooding when this occurs. The model also recommends first order conduit sizes for surcharged sections.

9 REPORTING Apart from the electronic stormwater database, it is essential to also develop plan books for daily operations and an overall report for more detailed planning. 9.1 Plan book format The data for the stormwater networks was presented as a series of plans and structured data in a flat-file database format.

Figure 8 Plan book Legend

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Management/ P&G

per month

Topographical survey CCTV Modelling Plan book

per structure per conduit length per conduit length per page

Extras: Lifting of heavy structures Locating of covered structures Cleaning of blocked structures Jetting of conduits

Figure 9 Plan book Snapshot

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per structure cover size per day per structure and volume of material per size and length and size of conduit

11 THE WAY FORWARD FOR GEORGE MUNICIPALITY The foreseen future items will be to: • Survey the small remaining sections of stormwater network and capture it on the existing database. Ensure that any changes to the existing network is properly captured and updated. Ensure that updating of the as-built plan book is done. • Include provision of CCTV camera data to keep record of jetting operations. These visuals can also be used for conditions assessments and can be included in the existing CCTV database. • Incorporate the development condition that record drawings are to be surveyed by professional surveyors prior to final building/development approvals. Any future developments will then also be captured and added to the network database. • LiDAR survey the George catchment area to enable accurate catchment delineation. • Use the stormwater model to determine the effect of future developments on the existing network and develop feasible options. Full impact of new development on the entire network can therefore be determined. • Use the current model data set and the future data sets for further planning and modelling to determine the external effects of climate change, urban densification and various others. The outcome of these studies can be used to challenge design standards and urban planning. • Incorporate a clause in the Stormwater bylaw that developments may only be allowed to discharge equivalent flows into the municipal network of that prior to the development. The development must do onsite retention to reduce run-off peak flows. With the inception phase of this project recently completed, the journey for George Municipality has only just started and continuous improvement and extension of the master plan will be implemented as and when funding is secured. The George Municipality is already experiencing the benefits of this initiative with positive feedback from their operations and maintenance staff, and more accurate resolutions of customer queries and complaints, as well as improved knowledge of the causes of flooding and its related issues and problems.

The plans indicate structure position, structure name and pipe name, while the flat-file database links the surveyed (or observed) properties for each network element to the network plans. It is important that the plan book is user friendly, therefore an A3 size book with two scales is recommended, namely 1:5000 for overall network layouts and 1:2500 for detail plans. The sample of a section of the network and features indicated on the George Stormwater plan book is indicated on the figures to the right:

9.2 Report format In addition to the technical overview of the stormwater master plan, the report should include CCTV and modelling results in tabular and graphical (maps) format. These data set results should also be filtered to allow prioritisation and planning of work. Two important filter permutations of the results that would warrant priority attention are: • The pipes that were identified during the condition assessment as potential priority replacement, with severe structural defects and conduits that are surcharged; and • The conduits where flow parameters coincide (e.g. high flow volumes coincides with high velocity and over-capacity) as this may be an indication of potentially high risk conduits. 9.3 Database viewer The software package that will be used to view, edit and manage the entire database should be specified to prevent end user interface incompatibility problems. Specialised software packages like ArcGIS or IMQS must be procured, or alternatively free GIS viewers can be sourced if not already available. 10 SERVICE PROVIDER PROCUREMENT The limitations of public procurement regulations are well known and special effort should be made to ensure that a capable service provider is engaged to deliver a good quality product.

10.1 Prequalification It is recommended that prequalification criteria are developed to suit the project needs. Attention should be given to previous experience, track record, infrastructure levels and the work plan. 10.2 Project scope The service provider can only price according to the scope of works specified and it should therefore be well defined. The scope should be broken down into the different aspects of the project as explained above to facilitate clear scope and budget control. The recommended payment items and units are listed below:

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IMESA’S VISION & PROGRESS TOWARDS A NATIONAL SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE ASSET MANAGEMENT (SIAM) PROGRAM

The National Programme Model Outline/Vision We have based the NAMSza model on the following criteria: • The National Municipal SIAM model should be nationally driven and coordinated through a collaborative approach with input coming from the various key stakeholders involved in SIAM activities. Not just engineers, but all professions and interested parties. The model itself would: • Involve a Standard Basic Quality Framework model. An ISO based quality framework for LCAM is being developed ISO 55000 but in the meantime we will continue to use Gap – Ex/TEAMQF • Reflect a common framework that covers life cycle processes for sustainable generic life cycle AM. These materials are now readily available globally. • Incorporate common ‘best appropriate practice’ models developed to cover all individual industries and specific asset types e.g. Industry or infrastructure asset type models for roads, rail, water, sewer, electricity, drains, buildings and all others etc. These should describe the 3 step by step levels in maturity that are considered best appropriate practice for those industry or asset types. • Involve all stakeholders via national committees (NAMS) ensuring the most effective national collaboration and uniformity. • The Learning Experience Modules (shown green) – the eLearning modules that take users through a structured training programme in a step by step process to suit their assets and organisation.

A paper by Roger Byrne and Leon Naudé The approach being taken and progress made by IMESA in this area following the publishing of the original concept in 2009. Abstract In this paper and presentation Roger & Leon will outline the steps IMESA have taken (and plan to take) to assist our members and their municipalities to better manage our vital infrastructure asset portfolio’s and the services they deliver. The talk will cover the following subjects: • The National Municipal Programme • AMPLE web based knowledge support system • AMPLE Training Programs • IIMS - Helping members get “clean valuation audits” • Programs being implemented across the Nation • NAMSza National Asset Management Strategy - South Africa If you got a qualified audit, or are thinking of starting your IAM program, or you have started and would like to see how it relates to IMESA’s National Programme approach, this paper will give you some great ideas.

The IMESA - AMPLE Tool Suite To meet these National needs IMESA has been granted a perpetual free licence to GHD’s AMPLE tool suite. The Asset Management Programme Learning Environment represents over 20 years of experience in the introduction of asset management into organisations that have not been involved in this area. GHD have placed no restrictions on IMESA who plan to amend and develop the tool to suit the specific needs of their members and the unique issues involved in the provision of municipal infrastructure services in Southern Africa. IMESA acknowledges the contribution of GHD in this regards and has made them a Gold Sponsor of the NAMSza group. The IMESA AMPLE tool suite consists of the following modules: • A Quality Framework which is currently based on GHD’s TEAMQF but will be adapted to the new ISO 55000 once it is finalised and adopted. • Best practice processes for managing the life cycle of any physical asset. • Best practice approaches to completing these life cycle processes for individual asset types e.g. monitoring the condition of a concrete structure versus and electrical transformer. • A Gap Analysis Tool that enables an organisation to benchmark themselves against other similar organisations and identify the greatest weaknesses they have in their AM performance using sound Gap Analysis techniques. This is done by using GHD’s Gap – Ex 1 web-based tool used free of charge by over 4 000 organisations worldwide. • The benefit cost modules that enable the organisation to understand and quantify the business case for closing the gap and determining what level of AM maturity is desirable and economically justified. • The Asset Management Improvement Programme (AMIP) associated with closing the gap, listing all the work that is required over the timeline adopted, and: • An Effective Implementation Plan or Programme that shows organisations the best way to go about improving to derive the required improvement at the lowest cost using the step by step process applied across all assets (old to new and those needed in the future) in a “whole of city” approach. • The whole package is then integrated into a ‘Training Program’ that takes municipal staff from awareness through from competence/basic level 1 to excellence/advanced level 3 as required. This web based training tool has won awards globally including the US EPA who has also granted rights to IMESA for their programs.

