IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa
infrastructure development • Maintenance • service delivery
municipal Pioneers in water INSIGHT loss reduction
André Kowalewski, Drakenstein Local Municipality
African energy’s hybrid outlook
Pumps & Valves Nanotechnology revolutionises pump durability
Pipelines & Reservoirs
New milestones for KZN’s Western Aqueduct
Knight Piésold SA’s oldest consulting firm turns 95 IN THE HOT SEAT The WRC is proud to have been presented with the 2016 Water Award by the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, for its contribution to the environment.” Dhesigen Naidoo CEO, Water Research Commission ISSN 0257 1978
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municipal insight Pioneers in water-loss reduction
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs M&D leads in the water value chain
Transportation, water and power are key national priorities – dovetailing with core socio-economic objectives – and areas where Knight Piésold Consulting leads in the infrastructure sphere. P6
volume 41 no. 9 september 2016
Reducing non-revenue water
Trenchless Technology World-first pipe reaming for Tshwane 41
Cover Story Knight Piésold – 95 years of consulting 6
Human Settlements Breaking new ground
Hot Seat Water Research Commission receives Water Award 2016
Power Generation 10
Balancing Africa’s energy needs
Answers to SA’s COP21 challenges 51
Municipal Insight Pioneers in water-loss reduction
Concrete strip roads’ untapped potential
Wider representation a tender boon 18
Breathing new life into rural roads 55
The importance of certification standards
Earlier this year, South Africa’s Water Research Commission was honoured with the Water Award 2016. Dhesigen Naidoo, CEO, WRC, explains the award’s significance for both the local and global water research communities. P10
human settlements Breaking new ground
Maintaining key arterial routes
JRA expands its pothole fleet
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
Steady progress on Western Aqueduct
Planning municipal fleet replacements
A Rare advantage
A case for stainless steel
M&D leads in the water value chain 29 New life for Vaal reservoir
New bandage sealant for Savana
Small in size, big in impact
rural roads Concrete strip roads
Cement & Concrete
Teaching the science of water systems
Industry Perspective | SAPPMA
Prestressed for extra strength
Construction Vehicles & Equipment Transferring risk from customer to supplier
cement & concrete Prestressed for extra strength
IMIESA September 2016
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s the global downturn continues, emerging markets will feel increasing pressure as international funding for infrastructure diminishes over the short to medium term, although Africa, with its massive growth projections, still remains one of the more attractive investment destinations and continued inflows are being experienced. The International Monetary Fund reports that global growth is expected to be around 3.2% this year, potentially climbing to 3.5% in 2017. In terms of GDP rankings, the USA leads the pack (with an anticipated 2.4% GDP growth in 2016), with China coming in second, and Japan third, all of whom are African and South African infrastructure investors. Realistically, South Africa’s economy is expected to grow by about 0.8% for 2016, and around 1.2% during 2017. The country is now Africa’s second largest economy (according to 2015 World Bank GDP figures). Nigeria ranks in first position, and Egypt and Algeria third and fourth, respectively. At home, the infrastructure economy is measured by key barometers that include the South African Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors’ (SAFCEC’s) quarterly ‘State of the SA Civil Engineering Contracting Industry’ reports. For Q1 (surveyed in Q2), a snapshot of SAFCEC infrastructure activities showed that roads accounted for 59.8% of member turnover (where applicable), water bulk infrastructure some 3.3%, and water and sanitation around 2%. So, where will the growth come from? To expand South Africa’s economy, and to continue to draw international funding support, the main infrastructure investment focus has to begin closer to home. Allied to this are expansion opportunities into Africa, with wider and more sustained penetration outside SADC and into the breadth of sub-Saharan Africa.
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Publisher: media No. 9, 3rd Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 www.3smedia.co.za Annual subscription: R550.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2016. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: King Singh P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.imesa.org.za BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 Email: email@example.com EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Fax: +27 (0)41 585 1066 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Penny Pietersen Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: email@example.com NORTHERN PROVINCE Secretary: Rona Fourie Tel: +27 (0)82 742 6364 Fax: +27 (0)86 634 5644 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Fax: +27 (0)86 629 7490 Email: email@example.com WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: Michelle.Ackerman@capetown.gov.za FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Fax: +27 (0)86 628 0468 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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The official magaz ine e of the Institut pal of Munici Engine ering rn Africa of Southe
TURE INFRA STRUC
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SADC is the first frontier and an important one for regional stability, especially when it comes to water resource management. Some 70% of regional water resources cross SADC international boundaries, comprising 15 transboundar y river basins. However, more intensified efforts to expand and maintain infrastructure are required to counter recurring and increasingly extended drought cycles. Positive steps in this direction include a recently concluded €17 million technical and financial cooperation agreement with the German federal government. In addition to SADC transboundary water management, the agreement supports the strengthening of economic and trade policy capacity. For South Africa, the most significant project within SADC will be the implementation of the multibillion-rand second phase of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP). The new Polihali Dam built for Phase II will be connected via a 38.2 km tunnel to the existing Katse Dam in Lesotho and will create major new work. The fact that water is a finite resource is indicated by dam levels reported for Katse on 15 August 2016, which, according to South Africa’s Department of Water and Sanitation were around 48%. Further afield, the industry is talking about getting behind South Africa Inc. to offer integrated solutions on the continent. The Built Environment Professions Export Council is also pushing for South African construction to have a stronger presence in Africa, which includes exporting contractor expertise. Driving continental expansion will help develop emerging South African construction firms and pass on invaluable skills for our local infrastructure needs, as progress on our National Development Plan gains momentum and funding support.
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IMIESA September 2016
ARCHITECTURAL INFRASTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURAL EROSION PROTECTION SANITATION ENERGY ROADS WATER SECURIT Y RAILWAY OCEAN MINING MISCELLANEOUS
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President’s comment IMESA
Local elections August 2016
Duncan Daries, president, IMESA
IMESA president Duncan Daries ponders the interesting times ahead after the recent local government elections.
he result of these latest local government elections have, to a large extent, still confirmed the dominance of the ruling party, especially in the rural areas and towns outside of the major metros. Political analysts have given various reasons for the performances of parties but service delivery issues, whether fuelled by the lack of responsiveness or corruption, remain a constant theme. What is a significant outcome of these elections, though, is that there are 27 hung councils, where no one party has won more than 50% of the votes. The respective political parties will thus be looking for coalition partners if they wish to govern. Of these 27 hung councils, four of the metropolitan cities – Johannesburg, Tshwane, Ekurhuleni and Nelson Mandela Bay – are similarly affected. As at 21 August 2016, with smaller parties becoming kingmakers, at least three, if not all, of the above cities will experience a change in political leadership. The dignified manner in which the ruling party is accepting its defeat at the polls is indicative that the country has strong institutions and principles in place to protect the democratic state that so many fought and sacrificed for. This change in political leadership will stretch the capacity of political parties who have not been in leadership roles previously. Moreover, however, it will place a strain on the administrations who need to keep the functionality and service delivery of the respective councils intact. Officials within these administrations will still have to guide and support these newly elected political leaders in carrying out their respective duties and responsibilities. The training of newly elected representatives needs to be prioritised to ensure that knowledge about the running of the institution of local government is imparted
the winter rainfall area of the Western Cape are doing (sourced from the City of Cape Town’s website). Table 1 indicates that, as at 8 August 2016, dam levels are at approximately 55.8% of total capacity. This does not augur well for the Western Cape, as there are only a couple of weeks left of the traditional rainy season.
timeously, to ensure decision-making within the confines of the statutory limitations. Notwithstanding the need for stability within council administrations, changes in political leadership have, in the past, led to a purge of “politically aligned” Section 57 administrative appointees. That the definition of “politically aligned” is applied subjectively makes it imperative that more emphasis needs to be put on the academic qualifications, managerial and professional competencies, alongside relevant experience within a minimum standards framework for all municipal officials. I am aware that such standard competency frameworks are being developed and should go a long way in ensuring more stability within administrations.
Western Cape dam levels update Following on from my comment in the July issue of IMIESA, I would like to provide readers with an update on how the dam levels in table 1 Dam levels in the Western Cape as at 8 August 2016
BULK STORAGE DAM
Wemmershoek Steenbras Lower Steenbras Upper Voëlvlei Theewaterskloof Berg River Total Stored % STORAGE
Mℓ 58,644 33,517 31,767 164,095 480,188 130,010 898,221
Current Previous week week
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 8 Aug 79.1 99.9 99.9 71.1 69.1 68.8 100.2 100.6 100.1 90.6 64.1 63.4 99.6 102.4 100.3 100.6 99.6 100.7 73.6 94.8 99.9 49.5 57.6 55.3 84.0 103.3 102.9 71.9 50.2 49.2 103.8 101.8 100.7 85.0 64.5 62.2 770,625 908,922 912,967 641,009 512,850 501,397 85.8 101.2 101.6 71.4 57.1 55.8
graph 1 Western Cape dam levels between 2012 and 2016
IMIESA September 2016
Transportation, water and power are key national priorities – dovetailing with core socioeconomic objectives – and areas where Knight Piésold Consulting leads in the infrastructure sphere.
lmost 10 decades have passed since Knight Piésold Consulting was founded on 21 April 1921, and the legend continues. It’s proud history of excellence began in its home base of South Africa, which has subsequently expanded over the years to cover most of the developed and developing world, through the establishment of a series of global offices. Founder Dr Francis Edgar Kanthack retired at the age of 78, in 1950, and would have been proud and amazed at the progress achieved by the group in subsequent years. Today’s focus is on mining, power, water resources, infrastructure, and oil and gas. “This wealth of experience has been exponentially expanded in terms of the skills base through the recruitment of engineers, engineering technicians and scientists that work as integrated project teams to plan and execute just about any engineering challenge in the infrastructure field, together with an evaluation of their actual and potential environmental impacts,” says Vishal Haripersad, managing director, Knight Piésold.
A perspective of the Berg River Dam in South Africa’s Western Cape, where Knight Piésold formed part of the Berg River Consultants JV appointed for the project
IMIESA September 2016
The company is the oldest consulting firm in South Africa, and one of the longest serving on the African continent, which provides a unique perspective of the evolving consulting engineering landscape. Early clients included South African Railways, Victoria Falls Power Company, Electricity Supply Commission (Escom, now Eskom), Anglo American Corporation, Industrial Steel Corporation, various municipalities, and other industrial and mining companies. The 1960s and 70s saw a global boom period, and Knight Piésold was at the forefront, expanding into the UK, Canada, Australia and South America. At every stage, though, Haripersad says the group has been firmly entrenched at home and the company remains 100% locally owned, and the benchmark for its global operations. Quality assurance is governed by ISO 9001, 14001 and 18001 accreditation and standards. “In a nutshell, we’ve weathered the storms of the past 95 years and are ready for the next era, based on our solid project track record and our extensive experience in public
and private sector consulting. In fact, we’re ‘95 years young’; our journey has only just begun,” asserts Haripersad. Power generation, particularly for hydroelectric schemes, was a focus from inception and remains a key specialisation. Earlier examples include the Victoria Falls scheme, originally commissioned around 1938 (at just 1 MW initially) and serving Zambia and Zimbabwe, and, more recently, Eskom’s 1 332 MW Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme. The thermal coal market is an allied focus, with Knight Piésold appointed as design consultants on aspects of Eskom’s Kusile and Medupi greenfield power station roll-outs. These projects will serve South Africa’s evolving industrialisation needs.
Engineering, as a preferred profession, starts at school A key question, though, is what will South Africa’s prospects look like in the next 95 years and where will the engineering profession fit into the picture? “Consulting engineers are design and project management specialists and their role increasingly takes them into the sphere of business brokerage: linking private and public sector entities so that common objectives are met. This coordination is essential for investor confidence and commitment. In South Africa, this needs to be dovetailed with the country’s transformation goals so that every sector of society is a meaningful participant,” explains Haripersad. That means addressing socio-economic imbalances. This is an area where Knight Piésold is making a meaningful difference. States Haripersad, “We always ask ourselves: what can we do as an organisation to make
cover story this change happen? In response, we have positioned ourselves and committed to being a social change catalyst. This gives us a real sense of purpose. We want to awaken the passion for a career in engineering across all its facets, inspiring young minds, where we invest a great deal of focus to assist the South African government in meeting its objectives.” Knight Piésold begins this process with its primary and high school programmes to address the priority issue of science and mathematics education. “We know that government, on its own, cannot fill the gaps and that private sector involvement is needed,” says Haripersad. Knight Piésold partners with schools nationally and Haripersad continues to be personally involved. In addition to tuition, the company also supplies books and equipment, and learners have the opportunity to experience the world of engineering first-hand by understudying professionals at their offices. The company has an active bursary programme in place for aspiring applicants. “We’ve seen measurable improvements through these programmes. It’s very important to elevate the importance of engineers in our society. In South Africa, the focus on lowest cost tendering has tended to relegate engineers to a lower status. So their prestige has been diluted,” he adds. Haripersad points out that South Africa’s NDP has placed a high priority on SMME development. In response, Knight Piésold has introduced structured mentoring programmes to support emerging consulting engineers. He explains, “Consulting engineers cannot practise and function without foundational business skills. That’s why we place so much emphasis on entrepreneurial partnerships where we can learn and grow together. Our priority is to target companies with competent leadership. We then assist with financial management, HR and IT implementation.”
African operations: Nekartal Dam and other key projects Knight Piésold’s base in South Africa is a launching point for its African expansion, with The Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme comprises the upper Bedford Dam and the lower Braamhoek Dam (seen here). They are 4.6 km apart and connected by waterway tunnels
offices already established in countries that include Namibia, Zambia, Swaziland, Ghana, Botswana, the DRC and Mauritius. “As in South Africa, as we grow, we want to make a positive impact. That means ensuring local skills transfer in all the countries that we operate in. Of course, emerging markets have more pressing priorities,” says Haripersad. Zambia, where Knight Piésold has been from the onset outside South Africa, continues to be a key market for water and energy – particularly renewable energy, both for solar and wind. Across the African continent, there is huge potential, where scalable projects extend from just 1 MW to 500 MW. “The public-private partnership model does work here for independent power producers and all our projects are fit for purpose.”
and Northern Aqueduct pipeline projects, where Knight Piésold is the lead engineer. The project scope is the largest to date in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal region and involves the installation of over 100 km of large-diameter steel pipeline.
The next 95 years starts now “There is so much potential in the world. And for us, as a local company, we want to make sure that South Africans are part of that future, especially, as I’ve said, in engineering. “That means addressing the pre-1994 landscape, where infrastructure planning divided communities. Johannesburg’s Alexandra township, for example, lives in the shadow of the Sandton CBD, Africa’s largest economic hub, but remains
“As in South Africa, as we grow, we
want to make a positive impact. That means ensuring local skills transfer in all the countries that we operate in.”
Vishal Haripersad, MD, Knight Piésold Knight Piésold is also well established in Namibia, where the firm is the designer of the estimated R4.5 billion Nekartal Dam on the Fish River. This is the largest infrastructure project undertaken by the country. Works commenced in September 2013. The dam will have a final crest length of 520 m and a wall height of 80 m. The reservoir is designed to store approximately 857 million m3 of water, primarily used to irrigate 5 000 hectares of agricultural development in the area. “Namibia provides a good platform for expansion north into Angola – where we have yet to establish a presence – while, closer to home, we are optimistic about our involvement in Phase II of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, namely the construction of Polihali Dam. We were also extensively involved in Phase I, which became operational from 2004.” Other water-related projects include Durban’s approximately R1.5 billion Western
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marginalised. We are looking to work with government agencies to address these and other needs,” Haripersad states. As a Level 2 BBBEE company, Knight Piésold sets an example for modern-day South Africa. “We are what government intended a consulting engineering firm to look like. It’s not artificial: this is real transformation and not paper”-based. We are South Africa’s oldest firm, and the most transformed. “That’s actual development. And to the investment agencies out there: we understand the realities on the ground. So, along with government, let’s work together to find solutions. Even if we unlock just 10% of the potential, this will translate into enormous gains,” he concludes.
IMIESA September 2016
FROM AROUND THE CONTINENT
Botswana Call for focus on green building Botswana’s Minister of Infrastructure, Science and Technology, Nonofo Molefhi, has said he will fight for the inclusion of the green building concept in the National Development Plan (NDP) 11. Addressing industry at the launch of the Botswana Green Building Council (BoGBC) in Gaborone, Molefhi said the green building concept is the answer to climate change and that there is need to include it in national development plans, as it has potential to produce new and safer affordable building concepts. NDP 11, which was scheduled to start in April 2016, has been postponed to April 2017. The plan will run until 2023, with an over-arching goal of striking a balance between economic, social and environmental issues.
Kenya Construction on Nairobi Western bypass underway Construction on the Nairobi Western bypass has now begun,
following the recent completion of the Nairobi Southern bypass. The newly completed Southern bypass is meant to reduce traffic congestion within the capital city, which is estimated to cost the country KSh37 billion (R5 billion) annually. The works carried out consisted of the construction of a dual carriageway with a length of 28.6 km, with 12 km of slip roads and an extra 8 km of service roads. The upcoming Western bypass will start at Ruaka, and pass through Ndenderu, Kihara, Wangige and Kanjeru, joining the Nairobi-Nakuru highway at Gitaru. The bypass completes Ring Road around the city of Nairobi, and is expected to be a great relief to traffic congestion within the city. The KSh17 billion (R2.3 billion) project is designed as a four-lane highway, 16.5 km long, with 17.4 km of service roads. It includes six traffic interchanges and overpasses at Gitaru, Wangige, Kihara, Ndenderu and Ruaka, each with a configuration of four traffic lanes, and 11 traffic bridges and underpasses. A bus park will be built at Wangige to
enhance public transport efficiency and to ensure that traffic congestion and interruptions occasioned by public transport vehicles is reduced. Provision of adequate bus bays at all the major existing commercial centres and settlement areas is also made. Separate foot paths, cycle tracks and street lighting will be installed as enhanced safety and security features. The construction of the Nairobi Northern and Eastern bypasses has also been concluded.
