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The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal p Engineering g g of Southern Africa




Strength beyond CEMENT the bag Insight


Engineering South Africa’s future today

Sustainable infrastructure planning & design


Renewable energy Opportunities in the municipal sector

e in the


“Our value proposition to the public sector... is our ability to deliver large-scale multidisciplinary projects.” Fuzile Felix Fongoqa, executive chairman of the NAKO Group

I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 V o l u m e 3 9 N o . 4 • A p r i l 2 0 1 4 • R 5 0 . 0 0 ( i n c l VAT )

THE JOAT GROUP OF COMPANIES has moulded itself into an efficient and market-leading solutions-orientated team that primarily addresses the optimisation of water supply to consumers through the minimisation of water losses, application of appropriate technology, revenue improvement and energy efficiency. The group’s key focus areas of operation are consulting and operations engineering (essentially the reduction of nonrevenue water and stabilising of water supply), product sales and support, energy efficiency and mentorship. JOAT’s passion and vision is to ensure that municipalities become as efficient as possible in delivering water to consumers and has adapted its approach towards an outcomes-based partnership that has shared responsibility and accountability. The ultimate objective of any successful partnership with JOAT is to provide water service authorities with an efficient distribution system that they are fully equipped and trained to continue to operate.

In response to this approach, JOAT has invested in wide-ranging technology and partnerships that can be harnessed for the benefit of municipalities. Flow metering solutions (permanent or temporary, monitoring or revenue-generating), data management solutions (data loggers, GSM data loggers), control valve solutions (pressure-reducing valves, pressure controllers, surge control), leak detection solutions (leak detection equipment and service) and energy efficiency solutions (variable speed drives and system optimising) are all available to be presented into cost-effective, custom-made packages. JOAT has also expanded into the optimisation of energy consumption in the water cycle and has a number of in-house experts that can undertake energy audits and design energy efficiency solutions for pump stations and treatment works. This forms part of its overall approach to making the distribution of water as efficient as possible.

HEAD OFFICE Unit 19 Alexander Park, 24 Alexander Road, Westmead, Pinetown, KZN, SA 3610 • Postnet Suite 23, Private Bag X4, Kloof 3640 t +27 (0)31 700 1177 • f +27 (0)31 700 9853 • Contact Daryl Spencer c 083 555 9996 NATIONAL OFFICES • Pietermaritzburg • Port Elizabeth • Johannesburg • Cape Town • Shelly Beach




20 Mogale City


interchange 25 Umgeni upgrade

Engineering the future

Water & wastewater


The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal p Engineering g g of Southern Africa


Editor’s comment


President’s comment


Africa Round-up


Insight Engineering South Africa’s future



Engineering South Africa’s future today

Sustainable infrastructure planning & design


Renewable energy Opportunities in the municipal sector

in the e


“Our value proposition to the public sector... is our ability to deliver large-scale multidisciplinary projects.” Fuzile Felix Fongoqa, executive chairman of the NAKO Group

human settlements


Upgrading Percy Steward WWTW



PPC believes the creation of an Infrastructure Codesa, similar to the Convention for a Democratic South Africa, will keep the infrastructure development momentum that the country has experienced since 1994. P6

R352 million interchange upgrade



and leadership


Trenchless Partnering for trenchless innovation 42


Technical paper A new model for the City of Johannesburg Information: Part 2


Energy 73

Industry news New prize for African engineers New appointments at APE Pumps €100 million for infrastructure projects Get support with new project delivery approach


ef ficiency in the water 47 Energy

80 80 81 83

Sustainable infrastructure

55 Training SA’s youth

Trenchless innovation



Sabita awards achievement

New roads for steep terrains

in n the e


Energy optimisation within urban water systems


Roads & stormwater



Eco-efficient criteria

Developing sustainable

PPC Strength beyond CEMENT the bag

Energy efficiency in the SA water industry The basis of water metering in South Africa Training the youth to combat water leaks


Mogale City


Building roads in tough terrains

“Our value proposition to the public sector... is our ability to deliver large-scale multidisciplinary projects.” Fuzile Felix Fongoqa, executive chairman of the NAKO Group

10 IMIESA April 2014


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PUBLISHER Elizabeth Shorten EDITOR Nicholas McDiarmid HEAD OF DESIGN Frédérick Danton EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Danielle Petterson SENIOR DESIGNER Hayley Mendelow DESIGNER Kirsty Galloway CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Claire Nozaïc SUB-EDITOR Beatrix Knopjes CONTRIBUTORS Prof Dhiren Allopi , Bo Bata, Serena Coetzee, Stuart Knight, Norman Milne, Manglin Pillay, Shian Saroop , Frank Stevens, Abe Thela, DinaoTjia, Inga Loots CLIENT SERVICES & PRODUCTION MANAGER Antois-Leigh Botma PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise FINANCIAL MANAGER Andrew Lobban MARKETING AND EVENTS COORDINATOR Neo Sithole ADMINISTRATION Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS PRINTERS United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________

Breaking common ground Putting this edition of IMIESA together has been like an orchestration. Across the industry, voices are making themselves heard, and it is gratifying that they are speaking towards solutions.


UNICIPAL ENGINEERS, civil engineers, consulting engineers, civil contractors and others have the will to put infrastructure development back on the map as a cornerstone of both South Africa and Africa’s forward development. The sector is a powerful one, with the ability to create jobs, bolster economies and help emerging businesses contribute to and benefit from a potential robust economy. Getting a solid pipeline of well-coordinated, well-specified and holistically planned infrastructure projects is completely achievable, as long as all parties listen to each other and realise that all the right ingredients are already in place. There is no doubt that this sector could contribute as much as minerals do (if not more) to the local economy if the right people in the right positions and in the right order can all play from the same score. If it’s a conductor we are looking for, look no further than the Civilution Congress. Making no promises to be all things to all people, this event seeks to bring the industry together, across the public and private sectors, to begin a transformative dialogue that has the potential to coordinate real and lasting changes that will benefit not only the industry, but the country as a whole. Taking place at Emperors Palace from 6 April 2014, many of you will be reading this from the event itself, but for those unable to be there, the next edition of IMIESA will provide an overview of the broad achievements of the congress. It will also provide insights into the National Development

ADVERTISING SALES Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER: MEDIA No. 4, 5 Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail: th

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R550.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2014. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS IMESA Administration Officer: Narisha Sogan P O Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: Website: BORDER BRANCH Secretary: Melanie Matroos Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2401 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 E-mail: EAST CAPE BRANCH Clarine Coltman Tel: +27 (0)41 505 8019 Fax: +27 (0)41 585 3437 E-mail: KWAZULU-NATAL BRANCH Secretary: Rita Matthews Tel: +27(0)31 311 6382 Fax: +27 (0)31 701 2935 NORTHERN PROVINCE BRANCH Secretary: Rona Fourie Tel: +27 (0)82 742 6364 Fax: +27 (0)86 634 5644 E-mail: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO BRANCH Secretary: Henrietta Oliver Tel: +27(0)79 390 7536 Fax: 086 536 3725 E-mail: WESTERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Erica van Jaarsveld Tel: +27 (0)21 938 8455 Fax: +27 (0)21 938 8457 E-mail: FREE STATE AND NORTHERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27(0)83 457 4362 Fax: 086 628 0468 E-mail: All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers.

Plan, government’s take on sector reform and – perhaps most importantly – how to continue this movement long after the closing of the congress. Everyone’s voice is important in unlocking the potential of this industry we all care so much about. As an editor working in this sector, I find it rewarding that the sector is filled with individuals and institutions who really want to share their stories, projects ideas and challenges. In this edition of IMIESA, we publish an Insight article – the first in a quite a long time. This Insight examines that current state of play in the industry and provides a coordinated attempt to describe the ideas being put forward to move the industry along (page 12). There is a feature on a road building project in the unique conditions of the slopes Pietermaritzburg and a further roads’ focused on article looking at the interchange upgrade recently completed in Umgeni. Project updates from the Mogale Municipality, innovative energy production from high-pressure water conduits and thought-provoking article on sustainable construction are among the other features in this edition. Building up to a national election always grabs centre stage, and this next election in South Africa is no different. Service delivery is proving to be a much-gnawed bone of contention. Let us not forget the ongoing commitment and dedication of our municipal engineers who keep the machinery of this wonderful country going, elections or not. We salute you, Nicholas McDiarmid

To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.


Infrastructure News

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Cover opportunity In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the C opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or o service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the s advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on a cover bookings contact Jenny Miller on tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223. c IMIESA April 2014



IMESA is vital to the success of the NDP

Frank Stevens, president of IMESA

The National Development Plan (NDP) offers a long-term perspective and defines the roles that different sectors of society need to play in reaching that goal.


MESA IS certainly one of the most important sectors involved. The four broad objectives of the plan are: • providing overarching goals for what we as a nation want to achieve by 2030 • building consensus on the key obstacles in the way of achieving these goals and how to overcome them • providing a shared long-term strategic framework within which more detailed planning can take place in order to advance the long-term goals set out in the NDP • creating a basis for making choices about how best to use limited resources. The core elements of the NDP are: • housing, water, electricity and sanitation • safe and reliable public transport • quality education and skills development • safety and security • quality health care • social protection • employment • recreation and leisure • clean environment • adequate nutrition. These core elements make it obvious that the municipal engineer is crucial to its success. A huge responsibility clearly rests on every IMESA member’s shoulders. The NDP has


IMIESA April 2014

been approved and adopted by government and has received strong endorsement from the broader society. The focus now shifts to how the NDP will be implemented over the next 17 years.

Phasing and integration with government This process of prioritisation and sequencing will take place in three broad phases with the first phase of “unlocking implementation” having already been undertaken. The two remaining phases are: • 2014 to 2019 planning cycle – This should be viewed as the first in a series of fiveyear planning cycles that will advance the goals of the NDP. The involvement of local government will be important and it is intended that cabinet will give its full approval for this phase soon after the 2014 elections. • 2019 to 2024 and 2014 to 2029 planning cycles – This phase of the NDP will be used to initiate the remaining activities. It will build on previous cycles and be informed by the review of performance. The planning processes carried out by local authorities, government departments and other government entities will have a vital role to play in bringing the vision and proposals contained in the NDP to life.

NDP proposals are being incorporated into the existing activities of departments and broken down into a medium- and short-term plan at a national, provincial and municipal level. The NDP provides the golden thread that brings coherence and consistency to these different plans. Government has already started a process to align the long-term plans of departments with the NDP and identify areas where policy change is required to ensure consistency and coherence. Each government programme will have to be backed by detailed implementation plans that clearly set out choices made, actions that need to be undertaken and their sequencing.

Core implementation principles The core implementation principles for the plan to succeed have been identified as: • Broad ownership The plan enjoys wide support from all sections of society. The best way to sustain this support is by ensuring broad engagement at every level of implementation. It is important that the implementation phase builds on this sense of broad ownership by enabling different sectors and individuals to contribute their skills, resources and expertise.

• Continuous capacity building Capacity building needs to be treated as an on-going process. It requires that all sectors constantly strive to improve their own per formance. This includes measures to strengthen the capacity and developmental commitment of the state. • Policy consistency Many successful reform initiatives have policy consistency and stability of leadership as common features. The plan is designed to bring about change over a period of nearly two decades and this requires a degree of policy consistency. Policy changes must be approached cautiously based on experience and evidence so that the country does not lose sight of its long-term goals. • Prioritisation and sequencing No all proposals will be implemented at once. Priority will be given to policies that need to be implemented immediately because other actions cannot be implemented until these steps have been taken; policies and plans that have long-term implications and lock in future choices; areas where the core objective is to improve the implementation of existing policies; areas where the first task is to build consensus, improve trust, build capacity or agree on the division of responsibilities


before implementation can take place. Particular attention will be given in the initial stages to the three objectives that the NPC has identified as being especially important for the success of the plan: • improving the quality of learning outcomes • creating jobs and promoting inclusive growth • strengthening the capacity and developmental commitment of the state. • Clarity of responsibility and accountability the plan calls for the tightening of the accountability chain. An important step towards this is to ensure that all activities necessary to implement a programme are clearly spelt out, including the timeframe and responsibility for

implementation, as well as oversight and monitoring mechanisms that will help identify blockages.

In conclusion I have on many occasions emphasised IMESA’s commitment to contributing towards the success of the NDP wherever possible. You may recall my writing to Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan after the 2013 Budget Speech, urging that attention be given to the attraction, retention and training of municipal engineers, technologist, technicians and the importance of artisans. Acknowledgement and a favourable response was received from the National Treasury. As President of IMESA, I continue to strive to build relations with and work closely with

sister organisations and voluntary associations to help reach the above mentioned goals. I look forward to being part of a panel discussion on the first day of the upcoming “Civilution Congress”. The theme of the session is the National Development Plan and will include the importance of professionalisation in local government. The session will be chaired by Trevor Manuel and have representatives from IMESA, ECSA, SANRAL, SAICE, The city of Johannesburg and CESA as panellists. I will, as part of my President’s Comment, give feedback on this important congress and its outcomes in the next edition of IMIESA.

The NDP was featured in the Minister of Finance’s budget speech. I made use of the South African Government News Agency’s website for preparation of this article.

Minister of Finance, Pravin Gordhan

IMIESA April 2014

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Topical and relevant news and articles Projects and case studies Unique content Expert analysis from industry experts and thought leaders Updates on activities of companies and key roleplayers Industry association endorsements




A catalyst for change The creation of an Infrastructure Codesa, similar to the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (Codesa), will maintain the infrastructure development momentum that the country has experienced since 1994.


HILE SOUTH Africa is, this year, celebrating its hardfought for 20 years of democracy, it has also experienced a substantial increase in infrastructure projects, namely the construction of the Gautrain system, the Rea Vaya rapid transit system in Gauteng, the World Cup stadiums across the country, the King Shaka International Airport in KwaZulu-Natal, the Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg, dams such as De Hoop Dam in Limpopo, the Medupi and Kusile Power Stations that add power to the national grid and many more impressive infrastructure projects. However, the momentum the country built up since obtaining independence seems to be waning, mainly due to the global economic crisis. PPC Ltd, a pioneer in the Southern African cement and infrastructure industries, believes that an Infrastructure Codesa could help to relieve pressures on the industry and stimulate infrastructure development

levels last seen in preparation for the 2010 World Cup. “It is clear that infrastructure bottlenecks by both the public and private sectors need to be addressed, not through agreeing to generic accords but through implementable plans with clear roles, responsibilities and deadlines. The methodology is simple. Before 1994 people wanted a democratic South Africa. The National Party and the ANC both raised issues that were preventing them from moving forward in this regard. So, they put together a working group on each of those issues and came back with solutions. All the things that we see today

were compromises that emerged from discussions and negotiations,” says Ketso Gordhan, PPC Ltd’s CEO. Gathering the national government and private sector in one room could create a platform where many of the problems currently faced the industry are phased out. Gordhan is adamant that negotiations between the national government and the private sector would substantially increase the number of infrastructure developments completed. Gordhan believes there are various reasons why success has been experienced in the last 20 years. Firstly, it is due to a strong political will to get the job done. “If there is a strong political will to get something done, the chances of success are much higher. We saw that with the Gautrain project; it was because the MEC, premier and the national government really wanted the project to get done,” he explained. Secondly, the existence of strong officials on projects was crucial. “They knew how to get decisions through the various mechanisms in government, how to interact with the private sector and how to get the OPPOSITE PPC branch, Zimbabwe


IMIESA April 2014

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best advice to make things to happen. A strong official makes a huge difference,” says Gordhan. Take Gauteng, for example: In her State of the Province address on 24 February 2014, Premier Nomvula Mokonyane stated that the province embarked on a strategic economic infrastructure initiative which was intended to turn the province around. “The first generation of major infrastructure projects branded as Blue IQ turned Gauteng into a construction site. These included, amongst others, the Gautrain, expansion of City Deep, upgrade of the Newtown precinct, development of the Automotive Hub in Tshwane, Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg, the Cradle of Humankind in the West Rand and the expansion of the OR Tambo International Airport. These projects contributed immensely to the transport system, the tourism sector and general economic activity of Gauteng,” said Mokonyane. Nationally, the country is seeing a call for collaboration, which will boost infrastructure development. During the 2014 State of the Nation Address, South African President Jacob Zuma reiterated the call for government, business and labour to work together and come up with solutions to collaborate in order for the economy to grow in South Africa at significant levels. “We have to work together as government, business and labour to grow our economy at rates that are above 5% to be able to create the jobs we need. Fortunately this collaboration is already taking place,” said Zuma at the State of the Nation Address.

The president went on to say that steps had been made during 2013 to engage with various businesses on specific steps government could take to make doing business in South Africa easier. “The willingness of the private sector to engage with government around speeding up infrastructure delivery is very clear; there are many initiatives. The Business Leadership of South Africa has created a working group that is interacting with government. Everybody is very excited, it is clear everybody needs a new way infrastructure can be delivered,” says Gordhan.

PPC leads by example In an internal initiative to reduce the internal wage income gap, in 2013, Gordhan stepped up to the plate and took a pay cut of R1 million and PPC Ltd’s top 60 managers agreed not to take pay increases, making funds available to increase the salaries of 1 200 of the cement giant’s lowest earning employees. “Combined with the usual annual pay increase, most workers at that end of the spectrum got about an increase of between 15 and 17%. I feel that this was the right and responsible thing to do during Southern Africa’s current economic conditions. It was our duty to reduce the wage gap. The workers have welcomed the initiative, not just due to the economic incentive, but because they believe that they really matter to the organisation, which they do,” says Gordhan.

Strength S St re beyond the bag As a pioneer in the Southern African cem cement industry, the cement supplier

launched the PPC Builder’s App in 2013, a first to market mobile application, which was developed by Digital Solutions. The app offers the user the efficiency of effectively measuring how many cement bags are needed for any specific job. In conjunction with this, builders have access to useful tips from an established knowledge base, which assists in obtaining maximum value from their work, in addition to tools that assist on the job – most notably, the weather watch tool, which reports on current weather conditions – allowing the builder to comprehensively plan their projects. This allows builders and contractors to remain on schedule with their projects and thus on budget. The app also has a “where to buy” feature, which is able to determine the closest store according to the builder’s current location. It also advises on stores in a requested area and gives directions accordingly. In addition, the PPC Builder’s App offers users a handy spirit and surface level function. Towards the end of last year, the PPC Builder’s App received recognition at the New Generation Social and Digital Media Awards, when it was awarded the silver award in the “Most Innovative App” category. This is the first award of its kind bestowed on the cement manufacturer. The “Most Innovative App” category recognises apps which offer extensive functionality, enable efficient use of various applications and that are pioneers of innovation in the field of development. The PPC Builder’s App was just one of the initiatives or support systems in place to support the cement supplier’s clients in their construction or DIY projects.

“PPC Ltd believes that an Infrastructure Codesa could help to relieve pressures on the industry and stimulate infrastructure development.” Ketso Gordhan, CEO at PPC Ltd

IMIESA April 2014



INFRASTRUCTURE NEWS FROM AROUND THE CONTINENT ZIMBABWE US$400 million road upgrade Harare has entered into a US$400 million (R4.3 billion) joint venture agreement with a South African company for rehabilitation and maintenance of the capital city’s major roads. Harare will set up a joint venture firm, Harare Roads Development Company, with South African company Neo Capital to run the project for a 30-year period. The City of Harare will hold a 51% stake and Neo Capital the remainder. Neo Capital will raise funding for the project against a 30-year concession at a repayment rate of US$15 million annually. The Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure Development will guarantee the repayment through the Zimbabwe National Roads Administration account and the city’s billboards account. Harare has approximately 4 000 km of tarred roads, BELOW The construction of the 1 590 m long Second Niger Bridge in Nigeria is expected to boost economic activities and solve traffic problems on the existing Niger Bridge


IMIESA April 2014

a significant proportion of which is in poor condition due to lack of maintenance, with many roads being impassable because of potholes. The Harare roads rehabilitation and maintenance plan formed part of the development of the Greater Harare Transportation Master Plan. The plan includes the road infrastructure, a mass light-rail transit system, a bus rapid transport system and a taxi system. Harare wants US$50 million for road maintenance in this year’s budget.

NIGERIA New bridge to boost economic activities The construction of a second Niger Bridge is expected to open up Onitsha and boost trade between Nigeria and the West Africa sub-region. Construction has begun on the bridge, which will serve as a gate-way to the southern part of Nigeria. It is expected to boost economic activities and solve the traffic problems on the existing Niger Bridge. The Second Niger Bridge will be 1 590 m long and will take 48 months to complete. The

project will be executed under a public-private partnership arrangement for a concessional period of 25 years through the design, build, financing, operate and transfer model. The project forms part of the president’s transformation agenda to improve the infrastructural and socio-economic activities of the nation. The national vice chairman of the People’s Democratic Party: south-east, Col Austin Akobundu, has commended the President Goodluck Jonathan for his sustained infrastructural development of the South-east Zone. He cited project such as the Enugu-Port Harcourt express way being reconstructed; the Akanu Ibiam International Airport Enugu which was recently upgraded; and numerous electricity and water projects as clear examples that the president’s administration is helping the Southeast in its infrastructural and economic development efforts.


West Shoa and Horo Gudru zones of the Oromia Region, will also have bridges, a drainage system and other structural works, with a carriageway width of 10 m in the rural sections and 12 m in the towns. The second project involves the upgrading and expansion of the Sanja-Kerkera Road Project in the North Gondar Zone of the Region. Gravel road (38 km) will be upgraded to asphalt and another 10 km of new road will be constructed. Sanja-Kerkera will also have bridges, drainage systems and other structural works, with a carriageway width of 10 m in the rural section and 19 m in the remaining section. Meanwhile, construction has begun on two road projects covering a distance of 28.1 km that link the Addis Ababa-Adama Highway with Addis Ababa. The construction includes the six-lane roads, six large bridges, four interchanges and a railway crossing, among others. The projects are expected to be completed within 33 months.