Preamble The cost effective and sustainable management of nation’s large infrastructure portfolios is critical to its citizen’s standard and cost of living. Implementing an appropriate standard of asset management cost effectively and successful is not easy. Many programs have been started and dropped due to the high cost, however undertaking this nationally can be done very cost effectively, quickly with even greater benefits. More than thirty years ago, Australia & New Zealand embarked on a journey that was intended to drive improvements in the way they managed infrastructure asset management. Since then other countries have joined the movement. However most have done it on their own, in isolation. Many have failed to raise sufficient interest, and in some cases even failed to start. Many have progressed only to have it retreat or be abandoned after significant effort has been wasted. The Vision for a National Municipal Programme The idea of a National Programme Model for infrastructure management seems like a daunting suggestion, but one, which, if correctly applied, could have a dramatic impact on the well being of municipal infrastructure services in South Africa. We can manage our extensive and valuable community infrastructure assets far better than we do currently, and there is no valid excuse not to do so, especially as we can have a great impact on the standard of living and its related cost of living for millions of people in this developing nation. By getting more out of our existing infrastructure at a lower cost we can also have a significant impact on addressing the backlogs and imbalances that exist in services to disadvantaged communities across the nation. We can also have a positive impact on our planet by looking at our infrastructure management with a triple bottom line approach, which assesses the impact of our decisions in economic, environmental (including climate change) and social terms. It seems illogical that we can have an audit process for our municipal finances, but no process exists for the quality with which we manage our vast community wealth that is tied up in infrastructure assets. We estimate that the total replacement value of municipal infrastructure in South Africa will exceed R2 500 billion. This needs to be well managed.

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The arrangement of these modules is shown in the following figure:

The Gap Tools Basic Intermediate Advanced W BP BAP

Worlds Best Practice Life Cycle AM Processes (Generic) Asset Related Practice Guidelines

CQR

Business Case Benefit / Costs

Case Studies Proofs of AAM Benefits

AMIP AM Improvement Plan

Pilot Project Training for Skills Transfer

EIP Effective Implementation Plan

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The 10 box model includes the 10 training modules (shown in the figure below) which can then be tailored for the 3 maturity levels. It answers the critical questions all managers, owners, governments, customers and elected officials need to be able to answer. At present IMESA are only teaching the Level 1 programs but Level 2 and 3 will be added as organisations find the need to reach these levels of maturity.

A M P L E T o o l – T h e M o d u le s Total Enterprise Asset Management Quality Framework TEAMQF

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Specialist Guides & Tools

AMPLE Product is based on allowing agencies to achieve ISO quality accreditation for Life Cycle Infrastructure Asset Management C o p y rig ht © G H D L L C 2 0 0 5

Figure 1 IMESA’s AMPLE Tool Modules

The Key Success Factors The key success factors for implementing a successful National AM Programme for municipalities are: • The shared understanding that SIAM is critical to our national, regional and local economies, and our standards and cost of living. • This understanding is backed up by the commitment of all levels of government and the private sector (where applicable) to ensuring that these valuable community and national assets are managed most effectively and efficiently. • That all key stakeholders are involved in the co-ordinating body that will and drive this national program. E.g. The National Asset Management Steering Committee of South Africa (NAMS.za) • An appropriate quality framework by which these assets should be managed, that is based on a ‘continuous improvement philosophy’ that is tailored to the individual organisation and its situation but is capable of ensuring it meets national gaols and objectives, with uniformity both horizontal across all services, and vertically from individual assets up to whole of nation pictures. • That the SIAM quality framework is capable of being implemented in a step by step approach in such a way as to be suitable for application to assets from simple/basic townships up to metro cities such as Johannesburg, Pretoria, Cape Town and Durban. The proposed model outlined previously has the capability of catering for this step-by-step approach. See the following figure for more information o Level 1 – Basic SIAM o Level 2 – Intermediate SIAM o Level 3 – Advanced SIAM • A competency model that is based on the quality framework maturity levels (above) for all the life cycle asset management activities. This competency model would be fully linked to a set of certifiable training programs that can be delivered by the normal educational authorities or via eLearning techniques. • That we balance this drive for the professional quality of management with an appropriate regulatory framework that helps ensure that all assets are managed to a suitable standard. We need an audit framework and suitable regulatory legislation that ensures this minimal standard is achieved by all municipalities.

Figure 2

IMESA’s 10 Box Training Modules

The NAMSza Stakeholders The key stakeholders in this municipal SIAM area are seen as: • Government/Policy Makers – All levels • Regulators/Auditors – Multiple • Professional Associations - Multiple • Industry Sectors – Associations – Multiple (IMESA/IMFO etc) • Government Departments – LGSeta etc • Educators – Multiple Levels • Users, ratepayers and communities • Council staffs and consultants • Contractors and Suppliers The National AM Steering Committee (NAMS.za) The NAMSza committee will be responsible to the SA Government through the Department of Strategic Planning for the development and implementation of the necessary programs, tools, guides and other activities to ensure the successful implementation of AM in South African Municipalities. It is proposed that the Committee will ultimately include representatives of all the key stakeholders (See above) • Department of Strategic Planning • Accounting General/Treasury • Auditor General & Governance • Department of Finance • Commerce and Innovation • The SIAM Division of IMESA • South African Asset Management Association (SAAMA ) • Engineering Institutions of SA or Engineering Council of SA (Rep) • Institute of Financial Officers – IMFO and Others • South African Local Government Association (SALGA) • Department of Education & Training • Industry Associations/Asset Type Representatives – for Best Practice Models (3 Levels) It is important to recognise the importance of the Municipal sector to the South African Nation. With the latest restructuring we now have over 60% of the nation’s community infrastructure (community wealth) being managed by this sector through the six Metro Cities and nine Emerging Metro’s alone. Note: As a leader on the African continent South Africa could help the roll out of this approach across other nations in Africa should the

The Training Programs Available: The 10 Box Model Based on this new approach the IMESA training programs have been structured on the 10 box model which was developed by GHD in the USA with significant inputs from major universities and learning research groups.

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opportunity arise? The approach being put forward is easily transferable to other national groups. This could represent a substantial economic income from the export of this expertise, and the associated workload.

• Undertaken a further set of pilot studies for the National Government looking at 4 municipal councils in the Free State with the intention of expanding this to all 23 organisations in the province. • Been a key player in the Global NAMS group representing early starter type nations.