Nigeria Nigeria launches its first standard-gauge rail track President Muhammadu Buhari recently launched the 186 km Abuja-Kaduna railway track – Nigeria’s first ever standard-gauge railway (SGR) to go into operation. The construction of the Abuja-Kaduna SGR commenced in 2009. Seven years later, Nigeria is on the verge of bringing its citizens an SGR train service that will be safe, fast and reliable. The Abuja-Kaduna train service will provide a much-needed
alternative transport link between the Federal Capital Territory and Kaduna State, a corridor that offers huge potential for industries, agricultural activities and a growing labour force. The project forms part of Nigeria’s railway modernisation initiative, which is aimed at replacing the existing narrowgauge system with SGR, while allowing high-speed train operations on the railway network. The other SGR projects in the pipeline include Lagos-Benin City (300 km), Benin-Abakiliki (500 km), Benin-Obudu Cattle Ranch (673 km), LagosAbuja high-speed (615 km), Zaria-Birnin Koni (520 km), Eganyi-Otukpo (533 km) and Eganyi-Abuja.
Rwanda Roads, city infrastructure get upgrade The Gasabo District in Kigali will soon upgrade its district infrastructure in line with the Kigali City Master Plan. The Kigali City Master Plan 2013 includes detailed district master plans for Nyarugenge, Gasabo and Kicukiro, and was developed to incorporate, harmonise and update all the previous plans and translate the broad long-term strategies into detailed land use and zoning plans to guide the city’s urban development. The Gasabo District and Horizon Construction Company Ltd recently signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for the upgrade, construction and renovation of roads in the district. The MoU The Kigali City Master Plan includes detailed land use and zoning plans to guide the city’s urban development (Photo: oledoe)
IMIESA September 2016
is expected to speed up the implementation of the district’s infrastructure plans. Kigali officials recently took part in one-day training, during which council members were advised to be more proactive in helping city dwellers and investors understand the Kigali City Master Plan to ensure its successful implementation. The three-phase master plan was conceived in 2007. Implementation started in 2013 and the plan is expected to be fully completed in 2040, according to officials. The first phase is set to be completed next year.
Tanzania Boosting hydropower and irrigation Tanzania is expected to benefit from a boost in hydropower generation and irrigation development thanks to a new study financed by the African Water Facility (AWF). This €2 million (R30 million) grant will help the government of Tanzania launch the pre-feasibility study of a multipurpose dam, irrigation and hydropower project in Kikonge. The study will cover the irrigation scheme; agrobusiness development; the dam, its reservoir and the associated hydropower plant; and the high-voltage transmission line. In addition, this study will also encompass water supply to local communities, local electricity supply through a mini hydro-power plant, fishing activities, tourism development and other uses of water for activities in the reservoir area (navigation, transport and water for mining). When completed, the 300 MW multipurpose dam, which is the
main outcome of the studies, will result in a 53% increase of the country’s hydropower capacity. With an annual hydropower generation of 1 300 GWh by 2025, the dam will address Tanzania’s long-standing shortage of power supply. The country’s hydropower plants of the run-of-the-river type are highly vulnerable to seasonal variations and drastic variations of water availability as a consequence of climate change. In October 2015, most of the hydropower plants, representing 35% of the country’s total generating capacity, had been switched off due to the low water levels following an extended period without rain. With its 6 billion m3 storage
activities, with positive impacts on the ecological features of the shores of Lake Nyasa. The total cost of the Kikonge Multipurpose Dam, Irrigation and Hydropower Project pre-feasibility study is estimated at €2.5 million (R37.5 million). The AWF will fund the project to the tune of €2 million, with contributions from the Climate Resilient Infrastructure Development Facility and the government of €0.3 million (R4.5 million) and €0.2 million (R3 million), respectively. The project duration is estimated at 22 months.
Tanzania has received funding to boost hydropower generation (Photo: Chintohere)
capacity reservoir, the dam will allow a stable supply of energy throughout the year. The expected dam on the Ruhuhu River will also improve availability of water resources for irrigation and associated activities in the area. Regulating the flow of the Ruhuhu River will allow water to be available throughout the year, instead of depending on rainy season inflows. It will also reduce the impacts and damages of floods on infrastructure and economic
Tunisia Boost for potable water Tunisia has received a DT161 million (R996 million) loan from the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) to contribute towards financing the Rehabilitation and Development of Potable Water Systems Project. The project will help meet the increasing demand for drinking water and optimal use of natural resources and
Tunisia has received R996 million to contribute towards its potable water project
protection of the environment and public health. It will further contribute towards raising the efficiency and reliability of water facilities in several states in Tunisia inhabited by roughly 3.8 million people. The potable water project consists of: • preparation works of sites • land acquisitions • the extension and rehabilitation of about 220 km of potable water transmission and distribution networks with diameters ranging from 160 mm to 1 400 mm • water facilities including ground and tower-type drinking water storage • pumping stations • desalination of sea water with all the necessary equipment (connectors, valves, civil works and electromechanical systems) • instrumentation and control. The total cost of the project is estimated at roughly DT209 million (R1.3 billion). The KFAED loan will cover about 72% of the total cost of the project, while the government of Tunisia will provide the remaining balance of the cost and all necessary funds to cover any other expenses.
IMIESA September 2016
Water Research Commission receives Water Award 2016 Earlier this year, South Africa’s Water Research Commission (WRC) was honoured with the Water Award 2016. Dhesigen Naidoo explains the award’s significance for both the local and global water research communities.
n 30 June, during the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation’s 10th anniversar y gala dinner, I received – on behalf of the WRC, the government and the people of South Africa – the prestigious 2016 Water Award for the WRC’s contribution towards a better understanding of the environment and its outstanding work in South Africa in the field of sustainable water resources, water supply and sanitation. His Serene Highness Prince Albert II of Monaco handed the prize over to me at the Salle des Etoiles. The foundation was created by the prince in 2006, and it is dedicated to environmental protection and sustainable development, with focuses on climate change, biodiversity and water. In 2008, the foundation developed its awards programme to honour key international figures and organisations for their exemplar y work within its three priority domains of action. It also offers a tribune for
IMIESA September 2016
raising awareness, supporting courageous ideas and recognising the work accomplished. The calibre of the other recipients shows the illustrious company we keep and also reveals the weight of this achievement. Laurence Tubiana won the Climate Change Award, as the special ambassador for the COP 21 climate change convention held in Paris this year, while Luc Hoffman was honoured with the Biodiversity Award. A pioneering spirit in wetlands work, Hoffman played a central role in the development of the Ramsar Convention, to which South Africa and many countries around the world are signatories. The idea of the awards, in general, is to recognise the achievements of people who are leading in these three fields so that they serve as points of inspiration to the rest of the world. We have a water and science community in this countr y that we should be proud of. It is small but highly Dhesigen Naidoo, CEO, WRC
productive: South Africa currently ranks 18th in the world when it comes to scientific output in the water domain. This is remarkable because there are many other countries that have much bigger water research communities that practise in this domain, so we are clearly highly effective. As I mentioned during my acceptance speech, the global deficit on access to safe water is – according to Unicef’s latest figures – 9% or 663 million people, and dignified sanitation stands at 32% or 2.4 billion people. In addition, the Food and Agriculture Organization says that, in spite of our remarkable efforts in the last 20 years, some 780 million people – or one ninth of the world’s population – are still food insecure and live in hunger. We also know that the vast majority of these folk live in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Additionally, I explained that our countr y enthusiastically signed up to the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015, with the target of universal access to safe water and improved sanitation and possibly an end to hunger globally by 2030. The WRC, together with its partners in South Africa, Africa and the world, has
committed itself to being the research, development and innovation par tner to help make this possible. We, as a global community, must use this thin-end-of-the-wedge opportunity to invest in a leap-frogging strategy, facilitating a greener, more climate-friendly water and sanitation revolution; one characterised by: • fit-for-purpose water use, encouraging reuse and recycling • p oint-of-use and decentralised treatment solutions with concomitant energy production
(From left) Laurence Tubiana; HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco; Maja Hoffmann (representing Luc Hoffmann), founder and president of the LUMA Foundation and LUMA Arles et LUMA Arles and vice-president of the Tour du Valat Foundation; and Dhesigen Naidoo of the WRC
Africa is en route to becoming the highest populated continent by 2050. Some 70% of these people are likely to be urbanites and at least half of them will live in 50 megacities that don’t currently exist. This provides amazing greenfield opportunities. I’d like to express the WRC’s sincere gratitude for both this recognition and opportunity to share with the world what we consider a vital toolbox to ensure a greener, more climate-friendly, more biodiverse, sustainable future. I also invite the global community to the laboratory that is South Africa, Africa and the developing world, within which we can, together, construct the embryo of the world that we want to see for our children and the generations to come.
The global deficit on access to safe water is – according to Unicef’s latest figures – 9% or 663 million people, and dignified sanitation stands at 32% or 2.4 billion people • dr y sanitation • waste beneficiation. This has the real potential of low or even no external energy input, moving us collectively to a lower carbon economy. This is done with a genuine belief that what happens in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, over the next 15 years, will determine the character of the global carbon economy for the rest of the 21st centur y. It will fundamentally determine the climate change scenario of the centur y and beyond.
IMIESA September 2016
Pioneers in water-loss
Water leakage and nonith ever-increasing water losses surpassing demand growth, the municirevenue water are growing pality was forced to investigate the problems in South Africa, high water losses and find ways to mitigate these on a broader front, explains André with many initiatives aimed at Senior Engineer: Water Ser vices, Draken addressing the issue. Drakenstein Kowalewski, stein Local Municipality. Municipality in Paarl, Western Cape, In 1999, the water losses in Drakenstein stood at 34% and were increasing. The municipality began has undertaken a 20-year master prioritising projects and introduced a 20-year project plan and has had great success plan in an attempt to curb this. The main initiatives over the past 17 years have included pipe replacements, the in reducing water loss. replacement of bulk and domestic water meters, pressure By danielle petterson
management, leak detection and repair, public awareness and upgrading information and management tools. Reaction time to attend to burst pipes was also reduced to less than one hour. The result of these initiatives, supported by the Drakenstein municipal council, is a significant reduction in water loss. These initiatives have brought water losses down to an average of 16% – and 11% at its lowest. Water losses are currently at 13% for the 2015/2016 financial year. The lower losses enabled the municipality to delay the construction of reser voirs and large pipelines for several years. There was also a decrease in the occurrence of burst pipes. However, the reduction in residual pressures in various pressure zones had the biggest water-saving effect, says Kowalewski. The municipality has effectively reduced static pressures of roughly 1 200 kPa in the lower laying areas to around 600 kPa and, at the critical point, to 280 kPa. This had an immediate impact on water demand and reduced burst pipe frequencies drastically. Retention in the reser voirs increased from 48 hours to 68 hours in the Paarl area alone. These savings not only delayed the construction of new reser voirs, but the reduction of pressure in the networks allowed further savings with the installation of flow controllers, which further control the flow.
Pipe rehabilitation initiative The municipality has placed significant emphasis on replacing old asbestos pipes with new HDPE pipes. “Taking the life cycle of the HDPE pipe as a material into account, it surpasses most other pipe materials. The A Ø630 mm HDPE pipes can also handle the fluctuation bulk water pipeline in water pressure and flow characterisreplacement tics within the pipe design limits better at Courtrai
IMIESA September 2016
A major project currently under way in the Drakenstein Municipality is the replacement of the Strawberry King bulk water pipeline by Strata Civils
than any other flexible pipe systems. If correctly designed, and with proper installation, an HDPE system – together with the fittings – will provide the lowest maintenance compared to any other pipe material system,” Kowalewski explains. He adds that the most attractive advantage of HDPE is a pipe system without pipe joints. In addition to this, most of the fittings used in HDPE systems are moulded out of polyethylene material. Other fittings used by the municipality include flanges and tee-pieces predominately manufactured using grade 316 stainless steel. “The philosophy behind the use of a highgrade material is to have a total system where the pipe material and fittings, when used together, will guarantee a useful operating life that surpasses 50 years. It means that the chemical resistance and durability of the fittings must be the same as those of the pipes,” states Kowalewski. Tests and calculations done on HDPE have shown that the pipe material’s useful lifespan runs up to 100 years. In addition to this, HDPE is the most popular pipe material to use when replacing pipes using trenchless construction methods, explains Kowalewski.
Going trenchless Drakenstein Municipality has implemented various trenchless projects to upgrade existing pipes to larger diameters – anywhere between Ø110 mm to Ø400 mm – to provide for larger water demands. The trenchless pipe projects are all undertaken
by contractors that specialise in trenchless pipe technologies, explains Kowalewski. One such contractor is Carp Civils, which has been conducting trenchless projects for Drakenstein Municipality since the company’s inception in 2003. Carp is a specialist in the rehabilitation of water and sewer pipelines using trenchless, pipe cracking methods. The company has also been responsible for the upgrading of the smaller-diameter asbestos and cast iron reticulation pipes with HDPE piping, using trenchless technology methods, working with mainly Ø110 mm to Ø400 mm pipes in the Paarl and Wellington areas. Pipe bursting methods are used for the replacement of existing water or sewer mains in order to minimise the excavation required. The pipe bursting methods involve pulling the new HDPE pipe through the old or existing pipe, which forces the fragments of the existing pipe outwards while a new pipe is drawn through, explains Hilton Bruyns, director, Carp Civils. As these projects are predominately labour-intensive, the company makes use of local labour as a resource to equip the teams. Staff are trained on-site in the specialised field, with all the necessar y safety and welding training, and all foremen have been developed from within the company. “Each project brings its own challenges, many of which can be avoided with
planning. However, there are unforeseen obstacles that may arise mid-project,” says Bruyns. “This is where Carp’s experience comes to the fore in working with the client for the best possible solution, ensuring satisfactor y and cost-effective ser vice deliver y.”
Strawberry King bulk water pipeline replacement One of the major projects currently under way in the Drakenstein Municipality is the replacement of the Strawberr y King bulk water pipeline. The first phase of this project, which involved the replacement of a Ø560 mm pipe over a distance of 3.4 km, was completed in 2015 by Strata Civils, which was also successfully awarded the contract for Phase 2 in June. Phase 2 involves the pipe jacking of a Ø1 200 mm reinforced concrete pipe under the N1 highway and N1 off-ramps in Paarl. A section of Ø560 mm HDPE pipe is to be laid via conventional trenching and a section of thrust boring. The sections under the N1 to IMIESA September 2016
Carp Civils is a specialist in the rehabilitation of water and sewer pipelines using, trenchless technology with pipe cracking methods. The Director, Mr. Hilton Bruyns, has worked with the Drakenstein Municipality for over 30 years. Carp Civils was established in 2003 and has maintained its core of experienced staff (with a combined total of over 50 years experience in pipe cracking) thus ensuring the highest quality service delivery with focus to provide the best solutions to its clients.
Tel: 0861 111462
Fax: 0861 111470
left The upgrade of stainless steel pipework below left Stainless steel inlet outlet pipework at the Newton Reservoir
be pipe jacked will have the Ø560 mm HDPE pipe placed inside the concrete pipe and then grouted to secure the pipe. It is Drakenstein Municipality’s policy to encourage contractors to use local labour and, as such, Strata Civils sourced all of its labour requirements from the Paarl area. Although no formal training was offered during the duration of the project, the local labour gained invaluable on-site experience in the backfilling of trenches, the reinstating of layer works in trenches and traffic accommodation. “We are extremely proud to be associated with Drakenstein Municipality, whom we believe to be one of the trailblazing
municipalities in providing and delivering quality water resources to its ratepayers,” says Charles Linnegar, managing director, Strata Civils. “Our team has formed a successful working relationship with Drakenstein Municipality and we hope to continue with this well into the future on some more exciting projects.”
Pioneering the way with stainless steel “The life cycle of a pipeline must include all components of the system. Durable pipe fittings – right up to bolts and nuts – must have a similar life expectancy to the pipe used, without compromising flow properties and
ease of maintenance,” Kowalewski emphasises. In this area, Drakenstein Municipality is a rare case in that it makes use of stainless steel fittings, which have an expected useful life of between 50 and 100 years. Stainless steel material is used for all fittings where neither HDPE nor PVC are available, such as pipe saddles, tees and reducers. One of the big advantages of this is that on-site adaptions and changes to pipe fittings can be undertaken on any construction site, without special precaution taken for additional coatings. In addition, the material provides good chemical resistance against the corrosive soils and groundwater found in the area. Both HDPE and stainless steel can be easily used in aggressive soils. Care must, however, be taken when used in areas with a salt content and where chlorine is apparent, explains Kowalewski. The use of different types of steel materials, such as mild steel together with stainless steel, must also be avoided at all times. The downside of using this high-quality material is the price attached to it. The cost of stainless steel can easily be double the price of standard, hot-dipped mild steel materials. But, according to Kowalewski, the benefits are worth the cost. Coated steel fittings and pipes have a limited lifespan, which can be as short as 10 years, depending on the installation conditions. Stainless steel can handle the abrasive liquids and materials found in pump stations and water treatment works. “Quality workmanship and high-quality materials combine
IMIESA September 2016
SERVICE OFFERING SYNTHETIC SPORTS FIELDS | PIPELINES | TOWNSHIP INFRASTRUCTURE | BULK EARTHWORKS | ROADS
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to form a recipe for a durable and lowmaintenance pipe system.” The expected useful life of stainless fittings is between 50 and 100 years. However, stainless steel cannot be utilised in all cases and so the municipality makes use of ductile iron pipes and fittings where high pressures higher than 2 000 kPa are apparent. Special care is then taken to protect these pipes and fittings against corrosion. Glass-reinforced pipes (GRP) are also used on a less frequent basis where conditions are conducive to their use. GRP pipes and fittings have good resistance to aggressive soils and water and were recently used on a new Ø400 mm bulk water pipe installation in Paarl.
