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Promoting professional excellence in the water sector

Water& Sanitation The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete water resource and wastewater management


Getting water and wastewater back on track


WATER BOARDS Keys to combatting bulk shortages PIPES, PUMPS & VALVES Reliable pumps beat the heat TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY Saving our sewers


“Current drought conditions in Southern Africa mean that effective water efficiency technology is no longer a ‘nice to have’ – it’s a ‘need to have’.” Malcolm Corns Brand product manager: Davey Water Products, SafeQuip


January/February 2016 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R50.00 • Vol. 11 No. 1

Water Purification Plant & Equipment INTRODUCTION SWANSA (PTY) LTD trading as SWAN’S WATER TREATMENT is a privately owned South African company specializing in the design and manufacture of the full spectrum of water purification equipment. Cost effective innovations are incorporated in our process and equipment designs with the plant being customised for each installation. Our extensive in-house expertise, ensures that out advanced technology is applied to the clients best advantage. PRODUCT RANGE • Water filters • Moore Airlift Rapid Gravity filters • Steel pressure filters • Steel rapid gravity filters Liquid/Solid Separation • Sludge Blanket Vertical Upflow Clarifiers • Diminishing Intensity Floc Conditioners • Incline Sheet Clarifiers • Upgrading of Horizontal Flow Clarifiers Chemical Dosing • Helical screw feeders • Rotary disc dry feeders • Water operated dry feeders • Gravity solution feeders • Metering pumps • Gas Chlorinators Effluent Treatment • Biofilter rotary distributors • Aerators • Clarifiers Miscellaneous • Package plants • Ammoniators • Sulphonators • Pilot operated diaphragm valves • Laboratory floc testers • Automatic pH control • Comparators • Domestic and industrial cartridge filters

Swan’s Water Treatment | Prop. Swansa (Pty) Limited | Reg. No. 80/11814/07 Plot 91, Honingklip, Muldersdrift PO Box 777 Muldersdrift 1747 Tel: 010 594 9999 | Fax: 086 609 1595 P Swan


Vol. 11 No. 1

Promoting professional excellence in the water sector

Water& Sanitation The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete water resource and wastewater management

Water and Sanitation Services South Africa (Pty) Ltd (WSSA) is a specialised provider of sustainable water services in Southern Africa


Getting water and wastewater back on track


WATER BOARDS Keys to combatting bulk shortages PIPES, PUMPS & VALVES Reliable pumps beat the heat TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY Saving our sewers





Editor’s comment Africa round-up

COVER STORY Getting water and wastewater back on track

3 19

Water & Sanitation Services SA.indd 1


“Current drought conditions in Southern Africa mean that effective water efficiency technology is no longer a ‘nice to have’ ‒ it’s a ‘need to have’.” Malcolm Corns Brand product manager: Davey Water Products, SafeQuip


January/February 2016 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R50.00 • Vol. 11 No. 1

2014/03/26 11:52:53 AM



CEO's comment: A time to skill


President's comment: Mind the gap...


YWP: Ready, set, action



According to NuWater, rapidly deployable distributed water and wastewater infrastructure is the key to arresting and reversing the current downward trend in delivery. P4

Safequip: Water efficiency that’s a necessity


REGIONAL FOCUS A leap for Limpopo



WATER BOARDS Banking on valves' value


MINE WATER The quest for zero liquid discharge


INDUSTRIAL WATER On the right path to water footprinting


WASTEWATER TREATMENT A positive future for Stellenbosch


PANEL DISCUSSION East Rand Water Care Company (ERWAT)


JOAT Group


Osborn Engineered Products SA


Wasteman Sight Lines


RITZ Pumps



TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY Inspector gadgets save the sewers


South Africa wins 2018 No-Dig bid


PIPES, PUMPS & VALVES Reliable pumps beat the heat


A licence to weld




Publisher Elizabeth Shorten Associate publisher Nicholas McDiarmid Editor Frances Ringwood Head of design Beren Bauermeister Chief sub-editor Tristan Snijders Sub-editor Morgan Carter Contributors Jo Burgess, Lester Goldman, Stuart Woolley, Shanna Nienaber, Ashton Maherry, Nora Hanke Digital & marketing manager Philip Rosenberg Client services & production manager Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator Jacqueline Modise Distribution manager Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham Financial manager Andrew Lobban Administration Tonya Hebenton Printers United Litho Johannesburg t +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales Avé Delport / Jenny Miller t +27 (0)11 467 6223 /

Publisher MEDIA Physical address: No 9, 3rd Avenue, Rivonia, 2191 Postal address: PO Box 92026, Norwood, 2117, South Africa t +27 (0)11 233 2600 • f +27 (0)11 234 7274/5

ISSN: 1990 - 8857 Annual subscription: R300 (SA rate) Copyright 2016. All rights reserved. All articles in Water&Sanitation Africa are copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publishers. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Water Institute of Southern Africa or the publishers. WISA CONTACTS: HEAD OFFICE Tel: 086 111 9472(WISA) Fax: +27 (0)11 315 1258 Physical address: 1st Floor, Building 5, Constantia Park, 546 16th Road, Randjiespark Ext 7, Midrand BRANCHES Eastern Cape Chairperson: Selby Thabethe Tel: +27 (0)41 506 2862 | Email: Secretary: Christopher Maduma Tel: +27 (0)41 506 7527 | Email: Free State Chairperson: Sabelo Mkhize Tel: +27 (0)53 830 6681 | Email: Secretary: Noeline Basson Cell: +27 (0)71 362 3622 | Email: KwaZulu-Natal Chairperson: Vishnu Mabeer Tel: +27 (0)31 311 8684 | Email: Treasurer: Renelle Pillay Email: Limpopo Chairperson: Paradise Shilowa Cell: +27 (0)79 905 9013 | Email: Secretary: Salome Sathege Tel: +27 (0)15 290 2535 | Email: Mpumalanga Chairperson: Susan van Heerden Cell: +27 (0)82 800 3137 | Email: Secretary: Theo Dormehl Cell: +27 (0)83 294 0745 | Email: Namibia Chairperson: Dr Vaino Shivute Secretary: Kristina Afomso Tel: +264 61 712080 | Email: Western Cape Chairperson: Natasia van Binsbergen Tel: +27 (0)21 448 6340 | Email: Secretary: Wilma Grebe Tel: +27 (0)21 887 7161 | Email: WISA’s Vision The promotion of professional excellence in the water sector, through building expertise, sharing knowledge and improving quality of life.

Endorsed by


Bringing new tech to market


elcome to the first edition of Water&Sanitation Africa for 2016. It’s a special year for industry professionals, a conference year, and the Water Institute of South Africa Biennial Conference and Exhibition will be taking place at the Durban International Convention Centre from 15 to 19 May. In its previous iterations, the event has served as a launchpad to introduce exciting new products and services to the local market. Although it’s too early to say for sure, this year looks set to be no different. Mother of invention The first reason to look forward to new ideas is Southern Africa’s desperate need for rain. At the start of the drought , many homeowners thought that they might scrape by with little inconvenience. Now, many are feeling the pinch, and more and more citizens are exploring solutions like rainwater harvesting tanks, grey water recycling systems and ultraviolet disinfection kits. These types of products, once considered ‘esoteric’, now are almost commonplace and people are starting to see them as essentials. Moreover, innovation may come from unexpected avenues – for example, low-sodium washing powders prevent grey water from negatively affecting plant growth; new pressure manipulation systems ensure buildings are not over- or under-serviced; even toilet cistern design offers opportunities to create more water-efficient plumbing. In this edition of Water&Sanitation Africa, there are several articles that reflect the new tendency to embrace water efficiency technologies. Jo Burgess looks at the technology gap in her regular WISA president's letter, and there is also a focus on zero liquid discharge, water footprinting and trenchless technologies – a method of pipe repair.

Adapting practice – being better Technological innovations are ‘sexy’; they put forth the promise of money to be made and jobs to be filled. Policy, by contrast, may seem pretty dry, but it is the hinge upon which the water industry ultimately turns. One of the exciting policy developments arising out of South Africa’s current water challenges is the Department of Water and Sanitation’s (DWS) plan to centralise tender awards for water tanker companies. In the past, unscrupulous municipalities would ask their water tanker service providers to furnish them with multiple invoices for one job. The DWS has introduced a simple method to put a stop to corruption and prevent opportunists from capitalising on their countrymen’s difficulties. Herein lies another reason to pay attention to the new solutions that we can all look forward to coming out of the WISA Conference. The conference brings together the brightest minds in the country, who, test new ideas, build on their existing knowledge and dream of future solutions. Academic and intellectual vigour, of the quality that can be expected from WISA, protects the whole country against snake oil salesmen and false prophets, ensuring that only real, workable solutions are brought to the fore.

Correction In the July/August 2015 edition of Water&Sanitation Africa, the story ‘Microenterprise through biology’ on pages 18 and 19 had Prudence Mambo as its principle author and researcher. As such, her name should have appeared first on the authors’ listing. We apologise for this oversight.

COVER OPPORTUNITY In each issue, Water&Sanitation Africa offers companies the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the magazine. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings contact Avé Delport or Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223, or email / JAN/FEB 2016



Getting water and wastewater

back on track

As drought conditions across South Africa further exacerbate concerns about inadequate investment in water and wastewater infrastructure – compounded by the poor maintenance and operation of existing infrastructure – the growing question is whether this downward trend in service delivery can be reversed.


ccording to NuWater, a South African company that is also a world leader in rapidly deployable distributed water and wastewater infrastructure, this negative trend can be arrested and then slowly reversed through the adoption of a more flexible distributed approach to infrastructure development. The NuWater team spoke to Water&Sanitation Africa to explain how they are working with private and public sector partners to help address the challenges through the rapid delivery of modular and scalable water and wastewater treatment plants.


JAN/FEB 2016

Creative solutions According to John Holmes, CEO, NuWater, delivering high-quality water and wastewater infrastructure projects in South Africa remains challenging for both bureaucratic and financial reasons. The historical, or generally accepted, approach to developing and delivering municipal water and wastewater infrastructure projects is clearly not effective in the current environment, where immediate pressures on infrastructure make long-term planning difficult. Temporary, or emergency, solutions also end up draining resources. Holmes explains the company’s strategy and offering, “At NuWater, we pride ourselves on delivering creative solutions to water and wastewater treatment challenges. We provide solutions that address not only the technical challenges but also the commercial ones. This requires a much deeper appreciation and understanding of the problem than merely looking at whether a particular plant design will adequately address a given client’s treatment requirements. It means helping customers plan projects and access the necessary funding.”

John Holmes, CEO, NuWater

Interestingly, Holmes points out that, in many cases, funding is not the primary issue. Rather, customers don’t adequately understand the process for accessing available funding. Holmes continues, “In many cases, it is a learning process for the company as well, as we try to shape our proposals to conform to often rigid assessment criteria, while delivering a solution that will have a real and immediate positive impact.” Distributed infrastructure NuWater’s focus on distributed, rather than centralised, water and wastewater infrastructure is gaining increasing traction in both the private and municipal sectors in South Africa and other developing markets. According to Holmes, this is because the hurdles that stand in the way of delivering effective, decentralised solutions are much lower than large, ambitious centralised infrastructure projects. This is not to say that strategic infrastructure projects don’t have their place, but rather that a dual approach is required to make meaningful service delivery progress.

NJ Bouwer, head: Engineering, NuWater

Jeeten Nathoo, chief technology officer, NuWater


The benefits of the decentralised approach are clear: lower complexity, smaller individual investments and less bureaucracy all help to reduce the project risks and delivery time. According to Holmes, “Tangible success also creates positive sentiment, which results in accelerated roll-out plans for further plants, or capacity expansion of plants already delivered. This ‘feel good’ factor cannot be underestimated – having all stakeholders pulling in the same direction completely changes the prospects of subsequent successful project delivery.” Complete service offering NuWater plants are technologically advanced, incorporating both proprietary and carefully selected third-party technologies; however, it is the company’s complete service offering that sets it apart from of its competitors. The company not only designs and builds its plants, but also finances and operates its own projects – something few competitors in South Africa can effectively compete with. Jeeten Nathoo, chief technology officer, NuWater, is charged with ensuring that the company’s plants match the needs of the market, whether it be advanced industrial applications or in the municipal water and wastewater sectors. Nathoo explains the company’s approach to technology, “NuWater is a technology-led company. What that means is that we believe advanced technologies can best address the challenges of affordability and reliability, while also allowing us, as a company, to be more responsive to customer needs, by offering large-capacity solutions that can be rapidly deployed and, where relevant, redeployed.” He continues, “The combination of rapid deployment, scalability, energy efficiency and reliability – even in very tough operating conditions – runs through our entire technology and design philosophy. Contrary to popular belief, advanced water and wastewater technologies, such as membrane technologies, are not necessarily more expensive, or less robust, than conventional technologies. However, in order to ensure an accurate comparison of costs, it is generally necessary to assess the total cost of ownership (TCO) over the life of the project.” The company’s full service offering allows it, and its customers, to benefit

from this TCO approach. Nathoo explains further, “As we generally own and operate our plants, we are in a position to assess, and benefit from, the treatment cost benefits of optimal technology selection. We are not focused on upfront capital investment, but rather on energy efficiency, which can make up more than half of the overall unit treatment cost, and other operation and maintenance costs over the project life. This approach benefits all stakeholders.” Plant versatility The compact nature of NuWater’s plants, and the ability to rapidly deploy and redeploy them, further ensures that unit treatment costs are as low as possible, irrespective of the duration of the treatment need and fluctuations in treatment capacity requirements. As NuWater’s head: Engineering, NJ Bouwer has seen first-hand the benefits of the company’s plants’ flexible, modular designs. According to Bouwer, “Many of the projects we have undertaken were considered unviable due to either the short-term or unpredictable nature of the treatment requirement. However, the ability to rapidly deploy our plants with minimal fixed infrastructure, scale up or down treatment capacity over time, and completely redeploy plants to another site has completely changed the economics of many projects.” In a nutshell NuWater’s distributed infrastructure model has proved its appeal in the mining sector – where acid mine drainage issues continue to grow. The company continues to grow its customer base and operational capacity with blue-chip customers, such as Anglo American and Gold Fields. Its municipal business, while still at a relatively early stage, is showing significant promise, with eMalahleni Local Municipality taking the lead in supplementing its water treatment capacity with a completely modular plant owned and operated by the company.

NuWater has also recently expanded its offering to cover distributed wastewater treatment solutions. The company has partnered with Sanitech, South Africa’s leading portable sanitation service provider, to deliver distributed wastewater treatment plants across its operations, both in South Africa and into the rest of Sanitech’s sub-Saharan Africa operations. Holmes believes this is a major endorsement of NuWater’s distributed infrastructure model. “Working with a partner such as Sanitech demonstrates how our distributed water and wastewater infrastructure model, and our advanced treatment plants, can make an immediate impact on service delivery in South Africa. This is also a great example of how the private

sector can play a very positive role in delivering services in collaboration with the local municipal sector and other private sector customers.” While NuWater acknowledges that it and its distributed infrastructure model – supported by its technology, plant design and financing models – present only part of the solution to South Africa’s water and wastewater challenges, it is clear that companies such as NuWater will play an essential role in shaping the country’s infrastructure of the future.

In each issue, Water&Sanitation Africa offers advertisers the opportunity to promote their company’s products and services to an appropriate audience by booking the prime position of the front cover, which includes a feature article. The magazine offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Please call Avé Delport on +27 (0)11 467 6224/ +27 (0)83 302 1342 to secure your booking.

JAN/FEB 2016



A time to skill for a better industry To improve the state of the local water industry, Water Institute of South Africa CEO LESTER GOLDMAN asks searching questions about what skills could be developed further to effect more positive change.