The regulatory framework A fully legislated regulatory framework is an integral part of the key success for any National programs. A blend of best practice management (in search of excellence) promoted by the industry and the professions involved, underpinned by good regulatory legislation is essential to achieving success in this area. The most successful results in this area have been achieved in New Zealand (and now in Australia and elsewhere) where legislation requires the following key elements to be produced by each municipality, and independently audited: • Asset Management Plans showing the levels of service and future expenditure models • Future funding plans following a structured stakeholder consultation programme

GET INVOLVED – SUPPORT THE PROCESS – JOIN THE IMESA SIAM SUB COMMITTEE – START THINKING ABOUT HOW YOUR COUNCIL COULD BENEFIT FROM THIS APPROACH – HAVE A LOOK AT THE WEB SITE

Authors’ biographies Roger Byrne Roger Byrne has recently retired following a 40-year career in asset management in which he rose to be the International Manager of GHD’s Global Asset Management Group. Over these years he has worked for many infrastructure rich businesses in Australia, New Zealand, SE Asia, USA, Canada, UK, Ireland and more recently Africa. He was a principal author of the original Australian Manual (1993) and the Advanced AM Manual (New Zealand 1997) and the International Infrastructure Management Manual (IIMM) 2000 & 2006. He lead the development of the first publicly available quality framework Gap – Ex, and the AMPLE/SIMPLE web based tools that are assisting infrastructure asset owners & managers around the world to implement sustainable, cost effective improvement strategies most successfully. He is now in semi retirement working privately on interesting & challenging opportunities. He has been advising/mentor & auditor to eThekwini and has been a volunteer adviser to IMESA on their approach to this National Programme for the last 3 years.

The benefits of a national approach Several countries have adopted a national approach to SIAM. Not all have been successful. However we have learnt from these events and have developed the ‘key success factors’ to ensure that the problems encountered are overcome. These factors are discussed in detail in the previous papers listed in the introduction. South Africa has the chance to learn from these lessons and undertake a programme that will: • Be more successful, • Be more cost effectively implemented • Achieve key results and benefits • Complete it more quickly ( 4 years instead of 10) • Be more sustainable over time • Do it smarter using web based technology • Does it as a Whole of Nation approach with uniform methodology to ensure the effective identification of issues and comparisons of data/ outputs across the sector .

Contacts E-mail: rogerbyrne2@bigpond.com; cell +61 419 509 873; Skype: rogerbyrne45

Leon Naudé Leon Naudé is a registered Professional Engineer and is with Royal HaskoningDHV, an international Consulting Engineering Firm. He has extensive experience in planning, design and project managing for all water, sewer, water care works, bulk sewer and solid waste services as well as strategic and long term planning for the provision of these services. He has worked in and with Municipalities and Water Services providers. Leon is responsible for Project Managing of Water and Waste Water Treatment Projects, which includes, Detail Designs, Tender documentation, Client and National Department’s coordination, Quality Controls, and Water Use Licence Applications. He has been involved with various Water Services Development Plans, Master Plans & Water Conservation and Demand Management for various Municipalities and Clients. Leon is a member of IMESA since 1990 and is currently on the Council and EXCO, where he is the Director for Asset Management.

What Has IMESA Achieved To Date? In the time since this programme was first debated in 2009, IMESA have: • Formed a sub committee devoted to asset management under IMESA director Leon Naude. Leon has a group of AM advisers working with him on these objectives • Made many visits and representations to all key Government Stakeholders and they have made significant inroads into : – National Treasury – Auditor General – Accountant General – LGSETA & Educational bodies – Strategic Planning – Some industry groups – professional associations – Funding Agencies – Municipal Finance Officers • Worked with eThekwini Municipality (EM) where they have undertaken a full adoption of this model to act as a working ‘pilot scheme’ for the proposed model. They have funded significant work and have made this freely available to all municipalities via the IMESA web site and services. EM are now three years into this programme and all materials are available as references to IMESA members • Developed a suite of manuals to assist other municipalities to follow this pilot programme • Developed the web based asset register and valuation tool suite known as ‘ IIMS” for use by all municipalities in South Africa at no charge. See advertisement in this magazine

Contact E-mail : leon.naude@RHDHV.com; office: 011 622 3135; cell: 079 893 5336

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BRT INFRASTRUCTURE, COMING TO A ROAD NEAR YOU!

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The fare collection occurs on entry to the BRT stations, using gates or turnstiles and passengers wait within the station building for the bus to arrive. Rapid boarding and alighting of passengers occur from the station to the bus (and vice versa), using multiple bus/station doors, thereby reducing dwell times of buses within stations. These dedicated bus lanes, rapid passenger boarding and alighting, along with off board fare collection, significantly reduce bus cycle times on their routes. This in turn reduces fleet sizes (plus operational and fleet costs), resulting in the overall provision of a reliable, efficient and cost effective public transport system.

ANDRE FRIESLAAR HHO Africa Infrastructure Engineers, PO Box 6503, Roggebaai, 8012 andre@hho.co.za INTRODUCTION Municipal engineers have to deal with a new reality – the insertion of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) infrastructure into city streets. The challenge is to build infrastructure that meets the operational needs of the public transport operator, at a reasonable cost and with materials that will require minimal on-going maintenance. National government policy dictates that cities need to pursue the provision of Integrated Rapid Transit Networks. A key element of this intervention is the use of BRT systems, which require specialised infrastructure. BRT infrastructure comprises busways, stations, terminals, bus stops and bus depots. Currently, the overall infrastructure cost for BRT projects is approximately R60 million per dedicated busway km, so wise investment in this infrastructure is critically important. The paper introduces BRT and explains why it is the mode of choice for implementation. Thereafter, the various BRT infrastructure elements are discussed. There is also a brief description of the MyCiti Interim Service that was launched in May 2011. The presentation concludes after key lessons learnt from the Phase 1A implementation of the MyCiti infrastructure are highlighted.

1.2 Why is BRT being implemented? South African cities are increasingly becoming congested by the high usage of private cars. Current conventional road based public transport systems (buses and taxis) are stuck in traffic and hence offer little incentive for modal switching. Lack of capital and operational investment in the rail system, has left these networks on the brink of collapse. In short, both public and private transport systems are under threat, which in turn impact on the efficiency and productivity of our cities. Government policy advocates the promotion of public transport modes, the management of travel demand and the restriction of the growth of private car usage. Increasingly, there is a lack of political support for private car roadway expansion. The focus of investment lies in the promotion of cost effective public transport systems, particularly in the major metropolitan areas. BRT is increasingly recognised as amongst the most effective solutions to providing high quality public transport on a cost effective basis to urban areas, both in the developed and developing world (Ref 1). The National Department of Transport’s Vision of the Public Transport Action Plan is summarised in Figure 2. Three phases have been proposed, part of each being the utilisation of BRT as part of Integrated Rapid Transport Networks (IPTN’s). The strategy does not focus on BRT alone, but BRT as part of a suit of sustainable transport solutions to urban mobility. Rail and conventional bus systems for example still play a role where it is appropriate and cost effective.

WHAT IS BRT AND WHY IS IT BEING IMPLEMENTED? 1.1 What is BRT? Bus Rapid Transit is defined as a high quality bus-based transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost effective urban mobility through the provision of segregated right of way infrastructure, rapid and frequent operations, and excellence in marketing and customer service (Ref 1).