Building storage capacity Drakenstein Municipality has also placed an emphasis on the construction of new reservoirs. One such project is the construction
of a new, circular 8 Mℓ reinforced concrete reservoir complete with a 1 265 m long Ø630 mm HDPE bulk supply pipeline, which ties into the existing Wemmershoek supply pipeline. Civil engineering firm Exeo was successfully awarded this project and has a long relationship with Drakenstein Municipality, stretching as far back as 1996. The new reservoir is constructed below ground level, to minimise its visual impact, and consists of: a reinforced concrete ring beam on which a 7 m high, 400 mm thick reinforced concrete wall is constructed; a 250 mm thick reinforced concrete floor slab; 26 x 7 m high Ø450 mm reinforced concrete columns; a 280 mm thick reinforced concrete roof slab; and associated reinforced concrete chambers. One of the most challenging aspects of the project is site access, explains Kempen van Wyk of Exeo. The reservoir site is
Construction of the 5 Mℓ Welvanpas Reservoir is currently under way by JVZ/Vakala Construction
fairly congested with two existing reservoirs in close proximity. Matters are further complicated due to the fact that the site has a significant slope and that the in situ material consists of clay. This was overcome by amending one of the reservoir floor panels to the extent that it is capable of withstanding the forces of a tower crane. The position was carefully selected so as to allow the tower crane to remain in place until three-quarters of the roof slab is completed. This means the construction of the walls, columns and floor slab panels can be conducted simultaneously and without further hindering access to the different areas of the reservoir. Construction on the project commenced early in April 2016 and is scheduled for completion in November 2017. Another project currently IMIESA September 2016
EXEO IS PROUD TO BE A SERVICE PROVIDER TO DRAKENSTEIN MUNICIPALITY
Contact Details: Tel: 021 949 4108 Fax: 021 949 3849 P.O Box 1232 Sanlamhof, 7532
Physical Address: 5 Cilmor Street Stikland Bellville South Africa
21 since 1995
Excavation for the bi-directional chamber at the Newton Reservoir
under way is the construction of a 5 Mℓ reservoir and Ø400 mm HDPE connecting bulk water pipes at Welvanpas in Wellington. This is being undertaken by JVZ/Vakala Construction as a joint venture. The last concrete of the reservoir deck was cast on 19 August 2016 and, with its material approach, JVZ/Vakala plans to finish the contract well ahead of the deadline by targeting completion before the builder’s holiday in December 2016. JVZ/Vakala also recently completed two 11 Mℓ reservoirs and the associated
Ø600 mm bulk water pipelines for Drakenstein at Newton, Wellington. “Drakenstein Municipality is one of our preferred clients. We are proud to have offered our local municipality reliable service and quality products for almost 11 years,” says Johan van Zyl from JVZ/ Vakala Construction. According to Van Zyl, the joint venture between JVZ/Vakala was established in order to ensure the strongest possible construction team that is both diverse and well-experienced. The responsibilities were shared between the parties to make use of
“The answer to Drakenstein’s success lies not only in addressing infrastructure challenges but also initiatives such as stepped water tariffs and public awareness campaigns.” André Kowalewski, senior engineer: Water Services, Drakenstein Local Municipality 16
the best competencies on each side. “JVZ/Vakala are well-known and experienced contractors in the reservoir field making use of proven techniques and construction methods,” says Van Zyl. This joint venture paid off in overcoming the challenge of casting the reservoir walls in three horizontal lifts, each consisting of 145 m3 concrete, which had to be casted continuously to ensure no cold joints. The pair successfully finished both of the 11 Mℓ reservoirs at Newton, Wellington before the completion dates.
Successful water savings The answer to Drakenstein’s success lies not only in addressing infrastructure challenges but also initiatives such as stepped water tariffs and public awareness campaigns. “Like all other local authorities, stepped water tariffs were introduced to motivate consumers to use less water. With the introduction of the stepped tariffs, a definite change in the behaviour of the consumers was observed,” says Kowalewski. The municipality also makes use of public awareness campaigns, particularly at schools, and has invited schools to visit water treatment plants as an educational process. These projects, together with the replacement of approximately 210 km of asbestos and cast iron pipe since 1997, have resulted in an approximate 18% decrease in water losses over the past 17 years, a significant achievement for the municipality.
IMIESA September 2016
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a tender boon
Improved project deliver y needs a more streamlined approach, with strengthened private and public sector consultation. Kur t Uderstadt shares his thoughts with IMIESA.
he route to faster and better municipal engineering contracts may not lie in heavier compliance and red tape, but rather in a wider spread of stakeholders giving input into the adjudication process. According to Kur t Uderstadt, principal civil engineer and par tner in SRK Consulting’s Port Elizabeth office, a “jur y” system of evaluating tenders at local government level would raise the level of transparency and technical expertise in these decisions. “It is well recognised that one of the biggest problems in rolling out vital municipal ser vices in South Africa is the bottleneck created by supply chain management systems,” says Uderstadt. “This involves the various committees that are required for the tender process to take place – the bid specification committee, the bid evaluation committee and the bid adjudication committee. “These meetings are generally well planned, but do create problems in the supply and deliver y process, where one can wait
up to eight months for a contract to be awarded.” In many cases, he says, the amount of red tape – ostensibly put in place to plug the gaps where corruption takes place – is simply adding more bureaucracy without improving the quality of outcomes. “Even with the delays, tenders are still being awarded to consortia that are simply not resourced to handle the work,” he continues. “This suggests that the system would benefit from the presence of various additional skills and input.” He emphasises that this concept is not new and that there has even been such a system in place at various municipalities before, where departmental officials would sit on evaluation and adjudication committees alongside suitably qualified experts and ratepayers’ representatives. Introducing such a system now, however, may require changes to the Municipal Finance Management Act (No. 53 of 2003). “The evaluation process could, therefore, include a consortium of experts, each adding their specific expertise to the decision-making process,” he says. “Municipalities are often faced
with severe capacity challenges when dealing with technical aspects of engineering contracts – as many are not well-staffed with experienced professional engineers.” He highlights that procurement officials are not expected to be engineers, as their role covers a range of procurement fields. An inevitable result is that decisions are being made that do not fully take stock of the competence of the consulting practice or contractor being awarded the tender.
Low pricing can affect quality Apart from the necessary BBBEE requirements, the current economic climate is contributing to the prominence of price as a major factor in tender awards, where tender decisions by municipalities often prioritise pricing over engineering excellence and efficient delivery of the intended outcome. “When it comes to tendering in the consulting arena, there is evidence that many consultants – even among larger players – are discounting their rates to try to win tenders adjudicated mainly on price, but this creates its own problems,” says Uderstadt. “The problem with tendering too cheaply is that the skills that you can afford to put on
“It is well recognised that one of the biggest problems in rolling out vital municipal services in South Africa is the bottleneck created by supply chain management systems.” Kurt Uderstadt, principal civil engineer and partner, SRK Consulting
IMIESA September 2016
the job might not have the optimal experience. With just one problem in the design or on-site, companies can start losing money – with knock-on effects that threaten both the quality and timely completion of the project.”
Benefits of the consulting panel He says a recent success story has been where a state organisation put out tenders for panel consulting appointments for a minimum of three years, ensuring that functionality forms a critical part of the procurement process. “Successful consultants are placed on a panel and then tender on work packages as they come,” he explains. “Consultants’ tenders are evaluated on their core competencies and then evaluated further on their submitted price. “This approach, which is already effectively employed by organisations like Transnet, speeds up the awarding of contracts – as all the required ‘returnable’ documentation
from consultants is approved in advance, limiting the red tape and time. Municipalities should follow suit.” Further bedevilling the procurement process has been the increasing complexity of the Engineering Council of South Africa’s fee structure. “The framework rightly aims to ensure fairness and value for money but, in practice, it often leads to misunderstandings and lengthy arguments between client and consultant that could delay projects even further, even though the consultant’s fee is only a small portion of the overall project value,” he adds. Uderstadt suggests that the solution could lie in a revised, generalised percentage-fee system, which has been successfully implemented in the past. He also raises the issue of rising numbers of government agencies becoming directly involved in the project pipeline, while not necessarily adding the anticipated value.
“As recently as a decade ago, there was work being carried out in terms of the emergency reconstruction programme, where government agencies who were tasked with large emergency projects would appoint a managing consultant,” says Uderstadt. The consultant would manage the project or even various projects, which entailed the appointment of many consulting practices, and the operations went like clockwork. “What we have found happening now is that there are more government bodies in existence who are tasked with managing projects, and whose costs have to be incorporated in the project value. This, of course, leaves less for the actual implementation of the project,” adds Uderstadt. “Would it not be more cost-effective to use the funding to appoint professional project managers from the private sector to do this, in cases where in-house expertise is not in place? This is a strategy that has worked well before,” he concludes.
IMIESA September 2016
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The importance of
certification standards Concerns are being raised surrounding standards as well as product licence renewal bottlenecks that are impacting negatively on the plastic pipes industr y.
roduct accreditation is a key factor for businesses, as industr y tends to demand the SABS mark as proof of quality. However, the Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA) has raised concerns recently about the SABS’s delay in renewing product licences. SAPPMA CEO Jan Venter says that renewal timeframes can take up to six months, which has an obvious business impact. Not having the SABS mark can disqualify manufacturers from submitting their products for tender. In the interim, SAPPMA is considering alternatives, which include SATAS (the South African Technical Auditing Ser vice). For many, the acronym SATAS may not be immediately familiar, which is why the need to make a clear distinction between certification and standard bodies has become an urgent priority for SAPPMA. There is also confusion between the terms SABS (South African Bureau of Standards) and SANS (South African National Standard). “In recent months, we have had to deal with a growing number of queries from industry role players, municipalities and the general public regarding the SABS and SANS. It seems that there is a misperception as to the meaning of the term ‘certification body’.”
SABS or SANS? According to Venter, the perception exists that the acronyms SABS and SANS are interchangeable and that the one cannot be used without the other. “This is not the case. The SABS is a certification body that is accredited by the South African National Accreditation System (SANAS). It is, therefore, incorrect to refer to the SABS
as a standard, as it is a testing and certification body, which is allowed to sample and test products and certify a producer’s product to a specific SANS standard, through its SANAS accreditation. “SANS, on the other hand, refers to a standard that specifies the per formance requirements of a specific product. A SANS standard may be either locally written or created by adopting an international (usually ISO) standard,” he explains. One of the possible reasons for this misunderstanding might be due to the fact that the SABS was involved with the writing, development and distribution of specifications in years gone by. These were national specifications, which were published as SABS specifications. In recent years, however, the role of the SABS has changed. Specifications are now being carried out by SANS – a separate, independent body that repor ts to the Department of Trade and Industr y. The SABS has been divided into two different business units, namely Certification and Test Laboratories. This was done to make way for other certification bodies. “It is also important to note that SANS standards are not the property of the SABS, as is often assumed. SANS standards may be awarded to a product by any accreditation body complying with SANAS requirements and accredited to SANS 17065,” Venter continues.
An example of such an accreditation body is SATAS, which can issue SANS certification for a product based on independent test results and the results of an audit on the manufacturer. “SATAS is, therefore, an alternative to the SABS when it comes to certifying products to SANS standards. A product accredited to a SANS standard by SATAS is equivalent in all aspects to that product being certified by SABS,” he says. Both SABS and SATAS have post-permit inspection regimes in place, which allow them to regularly inspect certified products and thereby ensure continued compliance to the relevant SANS standard. Regardless of the certification body, the product is still certified to the same SANS standard, which governs its testing and performance. These days, most of the specifications are done by SANS and have either been developed nationally, or are ISO adopted standards. The thinking behind this is to bring the SANS specifications in line with international specifications as far as possible. “Some confusion might still exist with the general public, seeing that SANS specifications are still obtainable from the SABS in Pretoria and SANS uses the same building as SABS. Accredited certification bodies like SATAS can now also certify companies to SANS specifications and its quality systems. However, our view is that competition in any market should always be regarded as a good thing. One positive outcome of these developments is that the industry has now been given a choice of service providers in the cer tification environment,” Venter concludes.
SAPPMA represents almost 90% of all certified manufacturers of HDPE and PVC plastic pipes made locally
Jan Venter, CEO, SAPPMA
IMIESA September 2016
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
Steady progress Durban’s largest ever bulk water pipeline, the Western Aqueduct, is on track and reaching important milestones, says Ednick Msweli, head of eThekwini Water and Sanitation.
he Western Aqueduct (WA) is expected to have a significant impact on the future development of the eThekwini region. It will significantly strengthen the capacity of bulk water supply and meet the needs of the greater eThekwini region for the next 30 years. The completion of the WA, which is intended to both replace and augment existing infrastructure that brings water into Durban from the Midmar and recently constructed Spring Grove dams, will ensure that the eThekwini region has some of the best bulk water infrastructure in the region. The major project is expected to inject 325 Mℓ/day with the capacity to potentially peak at 470 Mℓ/day. “With unemployment at record highs and a need to fast-track the establishment of industry that will beneficiate commodities and manufacture for export – in order to both grow the regional economy and create jobs – the provision of good water infrastructure has never been more important. With the completion of the WA, Durban will have some of the best water infrastructure in the country,” says Msweli.
the Umlaas Road Reservoir to Inchanga, was commissioned at the end of 2012. Msweli reports that the R1.8 billion second phase of the Western Aqueduct, which runs from the Inchanga railway station to Mount Moriah, Ntuzuma and Tshelimnyama, is making steady progress and is expected to be commissioned in 2017. The Phase 2 pipeline comprises sections of steel pipe between 1 m and 1.6 m in diameter, and 18 m in length. They are welded together and installed within municipal reserves at a depth of 1 m. To install pipes of these dimensions, it is necessary to excavate a trench at least 3 m wide and between 3 m and 4 m deep. And, in order to accommodate pipe laying machinery during construction, it is necessary to have a working corridor, which, in places, may be up to 30 m wide. Where the route traverses residential areas, road closures are necessary. Road surfaces will be completely excavated for the installation of the pipes and the reinstatement of the construction corridor will take place as the pipes are laid. The existing roads, curbs and verges will be reconstructed to a brand-new condition equal to or better than originally encountered.
“With the completion of the WA, Durban will have some of the best water infrastructure in the country.”
Phase 2 well under way The first phase of the Western Aqueduct, which measures 20 km and stretches from
IMIESA September 2016
on Western Aqueduct
To make the massive second phase more manageable, it has been divided into a number of contracts, explains Martin Bright, project manager, WA. The first two contracts, which make up a 14 km stretch of pipeline extending from Inchanga to Alverstone Station and then on to Ashley Drive in Hillcrest, have been completed by Cycad Construction and WK Construction, respectively. The rehabilitation of the areas where the pipeline was laid was delayed as a result of the severe drought being experienced, but has been completed and both contractors have moved off-site. Msweli is pleased that both projects have been completed and met stringent quality standards. A 7 km branch line to Tshelimnyama is being carried out by Esor Construction and is on track for completion towards the end of 2016. This runs along Haygarth Road and under the N3 to the water reservoir in Tshelimnyama and will alleviate water shortages in this area. Esor Construction is also carrying out work on the 25 km stretch of the pipeline that extends from Ashley Drive to Ntuzuma. This is reportedly progressing well and is on schedule for completion in September 2017.
Award-winning break pressure tank The large Ashley Drive break pressure tank (BPT) was designed by the WA Consultants JV and has been completed by ICON
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
right Wyebank BPT under construction opposite page Western Aqueduct pipeline crossing the Umgeni River, through the Umgeni Valley
Did Construction. This 20 million litre you know? BPT recently won the South African Approximately 2 MW of Institute of Civil Engineers Award electricity can be produced for Technical Excellence at a forat the Ashley Drive BPT site mal ceremony in June. through hydropower when The primary function of the tank the scheme reaches is to reduce the water pressure in its capacity of the WA to safe and manageable levels. and overflow. A sec400 Mℓ/ day. The inlet control system to the BPT had to ond reservoir – known be reverse-engineered to protect the pipeline as the Wyebank BPT – is against overpressure. A modulating operating also well on its way to completion during the system is used rather than the conventional third quarter of 2017. This BPT has been fill-and-draw system. The water level is allowed designed by Royal HaskoningDHV and is to rise when the outflow slows down quickly, currently being built by ICON Construction. and the level drops if the outflow speeds up Roadworks quickly. A programmable logic controller conMsweli thanked eThekwini residents for their stantly adjusts inlet valves so that the water patience both during the construction of the level seeks to return to mid-depth. The outcompleted sections of the pipeline and durcome is a modulating system that provides a ing ongoing construction. high degree of protection against overpressure
According to Msweli, eThekwini residents will continue to experience traffic disruption as a result of work in Kloof, Wyebank and KwaDabeka. The section of the M13 off-ramp to Willingdon Road commenced in July, after the termination of the temporary railway crossing at Kloof Station at the end of June. Work will continue along Wyebank Road for the foreseeable future. Road surfaces will remain temporarily unsurfaced until sufficiently long stretches of road have been completed, at which time these will be resurfaced.