Lester Goldman, WISA CEO

Creating an enabling environment depends on multiple inputs and viewpoints fostering positive personal growth and the consequent development of the water sector


JAN/FEB 2016


very kind and knowlEncouraging the right environment edgeable WISA Senior Are we so caught up Fellow visited me at in trying to control our office recently, the various elements and offered some insight into of our daily lives, as wastewater treatment. I shared they pertain to the water his passion in discussing the sector, that we lose sight creation of an enabling bacterial of the criteria for promoting environment to foster effective an enabling environment? In treatment options. organisational terms, are we so While to many water professionals focused on analysis and results this may be old hat, I was fascinated that we are, perhaps, missing the by his description of manipulating opportunity to the environment In organisational create the correct to enable the terms, are we working condiproliferation of tions to reach our good bacteria, and so focused on potential? the elimination of analysis and I hope that we, as bad bacteria. results that we are, a sector, can work First, I was perhaps, missing together in identischooled in the the opportunity to fying this enabling difference becreate the correct environment. I tween good and bad bacteria, and working conditions hope that we can put our personal then the science to reach our viewpoints aside of creating an potential? and concentrate enabling envion an enabling environment – ronment for good bacteria. I am not the good or bad bacteria, still not sure I understand where metaphorically speaking. this good bacteria comes from but I do know that, if you want Differing views it, all you have to do is create the While we all have our views on right environment. what this enabling environment This got me thinking about our may be – whether it be from a water sector environment. Do we political, environmental, financial, have an enabling environment?

scientific or other perspective – the environment is the combination of all of this. We may not always know how to create this environment but, if we know how it should look, we can work at creating it, allowing the good elements to prevail. Let me know your thoughts on this enabling environment for the water sector. I will try to collate and share the results with WISA members and other interested water professionals at a later stage. I will also use this as input into the organisation’s strategic planning to ensure that we can create the positive enabling environment our members deserve. Email me at or pop into our offices, if you are in Midrand, to discuss the matter further. Take care,



Mind the gap… and the other gap Water Institute of Southern Africa president JO BURGESS looks at the twin problems of the region’s looming water gap and the innovation gap that exists between research and bringing solutions to the market.


umerous international bodies, including the Water Resources Group 2030 and the World Economic Forum (WEF), have identified water as a global priority concern. For four years running, WEF global risk reports have identified water as one of the three most important challenges worldwide; in 2015, for the first time, it moved to the top, as the biggest societal and economic risk for the next 10 years. The report assesses risks that have the potential to cause significant negative impact across entire countries and industries. Risks from water overuse and shortage, poor water infrastructure and management came out on top – not as future problems outlined by models and

There exists an innovation gap in the water sector; the gap exists between laboratoryscale research and small-scale piloting of technologies, and the end point of full-scale operation, whereby new technologies are adopted by the market

simulations, but as facts today, which are rapidly worsening. Water is key for life and central to societal development. Water risks affect industrialised and developing economies alike; repercussions of its overuse and increasing shortage are multiple and complex, widespread and severe. Water gap 2030 Based on rising human population, economic growth projections, scarcity of resources as well as current use and efficiency levels, South Africa will demand 17% more water than exists by 2030. The net deficit between supply and demand could grow to between 2.7 and 3.8 billion m3. In addition, it is crucial to recognise that South Africa’s water supplies are already almost fully allocated. This means that new businesses and industries will find it increasingly difficult to access water licences, particularly in more overdrawn catchments. Also, where licences are allocated, increasing strain will be placed on the natural systems to produce good quality and quantities of water. This reality places renewed emphasis on the need for innovative solutions, technologies and processes as well as highly skilled individuals that will be able to rise to the challenge of navigating these complexities going into the future.

Jo Burgess, WISA president

National and international organisations, such as science councils, government departments and professional associations, increasingly recognise an innovation gap in the water sector, specifically relating to the upscale and implementation of newly developed treatment and management technologies. The gap exists between laboratory-scale research and small-scale piloting of technologies, and the end point of full-scale operation, whereby new technologies are adopted by the market. This creates a situation where, at times, the water sector is forced to import market-ready solutions from other sectors, such as oil and gas, because of the innovation gap in its own sector. As such, the issue of water technology upscaling, implementation and commercialisation is a key area of concern. This concern is expressed in numerous ways. The public literature tends to focus on the issues of commercialisation gaps and challenges. Moving discontinuous (as opposed to incremental) innovation projects to commercialisation suffers from “a substantial 'readiness gap' which exists between the R&D project teams and the receiving business units, and that bridging this gap was more difficult than anticipated”, according to researchers. Effective innovation strategies Seven managerial approaches for improving the effectiveness of transition management have been proposed: conducting a transition readiness assessment, assembling a transition team, establishing an oversight board, developing a transition plan, providing JAN/FEB 2016


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transition funding from corporate sources, laying the groundwork for a big market and engaging senior management champions. “In order to successfully develop and commercialise innovations, not only does the firm need to conceptualise and develop the innovation in the first place; it must also be successful in reaching more than just a niche market of innovators/early adopters. In other words, it must overcome the ''innovator’s dilemma'' as well as cross the chasm. These two problems are faced by all firms – but especially those operating in high-technology markets or driven by technological innovations – and are related in that they both derive from the underlying skill set the firm brings to its marketing strategy,” say Stanley Slater and Jakki Mohr in their academic journal article, ‘Successful Development and Commercialization of Technological Innovation: Insights Based on Strategy Type’. And this is not unique to South Africa. In ‘Developing internationally comparable indicators for the commercialization of publicly-funded research’, Anthony A possible answer Arundel and Catalina to bridging the Bordoy point out, “It is a common perception supply gap is to that European puballow temporary lic-funded research relaxation of fails to commercialise effluent discharge its discoveries, in constandards, or the trast to the perceived implementation success of American counterparts. This of percentile resulted in policies compliance aimed at improving the commercialisation of European public-funded research, including the establishment of technology transfer offices.” These observations illustrate the point that the issue of innovation gaps, which exist in subtly different ways in differing contexts, are real in many parts of the world. The current mismatch between the end of the road for ‘pure’ research, and the first step on the path of full-scale industrial development poses challenges to policy implementation, particularly where environmental authorisations are concerned. Making a plan In the current context, what will be the role of research, development and deployment of innovative technologies? A possible answer is to allow temporary relaxation of effluent discharge standards, or the implementation of percentile compliance, as one of the many possible positive actions that can be taken to enable regulatory environments to de-risk development and deployment of the new technologies and methodologies needed in order to bridge the water supply gap. The current regulatory context does not yet make that provision; but, it’s time to change. South Africa can bridge its water gaps – and we will have to leap both of them at once.


JAN/FEB 2016


Young water professionals STUART WOOLLEY, SHANNA NIENABER, ASHTON MAHERRY and NORA HANKE recall what it was like living the “Stop Talking, Start doing!” theme at the 4th YWP-ZA Biennial, and 1st African IWA YWP Conference – the biggest event of its kind in Africa.


he Young Water Professionals (YWP) network has had a busy year-end; 15 to  18  November  2015 saw one of the largest gatherings of YWPs in the world to date, with the 4th YWPZA Biennial, and 1st African IWA YWP Conference, held at the CSIR Convention Centre in Pretoria. This event was held in partnership with the Water Institute of Southern Africa and International Water Association (IWA). The conference boasted 440 delegates, with many exhibitors, guest speakers, media representatives and VIPs in attendance. Delegates represented countries all over the world, including Australia,

Ready, set, action the DRC, England, Germany, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mexico, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Swaziland, Uganda, the USA and Zimbabwe. Encouraging diversity Given that this was the first ever African YWP conference, we wanted to do something a bit different and also find a way to draw in as many different ‘faces’ from the different areas of the water sector as possible. We wanted to try to represent not only the amazing academic research that young people are involved in but also some of the technical occupations that drive the water sector. This inspired our conference theme: “Stop Talking, Start Doing!”, which brought academic research together with technical professionals working in implementation contexts to facilitate an awareness of how to apply knowledge and solutions in situations where they can make a difference. Practically, this was implemented by having different streams at the conference. The plenary sessions showcased heavy-hitting thought leaders and senior mentors in the water sector. Dhesigen Naidoo, Water Research Commission

Some 440 delegates from around the world attended the 4th YWP-ZA Biennial, and 1st African IWA YWP Conference

(WRC) CEO, presented a powerful call to action and revolution to the YWP community, particularly in the context of the triple challenges of poverty, unemployment and inequality that are embedded in the water sector. Professor Coleen Vogel from the University of the Witwatersrand presented her view on how to engage in holistic and catalytic problem-solving and innovation, using approaches such as transdisciplinarity. A water-conscious businesses session brought the conference to a close with a focus on understanding what role players like the Strategic Water Partners Network and Woolworths Holdings are doing to commit to sustainable water partnerships. It was a particular honour for the YWPs to host the Deputy Minister from the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), Pamela Tshwete, who stressed the importance of young people moving into the water sector and filling urgent skills gaps in a global context. Additionally, the first two parallel sessions of the conference focused on JAN/FEB 2016


No limits sharing academic research and work being conducted by young people in the sector. In this stream, we had 66 podium presentations and 96 academic posters on display. These presentations were selected through a meticulous selection process that narrowed down the field from over 250 abstract submissions. We also had a number of special sessions of core relevance to our theme. In these sessions, the topics of water security as well as transdisciplinarity, as a method to generate integrated and groundbreaking water sector solutions, were explored. The third parallel session, the Energy and Water Services SETA (EWSETA) Learning Hub, focused on understanding the different role players in the water sector, understanding how young people can engage in policy processes relating to the sustainable development goals, what skills are needed to excel in our careers and how to start up water sector businesses.

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Hands-on learning As water has gained international traction through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), we exposed YWPs to the African agendas, policy directives, as well as many of the role players in the African policy space so they can participate in the realisation of the SDGs and, in so doing, take a leading role in shaping the future of the African continent. The high number of unemployed, yet qualified, youth across Africa speaks to the fact that young professionals need to be empowered to get the job that fits their skills and qualification. To respond to this, we had a special session focusing on targeted CV writing, unlocking water sector opportunities and exploring how to excel in the job you have. An entrepreneurship workshop was run by GreenMatter in partnership with YWP-ZA. This event was jam-packed and had a particular focus on how to turn innovative ideas emerging from young professionals’ research or experience into start-up businesses. The process controller and lab technician workshop aimed to create a platform for learning more about the role and work of this vital group of water sector doers with aims of fostering greater insight about how to partner, support and build fulfilling careers in this space. This was an important platform for

The conference organising committee with Deputy Minister of Water and Sanitation Pamela Tshwete and EWSETA CEO Errol Gradwell

KROHNE – Water is our world. KROHNE South Africa 8 Bushbuck Close Corporate Park South Randtjiespark, Midrand Tel.: +27 113141391 Fax: +27 113141681 Cell: +27 825563934 John Alexander


JAN/FEB 2016

A strong foundation for infrastructure success

The WRC funded the Jo Burgess Award for the best platform presenter, which was awarded to Benjamin Biggs from the University of Cape Town

younger and more experienced process controllers and lab technicians to reflect on the challenges and opportunities of their work and careers. We also held a vibrant debate on developing a YWP approach to prioritising research to address the impact of the shale-gas industry in the Karoo. This conversation gave rise to a number of exciting ideas and also introduced participants to social science methodologies and techniques for facilitating workshops and sessions with stakeholders Networking and awards In between the busy professional programme being run, there was also a fun set of social events for YWPs to get to know each other in a more informal setting. The Africa Games saw crowds of YWPs taking to the sports grounds to compete for the Africa Games fun awards. There was also a night of razzle-dazzle, jumping and jiving at the EWSETA Gala Dinner. The conference drew to a close with an awards ceremony. The WRC funded the Jo Burgess Award for the best platform presenter, which was awarded to Benjamin Biggs from the University of Cape Town, as well as the Adrian Puigarnau Award for the best poster presenter that was awarded to Kwangu Magalie Kanama from the Tshwane University of Technology. The WISA Mine Water Division Award, for the best mine-water-related podium presentation at the conference, was awarded to Bronwyn Grover from the University of the Witwatersrand. Finally, the inaugural Jayant Bhagwan Sanitation Award for the highest-scoring sanitation podium presentation or poster presented went to Khumbo Kalulu from the University of Malawi. In closing The YWP network extends its heartiest congratulations to the award winners, its deepest thanks to all sponsors and partners to this event, and continues to be utterly inspired by the opportunity to meet with and engage inspiring young professionals from all over Africa and the world. The future of the African water sector is bright with such passionate people tackling its challenges and opportunities. JAN/FEB 2016


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Water efficiency that’s a necessity demand-side management solutions. Davey provides the technology to facilitate those methods; what makes our products stand out is that they’re built to take the hassle out of these systems for end users.

What is the ethos behind the development of Davey’s products?

“Current drought conditions in Southern Africa mean that effective water efficiency technology is no longer a ‘nice to have’ – it’s a ‘need to have’,” says Malcolm Corns, brand product manager: Davey Water Products, SafeQuip.

To what extent can technology be effective in solving the current water crisis in South Africa?

MC Technology alone won’t solve all issues but it can certainly assist significantly when it comes to achieving greater water efficiencies and conservation. That’s the niche that Davey Water Products’ solutions are geared to fill. We have systems in place and products available that can assist heads of industry, company owners and the general public to streamline their water efficiencies as well as ensure the quality of the water they drink. Talking specifically about the type of technology that can be used to save water, there are a number of systems available that the general public doesn’t really know too much about – this includes grey water reuse, rainwater reuse and other


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We take a holistic approach to efficiency; for example, one of our offerings is the Steriflo – an in-house or in-office UV filtration system launched last year, which is unique in the way it saves energy. How it works is, if there’s water passing through the system, the UV light detects movement, keeping the system on. When the system detects that there is no moving water, it switches over to standby. A bulb on a normal UV system usually lasts up to 8 000 hours; ours will last up to 30 000 hours – so, we’ve more than doubled its lifespan. That’s a saving on water, energy and consumables. In another example, every single one of Davey’s motors is fitted with additional copper, giving our pumps the ability to run much hotter, and stay hotter for a lot longer – the additional copper also leads to better efficiencies. As an example, in a situation that would usually require a 1 kW or 1.1 kW product, a Davey product would run at the same efficiency using just 0.5 kW to 0.7 kW. Not only that, but our general product quality is hard to beat.

How is it that Davey’s products are able to meet the needs of current local drought conditions? Davey’s rainwater treatment and rainwater harvesting treatment was a priority for Australia during that country’s 12-year drought – many of our solutions were invented at that time. Australia is no longer experiencing severe drought and the range provides a technology-based product that can assist with rainwater harvesting and emergency water in South Africa. Many of the applications we have available are aimed specifically at people

who are gearing up for a situation where water shortages will affect business continuity. Imagine a factory with thousands of staff members; if the water goes off, how will people go to the toilet or wash their hands? Health and hygiene would be affected and productivity would drop without a backup system in place. In such cases, our system would provide a solution that drastically reduces downtime and maintains productivity by keeping the water supply steady and uninterrupted.

What technologies has Davey Water Products developed in response to local water shortages? We have marketed our Torrium 2 controllers in South Africa in the past two years. Through its advanced technologies the product will work in conjunction with a rainwater tank; if the mains water shuts down, the system will recognise this and immediately start drawing water from the tank. Once the mains come back online, the system will detect the change and switch back to drawing municipal supply. This is a seamless process; so, the person living inside the house or running the business doesn’t even know the water has switched off – the entire process is automated for user convenience.

BELOW Acquasafe effectively treats all tank water


The product boasts early leak detection, rundry detection, constant flow and adaptive starting. The entire range is supported by the local Davey dealer network, which has a footprint across Southern Africa. Another water emergency product that was launched in December is the Evo Mach 2 – this technology works with our RainBank. The RainBank system works in such a way that if there is water in the rainwater tank and someone turns on the tap, the system will recognise that there’s water in the tank and draw from there rather than the municipal supply. With rainwater, the priority is to treat it in order to remove any bacteria; we offer a filtration system for this purpose. These systems range from a 20 μm to a 1 μm filter membrane size and can be paired with a number of other treatment options, depending on the needs of the building owner.

The Evo Mach 2 is fitted into the top of the rainwater harvesting tank and functions as a microcomputer, making decisions as to what water is used when and whether the system needs to go on standby in order to protect its internal workings. This, again, creates a seamless process for the end user. Both solutions are unique to the Davey range and there isn’t a competitor product that can assist with these types of applications, particularly at this price point.