Figure 1: Graph indicating System Performance vs. Investment Cost (Ref 2)

Figure 2: National Government’s Vision of the Public Transport Action Plan (Ref 3)

Metro and regional rail systems operate on a Right of Way (ROW) category (a fully segregated right of way). BRT systems (ROW B) typically operate within busy arterial streets, sharing the road at grade intersections with general traffic (Refer to Figure 1: Ref 2). The interaction, and hence interference of general traffic and BRT traffic at intersections, results in BRT systems being semi-rapid. Conventional bus systems, where buses travel in mixed traffic are termed ROW C. BRT systems are characterised by their location within the hub of urban arterials. They have dedicated infrastructure for buses to run on, and passengers board and alight these buses at stations within the roadway median.

The roll out of BRT is currently being pursued in the 12 major cities in South Africa. The majority of funding for the development of the BRT systems is coming from the National Treasury; with allocations to each city being made on the basis of readiness to spend, and performance in terms of the spend of previous year’s allocations.

DESCRIPTION OF BRT INFRASTRUCTURE ELEMENTS 1.3 Busways and stations Typically BRT systems can be broken down into two operating

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environments for their buses, namely trunk and feeder environments (Refer to Figure 3). Trunk routes are where dedicated right of way is allocated to BRT vehicles, the buses travel between terminals and use either stations or intermediate transfer stations along the trunk route. Feeder routes connect the outlying areas to a terminal, and feeder buses tend to operate in mixed traffic, with some bus priority where appropriate.

Trunk routes typically have dedicated lanes for buses in each direction, with additional passing lanes being provided on express service routes to allow skip stop services. Stations are provided at an approximate spacing of 800 metres and are custom-built to the system requirements in terms of number and height of platforms (Refer to Figure 5). Low capacity systems require single platform stations, whereas higher capacity systems may require multiple platforms to serve high passenger flows and multiple destinations. The stations are equipped with a kiosk, fare system gates/turnstiles and a weatherproof platform. The platforms are either 280 mm or 940 mm in height above the roadway, depending on whether the system is utilising high or low floor buses. The platforms are equipped with electronic sliding doors activated by a docked bus, to allow passenger boarding and alighting.

1.4 Feeder routes and feeder stops Feeder buses generally operate in mixed traffic lanes and have kerbside stops, where passengers board and dismount the system.The feeder stops can either be embayed or in line, i.e. the bus stops in the traffic lane to allow boarding and alighting. Each stop is provided with a surface platform at a height of 200 mm above the roadway (Refer to Figure 6). The stops may be equipped with a shelter, but if not, a system totem or pole will be provided to demarcate the stop and to comply with regulations that are governing bus stops on urban roads. In some cases it may be necessary to provide bus priority measures on feeder routes, as a delay on a feeder route can result in a missed transfer at the trunk terminal and customer dissatisfaction and inconvenience.

Figure 3: Description of a Trunk Feeder BRT System (Ref 1)

Figure 4: Median located BRT trunk station

Figure 6: A feeder stop with platform, totem and shelter

Figure 5: Interior of a BRT trunk station

1.5 Universal access and NMT provision The National Department of Transport has set very high standards with regards to the provision of universally accessible infrastructure. Wheelchair access to all platforms has to be provided using ramps (with a maximum gradient of 1:15) at stations and dropped kerb lines at intersections (Refer to Figure 7). For people with visual impairments, tactile blocks need to be provided at intersections, along the median islands leading up to the station entrances and within stations, to guide people to bus door positions. Tactile signage has been developed for wayfinding infrastructure, to assist the visually impaired in finding the station

Median located trunk route infrastructure is favoured over kerbside infrastructure for a number of reasons (Refer to Figure 4). The major ones are: â&#x20AC;˘ To maximise customer convenience in terms of ease of transfer and comfort during transfer, particularly with the closed fare system environments required in the South African context (Fare evasion can be kept to a minimum with closed fare systems); and â&#x20AC;˘ It is easier to segregate and enforce median infrastructures for BRT vehicle use only, whereas kerbside environments are difficult to fully segregate and enforce.

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buildings. For those with hearing disabilities, induction loops have been placed in specific areas of the station to assist with auditory messaging. All passengers need to access the roadway median to enter stations. The safe crossing of the roadway is achieved by either placing the station at a signalised intersection, or placing it midblock between two adjacent signalised intersections (or roundabouts), where pedestrian signals can be provided. Where roadway volumes and speeds are high and pedestrian/vehicle conflicts are severe, a pedestrian overpass may need to be considered to separate the pedestrian and vehicle movements. BRT customers who live within 500 metres of a BRT station should be encouraged to walk or cycle to the station. The upgrading of the NMT infrastructure and street-lighting along the desired pedestrian and cycling lines to each station will greatly add to the convenience of the system. Bicycle parking should be provided at BRT stations, but bikes can also be taken on board for use at the other end of the public transport journey.. BRT routes are often flanked by a parallel bikeway and sidewalk to allow NMT movement along the corridor (Refer to Figure 8).

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Figure 9: Layout and overall dimensions of a small (100 vehicle) depot site. Image courtesy of BGL Architects The layout of a depot follows a clockwise rotation sequence for South African conditions. On entering the depot, a bus needs to pass via the security gates, then the refuelling area, then the chassis wash areas, then the body wash area, and finally it must be parked in the parking area. The maintenance building contains a body spray-painting area, numerous pit lanes, and flat floor areas for maintenance. Brake testing equipment should be installed on one of the pit lanes. The depot will become the home of the vehicle operating Company contracted to run the various routes served by the depot. The administration building will be used as the headquarters, and the depot will be used to service, store and manage the fleet.

LESSONS LEARNT FROM MYCITI INFRASTRUCTURE IMPLEMENTATION During May 2011, the City of Cape Town introduced the MyCiti Interim Service between the Cape Town CBD and the Table View suburb. The service includes a trunk service between Table View station and Cape Townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Civic Centre station, with feeder services at either end of the trunk route. The Cape Town end of the route is served by a feeder route between the V&A Waterfront and Gardens Centre, stopping midway along the route at Civic Centre station. From the Table View terminal station, three feeder routes operate and serve Blouberg Sands, Parklands, Table View and Bloubergstrand (Refer to Figure 10).

Figure 7: Ramp to station entrance with tactile line

Figure 8: Parallel bikeway/walkway to the BRT route

1.6 Depots Depot areas serve an array of purposes for buses including parking areas, re-fuelling facilities, vehicle washing and cleaning, maintenance and repair areas, administrative offices for operators, and employee facilities. A typical layout and overall dimensions of a small (100 vehicles) depot site, is indicated in Figure 9.

Figure 10: System map for Interim Service for MyCiti

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The trunk route incorporates 16 km of dedicated busways, made up of 5 km of separate alignment busways and 11 km of median buslanes, inserted into an urban dual carriageway arterial. The trunk route has 13 trunk stations, two of which are the terminal stations, namely Civic Centre and Table View. The trunk route passes through 15 signalised intersections which have been adapted to accommodate bus phases. The four feeder routes operate predominantly in mixed traffic. The current bus stops are indicated with temporary poles with colourcoded route flags, which are located at the kerbside or in an existing bus embayment.

the Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide, which provides guidance on most aspects of BRT implementation (Refer to Figure 11).