128.5 km road projects The Ethiopian Roads Authority (ERA) has awarded Br1.9 billion Ethiopian Birr (R1 billion) road construction projects covering a total of 128.5 km to be constructed in the Amhara and Oromia regions. The projects were awarded to HAWK International Finance & Construction and China Railway No 3 Engineering Group. The first project is the GedoFincha-Lemelem Berha Road Upgrading Project, which involves upgrading the 80.5 km gravel road to asphalt. The road, which will connect the

TANZANIA Tsh100.8 billion for water and sanitation Tanzania’s Minister of Finance, Saada Mkuya, has signed two financial agreements worth Tsh100.8 billion (R674 million) to increase the access to safe water and improved sanitation services. The project is co-financed by the French Development Agency (AFD) and aims at benefiting the people of Bukoba, Musoma and Mwanza as well as the satellite towns of Lamadi, Magu and Misungwi. The programme


is in line with the government’s development agenda which seeks to provide the population with access to water and sanitation, as well as to improve the social-economic well-being of the citizens. Once complete, the project will provide approximately 450 000 residents with increased access to safe water and sanitation, reducing incidences of water borne diseases and improving living conditions.

ANGOLA Disorganised construction hurting environment Angola’s disorganised construction has delayed the development of cities and caused damage to the environment, says provincial director for territory

arrangement, urbanisation and housing in the southern Huila Province, António Abílio. Abílio says called disorganised housing construction is the result of an absence of basic sanitation and deficient drainage systems. He said this disorganised construction began when citizens started occupying land plots on the edges of cities during the civil war. As a result, damage to the environment has been caused. This is due to the piling up of rubbish in inappropriate places and the lack of appropriate protective echo-systems such as trees. In order to combat this, Abílio says construction planning must include a management and urbanisation policy to guide citizens when building private infrastructure.



Sh8.1 billion for transport and infrastructure Kenya’s

Egypt investing in roads and bridges Egypt Transportation

Kwale county government plans to spend Sh36.2 billion (R4.5 billion) over period of five years. 45% of this budget will be funnelled into development projects. The transport and infrastructure sectors have been allocated Sh8.1 billion. Just over half of the money will be used for salaries, among other things, to run the county government. Kwale county finance executive officer Bakari Sebe says that the Kwale government has many avenues to collect funds, and if these avenues are used the county will not need to borrow money to run its activities.

Minister Ibrahim al-Domeiry has announced EGP4 billion (R6.2 billion) has been allocated to investment in roads and bridges in Upper Egypt. The investment falls within the framework put together by the Transport Ministry in an effort to contribute to the development of Upper-Egypt. It will further facilitate the transportation of individuals and goods and participate in industrial, agricultural and tourism developmental projects. According to al-Domeiry, these projects include the construction of Toshka road, the two-way Beni Suef road and AssiutSohag road.

IMIESA April 2014


Africa infrastructure: a $72 billion industry


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An engineering powerhouse Fuzile Felix Fongoqa, executive chairman of NAKO Group, provides insight into the newly established group.


ow will NAKO Group contribute to realising the benefits of infrastructure development in Africa? NAKO Group is an

African-owned and operated multidisciplinary consulting engineering powerhouse operating across the African continent to deliver a range of specialised engineering services to the people of Africa. Our multicultural team, which reflects the rich diversity of the African continent, works closely with our clients to ascertain their needs and deliver projects way beyond their

expectations. A combination of full-time offices and strategic partnerships with citizenowned firms in our countries of operation puts us in a prime position to provide sustainable engineering solutions for African conditions, utilising African expertise. With our empowering partnership model, we ensure that the benefits of the African Renaissance and growth are localised to Africa and no profits flow out of the continent.

What is NAKO Group’s philosophy about partnering, and what sort of criteria does the group look for in a partnership? Our philosophy is based on the principles of mutual benefit, respect and accountability. We have a


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long-term investment strategy in our countries of operation and our aim is ensure that we grow the local expertise and the capacity. We therefore put a lot of effort into finding partners that share our ethos of long-term presence in the countries of operations, engineering excellence, investment in the development of local expertise and valueadding partnerships.

What are NAKO Group’s core strengths? We provide a full range of consulting engineering services in infrastructure, sustainability and the environment, building services as well as mining and industrial developments. We have an adaptable contracting model which facilitates traditional contract

models as well more complex ones, such as the Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management (EPCM) model. We have the expertise and experience in contracting under various conditions of contract including FIDIC, NEC, etc. We have the flexibility to undertake a range of projects from small community-based projects to large, complex landmark projects. So, our core strengths are: one-stop multidisciplinary consulting engineering services, adaptability in contracting models as well as flexibility in size and compexity of projects.

What are NAKO Group’s multidisciplinary capacities and what advantage do they offer clients? We employ civil, structural, electrical, electronic and mechanical engineers as well as environmental scientists and project managers. This enables us to provide a full range of specialist services in various disciplines.*

Does having access to a multitude of engineering disciplines facilitate a more BELOW Chobe River, site of the Chobe River Zambezi Pipeline Project OPPOSITE The Polypropylene Plant at Sasol


sustainable approach to infrastructure projects?

consulting engineering firm in sub-Saharan Africa.

Absolutely! We have adopted the principles of sustainability in our approach to projects. The seamless integration of design teams ensures that we are able to develop better engineering solutions.

What advice would you give other African companies considering venturing across borders? Don’t believe

Which of NAKO Group’s more recent projects best highlight the advantages of being a multidisciplinary powerhouse, and how? Chobe – Zambezi Water Transfer Scheme: Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were done on the utilisation of the water resources of the Chobe/ Zambezi River. Investigations included water demand computations, hydraulic design of associated infrastructure services (2 100 mm diameter pipeline, length 500 km), pipe route selection, life cycle cost estimates and economic analysis. We have completed the preliminary designs for all civil, structural, electrical, electronic and mechanical works associated with the intake works, pipelines, pumpstations, reservoirs and other associated works. The PP2 Project at Sasol: The Polypropylene Plant at Sasol was part of the overall Turbo Project at Sasol. ILISO, a member of the NAKO Group, in joint venture with LBE, worked on the project. The scope for the JV included structural design of the industrial buildings and a loading facility, detail engineering, construction drawings and site assistance. The industrial building was a typical multi-bay warehouse facility and capable of accommodating heavy cranes. The warehouse consisted of a number of structural steel frames and it

was clad with sheet metal. The crane structure and the loading facility were built using reinforced concrete. JLOS Project (Uganda): The Justice Law and Order Sector (JLOS) project is currently in its design phase. It involves the design and construction of law courts, offices and the associated back of house space for the Uganda government. ILISO has been appointed as a multidisciplinary firm and will be responsible for the complete design. The scope of work that ILISO is responsible for includes that of project manager, principle agent, architect, mechanical, electrical, structural and civil engineering.

How can the private sector assist the public sector in Africa to deliver on the potential of the continent? We have found the clients outside South Africa to be highly educated. They provide excellent project leadership and are a pleasure to work with. There is a growing realisation that a company like ours embraces the concept of true empowerment of their citizens and contributes positively to the development of skilled and experienced engineering professionals. Economic growth is associated with large-scale project delivery capability. Our value proposition to the public sector across

the continent is our ability to deliver those large-scale multidisciplinary projects utilising our highly skilled and experienced engineers and developing the local expertise. Also, the private sector can play a significant role in providing training and mentorship for young professionals working in the public sector. We have embarked on a programme of sharing our in-house training materials with some public sector clients.

Where are the key growth areas for NAKO Group in Africa? Our immediate target growth areas are in mining, industrial, energy, water and transportation sectors. Outside South Africa, we already have full time operations in Uganda and Zambia as well as strategic partnerships working on projects in Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria and Zimbabwe. We will use this network of offices and strategic partnerships as a springboard to be the leading

everything you’ve been told about Africa. There are great engineering and project management skills out there. You must define your strategy and market approach carefully.

Finally, what legacy is NAKO Group building on the continent? We believe that the economic growth in Africa is an ideal opportunity for Africa to develop its own skilled human resource base, particularly in the field of engineering. We want to be at the forefront of developing that resource base and be associated with the successful execution of large-scale, multidisciplinary projects. The legacy we are building is that Africans can deliver on large-scale complex multidisciplinary and landmark sustainable projects. We want those projects to stand proud as testament to that legacy. +27 (0)12 685 0900

*THE NAKO GROUP’S SPECIALIST SERVICES Heavy industrial and mining structures; water-retaining structures, viaducts and bridges; building services including structural, electrical, electronic and mechanical engineering services; fire and alternative energy services; municipal, industrial, mining and tourism infrastructure including roads, electrification, water and sewer reticulation; dams and reservoirs, bulk water pipelines and pump stations, water and wastewater treatment works; traffic engineering, transport planning, major roads and highways; water resources planning; environmental management and water use licensing services.

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Engineering SA’s future The South African infrastructure sector has reached a critical juncture. To move forward and assist in achieving the great promise of South Africa, something needs to change. Nicholas McDiarmid speaks to five leaders from four engineering organisations that are all participating in a coordinated effort to create that change.


E HAVE BEEN told recently that South Africa has a good story to tell. This is partly true. Twenty years into democracy, South Africa is definitely a changed country – and in many ways for the better. But it would not be unfair to say that for the past six years, the story has been going in an unwelcome direction. Lack of service delivery, crony capitalism, corruption, wasteful expenditure, incompetence and a powerful liberation movement that is struggling to engage meaningfully within a constitutional democratic framework, these are the problems currently perceived. The Civilution Congress marks the initiation of a movement that is striving to go beyond what appear to be competing interests and get back to building the amazing nation South Africa has the right to be. As defined in the Policy Framework on Nonprofit Organisations, the institutes and associations that represent the engineers and contractors in both public and private sectors fall under the definition of Civil Society. The major associations primarily concerned with infrastructure are represented in this article by the originator of Civilution, Manglin Pillay, who is CEO of the South African Institute of Civil Engineers (SAICE); Frank Stevens, president of the

IMESA; Stuart Knight, chairperson of the Gauteng chapter of the South African Forum Civil Engineering Contractors (SAFCEC); and Norman Milne, president of SAFCEC.

The civil engineer Civilution was conceived by Manglin Pillay and his team at SAICE to address the despondency in the engineering sector with the lack of technical capacity at government level and the flaws in the procurement process that are resulting in poor-quality infrastructure and project planning as whole. A supporter of the National Development Plan (NDP), Pillay was keenly aware that the only way to deliver on the promises of the ambitious framework was for professionals in the infrastructure sector to position themselves alongside government and create an environment of trust in which practical solutions could be found from the start. Realising that aspects of the sector were fragmented, the first step was getting all stakeholders together to agree on the way forward. “The first need is to mobilise around 9 000 civil engineers to challenge the direction of the profession,” explains Pillay. “Mulling it over, it was clear that in order to build this critical mass, we needed create a cause to unite over. “Looking at the industry as a whole, you have a wide range of stakeholders: people working in government, industry, in education, the private sector (as consultants and as contractors) in banking, insurance and finance, as well as in general business and parastatals. All engineers in these roles occupy leadership roles. If we could mobilise this network, we would be mobilising the

“The first need is to mobilise around 9 000 civil engineers to challenge the direction of the profession.” Manglin Pillay, CEO of SAICE


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very engine of our economy and be in a much better position to get South Africa out of its current perceived economically denigrated state. Civilution is designed to touch all of civil society at an emotional level.” Engineers in the driving seat Engineers literally build the world we live in and it is not surprising that several examples exist in which the inclusion of engineers at the level of national governance have led to dramatic economic results. Pillay points to two such examples: “Both China and Singapore have stunned the modern world with their extraordinary growth and both have positioned engineers squarely at the centre of government. In Singapore, more than 60% of the ministers are engineers. From being in a state of collapse 50 years ago, the country now has one of the strongest economies in the world. It must be pointed out that the engineer ministers are the highest paid in the world, but must have absolutely no external business interest. In South Africa, we have more than a million people involved in the construction industry – approximately 2% of the population. If this industry could thrive again, it would remove the burden of job creation from the government.” Closing the divide Far from being close to government, today’s engineers in South Africa operate at a distinct distance from government. “The government has put in place the NDP and the Presidential Commission on Infrastructure, as in the past we had GEAR [the Growth, Employment and Redistribution programme] and ASGISA [Accelerated and Shared Growth-South Africa]. It is engineers who can support and promote these plans, but a divide exists – with much political and historic baggage – that has to be addressed before this support materialises,” says Pillay This divide precedes



1994 and is built around the repercussions of apartheid. “There is a perception that government’s transformation programmes, such as Black Economic Empowerment, means there is no place in South Africa for young, white engineers. More mature white engineers – particularly those in the public sector – feel similarly. We realised that among our members, we need to start changing this mindset. With the NDP, government is at last putting out the right signals and as an industry, we not only need to make the same commitment, we need to start building a positive perception and relationship with government. Over the years, we have all become increasingly negative and much of Civilution is actually about choosing to be positive.” So what is the infrastructure sector going to do differently to make this equal and positive contribution to the NDP? “It starts with attitude – about defining your role positively and returning to a place of positive regard, both for self and others. Historically, being an engineer was an esteemed position in society. Engineers are thinkers, contributors and providers of solutions with a crucial role to play in building society. “All of this may sound highly emotional and philosophical – and it is. The point is that when government gets its house in order, we are then better prepared to respond to their needs. Right now, the responses from the private sector are all about the problems: ‘I have a problem with your tendering system, with your race relations, with the lack of opportunities for young engineers’. This cannot be the focus anymore,” says Pillay. Being ‘ready’ means a mutual decision to

let go of previous mindsets. “We must first admit that this divide exists before we can move on. The unfortunate paradigm that needs challenging is that government holds the power and the money, while the engineering sector holds the knowledge and the skills. The substance of Civilution is to work through this mistrust by coming together in a pragmatic way. Government must start trusting us to deliver the solutions to our current problems and we need to start trusting the government and respecting its transformation agenda. Instead of re-enforcing the problem, we have to make ourselves available to help.” Finding a new perspective “Engineers have a typical way of seeing things and saying things,” says Pillay. “They are highly transactional. I suspect that our engineers don’t have a full understanding of the aspirations of our government. We know about the basics, but not the full picture. “If you cannot see the enormity of the impact apartheid had on the majority of this country and the extremity of the situation that government is trying to correct, then all you are going to see is power struggles and exclusion. You are not going to see the full picture of our country. “We need a new perspective from white people,” continues Pillay. “The humility to acknowledge the great benefits apartheid had afforded them will allow them be more open to communicating with those who were previously disempowered. A simple, but telling, example of what I mean is the knee-jerk reaction so many white engineers had during

The decision by government to import Cuban engineers is a prime symptom of the disconnect between government and private sector engineers that is currently being experienced. Engineers were never consulted by government about the issue. This represents a missed opportunity in which the political hurdle that should have been crossed was simply sidestepped. The skills that government needs are available locally. Members of the engineering sector also need to ask themselves why the perception exists that they are not good partners. Government reasoned, with fairly good evidence, that civil engineers would not want to live and work in rural areas. This was never put to the sector, so we never had the opportunity to canvas our members and find solutions internally. We have recently conducted a survey which asks out engineers if they are willing to go out and work in rural areas and under what conditions. The results are still pending. A sustainable solution lies in this sort of process; assumptions will get us nowhere. the early days of trying to implement affirmative action. An engineer may have needed to fill 30 number of posts in municipality, but could only fill five because there simply were not sufficient black candidates. This was immediately interpreted as exclusionary; that there was no more room for white professionals in public service. Many started withdrawing, while government interpreted these actions as an unwillingness on the side of these engineers. Both had the wrong end of the stick. Although there is a strong common goal – to provide infrastructure and services – neither can fulfil it. Now if government could step back for a moment and look at what it really wants, who cares if an entire department is white, so long as they pay due respect to government’s political goals?” Pillay believes there has to be a sincere acceptance of a more pragmatic approach to transformation: “Let us relax BEE requirements for now, appoint white engineers and make part of their KPIs the training of five young black engineers. Make transformation a KPI, not an impossibility.” One of the key actions of Civilution is the deliberate bringing together of engineers from all sectors with each other and with politicians in an environment geared to allow all sides to really hear each other. “Engineers must sit down with politicians to actively try and understand what this new dispensation

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“If there was consistency in the roll-out of infrastructure spend, our industry would automatically become more sustainable.” Stuart

as we can; we also provide training and mentoring, and practical assistance to emerging contractors and help them register their businesses. We provide social training as well; we are investing a lot of money into satisfying requirements – and out of a genuine desire to give Knight, managing director of Liviero and chairman back to the communities – but then we of SAFSEC’s Northern Branch leave. There is no forward planning, no mobilised to find the solutions together to maintenance and refurbishment plans in deliver on the promises of 1994.” place that would engage the people we have Pillay concludes: “Civilution does not just trained into the future.” belong to SAICE. It belongs to all stakeholdMaintenance programmes and project ers. IMESA, SAFCEC, CESA and all other pipelines appear to be a crucial missing part is all about. To be empathetic to the reality interested parties. SAICE happen to driving of the puzzle. “Government could and should our politicians have to face and to enquire it, but it is a civil organisation we are forming implement maintenance programmes on an about why things are as they are and to demand its future is everyone’s responsibility.” ongoing basis, drawing on the people living onstrate that they have the skills politicians in the communities. This point goes hand in The contractor need to help them reach their goals.” hand with the problem of a lack of project Stuart Knight of Liviero Civils is a civil engi- pipelines. Our industry, by its very nature, Professionalising public service neer with a strong lineage and a broad per- is so cyclical; it has always been feast or Another goal of Civilution is to show governspective of the industry, having witnessed the famine. This is detrimental, both to us and ment that having professionals on the inside many changes over the years. IMIESA asked public stakeholders as it drives costs up. is more desirable than cadre deployment. to Knight to provide a coalface perspective to Instead of retaining the skills of emerging “We have to help government understand the challenges of today’s situation. contractors and workers, we are forever that without qualified people in all tiers of “The market is very tough at the moment,” restaffing. If there was consistency in the government, they are putting themselves says Knight. “The elections have delayed roll-out of infrastructure spend, our industry on the back foot. Currently, too often an projects and it usually takes some months would automatically become more sustainengineer is talking to someone qualified in after the elections for projects to pick up able, more able to plan ahead and therefore human resources or education about highly again. The market is very hungry and we more cost effective as well.” technical engineering projects. This is not keep hearing of this R3 trillion to spend by Contractors really are the coalface of tenable. We need professionals back in 2030, but we have been waiting a long time infrastructure projects. Charged with deliverpublic service.” Where the private sector is to see a strong project pipeline.” Referring ing the physical product, it is curious how encouraged to take stock of its own shortto the NDP, Knight is adamant that its objec- absent they are during planning phases. comings, government must do the same. tives will not be achieved without a major “One of my major concerns is the level of The legacy of political appointments, where revision of the tender process. “The lack of fragmentation in our industry. By this I am the only qualification required is towing the capacity in the public sector combined with referring to the private and the public sector party line, is a serious injury to the state of cumbersome and ineffective procurement – contractors, quantity surveyors and archithe nation.” processes is preventing South Africa from tects – we don’t cooperate nearly as much realising its potential. In some places, you as we should. From a practical point of view, A turning point do see the typical ‘as and when’ arrange- this is something Civilution must deal with. The Civilution Congress, scheduled for April ments in place, which can make life comfort- The concept of unity in the industry is criti2014, is intended to mark a turning point able for a small number of contractors, but cal. If we are going to fix these problems, we and inspire ongoing pragmatic transforall it is doing is papering over the cracks of cannot to operate on an adversarial basis.”  mation. This time, the transformation is the system as a whole.” not about race, it is about civil action to Agreeing with Pillay, Knight blames the 7 KEY DELIVERABLES OF transform a deeply struggling government. cadre system for the lack of professional CIVILUTION “Civilution is an era,” states Pillay. “In a hunexpertise in government. But the problem is • reinstate technical capacity in dred years, we want Civilution to represent also systemic, and Knight sheds some light government the turning point in true transformation. The on this: “There are pockets of excellence in • improve relationship with education system from kindergarten upwards outcomes of the congress include collaboragovernment, but there is little consistency. • stop the syndrome of engineers tion on technical and developmental docuWe are regulated in all the wrong areas, studying to leave the country ments, influencing and lobbying for change and policies between departments and para• address corruption on both sides of in procurement and tendering processes, statals are very poorly coordinated and the fence and the joining of two forces that can radioften contradict each other.” As an example, • abandon pessimism and mistrust • facilitate an introspective conversion cally alter the direction of South Africa. The Knight refers to the requirement for local • be an intelligent participant in congress itself must be the symbolic turning content: “Everyone would love to use local the solution. point when engineers and government were content 100% of the time. We do it as much


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Knight agrees with Pillay about all need to be less possessive QUESTIONS FOR THE CIVILUTION the sense of mistrust between over our ‘turf’. Echoing Pillay’s • What are we, as engineers and built environment public and private: “The apparprinciple of getting alongside professionals, going to do differently to attain and maintain ent mistrust is partly historigovernment, Knight sees conworld-class service delivery in Africa? • What are we, as engineers and built environment cal and partly a recent discontractors as bearers of solutions: professionals, going to do to stimulate the industry and built nect. It is also a key reason for “Government struggles to impleenvironment professions in our respective countries? the failing of the public-private ment. Well, that is what contrac• How can the countries of Africa work together to enhance partnership concept.” tors do – we implement. Let’s all professional skills and capacity in Africa? If trust can be established, it play our role: government com• What technical innovation can we introduce to help Africa develop? would open the door to cooperamissions, consulting engineers tively revising current procuredesign, we (contractors) build. ment methods. “There should be enough It makes no sense that by the time we which leaves the contractor heavily exposed. room in the procurement process to allow get to tender on a project, the budget has Again, this is not about blaming, it’s simply for a range of solutions based on the pracbeen done and dusted. Excluding the conabout accepting that where capacity is tical requirement of a project. “In cases tractor at the design phase means that the limited, the practical answer would be to of municipalities without enough internal practical elements have not been considhand the entire project over to the concapacity, a cost-plus structure is a highly ered, which means the budgets are wrong tractor and let us solve the problems in a practical solution. The client knows up-front and we are stuck trying to deliver within coherent way.” what they will be getting and the contracunmanageable constraints.” Breaking through barriers tor is assured of feasible margins. The With the NDP upon us, we can’t allow hisMind the gap current structure sees the contractor bearTendering against inaccurate information is torical silos to continue. There is money to ing most of the risk and the client failing a longstanding problem in South Africa and be spent and a massive backlog in public to do the legwork. This is very prevalent is publicly evident in most large public works infrastructure to address. To unlock this, we when it comes to community consultation,


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projects. A famous example of this is the Gautrain infrastructure project; the initial costs against which it was sold to the public bore almost no relation to the actual costs. This cost gap is not merely frustrating; it opens the door to abuse and inflation, with costs that multiplied beyond recognition of the initial costs. Knight believes that including the contractor at tender design stage would go a long way to closing the gap. “The exclusion of the contractor at design stage is actually part of an antiquated system that has need adjustment for a long time. It is the same system that awards tenders to the cheapest bidder.” This is a very expensive mistake that often sees the cheaper contractors failing to deliver and burning out mid-project. “The exclusion of meaningful criteria, such as quality, experience and capacity, is always justified by referring to the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA). It is actually prohibiting them from appointing the contractor that is more technically qualified, better resourced and large enough to deliver properly, first time.” The PFMA provides a number of methods of evaluation, where price is weighted differently against empowerment criteria, but fundamentally the PFMA is currently implemented with price as the primary criterion. “What works is a single project team from inception, and cost-plus arrangements are the most efficient way of making sure delivery occurs in a healthy way. The client knows what they are going to get and the contractor can be sure of their margins.” That is well and good for larger, established contractors, but what about emerging contractors? “I attended a presentation by Transnet, which faces a similar dilemma and the question was raised as to how to include smaller emerging contractors in these big projects. What we have done previously, notably on freeway projects, is to

form partnerships with smaller contractors to ensure they benefit and ensure we have access to manpower.” Currently, this position is reversed, with emerging contractors taking on projects they can’t manage and then resorting to bringing larger contractors on board. “The current transformation strategy is not working. It has been gazetted that one of the key responsibilities of the ministers is to align transformation across government, which I understand as including parastatals and other government-owned entities. Yet when you tender on projects for Transnet, Eskom or Sanral, for example, each one of them has different criteria. One requires local content of 40% while another requires 30%, or some demand that you use contractor x or y. This has a major impact on price. Whenever we tender, we spend more time on the back pages than on the job itself and pricing it. We only have three to four weeks to price a job, and you have to find local partners you don’t know while doing this. It’s impractical. Now, if the criteria were standard, we could pre-empt these requirements and bring some sense of order and pre-planning to the process. This is another example of the problems within our tendering processes as they currently stand. And it reflects the fragmentation that exists between government

“The other item we requested was for the procurement of professional services to be separated from procurement of goods and other services.” Abe Thela, director of Nyeleti Consulting and president of CESA

departments and entities that all seem to be doing their own thing. “Our industry does need to change, and we can’t do this on our own; we need the support of government as much as we need to support government,” concludes Knight.