ABOVE LEFT The Evo Mach 2 works seemlessly with RainBank technology ABOVE RIGHT The RainBank is an ideal solution for domestic and commercial applications BOTTOM LEFT AND BELOW The Evo Mach 2 automates the use of stored water

What supporting products do you offer for general water purification? Our Acquasafe product is effectively a rainwater treatment tank product, which can be diluted inside tank water to effectively treat all the water held within. Aquasafe is a chlorine alternative that’s completely non-toxic and safe for human consumption. It’s also affordable: just 1 ℓ of Acquasafe can protect 15 000 ℓ of water from contamination from viruses and bacteria for up to two months.

Your technologies have significant synergies with the needs of the South African government; how are you pursuing the large-scale benefits of such a partnership? We are putting a great deal of effort into ensuring that we can provide the necessary demand-side management and water conservation technologies currently being promoted by South Africa’s Department of Water and Sanitation. Moreover, we are eager to sit down with key departments in government and

assist them in creating water efficiencies, because that’s what our products are built to do. If Davey were to work more closely with the right government partners, we could ensure a large-scale roll-out of our products for the active management of water efficiencies in a given area. This could take the strain off existing infrastructure if it were in need of emergency refurbishment and repairs, giving government more time to make the necessary extensions and repairs while continuing to meet communities’ supply needs. JAN/FEB 2016



A leap for Limpopo

New builds and refurbishment projects in Limpopo show that the province is working to create sustainable wastewater treatment and supply networks, aimed at creating the biggest difference under challenging conditions. BY FRANCES RINGWOOD


he most recently published Green Drop report at the time of writing showed Limpopo to be the second poorest performing province, with the Northern Cape lagging behind in at last place. To put these figures into context, poorer provinces with a lower earning tax base tended to have less impressive results for their wastewater treatment works (WWTWs). Nonetheless, Limpopo has a couple of important wastewater upgrades and new builds on the cards aimed at improving the situation. More impressive still are the province’s plans to improve its bulk water supply network providing potable supply to small towns, many of whom have had no access to bulk water supply previously. Mogalakwena improvement In the last Green Drop report in 2011, the Mogalakwena Local Municipality’s wastewater performance was less than stellar,


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technical director Carl Klopper describes the scope of the project. “Mokopane already had an existing WWTW, which had been operating for 20 years. In order to cater for projected expansion in the town, a new peri-urban plant is being constructed, which will treat 10 Mℓ per day. Aurecon was awarded the contract some time ago and the contractor has begun work on-site, with the earthworks with its existing facilities in the high-risk progressing well.” rating band for plant performance. To The building contractor is a CMCimprove plant performance, the mu- Tecroveer joint venture. Piet van der nicipality is constructing a R272  million Merwe, technical director at Tecroveer, new wastewater treatment plant and explains how the two plants (under the refurbishing the existing same contract) are being Mogalakwena WWTW. MOGALAKWENA approached. “The old WWTW PROJECT Mogalakena has long plant, called Mokopane, SUMMARY been a dry, arid area and is a straightforward refurStart: 20 July 2015 has struggled with water bishment with no capacity Duration: 24 months and wastewater treatincrease. It’s an activated Expected completion: ment as a result. Added sludge plant and we will July 2017 to this, it is situated on be extending the drying Cost: R272 million one of the richest ore beds. The Mogalakwena Client: Mogalakwena deposits on Earth, as well plant is a brand new Local Municipality as the Waterberg district activated sludge plant Consulting Engineer: coal fields. This exacerbeing constructed. Aurecon bates water shortages. Contractor: As far as all parties CMC-Tecroveer JV The new plant will asinvolved in the build sist us to provide for the are concerned, it’s a growing needs of the town of Mokopane, straightforward project, with no foreformerly Potgietersrus. Aurecon was seeable challenges or hitches. The right appointed as the civil engineer, and planning has been put in place and


implementation is progressing at a pleasing pace.” Matatshe prison Another much-anticipated WWTW refurbishment project is being undertaken at the Matatshe prison, in the town of Thohoyandou. The project includes upgrading of the prison’s water purification plant. Vhembe District Municipality is the client and it is another municipality that has struggled with wastewater treatment in the past. In 2011, it had the lowest Green Drop score of all municipalities in Limpopo. Every refurbishment helps, and the Matatshe prison upgrade will ensure that it is capable of growing to accommodate an increasing prisoner population. Frederick Buitendacht, the project manager for the Department of Public Works, comments, “We are just at the start of the project now; it’s about 15% complete. We have started out with a 4  Mℓ reservoir and, from there, we will move on to a water purification plant. Work has yet to start on the wastewater portion of the contract.” The prison had previously relied on borehole water for its potable supply

OPPOSITE PAGE The Nandoni Dam is also receiving a facelift – good news since the dam will soon feed a 23 km pipeline destined for Majosi and Levubu BELOW Numerous areas in Limpopo have historically suffered from regular water shortages, necessitating that residents travel long distances to collect water

and maturation ponds to dispose of its sanitation. The upgrade will ensure greater water security and a more stateof-the-art system. According to Daan Veldman, civil engineer at Virtual Consulting Engineers, “Each of the plants (water and wastewater) will be able to treat one megalitre per day. The technology in the wastewater treatment plant is an orbital channel with aerators, a sedimentation tank and drying beds. For water purification, a rapid sand filter with sedimentation is being installed.” The appointed contractor for the project is Limpopo-based Take Note Trading. Bulk water boomtowns There are numerous bulk water projects under way in Limpopo, for example: • The R49 million Nkadimeng Regional Water Supply – Phase 9E – was awarded in April 2015 and has been tabled for completion on 2 October 2016. The client is the Greater Sekhukhune District Municipality, the civil engineer is Pula Strategic Planning and the contractor is a joint venture between Readira Refuse Services and Matlalanyapele Investment and Properties. • The Xikundu Mhinga Bulk Water Supply Scheme currently has four legs awarded, with values ranging between R13.2 million and R26.1 million. All four parts of the projects are being undertaken in parallel. • The R19.7 million Nebo Plateau Bulk Water Supply Project (bulk water pipelines – Phase 2) was awarded


Start: 18 June 2015 Duration: 24 months Expected completion: June 2017 Cost: R36 million Client: Vhembe District Municipality Consulting Engineer: Vir tual Consulting Engineers Contractor: Take Note Trading Start: 11 November 2015 Duration: 18 months Expected completion: May 2017 Cost: R231 million Client: Vhembe District Municipality Contractor: Esor Construction

in September 2014 and is due for completion in March 2016. The client is the Greater Sekhukhune District Municipality, the civil contractor is Aecom SA and the contractor is Loge construction. These are just a few of the mid-range bulk water projects happening in the province. There are also a number of smaller pipelines being built to the value of R10 million or lower. One of the larger water supply initiatives, which started recently, is the construction of 23 km of steel water pipelines and valves. Eddie Chauke, project manager at Vhembe, explains the scope of the project. “The pipeline, running from Vuwani, will be supplied by the Nandoni Dam and will provide urgently needed water to the villages in Lethaba as part of the Lethaba scheme.” Etieen Clark from contractor Esor adds, “The pipeline will also supply the villagers of Majosi and Levubu and will provide much needed bulk infrastructure for an area that previously had none.” Summing up Limpopo is one of South Africa’s less wealthy provinces. It has unemployment statistics ranging from 48.8% and 35.6%, as well as a serious skills capacity problem due to mass emigration to the country’s cities. Nonetheless, improvements are being made and the municipal managers, engineers and contractors working in the province are giving it their all to make the most cost-effective, efficient improvements to ensure a brighter tomorrow. JAN/FEB 2016



Prior to a water crisis being announced in South Africa, the country’s nine (soon to be eight) water boards had numerous projects on the go to secure bulk supply and clean water treatment for their various service areas. FRANCES RINGWOOD looks at indispensable products available to the local market.


our of the biggest and most commonly used products in the water board supply chain are large-diameter pipes, large-diameter valves, pumps used in pump stations and earthworks equipment. Here are some of the issues and opportunities relating to the selection of these products, as well as an exploration of what leading manufacturers have to offer their utility clients. Reliable valves Water boards are involved in numerous activities, including assisting municipalities with budgetary and financial planning, water treatment, and laboratory and technical services. Perhaps the most critical type of project common to all water boards – crucial to ensuring the taps stay on – is supplying bulk water services to a given service area. An important, yet underrated, product in the bulk water supply chain is the large-diameter valve. It’s true that water boards will find themselves implementing projects with many different-diameter pipes and valves but the ones that have the biggest impact on leak prevention and minimisation, as well as non-revenue water loss prevention, are bulk-supply projects. Unfortunately, valves are seen as a way to cut corners by those who should know better. While consulting engineers will specify the best valves that fit into a project’s budget, some unscrupulous contractors will then go to find a cheaper solution, bypassing the consulting engineer, asking the client if their cheaper valve will be


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Banking on valves'

value for bulk

WATER BOARDS OPPOSITE PAGE Contractor installing ductile iron pipe RIGHT A butterfly valve – the kind frequently seen on large, underground bulk projects BELOW A typical split-case pump, of the kind used in bulk-supply projects all over South Africa

acceptable. This is an extremely unethical practice that reduces the cost of valves in the short term but ultimately robs the South African people of a steady, stable water supply. Utilities don’t always have the capacity to tell the difference between highquality, low-maintenance valves and cheap alternatives. A high-quality valve will last a long time; a cheap valve just can’t handle the same pressures. “Cheap rubbish (often imported from China) is not the answer,” says Ruben van Loggerenberg, national sales and marketing manager, VAG Valves. “When a cheap valve that is not up to the task is specified, the end result will be major breakdowns, pump leakages and significant water losses. This is especially evident when a valve is incorrectly specified according to pressure – for example, when a 30 bar valve is needed and a 6 bar one is installed. “If utilities ensure they purchase quality valves, these will last for many years. Another thing to look out for is whether seals can be replaced – this saves utili-

ties from having to spend money on new valves when the old ones fail,” says Van Loggerenberg. In South Africa, it’s no secret that pipeline maintenance is not performed nearly frequently enough. Long lifespans for valves are made to overcome this challenge, saving on total cost of ownership. “Too many clients will try to save money on their valves. Looking at the cost of most

bulk water projects, valves usually make up only 3% of the overall cost of a project. Yet, choosing the wrong valves will negate the value of the rest of the project – for example, on a 30 km pipeline, if there are no burst control valves, and there is a pipe burst, many thousands of litres of water will go to waste. Pumps are often seen as the heart of a bulk-supply project; but, they are not the only heart – valves, too, are the heart of these kinds of projects. Without the right valves, the pipeline will not function effectively,” says Van Loggerenberg. He also emphasises the need to deal with trusted valve suppliers, as valves that are incorrectly installed or installed for the wrong application will also cause recurring issues for utilities. “VAG produces some of the leading valves in the world. We are experienced in the bulk-supply market, having manufactured the biggest valve in the world: a 4 m butterfly valve,” he says. Pipes for all purposes The most commonly specified material for large, bulk-supply pipelines remains steel. When specifying steel pipe, it’s important to ensure that there is no strike action looming in the steel industry (strikes usually follow a three-year cycle) and that production and supply are adequate for the task at hand. Other important considerations include looking at whether the right coating is being applied to the pipe, whether piping meets the relevant SABS testing quality assurances and to look into alternatives to determine whether the pipeline material chosen is the best for the job. Francois Human from local steel, tube and pipe supplier Robor Steel gives an overview of the current market, “At the moment, steel production is going ahead smoothly – we are experiencing no capacity constraints and are confident we can deliver.” Last year’s National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa (NUMSA) strikes had affected some supplies. This year, there have been strikes among

workers outside of the steel industry. Working with the right supplier – specifically those who prepare ahead of strike season – will stand utilities and the respective consulting engineers in good stead to finish projects involving steel pipelines on time. “At Robor, we often supply products for large bulk supply projects. Looking at the number of enquiries received during the past few months indicates to us that utilities are already ensuring they have projects under way and are planning ahead to mitigate problems associated with the water supply issues in SA” says Human Other than galvanised steel pipes, other types of pipe used in bulk applications include epoxy and polyurethane-coated steel pipes. “At Robor, we also offer a Steel Polypipe made of a host steel pipe with an internally lined high-density polyethylene lining. This is mostly used in abrasive and corrosive environments. We also offer ductile iron piping,” says Human. Productive pumps The most important things to consider when selecting a pump are reliability and efficiency – pumps that are more efficient are better for water boards’ overall operational efficiency. “Pumps need to operate at their best efficiency points (BEPs), not just to ensure energy efficiency but also to optimise the lifespan of the pump,” says Gavin Bruggen, regional manager: Northern Region, Wilo Pumps SA. “Internal losses will lead to internal vibrations, which leads to long-term wear on the pump,” he adds. One of the biggest problems from a demand perspective is when utilities push the BEPs of pumps. This can lead to pump disruptions for repair work, which JAN/FEB 2016


WATER BOARDS Remote-controlled trench compactors differentiate their supplier from other service providers on the market because they deliver a superior trench at a lower cost and a faster pace

pertinent product we’re particularly proud of at Bell is our remote-controlled trench compactor. A single machine can replace 10 tampers, cutting down labour needs on-site at a ratio of 1:10.” Additionally, the company creates jobs is especially inconvenient during times throughout its service centre operations of drought. – an essential criterion to fulfil the local “There are a lot of reputable pump supplicontent portion of the majority of South ers in South Africa – of which Wilo is one. African tender documents. But, any product is only as good as the way “As the country's leading manufacturer in which it’s used and maintained. Pumps of TLBs, we source components, wherever are just like cars: they need to be regularly possible, from South African suppliers and serviced and maintained by people with employ local labour for the fabrication and the right skills and assembly of these matechnical capability “Pumps are just like chines, in keeping with to ensure the prodour company philosocars: they need to uct will perform phy to contribute to the be regularly serviced creation of sustainable optimally and last,” and maintained by says Bruggen. jobs in South Africa.,” His advice for people with the right says McNeill. utilities who want to “This gives us signifiskills and technical get the most out of cant market advantagcapability to ensure their pumps is both es, including shorter to maintain pumps the product will lead times for securing well and to ensure perform optimally machines for customers that building conas well as superior availand last.” tractors are chosen ability of spare parts. carefully to avoid future difficulties. “There In addition, because our range of TLBs are many excellent contractors out there; and articulated dump trucks meet minthere are also fly-by-nighters who are imum local content thresholds, Bell has awarded contracts for the wrong reasons, applied, under government's Preferential who lack the skills and capacity to impleProcurement Policy Framework Act, to ment a proper maintenance philosophy.” have these products specially designated Wilo supplies some of the largest within the sector,” McNeill adds. pumps for bulk water supply in the world. The company supplies a wide range of Conclusion products for these purposes, including Ensuring the effective operation of bulk raw-water intake pumps, vertical turbine pipelines is one of the most important pumps and horizontal split-casing pumps. responsibilities of water boards, from a Split-casing pumps are some of the most supply sustainability point of view. commonly used by water boards and are There are a number of reliable, tested generally found at water treatment works, products available on the local marbulk-supply systems and reservoirs. ket that are ideal for these projects, but these need to be installed and Incredible earthworks maintained correctly for utilities to Before any of the above products can be get the most out of their investments. secured underground, the first step is to Localisation of content continues to be ensure earthworks have been carried out an essential consideration in selecting reliably and correctly. Issues with soil conthese products. ditions and weather’s effect on the ground The water crisis in South Africa has can cause some of the biggest project demade this a particularly good time for lays on any project, not just bulk pipelines. utilities to evaluate their supply chains Stephen McNeill, marketing manager at and ensure contractors and consulting Bell Equipment SA, shares how local comengineers agree on what the correct pany Bell has optimised its own equipment products to specify for a given project and supply chains to meet the unique should be. Also important is that water needs of South African utilities. “The maboard staff are up to the challenge of chines most commonly supplied for bulk preventing damaging cost-cutting and supply pipelines include tractor loader maintaining the infrastructure once it’s backhoes (TLBs) and excavators. Another in the ground.