1.7 Employ a knowledgeable and innovative design team As BRT design and implementation is new to South Africa, the design of BRT infrastructure is a learning curve for local engineers and design teams. The design team involved in the infrastructure design will need a good understanding of the BRT operations to ensure that the infrastructure meets the operational requirements. Therefore, when procuring a design team, great care should be taken to set the quality requirements of the team at high enough levels to ensure that a suitably qualified team can be chosen. Key personnel must have recent and relevant experience, and if necessary to meet the quality thresholds, this experience may have to be sourced internationally. The design team needs to be innovative, as BRT has not been implemented extensively in South Africa. In bringing this technology to South Africa, the design team has to be able to adapt and modify the overseas principles and implement designs that meet the South African standards in terms of Geometric Design Guidelines and the Road Traffic Signs Manual (SARTSM). As an example, the introduction of BRT lanes at signalised intersections required the use of the existing SARTSM, which was developed without any notion that BRT would be implemented. In BRT projects, the infrastructure costs comprise a high proportion of the overall cost of a BRT system. An experienced design team can deliver cost-effective and value engineered designs.

Figure 11: BRT Planning Guide (Ref 1) The guide provides an in-depth discussion and advice on many BRT issues and must ideally be consulted before implementing any system. This will avoid the same costly mistakes made by other cities. With all imported technologies, it is important to thoroughly interrogate all aspects of the system design, to see whether design assumptions made in foreign countries hold true in South Africa. For example, utilising costs per km for the implementation of bus lanes in South America may be very different to the equivalent costs in South Africa, due to the use of different road building methods, materials, impact on existing services, roadbed preparation, roadway colourisation, geometric design standards, etc. If possible, an international expert (or someone who has the experience of developing and running a BRT system) should be co-opted onto the City’s project team to provide first-hand experience. This will eliminate unnecessary reinventing of well-established design principles, something Cities can ill afford in their BRT roll-out programmes.

1.8 Go on a study tour of a working BRT System In order to fully grasp the BRT concept it is important to study existing operating BRT systems. It is imperative to also speak to people who have been involved in developing working BRT systems, and to ride on the actual systems. In doing so, one will gain an understanding of how the bus lanes were located in the roadway, what materials were used, how these materials are accommodating the bus loads, and which strategies work and which don’t.. When using the stations, it is essential to note the type of architecture used, materials utilised, the type of weather protection, safety features and passenger space and circulation provided. Outside the station, it is important to notice how buses dock at stations and what damage was caused to buses and stations due to inaccurate docking and docking mechanisms used. Terminal and transfer stations should be visited to understand multiple platform and staff facility requirements. It is also useful to visit a fully functional depot to understand its design requirements. There are always lessons to be learnt from existing systems. The study tour should not only be conducted to understand what BRT is all about, but also to assess what can be done better, and identify what is already functioning well.

1.10 Design with the full system in mind Due to the expansive nature of BRT networks, it is likely to be impossible for the City to build the entire system in one phase. It is important for the City to plan the entire integrated public transport network early in the BRT roll-out, as the full system requirement needs to be understood before Phase 1 is constructed. Phase 1 may typically include the city centre’s terminal station, which will have to be sized and possibly built in Phase 1 already, to ensure minimal construction disruption to Phase 1 and subsequent bus services. Bus lane pavement designs will need to be designed for the full system loading, as strengthening these lanes later for increased loads, will cause major disruption to current services, and is thus not practical.

1.9 Do not reinvent the wheel There is already a wealth of knowledge on BRT systems as a number of these systems have been designed and implemented all around the world. The Institute of Transport and Development Policy (ITDP) is a NonGovernment Organisation that has a particular interest in promoting BRT as a low cost, yet cost effective method of providing sustainable low cost mobility in urban areas. They have developed an extensive guideline,

1.11 Employ a regular design review process BRT designs incorporate a wide range of design issues, including roadway layout and geometric design, services design, NMT circulation, traffic

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1.13 Design for flexibility A BRT system could take between 15 and 25 years for a City to fully develop. Over time, it is likely that technology will change, resulting in amendments to the full system design. At a more local scale, BRT operations on a particular corridor may change over time, as land use fluctuations occur and passenger travel patterns vary from what was originally anticipated. Internationally there is a broader debate regarding the adoption of low floor buses for both trunk and feeder routes, providing the BRT operations team more flexibility with regards to route design i.e. the ability to run direct services and not be fixed to a trunk feeder system. Being aware of these opportunities and planning for these potential shifts will ensure that any BRT system is flexible to adapt to technology changes. BRT systems operate with a variety of buses varying in length from 9m to 12m and 18m articulated buses. In some high capacity systems, double articulated buses in excess of 22m are being considered. To retain flexibility, BRT designers should anticipate and plan for the implications of increased capacity on BRT routes, to ensure that they can accommodate a range of vehicle lengths and floor heights. Associated with this, is ensuring that stations are adequately sized for passenger growth and that terminals have sufficient circulation areas to accommodate peak loads of transferring passengers.

signals, universal access design, road safety, road signage and markings, urban design and landscaping. Therefore, there is a high level of design development that occurs throughout the design and implementation phases of a BRT project. To co-develop effective and efficient designs, it is imperative that the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision making officials are available on a weekly basis to review the design development, comment and when satisfied approve it for construction. It is a worthwhile practice to institute a weekly design review session at a fixed time and venue, where the consulting engineering team present design development to the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s project team, and get the necessary feedback and guidance.

1.12 Design with minimal maintenance in mind Once a BRT system is operational, it needs to operate for many years without failure, as any interruption to the busways and stations will result in major disruptions to bus services and inconvenience to customers. Cities can furthermore do without adding significant maintenance costs to their already small and underfunded maintenance budgets. A major cost component of BRT systems is the insertion of bus lanes into the roadway. These bus lanes need to be designed to accommodate loads heavier than the maximum axle loads permitted on public roads. Bus lanes can be constructed using concrete or asphalt. The initial upfront cost of using either is very similar (confirmed by Rea Vaya and MyCiti systems). Concrete or more specifically, continuously reinforced concrete, requires far less maintenance than asphalt pavements (up to 40 years life with minimal maintenance), making it the obvious choice from a life-cycle costing and maintenance cost perspective. (Refer to Figure 12). However, where roadway corridors have significant services which may become inaccessible under concrete pavements, asphalt pavements may have to be used to allow future access to these services for emergency maintenance. The caution is that any maintenance on asphalt bus lanes will disrupt BRT services and cause customer inconvenience. The recommended solution is to use concrete wherever possible and asphalt where emergency services access may be required. In general, buses are large heavy vehicles that will damage surfaces and stations over time, unless the infrastructure provided is robust and utilises strong and resilient materials. In seaside environments, materials that have anti-corrosion properties need to be chosen for station buildings to avoid on-going maintenance. Materials that have a resale market will be susceptible to theft, which can render part of the station building dysfunctional.