The consulting engineer As a director of Nyeleti Consulting and President of Consulting Engineers Southern Africa (CESA), Abe Thela’s reputation for integrity makes him a formidable force within the sector. Talking to IMIESA, Thela’s focus fell squarely on ethics and procurement. “For corruption to happen, the stage must be set. An environment must exist that puts expediency above ethics. I am confident that the majority of consulting engineers are an ethical group of people. The biggest challenge facing consulting engineering is how government procures our services. Consulting engineering services are now procured primarily on price and BBBEE, with quality only used as a minimum threshold. This is fine for routine projects with established standardised design processes and whose scope of work is adequately defined at tender stage. When one considers the complexity of some specialist projects, the kind of creativity, innovation and foresight that comes only with exceptional expertise and experience is needed. In such cases, alternatives must be considered and multiple options and technologies investigated before a final solution is provided. CESA is advocating for quality to be reintroduced as part of the procurement points calculation. This was the case before a case brought by a contractor some years back attracted a court ruling that removed quality from the procurements points calculation. 

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The result is that tenders are now almost exclusively awarded on price and BBBEE. This is extremely damaging and a threat to quality, sustainability, the community and the consulting engineering industry.”

view the bigger players,” says Milne, whose remedy to this and other challenges facing the industry is very much in line with the ideals of Civilution. “None of us want to see a failed project and it is pointless for us to sit in our own silos and criticise without interActive engagement acting with all other stakeholders, including CESA has always worked with government government. The Civilution Congress is a and has been engaging with Treasury on starting point for us to engage with governthe issues for some time. “Our procurement ment and each other to improve the way concerns were one of the top concerns our sector works.” Citing the delays on the we raised (with Treasury). The other item building of the Medupi Power Station as a we requested was for the procurement of key example, Milne states that there is not professional services to be separated from enough dialogue upfront to ensure improved procurement of goods and other services. outcomes: “Medupi was definitely sent to We design from scratch and incorporate an market too soon. The project had not been extremely broad spectrum of the totality of properly specified, planned and budgeted, the project and procurement of our services and – as is the typical situation with all should take cognisance of that. We are ultiinfrastructure projects in South Africa – the mately responsible for the natural and built contractor was brought in to the process too environment we live and work in. In procuring late. How can a budget be realistic if the entiother goods – you’re simply picking it out of ty that is actually going to build the project a catalogue,” explains Thela. is excluded from the planning, programming and chosen methodology?” “How can a budget be realistic if the Milne, in common with every participant in this article, is dissatisfied entity that is actually going to build with the tender process: “The tender the project is excluded from the process is frustrating. A consultant planning, programming and chosen puts out the tender enquiry, contractors respond and these are then often methodology?” Norman Milne, president adjudicated by the employer directly of SAFCEC excluding the consultant. Tender committees that do not have the required good managers in other industries and if we expertise have replaced the old-style tender can’t compete, we will lose them. We need boards, which used to have representation them badly, as much for the NDP as for the across the disciplines. We need neutral maintenance of the existing infrastructure of tender boards again, which adjudicate on the the country. Without engineering skills, there cradle to grave vision of the project. Issues Treasury recently created a dedicated like quality, sustainability and future mainteis no NDP.” office to deal with procurement and appointnance implications have to be included for The civil engineering contractor future projects to make sense again. The ed Kenneth Brown as chief procurement Norman Milne is the president of the recent- final product is a result of a multidiscipliofficer, who CESA met with in October ly renamed South African Forum of Civil nary team, so surely the tender committees last year. Thela comments on their recepEngineering Contractors (SAFCEC), former- should reflect that?” tion: “The response we are receiving from ly the South African Federation of Civil Treasury is positive. Their process is exactEngineering Contractors. He has an impor- Government to business – business ing in the sense that it must take it account tant vantage point, overseeing a member- to government all submissions made and assess how the ship that comprises of the largest contrac- “There is no doubt that as an industry, we proposed changes might impact on other tors in the country, to the very smallest have to get our collective heads around regulations, but it is committed to reviewing and least-known emerging contractors. Like government’s imperatives and properly supthe procurement system. We hope we will Knight, Milne wants greater inclusion across port them. At this point in our history, we get what we are asking for. are still resolving some chronic issues from the industry. “The other issue we raised is that com“There is no doubt that the recently com- our history, and ignoring them is not going mittees that deal with the procurement of pleted Competition Commission investiga- to make them go away. At the same time, consulting engineers in government must tion into the industry has impacted the government also needs to look at what the have professional engineers in them. To relationship between government and larger industry is saying and pay attention. We supadjudicate engineering tenders, you need contractors. It has also had a negative port government’s goals 100%, but we need experts on board playing a significant and impact on how smaller emerging contractors them to understand what it takes to create influential role. Without experts, all that is


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focused on is the bottom line, instead of value for money. This is killing our industry. People tender lower and lower and you end up in a price war. The current situation in the industry is that we cannot train people. We don’t have the funds to train or innovate; we can only do the basics with no other better alternatives investigated. We believe consulting engineering as the front runner of any infrastructure development requires special attention – more than what it gets at the moment. An extremely serious consequence of the status quo is that awarding tenders by treating consulting engineers as commodities is ignoring lifetime costs of structures. This is not sound economics.” Echoing both Pillay and Knight, Thela is highly concerned about the next generation of engineers. “If we don’t change this direction, we will drive away good engineers. If we can’t train our engineers and pay them well, younger engineers will look for greener pastures outside our industry. They also make


a sustainable market place with a secure project pipeline.” Changes There are a number of shifts in policy that Milne would like to see. “Transformation is a shared objective and we need flexibility. We need to collectively agree on and set transformation targets that are stretched but achievable. There is little point in penalising a contractor for failing to reach an unrealistic target since this defeats the real purpose. The level of consultation has to improve and there may be a need for trade-offs that see projects realised realistically.” The issue of how best to include emerging contractors is of prime importance: “For new civil engineering contractors, the barriers to entry are extremely high,” explains Milne. “Plant and equipment is very expensive nowadays, and considering that some of the established contractors date as far back as the 1920s, we have to find some practical ways of supporting emerging contractors. We need to involve black contractors as prime contractors on major projects, with the same status and voice as the established contractor, so that they too are included in the decision making.” The need for a sustained project pipeline is another shared imperative: “As an organisation, SAFCEC is trying to get closer to the Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Commission so that we ourselves have an idea of the pipeline and can then encourage our members to invest in resources accordingly. Transnet seem to understand this and they have a massive capex programme which they have shared with the industry and will continue to do so as it is rolled out. We are also talking to the Development Bank of Southern Africa about more certainty of outcome in project delivery.” Milne notes that if a sustainable project pipeline is available, the companies will be happy to invest in personnel, training and equipment. “With a solid pipeline, the construction industry also has the potential to solve many of government’s employment imperatives,” observes Milne. In summarising SAFCEC’s approach to Civilution, Milne puts open and ongoing dialogue at the top of the wish list: “South Africa is a massive country and the infrastructure sector reflects that. The ability to find a platform in which we can all participate in the dialogue is going to play a major part of the solution. Looking at youngsters today, I wish they understood the incredible opportunities

The municipal engineer FRANK STEVENS occupies a pivotal role in the success of Civilution. As president of IMESA, he represents a crossover point between public and private Frank Stevens, engineering, and president of brings with him decIMESA and deputy ades of institutional head of Technical Support, Water knowledge, embedand Sanitation ded with the chalDepartment lenges the municipal at eThekwini Municipality engineer faces in supporting the political imperatives with the support of the private sector. Announcing the support and cooperation of IMESA for Civilution at the IMESA Conference in 2013, Stevens emphasised IMESA’s commitment and cooperation: “I believe that having the presidents of SAICE, CESA and IMESA together on stage for the closing session (of the conference) was a first. You will have gathered over the past year that I am passionate about the need for IMESA to work more closely with its sister organisations.” IMESA signed a Memorandum of Understanding with SAICE and thereby formally joined Civilution. Stevens, in his role as IMESA president, is placing a strong focus on the role of the municipal engineer to the success of the NDP. “The NDP offers a long-term perspective and defines the roles that different sectors of society need to play in reaching that goal. IMESA is certainly one of the

that exist in the sector. Currently we are topheavy as an industry. We have a lot of older members and very few candidates to fill middle-management posts. Young engineers have the opportunity of a fast tracked career path. The delivery model needs to change, and I am afraid a one-size-fits-all approach is not going to work; there are too many variances from project to project. A cost-plus approach is definitely one part of the solution for us. We need champions from both the public and private sector who understand that we all want the same things: projects that are delivered on time, on budget and to the desired quality to improve conditions for

most important sectors involved.” Citing the 10 elements of the plan, Stevens points out that at least seven of the elements directly involve the municipal engineer. “A huge responsibility clearly rests on every IMESA member’s shoulders.”

Promising actions from government “The planning processes carried out by local authorities, government departments and other government entities will have a vital role to play in bringing the vision and proposals contained in the NDP to life.” Stevens explains: “NDP proposals are being incorporated into the existing activities of departments and broken down into a medium- and short-term plan of government at national, provincial and municipal level. The NDP provides the golden thread that brings coherence and consistency to these different plans.” Ensuring that this golden thread translates into the project pipelines so important to all stakeholders is the next challenge. “Government has already started a process of aligning the long-term plans of departments with the NDP and to identify areas where policy change is required to ensure consistency and coherence. Each government programme will have to be backed by detailed implementation plans that clearly set out choices made, actions that need to be undertaken and their sequencing.” IMESA will be playing a crucial role at the Civilution Congress and is an invaluable link to government for the other stakeholders.

all South Africans. The best way to achieve this is to involve the contractor in the process at the earliest possible stage.” Conclusion It is be clear how much the different stakeholders have in common: similar frustrations and similar goals. CESA’s position in the project cycle has positioned it well with government, and with the level on concurrence already exhibited prior to the Civilution Congress, it will be crucial that each industry of the infrastructure sector is able to unite not just with government, but with each other.

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Developing sustainable human settlements Due to its location, the largest part of Mogale City is rural. Because of this, the municipality’s Spatial Development Framework focuses on how to enhance and support rural development in the area.


HE MOGALE City Local Municipality forms part of the West Rand District Municipality and covers an area of approximately 110 000 ha. The area has a population of over 360 000, and has grown by approximately 40 000 people since 2006. The increasing population provides additional challenges and pressure on the existing services facilities and poses a challenge for the municipality in terms of provision of sustainable services, including houses, because more people moving into the city start off by living in the informal settlements.

compact, mixed land use, diverse environments with maximum possibilities for pedestrian movement and transit via safe and efficient public transport in cases where motorised means of movement is imperative. The aim is for residents to live in a safe and secure environment and have adequate access to economic opportunities, reliable and affordable basic services, education, entertainment, as well as health, welfare and police services. Several projects have been initiated under the Breaking New Ground policy. In Mogale City, is includes the Leratong Nodal Development.

Breaking New Ground The Breaking New Ground policy is a comprehensive plan for the development of sustainable human settlements, published by the national Department of Housing. The policy aims to ensure that low-income housing is provided close to areas of opportunity as well as ensure the development of

Leratong Nodal Development Leratong Nodal Development follows the completion of the Chief Mogale development. Once complete, the Leratong Nodal Development will house thousands of families. At a cost of R2 billion, the project will comprise residential, commercial and light

industrial components. The Leratong Nodal Development will be rolled out in three phases and will take approximately a decade to complete. A land availability agreement was signed between Mogale City and Trendville Consor tium for the Leratong Nodal Development early last year. The parcels of land to be used are the remaining extensions of Portion 2 and Portion 21 of the Farm Witpoortjie 245, together with portions 22, 29 and 40 of the Farm Witpoortjie 245. Once completed, the project will yield up to 15 000 housing units of mixed typologies. Of these units, there will be about 10 220 low-cost housing units and 4 160 to 5 610 will be RDP houses. It is estimated that construction will yield more than 2 500 jobs for local people and 1 500 permanent jobs when concluded. Phase 1 of the project is situated at the corner of Impala and Main Reef roads – the two main roads connecting Mogale City, Johannesburg and Soweto. Among others, it will include the construction of 1 953 housing units, a 45 000 m² regional mall at the Leratong Crossing, an intermediate public transport facility, an office park with a government precinct, schools and public parks for recreation. The Leratong Programme Plans also serve as an umbrella programme for potential projects in various precincts. Project identified as part of this 10-year plan include the construction of a pedestrian bridge over the R41, upgrading the internal main road to a multimodal public transport facility, upgrading pedestrian ways connecting Kagiso to the node and developing an integrated Mogale City has embarked on a project to upgrade the Krugersdorp CBD


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multipurpose community facility comprising, among others, a library, a community centre and government offices.

Krugersdorp upgrade The largest urban concentration in Mogale City is in the south-east, around Krugersdorp and Kagiso. This area forms part of a band of development stretching from the Johannesburg Inner City westwards along the mining belt up to Krugersdorp. The Krugersdorp CBD is the main business, social and administrative centre in Mogale City and fulfils a regional function. In order to create a liveable environment and to facilitate development and accommodate the needs of current and future users of the Krugersdorp CBD, Mogale City has embarked on a project to upgrade the CBD. The upgrade includes developing a range of housing options; improving existing public transport facilities and working to expand public transport opportunities; creating open spaces, public spaces, streets and built fabric; creating a safe and accessible urban environment; and creating a sustainable environment to reduce the carbon footprint of the CBD while encouraging smart development. To give the CBD an extreme makeover, the municipality identified 11 precincts to be developed. Four Catalytic Projects were prioritised for the first phase of implementation. These are: • a taxi rank, which includes a place for informal traders, the upgrade of the deteriorated streetscape and new residential development around Breda Street • a sports and recreation area and the conversion of Paardekraal Drive into a boulevard • a railway station and taxi rank, which will focus on the reconfiguration of access and city blocks to improve access to the station and high-value mixed-use sites for business, informal trade, multi-modal transport hub and other features • the Canal Housing project for social housing next to Krugersdorp Correctional Centre.

Upgrading Percy Steward WWTW In its years of operation, the Percy Steward wastewater treatment works (WWTW) has experienced several problems, including poor effluent quality, lack of capacity, sensitive location and discharge point.


N APRIL 2008, the Mayor of Mogale City, Koketso Calvin Seerane, announced major upgrades for the Percy Steward WWTW. The plan was to improve the plant’s performance so that it complies with its licensing requirements. Work to upgrade and expand the WWTW has been ongoing ever since. The upgrade involved three interventions. The first was the upgrading of the plant, which included mechanical,

The Percy Steward WWTW’s capacity was increased by 10 mg/ℓ

electrical and instrumentation works. The second was the application of by-laws to reduce the high load on the plant, and the third concerned itself with design and expansion of the works. According to Seerane, the first two interventions would assist in minimising or stopping the plant’s problems while the third would increase capacity to handle the city’s rapid growth. Leon Naudé, the principal engineer at Royal HaskoningDHV (formerly SSI), the appointed engineering and environmental consultants, reported that the plant’s

KRUGERSDORP CBD’S PROPOSED BUILD OUT: • increase the building area from 580 000 m2 to 865 650 m2 • increase the number of housing units from 1 082 to 4 030 (27.3 units per hectare) • construct 65 495 m2 of retail space • construct 157 860 m2 of commercial space.

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Call for Papers Š‡‡ǣƒŽƒ…‹‰‡”˜‹…‡‡Ž‹˜‡”› Ȉ Political and Legislative Perspectives Ȉ Social and Environmental Impacts Ȉ Financial Considerations Ȉ Transport and Traffic Ȉ Water and Sanitation Ȉ Roads and Stormwater

                   30 APRIL 2014 to Wiero Vogelzang | IMESA t +27 (031) 266 3263 email


Effluent requirements COD 60 mg/ℓ (max 75 mg/ℓ) Ammonia 1 mg N/ℓ Nitrate 6 mg N/ℓ (max 15) Ortho0.9 mg P/ℓ (max 2) phosphate TSS 10 mg/ℓ (max 25) Faecal 150 cfu/100 mℓ Coliforms

perceived capacity was based on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading of 600 mg/ℓ – the design norm for sewage that is primarily domestic in origin. However, the actual COD loading was 1 000 mg/ℓ, which included low-cost housing and industrial. According to Naudé, this perception reduced the capacity to 15 Mℓ/day and resulted in a lack of proper maintenance, which had further decreased the capacity to about 5 Mℓ/day. At the time, the infrastructure executive manager, Dennis Mokotedi, maintained that he and his team did not know the degree of the plant’s problems, aside from the fact that the effluent discharge was not compliant with the National Water Act.

Expanding the plant The designs to expand the plant to increase capacity by 10 mg/ℓ began in 2009. The extension was necessary to accommodate emerging housing developments. The

original plant consisted of seven primary filtering tanks, four digesters, four clover-leaf biofilters, an aerobic digester, an activated sludge reactor, four humus clarifiers and two final clarifiers. The extension included inlets with screens and degritters, primary settling tanks, a balancing tank, activated sludge reactors, clarifiers and chlorine contact chambers. Naudé said he and his team designed a scientific engineering plan to improve the performance of the plant but faced two major challenges: they had to work around the clock during the extension and the plant was on uneven and rocky ground. The expansion included the installation of a 10 Mℓ/d Biological Nutrient Removal reactor with a primary settling tank and two final clarifiers, a larger inlet works, a balancing tank, a fat trap for the Gelita effluent and a new larger chlorine contact tank. It further involved the construction of associated pump stations and electrical substations that include backup generators to guard against shutdown in the event of a power failure. The balancing tank is used to control flow through pinch valves and flow meters.

The Percy Steward Wastewater Treatment Works

It offers the advantages of constant flow and load coming to the biological reactors, decrease the peaks on oxygen demand, decreased size of the final settling tanks and improved overall performance of the biological system. For aeration control, six new DO probes were installed, 10 existing motors on surface aerators by high-efficiency motors were replaced, and variable speed drives in all new and existing surface aerators were installed. The original works did not include supervisory control and data acquisition or programmable logic controllers (PLCs). It was decided that the upgrade works would include two Schneider Modicon M340 PLCs – one for the inlet works and one for the bioreactor – as well as an Adroit SCADA. These will assist in day-to-day operations and maintenance of the works because the enhanced fault finding and troubleshooting capabilities will allow for increased plant uptime and reduced faults.

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R352 million interchange upgrade under way Sanral’s Umgeni interchange upgrade project will help ease congestion along the N2 highway.