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Drought without borders Across the continent, local governments and other utilities are having to come up with fast mitigation plans to sustain citizens through the drought. Better use and maintenance of existing dams and reservoirs and the deployment of water tankers feature largely in these plans. Meanwhile, analysts are concerned about how climate change will further affect the situation. BOTSWANA

Botswana set to draw water from LHWP

Botswana has finalised a deal with South Africa and Lesotho to tap some of the water from the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP). Botswana’s Minister of Mineral, Energy and Water Resources, Onkodame Kitso Mokaila, confirmed this at a conference on the diamond industry, in Gaborone, at the end of last year. Mokaila said that diversification and beneficiation of the economy through the diamond industry was constrained by the country’s water shortage. He described various projects that were being explored or undertaken to address the problem, including tapping water from the Zambezi River. Another was the threenation deal to tap into the LHWP, which is a joint venture between Lesotho and South Africa, through which Lesotho sells excess water to South Africa. Mokaila stressed that the agreement was a done deal and it was just a matter of drawing up a plan and a design to implement the agreement. A prefeasibility study was being conducted.

He said that all three countries were part of the Orange River system and decided to work together owing to having this in common. Source: Africa News Agency


Water shortages anticipated to trigger domestic violence

shortages occur, women may have to travel longer than the usual distances to fetch the water – a delay that patriarchs might find unacceptable. For example, in the south-east of Uganda, water scarcity led to some women reporting being beaten by their husbands. Domestic violence is already

a major issue in Namibia. Data shows that at least one out of every three women in Namibia is likely to be beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused in her lifetime. At this time of increased stress, it is important that the women who are victims of domestic abuse are informed of their

Namibia is facing another drought and there is a risk that some regions of the country will experience severe water shortages in the future. The effect of these water shortages will be felt throughout Namibian society, with some of the effects not as obvious as others. All, however, are important. The most immediate concern resulting from a reduced supply of clean water is livelihoods – be it food supply, sustainability of crops and livestock, or health; in the long term, the drought will also have an impact on business productivity, employment and GDP. However, there are many impacts caused by water scarcity, including the rising incidence of domestic violence. It is often women in communities who fetch water from local boreholes or water tanks as part of their household duties. When water JAN/FEB 2016


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options regarding police protection and legal assistance. Source: The Namibian


$55 million plan for water projects

The Ekiti State government and the World Bank are set to rehabilitate water projects in the state to the value of $55 million over the next six years. Under the Third Urban Water Sector Reform Project, the initiative is being led by the World Bank. Ekiti State’s governor, Ayo Fayose, said the state was ready to do its part by providing funding to the value of $5 million – explicitly wanting the state government to play a role in the project. Pier Mantovani, who said the World Bank would contribute $50 million, commended the governor for his determination to see to the successful execution of the project. He said that, apart from Ekiti, two other states – namely Rivers and Bauchi – would also benefit from a similar plan. The Commissioner for Public Utilities, Deji Adesua, has expressed optimism that the project will assist to solve water shortages confronting the area. Source: This Day


KZN capital gears for lasting restrictions

At the start of November last year, Pietermaritzburg residents were being warned of the start of water rationing measures in response to the current water crisis in South Africa. The uMgungundlovu District Municipality – which supplies water to the uMngeni (Howick), Umshwathi (Wartburg, Dalton and New Hanover), Richmond, Mkhambathini (Camperdown), Mpofana (Mooi River) and Impendle

municipalities – announced that washing cars and watering gardens needed to be curtailed, as there was a strong likelihood that water restrictions would soon come into effect. The municipality has released a statement saying that, although Midmar Dam’s levels were now at 52%, a “fairly moderate amount” of the dam water was “silt and not usable”. uMgungundlovu has been advised by its water board, Umgeni Water, that, without reasonable and sustained rainfall, the dam level would continue to drop, leaving more than one million residents with as little as twoto-three months’ water supply. Source: The Witness

Rand Water to help out Bushbuckridge

Gauteng water board Rand Water is going to help parched Bushbuckridge residents – where up to 70% of the community does not have bulk water supply – President Jacob Zuma said during a visit to the area. The community had appealed to government to intervene and address service delivery issues, specifically water and sanitation, housing, roads, electricity and refuse removal. In response, Rand Water was seconded to take over water supply infrastructure management from Bushbuckridge Water, with a focus on districts such as Ehlanzeni and Bushbuckridge. These plans formed part of a broader plan to deal with severe water shortages in the country, which have led to disaster zones being declared in KwaZulu-Natal, the Free State and Limpopo, where as many as 2.7 million households are affected – 18% of the provincial population. R500 million has already been spent on Phase 1 of a R1 billion programme JAN/FEB 2016



to secure water supplies for Bushbuckridge. Source: News24


Capital unleashes contingency plan

The Municipal Council of Mbabane, Swaziland’s capital, has unveiled a contingency plan seeking to address and mitigate the effects of the current drought

and shortage of water that the city is experiencing. Under an initiative known as the Water Emergency Mitigation and Response Plan, residents of Mbabane will have to abide by a water rationing scheme to counter the drought. “CEO Gideon Mhlongo, in consultation with Swaziland Water Services Corporation and the Disaster

Specialists in the manufacturing of domestic and industrial water storage

A new report details how Lake Chad is drying Water Storageup very Solutions fast – from2 25 000 km , Robust steel in 1963, to tanks specifically 2 1 500 , intended for rural, domestic, at present industrial and agriculutral water storage needs.

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Risk Reduction Action Committee, shall monitor water supply and demand conditions on a regular basis and shall determine when conditions warrant initiation and termination of each stage of this plan,” a release from the municipality stated. “A public notification of the initiation or termination of drought response stages shall be communicated to residents and the public by the information and PR officer in a variety of ways and indicated in the communication strategy,” Mhlongo added. Source: APAnews


Will climate change result in more disease?

Climate change is having a profound impact on the environment – especially the animals living in it – but what disease risk does this pose for humans? Scientists have estimated that almost 75% of new and re-emerging diseases affecting human health at the beginning of the 21st century are transmitted through animals. The zoonotic disease list includes HIV, avian flu and swine flu. Barbara Han, from the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, describes bats, pigs and birds as “mixing vats” for viruses like Ebola, Hendra, Nipah, and avian


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Water tankers are an interim measure, useful for easing some of the stresses caused by water shortages, not a permanent solution – lasting solutions require major investment in infrastructure as well as reconsidering crossborder agreements

and swine flus that can spread to humans. Extreme weather events and a warmer climate are disrupting animal habitats, breeding cycles and migration patterns, causing wild animals to come into closer contact with domestic animals and humans. Additionally, vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengue fever offer the clearest examples of how a warming Earth is impacting the spread of disease. As Earth heats up, diseasecarrying mosquitoes and ticks are moving further north, spreading these disease into countries and regions previously unaffected, like the northern US, Canada and Sweden. “Besides these vectors moving into areas of higher latitude and altitude, there is also evidence to show that more extreme and uneven weather patterns and catastrophic weather events such as floods can contribute to the spread of these diseases,” says Han. Source: IRIN News


New water storage tank supports local government Meyerton-based steel tank manufacturer Structa Technology is currently rolling out a water infrastructure build programme that supports local municipalities, water utilities, schools, hospitals and clinics.

the area to provide the foundations for tank installations, thereby supporting the respective municipality’s localisation policy and assisting with much-needed job creation for locals in the area.



s a member of the Structa Group, Structa Technology proudly services the government by assisting in the provision of much-needed water storage to rural communities throughout South Africa. “Over the years, our proprietary product, Prestank, which has been around for 40 years, has proved to be a hygienically safe, cost-effective and reliable water-storage solution for communities, commercial sectors, private sectors and even for personalised storage,” says Structa Technology Prestank director Rodney Cory. “We are one of the preferred suppliers of water storage tanks for municipal authorities and mines, as we are known as a supplier who always strives to deliver our water tanks on time and within budget, adhering to the highest quality standards,” says Cory, adding that Structa Technology’s Prestank water storage tank is the ideal water storage solution for large volumes of water – from 10 000 ℓ and up.

Improved service offerings

Cory notes, however, that the company has improved its basket of service offerings for municipalities by introducing its newly patented water storage tank. “Through our new storage tank, we have responded to the need to also offer our government a patented water storage solution for lower volumes of water – up to 10 000 ℓ – as an alternative, durable, robust and cost-effective solution, with minimal maintenance required,” says Cory,

adding that the Roddy Tank is ideally suited for smaller rural villages, schools and clinics. The Roddy Tank is a sectional, round, galvanised water storage tank that offers 3 900 ℓ, 7 200 ℓ and 10 000 ℓ capacities. However, if the client requires more than 10 000 ℓ – for example, if a population

The Roddy Tank is a sectional, round, galvanised water storage tank for lowervolume water-storage applications

in a village grows and requires a bigger water storage tank – then this patented system allows for the user to expand the capacity of the water storage tank. “There is, therefore, no need to replace the original water storage tank with a bigger one,” says Cory, adding that the Roddy Tank can remain on ground level, or on a stand of 5 m or 10 m.

Structa Technology offers local water utilities and municipalities two durable and cost-effective water storage products, namely the Roddy Tank, for lower water volumes, and the Prestank for water volumes exceeding 10 000ℓ. The Prestank can be used for various water storage applications, including temporary or permanent installations at mines, power stations, building sites, hospitals, water utilities, municipalities, rural communities and farms. The Structa Prestanks are fully customisable, high-quality water storage solutions that are manufactured according to SANS guidelines and meet South Africa’s hot-dipped galvanising requirements. Structa’s pressed-steel sectional tanks are hot-dip galvanised for corrosion control in accordance with SANS 121 (or ISO 1461) galvanising standards. The thickness of the hot-dip galvanising coat is applied within a range of 80 μm to 100 μm. This is more than five times the thickness of zinc on pre-galvanised corrugated steel cylindrical tanks. This ensures extended maintenance-free life when water with aggressively corrosive properties needs to be stored. Meanwhile, the Roddy Tank can be used for lower-volume water storage applications of up to 10 000 ℓ, such as rural, domestic, industrial and agricultural water storage.

Partnering with municipalities

Structa Technology provides municipalities with a cost-effective and durable product. The company’s philosophy is to partner with the local contractors in JAN/FEB 2016



The quest for One of the biggest recent trends in mine water treatment has been the quest for zero liquid discharge (ZLD), which leads to lower water utility bills and more environmentally acceptable mining operations. As a result, it has become an increasingly important strategy in mine managers' and engineers' playbooks.

zero liquid discharge



ero liquid discharge (ZLD) is a massive topic – everywhere water is used on the average mine represents an opportunity to minimise water consumption or reuse it in some other process. All mines from around the world are vast in terms of their water-using systems and, often, no one knows exactly how the system of a particular mine works other than the engineer who designed it. Nonetheless, since mines have some of the biggest industrial water footprints of all industries (if grey water contamination is added to the calculation) and since water is growing increasingly scarce due to climate change and other anthropogenic factors, there will, one day, come a time when no mine will be able to afford operating without a ZLD strategy in place. This begs the question, “What exactly is ZLD?” ZLD can be defined in several different ways. In general, it’s a goal of not allowing any wastewater to leave a site. It’s also often used interchangeably with a system of plants that includes an evaporator and a crystalliser and usually some other suite of appropriate filtration technologies. What’s most important is that the maximum amount of water possible is recovered and, also, it avoids having costly liquid waste to treat, with


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smaller amounts of solid waste being the end goal. Due to the magnitude of the topic, the following article focuses primarily on brine minimisation and disposal as one aspect of ZLD that possesses the most interesting impacts from a broad ecological perspective.

Thickeners at the Los Bronces mine Chile, used in minimising Anglo American’s water use

comments, “Probably the core technology in a ZLD system is reverse osmosis. Without getting too technical, water purification usually focuses on the quality of water. ZLD is more about what waste Brine minimisation and disposal is left after treatment and the concentraInnovation is constant and ongoing tion of salts in the waste.” among water solutions companies. Not Before water can be channelled all are mentioned here but at least some through an RO membrane, it first has of the more recent leading technologies to be pretreated, either through conare included in the discussion. These ventional softening or filtration. “As a mainly consist of evaposupplier of ultrafiltration rators, crystallisers, brine technology, I recommend ZLD avoids concentrators, distillation particular method in having costly that and reverse osmosis many cases for the removal liquid waste technology. of solids,” says Smit. Some of the interesting “Once water is softened, to treat, trends coming out of filtered and treated using with smaller Australia and Canada over RO, the end product is amounts of the last few years include called brine. From there, solid waste technologies that recover this waste needs to be pure salt, gypsum and concentrated down further being the chemical compounds, using technologies such as end goal which can usefully be sold evaporators or crystallisers back into the market. – some mines that have space available Herman Smit, managing director of might channel the waste into a dam Quality Filtration Systems (QFS), a local where they use solar power from the company that offers ZLD solutions, Sun to dry out and crystallise their brine.

We’ve found, at QFS, that most heavy-industry clients don’t have space for a dam, which is why they tend to prefer using technological options that take up less space,” he explains. Once brine has been processed, it may be cycled through the whole system again, one or more times. After that, if there is still too much liquid left over, a mine might resort to thermal evaporation – this process uses quite a lot of electricity, so, in places like the United States, solar energy is usually explored as a solution to power the process. “The Americans will sometimes discharge their waste back into the earth using deep-well intrusion. The claim is that waste products are deposited so deep underground that they don’t do any further environmental damage. In South Africa, our mines are quite deep already, so it’s debatable whether such a system would work here,” says Smit.

Business case

Due to current constraints on the local commodities market, ZLD plants are virtually the last thing that mining houses will spend money on. However, looking at overseas precedents, the implementation of ZLD systems tends to save mines money in the medium term, rather than the distant future. There are global reasons for this, as well as a local business case. Globally, when a ZLD project is “As water undertaken with the benefits communicated becomes more effectively to stakeexpensive, it holders, this improves makes sense stakeholder engagefor mines to ment and, ultimately, profitability. Also, ZLD generate their systems anticipate inown potable water creasingly stringent enand sell it back vironmental legislation, to industrial and protecting companies from long-term liability, municipal clients.” especially in situations where laws are amended and fines need to be paid while mines play catch-up with their existing water strategies. Locally, increasing potable water costs are becoming a reason for mines to treat their water to a higher standard. “One of our clients used to pay R12 per kilolitre of water used; next year, that same client will be paying R22 per kilolitre,” Says Smit. “As water becomes more expensive, it makes sense for mines to start generating their own potable water and then selling that back to industrial and municipal clients. Also, in many industries, water reuse represents a kind of low-hanging fruit for saving and making money because huge volumes of water are used, and recycled water can be sold back to the local municipality or reused,” adds Smit. He notes that off-take agreements, where public and private sector players work together to buy and sell water affordably, can make both mining and water supply more sustainable.

Selecting the best technology

Since RO is at the heart of most ZLD processes, it’s important to use only the best technology and processes available to ensure buyers receive maximum value. For example, one JAN/FEB 2016





OPPOSITE PAGE Though not a mine, ArcelorMittal’s Saldanha Works’ ZLD is of interest because the company brought on board German water specialists WABE to implement a wholly purpose-built system

operation costs; result in less scaling inside the vessels on the inner surface, which is sometimes difficult to remove and facilitates easier loading and unloading of RO membrane elements into ABOVE Richard's Bay Minerals’ dredge mine the pressure vessels, saving on mainteis perhaps one of the most unique mines in the country as it uses dredge mining nance and service time.” He also reveals that a newly patented imported product from China, which technology is in its final phase of testrepresents some of the most advanced ing, and will enter the market late this RO technology in the world, is ROPV year. It is called Multi Vessel Integration – a reverse osmosis pressure vessel sup- (MVI) and will save huge costs on new plied locally by Vovani Water Products. water treatment installations, especially “The product is used on a large scale. in numerous plants “Benefits of MVI ZLD should be around the world, include: projects beincluding in Texas, implemented ing easier to install; Chile and Singapore,” alongside energy- saving on the large comments Henk Smit, number of ports and saving initiatives sales and managing couplings required, and proper waste lowering the cost of director at Vovani. “Two of the reasons why our disposal methods projects; reducing pressure vessels can be on-site installation differentiated from our competitors’ and adjustment seal parts, and reducing and are an advantage to OEMs who leakage risks; saving on plant footprint manufacture water treatment plants size and all the seals being visible and for ZLD applications is that ROPVs thus easy to detect any leakages, repair have a specialised locking system for and change,” he adds. the end caps, for added safety, so the Inside pressure vessels, filters remove pressure vessels are always secure with particles as small as bacteria, molecules no possible faulty sealing of the end and ions. Jakes Jacobs at Nanotech, a caps and leaks that can occur, and the South African company that distributes new advancement where the pressure global giant LG’s RO membranes, stressvessels boast an ultra smooth inside es that, in the case of RO membranes surface of the fibre-glass-reinforced themselves, technology is not the pressure vessels – this creates a number key differentiating factor of how well of additional advantages,” he adds. they work. According to Smit, the pressure “It’s the service, testing and after-sales vessels’ smooth sides “decrease pump care of membranes that affect memlosses over the length of the pressure brane lifespans and lead to their effecvessels, which saves on energy and tiveness,” he says.