IMIESA September 2016
Mr Stubman CC is one of the leading manufacturers and suppliers of High Density Polyethylene stubs in South Africa. The products are injection moulded and machined afterwards for a fast delivery to our large customer base • Manufacturers of HDPE Reducers • Butt welding stub-ends and Electrofusion welding stub-ends to SABS ISO 4427 specifications • Moulded bend and tee fittings • Recycling & Pelletizing of HDPE pipes
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Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
A Rare advantage The Rare Group has recently introduced a new technology to help in the rehabilitation of South Africa’s pipelines. IMIESA talks to Carl von Graszouw* about the company’s current product offerings. Tell us about your new RPC technology. CvG The group recently introduced Rare Plastics Coextruded (RPC) technology to its product portfolio, aimed at further expanding its range of products used for pipeline rehabilitation. RPC is a three-layer HDPE pipe with a crack-resistant inner and outer layer, ideally suited for the rehabilitation of structurally damaged pipelines, using trenchless technologies similar to the Rare Plastic lining. RPC technology is primarily suited to South Africa’s ageing water pipeline infrastructure, which can cost-effectively replace old, damaged and leaking pipelines. The RPC pipe’s service life is not affected by surface damage caused during the installation process. This lends itself to mining applications as well – and will withstand extremely abrasive slurry materials for five or six times the normal life expectancy.
What are the advantages of using RPC in trenchless rehabilitation applications? The three crackresistant layers are made from a special PE100RC polymer and are inseparably extruded. PE100RC is a specifically developed, advanced polymer that resists the effects of notches, scores, scratches, grooves and point loads that may result from the trenchless installation technique used or installation without selected or imported embedding material.
Rare will be discussing RPC technology at
the SAPPMA Pipes X Conference. Give us an outline of what you will talk about. I will be discussing the topic ‘Pipes for conventional installation and AIT’. Engineers’ demands for water, sewerage and gas services are constantly on the rise and there is a need to save money in the provision and rehabilitation of these services. Many towns and cities are approaching, or exceed, 100 years of age and the services are approaching, or have already exceeded, their design life. AIT (alternative installation techniques) provide the engineer with proven, reliable and commercially viable methods for both the rehabilitation and provision of services. AIT has two main categories: trenchless technology (consisting of six techniques), and trenching and backfill without the provision of selected or imported embedment (bedding and surround). AIT impose unique, extreme demands on the pipes used and require a specifically engineered product that will, despite the damage caused, prevent premature failure and provide a service life of not less than 100 years. Pipes specifically engineered for AIT are now manufactured in South Africa for the first time. Rare Plastics is the manufacturer of PE 100-RC pipe, branded as RPC pipe which will supply engineers with the required comfort that the pipes will give a service of not less than 100 years. The applicable specification is PAS 1075: ‘Pipes made from polyethylene for AIT’ and the rigorous tests that the pipes must pass to prove conformity have
been conducted and above 1 000 mm OD pipe passed. Engineers are being extruded at Rare Plastics’ plant in Meyerton now able to make an right 180 C16 in 75 m coils informed decision to use pipes that are fit for purpose and suitable for the line and be able application”by specifying Rare to supply up RPC pipes for AIT purposes. to 3 000 mm diameter Aside from RPC, what structured wall pipes and fittings, range of plastic pipes which are not yet manufactured in does the Rare Group Southern Africa. manufacture? A SAPPMA What are the advantages member, Rare manufactures or benefits of using and distributes all of its HDPE plastic piping systems pipes and fittings from its factory for water and wastewater in Meyerton, Gauteng. Pipes infrastructure? PE pipe are manufactured to SANS systems have been used ISO 4427 standards and sizes successfully in many range from 110 mm to 1 000 applications, both general as mm. The stubbing and flanging well as highly specialised. PE of pipe is also offered as an pipes offer distinct advantages additional service to customers. over other materials, especially To date, we have completed a when used for water supply, number of substantial contracts where their installation is in the mining and infrastructure simplified by jointing outside arena for Mopani Copper Mines, the trench. Plastic piping Katanga Mining and Konkola systems such as Ridgidrain Copper Mines. Another significant are up to 94% lighter than step was the recent acquisition concrete alternatives, meaning of a large pipe coiler, with the that they are safer to install unit being used to coil 4 km of and move around site, and 180 C16 pipe in 75 m coils – a also offer considerable first in the local African HDPE environmental benefits. pipe sector. Rare Plastics Plastic pipes and fittings are recently attained the exclusive tough, durable and resistant distributorship for Polypipe Civils’ to corrosion, providing relirange of Ridgidrain, Ridgiduct and able performance with long Ridgistorm XL (HDPE) structured life expectancy. Below-ground wall pipes for South Africa and products can withstand ground Zambia. With over 20 000 settlement and can be manuproduct lines, Polypipe is the factured to different stiffUK’s largest plastic pipe ness classifications. systems manufacturer. This means that Rare *Carl von Graszouw is Plastics will be able to the manager: Pipeline offer customers an Services at the extended product Rare Group
IMIESA September 2016
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
Teaching the science of water systems Schoolgoers have been learning the science of designing, building and operating a water distribution system as par t of SAICE’s Aqualibrium competition.
he Schools Water Competition sees learners practically illustrate the task of a qualified civil engineer in a municipality. The contest has grown over the years to incorporate international learners from Swaziland and Zimbabwe.
The competition Good water distribution systems are vital to ensure the supply of safe and clean drinking water. The Aqualibrium competition exposes learners to the practical application of processes that influence their daily lives – how water gets to their homes. They are made aware of the intricacies involved in the design of water distribution networks and the actual delivery of water to households. The teams taking part in the competition are given an hour to design, build and operate a model water distribution network to distribute three litres of water equally between three points on a grid, using pipes and connection pieces of two different diameters. They are judged on how well they execute the task, working on a penalty points system. The competition creates awareness of the issues surrounding water in South Africa. It spreads the message that water is a precious commodity that should be recycled, reused and respected, while the use of water should be reduced. In addition to this, Aqualibrium strengthens government’s initiatives aimed at encouraging learners to take mathematics and science at school and to follow a career as a science or civil engineering practitioner.
2016 winners The 2016 winner, for the second consecutive year, was Hoërskool Diamantveld from Kimberley, with team members Paul Henri, Zander Boshoff and Alecia Brits, with only 19 penalty points. Hoërskool Oos-Moot in Pretoria took second place. Team members Stefan Beukes, Ruhan Potgieter and WP Struweg had 30 penalty points. In the joint third spot were the teams from Fundukuwela High School in Swaziland and Domino Servite School in Pietermaritzburg, with 40 penalty points each. The Swaziland team consisted of top left Learners were Sanele Malindza, Buhle Malinga tasked with designing, building and Bonsile Msibi, and Domino and operating a model water distribution network Servite’s team was Ndumiso inset The system had to Dumakude, Sphesile Nzama and distribute three litres of water Sehliselwe Hlonga. equally between three points In total, the winners left Learners must shared prize money of more practically illustrate the task of a qualified civil engineer than R23 000.
IMIESA September 2016
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
A case for stainless steel Market developments in the international stainless steel industry have revealed the high value potential of using stainless steel piping in the service delivery of municipal water, which could potentially save millions of rands.
hese findings were revealed are unable to charge service fees for its as part of a global collabora- distribution and use. There is also a finite tion between the Southern Africa amount of water we have to use in South Stainless Steel Development Africa, making leak detection and water presAssociation (sassda), the International ervation vital for our future. Another factor is Stainless Steel Forum (ISSF) and other that, globally, 4% of electricity generation is stainless steel development associations used for pumping water. If one can reduce from around the world, at the annual ISSF leakage, one can save electricity.” conference held in Finland recently. Presented at the conference was a 30-year A 30-year success story case study, documenting both Tokyo and Facing challenges comparable to South Seoul, which shows how stainless steel Africa’s water recycling, filtration and piping is non-corrosive and feadiagram 1 The evolution of service pipes tures sophisticated corrugated joints that prevent leakage and sophisticated leak detection monitoring systems. John Tarboton, executive director, Sassda, who attended the conference, comments: “The successes of both the Tokyo and Seoul case studies reveal the opportunity for using stainless steel in water distribution and service pipes in South Africa to reduce maintenance costs and preserve our already strained water resources. below left Corroded distribution pipes “There is a clear case of cost savings both from the Tokyo case study on the treatment of water that is lost through below right A portable minimum-flow leakage as well as water that municipalities meter in Tokyo
distribution systems in the 1980s, Tokyo replaced a total of 27 000 km of pipe with non-corrosive stainless steel piping, reducing leakage and losses from 15.4% down to 2.2% in 2013. Total cost reductions in Tokyo’s water distribution system have now reached the US$480 million mark, with additional CO2 emission reductions in energy required for water recycling and water filtration pumps. The study also confirms that national stainless steel pipe replacements installed 30 years ago show no corrosion relating to chemical components in localised soils, such as chloride concentrates. Similar studies show a total reduction in leakage rates for Seoul by as much as 30%; Vietnam has reduced its leakage rate from 13% to 7% and Egypt from 29% to 15% through the implementation of stainless steel piping.
The South African situation Currently, South Africa uses PVC and polyethylene piping, which has a lifespan of approximately 20 years – a timeline that South Africa is currently facing as it undertakes a manifold service delivery challenge of leak detection and the replacement of damaged service water pipes across the nation. The importance of tightening up South Africa’s water supply infrastructure comes into sharp focus when one considers the statistics in a Timeslive.co.za report last year, which stated that up to 40% of Johannesburg’s water goes unaccounted for annually, at a cost to the city of R1.16 billion. Of that, about R851 million worth of water was lost to leaks. Delving into the reasons for these losses, Tarboton says the biggest issue currently causing leakage in municipal water distribution systems is seen in the smaller service pipes, which pump water out from larger distribution pipes
IMIESA September 2016
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
Stainless steel service pipe
A flexible alternative
into high-density areas such as cities and communities. It is leakages in this system that are extremely difficult to detect, as leakage rates are typically low and go unnoticed.
As the Tokyo case study reveals, with the use of corrugated stainless steel piping, the need for joints in the system is reduced, allowing the corrugated stainless steel pipes to maintain their strength, improving workability and extending the piping systems’ service life. Tarboton says, “The implementation costs of stainless steel could also be seen as a cost-saving opportunity – where initial outlay would be recouped through the savings gained in reduced energy costs and streamlined monitoring and billing systems. If finance companies could see fit to finance the implementation of stainless steel systems based on the savings gained from wasted and
unauthorised water usage costs, a return on investment and total project costs could be built into the financing structure and provide a compelling initiative for South Africa’s water distribution ser vices. “We also have the ability and the technology available here in South Africa to manufacture the specified stainless steel pipes, something which could be a coup for the manufacturing industry in South Africa both at an incubator level and as a commercial enterprise. If our municipalities are already investing so heavily in leakage repairs and replacement piping, it makes sense to replace outdated pipe systems with stainless steel.” Currently, the ISSF is embarking on a global awareness campaign following the success of the Tokyo case study and is on a mission to find the next country willing to grasp this opportunity, which it plans to actively contribute to and market, while bringing exposure to planning departments’ knowledge collateral.
IMIESA September 2016
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Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
in the water value chain New wastewater treatment plant and pipeline projects are running in parallel, alongside the introduction of an innovative hybrid activatedsludge system. By Alastair Currie
&D Construction is now at an advanced stage of construction on the R115 million Mafenya Reservoir in South Africa’s North West province, a 50 Mℓ facility and the fourth built to date by the company, allied to which is the 2015 completion of the interconnecting 1 m diameter 43 km Mafenya pipeline. Both are public and private sector funded projects that will serve mining operations in the region, as well as surrounding communities. The Mafenya Reservoir forms part of the first phase of the Pilanesberg North Water Scheme, with works scheduled for completion in October 2016. The project scope combines two reservoirs: a 5 Mℓ backup reservoir inside the 50 Mℓ main structure. This smaller 5 Mℓ unit will ensure continuity of supply when major maintenance is required.
The main reservoir walls measure 14.8 m in height, with a total diameter of 69.4 m and an internal diameter of 68.8 m. With the exception of the 15 m high precast roof, all other concrete sections will be poured in situ, from site batching. “The height of the wall is unusual, as are the narrower dimensions. However, the design consultants needed to accommodate the restricted footprint on which the reservoir is situated,” comments Rukesh Raghubir, CEO, M&D, adding that the precast roof option significantly accelerates the overall construction programme. The original roof design proposed a cast-in-situ coffer slab. M&D’s recommendation to go the precast route shortened the envisaged project timeline from around 24 months to the current 15 months. Raghubir adds, “We successfully used this ‘hybrid’ technique for
the first time on the Weenen Wellfield pump station project in 2012.” At Mafenya, the columns, beams and roofing panels are all being precast off-site.
Pipeline fabrication and fittings A water and wastewater infrastructure specialist, M&D continues to gain ground in this sector, with its Pipeline Division experiencing strong growth. Together with the Mafenya pipeline, recently completed projects include the 8 km Rand Water 06 pipeline between Alberton and Meyerton (a 2.1 m diameter steel construction), and the Western Basin overland HDPE pipeline. These and other projects are supported by M&D’s fittings factory, which assembles mild steel and stainless steel pipe sections, a number of which are complex items. “On the Rand Water 06 project, for example, six thickened tees were supplied. These tees were welded into the mainline for offtakes and fabricated by rolling a 40 mm thick plate on to a 2 180 mm OD (outside diameter) pipe barrel in lengths varying between 2 m and 4 m,” Raghubir explains. “Once welded and radiographed, the ends were machined The Mafenya Reservoir forms part of the first phase of the Pilanesberg North Water Scheme
IMIESA September 2016
The precast roof option is to significantly accelerate the overall construction programme at the Mafenya Reservoir
l/s °C m3/h
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down to a 16 mm bevel to accommodate the welding of the fitting into the main pipeline. The branch fitted to the barrel was welded to an opening made by using a computerised, numerically controlled horizontal boring mill, which ensured 100% accuracy.” These tees varied in cost, ranging between R500 000 and R1 million to fabricate.
The Mafenya Reservoir forms part of the first phase of the Pilanesberg North Water Scheme, with works scheduled for completion in October 2016
Within the water and wastewater treatment sectors, M&D’s experience in structural concrete and water engineering is passing dividends on to utilities. Recent examples include the Vaalkop Water Treatment Works, a 30 Mℓ upgrade for plants 1 and 2, as well as the completion of a 70 Mℓ pump station. M&D has just been awarded two new wastewater treatment works (WWTW) projects in North West province – in Vryburg and Koster, respectively. Valued at R237 million, the new 16 Mℓ Vryburg WWTW commenced on 5 April 2016 and has a 30-month construction progamme. The project scope includes an outfall sewer of approximately 3.5 km and structured wall HDPE pipe with a 1 200 mm diameter laid at a grade of 0.1%. The trench is also 8 m deep, adding to the challenges. The Koster WWTW contract is valued at R75 million, with a duration of 15 months. In addition to the plant, approximately 12 km of sewer pipework will be installed. The M&D team mobilised on-site in May 2016 and work is in progress. “As part of M&D’s diversification strategy, we’ve added a further dimension to our water offering with the introduction of HYBACS technology to Southern Africa,” states Raghubir. M&D works closely with Headstream Water, who is the sole licence holder for Southern Africa. “An innovative hybrid activated-sludge system, the HYBACS process is ideal for municipal and industrial WWTWs looking for an economical technology for capacity upgrades and nutrientremoval capabilities. Plants with the HYBACS system can achieve up to 30% to 40% savings in energy consumption associated with aeration,” Raghubir concludes.
IMIESA September 2016
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
New life for Vaal reservoir
A reser voir at Vaal Marina, considered one of the best inland marinas and golf estates in Africa, situated on the banks of the Vaal Dam in southern Gauteng, has been successfully refurbished.
he project was commissioned by Midvaal Water Company, a water ser vice provider supplying bulk potable water to the region. In conjunction with contractor MCS, Midvaal Water Company specified four Sika products for the sealing, crack-bridging and coating of the reser voir. Sikadur-52 ZA, a two-part, solvent-free, low-viscosity injection liquid based on highstrength epoxy resins, was used to fill all structural cracks in both the wall and floor areas of the reservoir. Suitable for both dry and damp conditions, it not only forms an effective barrier against water infiltration and corrosion-promoting media, but also structurally bonds concrete sections together. Sikadur-52 ZA is usable at low temperatures and provides shrinkage-free hardening. Prior to sealing floor and wall expansion joints with Sika’s Sikadur-Combiflex SG system, all floor expansion joints were presealed with multipurpose Sikaflex PRO3, a one-part, moisture-curing, elastic joint sealant with high mechanical and chemical resistance. Powered by Sika’s advanced
i-Cure technology, Sikaflex PRO-3 provides a movement capability of 25%, bubble-free curing, as well as very low emissions and unsurpassed adhesion to porous and non-porous substrates. This product complies with numerous international standards, including contact with potable water. Sikadur-Combiflex SG is a highper formance joint and crack sealing system consisting of a modified flexible polyolefin waterproofing tape, bonded with Sikadur-31 DW, a moisture-tolerant, thixotropic, advanced epoxy adhesive suitable for contact with drinking water. Used for construction, connection and expansion joints on both dr y or damp concrete sur faces, the SikadurCombiflex SG bandage system is easy to install and highly flexible, making it an ideal joint sealing system for many difficult applications. With excellent adhesion, it per forms well in a wide range of temperatures and is weather- and water-resistant. To minimise the impact of existing
top Exterior view of the reservoir above Interior Combiflex application
cracks in the structure, Sikalastic-152 was applied to the internal, exposed, concrete sur faces. Since Vaal Marina is one of three towns lying along the 800 km shoreline of the Vaal Dam, its reser voir could not be out of action for long. The contractor was working to a tight schedule and, in using these products, was able to complete the project on time and within budget.