HE R352 MILLION initiative involves the replacement of the current splitdiamond signalised intersection with a free-flow directional four-level systems interchange that accommodates the unrestricted movement of approximately 14 000 vehicles per hour in morning peak hour traffic and 16 000 vehicles per hour in afternoon peak hour traffic. The South African National Roads Agency (Sanral) appointed Hatch Goba to complete the detail design and documentation for the upgrade of the interchange in 2009. A number of factors had to be taken into account and, due to the sheer scale of the project, design plans changed dramatically over a two-year period. Following the successful completion of the detail design, construction officially began in March 2011 and is due for completion by the end of 2014. Project lead Freek Serton says that one of the most important aspects of the upgrade project is minimising disruption to traffic during the construction phase. “The N2 and M19 are major routes for passenger vehicles and heavy-duty freightliners, and it is essential not to disrupt any traffic along this national road. What’s more, the nearby Umgeni River, together with existing residential and commercial developments, has restricted workspace severely,” he adds. To overcome this challenge, two directional ramps are being constructed through an innovative method of bridge building known as incremental launch, whereby the entire bridge deck is built from one end of the

structure. This replaces the standard segmental method, where the bridge is built one span at a time. Serton notes that this technology substantially reduces space requirements and substantially minimises disruption to traffic. “Through incremental launch technology, the sections of bridge deck slide over special bearings,

The Umgeni Interchange upgrade project – additional numbers Structural Road Layers 50 000 m3 Ground anchors 4 850 m2 Temporary restraint 1 690 m² Retaining walls 2 000 m Box culverts 770 m Temporary signs 348 m2 Delineators 4 500 No Moveable barriers 4 700 m

TOP The overall bridge works comprise a length of 1 200 m and a surface area of 14 000 m2 RIGHT Two directional ramps are being constructed through an innovative method called incremental launch

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e at th ess s u Meet n Congr l 2014 tio 8 Apri burg u s l i e v n i C to 0 , Johan l i r p e 06 A rs Palac ro Empe

Contact us on: Tel - (082) 601-9062 Fax - (086) 689-7610 email -


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Innovators in road construction materials and methods Operating in fields such as mine roads, rural and urban roads and research and development of bituminous technologies We are driven to succeed in creating high quality low impact products and services sustaining long term growth


RIGHT A free-flow directional four-level systems interchange is replacing the split-diamond signalised intersection Bottom The project involves the construction of seven segmentally constructed bridges totalling 581 m

which are concrete blocks covered with stainless steel and reinforced elastomeric pads. This eliminates the need for building form work to support the construction, thereby ensuring that construction can continue across the road without interfering with traffic,â€? he explains. The first 232 m long incrementally launched bridge was successfully completed in January 2014. The second 205 m long bridge, launched at a height of about 22 m above ground level, is approximately one-third complete. Serton says the space restriction has been exceptionally challenging, but the team of highly qualified engineers has been working closely with the contractor to ensure that no major delays ď ľ are encountered.

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In addition to the two incrementally launched bridges, the Umgeni Interchange upgrade project also involves the construction of seven segmentally constructed bridges totalling 581 m in length, as well as two conventional pedestrian bridges, measuring 65 m and 49 m respectively. Hatch Goba contracts engineer John McCall notes that the accommodation of existing services is another major challenge. “Umgeni Road has been a major transport hub for many decades, and a considerable amount of urban development has consequently taken place during this period.” McCall highlights the fact that a large amount of existing services – ranging from electricity and water infrastructure, to sewerage facilities and communication cables – had to be identified and earmarked for either permanent or temporary relocation. “All services have been searched for and identified. Although exceptionally demanding and challenging, the relocation process is running smoothly, with all gas pipeline protection complete and 80% of all communication cables successfully relocated,” he says. Approximately 85% of all water services, as well as 90% of sewerage services, have

also been successfully relocated. High voltage infrastructure does not need to be relocated. Medium voltage electricity services relocation is around 40% complete, while traffic signal relocation and street lighting are the only service relocations yet to begin. The roadworks for the project comprises a total surface area of 56 000 m2 of asphalt base. Bulk earthworks total 100 000 m3 of cut material and 200 000 m3 of fill material. The overall bridge works for the project comprise a length of 1 200 m and a surface area of 14 000 m2. Sanral and Hatch Goba have been working closely for a number of years and successfully launched the bridges that form part of the Gillooly’s Interchange – one of the largest and busiest interchanges in the southern hemisphere – that connects

the N3 North (Pretoria) and Eastbound (Durban) carriageways with the R24 East (OR Tambo International Airport) and West (Johannesburg). Serton believes that this experience, combined with the in-depth expertise of the five-strong Hatch Goba project management team, will result in the successful completion of the Umgeni Interchange upgrade project according to specified timelines and the agreed upon budget. “This is one of the biggest projects of its kind undertaken in South Africa, which will bring world-class traffic services and infrastructure to the greater Durban area when complete. I am confident that the newly upgraded Umgeni Interchange will be fully operational within 11 months, and will set an international benchmark for similar projects to follow,” he concludes.

ABOVE An aerial view of the Umgeni interchange upgrade project RIGHT The roadworks for the project comprises a total surface area of 56 000 m2 of asphalt base

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Bosun’s innovation leads the way again 30

IMIESA April 2014

Not all kerbs are the same... Introducing the Bosun Castle Bottom Kerb.

Patent Pending: ZA No 2012/09544

Available on Figure 3, 7, and 8C 1000mm kerbs. Advantages of Castle Bottom Kerb, Compared to Conventional Kerbs • The cavities provide a grip for installers when laying the kerbs. This enables much easier handling • The cavities make the Castle Bottom Kerb much quicker and easier to install. Where unlevel screed surfaces force installers to uplift, fill up and re-lay conventional kerbs it is easier to manoeuvre a Castle Bottom Kerb into place with the screed being displaced to the cavities in the kerb • The Castle Bottom sinks into the screed providing much better adhesion and many more points of sure bonding • The Castle bottom is less prone to movement than conventional flat kerb surfaces once the bedding has cured • The flat bottom of conventional kerbs do not have consistent support from the screed as the screed is never a perfect match to the bottom surface of the kerb. The entire bottom surface might therefore not be in contact with the screed resulting in kerb breakages once weight is applied from above. The regular points of sure bonding of the Castle Bottom Kerb and their proximity to each other negate this possibility

E+I 19397 Tel 0860 267 862


Bosun has recently taken three giant strides in its kerb offerings. This includes a new delineator kerb, a patent for the innovative Castle Bottom kerb and an increase in its overall capacity.


OSUN IS South Africa’s only producer of SABS-approved dry-cast concrete kerbs. Compared to the traditional wet-cast manufacturing method of kerbs, the dry-cast method is much more reliable and efficient. They are one of only a few South African producers utilising this technology, which is almost exclusively used by European kerb manufacturers.

The delineator kerb Bosun was commissioned late last year to create a unique solution for bus rapid transport (BRT) systems. BRT systems are high-quality transit systems that deliver fast, comfortable and cost-effective urban

transport by means of a segregated right-of-way infrastructure. Engineers working on the BRT projects wanted a kerb that would be small enough for buses to commute over, whilst at the same time, too big for cars to drive over. With these instructions, Bosun engineered a delineator kerb. Delineator kerbs separate the bus lanes from the general track lanes. They are more cost OPPOSITE Bosun’s new delineator RIGHT Bosun’s new delineator kerb showing its drainage gap

IMIESA April 2014

Introducing the Bosun Delineator Kerb.

The cost effective solution for the Bus Rapid Transport system and parking areas

E+I 19397 Tel 0860 267 862



LEFT A Castle Bottom kerb showing how the screed is moulded into the columns or ribs under the kerb INSET A Flat Bottom kerb showing gaps where the kerb ‘floats’ on top of the screed BELOW It is easier to manoeuvre a Castle Bottom kerb into place

effective than placing two separate kerbs back to back, while being much safer than having one kerb with a straight back facing one of the lanes. Bosun’s delineator kerbs include the following features: • the sloping profile minimises the risk of a vehicle rolling, should it strike the kerb • there are 100 mm wide drainage gaps spaced two metres apart. The gap width and spacing were carefully calculated to optimise drainage, while still separating traffic lanes. Bosun briefed its German supplier to manufacture the newly engineered mould according to the specified dimensions. This was achieved successfully and in record time. Within weeks the mould was completed and flown to the Bosun factory in Midrand. Bosun is currently able to produce more than 1 000 delineated kerbs per day. In addition to BRT systems, these kerbs offer a unique solution to mall parking and lane separation on busy city roads. An added advantage is that Bosun is in the process of developing a delineator kerb with an embedded reflective surface to further enhance the kerb’s versatility.

Castle Bottom kerb The company was also recently awarded a patent (2012/09544) by the South African patent office for its Castle Bottom kerb, represented in Figure 8C, Figure 7 and Figure 3 kerbs.


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The Castle Bottom kerb differs from conventional precast concrete kerbs in that, instead of a flat bottom surface, it has ribs or cavities across the bottom or side of the kerb. The cavities are integral to the design and manufacture of the kerb. It is not merely added to a conventional kerb. The cavities are manufactured with the same concrete as the kerb itself. The patent office agreed that Castle Bottom kerbs offer the following advantages, compared to conventional kerbs: • The cavities make the Castle Bottom kerb much quicker and easier to install. Where unlevelled screed sur faces forced installers to uplift, fill up and relay conventional kerbs, it is now easier with a Castle Bottom kerb to manoeuvre it into

place because the screed moulds itself into the cavities in the kerb, allowing for better adhesion. • Kerbs are laid on a concrete screed. The Castle Bottom will therefore sink into the screed, providing much better adhesion. • The Castle Bottom kerb is less prone to movement after it has been laid on its concrete bed. • Due to the flat bottom of conventional kerbs, they float on their concrete screed. Their whole surface might therefore not be in contact with the screed where it isn’t perfectly level. • They provide a grip for installers when laying the kerbs, which facilitates easier handling.

Increased capacity Last year, Bosun also commissioned a new plant dedicated to kerb production, adjacent to its other factories in Midrand, which is producing an additional 800 m of kerbs per day and is currently running at full capacity.

It is now easier to manoeuvre a Castle Bottom kerb into place, because the screed moulds itself into the cavities in the kerb, allowing for better adhesion


Sabita awards The South African Bitumen Association (Sabita) awards achievement and leadership.


HE AWARD for Outstanding Achievement in Bituminous Product Technology for 2013 was presented to consulting engineer Mahendren Manicum of Naidu Consulting at a presentation ceremony in Cape Town on 6 March 2014. The award acknowledges the excellence of his rehabilitation projects at Darnall, Main Roads P82 and P398, as well as his work in assisting Aqua Asphalt with the accreditation of their warm mix asphalt programme. This annual award traditionally acknowledges individuals who have made notable contributions to the development and/or implementation of innovative technology. Manicum’s projects comprised the following: • A R150 million project made up of two 5 km sections. On Section 1, the bitumen asphalt layer was recycled and in-situ bitumen stabilised. Then the asphalt from Section 2 was put through a BSM plant and paved as basecourse, with massive savings in cost, energy and damage to the environment. • A R1 million project to rehabilitate a section of the M4 leading from the Durban container depot to the N3, which was badly rutted, despite previous attempts by the client to resolve the problem. Manicum persuaded the client to make use of a product which had recently been developed by Wynand Nortje of National Asphalt in response to the lack of 15/25 penetration bitumen necessary for the manufacture of high modulus asphalt. The CSIR has been tasked by Sabita to monitor the section, which to date is performing very well. • Manicum successfully motivated for an alternative submitted by the contractor for the replacement of a 150 mm hot-mix asphalt basecourse with in-situ and plantmixed BSM. This R125 million project delivered similar savings to the previous project. The R5 million cost saving was used extensively in the cost-effective employment of local labour under the

EPWP to carry out repairs. This has been registered as a “Greenroad” project. • Manicum assisted Aqua Asphalt through the WMA protocol, as detailed in Sabita Manual 32, and facilitated a trial section on an eThekwini municipality road, with the assistance of Krishna Naidoo. The award citation, delivered by Sabita chairman Mike Winfield, noted that “Manicum has clearly demonstrated his ability to think laterally. His enthusiasm and thirst for gaining more knowledge in the field of cost-effective methods of road construction and rehabilitation that are environmentally and people friendly is infectious and his numerous achievements are helped significantly by his amazing management skills. He was elected the 2013 SAICE National Technologist of the Year, and two other projects managed by him won SAICE National awards. In accepting the award, Manicum thanked Sabita for creating an award which acknowledges the work of both engineers and contractors. “None of this would be possible without progressive clients who afford us the opportunity to pilot sustainable pavement options.” he said. Sabita also makes an annual CEO Merit Award for notable achievements in entrenching a culture of workplace health, safety and environmental conservation. This award is linked to Sabita’s broader strategy of: • presenting its BitSafe training course, which prepares selected individuals from member companies to deliver accredited safety training within their own companies

• auditing the safety procedures of member companies prior to issuing BitCert (bitumen certification) certificates to qualifying companies complying with both national legislation and Sabita’s Safety Charter • maintaining a database of accidents and incidents occurring within the bituminous products industry to promote safer practices.

Sabita CEO Merit Award Presented to Cassie Smit, branch manager of the Tosas Spartan plant, Sabita CEO Saied Solomon’s citation noted that since taking over the site, Smit’s commitment and hard work has ensured that “this site has become one of the group’s top safety performers, having recorded its last LTI on 15 August 2007. This was achieved on a site that employs 17 staff and manufactures and distributes in the order of 1 000 kℓ of binders per month. “This site now has an exemplary record where excellent safety practices have been implemented. Daily team talks, weekly tool box talks and monthly safety meetings are but some of the tools used and implemented by him to embed a safety culture. “This he ensures is supported by having the right safety systems and structures in place. His commitment and success in matters of safety have been recognised at the highest level, resulting in him being asked to play a pivotal role in ensuring his successful practices and procedures in respect of safety awareness are being implemented throughout the entire group.” Speaking after the presentation, Smit said he had always had an abiding interest in workplace safety issues. BELOW LEFT Mahendren Manicum of Naidu Consulting receiving the Sabita Award for Outstanding Bituminous Product Technology BELOW Cassie Smit, branch manager of the Tosas Spartan plant, receiving the Sabita CEO Merit Award

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Driving development

Ammann SA is delivering on its ideal of ‘Productivity partnerships for a lifetime’ with its new partnership with ELB Equipment, delivering impressive results and a new intelligent compactor with the potential to radically improve road building.


MMANN SA is the South African arm of Ammann Global, the Switzerland-based leading manufacturer of asphalt plants that develops and produces all the system components, including controls, screens, dryers, burners, mixers and filters, in-house on the basis of an integrated concept. This enables the company to offer its customers an optimised complete solution, with all elements of the plant ideally coordinated – from process analysis and design of the system components through to controls for all components of the plant. Ammann SA entered into a strategic partnership with equipment manufacturer and distributor ELB Equipment. A smart partnership in the true sense of the word, it was concluded in December 2013 and is already showing meaningful results. Ammann SA has concluded the majority of its product training with ELB Equipment and reports that there is a lot of enthusiasm for its products: “We are introducing our compaction products and plant equipment, which complement ELB ’s range extremely well,” notes Rocco Lehman, general manager of Ammann SA.


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“The partnership has significantly increased our footprint already. Where previously we had six committed sales representatives, we now have 28 and have an 80% market penetration in South Africa.”

financially strong enough to carry the brand. Informal representation already exists in these areas, but it is time to integrate them into Ammann more effectively.”

Innovation through development Reaching Africa The partnership also aided Ammann SA’s reach into Africa, with partner representation in Kenya and Tanzania. Lehman notes that, initially, there was some concern about concentrating too much representation in one partner: “There was some concern that we were putting all our eggs in one basket, but if we had sought specific partners on our own in these territories it could have taken years. “Our representative in Angola is also performing very well and in some instances is ahead on his orders. The reputation of Ammann SA is steadily growing.” Lehman continues: “Our focus areas over the next six months are West Africa and Mauritius.” Both Ghana and Nigeria are showing impressive and sustained growth owing largely to oil, gas and infrastructure development. “There are major opportunities in these territories and we are looking for partners who are

Ammann is focused on driving the further development of process engineering and process technology to meet the ever-growing demands from the markets in various regions with regards to the use of reclaimed asphalt, emission reduction and plant mobility. An excellent example of this in South Africa is Hillary Construction. Polokwane Road Surfacing – a division of the company – recently invested in Amman SA’s Prime 140 Asphalt Mixing Plant. This plant has various technologically driven capabilities, the most relevant being its recycling ability. “Sanral has made it a condition that all suppliers deliver a 40% asphalt recycling ability from all its asphalt plants. The Prime 140 mixing plant not only delivers this capability, but combines it with a foaming system, enabling asphalt to be mixed at a significantly lower temperature, making the plant more environmentally sound.




OMPACTION IS one of the most important processes in roadway construction. It is necessary in order to attain high quality and uniformity of pavement materials, which in turn ensure longlasting performance. Pavement materials often possess optimum densities that ensure adequate support, stability and strength. Achieving these densities uniformly is key, and Intelligent Compaction aids this process. Sanral has pointed out that 72% of road jobs fail within two years due to poor compaction. Ammann took note of this and has brought a sophisticated solution to the market. By introducing the Ammann Compaction Expert to the local market, all contractors involved in road building and paving stand to benefit in terms of both quality and lifetime cost. An intelligent measurement and control system calculates the current level of compaction and adjusts the compaction amplitude and frequency automatically according to the substrate’s condition. As the current compaction level of the substrate to be compacted (asphalt or earth) is established without delay, the ACE compactors are able to transfer the precise amount of compacting energy to the substrate. The system

also calculates the ideal rolling speed and displays the surface temperature on asphalt substrates. This data is recorded continuously throughout the compaction process and can be displayed and evaluated using the integrated documentation system named ADS (Ammann Documentation System). Stored data can be read out to provide comprehensive documentation or a thorough analysis. Each rolling sequence provides comprehensive compaction control and guarantees homogeneous soil consistency. “In South Africa, you often find two companies involved, one doing the sub-base and another doing the surfacing,” explains Rocco Lehman, general manager of Ammann SA. “Then, if a failure occurs, neither takes responsibility. With ACE compactors, a situation like this simply cannot exist; it allows for certainty, because you reduce the amount of passes from between 15 and 20 to between four and five.” Naturally, Ammann SA has done its own tests of this Swiss product. “The potential of this machine for the South African market is huge. With conventional rollers, much of the work is being done in the dark. As Lehman explains, this

machine requires some training for the operator but once done, the machine does all the work. An operator using an uncontrolled roller has to sensitise himself to the shifts in frequency and adjust accordingly, or a supervisor has to provide direction. This is highly inaccurate, not simply because of human error, but because humans can’t pick up the sen-

ABOVE The Ammann ACE intelligent compactor

sations at the precise moment; there is a delay. “We set up a test at a site in Komatipoort, and prepared a test strip and control strip. The comparison between the conventional roller and the ACE compactor was startling. The ACE achieves incredibly consistent compaction at a fraction of the time,” says Lehman.

Two functions – one machine The ACE Compactor ser ves two purposes: compaction and

measurement, the accuracy of which is unequalled by conventional methods. This means that a site can continue to use standard compactors and then run the controlled compactor – which tests and compacts at the same time – allowing for rapid and accurate corrections.

A machine for all seasons – but especially this one The recent deluge experienced in the northern provinces of South Africa has revealed major weaknesses in road construction and maintenance. “Gauteng’s by-roads are amongst the oldest in the country and its traffic loads have increased phenomenonally since they were built. The region is also highly dolomitic and is prone to small shifts. It is crucial that compaction standards are raised as an investment into to the life cycle costs of the roads.” Making this investment at the time of construction will deliver massive savings. It is estimated that the recent damage will cost more than R60 million to repair. Ammann SA’s mission is to deliver the technology that will ultimately deliver the best quality and best lifetime costs to the construction industry. With the introduction of the ACE Compactor, the company is responding to the market with a guaranteed solution.

IMIESA April 2014


My Ammann – Lightens my workload.

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New roads for steep terrains Nicholas McDiarmid speaks to Msunduzi Municipality and other stakeholders about an innovative solution that makes it possible to build roads affordably in this region’s tough terrains.


SUNDUZI (FORMERLY Pietermaritzburg) municipality’s investigation into the state of the city’s roads paints a grave picture. The report says that most municipal roads are in dire need of overlaying and resurfacing. Roads riddled with potholes and cracks are a result of the surface layer drying up. The simple repairing of the potholes is an interim solution, with major overlaying and resurfacing needed in the long term. Bheki Sosibo of the Infrastructure Services Department compiled the report and notes that the road infrastructure in Greater Edendale was in the worst condition. Sosibo Local labour was used to fill the multicell road in sections

IMIESA April 2014



said much of the damage had been caused by uncontrolled water spillage and usage – for example leaking standpipes, illegal water connections and the lack of waterborne sewerage systems. Sosibo said that due to severe damage on the Edendale Road, the council’s pothole gangs were spending more time fixing one road in that area. He added that the department had a service charter that all dangerous road defects had to be prioritised and get repaired within 48 hours. Those assessed as minor defects and not posing a danger to motorists would be included in the maintenance programme list.

Lack of equipment and qualified staff With an average 50% response rate monthly, the chief limitations of the road department were the lack of staff and vehicles. Although 15 trucks were allocated to the road unit, Sosibo notes that real picture looks much different: “These vehicles are now not reliable due to frequent breakdowns taking


IMIESA April 2014

place almost every week and some of them cannot be repaired; 80% of these trucks are more than 20 years old,” he said. For the past few years, only three trucks had been made available for road repairs, one of which was serving the entire Edendale area and the other two dealing with the northern areas, the CBD and surrounding suburbs. “The unavailability of vehicles makes life very difficult for this unit to respond to the number of complaints received,” he said. For the roads section to be effective in terms of attending to the pothole programme, Sosibo estimates that at least six trucks in total were needed. The capacity picture is perhaps even more worrying, with a 75% vacancy rate in the unit that handles hot asphalt, heavy compaction equipment and traffic control.

An alternative to asphalt Because it was found to be in the worst condition, Edendale Township was identified for a complete road resurfacing project. Most of the roads used by the local people to access their homes are constructed from gravel and often so poorly maintained that no gravel is evident. Following heavy rainfalls, the in-situ clay material is exposed, especially on the steeper roads, which are rendered inaccessible to most vehicles. Paving these roads with asphalt was not viable due to the steep gradients and prohibitive costs of OPPOSITE Application is simple – a section of geocell road being filled with concrete BELOW The completed road ready for foot traffic and small vehicles

paving, so engineers from the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport decided to resurface two steep road sections with multi-cell 100 mm filled with ready-mix concrete. This solution was possible because the roads here are trafficked mostly by light motor vehicles and pedestrians. Multi-cell is a honeycomb structured material that is manufactured from strips of laminated polypropylene slit film geotextile that are stitched together. It is used as an in-situ shuttering to cast continuous interlocking concrete paving for road or canal construction and as an erosion control formwork for soil vegetated embankments. Kaytech’s Paul Lombard was the on-site specialist supervisor. This system has been successfully installed in the past on a section of a district road at Vulindlela (adjacent to Edendale) in 2006 and also at Unit H in Edendale in 2007. In the case of the Vulindlela District Road D1125 project, five kilometres of an existing substandard gravel road had deteriorated so badly that approximately 1.4 km of steep section was rendered impassable during wet weather, forcing a 12 km detour for commuters. This road is an important link for the local residential communities of Vulindlela to Pietermaritzburg. Taxis and buses were thus not able to serve the area, resulting in commuters walking long distances to access transport facilities. Working within tight budget constraints and the limitations of an existing 20 m fixed road reserve, the regrading of the 28% incline and widening of the sharp horizontal curves was particularly challenging. After conducting a feasibility




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“The multi-cell system proved to be the most economical technical solution providing an ideal opportunity for labour intensive construction techniques”

geocells for upgrading and improving road networks into previously inaccessible steep environments. This innovative design technique has gained acceptance throughout South Africa.