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“Selecting and installing the right membrane, particularly at a mine, involves a complex knowledge of chemistry; for example, you need to know what kind of particles are in the water, and whether it includes cyanide, heavy metals, uranium or other contaminants. Establishing what is needed is no simple task and, in the case of a ZLD application, it would take months or weeks of testing before I would claim to have installed a solution that even goes part way to assisting a mine with its quest for ZLD,” explains Jacobs. He adds that he would even go so far as to say that he is not completely comfortable with the use of the term ‘ZLD’, as it implies 100% perfect management of wastewater and effluent. “ZLD certainly helps reduce mines and industries’ liquid waste but, as far as I know, no such initiative has been completely 100% successful. ZLD is not a silver bullet and there remains wastewater that is usually disposed of in a dam or, in the case of mines,

a slimes dam.” “Mines are especially unique environments; the effluent of one will always be composed differently from another. It’s not like the paper industry or a food and beverage system, where plant components will have similarities. Mine water requires pretreatment and having the proper service processes in place. Good service at the start will make the difference between a membrane that lasts only a few hours or days, and one that will last for many years,” Jacobs adds.

Conclusion and emerging trends

Two of the biggest factors affecting how ZLD systems are implemented stem from electricity costs and environmental concerns. In the first place, new technologies in ZLD are primarily driven by looking at ways to reduce the high amount of energy needed throughout the whole process, mostly in the energy-intensive crystallisation phase, for those plants with crystallisers. Also, clients frequently ask if there isn’t some kind of renewable

energy option for driving their solutions. In Africa, solar systems are the most popular choice but, often, these cannot be successfully implemented due to the high cost of protecting such systems from theft – a tricky metric to deal with in remote mining locations where such equipment is highly prized. All in all, ZLD is a fantastic way for mining houses to improve their overall sustainability; however, these systems need to be implemented in conjunction with energy saving initiatives and also proper waste disposal methods for what little waste is left over in order for companies to experience the full benefits. Also worth remembering is that ZLD technology is continuously advancing, and it might be worth combining the expertise of a large industry player with that of a small start-up to gain from the experience of the larger one and the commitment to finding a total solution, which is usually characteristic of smaller, more enthusiastic businesses.


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Change that doesn’t cost the earth Water solutions: I-CAT recognises that water is a precious and scarce commodity. Water effluent management is not only important but also financially viable. I-CAT offers the following solutions: • technology development and implementation • wastewater treatment and management systems • water softeners and activated carbon vessels • water footprint analysis and management • system development for water recycling • ultra and micro filtration systems • reverse osmosis systems • screen filters 086 112 ICAT










Versatility for mines Johan Bieseman, managing director of Aquaplan SA, explains what makes Aquaplan’s solutions more locally relevant and sitespecific than its competitors’. What solutions does Aquaplan SA offer for mining applications? JB Since water treatment requirements on mine sites are diverse, we offer an equally diverse range of solutions, including project management, engineering design, manufacturing, installation and maintenance services. These systems cover a full range of mining needs, from potable water preparation and sewage treatment to reverse osmosis technology, ion exchange, ultrafiltration and much more. What are some of your less conventional solutions for these environments and when are they most needed? Due to our extensive in-house engineering expertise, we can tailor solutions to meet the unique needs of individual mines. Some of the less conventional projects we’ve taken on in the past have included vertically stacked, skid-mounted lamella clarification units with full coagulation and flocculation capabilities all in a stacked arrangement, as well as energyefficient venturi pump assemblies for long-distance hydraulic conveying systems. Conversely, what have been some of your most popular mining solutions and why? The hydraulic eductor is certainly one of the most successful products in the Aquaplan range. Our local design and precise, yet robust, engineering techniques have seen the use of venturi eductors expand into a wider application area, being used in almost any water treatment process. We design, manufacture, test and install venturi eductors as hydraulic conveying systems in the following areas: • ion-exchange (IX) processes for resin transfer • acid and alkali chemical injection systems for IX resin regeneration • sand- and grit-conveying systems • mixing, agitation and stirring • sludge recirculation systems • coagulation and flocculation systems • air-injection and dissolved air-flotation systems • cold and hot lime-softening processes • lime and lime slurry conveying. Our eductors are not injection moulded. They are carefully designed, optimised and machined to suit individual process requirements. During the design phase, the energy consumption is optimised to create effective conveying conditions, after which every eductor is machined by hand. Our dissolved air flotation units, have been very successful over the last few years. We have installed five separate units, which all make use of non-mechanical scum removal systems.


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By 2025, most of the world will be waterstressed, with nations like South Africa set to suffer from water scarcity. This will result in an increasing need for industry to manage its water consumption. FRANCES RINGWOOD

looks at water footprints and water efficiency for future supply sustainability.


uman life is inextricably linked to having access to fresh water resources but this access is becoming more and more constrained and, for this reason, policymakers and corporates need to improve their water management processes – fast. A dti-funded (Department of Trade and Industry) and CSIRhosted organisation, the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA) is already taking important steps to support industry in lowering its water footprint. Ndivhuho Raphulu, director, NCPC-SA, has tipped water as the next big economic and industrial challenge for commercial and industrial producers the world over, especially in South Africa. “Our organisation assists South African businesses to lower operational costs through more concerted resource management, which has, in turn, resulted in keeping open many businesses that would otherwise have shut down and the

On the right path to

water footprinting creation of new jobs, as struggling business have recovered enough funds to grow. What’s allowed the NCPC to continue over the last 12 years is our ability to adapt. It is clear that water is starting to loom large on the horizon. More and more, we are finding that we need to address the needs of South Africa’s industries in terms of mitigating new risks and challenges raised by problems in the supply of water. “This is an area that I believe is going to have as big an impact on industrial sustainability as energy and industrial waste – if not a bigger impact,” says Raphulu. The NCPC recently launched new water-management projects for companies, which include company life-cycle assessments, eco-innovation and water footprinting – projects that are being incubated as part of a development process in anticipation of local industries becoming increasingly affected by water shortages. What is water footprinting? Water footprinting is a particularly interesting method of water

management, which has already been used successfully in at least one water-intensive local industry to lower water use and gain a better understanding of what factors make the biggest difference. In 2008, SABMiller conducted a water footprinting study, which found that it takes about 150 litres to brew one beer in South Africa while it takes just 45 litres to brew a beer at it Czech Republic facilities. The study further found that implementing operational efficiency mechanisms made little difference but that agricultural production and water used for irrigation and lost to evaporation accounted for the highest water volumes used throughout the beer brewing valuechain (98.3%). The purpose of water footprinting is to create awareness of how and where water is used in order to find the most effective ways to lower consumption and make the

TOP Irrigating sugar cane fields (Source: WWF; Photo by Martin Harvey) JAN/FEB 2016



resource more sustainable and accessible to the multiple sectors that need it, including the domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors. If water footprinting is done correctly, it can be an invaluable business tool, especially for water-stressed and -scarce areas, for mitigating the potential business risks that may arise as a result of supply scarcity. The acid test for the effectiveness of a water footprinting survey is whether it assists a business’ decision-makers to make better operational decisions, especially regarding its plant management and how it engages with the relevant government and communities to improve general access to water while also managing business risk. For these reasons, a useful water footprint analysis not only shows how many litres of water are used per production unit across the whole of a business’s value chain, it must also look at the geographical location of where the water comes from, what percentage of that area’s water is being used in the production process, whether that proportion poses a risk to the local environment or communities and what parts of the production process use different percentages of water. Such surveys must also take into account the future sustainability of the resource. Locally, the NCPC is currently working with the United Nations Environmental Programme to create a programme for water footprinting and industrial life-cycle assessments (including water), which


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can be rolled out to local industries. “The sense that this was a necessary step came from our experiences with local businesses in KwaZuluNatal, we found many businesses were phoning up the NCPC and asking if it had business sustainability programmes to assist them overcome water-shedding challenges caused by the current drought,” comments Julie Wells, marketing and communications manager for the NCPC. Worth remembering is that water footprinting methodologies are continuously being refined, not just locally but by global organisations. For example, the Water Footprinting Network (WFN) is a global non-profit continuously carrying out science-based research to assist companies, the private sector and governments measure and manage their water footprints to conserve the quality and quantity of future supply. Other global associations that support and promote water footprinting include the UN Global Compact’s CEO Water Mandate and the World Economic Forum (from an advocacy point of view) and the Alliance for Water Stewardship, which, along with

OPPOSITE PAGE Types of water LEFT Brewery water treatment

the WFN, plays a leadership role in terms of measurement, best practice and standards. Dairy case study Early this year, Eastern Cape dairy Sundale began working with the NCPC to conduct a resource efficiency and cleaner production audit. Sundale realised a 75% saving on its municipal water bill and will enjoy the benefit of ongoing future savings. Lynette Howe, marketing and communications manager at Sundale explains, “Sundale is the success story of the East London IDZ. We take sustainability and community issues very seriously and, as part of that, we had an interest in managing our water better – not only to be compliant with local by-laws but because we want to be at the cutting edge of efficiency. “Sundale takes in over 120 000 litres of milk per day, making it the biggest buyer processing fresh products in the Eastern Cape. The NCPC began working with us in February 2015 and, flowing from that, we had the following audit objectives: we assessed water and energy usage and identified major resource consumers in the production process; we identified opportunities for increased


For many local businesses, becoming involved in their supply chains and how water is sourced and used by their suppliers is a big step. For Alex McNamara, programme manager for climate change and water at the National Business Initiative, this increased level of involvement is going to become an inevitable part of how businesses begin to manage their water risk. “We’re seeing more and more food retailers getting involved in the agricultural side of the business to help proactively manage their water risks,” he comments. “Moreover, companies will need to know more about their own consumption rates and get their own houses in order to be effective in managing their water,” he adds. Good water monitoring and instrumentation tools assist companies to measure their water use and also the water quality of their intake and effluent. Water footprinting itself can be extremely complicated and needs specialist service providers; as a result, measurement, management and treatment technologies for the more efficient use of water currently form a preferred water management method for numerous local companies. These steps don’t necessarily constitute water footprinting; however, they are related in that they encourage better knowledge regarding a company’s water consumption, strategic management of a scarce resource, improved business risk management and a system for improved overall efficiency.


break-even, which was highly achievable for us in just 18 months,” says Howe. She urges other companies to explore the saving potential of better water-efficiency management based on Sundale’s savings.

efficiency and recovery of resources and the NCPC then recommended some efficiency-monitoring programmes for the future,” she explains. Based on the NCPC’s findings, which were that the plant’s water usage could be 50% more efficient, Sundale prioritised the upgrading of its own wastewater treatment plant. The original plant had been built in 2010 by Memcon, at a cost of R8 million. “Our technology removes soluble and insoluble solids from effluent, for example sugar, fibres and plastics,” comments Carsten Orzol, MD, Memcon. “Then, in 2015, a new plant was designed and commissioned, which included the implementation of ozonated water treatment and with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology. The supplier of the technology is Consolidated Water Conditioning (CWC). It was this added plant that enabled Sundale’s water to be reused and recycled at the factory,” explains Godfrey Kasipo, project engineer at CWC. “Sundale isn’t distributing water at this stage, but there are future plans to consider doing so. What we needed, at that stage, was a plant to treat water flowing out to the municipal stormwater system, which may be upgraded to treat water to an even higher standard in future. Water is also needed for reuse in various applications throughout the factory as well as for uses other than end products. The first part of the technology supplied by Memcon removes solids from effluent. The second part of the technology

installed this year reworks and ozonates the water to remove bacteria; from there, it is sent back to the plant and mixed with 25% municipal water (meaning that 75% of the plant’s process water is reused) and that then goes through the UV filtration system to remove bacteria,” explains Howe. She confirms that there was a positive return on investment. The 2010 portion of the project was a system that was needed to meet legislative requirements and the 2015 portion of the project cost R2 million in capital expenditure.

Conclusion Water footprinting is a highly specialised process that requires partnering with an appropriately qualified service provider – whether provided through the state or the private sector – to ensure the process is correctly and usefully carried out. Water footprinting is an excellent water-management tool but, for companies wanting to experience immediate water and cash savings at a slightly lower level of complexity, there are numerous water-efficiency interventions that can be implemented. The Sundale case study was provided as an example but there are numerous others, including pressure-management initiatives, industrial zero liquid discharge programmes and even more simple internal corporate programmes that really work. Simply by encouraging employees to turn off taps properly, check for

Annual renewable water availability (Source: Water Research Institute)

The projected reduction in municipal water usage after the second portion of the project was implemented was 75% and the projected annual directed savings thereafter is R1.35 million. “The 2015 investment is, therefore, a

leaks on the property and use water wisely in the workplace, hundreds of thousands of rands in overheads can be saved each year, especially for certain industries, such as hospitality and large factories. JAN/FEB 2016



Treatment + works = a positive future

The Stellenbosch Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTW) is currently undergoing a massive upgrade and extension focused on its mechanical and electrical works. At a cost of R200 million, the project will ensure that the local watercourse is not polluted, also enabling housing development and town expansion. BY FRANCES RINGWOOD


aving begun in May 2015, the extension to the Stellenbosch WWTW is expected to be completed within 30 months of the start date. The implementing agent, Stellenbosch Local Municipality, had been issued a notice of intention by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) in 2013 as a result of poor-quality treated effluent finding its way into the Veldwachters River – used by locals and industry for crop irrigation. Importantly, the plant is the only facility of its kind treating wastewater from the town of Stellenbosch, its surrounds and its industries, including the large and well-known university located along the banks of the Eerste River, a water body that also receives water from the Veldwachters. The nearby Plankenbrug River has also been affected. Part of the problem with the existing works – built in 1924 – is that it doesn’t have the processes to remove nitrates and phosphates. The original plant used activated sludge process technology, primarily suitable for chemical oxygen

demand removal and dealing with more harmful nitrites. An additional aggravating factor is the plant’s low hydraulic capacity of about 20 to 25 megalitres per day (MLD) and the fact that its sludge treatment processes are not sufficient to treat existing sludge volumes. The net result of underperformance and outdated technology was underlined in a study published by Stellenbosch University’s Prof Trevor Britz in 2013 indicating, “A high variety and extreme levels of waterborne faecal bacteria, protozoa and viruses in the water as well as on produce irrigated from the (affected) rivers.” Many of these microbes can be transferred on to irrigated produce, negatively affecting human health. Crops grown in Stellenbosch include grapes, pears, citrus fruit, lettuce, strawberries, peppers, herbs and green beans – especially in summer. Local agriculture is an essential lynchpin of the town’s economy and poor water quality had become a serious issue for this reason, among others.