IMIESA September 2016
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
New bandage sealant
new bandage system was recently used to seal a new 10 Mℓ concrete reservoir at Savana City in Sebokeng. a.b.e. Construction Chemicals’ durajoint flexband joint bandage system offers a solution for waterproofing expansion and construction joints, including critical joint areas with high or frequent movement, says Steff Dalton, technical sales consultant, a.b.e. Construction Chemicals. Dalton says the durajoint flexband system is particularly suitable for the sealing of joints in potable water concrete reservoirs and other water-retaining structures, and was consequently ideal for the reservoir project. “The system includes, a special epoxy adhesive for bonding the durajoint flexband thermoplastic elastomer membranes. This
adhesive is a twocomponent, solventfree epoxy resin bedding mor tar/ adhesive with low slump characteristics. It can be applied in sections of up to 20 mm thickness horizontally, and 10 mm vertically in a single application without the need for formwork,” says Dalton. Some of the advantages of the adhesive include early high strength, which reduces downtime, high peel strengths to the membrane and resistance to chemicals. Priming is usually not required unless the concrete is very porous.
Work in progress on the new concrete reservoir at Savana City in Sebokeng
In addition to waterproofing concrete reservoirs, the flexband system can be used on a variety of substrates, including damp substrates. It can safely be used in contact with potable water.
IMIESA September 2016
APE pumps - Pumps at the heart of Africa Mining
Waste Water processing
Manufacturers of: Vertical industrial turbine pumps Multi-stage high pressure pumps Split casing pumps End suction pumps
26 Nagington Road, Wadeville Germiston 1400, South Africa Tel +27 11 824 4810 | Fax +27 11 824 2770 PO Box 14733, Wadeville 1422, South Africa Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.apepumps.co.za
Vertical sump pumps API 610 pumps
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
Small in size,
big in impact I
As the saying goes, it’s the little things in life that matter. In this case, it’s nanotechnology that saves both time and money in, perhaps, one of the most unlikely applications – pumps… and even pipes!
n talking effieither the inner ciency, one may casing or the By Tony Stone think that the total rotor affects the effiefficiency of a motor and ciency of the pump and pump would be the average of the can even lead to pump failure. two individual efficiencies; e.g. the motor at The cost of retrieving and reworking a failed 92% and the pump at 85%, giving an overall pump can be significant. efficiency of 88.5%. That, unfortunately, is So, how does one reduce corrosion and not correct. The total efficiency of a motor pitting other than by using a higher-grade and pump, when operating together, is the stainless steel? Even then, stainless steel product of individual efficiencies, and that won’t last in some instances, either. While product reduces the total efficiency value this question may appear quite simple, the to well below the average. If the output answer is not. Nonetheless, as is typical efficiency of the motor is 92% (the input to of humanity, innovation always comes to the pump) and the efficiency of the pump is the rescue. 86%, then the overall efficiency is 78% (0.92 Current problems and solutions x 0.85 = 0.78) – well below the average. Given that it is virtually impossible to What follows is a list of the different types design a pump that is totally immune to of corrosion: in-service deterioration – e.g. mechanical wear, corrosion and pitting – the chemical properties of the fluid or the combination of a fluid and solids being pumped will affect a pump’s lifespan and efficiency over time. The poorer a pump performs, the greater the load on the motor and the more expensive it becomes to operate. With pumps accounting for 20% of the world’s electricity consumption, maximising pump efficiencies has got to be an operational imperative. Moreover, corrosion of
•U niform corrosion is where oxidation of the entire surface occurs. However, it also includes tarnishing, active dissolution and polishing in chemicals (especially acids), anodic oxidation and passivation. • Localised corrosion affects certain areas of the metals involved more acutely than others, occurring faster in these areas than elsewhere. • Bi-metallic corrosion occurs when two metals of differing potentials are placed in solution and electrically connected together; e.g. a current flows between the two and electrons are given up by the metal with the greater potential – the anode. • Deposit corrosion occurs under or around a discontinuous deposit on a metallic surface. In seawater, gaskets, fittings and
top Nanotechnology, at the molecular level (Source: YouTube) right A corroded pump (Photo: Mather+Platt)
IMIESA August 2016
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Overall efficiency %
Bent axis piston
marine growth are primarily the cause of propagation, leading to pitting. • Pitting usually occurs where there are defects in the surface of the alloy, which may be either in the smoothness of the surface, or the internal structure of the alloy.
above An APE LN-type, splitcase, super-duplex stainless steel, horizontal centrifugal pump as used in the abalone farm Table 1 The typical overall efficiencies of hydraulic pumps (Source: Bosch Rexroth) Note: The typical overall efficiencies of hydraulic pumps are simply the product of volumetric and mechanical/hydraulic efficiency.
number) corrosion value of >40, as well as good stress-corrosion-cracking resistance. It also functions effectively between -80oC and 300oC. Lastly, duplex stainless steels have a better ability to absorb energy no matter the dynamic or static state. All of this makes for a near-perfect pump.
Super-duplex stainless steel From the experience of pumping cold, highalkalinity seawater through Gansbaai’s Aqunion’s Roman Bay abalone sea farm, where lesser pumps corrode in six months, the five APE LN-type, split-case, super-duplex stainless steel, horizontal centrifugal pumps, each with a capacity of 1 250 m3/h to draw seawater under negative suction head from the seawater intake gully, have now been running for 18 months, and are still going strong. Not only do these pumps have greater efficiency but reduced running costs as a bonus. Manufactured from grades 4a and 4b stainless steel, this type of steel is called “duplex” because it has a two-phase microstructure consisting of ferritic and austenitic stainless steel grains. Initially, when molten duplex stainless steel solidifies, it does so as a completely ferritic structure. Then, as the material cools down to room temperature, about half of the ferritic grains transform to austenitic grains, which form layered “islands” in the microstructure. The result is a mix of roughly 50% austenite and 50% ferrite. So, what does this all mean? First, duplex stainless steels are twice as strong as regular austenitic or ferritic stainless steels. Second, it has significantly better toughness and ductility than ferritic grades and, most importantly, it has an exceptionally good PREN (pitting resistance equivalent
IMIESA September 2016
The nature of nanotechnology To edge closer to making that nearperfect pump, hybrid nanocomposite coatings, which are high-toughness, durable coatings that molecularly bond to the surface of steel, are the way to go. Such coatings combine the properties and reliability of extremely tough, durable, and corrosionresistant engineering thermoplastics, with the abrasion resistance and durability of glass-ceramics. True molecular, covalent bonding to steel surfaces uses advanced coating chemistries to produce a true molecular bond that will not fail in service. Both undercutting and attachment through defects are impossible, since the coating permanently adheres to the surface.
Super-hydrophobic coatings A super-hydrophobic coating is a nanoscopic surface layer that repels water. Silica-based coatings, which are gel-based and can be easily applied either by dipping the object into the gel or via aerosol spray, are perhaps the simplest to use. It is anti-corrosive and -icing, has cleaning capabilities and can be used to protect electronic circuits and grids. Applied in the maritime industry, this coating reduces skin friction drag for ships’ hulls, thus increasing fuel efficiency. Such a
Pipes, Pumps & Reservoirs
1 day (Mpa)
3 days (Mpa)
7 days (Mpa)
14 days (Mpa)
28 days (Mpa)
EFNARC performance requirements
Tensile strength (dog bone test)
2 Mpa at 7 days
0.25 Mpa at 24 hours
Superior adhesive bond strength was achieved
Tensile bond strength Shear bond strength Elongation
10% elongation at break
Table 2 Test results
coating should allow ships to increase their speed and range while reducing fuel costs. They can also reduce corrosion and prevent marine organisms from growing on a ship’s hull. The primary weakness of this type of coating is its durability.
Modified, solvent-free epoxy coatings One of the better solutions in the fight against corrosion is modified, solvent-free epoxies. While these offer similar benefits as solvent epoxy coatings, such as resistance to corrosion and erosion, as well as a resistance to chemicals, being a solvent-free material eliminates associated health and safety problems. Galvanised iron pumps used in the water treatment works of a local coal-fired power station simply crumbled with the chlorine content of the water and the effects of static electricity. Mather+Platt’s solution was to coat the pumps with a glass-like-finish epoxy coating to provide the required service parameters, modifying for strength, flexibility, corrosion and erosion resistance, and temperature and chemical resistance. This epoxy coating provides excellent adhesion to metal substrates, including stainless steel, duplex steels, carbon steel, aluminium, cast iron and bronze, as well as specialist alloys. Normally, any fluid passing through a pump’s hydraulic passage is subject to resistance caused by friction, the extent of which is determined by the liquid’s viscosity. Hydraulic losses represent most of the efficiency reductions and resultant energy consumption increases, which are exacerbated by corrosion and cavitation. This epoxy coating helps to reduce these losses, increasing a pump’s performance.
A revolutionary innovation A revolutionary polymer superskin, patented as Rockguard Superskin, is a
polymer-based, two-component, elastomeric material developed by German-born South African industrial chemist Hans Kirsch. This amazing product, which starts out as a liquid, hardens to a rock-hard, glossy-smooth finish of applied thickness that is resistant to corrosion, abrasion and chemicals. Tested by the Research Institute of America in 62 different harsh chemical environments, from acetic acid (CH3COOH) to trisodium phosphate (Na3PO4) solutions,
above An epoxy-coating spray gun BELOW The impeller of a Mather+Platt EME 1418 pump treated with Rockguard Superskin
including hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), it passed 40 tests with an excellent rating (A) and 21 with a good rating (B). Currently under testing by the CSIR in hot and freezing corrosive chemical, metallic, bacterial, parasitic, radioactive and electrical environments, for classification
in potable water treatment, the results are expected to be equally good. Its abrasion index means out at a volume loss of 119.57, which, according to Allan Thysse of Fenner’s abrasion test laborator y, is a “not a bad” rating. Conveyor belts transporting coal have an abrasion index of between 120 and 130. In pump applications, Mather+Platt’s EME 1418 pump, with a 130 m head specification and 1 7 00 m3/h pump rate, has the impeller treated with Rockguard, giving it outstanding corrosion, erosion and chemical resistance. The same protection can be said of coating the internal surfaces of steel pipes. Tests carried out by the Centre for Polymer Technology and the Firelab Facility at the CSIR show that Rockguard Superskin has low smoke toxicity and does not combust or propagate a flame, and is self-extinguishing. When used in water applications, the fire-retardant component, zinc, is removed. Rockguard comes with a 10-year guarantee and offers exceptional value for money, costing a tenth of a less capable, competitor product. Last, but not least, the application possibilities of Rockguard Superskin are endless. For example, mining applications are numerous, as senior principal engineer Brian O’Conner confirms. The product is so amazing that it even serves as an effective replacement for shotcrete or gunite to stabilise rock formations in hazardous locations underground. A 3 mm lining of Rockguard is stronger than 50 mm of shotcrete. It also allows rock mechanic engineers to observe the profile and behaviour of a rock structure, which is so important in safety and impossible with a 50 mm thick layer of shotcrete. Quite the revolutionary product.
IMIESA September 2016
INVITATION TO SHOW INTEREST IN USE OF TREATED WASTEWATER FOR NON-POTABLE PURPOSES
Johannesburg Water (SOC Ltd), a water and sanitation utility owned by the City of Johannesburg invites all bulk water customers who might be interested in using treated wastewater/effluent or reclaimed water for non-potable purposes to express their non-binding interest .The expression of interest must include an indication of the likely quantity and quality requirements, intended use and period over which they are likely to require the water. Such indication must include necessary pre-requisites/conditions for taking up the service, reliability requirements and any other pertinent details. All submissions,including enquiries should be directed to the contact person below in person or by email preferably before the 31st August 2016. Address : 5th Floor,84 Main street, Marshalltown Contact Person : Mthokozisi Ncube Email : Mthokozisi.email@example.com Telephone : 011 688 1604 follow us :
A simple change can bring about significant reduction in non-revenue water. With changes in metering technology, the focus has shifted to monitoring and management systems; however, it seems the hear t of the management system is being overlooked. By John Alexander, Krohne
revisit to this heart is necessary to help reduce non-revenue water (NRW). NRW is the difference between the volume entering a distribution system and the volume billed to customers. There can be various reasons for this: • Apparent losses are caused by unauthorised consumption of water and water losses due to measurement errors. The latter arises from using old water meters, leading to under-reading and reduced revenue. • Real losses are caused by leakage and overflows at storage tanks and pipeline leakages. The average NRW per country can be substantial – from 7% in Germany up to 20% to 40% for the UK, Spain and Italy, and even higher. With an increased focus on water scarcity, there is also an increased focus on water losses. Understandably, leakages are seen as a major cause for water losses.
Software systems Spending on software is a large cost to the user or provider of services, and much focus is placed on the software and reports that the system can generate. Not enough thought is put into where the input of the data comes from or how it is interpreted. No matter how smart or good the logging or monitoring systems or software used to measure NRW are, a combined approach is necessary. Automated systems are essentially there to replace the meter reader, who goes from meter to meter to log figure 1 Consumption comparison
the consumption for billing purposes, and to reduce the cost of obtaining the more accurate billing data for improved cash flow and profitability, resulting from the accurate billing of consumer meters. The trend is for utility companies to move towards automated meter reading systems, as employing people is often a big cost consideration for the authority. The cost of vehicles, fuel and vehicle maintenance is becoming prohibitive, especially in large or remote areas where distances are great. In most cases, the meters are not read at the same time, which makes correlation and water balance difficult. This is where logging and monitoring systems really come into their own.
telemetry, GPRS/GSM and the internet, and logger manufacturers have upgraded their existing product with telemetry capabilities. The newer systems have smaller logging capacities, as a rule, because the data is transferred more quickly to be evaluated so that actions can be implemented, enabling a quicker response to the analysed data in the case of alarms, for example. Data is often transmitted on a predetermined time frame. Using telemetry or GPRS data offers a distinct advantage, especially when doing water balances or monitoring night flow and leak detection, as the readings are taken at the same time, which makes comparisons and trends easier to understand and compare, especially when linking to specific times or incidents.
Logging capability and capacity The intelligent logger is no longer a must for bulk metering and can be considered overkill. The main reasons for this is that many data loggers were available before the advent of
Other key considerations One of the most important factors to consider in reducing unaccounted-for water is unmetered water, whether revenue water or Flow range as defined by MID, OIML R49 & ISO 4064:2005 Qstart = s tarting flowrate Q1 = minimum flowrate Q2 = transition flowrate Q3 = p ermanent flowrate Q4 = overload flowrate
The above example represents the consumption pattern of a technical university. A meter with basic flow-range capability (R80) doesn’t record the flow below 1 m3/h and is accurate only above 2 m3/h.
A meter with an extended flow-range capability (R500) installed on the same site measures flow above 0.09 m3/h and is accurate above 0.32 m3/h. The measurement difference amounts for 17% of the total volume.
IMIESA September 2016
H5000 Hybrid Woltmann Water Meter
• This meter records ultra-low flows while supporting high flow capabilities, all with one register. • H4000 body can be retro-fitted with new H5000 measuring cartridge (40 -100mm only). • Convert existing bulk meters to combination meter equivalent – field exchangeable mechanism. • Electronic register pre-equipped for AMR/AMI with pulse, encoder, M-Bus L-Bus outputs.
The first choice for municipalities For more information, please visit Elster Kent Metering (Pty) Ltd www.elstermetering.com or call +27 (0)11 470-4900 © 2016 Honeywell International. All rights reserved.
not. Here, the meter or sensor is very important and often not investigated fully in the decision-making process. There has been a fundamental change in metering technology available to the engineer today. The old “you cannot control what you don’t measure” adage comes to mind. Mechanical bulk meters are still the most widely used metering devices by local authorities, water boards, water providers and water associations. This is essentially by default, as no alternatives were available at the time. For this reason, the accuracy limits were adapted to reflect the accuracy of the mechanical devices at the time. The purchase or acquisition price is one of the main drivers but, with the rising costs of water production, and if we really want to reduce energy consumption and unmetered- or NRW, then this aspect of water metering needs to be revisited. Bulk meters are the largest source of revenue, as they measure the “bulk” of the water. The fastest return on your investment is a project to test and upgrade all highrevenue meters. New-technology water meters are now available to the utility, offering a great opportunity for NRW reduction. New-technology meters can make water system design and optimisation easier, as some of these meters can be employed with zero inlet, outlet and maintenance requirements, lower pressure drops and the ability to measure a far wider range than mechanical meters (as they are not affected by over-spin, pressure surges, etc.). They also reduce the total actual cost.
figure 2 Cost comparison
Mechanical Maintenance costs
Gain for water providers in costs
(Repair and replacement costs)
Operational costs (pressure loss)
(strainers etc. extensive plumbing work and engineering costs
Operation Installation costs
greatest apparent loss. It is no longer necessary to close down parts of a distribution network by closing valves. Usually, times of
done than for the small flows in domestictype meters.
Unconsidered advantages It is not often considered that new-technology meters offer additional advantages over traditional, mechanical meters, in that they can be used for effluent measurement, wastewater and potable water. They are truly multipurpose devices. This offers the user additional benefit of spares reduction.