Opportunities and study and having considered other options, a 600 m section at 19% design grade was constructed using multi-cell geocells filled in with 25 MPa concrete. The multi-cell system proved to be the most economical technical solution providing an ideal opportunity for labour-intensive construction (LIC) techniques. Members of the local community were employed and trained to install the multi-cell system in accordance with the government’s policy on the LIC and Extended Public Works Programme. This project, and others like it in Unit H of Edendale, demonstrated the potential of using concrete-filled

This Edendale roads project was the first multi-cell project undertaken by the contractor, Okuhlekwethu Developments, which installed the product according to Kaytech’s installation guidelines. Since multi-cell is quick and easy to install, unskilled, local labour was again employed on this project by simply following Kaytech’s installation guidelines and receiving on-site training by a foreman. Multi-cell provides a high cell wall/infill interlock as well as high tensile strength and seam strength. It is usually supplied in standard 5 m x 10 m panels, but

IMIESA April 2014

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to accommodate these narrower, singletrack roads; Kaytech specially manufactured 4 m x 10 m panels. Livestock and stray animals walking through the wet mix before it was properly cured posed a problem for the contractor, but this was rectified by manually filling the footprints with concrete once the concrete had set. In total, 5 080 m2 of multi-cell 100 mm were installed; as an economical and highly effective product, it saved the Department of Transport a significant amount of money. Another positive result of multi-cell is due to its ease of installation; it created work opportunities for many unemployed local people who can take pride in their township, having been directly involved in its improvements. Since these rehabilitated road sections will be easy to maintain and will remain serviceable far into the future, there is every reason to use this road building method in areas of steep terrain.

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Structa Technology supports government Meyerton-based Structa Technology, a member of the Structa Group of Companies, is proud to be of service to the government by assisting in the provision of muchneeded water storage to rural communities throughout South Africa, says Structa’s technology director for Prestank, Rodney Cory.


UR 40-YEAR brand, namely Prestank, has proven itself to be a hygienically safe, cost effective and reliable way to store water. We are one of the preferred suppliers of water storage tanks to municipal authorities and mines because we are known as a supplier who always strives to deliver our water tanks on time, within budget and adhering to the best quality standards,” says Cory. Recent notable Prestanks that were fabricated and installed by Structa are: • Middleburg To cater for the growing needs of the Rockdale Communities in the Steve Tshwete Municipality, a 1 mℓ, 18 m elevated Prestank was installed in December 2013. • Hopetown Two water tanks were delivered to the Hopetown communities. The one tank is an L-shaped tank on ground level capacity of 2.5 mℓ. The other tank is elevated on a 27 m stand and has a capacity of 900 000 ℓ. • Mafekeng Two water tanks of 190 000 ℓ each were installed November last year to the communities of Brooksby in the Ngaka Modiri Molema District Municipality. The Structa Prestank also provides water storage infrastructure to mines. A water tank was provided to the De Beers Venetia Mine in January. This is an elevated water tank on a 22 m stand 200 000 ℓ capacity fabricated according to the strict quality specifications of Anglo American. Prestank may be used for vari-ious water storage applications from temporary or permanent installations. The Structa Prestanks are fully customisable, high-quality water storage solutions manufactured according to SANS guideliness

and meet South African hot dipped galvanising requirements. There are many benefits to choosing Prestanks: • It facilitates construction of an infinite range of sizes and configurations to meet the specifications and needs of the client. • The profile panel sections provide excellent strength properties and are structurally sound for storing water. The stand is designed strictly in accordance with SANS 10160 for wind and SANS 10162 for structural steel work. • The sectional tank design facilitates easier handling and transportation over long distances to remote areas, regardless of the final dimensions of the assembled unit. • Assembly on-site is quickly achieved without sophisticated tooling methods. • Minimum maintenance is required because the galvanised steel panels resist weathering from the elements, BELOW Hopetown L-shaped tank BELOW LEFT Rodney Cory, director at Prestank

while maintaining the integrity of the water within from contamination of most forms. • Access to the water tank can be restricted by means of a lockable, ventilated access cover. Structa’s pressed steel sectional tanks are hot-dip galvanised for corrosion control in accordance with the requirements of the SANS 121 (ISO 1461) galvanising standard. The thickness of the hot-dip galvanising coat is applied within a range of 80 to 100 μm. This is more than five times the thickness of zinc on pre-galvanised corrugated steel cylindrical tanks. The purpose is to ensure extended maintenance-free life where water with aggressively corrosive properties is required to be stored. • • +27 (0)16 362 9100

IMIESA April 2014



Partnering for trenchless innovation This year is a significant year for South Africa and its citizens. It marks four years since the Soccer World Cup was held on local soil and, more importantly, it also ushers in the general elections.


S IN THE past, each general election has a per vading theme throughout: the bir th of new democracy, economic growth, job creation etc. This time around, ser vice deliver y is at the forefront. The City of Cape Town, with R19.5 billion worth of assets, which includes approximately 10 438 km of water and 9 021 km of sewer networks, has also sought to address these issues (Water Ser vices Development Plan for the City of Cape Town 2011/12 – 2015/16 Final Report March 2011).


IMIESA April 2014

The city has implemented a number of innovative projects that showcase the potential benefits of municipalities working in conjunction with the private sector where they are able to implement innovative BELOW View of the wetland area where 160 m of 400 mm diameter pipe was installed using horizontal directional drilling RIGHT View of the drill rig used for the installation in the wetland area

construction solutions while providing service delivery, preserving the natural environment and promoting sustainable growth. One such project was the upgrade of the existing sewer pump station near Dunoon.


ABOVE View of Rammer attached to the steel pipe

This project required the installation of two 600 mm diameter pipelines across a heavily trafficked dual-carriage roadway. A specialist trenchless subcontractor was elected to install two 1 064 mm diameter steel pipelines to house the 600 mm

diameter ductile iron pipelines. Both 56 m long steel pipelines were installed by means of pipe ramming. The use of this innovative construction technique not only saved local road users from the massive disruption and inconvenience that would have resulted from using open cut excavation, it also safeguarded the existing road infrastructure from premature deterioration

often caused by excavation through the road sur face. Also, in the Somerset West area, a 400 mm diameter effluent main was installed where a large section of this pipeline traversed a green area, which was listed as environmentally sensitive by the appointed environmentalists. A specialist trenchless contractor was appointed to

IMIESA April 2014


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RIGHT The 600 mm diameter ductile iron pipes installed within the steel pipe

install the 160 m section of 400 mm diameter pipeline by means of horizontal directional drilling. The installation was successfully completed by Jaco van Zyl, site manager for the drilling contractor TT Innovations. He also commented on the recent turnaround seen by employers and stakeholders who “appear to be putting the environment first� by stating that it’s a case of ‘progress versus preser vation’ where “growth should not be at the expense of our natural heritage – especially if alternative construction methods such as trenchless technology exists�. Sustainable growth is enabled through effective asset management. Here, the City of Cape Town is making significant strides in upgrading its underground assets. Large portions of the water and sewer pipeline networks are being replaced by means of pipe bursting. In brief, this trenchless pipe replacement method uses pneumatic or hydraulic energy to displace and fragment (‘burst’) the existing pipeline while simultaneously installing a new HDPE pipeline along the same alignment and grade as the existing route. This form of pipe replacement is highly effective in high-density residential areas where the existing water and sewer infrastructure is at breaking-point due to the design life of the underground assets being exceeded. TT Innovations, one of several contractors appointed by the City of Cape Town to undertake pipe replacement by means of pipe bursting, reports that it is able to install up to 300 m of water pipe per day without causing any major disruption to the local residents. The trenchless construction sector is specifically geared towards swift and efficient pipeline replacement, installation and rehabilitation – all under the guiding principles of preser ving the natural environment, reducing disruption and inconvenience, as well as rapid construction. The city has shown intent by utilising this sector for various projects; however, more needs to be done to eradicate the sewer maintenance backlog and stem the flow of water losses if the city wishes to meet its 2015 strategic objectives, namely: to decrease sewer over-flows by 20% and to reduce unaccounted-for water to only 15% (Water Ser vices Development Plan for the City of Cape Town 2010/11 – 2013/14 Executive Summar y).

IMIESA April 2014


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Energy efficiency in the SA water industry The cost of powering water treatment works could become prohibitive within the next 20 years. Conduit hydropower has the potential to offset this, writes Nicholas McDiarmid.


NERGY CONSUMPTION continues to increase as more people access water and sanitation, and new technologies are implemented to meet stricter effluent and potable water quality requirements. The Water Research Commission presented the findings of the South African Energy Compendium of Good Practice in Water and Wastewater at the 4th Municipal Water Quality Conference last year.

The bigger picture To position the water sector globally with regard to energy consumption, the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) has embarked on a project entitled Energy Efficiency in the Water Industry: A Compendium of Best Practices and Case Studies, which documents these best practices worldwide. The project is supported by the GWRC partners, as represented by the four Continental Coordinators in Australasia (Australia and Singapore), Europe, South Africa and the US. Each

continental group has produced a report of best examples submitted by utilities in their region. When all four continental reports are available, they will be compiled into the global compendium. The WRC has therefore commissioned a study to help understand the potential impact that current energy supply challenges are having on South Africa’s water and wastewater services. The project was to provide the South African water and wastewater treatment sectors with an objective and logical evaluation of the current and expected impact and consequences of power outages on water and wastewater treatment services.

The South Africa situation According to Dr Jo Burgess, WRC research manager, contrary to the UK and US energy compendiums, South Africa has not been actively pursuing and implementing

energy savings projects on a large scale, mainly as result of the abundance of readily available and cheap electricity in the country. This means that case studies and operational data are not readily available. In cases where energy savings applications have been made, the data is poorly recorded and not verified. Hence, the South African compendium may need to be developed to guide towards best practice of ‘developmental industry’, as opposed to being a compendium of best practice by way of case study documentation. When demand for electricity has outstripped supply there has been a need for load shedding. In particular, power outages were experienced between November 2007 and January 2008, and have again been applied in 2013. Dr Valerie Naidoo, WRC research manager, says South Africa has one of the most advanced water and wastewater sectors on the continent. Understanding the complexity of South Africa’s water supply chain is a critical component of analysing the impact of power outages on this sector. Numerous

An estimated 10 000 MWh can be recovered from wastewaters in the whole of South Africa IMIESA April 2014



factors influence the amount of energy uti-lised in the water supply chain, including thee stage of the water supply chain, technologyy utilised, the use of pump or gravity feeds,, and the quality of the water being treated.

The cost of treatment Certain treatment technologies consumee more energy than others. For example,, reverse osmosis membranes use signifi-cantly more energy than other filtrationn techniques. “Up to 50% energy savingss have been demonstrated by case stud-ies in wastewater processes focused onn aeration. Simple changes in control meth-ods and set points have frequently shownn substantial quick wins, and checks on plant, control methods, operational routines and maintenance have proven worthwhile,” comments project leader Dr Marlene van der Merwe-Botha.

Hydropower from pressurised water conduits One of the WRC-funded studies investigated and demonstrated the potential hydropower generation in pressurised water supply conduits. A pilot installation was erected at the Elardus Park Reservoir (Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality). The initial results reflected the benefit and expected return from such an investment, even if the system is only operated at 50% capacity. eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality conducted a feasibility study on the Northern Aqueduct in the Durban potable water distribution system. This project is fairly complex, consisting of 39 reservoirs, and water demand is often in danger of exceeding the supply. The feasibility study was based on the installation of six mini-hydrogenerators,

each capable of providing 150 to 180 kW. Based on this study, invitations for tender were put out by eThekwini Metro for six turbines. However, these were going to cost in the region of R35 million, which was deemed too expensive, and as a result the specifications of the tender were modified in order to reduce costs. The modified request for tender was for two turbines, but, to date, the council has rejected this option. The cost of these turbines is expected to be between R6 million and R8 million each. In the meantime, eThekwini Metro is exploring the option of funding from Eskom, the national electricity supplier. Eskom has projects in which electricity generation of between 1 000 kW and 1 MW are funded at a rate of R0.70/kW for a period of three to five years after commissioning. Should this funding be obtained, the project for two mini-hydrogenerators in the Northern Aqueduct is expected to go ahead. Rand Water and Bloem Water are others pursuing this option, with Bloem Water progressing towards installing a 150 kW unit in the next

FIGURE 1 Location of energy generation potential

few months, which will supply electricity to its headquarters.

Unlocking energy in wastewater treatment Another WRC project recognised opportunities that exist to improve the current wastewater treatment processes by applying new solutions and technologies that can reduce energy inputs or generate energy. A WRC survey conducted in 2009 on the quality and quantity of wastewaters in South Africa identified the top three sectors with the greatest potential energy recovery as: the formal and informal animal husbandry sector (cows, pigs and chickens), fruit and beverage industries (distillery, brewery, winery, fruit juicing and canning), and domestic blackwater (sewage). Through this, an estimated 10 000 MWh can be recovered from wastewaters in the whole of South Africa, representing 7% of the Eskom electrical power supply. 

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The threat of unaffordable wastewater Energy has also become a key driver in the wastewater treatment value chain of Johannesburg and every effort is being made


to produce green energy and reduce power consumption. Johannesburg Water operates and maintains six wastewater treatment works and treated about 105 400 m3 of sewage per day in 2010. All of the sewage treated was by the activated sludge process and about 90% of the 260 dry tonnes of sludge produced per day consisted of wasteactivated sludge. It is estimated that by 2020 the cost of electricity for the treatment of wastewater in Johannesburg will have risen from R97 million per annum to more than R300 million per annum, making the existing wastewater treatment operation possibly unaffordable. Failure of the wastewater treatment operations would have a devastating effect on the economy, environment, health services and social activities of the city. In line with the Department of Energy’s Integrated Resource Plan of 2010, South Africa needs to increase its capacity by 45 000 MW by 2030. This figure excludes Eskom’s present capacity expansion projects.

Municipal energy audits Among the list of recommendations made is that municipalities should look into energy savings opportunities by means of an energy audit. Such audits require plant operational data and monthly electrical accounts for the plant. Drawings and data of electrical equipment will ease the process of such an assessment. The price structure of the plant’s electrical account will benefit in understanding the cost structure for the wastewater treatment plant during assessment stages. Issues such as electrical load management during peak demand periods must be clear and understood by the plant operations staff. Energy savings opportunities from demand side management programmes include reduction in energy costs by shifting the power consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. Such options need careful consideration for large treatment plants. Small and seasonal wastewater treatment plants may benefit from such an opportunity.

IMIESA April 2014

Welcome to the future – a future of Mwangaza We are all writing a part of the script which tomorrow’s society will play out. At Royal HaskoningDHV we would like the title to read: ‘Welcome to the future’ - and for our chapter in that script to read ‘Mwangaza’ - a Swahili word which means ‘light’. Together with our partners and clients we consider how we can create a welcoming future - developing efficient and smart living. Whether switching on a light, travelling to work or drinking a clean glass of water - the solutions and work of our engineers surround us, making lives better and brighter. Our work contributes to the sustainable development of communities. Together, we deliver innovative sustainable answers to today’s challenges. Royal HaskoningDHV is an independent, international engineering and project management consultancy.


The basis of water metering in South Africa Local governments are under pressure to ensure a steady revenue stream, save water and identify water losses. Smart water metering has the potential to aid this, but is unable to measure the current state of affairs. Nicholas McDiarmid looks at the foundation of water metering: the law.


ATER METERS play a critical role in enabling municipalities to manage water resources. In South Africa, like in many countries, there is a legal framework that compels municipalities to meter consumers and manage water losses.

Legal requirements According to Government Gazette No 22355 (Regulation Gazette No 7079) Vol 432, published on 8 June 2001: • A water services institution must - within two years after promulgation of these regulations, fit a suitable water volume measuring device or volume controlling device to all user connections provided with water supply services that are existing at the time of commencement of these regulations - fit a suitable water volume measuring device or volume controlling device to every user connection made after the commencement of these regulations. • If constructed or installed after promulgation of these regulations, a suitable water volume measuring device or volume controlling device must be fitted to separately measure or control the water supply to every - individual dwelling within a new sectional title development, group housing development or apartment building - individual building, having a maximum designed flow rate exceeding 60 ℓ/minute within any commercial or institutional complex

• irrigation system with a maximum designed flow rate exceeding 60 ℓ/minute that uses water supplied by a water services institution. • Where the water supplied is measured by way of a meter, that meter must comply with the Trade Metrology Act, 1973 (Act No 77 of 1973), which will be replaced by the new Metrology Bill, if of a size regulated under that act.

Requirements for water meters 15 to 100 mm diameter The approval and testing of water meter sizes of 32 mm to 100 mm diameter operates under a concession from the Department of Trade Metrology.

Verification test The law requires that before water meters are sold, each meter is tested in a locally accredited laborator y (SANS 10378: 2011) to SANS 1529-1: 2006 verification test procedure. To qualify to perform verification tests, laboratories must be accredited to SANS 10378:2011. A certified and registered verification officer is required to perform the test. When the meters pass the test, the verification officer may seal, same with the seal issued to the verification officer by the Legal Metrology department after passing the relevant exam, e.g. EKM12 with year of registration on reverse side.

Type approval

Marking of approved water meters

Water meter sizes of 15 to 25 mm diameters have to be submitted to the NRCS for type approval. The meters are tested by NRCS to SANS 1529-1: 2006. When the meters pass the test, a South African approval number is issued for the relevant make and model of the meter tested, e.g. SA842.

Each water meter shall be clearly and indelibly marked with the following information, either grouped or distributed on the body, on the indicator dial or on an identification plate or waterproof label permanently affixed to the meter, unless otherwise prescribed: • the manufacturer’s name or trade name  or registered trade mark

There is a legal imperative on municipalities to meter consumers and manage water losses in compliance with legislation and standards

IMIESA April 2014


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The above meters are all NRCS TYPE APPROVED APPLICATION: Measures the volume of cold potable water passing through a pipeline. FEATURES: • Accurate registration across a wide flow range. • Mechanical drive for maximum reliability. • Corrosion resistant body. • Clear, easily read, liquid sealed 8 digit counter. • Registering begins at low flow rates. • Internal non return valve and strainer. • Each meter has a unique serial number. • Pulse prepared. • Inlet & Outlet threads compatible with I.S.O metric sizes. • Plastic Body Meters UV Stabilised. • Plastic Body exceeds 48bar.

MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE ERRORS: • In the lower zone from (qmin) inclusive up to but excluding (qt) is ±5%. • In the upper zone from (qt) inclusive up to and including (qs) is ±2%. WORKING CONDITIONS: • Water temperature: 2°C ~ 40°C. ‡:DWHUSUHVVXUH•03D EDU  COMPLIANCE STANDARD: • Conforms to ISO4064 Class C Standard. • Conforms to SANS 1529 - 1. INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS: • May be installed on a horizontal or vertical pipeline (horizontal recommended). • Pipeline must be constantly full of water during operation.

We also have a range of Bulk Water Meters: LXLC 50A (mm) ~ 500A (mm) and HHD Electromagnetic flow meters 15 (mm) - 2600 (mm) - Brass tail piece sets 15mm - 40mm as well as Brass ferrule valves 15mm - 25mm

Cape Town: Tel: 021 510 4266 | 510 8408 Fax: 021 510 8759

Johannesburg: Tel: 011 609 6336 Fax: 011 609 9531 LEVEL 2

E: | W:


The warranty related to plasticbodied meters becomes null and void if the meters are not installed in meter boxes • the permanent flow rate qp, in cubic meters per hour (which may be combined with a thread of flange size, provided that permanent flow rate remains conspicuous) • serial number, which may include the year of manufacture • the direction of flow, applied to the body of the meter and indicated (for example) by an arrow • on meters incorporating verified measuring assemblies, an identification mark, marked on the body, to indicate compliance with type approval documentation • South African approval number (this number will be allocated after type approval of a specific model of meter) • the nominal working pressure if other than 1 600 kPa (9)

• the pressure loss (10) (either the group or in kilopascals). • metrological class, e.g. B, C or D, as appropriate and, where relevant, the letter V (vertical) or H (horizontal)

SANS standard for water supply and drainage for buildings The SANS 10252-1: 2012 standard covers water meter requirements and typical installations. The relevant legislation enables the Minister of Water Affairs to prescribe compulsory national standards relating to consumer installations. In this regard, it defines a consumer installation as a pipeline, fitting or apparatus installed or used by a consumer to gain access to water services and includes a meter attached to such pipeline, fitting or apparatus. According to the SANS standard, every consumer installation shall comply with SANS 10252: Water supply and drainage for buildings and SANS 10254: The

installation, maintenance, replacement and repair of fixed electric storage water heating systems, or any other similar substituting re-enactment or amendment thereof if the consumer installation is of a type regulated by either standard.

The installation of plastic-bodied water meters SANS 1529-1: 2006 A meter with a plastic body or plastic manifold, or both, shall only be installed in a covered enclosure or housing that prevents the meter or the manifold or both from being exposed to direct sunlight during normal conditions of use.

Warranty The warranty related to plastic-bodied meters becomes null and void if the meters are not installed in meter boxes. The reason is that the inlet and outlet threads cannot withstand the torque that the connected piping can exert (especially metal pipes).

IMIESA April 2014



Training the youth to combat water leaks The deputy minister of Water and Environmental Affairs, Rejoice Mabudafhasi, and the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality recently launched the War on Leaks project.