When wastewater limits growth According to Dries van Taak, manager: Water Services for Stellenbosch Local Municipality, the new extension project will “meet the projected need for sanitation services arising from urban growth in Stellenbosch by adding an addition 35 MLD capacity to the works.” The current housing backlog of about 8 000 homes in the human settlement near Stellenbosch suggests that largescale housing development will soon be implemented in the area. Further, South Africa’s most recent census, in 2011, revealed that 2 752 people living in Stellenbosch and its surrounds had no access to any form of sanitation and that 2 595 were relying on the hated bucket system. All told, that’s an extra 13 347 people the system is going to need to cater for, and soon. “The extension of the Stellenbosch WWTW will provide enough capacity to accommodate these residents as their level of service improves towards waterborne sanitation, as well as dry sanitation users, using facilities such as VIP latrines. The inflow of grey water from these rural communities must also be accounted for as it contributes up to 60% of on-site wastewater typically generated,” notes Taak. Upon completion, the project will assist with the country-wide goal of

ABOVE Veolia engineers on-site at the Stellenbosch WWTW JAN/FEB 2016




Deteriorating Infrastructure

SOLUTION: Pipe Bursting A proven method of replacement

Traditional open cut methods have inherent social, economic and political costs and disrupt traffic patterns. Pipe Bursting can reduce excavation on most projects up to 85%, decreasing costs associated with site restoration. Pipe Bursting is the only rehabilitation method that installs new pipe of the same or larger diameter in the same path. ELB Equipment services its client base through a network of branches and well-established dealers throughout South Africa, Southern Africa and East Africa.

Head Office: TeL: +27 11 306-0700 Website:


fostering job creation (80 jobs will be created over the plant’s construction) as well as promoting more even distribution of sanitation services in the service area. Project progress Prior to the extension project being started, an emergency refurbishment was carried out by the current consulting engineer, Aurecon. “We did this in order to ensure the plant’s ongoing functionality up until the point when the extension could be implemented,” comments Raymond Faure, Aurecon engineer. Contractor selection Once the extension contract was awarded to Veolia Water Systems in March 2015, the initial design drawn up by the consulting engineer started being refined by the contractor to ensure it would meet the exact needs of the client and, by extension, Stellenbosch residents. Peter Avenant, a process engineer at Veolia Water Technologies South Africa, explains how the design of the plant is progressing so far. “The technology being used for the upgrade is nothing new, it’s a standard biological nutrient removal reactor to remove ammonia, nitrates, nitrites and phosphorus. We’ve also incorporated a membrane bioreactor, which will ensure permeate is screened to 1.5 mm.” The water filtration membranes will be made of an advanced hollow-fibre material and treated water is going to be of an exceptionally high quality, especially compared with what went before. “Another three treatment steps, on top of what we’re already doing, and the water from this plant would be potable. Standards have to be high because water from the plant’s outflow source – Veldwachters – is used to irrigate local crops. These need to be of a quality high enough to meet international and European Union export standards,” says Avenant. Cleaner water means better produce for fruit crops especially. In addition to modernising technology at the works, an ultraviolet filtration system is being added after

the final clarification step. This will ensure that all microbes harmful to human health are destroyed before they can reach the river. Also of interest is the extensive refurbishment of the plant’s headworks, which will prevent large solids from undermining the new system.

“We’re looking at building a system for the whole of the inlet system as well as the bioreactor. This will mainly be aimed at removing hydrogen sulfide. However, we are currently performing an odour study just to ensure that our current measures will be enough to remove

Maturation ponds are being built to cater for increased sludge volumes.

all unwanted plant-related smells,” explains Avenant.

Industrial effluent and odours Different wastewater treatment works around South Africa have different equipment requirements, largely dependent on the type of effluent being treated and whether industry has a stake in the plant’s operation. The Stellenbosch WWTW is primarily to be used for domestic wastewater treatment, with only a very small portion being accounted for by industry – those industries include a brewery and a sawmill in the town. As a result of the effluent’s composition, odour is one of the biggest concerns at the works and it will require specialist intervention. “Due to the site’s location, near the Distell brewery and the upmarket residential areas of Stellenbosch, the municipality required that some form of odour control be implemented.”

Conclusion All the right plans and measures are in place to ensure that Stellenbosch WWTW is upgraded to the level that is needed. One of the biggest challenges for this extension, according to a municipal report focusing on the upgrade, will be to get the job finished in good time: “Project delays must be avoided at all costs. Typical delays experienced during the refurbishment contract included delays due to flooding and theft of new equipment.” Already, things are looking good, with the contractor clearly having a firm grip on the unique challenges and opportunities offered by the Stellenbosch WWTW project. What remains is for all parties involved to work together as a team to improve the works and, ultimately, the town itself.

ABOVE The Stellenbosch WWTW discharges into the Veldwachters River JAN/FEB 2016



Secunda Operations achieves

Green Drop status

Achieving excellence in Green Drop certification is no easy feat, yet Sasol’s Secunda operations have achieved this incredible honour in wastewater management.


he Green Drop system is an incentive-driven system, implemented by the then Department of Water and Environmental Affairs (now the Department of Water and Sanitation) to identify, reward, ensure and encourage excellence in wastewater management. Green Drop certification is awarded to wastewater systems that obtain scores of 90% when compared against the criteria set for wastewater management. Treating industrial effluent Sasol Secunda Synfuels Operations manages a wastewater treatment plant that treats sewage from the Sasol Secunda industrial and mining complex, as well as sewage from the town of Secunda. The plant is a Class B facility and has the capacity to treat 17 megalitres of sewage daily. This wastewater treatment plant achieved a Green Drop score of 92.9% for its excellent wastewater regulation standards. The Department of Water and Sanitation commended Sasol for its significant improvement in wastewater management. The company was also commended for its commitment to complying with the terms of its water-use licence and with all the requirements of the Green Drop audit process.


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Meeting high standards For Sasol to be awarded its current Green Drop status, the following requirements also had to be in place: •a  practical and site-specific wastewater risk abatement plan • a practical Green Drop improvement plan that is monitored and tracked for delivery • the registration and classification of the Secunda Synfuels wastewater treatment works • registration of the operating personnel with the Department of Water and Sanitation • plant training modules • well-trained and experienced operators • maintenance strategies. The Sasol wastewater treatment plants are an example of the company’s water stewardship. Industrial water stewardship Freshwater resources are globally accepted as being scarce and under increasing pressure. Sasol is acutely aware of the responsibility that comes with being a large industrial water user, particularly in South Africa – where its largest operations are situated. It recognises the challenging regulatory and voluntary commitment landscape within which it operates and has made the management of water a strategic priority. To this effect, Sasol has endorsed the United Nations Global

Compact CEO Water Mandate, which is a public-private initiative aimed at assisting companies in the development, implementation and disclosure of water-sustainability policies and practices. The mandate presents a comprehensive approach to corporate water stewardship and is a voluntary initiative developed to inspire business to positively contribute to sustainable water resource management. In closing “On behalf of Sasol Secunda, we are very pleased to have been awarded this prestigious and world-class Green Drop status,” comments Simon Baloyi, vice-president: Water and Ash, Sasol. “It is testimony to the excellent work that the operations and technical teams at the Secunda wastewater treatment plant have done and continue to do, as well as our partnership with the Govan Mbeki Local Municipality. Our aim is to drive continuous improvement in wastewater services performance, with the intention of achieving 100% in all effluent quality standards in future,” he concludes.


Saving water, saving lives

Water-shedding has recently gained much attention in the media, highlighting the importance of delivering potable water to municipalities effectively, safely and efficiently. The following panel discussion explores the implications of water delivery disruptions, highlighting Minister of Water and Sanitation Nomvula Mokonyane’s water crisis risk management plan. Emergency measures are being taken across most parts of the country and

these entail short-, medium-, and longterm action. The following participants highlight how they are aligning themselves with government to mitigate the effects of drought in South Africa to support service delivery and water saving: • East Rand Water Care Company • JOAT Group •O  sborn Engineered Products South Africa • Wasteman Sight Lines • RITZ Pumps


Koos Wilken Executive manager: Development, ERWAT


What is ERWAT’s main service area and its roles and functions within this area? KW ERWAT operates 19 wastewater

What wastewater works do you operate and what are the primary technologies they employ?

treatment works (WWTWs), of which

ERWAT operates the Waterval,

17 are situated in the Ekurhuleni

Hartebeestfontein, Esther Park,

Metropolitan Municipality (EMM) area

Daveyton, Tsakane, Welgedacht,

and 2 in Lesedi Local Municipality.

Heidelberg, JP Marais, Ratanda and Carl

ERWAT provides bulk wastewater and

Grundling WWTWs – all mainly waste

What advanced methods do you use for filtering and pumping sludge in order to promote operational efficiency?

conveyance, and a highly technical

activated sludge plants. The biofilter

ERWAT has developed a sludge

and proficient wastewater treatment

plants operated by ERWAT include

management strategy aimed at

service for some 2 000 industries and

Ancor, Benoni, Jan Smuts and Dekema.

deriving value from the sludge and

more than 3.5 million people in

A combination of the two technologies

its by-products, as opposed to the

these areas.

is in operation at Olifantsfontein,

traditional way of viewing sludge

Rynfield, Herbert Bickley, Rondebult

as waste.

and Vlakplaats.

ERWAT is in the process of implementing a biogasto-energy project that is aimed at using the energy derived from sludge to produce electricity, which, in turn, will be used to power plant operations

• biofilter conversion technology completed at Herbert Bickley • HYBACS technology in progress at Tsakane.

ERWAT is in the process of

In response to government’s

implementing a biogas-to-energy

mandate to protect the country’s

project that is aimed at using the

scarce water resources, ERWAT is now

energy derived from the sludge to

implementing newer technologies that

produce electricity, which, in turn,

are more energy efficient and capable

will be used to power the plant’s

of producing highly improved water

operations. Over and above the

quality. These include:

electricity generation potential, the

• a Nereda® wastewater treatment

project is also aimed at extracting

technology, with a project in

nutrient-rich struvite from the sludge,

progress at Hartebeestfontein

which can be used as fertiliser in the agricultural sector. In line with the implementation of a sludge management strategy, ERWAT is in the process of installing filter belt presses at three of its plants. ERWAT is currently installing mechanical filtration systems at two of its plants, Ancor and Jan Smuts, in order to improve effluent quality. Additionally, online analysers have been installed at three plants, namely Hartebeestfontein, Olifantsfontein and JP Marais, for real-time process optimisation and to improve treatment efficiencies.

What standards does your wastewater effluent adhere to and how do you ensure that effluent from industrial clients meets them? Each WWTW has a water-use authorisation document, in the form of

Wastewater treatment capacity at ERWAT’s Welgedacht plant is being extended by 50 Mℓ/d


JAN/FEB 2016

PANEL DISCUSSION GC-MS equipment is used in ERWAT's laboratory for the analysis of organic determinants

management plan.

• The floc structure suffers a

This includes an

severe macrostructure failure

investigation into

due to the small numbers of

the minimisation and reduction of industrial

filamentous bacteria present. • Microscopic observation

waste. Thereafter,

revealed an irregular sludge

industries are assisted

floc structure that contains

with the optimisation

few filamentous bacteria.

of their effluent plants.

• Poor diversity in protozoan

A better quality of

species and groups

effluent by the industries

demonstrates competition

will ultimately ensure

in nutrients and a possible

a higher compliance to effluent standards by ERWAT’s WWTWs.

change in sludge load. The case study offered the following solutions: • Phosphate accumulation in

a licence or an exemption, issued

demand and use, which assists

by the Department of Water

government in delaying the

and Sanitation. This prescribes

introduction of water restrictions.

the conditions that the WWTW

ERWAT treats some 700 Mℓ/d of

Can you describe a case study where you worked with a client to ensure their wastewater met the required government standards?

bacterial cells was noted. • The detention time in the raw effluent storage tank was reduced to avoid septic conditions. Sequencing

Water scarcity in South Africa

periods were changed to suit avoidance of septicity in the

is expected to meet during

wastewater. The resulting, treated,

affects most mining operations

operation – effluent quality being

potable water is released back

where domestic water supply

one of them. All ERWAT plants are

into rivers, streams and dams.

schemes are inadequate to

subject to very strict standards,

With a 90% quality compliance

cater for mining operations. Use

order to dose chlorine in the

as all discharge flows into very

average, ERWAT helps to keep

of the available water remains

MLSS, which is extracted from

sensitive catchment areas.

natural water resources safe and

the best solution for most

the reactor and returned into

available for further treatment and

mining companies. Available

the aeration basin.

domestic consumption.

water resources include acid

The industries are monitored by EMM, through its by-laws,

mine in Mpumalanga where final

What is ERWAT’s role in training process controllers and laboratory technicians?

effluent is recycled and reused

ERWAT’s laboratory offers

in mining operations. The study

students the opportunity

was called: ‘Optimisation of a

to complete the practical

mine drainage and recycling

to ensure adherence to strict

What laboratory services do you provide and what sets ERWAT’s facilities apart from other similar facilities?

wastewater for reuse.

Department focuses on the

ERWAT Laboratory Services is ISO/

management of industrial

IEC 17025 accredited.

discharge standards. ERWAT and EMM work closely together in cases of industrial pollution. ERWAT’s Commercial Business

storage tank. • A side stream was installed in

A study was conducted in a

wastewater from the point

In addition to its well-

sequencing batch reactor used for

component of their studies by

source. At some industrial

established chemical and

treatment of mine wastewater for

means of an in-service trainee

plants, the department manages

microbiological laboratory

recycling and reuse’.

programme. In-service trainees

and operates the effluent

services for the analysis of water,

treatment plant to ensure that

wastewater, activated sludge,

study involved filamentous

training from experienced

the wastewater quality complies

sewage sludge and soil, the

bacteria in the sequencing

laboratory personnel in a variety

with applicable standards before

laboratory’s services include the

batch reactor (SBR) that caused

of analytical methods. Exposure

its discharge into the sewer

identification of waterborne

activated sludge not to settle,

to ISO 17025 accreditation is an


pathogens, gas chromatography

which led to high suspended

added advantage for trainees.

mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

solids and bacterial counts in

analysis, as well as automated

the final effluent. Polymers

programme where some 43

photometric low-range

were added in order to enhance

graduates receive two years’

specialised chemical analysis on

activated sludge settling and

training. NQF levels 2, 3 and 4

potable water and boreholes.

improve the quality of the

qualifications in wastewater

effluent discharged for further

operation are offered to internal

treatment and reuse.

staff for capacity building and

treatment, with a potential for

How do you assist industry to manage its water quality and why is this important, given the country’s current water crisis?

implementation in WWTWs for

ERWAT Commercial Business

cultures found in the mixed

reuse. Efficient domestic and

assists stakeholders with their

liquor suspended solids (MLSS).

industrial wastewater treatment

wastewater by implementing

assists in sustaining the water

a suitable wastewater

How is ERWAT assisting government with its short- and long-term water shortage contingency plans? Apart from the new technologies mentioned above, ERWAT is involved in research and development into the use of membranes in wastewater

Technology used in the case

A microbiological analysis of SBR was conducted at ERWAT’s

receive quality, one-to-one

ERWAT also offers a graduate

personal development, as well as to unemployed youth.

laboratory in order to assess the types of microbiological

Findings of the case study included: JAN/FEB 2016




Ignacio Peña Director, JOAT

What are some of the ‘quick wins’ utilities can implement immediately to start saving water?

quick wins are the use of

extraordinary capacity of

apps, JO-Apps, which provide

control valves (PRV, PSV,

the different JOAT business

a free toolkit to engineers

inlet control valves, etc.),

units – Consulting, Sales and

and water-loss practitioners

maintenance programmes,

Services, Instrumentation and

for simple NRW principles

IP There are a number of

visual leak detection and repair,

Control, as we Operations and

and calculations, such as

interventions that can be

and top consumer meter audits

Maintenance – to collaborate

water balances and KPIs. We

categorised as ‘quick wins’, or

and change-out.

and attend to any particular

have also partnered with

‘low-hanging fruit’ as some

problem and provide an

the most advanced pressure

people like to call them,

effective solution; as well as

management control systems

which have a high impact

the fact that we have the latest

provider in the world, i2O,

over a relatively small time

water industry technology

to provide autonomous,

period. Throughout my

at hand.

intelligent pressure control of pumped and gravity-

experience working in South

can easily be addressed and

What partnerships has JOAT developed to enhance user experience with the technology offered by the company?

has a major impact on water

JOAT prides itself in being

Could you describe a flagship project where JOAT assisted a client to save or manage water better?

demand, if resolved.

at the forefront of the

In the last 10 years, JOAT has

development of technology,

had a number of successful

consumers’ audit, water

research and skills necessary

projects, from large metro

utilities can quickly quantify

to ensure a sustainable impact

municipalities to smaller local

in our projects. In this regard,

municipalities, from which our

we have developed relevant

clients have felt the benefit

partnerships with like-minded

of high water savings and

organisations and individuals

improved water management.