Unmetered value Unregistered or unmetered values are by far the most important factor contributing to NRW. Mechanical meter accuracy limits are often the determining factor for meter selection. It is specifically for this reason that new-technology meters, such as batterypowered electromagnetic water meters, offer huge advantages in reducing unaccountedfor or unmetered water and NRW. Meters should be selected according to flow rate, not line size, and many meters are oversized, as the consultants select according to the line size, extra expansion capacity and safety factors. The advantage of new-technology meters is their turndown ratios that enable them to measure low and high flows, which provides a distinct advantage over mechanical meters. Mechanical meter accuracy classes are referred to
Mechanical bulk meters are still the most widely used metering devices by local authorities, water boards, water providers and water associations
Leak detection using water meters Instead of waiting for annual or monthly water meter readings, a more efficient method for finding leaks is to divide an entire distribution network into sectors or district metering areas (DMAs). Water meters are installed at strategic points in the network. The readings are compared with the sum of domestic water meters in that specific area. The highest priority can be given to those areas with the
low flow rates (nights) are considered to be the best time to locate leakages. The ability of these meters to measure low flows at night and high flows during normal consumption hours is critical and high turndowns are required. The measurement of the minimum flow is critical and a proper, well-sized or effective meter is necessary. Due to the technology employed in modern batter y-powered water meters, the meters have exceptional turndown ratios, making them ideal for zonal measurement where leak detection can be more easily
IMIESA September 2016
and described in SANS 1529, and the MID MI-001 and OIML R49 specifications (MPE = maximum permissible error): Minimum flowrate – Q1 MPE ± 5% Transitional flowrate – Q2 MPE ±2% Permanent flowrate – Q3 MPE ±2% Overload flowrate – Q4 MPE ±2%. If we take new-technology meters such as the Krohne Waterflux 3070 and compare it to a mechanical bulk meter, both DN 80, we can see a huge reduction in unmetered water, due to the better accuracy of newtechnology meters of 0.2% of measured volume. Using the MID, sample calculations are shown below.
Sample calculations Mechanical bulk water meter of DN 80, Q3 = 40 m³/h, with a typical measuring inaccuracy at Q3 = 2%: • 0.8 m³/hour unmetered through the device • 19.2 m³/day unmetered through the device • 7 008 m³/annum unmetered through the device. Batter y-operated electromagnetic water meter of DN 80, Q3 = 40 m³/h, with a typical measuring inaccuracy at Q3 = 0.2%: • 0.08 m³/hour flow unmetered through the device • 1.92 m³/day flow unmetered through the device • 700.8 m³/annum flow unmetered through the device.
IMIESA September 2016
This is a tenfold improvement over a mechanical meter. In monetary terms, if we took a bulk charge from R3.48/kℓ to R3.97/kℓ, in the case of Rand Water’s proposed tariff increase, the difference would be: • mechanical meter: 7 008 m3 at R3.97 (new proposed tariff) = R27 821.76 • Waterflux: 700.8 m3 at R3.97 (new proposed tariff) = R2 782.18. The difference is that the water provider could recover R25 039.584 if the meter were a custody transfer or billing meter. This, of course, is a massive reduction in NRW. If the meter were being used to reduce unaccounted-for water, this would see a reduction 6 307 m³ of water not being accounted for by a mechanical meter. Some would argue that the meter would not be measuring continuously over 24 hours at Q3 but, even at 50% of Q3, it still presents a significant recovery compared to mechanical meters. The acquisition price may be higher than a mechanical meter but the 100% payback or ROI would take less than a year. It can be seen from the calculation comparison that the inaccuracy of mechanical meters makes it difficult to determine and identify leaks. The more accurate, new-technology meters with their large turndown ratio (500:1) can determine flows almost immediately, which can alert the water provider early in the case of a potential leak. Pressure in the DMA can then be reduced until the leak source is determined or repaired. A cost
comparison between the two technologies is shown in Figure 2. This does not include the recovery gain by the water provider if the meter were a billing one.
Ever-increasing costs It is clear from government publications that water is going to get more and more expensive and, in future, costs will determine the location of water-demanding industries. These rising costs mean that more accurate metering will save bulk users money and provide a fairer means to measure consumption. Increasing electricity costs will also add to the cost of water purification and distribution – costs that will ultimately be passed on to consumers. It is, therefore, only fair that water metering should be more accurately measured.
Conclusion New-technology meters offer water providers the necessary tools to enable effective strategies to help reduce NRW. Accurate meters play an important strategic role in leak detection, billing improvement and NRW reduction, which should not be underestimated. Newtechnology, battery-powered water meters provide rapid payback or ROI when compared to mechanical meters. As water is becoming more and more costly, it should indicate to the authorities and consulting engineers that the time has arrived to reassess the bulk meter philosophy.
pipe reaming for Tshwane
A new pipe reaming method never before used in a single pass on a bulk pipeline has proved optimal in replacing ageing pipeline infrastructure, causing no disruption to overhead powerlines.
above Pipe reaming just outside the Temba Water Purification Plant in Hammanskraal below Electrofusion welding of a saddle for air valve installation
By Frances Ringwood
he use of one-of-a-kind pipe reaming technology was recently demonstrated at the Temba Water Purification Plant upgrade and extension project. The demonstration saw older asbestos pipelines reamed out and replaced on a 130 m portion of the pipeline situated in Hammanskraal, some 50 km north of Pretoria. The trenchless component of the project is being carried by Trenchless Technologies on behalf of the contractor, Group Five, for the City of Tshwane.
Site specifics Sam Efrat, managing member, Trenchless Technologies, explains, “The pipe reaming phase of the project entails replacing the existing 800 mm asbestos cement (AC) pipeline with a new 800 mm OD high-density
polyethylene (HDPE) pipeline over a distance of 1.3 km. “Pipe back reaming is a modified boring process where the existing pipe is reamed out and the new pipe is pulled through the existing pipe and newly created bore using a horizontal directional drilling (HDD) machine,” explains Efrat. “The process of pipe reaming starts by placing the HDD rig at a designated location (behind an excavated receiving pit). This should preferably be downstream and at a lower point, which allows a gradient for the injected bentonite mud mix, and the outflow of the AC cuttings and particles,” he adds.
World first The process described above has been used worldwide for several years, predominantly on small-sized host pipelines up to about
300 mm D. “The method we’re using is, to our knowledge, a world first because a host pipe of 800 mm OD has not been done before. The process would also normally involve fragmenting a smaller host pipe and increasing the diameter of the bore over several runs. What differentiates this project is that we’re doing it in one pass – in other words we are fragmenting the old pipe and IMIESA September 2016
Trenchless Technology Specialist
Our range of services include: • Pipe Bursting • Horizontal Directional Drilling • Pipe Rehabilitation
• Pipe Ramming • CCTV Inspection • Dewatering
• HDPE Welding • Deep Excavation and Shoring • Underground Service Detection
• Slip Lining
• Industrial Pipe Cleaning
• Close-ﬁt lining: COMPACT PIPE
For more information you can contact us: +27 (0)21 761 3474 F +27 (0)21 797 1151 E firstname.lastname@example.org www.tt-innovations.co.za
Trenchless Technology Horizontal directional drill (HDD) rig specifics
The HDD rig is a DD10 from American Augers and it’s a midi-machine. Categories of HDD machines are from mini (up to about 12 t), midi (from 12 t to about 70 t) and maxi (70 t up to about 1000 t). Although the DD10 is considered a large machine in South Africa, worldwide it’s technically considered a “midi”. It has a rod basket with nine rods that can be automatically loaded. The rods themselves are 89 mm in diameter; this increases to 106 mm at the joints. threaded together by the HDD rig to form a long continuous drill stream. This is pushed from the HDD rig through the existing pipe to the upstream launch pit. The HDD rig is capable of pullback forces of up to 50 tonnes and a rotation force of 18 982 Nm.
pulling through the new pipe in a single, seamless installation,” explains Efrat. In order for a project of this size to be carried out, a DD10 American Auger drill rig was purchased. The rig’s 6.1 m long drill rods are
At intervals, catchments are constructed between the launch and receiving pits, as required, to assist with the pipe reaming operation, either to carry out repairs to equipment, remove any obstacles, relieve pressure on the bentonite or to act as a catchment pit to contain the bentonite. Excavated (virgin) material from the launch, receiving and catchment pits will be stockpiled for later backfilling of all pits. The launch and receiving pits, as well as any additional
42 IMIESA September 2016
+27 (0)86 006 6344 email@example.com www.trenchless.co.za
catchment pits, are all lined using 250 micron plastic sheeting. Once all phases have been completed, the plastic sheeting is then removed from the pits and water is pumped out, double bagged and disposed of. The remainder of the launch and receiving pits, as well as any additional catchment pits are then backfilled and compacted using the excavated and stockpiled virgin material.
Conclusion “Trenchless Technologies pioneered this system in South Africa and is now refining it,” adds Efrat. “As on other projects, at the Temba site, we have again shown that this technique is an innovative and affordable practice well-suited for the refurbishment of ageing or damaged infrastructure.”
Breaking new ground
Location of Lufhereng oweto covers an area of (Source: Google Maps) some 200 km². According Townships of the future to the 2011 Census, it is To address the growing home to a population demand for urban housing, of 1 271 628 people living in the Department of Human 355 331 households. However, Settlements launched, among included in the definition of a other initiatives, the Breaking “household” is the “informal New Ground strategy, which dwelling” classification, is a mixed housing developmore commonly known as a ment approach. backyard shack. It’s a good Innovative in that they prodeal for the formal householder, vide a mixture of housing prodwho derives rental income from ucts to suit low-, middle- and these shacks, but not good for high-income earners, these develthe shack dweller who pays a lot of opments are undertaken in partnermoney for very poor accommodation ship with the private sector, especially – with demand exceeding supply. financial institutions where a beneficiary Since 2011, the population has grown by at has a choice to access the government subleast 215 000 people. sidy to supplement a bond from a financial Three empirical research papers provide institution. Other products may differing statistics about backSoweto is big, and just got bigger. The include rental accommodation and yard dwellings. Generally speakchallenge, though, is keeping up with low-cost housing – all in one area. ing, the City of Johannesburg “Mixed housing development accounts for 21.86% of the Gauteng’s high rate of urbanisation takes housing delivery to the next national total of backyard rentand the associated demand for level, providing a variety of amenied shacks, which would be the equivalent of 145 737 shacks. housing, and services. The ambitious ties in one environment – from houses, schools and libraries to Of these, Soweto has a reported Lufhereng project will partially meet clinics and sports facilities, as 36 371 informal shacks, with an this demand. By Tony Stone well as commercial and industrial average of 2.1 people to a shack.
One of the semi-detached house designs by 26’10 South Architects (Photo: Conrad Judson)
IMIESA September 2016
Delivering sustainable infrastructure that improves our world. “DOING GOOD WHILE DOING BUSINESS”
Contact www.bigenafrica.com, or the office most convenient to you: Bigen Branch Offices Pretoria (012) 842 8700, Head Office; Accra +233 26 052 8157; Bloemfontein (051) 430 1423; Cape Town (021) 919 6976; Durban (031) 717 2571; East London (043) 748 6230; Gabarone firstname.lastname@example.org, +260 73932502; Kimberley (053) 831 2935; Lusaka +26 211 372 900; Mafikeng (018) 386 2111; Port Elizabeth (041) 373 4270; Windhoek +26 461 237 346. Bigen Project Offices Kuruman (053) 712 2882; Mthatha (047) 532 5234; Newcastle (034) 312 7732; Port Louis +230 403 6143; Rustenburg (014) 597 3655;
developments,” says Gauteng’s premier, David Makhura. Lufhereng is the largest integrated mixed housing development in Gauteng and is located west of Dobsonville, Soweto. Launched six years ago, this 2 080 hectare development, with its first phase complete, including all services and facilities such as roads and stormwater, water and sanitation and electricity, has more than 2 100 families settled and living quite happily. Ultimately, Lufhereng will comprise 22 500 mixed housing units in 12 or 18 extensions by the time it is completed in 2023. Charles Davis, project manager: Housing, City of Johannesburg, says, “A R47 million, state-of-the-art primary school has been built. The school will be semi off-grid, as it will harness and operate its electricity from solar panels during sunny days. Other features that stand out about the school include interactive boards, well-laid-out sports fields and a well-stocked library.” Over the next seven years, the turnkey developer, Lufhereng Development Company, will deliver 7 500 RDP houses and 7 000 FLISP (Finance-linked Individual Subsidy Programme) and bonded housing units. An estimated 6 100 high-density residential apartments – for rental, sale and social housing needs – will be added to the 2 100 units already built. The projected R6.2 billion capital investment (mostly by government) will include sports and recreation facilities, community centres, a waste separation and management plant, schools, clinics, commercial and industrial space, and other such amenities towards delivering a sustainable and functional human settlement.
above right The recently completed Extension 5, with all municipal infrastructure in place (Photo: LR Civils) right and above left Two more of the house designs by 26’10 South Architects (Photo: Conrad Judson)
small-to-medium-scale farmers through intensive agricultural practices with the production of higher-yield produce in a 480 ha area.” The urban agricultural component will consist of open-field farming, of high-value crops for the production of essential oils, with 100 × 1 080 m2 hydroponic farming units and an equal number of fish breeding schemes, as well as 1 000 × 90 m2 hydroponic units. “This agricultural estate will grow plants for essential oils that could yield high income for small families, as well as certain types of freshwater fish for the export market, all creating downstream opportunities such as pressing, packaging, storage and transport facilities, as a stimulus for local employment,” Davis adds. The Lufhereng agricultural businesses implemented for emerging, economically empowered black farmers, and supported by training and mentoring, will be managed and monitored through cooperative structures. There will also be a beneficiation park, retail outlets, research stations and a skills development centre with upstream and downstream business opportunities creating an estimated 10 000 jobs. Initially, the agriculture plots will be leased to farmers and converted to wholly owned freehold plots once the sustainability of a farmer has been proved.
Towards a future reality Creating employment Anne Graupner and Thorsten Deckler, of 26’10 South Architects, who did the architectural designs, say, “Lufhereng promotes a unique live-and-work environment with the opportunity to engage in agricultural activities. The initiative seeks to promote
On 27 July 2016, Johannesburg’s executive mayor, Cllr Parks Tau, launched the second phase of the Lufhereng mixed housing development project, which will take place in the designated and recently prepared Extension 5 area, and opened the new R260 million Lufhereng Substation.
The second phase of the Extension 5 development is an initiative of the Johannesburg Social Housing Company that will see the construction of 407 units on two multistorey and high-density walk-up apartment blocks. These units will cater for families with incomes ranging from R2 500 to R15 000 per month, per household. The development of and civil engineering services for Extension 5 included the trenching and laying of sewer pipelines and water reticulation pipes, the installation of dolomitic specified pipes and manholes, the trenching and laying of stormwater piping, and the construction of large culverts as well as the box cutting, layer works and asphalting of the township’s roads and, finally, the laying of cable ducting. In all, excavating the 22 000 m of trenches to lay pipes, putting down and surfacing 31 500 m2 of roads and installing municipal services on 919 stands was the responsibility of LR Civils, a subcontractor to Bigen Africa, the greater project principal. After the opening of the substation, which was commissioned by City Power, Mdu Nzimande, acting managing director, City Power, said, “The substation’s generation capacity of 125 MVA will enable the power utility to supply more than 22 000 homes and 500 businesses with electricity.” Building the substation was a technically challenging and intricate process that comprised two substantive subprojects and two less complicated, yet critical, subprojects. The first subproject involved all the “heavy”
IMIESA September 2016
80TH IMESA CONFERENCE
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from top RIGHT One of Lufhereng Substation’s transformers (Photo: F&J Electrical) One of the substation's control schemes (Photo: F&J Electrical) An aerial view of the newly completed substation (Photo: City of Johannesburg) Mayor Parks Tau and Matshidiso Mfikoe, MMC: Environment and Infrastructure Services, unveil a plaque at Lufhereng Substation (Photo: City of Johannesburg)
work, with the construction of the substation’s platform, involving bulk earthworks, the installation of the earth mat, the construction of the HV (high-voltage) equipment foundations and oil catchment pit, the erection of the steel structure for the HV equipment and, of course, facilitating entry to the substation with the construction of a bitumen-asphalt-topped access road. Getting the primary plant components up and running required the design, supply and installation of 132 kV SF6 outdoor breakers, 132 kV CTs (current transformers) and VTs (voltage transformers), the stringing of twin bull conductors, the installation of surge arrestors and post insulators, the installation of 11 kV SBV3 switchgear, with Vamp arc protection, and the installation of two 45 MVA, 132 kV/11 kV transformers. Secondar y plant activity focused on protection and control, which included the design, supply and installation of Siprotec numerical relays and three 45 MVA 88 kV/11 kV transformer schemes. This required two 132 kV incomers schemes, a bus zone scheme and 28 x 11 kV schemes, as well as a FAT (factor y acceptance tested) and SAT (security administration tooled) protection system and two 45 MVA 132 kV/11 kV transformers. Minister Lindiwe Added to the substation’s protection and control, Sisulu an integrated CCTV access control and intruder detection system and a fire detection system were implemented. The final link in the chain of control was the installation of a fibre-optic cable between Roodetown Substation, in Roodepoort, and the Lufhereng Substation. The principal contractor responsible for this work was F&J Electrical, who subcontracted the design and engineering of the protection schemes for the 132 kV (five bays and bus zone panel) and 11 kV (21 bays) network systems’ outdoor and indoor switchgear, as well as the design of the interlocking philosophy and transfer scheme on the 11 kV level, to Neural Network Engineering. As Minister of Human Settlements Lindiwe Sisulu said in her 2016 budget vote, “South Africa’s Breaking New Ground policy is the best way to respond to urbanisation, to plan better and also to develop affordable rental and social houses for young people who are moving to the cities and for low-income earners. “These catalytic projects are designed to trigger investments from the private sector and, with our estimated R90 billion input over five years, we estimate an additional R150 billion will come from the private sector. In the process, hundreds of thousands of jobs will be sustained and thousands more created.”
“These catalytic projects are designed to trigger investments from the private sector.”