HIS PROJECT will see 200 youths benefiting from a skills development programme and basic plumbing job opportunities over the next three years, within the City of Tshwane, as part of the Tshepo 10 000 initiative. The War on Leaks project was initiated by the Department of Water Affairs and is being implemented at municipalities across the country. This project aims at eradicating water leaks at households and public buildings to significantly reduce the volume of unaccounted for water. Approximately 37% of our water supply is lost due to water leaks, amounting to an estimated at R7 billion per annum. The project aims to remedy this situation by training the youth with basic plumbing skills. Fiberpipe has partnered with the Department of Water Affairs to help realise the national objectives of poverty alleviation, job creation and skills development expressed in the National Development Plan Vision 2030. The objective of this partnership is to strengthen government’s arm in addressing the country’s water challenges and to create a platform for the employment of the youth within the water sector. Fiberpipe has expressed its support by donating 20 plumbing tool kits and 220 t-shirts to the value of just over R300 000. “Our partnership with the Department of Water Affairs aims at ensuring that we build sufficient capacity within the water sector to maintain our infrastructure, by addressing the current skills demand through training and up-skilling of the unemployed youth, thereby creating a platform for the skilled youth to access jobs within the sector with their newly attained skills and qualifications to address the challenges plaguing the sector,” said Fiberpipe executive business manager Nizaam Hendricks. As part of the Tshepo 10 000 initiative, 200 youths will benefit from a skills development programme and basic plumbing job opportunities over the next three years

IMIESA April 2014


Speaking at the launch, Vanessa Khathwane, executive at Fiberpipe, told the 200 candidates who will receive training: “Through this project that you will be involved in, you will be significantly contributing to the conservation of our limited water resource by reducing water losses for the present and future generations. Let us embrace the War on Leaks programme and make it a reality.” All of the candidates are between the ages of 18 and 35. This age group has the highest rate of unemployment in the country. Women make up 66%. Fiberpipe strongly encourages the involvement of women in this industry, as well as the War on Leaks project, as part of the transformation process in the water sector.


Sustainable solutions using geosynthetics With a 10- to 15-year design life, provided there is regular maintenance, and a life expectancy of 75 years for the average South African, the roads we drive on should be reconstructed at least four times in our lifetime.


COUNTRY’S economy is based on its infrastructure, and road maintenance and construction is critical issue facing municipalities. Maintenance is a key factor in pavements: if it is not performed at the required intervals, the road begins to weaken. The transfer of higher pressures intended for the upper layers overstresses the base and sub-base. Another factor contributing to the ageing of a pavement is the traffic volume, which increases significantly every year. If the traffic growth is higher than expected during design stage, as soon as the pavement reaches the maximum traffic load, the pavement structure will start working beyond the structural design period. Instead of a simple resurfacing, a deep rehabilitation may be required, putting pressure on the municipality’s budget. A variety of maintenance options exist, depending on the road authority’s chosen maintenance plan. Geosynthetics made its first appearance in the pavements of haul roads in the US in the late 1960s. Nonwoven geotextiles (aka filter fabrics)

were successfully used as a separation layer with minimal reinforcement properties. Due to the development of new products, the use of geosynthetics in pavements has grown exponentially over the years. The geosynthetics now available allow the reduction of pavement layer works in applications from haul roads to highways, from parking areas to container yards. Different products are available for various layer works.

Geosynthetics and subgrade improvement When encountering a low bearing capacity subgrade in the range of 1 to 3 Californian Bearing Ratio (CBR) – in some instances even below 1 CBR – the traditional approach is to dump rockfill until refusal is achieved. Depending on the soil consolidation, the rockfill layer can vary anywhere from 300 mm to 1 000 mm in the worstcase scenario. By including a geosynthetic, one can avoid the mechanism of “punching through” of the rockfill in the low bearing capacity soil, as the geotextile carries the rockfill, separating it from the subgrade as

well as reinforcing due to the higher stiffness. Due to the high strength of the material, this can result in a reduction of between 20 and 40% of the thickness of the rockfill layer, can prevent the contamination by the fine particle and can assist in horizontal drainage. An additional layer of geotextile can be placed on top of the rockfill layer, effectively sandwiching the rockfill layer and avoiding the contamination of layer works. Although this requires the installation of two layers of geotextiles, the products are readily available and easily acquired. Two labourers can easily handle the rolls. This labour-intensive method can contribute to the Extended Public Works Programme, which is a key factor in municipal projects.

Geosynthetics and subbase improvement Although placing a geosynthetic in a subbase usually doesn’t aim to reduce the thickness of the sub-base layer, it will assist in allowing the reduction in the thickness of the base course. Base materials ranging from G1/G2 to C3 or C4 are usually very expensive. Failures in the sub-base layers are caused by vertical stresses imposed by the upper layers developing horizontal stresses, causing lateral shoving. Geogrids, such as extruded geogrids, lock the soil particles in place due to their open grid structures, eliminating lateral movement and thereby improving the mechanical performances of the subbase. In deep rehabilitation, geosynthetics not only assist in reducing the costly excavation, but also might overcome shallow services interference. Mactex W1 6S woven geotextile placed under soft clay in situ in Secunda


IMIESA April 2014


Wearing courses and overlays Wearing courses are considered the “mother of all problems”. As soon as the wearing course ages, it loses its flexibility. Fatigue cracking then occurs due to tensile strain occurring at the bottom of the asphalt layer. In the past, thick nonwoven geotextiles were placed as sealant to prevent water intrusion through the cracks. With the improvement in the strength of the raw materials now available, geosynthetics are now used to reinforce the wearing course. An increase of 40 to 60% of the pavement life, or a reduction of the asphalt layer by about 20 to 30%, is achievable with use of glass fibre geogrids. As with every engineering product, care is of paramount importance. A classic failure is the delamination of the wearing course or overlays due to the lack of bonding between the geogrid and the bottom/top layer. Tack coat should be placed uniformly over the entire surface, ensuring that the geogrids are fully covered, and adhere as per the product installation specification.

Furthermore asphalt reinforcement geogrids are covered in a bitumen cover which protects the yarns. Once the paver places the asphalt, the hot temperatures reactivate the bitumen on the geogrid, enhancing bonding. Delamination of overlays is due to faulty installations, not failure of the geogrid itself.

Conclusions The inclusion of geosynthetics allows for a reduction in pavement layer thickness,

Separation Mechanism using woven geotextile

which leads to considerable cost and construction time savings without compromising the quality or the design life. As the inclusion of geosynthetics significantly affects the performance of the pavement, correct engineering and careful supervision are essential to ensure a highly sustainable solution.

IMIESA April 2014



Flexible Pavement Design Software

Asphalt reinforcement, MacGrid® AR Queen Nandi Drive, KwaZulu-Natal

MACREAD (MACcaferri Road Equivalent Assistant for Design) software is used to select appropriate geogrids to meet the projects demands, optimising the structure and cost effeciency. MACREAD is an essential tool for pavement designers to optimise the design to allow the full utilisation of MacGrid®. For your FREE copy, contact our office or visit for download

re on Lectu CPD ements Pav vailable wa is no

We now have 8 SAICE Accredited Complimentary CPD Lectures available. Visit for information on lectures in your area. National Tel: +27 87 742 2710 International: Tel: +27 31 705 0500 Branches: Durban (HO), Johannesburg, Cape Town, East London, Tongaat (Factory)



6–8 APRIL 2014








Ecoefficient criteria There is an urgent need to apply cost-effective technologies and methods that deliver better and more sustainable performances. By Shian Saroop and Prof Dhiren Allopi


HE CONSTRUCTION industry is one of the main contributors to the depletion of natural resources and a major cause of air and water pollution, solid waste, deforestation, health hazards, global warming, and other negative consequences. A systematic and iterative analysis of the environmental impact of various design solutions is commonly suggested for infrastructure projects, but rarely happens. The lack of appropriate tools and skills for sustainable design is often quoted as a barrier to sustainable design (Richardson et al [2]). In order to stay competitive and to meet upcoming stricter environmental regulations and customer requirements, designers have a key role in designing civil infrastructure so that it is environmentally sustainable. These and other factors have compelled the engineer to design with greater care and in more detail. Civil engineering projects can have significant site-specific and cumulative impacts on our ecological and social systems if not correctly planned, designed and implemented. Relatively few designers have explored the transformative potential of ecological

design and have preferred to remain apolitical and unconcerned with the distributional impacts of design as they affect the health of humans and ecosystems (Van Wyk [3]). Infrastructure development focused mainly on financing issues and engineering aspects in the region. Mainstreaming environmental aspects and incorporating the eco-efficiency concept into various stages of infrastructure development have not been considered as much as they should have been. By utilising improved environmentally friendly seeking design solutions, this study aims to introduce environmentally friendly design decisions prior to the infrastructure design approval process. This increases overall competitiveness by bringing a whole new class of productive solutions to problems while at the same time adding a fresh perspective to the traditional infrastructure design process.

Sustainability in civil engineering infrastructure projects Infrastructure elements such as roads, water, sewage and stormwater can result in loss of critical ecosystems and biodiversity. There is a need to create an eco

sensitive infrastructure design rating system that encourages and promotes the use of “softer� design solutions. In the area of sustainability, there is an urgent need to apply technologies and methods that deliver better and more sustainable performance in a way that is cost effective. Sustainability, adaptive and mitigative approaches to climate change, in the design of infrastructure are therefore important steering elements (FIDIC [1]). The rating of green buildings evaluates the environmental impacts of buildings but with little emphases on the environmental performance of civil engineering infrastructure. The proposed research proposes a decision toolkit that assesses the environmental impacts of infrastructure design decisions on development. Diligent attention to greener infrastructure solutions from the very earliest phases of a project will help guarantee that quality design environmental solutions are built in from the beginning.

Sustainability The criteria for sustainable green infrastructure are tools or indicators which can

IMIESA April 2014





t t t t





011 922 3300

East London

043 727 1057

Cape Town

021 531 8110


031 717 2300


octarine 3723




be used in the conceptualisation, implementation, and monitoring of progress in township infrastructure projects. The criteria define the essential components of the proposed green infrastructure toolkit against which sustainability may be assessed. Thus, collectively, the criteria provide an implicit, generally agreed-upon global definition, for the concept of sustainability on infrastructure projects. Each criterion relates to a key element of sustainability. Through the measurement and monitoring of these indicators, the overall effects of the proposed green infrastructure toolkit can be assessed and evaluated, and action can be adjusted to meet stated aims and objectives more effectively. The client’s vision, goals and objectives for environmental sustainability on a project can be translated into a core set of project criteria. While project goals set the direction, the project sustainability categories provide the means to measure a project. It enables clients, engineers and stakeholders to gauge progress toward sustainable development by comparing the per formance achieved on a project with the intended per formance. The Environmental Sustainability criteria that characterise the sustainable criteria of green township infrastructure are listed in Table 1. The Infrastructure Sustainability criteria used in the proposed Green Township Infrastructure Design Toolkit were developed to: • determine the means by which ecoenvironmental ef ficiency can be assessed, monitored, quantified and verified at any stage of the project, to ensure a value-added, quality driven, green approach to infrastructure design • provide a basis for the consultants and clients to work together on to create and evaluate sustainable infrastructure solutions thereby ensuring comprehensive infrastructure planning with maximum stakeholder involvement • achieve the required balance of sustainability, expenditure, value for money, and quality between the various elements of the project.

allows the design team to target or prioritise certain infrastructure environmental sustainable per formance categories over the various elements of the project. The weighting of the various categories are carried out at this early stage, before the design is developed, to avoid redesign later in the process. The proposed Infrastructure Environmental Sustainability Categories Weighting Report Form enables the project to be tailored to the client’s project requirements and specifications, at the earliest stages of the development process. A lot of flexibility exists in the green township design rating system, so that designers can benefit by focusing on specific categories applicable to each design situation. The weighting and setting of targets for the sustainability categories helps the designer understand the many design choices which need to be made in relation to Layout Planning, Functional Efficiency, Environmental Quality, Economy, Future Maintenance, Safety, Convenience and Resources, and their impact on the overall economics of the project. Sustainability criteria focus on scarce resources and priority areas, and to improve accountability linking project level work to the achievement of strategic objectives.

The Green Township Infrastructure Rating System This paper proposes a rating system that enforces environmentally sustainable design on township infrastructure services by integrating a consideration of

resources, the environment, ecologically sensitive innovative design, maintenance and recyclable materials, from the early design stages of a project. The Green Township Infrastructure Design Toolkit, as illustrated in Figure 1, uses the concept of eco-efficiency and would allow the designer to evaluate design options, enabling them to choose the one likely to yield the best per formance with the least environmental impact, based on proven technology. This toolkit is intended to encourage developers to consider green methods and practices in the earliest stages of project planning by assessing a number of recommended green practices and their environmental impacts on infrastructure ser vices design. The various Green Report Forms enable the client to select a combination of alternatives and evaluate a number of possible design options – with their environmental implications – at each stage of the design process (Saroop, 2013). During the briefing and preliminar y design stage (1 and 2), the client and engineer have a joint responsibility of deciding just how green the project should be, or alternatively, of deciding what environmental quality of ser vices can be provided. During the detailed stages (3), the engineer has the responsibility of designing, while maximising the green value of the project. Stage 4 gives the designers an opportunity to add environmental value at the construction stage by analysing eco-friendly construction material. The underlying structure of the Green Township Infrastructure Design Toolkit is

Table 1 The eco-efficient infrastructure performance criteria

Eco-efficient infrastructure sustainable criteria Efficient layout planning Resources Environment quality Functional efficiency Future maintenance Economy

Weighting of environmental sustainability indicators


The weighting of the Infrastructure Environmental Sustainability Categories


Measure Placement of infrastructure in environmentally responsible, efficient ways, conserve land. Encourages the efficient utilisation of materials/ resources, selection of environmentally friendly materials. Design features that mitigate environmental impacts of infrastructure, by reducing effects of pollutants. Design of infrastructure that maximises functional efficiency of infrastructure. Maximises the opportunities for integrating capital and operation of infrastructure, ensuring reliability of level of service. Maximises the opportunities for integrated cost effective adoption of green infrastructure options. Minimises the environmental impact of infrastructure by incorporating safety into the design. Ensuring social sustainability of infrastructure promoting convenience, social resources and public participation.

IMIESA April 2014



Figure 1 The Green Township Infrastructure Design Toolkit (Saroop, 2013)

based on a hierarchical breakdown of the project into five stages described in Table 2. The various green reports, developed for use at different stages of the project, provide clients and consultants with more control over the environmental impact of design decisions taken and enable a comparison of the options of various engineering solutions.

Advantages of using the eco approach to infrastructure design Green township infrastructure technologies will contribute to greenways and green corridors and provide linkages between habitats and wetlands. Green technologies have a number of environmental, economic and community benefits. The benefits of this approach are as follows: • Resource benefits: - recycled used products - conserved natural resources - recharged ground water flow for streams, conserving water supplies. • Environmental benefits: - enhanced and protected ecosystems and biodiversity - increased vegetation and improved air quality by filtering many airborne pollutants - minimised impervious surfaces reducing soil erosion - reduced concentrations of pollutants. • Economic benefits: - reduced infrastructure costs by water collection, storage, treatment and distribution 

IMIESA April 2014



Table 2 Stages in the Green Township Infrastructure Design Toolkit

Stage 1 Stage 2

Stage Feasibility Stage Scheme Design Stage

Stage 3

Preliminary Design Stage

Stage 4 Stage 5

Detailed Deisgn Stage Construction Stage

Activities Establishing environmental objectives Preliminary eco rating Weighting of environmental sustainability categories and targets Detailed eco rating analysis Materials and construction activities eco analysis

- more efficient use of existing infrastructure - reduced operating costs - enhanced asset value and profits - optimised life-cycle per formance. • Health and community benefits: - improved air and thermal and acoustic environments - community safety - convenience for users - enhanced occupant comfort and health - minimised strain on local infrastructure - contribution to overall quality of life. Green techniques provide adaptation benefits for a wide array of circumstances by


IMIESA April 2014

conser ving and reusing water, promoting groundwater recharge, and reducing surface water discharges that could reduce to flooding. In addition to this, vegetation improves urban aesthetics and community liveability by providing recreational and wildlife areas. Green infrastructure may save capital costs associated with paving, creating curbs and gutters, building large stormwater conveyance systems and other hard infrastructure and energy costs and costs of repairing the damage caused by stormwater, such as streambank restoration.

Conclusions The sustainability criteria focus is on scarce resources and prioritising areas; and to improve accountability, linking project level work to the achievement of strategic objectives. Improvement in the awareness of ecoefficiency concepts is urgently needed among policy makers, planners and decision makers. However, the criteria applicable to – and measures for – developing eco-efficient and sustainable infrastructure are yet to be fully identified (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [4]). A new paradigm for infrastructure design is required in order to ensure environmental sustainability on infrastructure projects. The weighting and rating of environmental sustainability criteria provide adaptation benefits and also provide the means to measure projects. Engineers need to look at greener technologies rather than just


using traditional engineering solutions. By using this green approach, sustainable design of township infrastructure ser vices can be achieved by enforcing the consideration of resources, environmental impacts of ecologically sensitive design decisions, innovation, maintenance and materials, at the design stage of a project. Taking a greener approach to infrastructure development not only mitigates the potential environmental impacts of development but makes economic sense as well. By softening the environmental footprint, avoiding waste and finding efficiencies, clients and local governments can increase their long-term sustainability. This paper has been edited for publication. For more information or refernces, please contact the editor

ABOUT THE AUTHORS Shian Hemraj Saroop is a professional civil engineering technologist for Royal HaskoningDHV in Pinetown, South Africa. His experience covers a wide variety of infrastructure development namely: design of roads, sewer, storm water, water and earthworks. He holds two BTech degrees and an MTech in civil engineering. His field of specialisation encompasses Green Township Infrastructure Services. His energies are increasingly channelled into the areas of sustainable infrastructure development, using greener design solutions on township services projects. He has also undertaken a number of innovative infrastructure projects using innovation products and design technologies that has rarely been used in South Africa. Royal Haskoning DHV, tel: +27 (0)31 719 5500, email: shian. Prof Dhiren Allopi is the associate professor/director in the Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying at the Durban University of Technology. His academic qualifications include a NHD (Civil Eng) from the ML Sultan Technikon, Masters Dip Eng (Roads and Transportation) from Technikon Natal, Postgraduate Dip Eng from the University of Natal, Dip Datametrics (Computer Science and Info Systems) that was obtained cum laude from the University of South Africa and a Doctorate Degree in Civil Engineering from the ML Sultan Technikon. He has over 34 years of combined industrial and academic experience, is a fellow member of SAICE and is professionally registered with ECSA. Allopi’s main area of specialisation is in the field of traffic and transportation engineering. He has lectured to diplomas and degree students and is currently supervising 12 postgraduate students mainly in the field of transportation engineering. Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying, Durban University of Technology, tel: +27 (0)31 373 2310, email:

IMIESA April 2014




Call for Entries C AT E G O R I E S 1. Structures and Buildings 2. Water/Wastewater 3. Roads/Stormwater 4. Environmental 5. Community Upliftment

EXPLANATION Give recognition to well-engineered civil engineering projects for infrastructure. Portray the art and science of civil engineering for infrastructure to the general public and indicate how the profession finds answers to challenges. The project must be in Southern Africa.

CLOSING DATE 11 JUNE 2014 (Only completed projects as at 28 June 2014 will be accepted for the Awards) ENTRY FORMS / AND AWARD CRITERIA Download from IMESA website QUESTIONS Debbie Anderson – IMESA – 031 266 3263 •


t +27 (031) 266 3263 f (031) 266 5094

t +27 (011) 463 2022 f +27 (011) 463 7383



A new model for the City of Johannesburg Information PART 2 The application of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) to the City of Johannesburg Land Information System is based on the fact that different organisations have different responsibilities in data maintenance. By Serena Coetzee, Centre for Geoinformation Science, University of Pretoria, and Dinao Tjia, City of Johannesburg


HE BASIC administrative unit (LA_BAUnit) in the LADM corresponds to LIS.UNIT in the City of Johannesburg Land Information System (COJLIS) data model. The LA_BAUnit may consist of ‘zero or more spatial units against which one or more unique and homogenous rights, restrictions and responsibility are associated to the entire entity as included in a land administration system’ (ISO 19152:2012). A right, restriction or responsibility may be held by one or more parties for the whole LA_BAUnit. A right, restriction or responsibility can relate to a specific portion of a spatial unit where the geometry of such portion is absent: for instance, the right of way servitude of which the area and location are described textually (and not specified with coordinates or reference points). The attributes of LA_BAUnit are: name, type and uID (identifier). Table 6 shows an attribute comparison between LA_BAUnit and LIS.UNIT. LIS.UNIT_TYPE identifies the type of basic administrative unit, including full title, servitude and long term lease. Many of the attributes in LIS.UNIT are related to a sectional title unit only, which could lead one to think that the entity represents only sectional title units. The DOOR_NO, FLOOR_NO and LIVING_UNITS attributes are populated by the Valuation department. The LEGAL_AREA and PART_QUOTA_PERC attributes are used for the valuations. The sectional title unit information is represented in SCHEME_NO,

SCHEME_NAME, UNIT_NO and SCHME_ YEAR and is imported from the data from the Deeds Office. LIS.UNIT includes the two mandatory attributes (type, uID) specified for a LA_BAUnit in the LADM. The LADM defines a spatial unit as ‘a single area (or multiple areas) of land and/ or water, or a single volume (or multiple volume) of space’ (ISO 19152:2012). Spatial units support the creation and management

of basic administrative units. There are different types of spatial units: sketch-based, text-based, point-based, line-based, polygon-based, or topology-based. The attributes of LA_SpatialUnit are: area, dimension (of the spatial unit), extAddressID (link(s) to external address(es) of the spatial unit), label (a short textual description of the spatial unit, e.g. for local purposes), referencePoint (a coordinate set of a point

Table 6 LA_BAUnit and LIS.UNIT attribute comparison

LA_BAUnit Name*
























LIS.UNIT attribute description Identifies the type of unit: full title, sectional title, long term lease, servitude, prospecting contract, mining stand or cession of rights. System generated unique identifier for the unit. Door number of the unit, which could differ from the unit number. Only applicable for sectional title schemes. Floor number of the unit. Only applicable for multistory sectional title schemes (e.g. flat blocks). Number of living units (households) on the unit. Legal area of the unit. The legal area as a percentage of the total area of the sectional title unit. Only applicable for a sectional title unit. Status indicator of the unit, i.e. registered, approved, withdrawn, etc. Number of the sectional title scheme. Only applicable for a sectional title unit. Name of the sectional title scheme. Only applicable for a sectional title unit. Unit number in a sectional title scheme. Only applicable for a sectional title unit. Year in which the sectional title scheme was registered. Only applicable for a sectional title unit.