1.14 Design with minimal enforcement in mind The fundamental principles that underpin the success of BRT systems are the exclusivity of the bus lanes to BRT operations, and the efficiency, reliability and speed these lanes offer. The illegal use of these lanes by general traffic will undermine the BRT operations and reduce BRT to conventional public transport, which provides no travel time advantage over the private car. Patronage will decline and the overall operational viability of a BRT system will be affected. It is therefore very important to send out a strong message to the public that the bus lanes are for BRT buses only. The most effective way of communicating this is through the use of colourisation of the bus lanes. In South Africa the trend is towards using red (Refer to Figure 13). The striking contrast that a red pavement has to a black pavement clearly communicates that the red lanes are special lanes for special vehicle use. When using concrete for the bus lane, red oxide can be added to the concrete mix to achieve colourisation. For asphalt pavements, either an ultrathin red friction course or a red epoxy (with red stone chip) surfacing can be applied to achieve the red colour. The asphalt applications are expensive and may last for up to 5 years, but will need to be replaced with each maintenance cycle of the road pavement. Concrete colourisation on the other hand will be permanent for the lifetime of the concrete pavement. A further necessary measure in the South African context, is the use of delineators or kerb shaped barriers, demarcating (and separating) the bus lane from general traffic lanes. These delineators cannot be easily traversed by general traffic vehicles (other than possibly 4x4 vehicles), but can be traversed by high floor buses to escape the lane to avoid a broken down bus in the bus lane. The delineators provide an effective self-enforcing mechanism for bus lanes. Colourisation and delineators alone will not eliminate and control illegal bus lane usage though. Added measures that can be taken are the use of electronic enforcement, road signage and markings. The bus lanes should be clearly marked for bus usage and signage should be specific about which type of buses i.e. BRT buses only. Enforcement camera signs should notify the public that they are being recorded and that violators will be prosecuted.

Figure 12: Continuously reinforced concrete bus lane

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1.16 Utilise the BRT project to improve the urban environment Traditionally, roadways have been designed for the motor car, where numerous lanes are surfaced for car usage and in some cases minimum width sidewalks are installed to accommodate pedestrians. These environments tend to be harsh for the person on foot, or on a bicycle. The insertion of a busway into a roadway is an opportunity to transform the entire roadway into a linear urban park. BRT passengers arrive on foot from all directions and need to be afforded safe passage to the roadway median to access the system. These station environments need to be attractive and accommodating to heighten the passenger experience of the system and ensure passenger satisfaction, safety and recurring patronage. The urban design of intersection areas and station precincts is therefore a key consideration and worthy of detailed planning and design (Refer to Figure 15). Associated with the hard landscaping at the station precincts is the use of soft landscaping (Refer to Figure 16). Indigenous plants should be used to minimise irrigation requirements, and if possible treated effluent should be used to irrigate these plants. Parallel to the route, if there is the opportunity to create adequate sidewalks and bikeways; these should be provided, together with appropriate soft landscaping. Wayfinding signage should accompany these sidewalks and bikeways, giving passengers the necessary information about the BRT system and the pedestrian/cycle networks. An added benefit that these station precincts have for the City is their potential to attract urban regeneration and densification. The investment in a high quality urban environment will be rewarded by increased investment in the node and higher utilisation of the BRT system.

Figure 13: Bus lane colourisation and delineation

1.15 Involve and inform the public The insertion of bus lanes into existing road reserves, does not constitute a listed activity in terms of the NEMA regulations. It is however, a very useful exercise to involve the public in some form of public information process, especially as the BRT corridor roadway will be severely disrupted during the construction phase, and could result in many disgruntled residents. The City should appoint a media liaison team to ensure public awareness regarding all planned construction and potential disruption to normal traffic conditions (Refer to Figure 14). This team should react quickly to negative public comment on the system or during construction, to ensure that public perceptions of the system remain positive. The City should engage with potential objectors, to discuss and clarify the benefits of the system and to become aware of any negative impacts that the objectors have experienced. Prior to the construction of any section of the works, residents directly affected by it should be served with an information letter drop, where the works are described and the potential length of disruption of normal traffic operations are detailed. Contact numbers of key personnel with whom grievances can be lodged should be included. Residents directly affected by the installation of infrastructure i.e. a feeder stop on their verge, should be consulted directly.

CONCLUSION BRT is so much more than just providing a busway. It is the establishment of a transformed world class public transport service that is customer oriented and that runs on business principles. With this in mind, it is crucial to underpin the project with sound business, operation and transportation input, so that the outcomes maximise the benefit to the passenger and the customer, while providing a viable business model to the transport operators and associated service providers. With this in mind, it is imperative that all municipalities that embark on a BRT system gain a thorough understanding of the way these systems operate, before breaking ground on the first infrastructure project. This paper documents the most significant lessons learnt through the infrastructure design phase of the MyCiti Phase 1A Busway Project, and is by no means exhaustive. Taking note of these lessons will greatly assist Cities with their BRT roll out and ease the burden of what is a very large and challenging, yet rewarding and worthwhile undertaking. REFERENCES 1. Institute of Transport and Development Policy: Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide, 3rd Edition, June 2007. 2. Vucan Vuchic: Tranportation for Livable Cities. Centre for Urban Policy Research, New Jersey. 2000 3. National Governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Vision of the Public Transport Action Plan: Presentation given by Ibrahim Seedat at SAICE Quadrennial, September 2004.

Figure 14: Example of media campaign around MyCiti services

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GENERAL PARTICULARS (Please complete in block letters where relevant) 1. Name of Company: VAT Number

9. (i) How many offices or outlet points do you have in Southern Africa?

2. Date established: (ii) Please attach a separate schedule listing the physical addresses of all these offices and outlet points. 3. Postal address to which correspondence should be forwarded: 10. IMIESA Journal Please advise the addresses to which you would like the IMIESA Journal to be sent: E-mail address:

4. Contact person: Tel: Fax: Mobile:

5. Main line of business :

(Please attach a separate schedule if insufficient space.) 6. Relation to Municipal Engineering :

N.B. Platinum Members are entitled to a maximum of 15 free copies of IMIESA, Gold Members to a maximum of 10 free copies and Silver Members to a maximum of 5 free copies.

Signed:

Designation: 7. Membership of other institutions or societies. Give particulars and dates (Do not use abbreviations) :

Date:

B FOR OFFICIAL USE BY BRANCH / AREA REPRESENTATIVE

This application is *supported / not supported by the

Branch / Area Representative of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa. 8. Remarks: * Delete whichever is not applicable.

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Over the last 50 years, 3S MEDIA has evolved into a modern-day print and digital media company that offers businesses and professionals in various spheres the leading edge to grow and develop their vocations, disciplines and/or companies.

Think water, think WISA! The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete resource and wastewater management

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As 3S Media celebrates 52 years in business, and MD Elizabeth Shorten marks nearly 12 years at the helm, we look back at the colourful history of the company and its founder, and forward to the fast-changing future.