Africa in the past few years, the problem of internal leaks (water that is wasted or lost inside consumers’ premises)

By conducting a simple

and, over the last few years,

the problem and implement

What JOAT products can assist government to combat watershedding and other scarcity issues, not just over the short term but also in the more medium-term future?

a forced repair programme.

supplied networks.

A recent project that is

JOAT has developed a number

worth mentioning, due to

of national and international

the extraordinary impact that

partnerships that enrich all

was achieved, is the reduction

the services provided by the

of non-revenue water in

group. In terms of investing

the City of uMhlathuze. The

in skills development, JOAT

project was implemented

Consulting has partnered

during 2014 and 2015, and

with both the University of

included a wide range of WC/

Cape Town’s Civil Engineering

WDM interventions, including

Postgraduate Programme

a mentorship programme,

JOAT is probably the

as well as the Durban

reservoir audit and repair,

This intervention needs to be

best-positioned company

University of Technology, for

reservoir inlet control audit and

properly planned with the

in Southern Africa to assist

mentoring and employment

repair, active leak detection and

community, to go hand in hand

local, provincial and national

opportunities for young

repair, optimising existing PRVs

with water conservation/water

governments in attending to

engineers and technicians.

and advanced PRV controllers,

demand management

urgent, medium- and long-

(WC/WDM) awareness

term water scarcity problems.

of international best practice

meter and PRV audit and

campaigns, and to consider

We combine expert knowledge

and developments in the

maintenance, custody transfer

proper metering and billing

in products with proven

field of non-revenue water

meter change-out, and top bulk

policy enforcement. Other

professional and technical

reduction, JOAT has a long-

consumer meter change-out.

experience in implementing

standing relationship with

Since the inception of the

WC/WDM programmes;

Allan Lambert, which allows

programme, the NRW dropped

in-house expertise and

us to continuously provide

by 364 Mℓ/month or 6% of the

the ability to perform

cutting-edge technology to

system input volume. At a cost

interventions from the design

our clients. This has culminated

of water of R4/kℓ, the NRW

to the implementation and

in the development of our

reduction equals R1 455 226

commissioning phases; the

own, customised smartphone

per month in savings.

Through the implementation of a number of water conservation and water demand management strategies, JOAT has been able to save clients millions of rands per year

In terms of keeping abreast

installation of new PRVs, bulk

JAN/FEB 2016




OSBORN An Astec Industries Company

Auger Boring Machines Horizontal Directional Drills

Mud Systems & Pumps Trenchers


Surface Miners

A Charles Machine Works Company

135 US Route 42 • PO BOX 814 • West Salem, OH 44287 • Phone 800.324.4930 • Fax 419.869.7425 • • ® 2015 American Augers, Inc.



OSBORN An Astec Industries Company

GEFCO, INC. an Astec Industries Company 2215 SOUTH VAN BUREN · ENID, OKLAHOMA, USA 73703 · PHONE 580.234.4141 · · ·



As well as mining, quarrying and construction solutions, Osborn offers equipment used specifically in water and pipeline applications. How does your equipment meet government’s current need for water supply solutions?

Ricardo Isaacs Product sales manager, Osborn Engineered Products SA

man-entry pipe jacking still

industry. American Augers

exploration drilling, piling and

being practised in South

builds some of the largest HDD

geothermal drilling. Together

Africa today. Our machines

rigs and ancillary equipment

with the other OEMs that

are built to bore in any type of

in the world, while our other

we represent, Osborn is able

formations at record speeds.

supplier, Toro Underground,

to offer the best equipment

They are impressively rugged,

provides the ideal solutions

technology in the industry,

productive and economical

for compact and powerful

making us a one-stop shop

machines for installing

HDD rigs for working in

for all drilling and trenching

pipelines and culverts.

confined spaces.


water-well drilling equipment

What sets your trenchers apart from similar market offerings?

for water supply, open-cut

Trencor’s trenching machines

What kind of training or after-sales service does Osborn offer to ensure the longevity of its products?

trenching machines for

are industry leaders.

pipeline installation, and

The company’s drive for

What are some of the partnerships the company has formed to bring superior drilling, boring and drill rig technology to the local market?

trenchless drilling equipment

innovation and dedication to

We have given considerable

manufacturing company. We

for pipeline and cable

customer satisfaction is what

thought to who we need

have existing Spare Parts and

installation beneath existing

it is renowned for. Trencor


manufactures some of the

RI Osborn, an Astec Industries company, is able to offer

Through these technologies,

in the world and its

faster and efficient solution to

unique rugged and

government’s current need for

reliable mechanical

water supply and infrastructure

drive system sets

development. Gefco Inc, our

the company’s

sister company based in Enid,

machines apart

Oklahoma, manufactures

from the hydraulic

state-of-the-art rigs for drilling

drive systems of

shallow water wells, as well as

competitors. Additionally, by

well rigs ideal for production

simply replacing

wells for well fields.

the boom and

In addition, through Trencor

drum on some

trenching machines, we

models, you can

are able to offer the newest

convert a trenching

technology for the rapid

machine to a road or

installation of pipelines. As

surface miner, making it a

well as American Augers'

versatile machine for other

auger boring machines and

applications as well.

rivers, railroads and bridges with minimal disruption and destruction to existing

HDD rigs are arguably the leading technology for installing a variety of underground services

to partner with and the

Service departments with

Why is horizontal directional drilling (HDD) versatility on-site so important and how do your machines fulfil this need?

technologies that we represent

dedicated hotline numbers,

and offer to the local market.

ensuring that our customers

Our most recent partnership,

are being supported 24/7.

HDD is the ultimate solution

directional drills for drilling and boring beneath roads,

ISO 9001:2008-approved

largest trenching machines

we are able to offer a safer,

deep, large-diameter water-

Osborn is a 96-year-old

with Comacchio Drilling

Our Service Department

Hi-Tech from Italy, brings

receives ongoing training

dynamic and competitively

from the OEMs that we

priced vertical drilling solutions

represent. We make sure that

for laying pipes and cables

for the civil engineering and

our customers know how to

American Augers manufactures

for utilities, communication,

exploration drilling sectors.

operate and maintain their

the best auger borers in

water, gas, sewerage and

the industry for installing

drainage without having to

by Comacchio is ideal for

Additionally, we offer training

steel or concrete sleeves. By

cut open roads or destroy

jet-grouting applications,

locally at our facility, as well as

using this technology, you

current infrastructure. Osborn

anchor drilling, soil nailing,

overseas training at the OEMs’

eliminate the very dangerous

represents the best in the

geotechnical investigation,

training schools.


What are Osborn’s pipe jacking solutions?

The equipment produced

equipment safely and properly.

JAN/FEB 2016


Claude Marais 08611 74448 | 082 371 6181



What products and services does Wasteman offer for minimising non-revenue water through the facilitation of pipe repair?

the entire internal condition

Divisional manager, Sight Lines Pipe Survey Services, a division of Wasteman Holdings

sensors: sonar transducer, laser

What are the benefits of using this particular technology?

profiler and an HD CCTV camera.

For years, it has been a real

The equipment basically floats

challenge to properly assess

CM We look at assessing the

on top of the water and a sonar

the structural condition

structural condition of pipelines

transducer profiles the bottom

of outfall sewers using

and grading the defects found

section of the pipelines below

conventional CCTV

to produce a priority list of

water level, while a laser profiler

equipment. We used to

your worst-to-best pipelines.

projects a laser ring on the top

plug the pipelines and

This powerful information can

section of the pipe above the

had to pump water to

help the asset owners plan

water level.

the next manhole, which

rehabilitation before a pipe burst or collapse takes place.

of these pipelines using three

These two electronic

was extremely time-

techniques are combined

consuming, expensive and

to produce continuous

risky. Once the water had

Wasteman also offers multisensor inspection equipment for larger outfall sewer pipelines. How do these products work and what sets them apart from similar market offerings?

measurements of the pipeline

been diverted, we would

above and below the water

inspect the pipelines

level. With this data, we can

with CCTV, often coming

measure how much material

across heavy debris

has been corroded away and

volumes and rocks

how much material is left to

that the CCTV cameras

support the pipeline, as well

could not pass. Then,

as the amount of siltation or

we would clean those

Our large and medium sized

debris in the pipeline from

pipelines using combination

profiler units, the HD and MD

manhole to manhole, which

jetting and vacuum cleaning

Profiler, where developed to

provides an indication of

units. Our production rates

assess the structural condition

hydraulic capacity issues.

varied from 60 m to 100 m

of mid-to-large-diameter outfall

We can also measure

per day. With our HD and MD profiler

MD profiler unit in a pipe

How can CCTV and trenchless technology assist government in meeting its short- and longterm water-saving goals?

sewer systems, from 400 mm ø

deformation in plastic pipelines

up to 3 000 mm ø in live, normal-

using the sonar and laser as

units, we rarely need to clean

By using our country’s skills,

flow conditions. In most cases,

well as any intrusions and

any pipelines to assess the

experience and technologies,

these outfall sewers run in the

extrusions. Additionally, HD

condition and our production

pipelines can be assessed,

lower-lying areas and are very

Digital CCTV camera to visually

rates increased to between

maintained and repaired

difficult to get to, which results

record video or can be used to

800 m to 1 200 m per day – a 1

proactively before they

in very little maintenance and

verify anomalies encountered.

000% increase in productivity,

collapse and cost premium

assessments being done due to

The data can be presented in

which saves clients time and

prices to repair and fix.

access challenges.

various 3D models and graphs

money. It also dramatically

This will assist to maintain

for easy interpretations and

reduces the risk of sewer

infrastructure and keep the


spillages taking place if a pump

taps on and water sources

stops working or pipes burst.


When outfall sewers collapse or get blocked, the sewer normally discharges close to a river and no one really takes note of the problem. Wasteman’s equipment has been designed to assess

Wasteman’s MD profiler unit

JAN/FEB 2016









Our environmentally friendly and economically efficient solutions for hydraulic power generation includes: • Large new hydropower plants • Service & modernization programs • Small-scale hydropower plants

t 087 805 7267 f 011 397 5620

• Pumps • Submersible motors • Hydrodynamic screw turbines

PANEL DISCUSSION Willie Bloem Product manager: MILL & PAT, RITZ Pumps


decentralise pressure on the

and provide the potential to

grid in built-up areas while,

supply hot and cold water,

at the same time, expanding

improving local health and

services to remote areas.

hygiene, helping local clinics.

This ultimately reduces

The changes to quality

the need to spend on big

of life that this product

infrastructure projects and

can effect are really quite

brings with it a number of

astounding. There are health

advantages to those living

and educational benefits, as

in human settlements

well as commercial, social

experiencing service

and recreational advantages.

challenges. The benefits of

Imagine: hydropower can be

this type of infrastructure

used for crop irrigation in the

optimisation are enormous;

day and for sports stadium

as an example, electricity

lighting at night. There are also

availability in an area where

safety benefits for people who

there had previously been

walk home from their jobs after

none means increased visibility


through more light. This assists

never even hope to receive

How would a mass roll-out of RITZ Pumps’ products assist the Department of Water and Sanitation’s strategy to find short- and long-term solutions to the current water shortages?

power from the national grid.

Such a roll-out would result

Some towns and villages are

in an improvement of

just too remote or hilly for

socio-economic conditions,

such infrastructure to ever be

improving overall quality of

financially feasible. It is in these

life. On its own, our product

situations that the use of a PAT

does not reduce water

makes the most sense and can

shortages directly; however,

yield the greatest results.

once communities are happier,

students to learn at night and facilitates access to computers and charging smart devices. Most importantly, our product provides a solution for those areas that may

healthier and more productive,

means that the pumps are not

Do your pumps require specialist repair and maintenance and could you describe how this process is handled?

only useful in industry, small

Our products are maintained in

WB There is, as far as I am

hydropower plants and for

much the same as with normal

combined with some kind

aware, nothing quite like our

supplying municipal drinking

pumps; if a PAT is installed in

of smart grid or telemetry

current “pumps-as-turbines”

water – they can also be used

a rural area, the local people

system, it would facilitate

(PAT) available in the

to supply electricity.

can take ownership and

leak detection across a wider

mechanically maintain the

area. Since the majority of

pumps, needing only basic

the country’s non-revenue

knowledge. Additionally, we

water is lost through leaking

can monitor our products and

infrastructure, this would

assist villages remotely.

assist enormously with leak

Not only do these products

How do RITZ’s PATs function to make electricity available to South Africans living in remote areas and what are the national implications?

advantageous about installing

interventions. Such a system

offer superior robustness and

By installing RITZ PATs,

our solutions in a remote area is

will also, ultimately, improve

wear resistance for maximum

government is capacitated to

that we supply electrical energy

municipal revenue collection.

What sets RITZ pumps apart from similar market offerings, especially in terms of resource conservation?

efficiency, life cycles and ease of maintenance, they can also be used as turbines. That

local market. Our Austrian/Germandesigned pumps have, for more than 100 years, been a byword for competence and innovation in centrifugal pump design.

What’s particularly

there is greater wealth available for upgrading and improving infrastructure such as water storage, treatment and distribution networks. That said, if a RITZ PAT were

detection for targeted repair

JAN/FEB 2016



Inspector gadgets save the sewers


t’s often been noted that the majority of South Africa’s underground pipe network is between 40 and 50 years old, and that this is the time when it’s most advisable to replace or repair pipes. Trenchless technologies (TT) offer a range of repair options that are often more environmentally friendly and quieter than open-dig methods, while being far less expensive than replacing large sections of pipe. However, before embarking on any pipe repair project, it’s critical that the municipal engineer or his representative consulting engineer evaluates the condition of a given pipeline. This will ultimately assist proactive

Before embarking on a trenchless technology project for the repair of sewage pipelines, it’s essential to have a clear idea of the level of deterioration before taking the next step. CCTV, and laser and sonar profiling provide a good picture of what lies ahead. BY FRANCES RINGWOOD

municipalities to manage their assets in a cost-effective, and environmentally and socially conscientious manner. According to Alastair Goyns, owner of Pipeline Installation and Professional Engineering Services, “The use of reliable, affordable CCTV inspection systems to inspect gravity pipelines and capture a visual representation of their internal condition has probably been the major driving force behind the development of trenchless rehabilitation techniques.”

The reason for this is that the internal state of a pipeline cannot be ignored. Pressurised pipes usually have ways of letting the public know when a leak has occurred. Gravity-fed sewer systems are not as straightforward. When an outfall sewer leaks, contaminated wastewater may enter the water table or seep into local rivers. It’s unhygienic and it’s clearly more desirable that faulty pipes or broken joins are repaired in order to ensure environmental and community health and hygiene. “In the worst cases, sinkholes may appear. These are costly to repair and in these cases it’s too late to apply TT repair techniques,” comments Mike King, past president of the South African Society of Trenchless Technology and current technical specialist in municipal engineering at SMEC South Africa. Inspecting pipes King goes on to say that proactive pipe rehabilitation entails inspecting pipes that are expected to show deterioration. “Pipes don’t last forever – although some do last an extremely long time, provided correct installation and appropriate procedures are followed by good, qualified engineers and contractors. Once a CCTV camera is inside a pipe, it will then collect diagnostic information measured against a fivepoint rating tool, to determine whether a repair intervention is necessary,” explains King. In the most severe cases, data collected will indicate that a pipe may be at risk of imminent collapse; in slightly less severe cases, the pipe condition may indicate that it is likely to deteriorate further. In these cases, using trenchless repair methods is advisable. Engineer physically assessing the level of encrustation within a pipe (Source: Aecom)


JAN/FEB 2016


Other scenarios will show pipes need further inspection in, say, five or ten years, that there is only minimal deterioration, or that the pipe is still in good condition. “Once the decision has been made to rescue a pipe that is severely deteriorated or facing imminent collapse, the pipe can be effectively rehabilitated using trenchless methods – it can be reinstated as a valuable asset to the municipality,” says King. Camera operation In the case of smaller-diameter pipes, CCTV inspection is relatively easy. Inspections can be performed at night, when flow rates are minimal or absent. Large-diameter pipes, on the other hand, require considerably more sophisticated inspection methods because they are subject to continuous flows. “In these cases, the municipal or consulting engineer carrying out the inspection may want to mount a CCTV camera on to a small pontoon or boat. For large-diameter pipe inspection, it’s often advised to incorporate laser and sonar capability to provide a 360-degree view of how the pipe looks from the inside,” says King.