IMIESA April 2014



Table 6 LA_SpatialUnit and LIS SP_PROPERTY attribute comparison

LA_SpatialUnit extAddressID*








STAND_NO TOWN_NAME_KEY referencePoint* suID surfaceRelation* Volume*






LIS.SP_PROPERTY attribute description The area as calculated by a cadastral capturing tool. The complete description of the property by land parcel type, stand number, registration division identifier, township number. For example, ‘Erf 45 Braamfontein’. Unique stand number within the proclaimed town, e.g. ‘45’. The foreign key that links LIS.SP PROPERTY to the township name entity (not represented in CoJLIS core of this article). The unique property identifier.

This area is captured from the Surveyor-General approved plans or diagrams. The type of land: erf, farm, agricultural holding, etc. Date on which this property was activated in the CoJLIS. Date on which this property was registered at the Deeds Office. Date on which this property was deactivated in the CoJLIS, e.g. if it is not approved and thus will not be registered at the Deeds Office. Status indicator of the property, i.e. registered, approved, withdrawn, etc. Legal area of the property. Units in which the legal area is represented, e.g. ha or m². Link to a copy of the document. See explanation in 4.5.

Table 8 LA_AdministrativeSource attribute comparison

LA_AdministrativeSource acceptance* availabilityStatus* extArchiveID* lifeSpanStamp* maintype* quality* recordation* sID source* submission* text* type


inside the spatial unit), suID (spatial unit identifier), surfaceRelation (above or below the surface) and volume (in case of a 3D spatial unit). Table 7 shows an attribute comparison between LA_SpatialUnit and LIS.SP_PROPERTY. LIS.SP_PROPERTY contains information related to the geospatial component of


IMIESA April 2014

LIS.SP_PROPERTY attribute description

A link to the title deed document.

the rights. Sectional scheme and township boundaries are not included here, but are modelled separately in the COJLIS. The property data is captured from approved Surveyor General general plans and diagrams. LIS.SP_PROPERTY has a corresponding attribute for the single mandatory attribute (suID) in LA_SpatialUnit.

A property is identified by a unique property identifier that is made up of an external identifier (SG_ID) and additional digits to represent the complex urban environment of the city. The SG_ID is the identifier of the land parcel (cadastral property) in the Surveyor General’s cadastral information management system. There are two types of areas in the LIS.SP_PROPERTY: the legal area and the area calculated by a cadastral capturing tool. LIS.SP_PROPERTY contains only 2D representations of land parcels, therefore the dimension and volume attributes are not relevant. The surfaceRelation attribute is not applicable, because the COJLIS does not distinguish whether the property is on, below or above the surface. There are different registered types of proper ty, namely: er ven (i.e. cadastral parcels in an urban area), farms (normally associated with rural or areas outside the cadastral demarcations), agricultural holdings and others (refer to the LAND_TYPE enumeration). In the LADM, the LA_SpatialUnit class has two specialisations: LA_ LegalSpaceBuildingUnit and LA_ LegalSpaceUtilityNetwork. The LA_ LegalSpaceBuildingUnit provides for the registration of legal space in a building as opposed to traditional models where registration of legal space was limited to land parcels only. In the COJLIS, LIS.UNIT may be associated with zero or more buildings (LIS.PROPERTY_BUILDING). A building property has attributes such as a building name, building area, effective date, a status code and living units. The BUILDING_AREA attribute represents the legal space that can be covered by a building.

LA_AdministrativeSource and the COJLIS Table 8 shows the attribute comparison for LA_AdministrativeSource. The LA_Source and its subclass LA_AdministrativeSource provide information about the availability and type of a source document, e.g. a title deed document for a property ownership right. An optional attribute in LA_ AdministrativeSource specifies in which multimedia format the document is available. In the COJLIS, there are no entities corresponding to these two classes, but the DIAGRAM_HOTLINK attribute of the LIS.SP_PROPERTY class provides a link to the external source document.


However, the link is not yet functional in the COJLIS implementations (i.e. nothing happens when clicking on it). The COJLIS data model is thus incomplete when compared to the LADM requirements about LA_AdministrativeSource.

Association mapping Table 9 maps LADM associations to the corresponding associations in the COJLIS data model. The associations in the COJLIS are either equivalent or more restrictive than those in the LADM, except for LA_ BAUnit’s associations to LA_Right and LA_Restriction. In the LADM there is a mandatory association between a basic administrative unit to a right or restriction, but in the COJLIS this association is optional.

Discussion of the results The study compared the key entities in the COJLIS data model concerned with parties, rights, restrictions and responsibilities, administrative and spatial units of land against the LADM basic classes. While there are corresponding COJLIS entities for the relevant LADM basic classes, there are semantic differences between them. For example, the parties in the COJLIS are

modelled as owners. This restricts the inclusion of other parties involved in the land administration process. Another difference is that the COJLIS data model contains descriptive lineage data for the spatial units only, whereas the LADM prescribes timestamps (but not descriptive information) for any change to an instance of most classes. The duplication of owner name information in LIS.OWNER and the one-way flow of this information from COJLIS to the SAP billing system, results in discrepancies in owner information. For example, when the new owner is filled into the OWNER_NAME attribute but the SAP billing system does not yet reflect the new owner in the other five attributes. Such discrepancies have been the cause of billing problems and bad publicity for the City of Johannesburg (COJ) in the past. The COJLIS data model includes the relevant mandator y attributes specified for rights and restrictions in the LADM. However, additional information about the property transaction is included for the ownership right in the COJLIS data model. The identification of the nature of registered rights in the COJLIS is not straight forward. It requires the interpretation of codes

used to describe the types of rights. For example, the prefix and suffix before and after the serial number and year in the title deed number specifies the nature of the deed or document. This system of codes originates from the South African Deeds Office. Similarly, the identification of restrictions is a function of interpreting codes. Information about restrictions on land, such as land use, zoning and building plans, is included in the COJLIS but does not have individual unique identifiers, as prescribed in the LADM. The reason is that these restrictions are managed in different systems at other COJ departments. The disconnection between these systems and the COJLIS is a cause for concern. Additional restrictions, such as coverage of buildings, floor area ratios, building lines and other general restrictions are not represented at all in the COJLIS, which is another cause for concern. Responsibilities, such as maintenance of the property by the owner, e.g. fencing of the property, are commonly found in the deeds document and in the conditions of township establishment. The responsibility information is contained in the original deed document, but the COJLIS does not include

Table 9 Comparison of mandatory associations in the LADM and COJLIS

LADM Source class LA_Party (0..1)

LADM Destination class LA_Right (0..*)

COJLIS Source entity LIS.OWNER (1) LIS.OWNER (1) LIS.OWNER (1)

LA_Party (0..1)

LA_Restriction (0..*) LIS.OWNER (1) LIS.OWNER (1)

LA_Party (0..1) LA_BAUnit (1)

LA_Responsibilty (0..*) LA_Right (1..*)

n/a LIS.UNIT (1) LIS.UNIT (1)

LA_BAUnit (1)

LA_Restriction (1..*)


LA_BAUnit (1) LA_Right (0..*)

LA_Restriction (0..1)

LA_Responsibilty (1..*) LA_AdministrativeSource (1..*)

LA_AdministrativeSource (1..*)


LA_Responsibilty (0..*)

LA_AdministrativeSource (1..*)



IMIESA April 2014


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responsibilities. Responsibilities are not required for the first conformance level of the LADM. In the LADM, there is a mandatory association with a basic administrative unit to a right or restriction, but in the COJLIS this association is optional. The COJLIS does, however, include the two mandatory attributes (type, uID) specified for a LA_BAUnit in the LADM. The type of spatial units in the COJLIS includes land parcels. These are 2D representations of property boundaries. In the absence of 3D cadastral boundaries, the sectional title units in a flat or multiple-storey building are not accurately represented geospatially. COJLIS does not specify whether the property is on, below or above the ground. One of the attributes of the spatial unit in the COJLIS links to a source document, i.e. a one-to-one association. This association is more restrictive than specified in the LADM, which allows multiple source documents for a basic administrative unit. The cross-mapping of the LADM basic classes and COJLIS entities revealed that there are semantic differences in terms of class naming and attributes. There are also mismatches and similarities in terms of attributes that are stored in the LADM and the COJLIS. The attribute naming in COJLIS allows different interpretations. For example, the UNIT_TYPE attribute represents types of rights and the ENDORSEMENT entity represents private restrictions registered against the property by the Deeds Office. The ZONING_PROPERTY and the PROPERTY_USE entities contain public restrictions set according to the town planning ordinance applicable to the COJ. Such ambiguous interpretations can cause confusion.

Conclusion This research compared the COJLIS data model to the LADM, an internationally standardised conceptual land administration domain model. The LADM offers an opportunity for the COJLIS upgrade project to develop an integrated property database model based on international standards. We have shown that the LADM can be used to describe land administration information at a municipality in South Africa, but that there are some semantic differences, as well as similarities and differences between classes, attributes and associations. Semantic differences are evident in the terminology discrepancies between the COJLIS and the LADM. A first step for COJ could be to convert the COJLIS terminology to correspond to the internationally accepted LADM terms and definitions. This would already improve communication about land administration within the city. The current disconnect between different systems, each managing a different part of the land administration information at the COJ, is a cause for concern. It is our understanding that work on a single integrated system has started. The results of this research improve the understanding of land administration at municipal level in South Africa, but additional work is needed to describe the deeds and cadastral information produced by the Surveyor General and Deeds Offices, i.e. a full South African profile of the LADM. For example, the COJLIS relies heavily on data received from

IMIESA April 2014


the Deeds Office, where the type of the deed or document is embedded in the title deed number. The COJLIS is based on the formal land registration system in South Africa, which deals with registered land rights at the Deeds Office. For this reason, the COJLIS model does not accommodate other property rights that have been created by the South African land reform programme. For the future, the incorporation of informal land rights is critical for the regularisation of COJ informal settlements. The concept of spatial unit could represent informal settlements in the COJLIS. Further investigation into the possible use of the STDM is recommended.

Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the assistance of officials from the City of Johannesburg, the surveyor general’s office in Pretoria and the chief registrar of Deeds Office for their support in sharing valuable information. This is an extension of a paper titled ‘Land administration domain model: application to the City of Johannesburg land information system, South Africa’, presented at GISSA Ukubuzana 2012, Kempton Park, South Africa, October 2012. Part one of this paper was published in the November/December 2013 edition of IMIESA. If for any reason you don’t have access to that edition, the full paper can be found on the website.

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Energy optimisation within urban water systems The development process of renewable energy resources in South Africa was spearheaded by the White Paper on Renewable Energy in November 2003. This document established a generation target of 10 000 GWh per annum from available non-coal energy resources by 2013. By Bo Barta, Energy and Water Resources Engineering, and Inga Loots, University of Pretoria


HE GENERATION output had been envisaged to be extracted primarily from the renewable energy resources namely biomass, solar radiation, wind and small-scale hydropower (<10 MW). The ocean energy exploitation had not been considered at the time. None of the desired renewable energy technology means and products were readily available in South Africa at the time of the White Paper on renewable energy introduction. The Electricity Regulation Act (Act 4 of 2006) led to the dissemination of the Regulation on New Generation Capacity. artment of In November 2010 the Department Energy (DOE) together with NERSA uced and National Treasur y introduced ce a new Integrated Resource Plan (IRP 2010-2030). Government promulgated the new IRP in May 2011, endorsing a widely diversified future energy generation mix aiming at reducing dependency on the coalfired energy generation over the next 20 years. At the end of 2011, the DOE andd NERSA issued the first order of a 3 725 MW renewable energy capacted to the ity, this time entirely allocated Independent Power Producers (IPPs). The Renewable Energy Independent Power Producers Procurement (REIPPP) programme replaced the internationally adopted REFIT procurement programme, excluding all renewable energy projects below 1 MW in capacity. The REIPPP has been subsequently implemented in three

bidding windows and by now the whole renewable energy capacity allotment is fully allocated primarily to the wind, solar PV and CSP large projects. To date the development of renewable energy smallscale projects are not supported by any particular incentives. The banks are reluctant to support small-scale development below 1 MW in capacity. However, so-called embedded generation of hybrid configuration (typically of solar, wind and hydropower) small projects is taking place around South Africa mainly by private developers from their own resources.

The research, assessment studies and training in development of embedded generation small-scale projects and technology implementation – specifically focusing on hydropower – are conducted at the University of Pretoria. The university is engaged in the small-scale hydropower research in collaboration with the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Bloem Water and South Africa’s Water Research Commission (WRC). To date, the local government authorities and water boards, due to their extensive and demanding functions within the water supply and sanitation chain (i.e. a complex urban water ser vices system), find themselves lacking on the development of renewable energy resources and application of modern technology in their disposal. However the small-scale renewable energy technology options are rather plentiful for most municipalities and water  boards as well as interested IPPs.

IMIESA April 2014



The Second National Energy Efficiency Strategy (NEES) Water supply cycle (chain) review was instituted in July 2012 introducing the new Pumping if not Energy efficiency motors Abstraction gravity – configuration max 100 kWh/Mℓ measures through legislation, and pumps (up to 12%) depending incentives, standards and trainRaw/ Pre-treatment, Between 0.014 and ing incentives as given below: 3 potable Treatment clarification, filtration, 150 to 650 kWh/Mℓ 0.021 kWh/m (by • South African NEES standards refurbishment up to 20%) water disenfection, etc. • regulations for allowance Pumping if not Devices fitted: 0.91 kWh/ Distribution on EE savings, Section 12L gravity - configuration max 350 kWh/Mℓ m3 or 0.05 m3/day/ (consumption) household depending of the Tax Amendment Law Pumping if not Act, 2013. Heat pumps & in-sewer Collection gravity – configuration approx. 100 kWh/Mℓ heat exchanges • national building codes and depending regulations (e.g. SANS 204) Screening, grit, ASP Aeration: • minimum energy per forsedimentation, 0.063 kWh/m3 Treatment aeration, RAS, 200 to 1 800 kWh/Mℓ mance specifications (MEPS) processes ASP nutrient removal: disinfection, tertiary/ 3 • energy efficiency policy recWastewater 0.291 kWh/m advanced treatment ommendations adopted from (sewage) Energy recovery Pumping if not the International Energy by hydroturbines Disposal gravity – configuration minor within WWTW Agency focusing on a 7th or hydraulic screw depending (0.018 kWh/m3) priority of Energy Utilities to Thickening, mainly from Approx. 0.101 kWh/m3 match the Eskom incentives. Sludge (with efficient devices dewatering, digestion, belt presses, It should be noted that the handling fitted up to 23%) drying and disposal centrifuges, etc. above listed measures are to Sources: BriƟsh Compendium (UKWIR, 2010) and DWA’s Green Drop water chain criteria and enable the key goals of the assessment approach. NEES as energy conser vaimplementing savings measures indoors tion, energy efficiency and the demand(i.e. heating, ventilation, air conditioning, side management are implementable. The lighting, appliances, hot water, fans and municipalities and water boards should get pumps) and outdoors (i.e. security lighting, familiar with the impacts of new measures swimming pool, and outbuildings). on their energy usage within relevant supply areas. The EC and EE measures together Energy Efficiency (EE) measures with implementation of renewable energy within the urban water cycle technology will reduce the demand for elecThe efficiency measures are related tricity from the national supply if all entities, more to the optimisation of energy usage as well as individual users, will implement and application of advanced technology. such measures on a sustainable basis. Specifically within the municipal water-cycle chain, the improvements in energy effi- Complex urban water cycle system ciency are related to the pressure man- energy demand and savings Energy conservation, efficiency and agement and leakage reduction, off-peak The Department of Water Affairs (DWA) is a RE generation programmes pumping, baseline energy audit, solar custodian of the raw water resources from Since 2008, all users of electricity in heating and composting, digester mixing where water is supplied either directly or South Africa and particularly the municioptimization, oxygenation capacity and effi- via a water board to the local government palities were tasked with the implemenciency of algal oxidation ponds, submers- authorities (i.e. district or local/metropolitation of various programmes aimed at ible versus self-priming pumps, load shed- tan municipalities). The local government the Energy Conser vation (EC), Energy ding, load shifting and water distribution authorities overseen by the Water Services Efficiency (EE) and renewable energy Authorities (WSA) looking after the day-to-day systems optimisation. technologies implementation. Further substantial improvements in ener- operation, maintenance and future developgy efficiency may be obtained from the ment of sustainable water and electricity Energy Conservation combined heat and power (CHP) biogas to supplies, as well as sewerage services pronational measures electricity, a cost-benefit model for biogas vision besides other important municipal Conservation measures in the municipal production, energy recovery in desalination services, i.e. waste management, roads electricity supply and distribution systems systems, recovery from reverse osmosis, and storm water, housing, etc. The municihave been implemented for a while now. fine-bubble diffused air and air injection palities and water boards in South Africa are Examples of this include the timing of elecsystems, hydropower generation in pres- also responsible for the rehabilitation and tricity usage and applying new technological surised distribution networks, and low-head upgrading of their water supply and wastemeasures. Individual users are tasked with water treatment and disposal infrastructural hydropower generation.

Table 1 Energy demand and possible gains within complex urban water services cycle

Energy requiring process


IMIESA April 2014

Process energy demand

Potential energy savings within the processes


Table 2 Municipal dam impoundments with significant hydropower potential

Dam name


Bridle Drift Dam

Buffalo Fish/ Churchill Dam Tsitsikamma Lake Mzingazi Mhlatuze Middelburg Dam Olifants Fish/ Ngweba Dam Tsitsikamma Sol Plaatjie Upper Vaal Dam*

Capacity Municipality (province) (million m3) Buffalo City Metro (EC) 73.5 Nelson Mandela Bay 33.3 Metro (EC) 37.0 Umhlathuze (KZN) 48.4 Steve Tshwete (MPM) 46.4

Camdebo (EC)

Location of hydroenergy potential From river releases From both river releases and conduit supply From conduit supply From river releases From conduit supply

Already retrofitted with hydropower generation From both river releases Witbank Dam Olifants Emalahleni (MPM) 104,0 and conduit supply *Note: The Sole Plaatjie Dam of the Dihlabeng LA had been retrofiƩed with capacity installaƟon of 3 MW hydropower in 2009. 15.7

Dihlabeng (FS)

Primary water supply source/major water supply systems(e.g. dam owned by the state, water board and certain metropolitan municipalities)

Hydro energy potential hidden within the urban water cycle systems Bulk water supply and distribution systems (i.e. externally and/or selfsupplied water boards, metropolitan and district municipalities)

URBAN WATER SERVICES SYSTEMS (UWSS) (i.e. municipalities, mining and industrial corporations providing complete water services provision cycle)

Urban end water users (i.e. individual households, commercial and industrial enterprises)

ABOVE Institutional hierarchy in the South African Water Services Sector

assets. Theoretically, most of such water assets are having besides the demand for energy also a potential for generating energy at various processes and asset locations. The energy demand for pumping within the water supply processes is much larger than for pumping of wastewater. The energy demand from water supply and wastewater processes are proportionally about 52% to 48% respectively. The institutional stakeholders in South African water sector should be concerned about the energy consumption and in-house energy generation issues within the national, regional and municipal water cycle systems. Institutional hierarchy in South African Water Services Sector The electricity consumption encountered by a municipality or water board in running

their own systems. Most existing water services systems in the urban as well as rural areas are having components where the usage of energy can be reduced or even discounted by generating own energy in a whole subsystem or a specific place of the subsystem. Within a complex urban water services system the availability energy generation can be investigated by two approaches: energy conser vation (i.e. demand side measures) and/ or energy generation (i.e. supply side measures).

the complex water services systems (i.e. abstraction/pumping, treatment/pumping, storage, supply/distribution, collection/ pumping/treatment and disposal processes) amounts to a significant cost in the overall municipal or utility budget. The amount of electricity required in the operation processes of a water cycle system vary depending primarily on the extent of pumping and treatment requirements. The other factors influencing significantly the electricity requirements are related to the technological status of a system and the quality of water and wastewater being treated. At present, practically all municipalities and water boards in South Africa are connected to the national grid administered on behalf of the Government by Eskom. Although the situation is changing there are only a few municipal and large industrial/mining electricity users which are capable generating green energy within

South Africa, as a water stressed country, has developed extensive and complex bulk supply and distribution water-supply infrastructure (e.g. dams, canals, pipelines, service and distribution reservoirs, etc.) where a significant hydropower potential is hidden. If such potential is developed it can discount energy demand on the national electricity grid. Hydropower in surface and groundwater supply systems Most of South Africa’s municipalities are supplied with the surface water, abstracted from either state-owned or their own dams. There are several municipalities depending entirely on the groundwater supplies. Numerous municipalities are supplied directly with potable water via some 20 water utilities (e.g. Amatola Water, Bloem Water, Magalies Water, Rand Water, Sedibeng Water, etc.). South Africa has in total some 4 500 dams of various sizes. From the total number, about 260 dams are in the ownership of the local government administration. However there are only some 70 municipal dams having capacity over 1 million m3 (i.e. 1 000 Mℓ). Among those dams are a few with good potential for the hydropower retrofit. Some of suitable municipal dams are listed below. It should be noted that there are other dams owned by entities, as are former irrigation boards (e.g. Impala Water’s Bivane Dam) where the small-scale hydropower schemes can be installed. There are also privately owned dams, where the smallscale hydropower projects being currently

IMIESA April 2014



before the inlet of a reservoir or a breaking point (structure) of a long gravity pipeline. Table below illustrates current hydropower developments taking place at the foremost municipalities and water utilities utilising this approach in developing available hydro-energy.