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ompanies are built from passions, not from business plans,” says Elizabeth Shorten, owner and managing director of 3S Media, a print and electronic publishing house that celebrates its 52nd anniversary at the end of 2012, while Elizabeth marks twelve years as managing director in March 2013. Her father John Shorten founded the company, formerly Shorten Publications, in 1960. Largely self-educated after he left school, Shorten took one of his first jobs as a library assistant, opening him to an entire world of history and English literature. So avid a reader did he become that he could quote entire verses of the Aeneid without pausing for breath, a famous after-dinner pastime in a pre-television era, recalls his daughter Elizabeth. As a young man, he also developed a serious interest in labour affairs and politics. At the age of 26, and with a campaign run on a shoestring, he contested a parliamentary seat as an Independent Labour candidate, standing

against a well-known figure in the United Party, and losing by only a small margin. His early business involvement was with a number of trade union journals. When being interviewed by the Board to work on the South African Railways magazine, he was asked if he spoke Afrikaans. Shorten, who was born in England, replied that he did not, but was perfectly prepared to speak English with an Afrikaans accent. “That was typical of my father’s sense of humour,” says Elizabeth. “And somehow, he always got away with it.” He was a strong advocate of multiracial trade unions, and was noted for his far-seeing and provocative editorials. Some of his articles were published in the Sunday Times. “People would ask my mother if the security services had come to visit us,” says Elizabeth, “but fortunately, they never did”. With his remarkable ability to obtain advertising support, Shorten then established his own publishing house. “That’s when all

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my father’s passions came together,” says Elizabeth, “for politics, history and the written word.” Shorten Publications was born. His first solo venture was The Transactions, a record of the bi-annual conference of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa (IMESA). He then approached them with the idea of publishing a monthly magazine. He called it IMIESA (the middle ‘I’ stands for ‘Ingeneer’ and the ‘E’ for ‘Engineer’, acknowledging the then bi-lingual composition of the profession). Today, IMIESA is probably the most successful monthly publication in its industry, and the recipient of a number of awards. Further magazines followed for SABI, the irrigation institute, and for SAESI, the emergency services institute, of which he was made an honorary member in recognition of the magazine’s positive contribution to the industry. When he died in 1996, firemen from the institute formed an honour guard at his funeral. “My father was one of the true founders of business-to-business publishing in this


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LEFT: Founder John Shorten in Cape Town with his wife Shelley and their four daughters (Elizabeth on left)

country,” says Elizabeth. “He became a largerthan-life character to the industries he served, and to councillors and officials throughout the country – a heavy-set Churchillian figure with a pronounced fondness for cigars and fine malt whiskey.” Equally well known – if not notorious – was his chauffeur Johannes, an ex-heavyweight boxer fiercely protective of Shorten and his family. “Once,” recalls Elizabeth, “a car stopped at a set of traffic lights well over the pedestrian lines, blocking the way. Making a deliberate statement, my father opened the back door, slid through the car and out of the far side, leaving both doors open. The furious driver was ready for a confrontation when Johannes appeared out of nowhere, rolling up his sleeves. The driver took one look at his biceps and beat a tactical retreat.” Shorten only found out years later that, while he was at appointments with clients and Johannes was supposedly waiting for him, his chauffeur was actually undertaking a bit of entrepreneurship of his own. He secretly carried around a priest’s collar, which he would don in order to solicit donations or discounts on items he wished to purchase, all the time calling down God’s blessings on his benefactors. Shorten was a natural salesman with a style all his own. “He would visit a client with his contract book,” recalls Elizabeth, “and speakk about everything except the business at hand. If the client was a United Party supporter, myy father would provoke a lively discussion on the policy shortcomings of that party, and

argue the case for the Progressives. When they had passed a good half hour in heated debate, my father would suddenly produce the book and ask the client to sign his contract. ‘But I have no more money in the budget,’ the client might object. ‘Then why have you wasted my damn time talking about politics?’ my father – who loved nothing better than a good political argument – would demand, and the client would be shamed into signing the contract anyway.” But Shorten’s first love was always the written word. When he could afford sufficient consultants to sell for him, he approached the Cape Town municipality and was officially appointed to write the history of their city and its industries. “Cape Town became our second home,” Elizabeth reminisces, “particularly Clifton Beach, where our favourite aunt and uncle had an apartment. That was in the days before it was discovered by the rest of the world, and it truly was paradise. My father became friendly with other writers who formed a colony there, like Jack Cope, Uys Kriege and Ingrid Jonker. We were always surrounded by people in literature and the arts.” The Golden Jubilee of Greater Cape Town was published in 1963, followed by the even weightier Johannesburg Saga in 1970. Both were critically acclaimed, and the latter remains the most substantial record of the City

of Gold ever produced. “Not bad for a man who never got a university degree,” says Elizabeth, who, thanks to her father’s generous support of his four daughters, has a BA (Hons) in English and French and an MA in English and the Visual Arts. By then, her mother Shelley was running many aspects of the business. “She somehow managed to do the layout, proofreading and bookkeeping. She even proofread my father’s two historical manuscripts, which must have been a massive undertaking. She was always the backbone of the family and the business.” Shelley took over Shorten Publications after her husband’s death in 1996, together with her daughter Patricia, who made a significant contribution to the company over many years, including bringing ReSource magazine into the stable. In 2001, Elizabeth, who had been living and working in London, returned to take the helm. Inheriting her father’s passion for the written word, Elizabeth started her career as a journalist. “I was used to a very different kind of publishing,” Elizabeth says. “I cut my teeth on big consumer magazines like Woman’s Own. “Princess Diana was often on our cover, and asked to visit our offices to see a ‘normal working day at a magazine’. That was never going to happen. So many flowers were delivered that the place looked like the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, and every stray piece of paper was filed away. But one staff member had forgotten to hide her grapefruit, and had perched it on top of a cupboard. When Her Royal Highness walked in, her eyes zoned straight in on the offending fruit and she asked, ‘Who’s on diet?’ We didn’t know then

Elizabeth Shorten with her husband Colin Jordaan and their children Sebastian, Sandra and Stephen (left to right)

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about her battle with bulimia. She was very sweet and charming to everyone, but she didn’t get what she wanted – a taste of normal life – which I thought was rather sad.” It was a glamorous world, but Elizabeth also braved the trenches at Fleet Street, working for The Daily Mail and The Times. “At the Mail, we knew the papers had to be in the vans and out on the street by 10pm,” Elizabeth recalls. “We would furiously write a story to deadline, and the editor of our section would often wait till about 7.30, then tear it up and tell us to start again. He knew the pressure he was putting us under because the entire paper still had to be set in hot metal, we had to sub it on stone, and the presses had to roll, all in time for the waiting vans. But our rule was that we never showed any emotion till we were out of there and in the pub. Then his ears must have burned!” Elizabeth credits this experience with teaching her, as a writer, never to get too attached to her work, but always to accept criticism and change. She wasn’t quite sure what to expect when she moved back to South Africa in 2001 to take the reins at Shorten Publications. “I became immersed in engineering, water, waste management, emergency services – all matters of life and death. It was very challenging and I knew had to get to grips with it pretty fast.” Which is what she proceeded to do. She inherited three publications, and soon set about launching and purchasing others. The stable now boasts 10 print publications, almost all of which have won or been nominated for PICA Awards for publishing excellence and some of which have also gained Mondi (now renamed PICA individual) Awards for journalism. This is an astonishing feat in a competitive market. “We are particularly strong in the engineering, infrastructure development and service delivery sectors,” says Elizabeth. “We also cover mining and transport, as well as the meetings and events industries.” More recently, the company has launched four websites with accompanying newsletters, several corporate supplements, and events for related industries. Elizabeth herself has personally won three awards for excellence in journalism. Two were Mondi Awards in the industry category, for a 2003 article she wrote for IMIESA, and a 2004 article for Transport World Africa. She also won the SAACE (now CESA) Excellence Award from the consulting engineering fraternity for Journalist of the Year. “My father wrote massive history books, and I write novels and film scripts,” Elizabeth says. “He was always in B2B publishing, and I started out in consumer. There was a time when I knew more about talking to a princess than a pipe manufacturer, so I felt a real sense of

achievement when I won awards for my articles on engineering and transport. I think my father would have been proud of me, had he lived to see what I’ve done with the company.” It was a difficult decision, in 2005, when she changed the 45-year-old family company name from Shorten Publications to 3S Media.