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The African continent is facing a growing power gap that requires sustainable solutions, which can either be hybrid or standalone, and a programmed approach to their implementation, according to Webb Meko of Black & Veatch Sub-Saharan Africa. By Alastair Currie
n considering a balanced power portfolio for Africa, conventional fossil fuel and clean energy solutions will ensure system reliability and support the achievement of environmental objectives, and renewables and distributed power are poised for growth, given continued interest. Hydropower, although traditionally associated with megaprojects, can be scaled down for simplified outputs of just 1 MW, and renewable energy applications that include solar photovoltaic, wind, biomass, geothermal and microgrids will also play important roles. All of these options have a business case depending on downstream requirements, budgets and incentives. Webb Meko, business development director, Black & Veatch Sub-Saharan Africa, is optimistic about the role of renewable alternatives in South Africa and Africa. “Solar and wind projects, for example, have relatively short construction and commissioning timeframes, plus they are attractive for local and global investor agencies, with good bankability. Upfront environmental impact assessments and approvals can also move faster, depending on development conditions.”
Black & Veatch is a US-based company, founded in 1915, which has over 11 000 professionals in its global offices. It has been planning and implementing world-class infrastructure projects in Africa for more than 50 years and, in late 2015, announced the creation of its local entity, Black & Veatch South Africa, with an office in Johannesburg. The company is currently ranked by Engineering News-Record “as the industry’s No. 1 design firm in both power and water and consistently in the top 10 in water”. Black & Veatch provides vital consulting and EPC solutions in four major sectors: power, oil and gas, water, and telecommunications, all of which are infrastructure driven. Meko speaks from his broad experiences in the energy sphere, spanning more than 20 years in power generation. “Renewable power solutions will help meet Africa’s energy demands and – as an infrastructure consulting, engineering and EPC company – we are proud to help further unlock the technology’s full potential by finding more affordable ways to deliver energy, particularly for remote rural communities where establishing grid connections can be prohibitive. The continent’s urban centres are also under enormous pressure from progressive migrations and, in many instances, existing services like water and sanitation cannot cope. Maintenance challenges are also placing older power plants under strain. Distributed power works really well in these instances to augment bulk base load supply.”
Like conventional power grids, microgrids generate, distribute and help regulate electrical supply, and their location is more immediately situated and localised within the proximity of the load. Distributed generation can be designed as a standalone, isolated system or as an automated one that works in tandem with existing grid infrastructure. These systems can also serve as a backup for critical installations.
A need for pragmatism Meko believes the current investor landscape needs a more pragmatic approach and greater public and private partnerships to fund IPP (independent power producer) projects. Most municipalities in Africa may resist demand-side management initiatives because there is a concern that “free” energy cannot be tariffed, taking into account that the sale of electricity is frequently one of the largest revenue contributors. However, he points out that renewable installations implemented by municipalities can still be metered, and revenues collected in a similar fashion to present water consumption tariffs. He explains, “We need to keep building awareness and incentivise public entities to embrace demand-side initiatives, as a commercially viable option, alongside conventional grid power, where it exists. This means moving projects from the planning to execution phase more readily. In addition to funding new projects, capital also needs to be invested to improve the efficiency and capacity of existing assets and ensure effective lifecycle costs for new
IMIESA September 2016
renewable power distribution facilities constructed. Being frequently involved at the feasibility stage allows Black & Veatch to work closely with clients to consider total cost of ownership when making early decisions, which helps project viability and sustainability.”
Black & Veatch also has a condition monitoring programme that remotely accesses the per formance and mechanical availability status of its installations. “Going for ward, we are optimistic about Africa’s medium-to-longer-term infrastructure opportunities, particuHybrid or standalone larly for electrification and water. Some 80% of South African households Countries on the continent need have access to electricity – a statistic to optimise their resources, where that places the countr y number one on available, in areas like natural gas the continent’s leaderboard in terms of and hydro-electric power, to drive energy access. What about the remainindustrial growth alongside renewaing 20% and those with grid power bles. There are oppor tunities for who would prefer a cleaner and more regions to pool energy and share Webb Meko, business cost-effective green alternative? Hybrid transmission and pipelines through development director, Black & Veatch solutions provide a means to address inter-governmental cooperation and Sub-Saharan Africa clean energy needs between convenpower purchase agreements. This tional and renewable, or a combination of the two. also creates the potential for countries to sell surplus power to Black & Veatch leads with various design-and-construct packneighbouring nations, adding a meaningful contribution to their ages for renewables: options range from just 65 kW to 10 MW economic growth,” states Meko. for small-to-medium-scale installations, although they can go up Drakenstein to launch SA’s first WTE plant to 100 MW with concentrated solar power. Where cost-effective, Alternative solutions ultimately benefit ever yone, and finding creabatter y backups ensure consistent power for 24/7 generation. tive responses has substantial environmental benefits. A current example is the development of South Africa’s first waste-to-energy (WTE) plant for Drakenstein Municipality in the Western Cape. This WTE is designed to supply 10 MW to the national grid – enough to power more than 10 000 homes. The WTE will use both the wet organic fraction to produce biogas and the dr y fraction of locally available municipal waste in an effort to provide clean-burning natural gas energy. Up to 500 tonnes of municipal solid waste per day will be diverted from the landfill to the WTE plant, reducing the waste volume by 90% and, in the process, conser ving landfill airspace. Black & Veatch was selected by MBHE African Power, a local renewable energy developer, to provide technical assistance. Black & Veatch will ser ve as the owner’s engineers to provide fuel characterisation, front-end engineering and design, and tender support for the EPC (engineering, procurement and construction), operations and maintenance contracts. The US Trade and Development Agency awarded MBHE a grant as a joint developer in a public-private partnership that includes the Drakenstein Municipality and Inter waste. The project suppor ts Power Africa, a US government-led initiative to increase access to electricity in sub-Saharan Africa by adding more than 30 000 MW of cleaner, more efficient electricity generation capacity and 60 million new home and business connections. “We would encourage African counties to view distributed generation and renewable energy as programmes, rather than onceoff initiatives, to achieve good longer-term economies of scale and sustainability,” adds Meko. “Investment in all areas of the power sector tends to bring with it modernisation and economic transformation, beginning at grass-roots level with SME development, which is vital for Africa’s future.”
“Going forward, we are optimistic about Africa’s medium-to-longer-term infrastructure opportunities, particularly for electrification and water.”
IMIESA September 2016
Answers to SA’s COP21 challenges
a strong foundation for infrastructure success
By Andreas Pistauer*
s a signatory to the Paris Agreement drawn up at COP21, South Africa requires a diligent transition of energy systems. There is not just one solution for achieving a sustainable, economical and reliable energy system. The respective political and economic conditions in each specific region need to be analysed in order to find the most suitable answer. South Africa, the dominant player in African coal, is seeking to diversify its power mix. Renewables, hydropower, gas and nuclear operators are all seeking to play a role in bringing the share of coal in power output down from over 90% today to less than 33% by 2040.
Mozambique is thought to have one of the world’s largest reserves of natural gas, and South Africa is well set to take advantage of utilising this as part of the Department of Energy’s 3 125 MW Gasto-Power Programme, plus a 600 MW additional gas determination. When compared to a coal-fired steam power plant (SPP), a gasfired combined cycle power plant (CCPP) offers far greater environmental and investment advantages. Using a 600 MW plant as an example, CCPP runs at >60% efficiency, while a new SPP runs at around 43% efficiency. The CCPP ensures a 58% reduction in CO2 emissions and a 600 MW CCPP can produce its first power within 20 months while only taking up 110 000 m2. Therefore, it produces the same amount of power as on SPP while starting up in one-third of the time and only taking up half the space. Gas-to-power is certainly a cost- and energy-efficient solution to South Africa’s long-term sustainability targets should form part of an integral energy mix.
The case for gas
*Andreas Pistauer is the senior vice-president: Gas & Power for sub-Saharan Africa at Siemens.
Did you know?
Approximately 31 000 MW of South African energy is run by Siemens products. Siemens also powers 20% of local renewable capacity, which includes solar and wind projects. A recent example is the Noupoort Wind Farm, situated in the Northern Cape. This was the first wind plant to successfully achieve operation as part of the third round of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP).
IMIESA September 2016
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IMIESA August 2016 51
BURSARY SCHEME Institute of municipal engineering of Southern Africa (IMESA) (IMESA) offers a bursary scheme for full-time studies in the field of Civil Engineering. Other engineering disciplines may be considered only at the discretion of the Executive Council of IMESA.
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Applications for 2017 will open in June 2016. Closing date for applications is 15 September 2016.
concrete strip roads
Untapped potential South Africa has yet to fully discover and utilise the benefits of concrete strip roads.
clockwise from top left The widespread concrete strip road network in Knysna’s upmarket Pezula Estate
Work in progress on a new strip road at the Verloren Vallei Nature Reserve near Dullstroom
rian perrie, managing director, The Concrete Institute, says concrete strip roads, laid as wheel tracks, are economic and durable, and particularly suitable as farm roads or roads in rural areas. “They can, therefore, be of invaluable use to the agricultural sector, as well as communities living in outlying rural areas,” he states. Although concrete strip roads have proved themselves in many countries, neither the South African governmental roadbuilding sector nor private land-owners have fully realised the advantages of, or fully utilised, concrete strip roads. Such roads are a particularly useful means of making steep rural farm roads passable in all weather conditions. “In the wet summer months, many potential visitors avoid visiting inland private
game reser ves and lodges with sedan vehicles, for fear of getting stuck in the mud. Concrete strip roads, par ticularly in very muddy areas, could, therefore, boost tourism numbers. Strip roads are widely used in SANParks resorts like the Mountain Zebra National Park near Cradock, in KZN Wildlife Ezemvelo resorts such as in the Drakensberg and at the iSimangaliso Wetland Park at St Lucia, and at the upmarket Pezula Private Estate near Knysna on the Garden Route,” adds Perrie, who acted as consultant for the construction of the Pezula strip roads. “The strip roads can be made relatively skid-resistant simply by wood floating the concrete as a final operation. For a strong, skid-resistant finish, the concrete can be broomed transversely to the direction of traffic to produce a multitude of fine
Concrete strip roads have been widely used in the upgrading of the iSimangaliso Wetlands Park near St Lucia
grooves across it. Light cars and LDVs can, under normal circumstances, use new concrete strip roads after three days of curing, and 1.5 tonne capacity trucks after seven days of curing.” According to Perrie, strip roads can be built without expensive or sophisticated equipment and by comparatively unskilled labour that has received only basic instruction. No reinforcement of the concrete is necessary and laying the strip roads can be done in short lengths, so their construction can be slotted in when labour and time are available.
IMIESA September 2016
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Breathing new life
into rural roads Roughly 50% of South Africa’s population lives in rural areas. One of the key challenges is to overcome the sizeable gap in access opportunities from a village to the nearest town centre. IMIESA reports on recent projects.
ccording to the Rural Transport Strategy for South Africa, addressing this problem requires a coordinated set of nodal and linkage development initiatives. The development of a balanced rural transport system requires an investment in access roads and the improvement of other forms of rural transport infrastructure. The need for a sustainable rural transport system relates mainly to the need to establish sustainable funding channels and procurement systems, address neglected road maintenance requirements, and develop improved structures for the management of stormwater, which is the major cause of deteriorating road conditions in most “deep” rural areas. IMIESA looks at three projects where some of these issues have been addressed.
Edendale’s resurfacing problem Edendale township, situated in the southwestern outskirts of Pietermaritzburg, is a large area dominated by steep hills and valleys. Most of the roads used by the locals are constructed of gravel and often so poorly maintained that little or no gravel is evident. Following heavy rainfalls, the in situ clay material is exposed, especially on the steeper roads, which are rendered inaccessible to most vehicles. Paving these roads with asphalt was not viable due to the steep gradients and prohibitive costs of paving. Owing to the fact that the roads are trafficked mostly
by light motor vehicles and pedestrians, engineers from the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport were able to resurface two steep road sections with Kaytech’s Multi-Cell 100 mm filled with readymix concrete. Multi-Cell is a honeycombed, cellular structure manufactured from strips of a coated slit film. This woven polypropylene tape is stitched together to form three-dimensional diamond-shaped cells. It is used as an in situ shuttering to cast continuous, interlocking concrete paving for road or canal construction. Further uses include effective erosion protection treatment for hydraulic structures, as well as slope protection and load support. For this particular project, the cells were filled with readymix concrete – although, for a vegetated embankment, the cells may be filled with topsoil. Multi-Cell provides a high cell wall/infill interlock as well as high tensile strength and seam strength. It is usually supplied in standard 5 m x 10 m panels, but to accommodate these narrower, single-track roads, Kaytech specially manufactured 4 m x 10 m panels. In total, 5 080 m2 of Multi-Cell 100 mm were installed. Since these rehabilitated road sections will be easy to maintain and
from top 1.6 km of steep road was made serviceable in KwaNyuswa The Multi-Cell structure was infilled with concrete Local community labour used to install the MultiCell structure The repaired road surface
IMIESA September 2016
will remain serviceable far into the future, Kaytech is confident that many more MultiCell roads will be constructed in these areas of steep terrain in the future.
Steep slope upgrades made simple The Multi-Cell solution was also used in KwaNyuswa, situated in the Valley of a Thousand Hills in KwaZulu-Natal. The main access road to KwaNyuswa off the R103 is blacktop but the remaining roads in the area are all gravel. Due to a combination of a lack of maintenance, steep gradients with poor drainage and heavy rainfall, the gravel surface had been completely removed, exposing the in situ, loose and slippery residual decomposed granite. Access was very difficult for private vehicles, buses, taxis and pedestrians, which
IMIESA September 2016
make up the bulk of the traffic within the local community. As was the case in Edendale, the KZN Department of Transport determined that the asphalting of these severely damaged sections of road would be impossible due to the steep gradients and the prohibitive costs involved. It was, therefore, decided to carry out the design for an upgraded surface for the extremely steep section of District Road 1506 (D1506) as a pilot project for other similar roads and Kaytech’s Multi-Cell 100 mm was specified. In certain sections along the resurfaced 1.6 km road, guardrails had to be installed due to the steep gradients and sharp corners. The 100 mm thick Multi-Cell was specified for this road as it is traversed mainly by small vehicles and pedestrians, although thicker
cells are available for heavier traffic loading. With the help of local labour who were trained on-site, Phambili Construction installed 9 000 m2 of Multi-Cell 100 mm. This was not the first Multi-Cell project undertaken by the contractor and it already had at its disposal steel frames, similar to the patented Tension Frames that Kaytech makes available to contractors to ensure that they are laid to the correct line and level. On occasion, the readymix concrete was manufactured a little too wet, resulting in slight ridges being formed at the lower end of each cell on the steeper sections. This was not a problem, however, since it significantly improved traction and skid resistance. Multi-Cell roads are all-weather roads, easily maintained and serviceable for many years, which will help the local inhabitants to take pride in their area.
from far left Concrete is often the most cost-effective paving solution in rural areas Sealmac is laid over bitumen on a milled surface Gravel is spread over Sealmac under a 50 mm asphalt layer
Breathing new life into hospital road In addition to its Multi-Cell solution, Kaytech has a unique Sealmac paving fabric, which successfully and economically solved a road maintenance problem in the village of Hilton in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Following the construction of the new Life Hilton Private Hospital in 2015, the KZN Department of Transport recognised that Hilton Avenue, the hospital access road, was badly deteriorated due to old age and increased traffic loading. The declining section of road had patches of crocodile cracks and pumping, and a rehabilitation solution that would last a few years without incurring the expenses of a complete resurface was needed. Sealmac’s unique features include the ability to act as
a stress-absorbing membrane interlayer that effectively retards any reflective cracking from the existing layer works. Sealmac is a nonwoven continuous filament, double-needle-punched bidim-grade polyester, designed specifically for resurfacing roads or upgrading gravel roads. The main contractor, Action Asphalt, commenced the project by first installing 1 400 m2 of Sealmac and subsequently paving it with a 50 mm layer of asphalt, according to installation guidelines. The bitumen used for the tack coat was a 3% to 5% latex-modified cationic emulsion applied at a spray rate of 1 ℓ/m2. However, due to a shortage of bitumen at the time, some of the Sealmac was saturated with a Cat-60 without latex, where the Sealmac was already sticking to the surface or where the latex-modified
emulsion did not fully saturate the Sealmac. The 50 mm layer of medium-mix asphalt comprised a 9.5 mm stone with a 5.5% bitumen binder content. The Sealmac system not only provides a stress-relieving function but also creates a waterproofing membrane that will prevent both the ingress of groundwater into the new pavement and the ingress of surface water into the existing layer works. The requirements for a top-quality, road maintenance geotextile include a high melting point, good saturation characteristics, high conformity and durability. Sealmac, with its high tensile strength, penetration load, grab strength, puncture resistance and bitumen retention, ticks all these boxes. Besides these qualities, the benefits of using Sealmac include reduced construction costs, reduced maintenance costs, prolonged fatigue life and reduced overlay thickness. This successful project has not only allowed Hilton Avenue to withstand an increased traffic flow for the foreseeable future, but has given the KZN Department of Transport breathing space until a full upgrade is necessary. IMIESA September 2016
Southern African leading asphalt manufacturer and supplier www.nationalasphalt.co.za
Maintaining key arterial routes Ongoing investment in Johannesburg’s road infrastructure lays the foundation for future economic expansion. Dr Sean Phillips* expands on the future plans of the organisation in an interview with IMIESA. What is the JRA’s mandate in terms of the City’s 2040 Growth & Development Strategy?
work will source their asphalt from their preferred suppliers.
SP The JRA’s mandate is to design, construct and maintain roads and road-related infrastructure, including stormwater infrastructure. In terms of the 2040 Strategy, the JRA needs to maintain existing infrastructure, provide roads ser vices to a growing city population, and ensure that the city has the roads infrastructure required to facilitate the envisaged levels of economic growth.