Small-scale renewable energy technology options are rather plentiful for most municipalities and water boards as well as interested IPPs developed (e.g. new Bains and Boschendal mini hydropower installations in the Western Cape province).

can be generated from this installation. The turbine selected for this site, taking in consideration available parameters, is the cross-flow type of local design. The turbine/generator plant is located at the edge of existing reservoir roofing releasing the flows into the atmospheric pressure, which is important in a selection of suitable turbine type. The turbine is equipped with a guide vane to allow for the regulation water consumption patterns. The guide vane is operated by a screw, turned by a removable lever. The turbine/generator unit operates at constant water consumption, which means constant power, normally at full load. A roller-type bearing is used on the drive side (pulley) and a ball-bearing type at the drive type at the non-drive end. The latter was selected to obtain an acceptable radial load, which would be too small for a roller-type bearing.

Bulk water supply and long conduit water distribution Many municipalities and some water boards in South Africa benefit from the state-owned inter-basin water transfer schemes (WTSs). There are now some 30 such schemes built to overcome imbalances between geographical water availability and an ever-growing demand for water in the locations without much of natural water available. Typically the raw water is transferred from one river basin to another by means of pumping or gravity via large tunnels. If a municipality is not receiving raw water directly, the raw water will be conveyed by pumping or gravity to one of the water boards (e.g. Rand Water) to be treated and the bulk potable water distributed to the municipalities, industries and mines via the service and distribution reservoirs. Several WTSs have one or more locations where the smallscale hydropower generation plant(s) can be installed, mainly on the gravity pipelines where it is required to reduce the hydrostatic pressure. The bulk water supply and distribution are the most critical and costly components of the urban water supply system. Thus the savings in these areas through the processes optimisation and retrofitting new technology, can offer conservation results in water supply and energy consumption. Most of the operation pumping is taking place within the bulk supply.

The Pierre van Ryneveld Reservoir Hydropower Plant According to the WRC/UP K5/2095 progress report dated January 2012 the City of Tshwane MM (CTMM) in collaboration with the University of Pretoria (UP) implemented a pico-hydropower (<20 kW) installation at existing Pierre van Ryneveld Reservoir situated south-east of the Pretoria CBD. The hydrostatic pressure available between the Rand Water service reservoirs and the CTMMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s distribution reservoirs is being utilised in generating hydroelectricity for the security lights, alarm and communication purposes. Some 130 MWh per annum

Hydropower as pressure reduction in delivery pipelines The pressurised conduits (at both pumping or gravity) most of them in operation by the water utilities and municipalities are experiencing at certain locations excessive pressures which must be curtailed typically by the pressure reducing valves (PRVs). At such locations the installation of hydro-energy generation devices may be considered. The PRVs are typically installed

Table 4 Standard head and flow provision at terminal water installations

Hydropower hidden in water distribution networks Terminal consumer installations Theoretically, every urban household having an inflow pipe diameter of 20 mm and a flow under at least 10 m head could generate

Table 3 Water Supply Systems and potential sites of on-line hydropower development

Water supply system Bloemfontein Water (regional water utility) eThekwini Water and Sanitation Department

Considered hydropower development Mini hydropower installations on the pressure CaledonBloemfontein pipeline The installation of six mini hydro sets considered at various reservoirs

A pilot plant of 15 kW has been installed at Pierre van Ryneveld old reservoir. Several other sites available. In-line hydropower has been identified and evaluated at Rand Water (foremost a 13 MW of hydropower water utility) capacity. Another 40 to 50 MW capacity is envisaged to develop Source: Tshwane Water Supply Area

Identified sites with hydropower potential Uitkijk and Brankop reservoirs totaling almost to 1 MW (other options are investigated) Sea Cow Lke, KwaMashu 2, Aloes, Phoenix 1 and 2, Umhlanga 2 totaling to about 750 kW Estimated capacity of 8 MW is envisaged among 10 suitable cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reservoirs Brakfontein Reservoir. (1.8 MW), Hartbeesthoek Reservoir (2.2 MW), Klipfontein Reservoir (3.4 MW), Zoekfontein Reservoir (5.6 MW)

Min head Max head under zero under IPF flow (m) Minimum and (m) maximum water head Dwelling house connection 24 90 at the house connection Dwelling house yard tap 10 90 and tank Discharge (litres/minute) Tap diameter 5 m head 10 m head 60 m head Typical discharge rates for domestic taps 15 mm 16 23 54 20 mm 22 31 70 Source: Municipal Red Book (Chapter 9) Type of development

IMIESA April 2014



Table 5 Basic turbine type selection criteria

Medium head Low head Ultra-low head 20 m to 100 m 5 m to 20 m <5m Impulse cross-flow cross-flow water wheel turgo multi-jet turgo multi-jet pelton Reaction Francis Propeller Propeller Pump-as-turbine Kaplan Kaplan Note: More detailed informaƟon on selecƟon of suitable hydro-energy generaƟon equipment for the wastewater ouƞalls is available from the WRC/UP project K8/1017 Turbine runner

High head > 100 m Pelton Turgo

some 50 W of electricity during each tap opening. However this energy will have to be stored in a battery system and preferably fed also by a roof solar PV system or any other renewable energy technology application in a hybrid configuration to obtain significant household energy capacity. Report No KV 238/10 of the WRC concluded that the flows of potable water passing through the domestic water supply piping during an average day may be utilised for the pico-hydropower (<20 kW) primarily for household energy uses (e.g. charging of cellphones, security, etc.). The flow exceedance curve can be constructed to assess the availability of the hydropower that might be produced. It is also necessary to determine the pressures in the water supply pipelines. Residual pressures in urban areas – to obtain the residual head at any point in the reticulation network, such networks should be balanced using instantaneous peak flows and fire flows. Potential energy gains from wastewater management The WRC study undertaken in conjunction with the South African Local Government Association established that there are some 850 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTW) of various processing capacities and treatment stages (i.e. from preliminary to advanced treatment). It is essential to any WWTW that it has a sustainable and continuous supply of electricity. If a WWTW is subjected to the power interruptions and pumping stoppages the untreated wastewater is usually spilled directly into receiving river (i.e. ecosystem). Some of the WWTW are having sufficiently large attenuation dams installed. Although some plants, catering for the advanced treatment processes, would be equipped with some kind of standby, most small and medium WWTWs do not have any particular back-up.


IMIESA April 2014

Typically, the existing WWTWs in South Africa are not designed to utilise energy generation potential either at the various processes illustrated earlier, or from the large quantities of treated wastewater released. Besides energy savings within the wastewater treatment processes, the hydroenergy can be recovered on the outfall in front of the plant and/or after the treatment processes on the outfall into receiving river ecosystem. According to available head configuration and the quantities of treated wastewater the type of water turbine can be selected as shown in the table below. It should be noted that by performance the impulse runner type turbine are more suited to the high head applications where the reaction runner type turbines are most suitable for the low head hydropower installations can function with extremely low heads.

Water conduit hydro-energy availability assessment procedure The University of Pretoria developed, under WRC/UP Project K5/2095, the conduit

hydro-energy assessment Decision Support System (DSS) for the purpose of assessing hydropower availability to assist to the municipalities and water utilities administering water supply systems. Each phase, as illustrated above, has its own process flow diagram linked to the Conduit Hydropower Potential Tool. Some of the inputs will occur in more than one of the phases. As the project progresses the inputs require to be more detailed. The DSS that can be used to identify conduit hydropower potential at any system where essential data listed in Table 6 below is available. DSS provides guidance for the development of identified potential sites. A system of flow diagrams and tools is available to enable evaluation of identified site. A systemic approach, consisting of three phases, was developed for the assessment of hydropower potential in a water supply system to ensure that all relevant factors are considered. The three phases, comprising essential input and output parameters, are illustrated below.

Legal and regulatory requirements in developing hydro-energy project The development of renewable energy resources is relatively new activity and rather untested ground for both public and private sectors in South Africa. In reality there are no firm guidelines for implementation of development stages in creating a renewable energy municipal asset. However,

Table 6 Layout of DSS for assessment of hydro-energy in the water supply conduits


Essential inputs Average daily flow Average pressure head (or static head) Phase 1: Pre-feasibility Distance to grid connection (if applicable) Power demand (if applicable) Project design life Measured flow records Measured pressure records Phase 2: Feasibility Environmental studies Regulatory assessment

Desired outputs First order power analysis Initial estimate of net present value Initial estimate of internal rate of return Initial estimate of payback period Optimum design flow and head Initial turbine selection Flow rating curve Net present value Internal rate of return and Payback period

Similar to Phase 2, but with Final turbine selection additional data All project costs Detail drawings Phase 3: Detail design All expected income Net present value Operational criteria Internal rate of return Detail design of all civil and Payback period electro-mechanical components NB: A fourth phase, dealing with operaƟon and maintenance aspects (outside the scope of this study) is also an important phase to consider when designing a conduit hydropower facility.


most physical infrastructural Table 7 Essential licencing requirements assets created in South Africa Usage options are developed along the preOwn use Islanded use Municipal grid Eskom grid Regulatory/legal procurement stages as follows: For own use and requirements Completely from grid; but not Feeds into Feeds into • project planning/inception independent into grid stage If < 20 MW: Basic assessment (BA) ito S1 activities (GN544) Environmental • project pre-feasibility stage ROD If > 20 MW: EIA ito (amendment to original build’s EIA or BA; or new) • project feasibility stage lead• Repair/rehab/upgrade (i.e. public or private ownership): Not required unless an ing to compilation of a bankincrease of a water flow is required able study. • Augmentation of existing infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, canals, etc.) Water permit The municipalities have to not normally required if not a state’s asset find their own tendering or Water Use • Retrofitting hydropower to non-powered dams: Water permit is required Licence subject to possible exemption (i.e. for a community socio-economic/ PPP implementation approach environmental reasons) based on suitable contractual • Development of greenfield hydropower (not associated with existing procedure as they will need infrastructure) Water use permit is required on all accounts together with a BA or hydropower consulting servicEnvironment Impact Assessment (EIA) es. The hydroelectricity develYes (only Electricity If < 100 kw If > 100 kw If for nonopment is rather specialised IPPs through Generation If < 1 MW none commercial none none yes Licence REIPPPP) field in designing of installation and its procurement. There are several options available to the potential Although the energy generation from the one existing mechanism where the renewIPPs in negotiating with the national departsolar sources is most suitable for the able energy development proposals should ments, parastatals and local government development in South Africa and particube incorporated. authorities to arrange for an access to larly within the municipal context, the hydroConclusion the resources and infrastructure, which are energy hidden within the municipal and The key objective of the IRP 2010-2030 for owned/administered by the state, parawater board water services systems is South Africa is to develop sustainable future statals and local government authorities. another viable renewable and sustainable energy generation mix producing a signifiThe general regulatory environment is guidoption open to the owners/administrators cant reduction in the coal-fired generation. ed in South Africa by the Constitution via the of these systems. The future upgrading The EC and EE programmes together with Parliament, Courts and Tribunals. The key and optimisation of existing water services development of available renewable energy regulatory instruments relevant to the water systems in South Africa to be gravitating resources (i.e. particularly solar radiation, resources and energy development sectors primarily to a combination of the solar small-scale hydropower from existing infraare to comply with the environmental, water and hydropower technologies (i.e. as per structure, wind and where suitable also use and disposal and energy generation are: international tendencies). ocean energy) became now the national pri• National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998) The research and assessment tools with orities as the margin between demand and • Electricity Regulation Act (Act 04 of 2006) development potential, particularly of embedsupply in electricity from the national grid • National Environmental Management Act ded generation small-scale hydropower supis very thin. Most of enabling mechanisms (Act 107 of 1998). ported and financed by the Water Research are in place to allow for orderly developAll three pieces of legislation have a direct Commission are being conducted at the ment (refer also to the updated IRP 2010influence on the development of renewable University of Pretoria with collaboration with 2030 as published for public comments in energy resources and implementation of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality late 2013). technological choice within the urban/rural and Bloem Water board. The University of On the international scale, South Africa water services system context. Within the Pretoria can help to the municipalities and is ranked as the twelfth-highest carbonmunicipal and water board context, the DOE/ water boards in assessing of energy savings emitting nation in the world (South Africa’s NERSA standard conditions for small-scale and hydro-energy potential within their water electricity sector contributes by 45% of total embedded generation within an entity boundservices systems. emissions). However, the abundance of pararies, allows renewable energy projects to ticularly solar radiation in most regions of be implemented. The licencing requirements References South Africa together with the positive impleto be observed during the process of renew• WRC Report No. KV238/10. A high level of mentation results of the REIPPP programme, able energy capacity development at the scooping in the supply of water through pressurized conduits. April 2010. the country is now widely recognised as local government and water board levels are • WRC Progress Report 1: K5/2095. Energy genfuture leading renewable energy investment illustrated in the table opposite. eration from water distribution systems. Pretoria destinations. The renewable energy industry Each municipality must match the general January 2012. in South Africa is on the threshold of siglegal and regulatory requirements with their • WRC Report No. TT 565/13. Energy Efficiency in the South Africa Water industry: A Compendium nificant growth in all spheres of renewable local municipal by-laws and regulations inteof Best Practices and Case Studies. June 2013 energy technology industries, with the PV grating the environmental, energy generation • WRC/UP Project K8/1017. Energy generation market municipal rooftop systems being the and water services legislation. The municipal using low head hydropower technology. August strongest component. Integrated Development Plan is perhaps 2013 (draft).

IMIESA April 2014



New international prize for African engineers THE ROYAL ACADEMY of Engineering in the UK has launched a new award to reward innovation and in Africa: the Africa Prize for Engineering Innovation. This award will cover all disciplines from mechanical, civil and computing to biomedical, oil and gas, mining and electronic engineering. The Royal Academy says this is Africa’s biggest award devoted to engineering innovation, and it has called on engineers connected with universities and research institutions in sub-Saharan African countries to submit entries for the award. “Engineering is crucial to social and economic development throughout sub-Saharan Africa and globally,” says Malcolm Brinded, a fellow of the academy and chair of the judging panel for the prize. “The Africa Prize for Engineering Innovation aims to recognise the importance of African engineers and to stimulate innovation and entrepreneurship, while encouraging young people to become engineers by creating successful role models.” The new competition is designed to incentivise engineers to use their passion to develop innovative solutions to their country’s challenges. “By encouraging talented engineers to apply their technical and entrepreneurial skills to development challenges in subSaharan Africa, we can help build stronger engineering capability, better equipped to develop scalable solutions to all kinds of local and regional challenges,” says Brinded. The South African judge of the Africa Prize for Engineering Innovation, Liesbeth Botha, says the prize will show how African engineers build countries, communities and economies, and put the spotlight on our education system so that it can deliver professional engineers into the economy with the right knowledge and skills.

Call for entries The Royal Academy of Engineering invites engineers from all disciplines to submit innovations with a social, economic or environmental benefit. Entries must be early-stage innovations that have the potential to be scaled-up and which are ready for commercialisation. The deadline for entries is Friday, 30 May 2014. The overall winner receives £25 000 (R447 000) and every shortlisted entrant will receive six months of extensive mentoring, training and support in commercialising their innovation, as part of the Academy’s commitment to international development. “Over the year-long competition, we look forward to seeing great engineering ideas become viable projects that grow economies and improve societies,” says Brinded.

New appointments at APE Pumps GERMISTON-BASED pump manufacturer APE Pumps has made two appointments in its sales department at its head office. Richard Rudling has been appointed general manager sales. Etienne Minaar has been appointed project sales engineer. Rudling has 43 years of experience in the pump industry. Previously the manager in charge of export sales at Denorco (now Franklin Electric), he was also a founding director of Orbit Pump Manufacturing in 1988, remaining at the helm of company sales until Denorco was formed through a 2004 merger with the pumps division of Howden Africa. Minaar has been in the pump industry for five years. He joins APE Pumps from Grundfos, where he was responsible for tendering on large supply projects in Africa. Prior to that, he was a product manager for the civil sector at AVK Valves.

JUDGES • Dr Liesbeth Botha, executive director, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa • Stephen Dawson, chairperson, Jacana Partners • Professor Calestous Juma, HonFREng, Harvard Kennedy School • Dr Bola Olabisi, CEO, Global Women Inventors & Innovators Network • Malcolm Brinded, Fellow, Royal Academy of Engineering.


IMIESA April 2014

ABOVE Richard Rudling, general manager sales ABOVE RIGHT Etienne Minaar, project sales engineer


€100 million for infrastructure projects THE EUROPEAN Union (EU) and the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) have launched the €100 million (R1.5 billion) groundbreaking Infrastructure Investment Programme for South Africa (IIPSA), to provide grant funding in support of loans for essential infrastructure projects in South Africa and the region. The fund was established following a joint initiative between the South African government and the EU, and forms part of the EU’s broader intervention under its country strategy for South Africa. According to EU Ambassador Roeland van de Geer, IIPSA will provide innovative financing that will blend European Union grants with long-term financing from participating South African and European development finance institutions. “It also aims to attract private financing into projects with a high socio-economic return by enhancing the financial feasibility and project quality and/or by reducing the risk associated with such projects,” he says. Projects that will be supported by the IIPSA will be selected from an updated list of priority infrastructure projects established by the IIPSA Project Steering Committee and will be directly linked to the priorities of South African government, EU-SA priorities for

cooperation and the SADC regional infrastructure strategy. Key priority sectors include energy, transport, water and environment, ICT and social infrastructure. Projects must either be a South African project or a trans-border initiative involving two or more countries in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) region with a demonstrable regional impact on one or more countries, in order to be eligible for financial assistance from the IIPSA fund. DBSA CEO Patrick Dlamini says the establishment of this fund could not have come at a better time. A lack of adequate infrastructure funding is a key constraint to faster economic growth and social inclusion both in South Africa and in the SADC region. “We are pleased that the DBSA has been appointed as a fund manager to implement the IIPSA programme. We therefore view this programme as a strategic intervention to fund South Africa’s national and regional infrastructure projects, especially at the critical initial stages to prepare projects to bankability,” he says. The committee will issue a request for proposals on infrastructure investments whose development would be enhanced by the use of IIPSA grant funding in early April.

IMIESA April 2014


4 29-30 July 2014 CSIR Convention Centre Pretoria, South Africa

South Africa’s premier forum on trenchless technology Exhibition

Trenchless works in South Africa New infrastructure installations as well as essential renovation of ageing underground services can mean huge disruption to the travelling public, particularly in the country’s major conurbations. NO-DIG SOUTH AFRICA is an exciting forum for the industry to come together to see the technology, debate the benefits, share knowledge and network with like minded industry colleagues.

In conjunction with

International Society for Trenchless Technology

Organisation by

Educational Forum The two day conference programme will feature a new Trenchless Technology Masterclass presented by expert representatives of The International Society for Trenchless Technology (ISTT). Case study presentations will illustrate many successful projects in a range of geotechnical site conditions. South African professional delegates will receive CPD points.

All enquiries to: Tel: +44 (0) 845 094 8066 Organised by

See and evaluate a wide range of equipment and services, displayed by international exhibitors, which will truly demonstrate trenchless technology and its capabilities. Platinum sponsor:

Bronze sponsors:

Media partners:



AECOM AJ Broom Road Products Arup SA Aurecon Aveng Manufacturing Infraset Bigen Africa Group Holdings BMK Consulting Bosch Munitech Bosch Stemele Brubin Pumps BVI Consulting Engineers Civilconsult Consulting Engineers Concrete Manufacturers Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa Development Bank of SA DPI Plastics EFG Engineers Elster Kent Metering Engcor Engineers Fibertex South Africa (Pty) Ltd GIBB GLS Consulting Hatch Goba Herrenknecht Huber Technology Hydro-comp Enterprises I@Consulting ILISO Consulting INGEROP Integrity Environment Jeffares and Green Johannesburg Water KABE Consulting Engineers Knowledge Base Lektratek Water Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates Maragela Consulting Engineers Mhiduve

Mott Macdonald PDNA Much Asphalt Nyeleti Consulting Odour Engineering Systems Pumptron Pragma Rocla Royal HaskoningDHV SABITA SALGA SARF SBS Water Systems Sektor Consulting Sight Lines SiVEST SA Siza Water Company SMEC SNA Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology SRK Consulting Sulzer Pumps Wastewater Syntell Thm Engineers East London TPA Consulting UWP Consulting Vetasi VIP Consulting Engineers VOMM Water Institute of Southern Africa Water Solutions Southern Africa Wilo South Africa WorleyParsons WRP WSP Group Africa Zebra Surfacing


Get support with new project delivery approach PLANNING IS vital to the success of any project. Companies can now get dedicated support throughout the entire life cycle of a project with the help of a four-phase system. Engineering, procurement and construction management company Hatch Goba offers its clients a unique project delivery methodology for both small and large-scale projects. The company’s Project Lifecycle Process (PLP) provides a consistent project delivery approach. The PLP uses four phases – dubbed Front End Loading – each one building on the previous phase. Hatch Goba starts each project with a business plan before beginning Phase One. The initial planning phases are vital to ensuring that the best concept is put into implementation.

The four phases • Phase One: conceptual phases. Identify various concepts which can feasibly meet the project imperative. • Phase Two: pre-feasibility phase. Identified concepts are developed into a final option. • Phase Three: feasibility phase. Basic engineering begins and the project is defined in detail. The project execution plan and schedules are developed and cost estimates are refined.

• Phase Four: execution phase. The project is implemented according to the plan developed in the previous phase. Hatch Goba project manager Johan Breytenbach explains that the aim of this is “to ensure that the highest standards of quality are maintained on a consistent basis throughout the project, we undergo stringent gate reviews between each phase to comprehensively review the processes and work carried out in the previous phase, in order to ensure that all the objectives have been fully met and the correct outcomes are achieved.” Hatch Goba does not simply construct a facility, it provides operational support for the lifetime of the project. “We assist the client with operational readiness and are also closely involved with the first stages of operating the facility once built,” explains Breytenbach. In addition to operational support, Hatch Goba runs ongoing training initiatives to assist company employees in developing their skills and expertise. “When a project is being established, a parallel training programme framework is set up for the benefit of all employees involved,” says Breytenbach. Breytenbach believes that with over 50 years in the industry, Hatch Goba has the right processes and experience to successfully deliver future projects.

IMIESA April 2014

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IMIESA April 2014


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Imiesa April 2014  

The April 2014 edition of Imiesa

Imiesa April 2014  

The April 2014 edition of Imiesa