2001 2001 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 2008 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2012

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IMIESA won a PICA Award, in the trade awards, Urban Management Sector. IMIESA won a PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Civil Construction and Infrastructural Development Category. IMIESA won a Highly Commended PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Best Overall Engineering and Manufacturing Category. ReSource won a PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Environmental Planning, Landscaping and Horticulture Category. ReSource won a Highly Commended PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Environmental Planning and Landscaping Category. Emergency Services SA won a PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Safety and Security Category. Elizabeth Shorten won a Mondi Journalism Award, Industry Category, for an IMIESA article. Transport World Africa won a Highly Commended PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Other Specialist Titles Category. ReSource won a PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Engineering – Electrical, Waste Management and Other Category. SA Irrigation won a Highly Commended PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Farming, Agricultural Produce and Equipment, Irrigation and Horticulture Category. Elizabeth Shorten won a Mondi Journalism Award, industry category, for a Transport World Africa article. IMIESA won a PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Civil Construction, Building and Infrastructural Development Category. Elizabeth Shorten won a SAACE Excellence Award as Journalist of the Year. IMIESA won a PICA Award, in the B2B magazine awards, Civil Engineering, Building and Infrastructural Development Category. IMIESA won a Highly Commended PICA Award. Inside Mining won a PICA Award for B2B Cover of the Year. Water & Sanitation Africa received a PICA nomination for B2B Editor of the Year. Enterprise Risk received a PICA nomination for B2B Cover of the Year. Inside Mining received a PICA nomination for Best Trade & Industry Writer. IMIESA won a PICA award for Non-professional Writer of the Year Inside Mining received a PICA nomination for B2B Cover of the Year 3S Media won Publisher of the Year: Trade Publications at CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards

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“It’s a question of having the vision and courage to acknowledge what the future holds,” says Elizabeth. “The Internet had already been in popular use since the 1990s. The writing was on the wall – or rather, it was no longer just on the printed page. Publishers had to adapt to the fact that we needed to deliver

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is the official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa and focuses on national, regional and local infrastructural development and service delivery linked to public private partnerships. Published monthly

the official magazine of the Water Institute of SA and is circulated to a carefully-targeted audience of decision makers, focusing on latest developments, news and products in the water industry. Published alternate monthly

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is a well-known conference handbook, featuring venues, speakers, organisers, teambuilders and everything else that is required to organise a meeting or conference. Published annually www.saconference.co.za

features ideas to energise meetings and networking events and transform business, illustrating how meetings can be optimised to spur business growth and inspire ideas in South Africa. Published alternate monthly www.saconference.co.za

Inside Mining niin ing takes a look att the e he h heart artt ar of mining in A Africa, frica, with industry experts who add a unique voice to the publication, making it the most sought after source of information in the mining industry. Published monthly www.miningne.ws

Transport World Africa provides the corporate market and transporters with the critical information that they need to move their goods efficiently, safely and quickly, using all modes of transport. Published alternate monthly

Local Government Supplier, this annual yearbook to the IMIESA magazine, provides the ideal platform for communication between industry organisations and local and provincial government. Published annually

ReSource promotes integrated waste and resource management towards cleaner production and a greener environment. It is the official magazine of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa. Published quarterly

Titles that have won Sappi PICA awards for publishing excellence. * A5 format

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content across multiple platforms. We are no longer publishers, but media owners.” The other challenge was to find a name, in a country with 11 official languages, that was neutral and inclusive. After intense brainstorming resulted in a deadlock, Elizabeth said she was looking for something like ‘3S’ – which popped into her mind because the three children in her family are called Sandra, Stephen and Sebastian. She wasn’t looking to perpetuate a family-style business, but liked the abstract letter and number, and the almost mirror-image shape they make. “Everyone loved it immediately, and could think of nothing better,” says Elizabeth. “When something strikes an instant chord, you know you have to go with it. So 3S Media became the brand.” All the three children, after whom the company was not quite intentionally named, have worked for it at one time or another. Sandra, who has a business science and law degree, became the editor of Enterprise Risk and its website. Stephen worked in sales and marketing, and has now started his own business on the printing side. Sebastian, who has recently finished a film and television degree, assisted during holidays in the art and online departments. Elizabeth’s husband Captain Colin Jordaan, a senior captain with South African Airways and formerly GM: Flight Operations and Director of the South African Civil Aviation Authority, is a member of the Board. Nonetheless, 3S Media is no longer structured as a family business. The company employs editors who are experts in their fields, and heads of department with strong track records in publishing. Staff numbers have

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increased from about four in John Shorten’s day to about 38 full-time employees and 10 outsource consultants. It is a significant expansion. In line with the new multi-platform direction, Elizabeth launched newsletters and websites for 3S Media’s business communities, and digimags to provide online versions of the print magazine, which are available through 3S Media’s dedicated subscriptions portal. Elizabeth, who is dedicated to serving the media industry, has been a Board Member of the Magazine Publishers Association (MPASA) since 2003, and chaired the PICA Awards for three years. She was invited to be a panel speaker at the First Media Summit, before the 2010 PICA Awards, on the topic of traditional magazines redefining their businesses into a broader media landscape. While she believes that 3S Media’s print publications will always form the backbone of the company, and are unlikely to disappear any time soon, she also sees a great future for niche titles in the electronic space, without the limits of time and geography. “We already have access to well-defined communities with similar interests,” she says. “Now that we’re engaging with them through digimags, web, mobile and social media platforms, the possibilities are limitless.” But as it was for her father, the passion for Elizabeth is not the technology, or the means of delivery, but the message itself, and how it can touch the lives of those it reaches. “In the beginning was the Word,” quotes Elizabeth, “and – giving due recognition to the image – I believe that’s what it still comes down to in the end.”

1994

YEARS 52 AT A GLANCE MEDIA

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Shorten Publications was founded. IMIESA was launched. Emergency Services SA was launched. SA Irrigation was launched. John Shorten passed away. ReSource was launched. Elizabeth Shorten became Managing Director of Shorten 2003 – Transport World Africa was purchased. SA Conference, www.saconference.co.za, Meetings SA and www.hrhighway.co.za were purchased. Occupational Risk was launched. Shorten Publications was renamed 3S Media. Water & Sanitation Africa was launched. Local Government Supplier was launched. Enterprise Risk was launched. Inside Mining was launched. 3S Media became the South African representative for www.miningne.ws. www.twa.co.za launched www.infrastructurene.ws launched

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Imesa conference proceedings 2012  

Imesa conference proceedings 2012

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