The JRA recently invested in 39 pothole repair trucks. Where will these be deployed and how will they assist in improving construction methodologies? All
Is the plan for the JRA to become completely self-sufficient in terms of its asphalt construction and maintenance objectives? The JRA tender for a new asphalt plant has closed recently. As with the existing JRA asphalt plant, the new plant will provide almost all the asphalt requirements for the JRA’s internal road maintenance units (largely patching and some resur facing). However, the JRA outsources some of its resur facing, its gravel-to-sur faced road upgrades, and its new road construction. As is the norm in the sector, the contractors who do this
39 pothole trucks have been deployed to the eight maintenance depots of the JRA. The new trucks will improve safety and eliminate exposing employees to hot asphalt when going to site. The pothole trucks are more effective than the previous trucks in that they tip on three sides, meaning there is no use of shovels to remove asphalt from trucks.
What is the current JRA budget for pothole repairs and how can the agency improve on addressing the pothole problem? The JRA spends approximately R80 million on the repair of potholes per annum. Most of this pothole repair work is done by internal maintenance teams based at our regional depots. In order to effectively address the pothole problem, the JRA needs to do more
preventative maintenance such as fog spraying, crack sealing and resur facing. In recent years, the budgets for these types of preventative maintenance have increased substantially. Most of the preventative maintenance work is carried out by contractors. With regard to improving the repair of potholes, the JRA is currently implementing an operations management improvement programme in its regional depots, the aim of which is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the internal pothole patching teams. This improvement programme includes elements of business process engineering, developing improved standard operating procedures, improving technical manuals governing how pothole repairs are diagnosed and carried out, setting production targets, measuring actual production, and ensuring continuous improvement and on-the-job training of foremen and super visors.
Which areas in the city are immediate priorities? From a social roads point of view, the priority is to upgrade roads in previously disadvantaged areas and to maintain roads in previously
IMIESA August 2016
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“The JRA is able to produce detailed costing plans for maintenance, taking into account infrastructure life-cycle maintenance requirements.” advantaged areas. From an economic roads point of view, the priority is to upgrade key arterial routes, which are important for growth, as well as to maintain other heavily trafficked routes. The JRA is currently carr ying out detailed studies to develop plans for upgrading key economic arterials in the city, in conjunction with Sanral and the Gauteng Department of Transport.
Can you comment on the JRA’s life-cycle costing plans for future road maintenance? The JRA has advanced road, bridge and stormwater management systems in place and carries out regular condition sur veys to provide the base data for these management systems. It is, therefore, able to produce detailed costing plans for maintenance, taking into account the life-cycle maintenance requirements of each type of infrastructure. The challenge the JRA faces is insufficient funding to implement all these maintenance plans, although funding has improved in recent years. As a result of this improved funding, the JRA has been able to substantially increase its life-cycle maintenance activities, such as resur facing, and the results of this are visible in the city.
In conclusion, what will the envisaged transportation landscape look like by 2040? The City of Johannesburg’s Department of Transport is developing an integrated transport plan for the city. The goals of this plan will be to ensure that the city has an effective and efficient public transport system, that a “complete streets” approach is implemented throughout the city (this involves considering pedestrians, cyclists and public transport modes in addition to private vehicles), and that the transportation system facilitates competitive economic activity for a growing economy. *Dr Sean Phillips is the managing director at the Johannesburg Roads Agency.
JRA expands its pothole fleet
qstra Fleet Management has Dr Sean Phillips, MD, JRA, takes delivery of delivered 39 new pothole repair the first of 39 pothole trucks to the Johannesburg units from Eqstra Roads Agency (JRA). Fleet Management The units were designed and developed by the JRA in conjunction with Kanu Commercial Body Construction. Eqstra, as the contract manager for specialised vehicles for the City of Johannesburg, was then commissioned to implement the concept and ensure its full realisation. This included overall responsibility for product quality, cost control, project management, product compliance and the delivery of all 39 units. The new trucks utilise an Isuzu 400 chassis, with a specially designed body featuring the following: • heavy-duty body suitable for transporting hot asphalt from the JRA depot to the pothole site • double cab with space for seven workmen including the driver • three-way tipper: it can be tipped to the left, right and rear by changing pins on the load body • storage bin for traffic signs • storage compartment behind the cab for tools • extended chutes at the rear and on the sides of the vehicle to prevent hot asphalt spillage on the load body. “These units have been specifically designed to improve occupational safety and productivity of maintenance staff when dealing with hot asphalt,” says Dr Sean Phillips, managing director, JRA. “The vehicles will be going into service with immediate effect and we look forward to the resultant improvements in operational efficiencies.”
IMIESA August 2016
Planning municipal fleet replacements Stretching budgets and maximising life-cycle costs require an exper t understanding of the financial options. BY NIGEL WEBB
otor vehicle fleets play a major par t in helping municipalities achieve service deliver y requirements. However, experience tells us that the current condition and structure of these fleets impede meeting the required standards. The reasons for this are many, but typically include insufficient vehicles, excessive age, poor mechanical condition and, of course, limited budgets. An expenditure analysis often reveals that the costs of major mechanical repair, and the often associated cost of replacement rentals, exceed the cost of a new vehicle. All of this suggests that municipalities should give more consideration to modernising their fleets, where significantly reduced maintenance costs and increased reliability offset the perceived costs of new vehicles. So, what is the process to evaluate the costs and benefits of a modernised fleet?
IMIESA September 2016
First, a fleet audit must be undertaken to establish age, mechanical condition, roadworthiness, cost of ownership and fit for purpose. This will very quickly identify those vehicles that should be disposed of. Municipal vehicles, despite their age, often achieve good value at auctions and this provides some capital for new replacements.
Choosing the right financing option Although there are many financing options available to municipalities, it is important that selection is influenced by vehicle type, usage and the available fleet management infrastructure. Outright purchase is dependent upon available capex budget: when limited, the categories to go for are either high-usage vehicles with regular replacement, or assets with long replacement cycles. Considering that usage contracts are generally limited
to three years, it would be preferable to use cash resources for vehicles with long replacement cycles, such as heavy trucks, yellow and static equipment. A full maintenance lease (FML) – a rental package, without ownership and inclusive of maintenance and tyres – has great benefits as a fixed-cost product. However, it comes with strict condition and usage requirements. FML contracts are time and kilometre based, and the supplier carries the cost and risk of resale. This potentially exposes the municipality to significant make-good costs and excess kilometre charges unless it strictly manages condition and usage, including servicing. Although agreements are generally for three years, the municipal environment frequently calls for short-term extensions. For this reason, it is vital that agreements allow for such extensions and define the terms and conditions. An FML is well suited to light vehicles where
It is important that the choice of financing is influenced by vehicle type, usage and the available fleet management infrastructure
three or four years of usage represents a reasonable portion of useful life. An operating lease is a rental product, similar in structure and requirements to an FML. It is also time and kilometre based, but excludes the cost of maintenance. Suppliers of this product are able to provide a managed maintenance service where the actual cost of maintenance, plus a service fee, is paid by the municipality when it is incurred. Bank finance comes in many forms of lease, with or without residual values and instalment sales. Ownership often drives the selection
of this financing method and it comes with greater flexibility to meet the cash flow requirements of the municipality.
Pre-selection feasibility study Although the tender process should, in theory, minimise the cost of financial products, a pre-selection feasibility study will identify benchmark costs and the risks associated with each product. It is important to avoid expensive
future risk or downstream costs related to poor condition and usage management. With the exception of FML, all finance products exclude maintenance and tyres. Fleet-leasing companies are able to provide a standalone, managed maintenance ser vice where their resources and infrastructure are applied to manage actual maintenance expenditure. This ser vice utilises external/ dealer workshop facilities and suits municipalities without internal workshops. Nigel Webb, owner, Latitude Fleet Services
IMIESA September 2016
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Prestressed for extra
Some 3 400 prestressed hollow-core concrete slabs are being used to construct a 5 km security wall for the Depar tment of Public Works at South Africa’s naval base in Saldanha.
esigned by Delta Built Environment Consultants, in close collaboration with hollow-core concrete slab manufacturer Topfloor, the wall is being erected by KP Construction, the project’s main contractor. According to Wessel Prinsloo, director, Topfloor, the slabs are being precast and are prestressed with steel reinforcement, before being delivered Saldanha. “Prestressing provides hollow-core slabs with additional strength and the slabs being used for the Saldanha wall boast a strength rating of 50+ MPa. As a result, nothing short of mechanised demolition equipment or high explosives would make any sort of destructive impression on the wall. This is why prestressed slabs are being used on an increasing basis to safeguard property of strategic importance or high value in other parts of the country,” advises Prinsloo. The wall is being built to a simple yet effective design, which uses galvanised steel H sections to support the 6 m long slabs. The H sections are bolted on to six threaded bars cast into the reinforced concrete foundations. These extra-heavy-duty foundations were specified by Delta to ensure that the wall can withstand the frequent and sometimes gale-force winds prevalent on this stretch of coastline. The wall follows the natural
top A section of completed security wall built with Topfloor prestressed hollowcore slabs at the Saldanha Naval Base above A Topfloor wall slab is offloaded prior to installation between the steel H sections
contours of the undulating fynbos-strewn land and rises 3.2 m and 4.2 m above ground level; a section of approximately 400 mm is buried below ground. Construction, which began in December 2015 and is due for completion by the end of 2016, is effected by hoisting the slabs using a truck-mounted crane. A special grab mechanism had to be designed by Topfloor to lift and install the slabs. The crane has
sufficient reach to service three wall bays from one location. Once installed, the slabs are caulked into the H sections with a plaster sand and cement mix. Part of the contract involves the planting of a line of various types of trees on the outer perimeter of the wall to add a green and aesthetic element to what would otherwise have been a stark monolith. Additional aesthetic appeal is achieved by mounting the panels so that the slabs’ smooth soffit sides are positioned on the outer (public) side of the wall. Moreover, the slabs have been cast with bevelled edges that form V-shaped channels where the slabs meet, to further enhance the appearance of the walls.
Faster, stronger Melinda Esterhuizen, marketing manager, Echo Group, says there are several advantages to this type of walling – speed of construction and the superior strength being major considerations. Adds Prinsloo, “Eight to ten bays, or 48 m to 60 m, are completed daily. A conventional masonry wall, which is not nearly as strong or durable, would have taken two to three times as long to build. “The cost of constructing a security wall using prestressed hollow-core slabs is
IMIESA September 2016
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considerably less than an in situ wall offering the same properties. Moreover, precast walling requires no shuttering or propping, on-site curing, formwork or grouting. “As with other walls built with prestressed hollow-core panelling, the Saldanha wall will have a very long lifespan. Other than occasional cleaning, no other servicing or maintenance is required. The slabs can also be dismantled and reused elsewhere,” he says. “Cost and time considerations aside, superior strength and durability are why slab walling is increasingly being used to protect highvalue assets. One example is a 1 000 m wall that secures part of the 649 ha Waterfall Country Estate in Midrand. This prestigious, mixed commercial, retail and residential estate hosts the recently opened Mall of Africa shopping precinct and, when completed in 2020, will include retirement villages, business parks, a five-star hotel and a hospital. Constructed with Echo Group’s prestressed hollow-core slabs, the 4.2 m high wall has added architectural features such
A gabion-clad steel support column at Waterfall Country Estate
as aesthetically pleasing gabion cladding on the inner-facing steel support columns and textured painting,” states Prinsloo. Another example can be found at Scaw Metals in Germiston, where Echo’s prestressed slabs were used to construct a 4 000 m wall. Esterhuizen explains that soil conditions determine the type of foundations required for slab walling and whether slabs should be placed horizontally or vertically. “Clay, collapsible soils and high water tables require horizontal installations, whereas better soil conditions are best suited to vertical applications. However, wind and impact resistance influence the placement decision, and some horizontal installations require piling. Impact resistance also determines wall height and slab depth. “Stormwater drainage must be properly engineered and weep holes,
generally 100 mm in diameter, should be placed strategically for good drainage,” concludes Esterhuizen.
IMIESA September 2016
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Construction Vehicles & Equipment
Transferring risk from
customer to supplier Babcock International in Africa is one of the continent’s industr y leaders in providing comprehensive infrastructure and reliable technical suppor t to some of the world’s leading heavy-duty machiner y brands.
s the exclusive regional distributor of Volvo and SDLG construction equipment, Tadano and Sennebogen cranes, Winget concrete handling machinery, and rigid and articulated haulers from Terex Trucks, Babcock has built long-term relationships with its customers by delivering to the highest standards long after the sale has been made. David Vaughan, sales director, and Ben Buys, operations director, for Babcock’s Equipment Division discuss how Babcock’s tailor-made aftersales service contracts are increasing productivity for customers, protecting the residual value of owners’ machinery, and transferring risks associated with maintenance away from its customers. “Our long-term replacement strategies, fleet maintenance and technologically advanced services are proving to be increasingly attractive options to our customers, particularly in the mining industry where machines operate long hours and any downtime translates into lost revenue,” says Vaughan. According to Buys, Babcock is currently ranked among the top three companies in Southern Africa in terms of servicing facilities and technological training. He adds that a major portion of Babcock’s turnover is
Volvo aims to provide reliable technical support
generated by customer service contracts with over 500 premier brand name machines on contract at the present time. As part of Babcock’s comprehensive aftermarket support capabilities, every customer has access to the following services: Power by the Hour, Volvo CareTrack, and a rebuild offering.
Power by the Hour Power by the Hour provides the owner with a fixed maintenance cost over an extended period of time based on a fixed sum per
hour of machine usage. Machine owners are, therefore, assured of an accurate cost projection and largely avoid the costs associated with breakdowns. The contract includes the option to purchase an extended warranty to give customers further peace of mind. “Power by the Hour assists in protecting the residual value of a machine by increasing its future trade-in value and also aligns with the customer’s cash flow, as they only pay when the machine is utilised,” says Buys. “An upfront rate is agreed upon that fixes the price of maintenance and parts for the first 12 months of the contract, allowing machine owners to forecast such costs with accuracy,” he continues. These tailor-made contracts transfer the risk of component failure away from the customer and relieve the owner of the need to stock components. There is no inventory for the customer to carry as Babcock technicians are equipped with all the necessary components and tools to service the machinery onsite, thus improving uptime and productivity. A further advantage of the Power by the Hour service contract is access to technological progress – a benefit that is passed on to the customer. “We keep on top of the latest technological advancements ensuring that the customer not only receives the correct parts but also the latest available on the market. Furthermore, we have a fully functional training centre that offers courses to Babcock technicians as well as our customers,” says Buys.
CareTrack CareTrack is the Volvo Construction Equipment telematics system that transfers data from machinery to Babcock’s dedicated internal Service Department. This remote monitoring system can be used to set
IMIESA September 2016
Construction Vehicles & Equipment
service reminders in advance, allowing sufficient time for the necessary resources to be deployed, and as an early warning system for potential component breakdown. “With this system, our technicians can identify when components need to be replaced or repaired, addressing any maintenance issues before they become costly problems,” says Buys.
a machine’s warranty has lapsed, customers are offered the option of refurbishment as opposed to trading in or buying new, where possible. This costsaving alternative provides further hours of productivity from the refurbished machine, while Babcock parts and services extend the warranty for an additional 12 months. Babcock’s aftersales support service is available across its extensive branch network throughout South Africa, Namibia, Zambia, Botswana and Mozambique. Technicians can also be dispatched to remote locations in Africa with all the tools and diagnostics necessary to complete a service.
“Power by the Hour assists in protecting the residual value of a machine by increasing its future trade-in value and also aligns with the The system can also customer’s cash be used to geo-fence machines and track flow.” operating hours.
Rebuild The rebuild offering is specifically geared towards the mining sector where machinery rapidly clocks up high production hours. Once
IMIESA September 2016
We are there when you consult
Need advice on your concrete? Our technical experts are available for consultation throughout Southern Africa. Discuss concrete with us. www.theconcreteinstitute.org.za +27 11 315 0300
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I M E S A A F F I L I AT E M E M B E R S
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS AfriSam
Isuzu Truck SA
Sizabantu Piping Systems
36 Strata Civils
The Concrete Institute
Echo ELB Ditchwitch
Elster Kent Metering
Zest WEG Group
Water & Sanitation Services SA OBC 10 2
IMIESA September 2016
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Heavy duty, reversing drum, mechanically fed concrete mixers capable of producing 24 batches p/hour. Available in 3 sizes: 300R 7.2m³/hr, 400R - 9.6m³/hr, 500R - 12m³/hr. Standard features include water tank (or flow meter) and hydraulically operated feed hopper. Towable chassis with 4 pneumatic tyred wheels. 4 Jack-legs provide stability when mixing and allow for removal and safe storage of wheels. Available with optional extras: batchweigher, dragline feeder, discharge cone with rubber extension and feed apron.
THE RIGHT CHOICE Our customers wanted more power to perform all functions at once. They wanted a heavy-duty stakedown system for greater stability when boring and backreaming. They wanted greater horsepower, a higher-capacity pump, advanced electronics and, of course, they wanted all of it to be easy to operate. Our engineers love a challenge, and you’ll love the JT30 All Terrain directional drill.
The Ditch Witch TK Series HDD Guidance System: You can cut through noise and complete bores with an unprecedented level of confidence, thanks to the TK Series’ dual locating methods (peak and null), four-frequency beacon, depth range of up to 33.5 m, high-contrast graphics, and much more.
Tri-Hawk Down-hole tooling for soft to medium rock, fractured and chunk rock
The JT9 combines the simplicity and easy operation of smaller horizontal directional drills with the advanced features of bigger drilling machines.
We don’t just sell equipment. We pledge to be there when you need us. After all, we’re in this together.
ELB EQUIPMENT - HEAD OFFICE:
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Water and Sanitation Services South Africa (Pty) Ltd (WSSA) is a specialised provider of sustainable water services in Southern Africa
The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa (IMESA) IMIESA promotes the knowledge and practice of in...