A trenchless project in progress after a “The laser projects a ring of light around pipeline was determined to be in need the top of the pipe and the camera picks up of repair in Cape Town (Source: Gustav whether the ring is broken or deformed. If Diedericks, Aecom) the image presents a perfect ring, the pipe is okay. Sonar works in much the same way, except it’s capable of showing the pipe’s municipal or consulting engineer in charge profile below the water line. In addition to will produce a report detailing what defects being able to detect slippages between were encountered, according to spethe joins, corrosion and section alignment cific engineering coding manuals. The issues, sonar can also detect debris or silt at codes will indicate a range of different the bottom of the pipe,” he adds. defects, including cracks, abrasion or What’s useful about silt detection is that imminent collapse. it indicates if a pipe needs cleaning prior to Once the report has been compiled, it will undertaking rehabe assessed to debilitation services. “The use of reliable, termine the conIf the pipe cleaning affordable CCTV dition of the pipes, contractor knows inspection systems has as well as looking the extent of the where environprobably been the major at silting, it will greatly mental factors assist them to come driving force behind like groundwater up with a realistic the development of seepage need to cost estimate, rather trenchless rehabilitation be considered in than having to protaking the decision techniques.” vide a guess-based to repair a pipe. invoice and then haggling over prices after However, a CCTV diagnostic on its own is the fact. not enough, and it’s also important that a After the CCTV or CCTV-combined sonar physical assessment of the pipe be carried and radar analysis has been completed, the out in order to look at other factors, such JAN/FEB 2016


TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY Engineers will often mount CCTV cameras and any additional equipment they need on to a little remote-controlled car, which they operate from the surface (Source: San Invest)

as pipe thickness, acidity and whether pipe loading has remained the same since the product was initially specified.

reveal the pipe’s wall thickness, as well as its class in terms of loading capacity. “Sometimes, additional loading capacity is imposed on pipes and it’s advisable to do Physical inspection some reverse engineering to determine if Henk Aartsma, principal engineer at Bigen the pipe is handling loads it was originally Africa, explains how to approach physical designed for. For this purpose, I usually go inspections intelligently and what process- back and look at old design catalogues to es are involved. “Obviously, with physical determine external strength characteristics. inspections, safety must Then, you look at whether come first. You can’t A laser projects a a road was built on top just send a man down of the pipe in the interring of light around vening years and take a pipe with a torch and ask him how it looks,” the top of the pipe into account additional says Aartsma. loading from traffic above and the camera “A quick way to deterground. From there, it’s mine what a pipeline picks up whether possible to determine was originally made of the ring is broken what amount of loading is to look at the intervals is still available to the pipe between the pipe joins or deformed. If the in order for it to retain its using a CCTV device; image presents a structural integrity.” because different mateAartsma also recomperfect ring, the rials are manufactured mends using litmus paper in different lengths, this pipe is okay to perform a simple pH test provides a reasonably on the moisture of pipe accurate picture of the original material,” walls. Extreme discolouration will indicate he adds. a sulfuric acid attack. “For a more detailed Encrustation can make it difficult to tell investigation, we drill for a few core samples, very much about the condition of the orig- which will also provide us with an indication inal pipe material. In cases of extreme en- of wall thickness, corrosion and encrustacrustation, a screwdriver or other flat-ended tion,” says Aartsma. tool can be used to find out about the real condition of the pipe. “Once you look be- Trenchless options neath the surface, you’ll see that build-up is Once the full condition assessment is comlike a cancer. I’ve seen a pipe originally built pleted, the time comes to make a decision as out of fibre-cement that had become as thin to what – if any – remediation steps need to as paper,” says Aartsma. be taken to protect the long-term value and For determining a pipe diameter, Aartsma integrity of the pipe. says the easiest way is to go to where pipes “For these decisions about the most suitabut a manhole structure. This will also able method for repairing a pipe – taking


JAN/FEB 2016

into account the capacity, water tightness, durability and structural needs of the pipe – there are a number of TT options available in South Africa,” says Goyns. He adds that these methods for sewer repairs include: • Sliplining: This involves the insertion of a smaller-diameter pipe into a larger-diameter host pipe. This method will reduce the inside diameter of a pipe, but it is efficient. • Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP): CIPP involves the insertion of a resin-impregnated soft liner. The liner is then expanded and cured using heat or ultraviolet light. This method does not reduce the host pipe’s diameter but it can be tricky if there are sharp changes in the pipe profile, which may place stress on the liner. • Spiral-wound lining: This involves feeding a continuous, unplasticised polyvinyl chloride or high-density polyethylene profiled strip into a mandrel placed to form a continuous spirally wound pipe. This method only slightly reduces the diameter of the host pipe and is useful for large-diameter pipes where it is important that flow reduction is minimal. “For reticulation and collector sewers, another technique that can be included is pipe-cracking, which enhances the sewer’s capacity. Other technologies that can be used are CIPP patch, repair and grouting for sealing joints,” says Goyns. The latter methods are more suitable for pipelines subjected to isolated damage and other unique scenarios. Recommendation Trenchless experts agree that proper diagnostics are an essential tool for determining when to repair a pipeline, as they provide a sound method for balancing cost, environmental performance and the immediacy of need. Where sewerage pipelines are allowed to deteriorate without regular inspection, the results can be disastrous, eventuating in contamination of nearby surface water, sinkholes that put human lives and property at risk, and – at the very least – the unnecessary loss of a municipal asset. CCTV, radar and sonar technologies have been indispensable in the rise of trenchless repair methodologies. Nevertheless, physical assessments continue to play a critical role in the decision-making process of how best to manage the long-term life of pipes.


No-Dig: 2018's ours

The Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology (SASTT) has secured its bid to host the prestigious International No-Dig Conference and Exhibition.


recently had the honor of representing SASTT at the International Society for Trenchless Technology’s (ISTT) 33rd annual International No-Dig Conference and Exhibition. The event was held on 28 to 30 September 2015 at the WOW Convention Center in Istanbul, Turkey, and was jointly hosted by the Turkish Society for Infrastructure and Trenchless Technology,” explains Efrat. “As is customary, the ISTT board of directors held its AGM on 27 September 2015 – the day before the start of the conference. Of the 27 ISTT-affiliated member societies worldwide, 22 attended the ISTT board meeting, including SASTT. One of the main items on the agenda was the selection of the society to host the 2018 No-Dig Conference,” he adds. Tough competition In a hotly contested bidding process, presentations were made by the Finnish Society, bidding for Helsinki, the Romanian

Sam Efrat, president, SASTT, has dedicated the society’s successful bid to former honorary director Joop van Wamelen, who sadly passed away earlier this year

Society, bidding for Bucharest, and SASTT, bidding for Cape Town. “I am extremely pleased to announce that the ISTT board selected SASTT to host the 2018 International No-Dig Conference and Exhibition in Cape Town,” says Efrat. This is indeed a huge honour as well as a great opportunity for South Africa. The conference and exhibition will see a large number of both local and international delegates and exhibitors attending the event. “It will be a great opportunity to unite government and the engineering industry in finding common ground and the most applicable solutions to rehabilitating our leaking water pipes and solving and managing our current water shortages,” adds Efrat.

Leading up to 2018 In 2016, the ISTT will be joining with the China Society of Geology – Trenchless Technology Committee to host the 2016 No-Dig Beijing. In 2017, the ISTT will join with the Colombian Institute for Subterranean Infrastructure Technologies and Techniques in hosting the 2017 International No-Dig. Leading up to the 2018 event, SASTT will undertake several smaller conferences in all major centres each year to create awareness and promote the use of trenchless technology, which can offer sustainable job creation as well as provide cost-efficient pipe rehabilitation and installation methods. JAN/FEB 2016


Trenchless Technology Specialist

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beat the heat Given current water scarcity, pump manufacturers that focus on resilient technologies will have the edge over those that don’t. FRANCES RINGWOOD looks at how South Africa’s leading pump technologies are keeping up with trends stemming from current market conditions.


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outh Africa is subject to contexts where thick slurries need to high evaporation rates and be moved (e.g. mines or some food and added stress from El Niño beverage production), more and more weather events have made modern pumps are being designed so it more essential than ever that pumps that they can be disassembled in situ for are equipped to beat the heat, as well fast, easy repair. as remaining operational even in conOne of the major advantages of such ditions where slurries pumps is that they radically are thicker and more There are a minimise downtime, saving frequent repair will likely number of plants money at a time in be needed. emerging pump South Africa’s economic Some pumps are history when inefficiency is technologies even capable of slow, unaffordable and the best controlled shutdown that radically way to stay productive when water runs out. minimise and profitable is to ensure Emerging pump tech- downtime, streamlined processes and nologies also offer conoperations. saving money tinuity safety measures An example of one such during blackouts and and maximising pump on the local market brownouts – protecting efficiency is Franklin Electric’s Mono pumps, extending their EZStrip transfer pump. The lifespan and lowering downtime needed EZStrip is designed so that the suction for pump repair. chamber can be easily dismantled by It is important for pump owners to removing just a few screws. This allows always try basic deragging when expefor deragging to take place in about riencing difficulties. A small blockage 2.5 minutes rather than a full day, which can be dislodged manually, negating the can be the case with other pumps. need to call out a repair crew. According to Gregg Sengstack, CEO However, for users whose pumps are of Franklin Electric, “The EZstrip is a heading towards the end of their useful revolutionary progressive cavity pump life and need to be replaced, here are innovation, which can be ‘maintainedsome ideas for units that will go the in-place’, making a day-long mainteextra mile. nance operation a very quick job. The technology needs to be recognised Easy repair options as one of the biggest leaps forward in Ideal for municipal applications such as progressing cavity-pump design in the wastewater treatment works and other last 30 years.”

Range: 40/50/80/100/150mm Innovative measuring technology ensures wide measuring range (better than most combination meters). Electronic register with integral pulse output provides versatile outputs and informative display. Interchangeable internal mechanism H4000 body can be retro-fitted with H5000 internal mechanism (40-100mm only). Suitable for forward and reverse flow measuring Pressure tapping Max working pressure: 1 600 kPa Battery life up to 15 years.

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Established but still highly relevant technologies create conditions for less frequent ragging – a godsend when it is time to do maintenance on sewage pumps

Solid design principles Some pumps are simply very well designed. There are models in South Africa that have made it through several droughts, including unusual weather prompted by climate change, with some lasting in wastewater treatment works for as many as 50 years. Sound design qualities, which have enabled these long product lifespans, include double seals so that failure of one seal does not compromise the operational capabilities of the unit, pumps having the capability of running dry without damage and flexible impeller design matching the right impeller type to the right conditions. One pump notable for these features as well as its longevity, even in harsh African conditions, is KSB’s Sewatec. “While we don’t have any new designs specifically catering to thick slurries resulting from high evaporation rates, our

brands have been trusted in the local other manufacturers might assemble, market place for about 50 years – with KSB has the in-house ability to design quite a few pumps having run in the and manufacture pumps to their clifield for as many years,” says Hendrik ents’ specific requirements. This means Enslin, manager: Water and Wastewater that, whatever the end application of at KSB Pumps. the pump, KSB “Many of our “What we’re finding has the technical standard products, more and more is that know-how to create like the Sewatec, engineered pumps clients – particularly have this capability, according to client but what we’re in the mining and specifications. finding more and food and beverage “This is becoming more is that clients sectors – need more and more in industry – parpopular nowadays, high operational ticularly mines and when clients are in the food and bev- efficiencies as part looking for a certain erage sector – need of their business kind of efficiency. high operational sustainability plans.” For example, efficiencies as part we’ve had a few of their business sustainability plans,” requests for 90% efficiency or higher adds Enslin. lately – here is where the German ingeWhat sets KSB apart is that it has true nuity connected with our brand comes manufacturing facilities – while many in handy. We can contact the parent JAN/FEB 2016



company for technical input in the event For example, at the Xylem rental that a client may need something extra hub launch in Kempton Park in special. Having said that, we do have an October last year, Mike Stimpson – impressive team of engineers internally a technical manager from Godwin in that is capable of handling the majority England – took journalists on a tour of of requests from local a variety of Godwin Run-dry technology, pumps available clients,” says Enslin. to the Southern combined with Running dry African market. A advances in – continuously number of them A relatively recent in- automation, assures boasted two one-ofnovation, which allows pump owners that a-kind technological pumps to carry on their investment will innovations, the first even when wastewafield smart not sustain damage, being ter treatment or other technology (FST) slurry sources have even through the the and the other being completely evaporat- most severe neglect the Godwin pumps’ ed, is pumps that can and punishment ability to run continrun while dry without uously while dry. causing damage to their seals. This, comFST allows pumps to be controlled and bined with advances in automation, as- monitored from the office or any mobile sures pump owners that their investment device with smart connectivity. Data will not sustain damage, even through that can be monitored includes engine the harshest neglect and punishment. and pump parameters, which provide a


JAN/FEB 2016

TOP When pumps take too long to dismantle, costs translate directly to the overall performance of the whole operation in which they operate – or fail to operate ABOVE LEFT This transfer pump is easy to maintain in situ, radically reducing downtime at factories and mines and callout fees, and facilitating smooth operation ABOVE N-series technology was first popularised in Xylem's Flygt range for simplifying maintenance

total picture of what the pump is doing on-site, from anywhere in the world. It’s a satellite-based technology and provides a pictorial map of where the pump is located to within two metres. In short, if a pump is under stress, the user will know about it.


Run-dry technology is facilitated by a specialised mechanical seal. Normally, these seals would be cooled and lubricated by the product in which it runs, like an N-suction pump for example. “With our Godwin pumps, what we do is take that mechanical seal, turn it around, and put it in a perfect environment – an oil-bath chamber. This ensures that the mechanical seal is lubricated and cooled at all times. That means that, whether there is water present or not, the seal is always in a perfect environment,” explains Stimpson. On display at the rental hub launch was the NC-100 pump, specially developed for the sewerage industry or any application where there’s a high ratio of solids. It’s notable in that it boasts Xylem’s N-series impeller. Usually associated with the company’s Flygt product and known for dealing with laborious slurries and clogs very easily using a world-leading design innovation, the technology has now been moved over to Godwin.

Stimpson demonstrated the technology to the assembled press, showing first how it can be remotely operated due to Xylem’s FST and then how it is capable of running while dry for a full five minutes, with no sign of stress negatively affecting the pump. Conclusion A good-quality pump is a wise long-term investment, costing less in terms of maintenance, downtime and parts replacement. Current market conditions demand pumps that are reliable, with guaranteed backup service commitments and high efficiency rates. Spending a little more upfront has proven time and again to be worth it over the long run, not just for the private sector but also in municipalities

More manufacturers are offering tailor-made pumps aimed at reaching best-point efficiencies to minimise energy use and maximise pump lifespans

– where municipal technicians and engineers who don’t keep machinery well maintained are becoming increasingly exposed as a result of improved regulation and oversight mechanisms.

JAN/FEB 2016







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African countries


Measurement before management


recent report showed that municipalities are losing between 27% and 37% of their non-revenue water due to physical losses, under-registering of meters and theft. This staggering percentage of losses is estimated to cost R7 billion – money that could be much better spent on reviving ageing and dilapidated infrastructure. “Smart meters can save at least 10% of what would otherwise be lost; this is achieved through accurate reading and through utilities having the power to monitor their networks. Additionally, smart meters are capable of detecting leakages though an alarm function that reacts when it detects flow at a higher-than-normal level during low- and no-flow periods, usually at night, when homeowners are asleep,” explains Klaus Gruebl, managing director, Sensus South Africa. Sensus iPerl Ad2014.pdf



Smart meter communication What sets smart meters apart from older models is their ability to communicate over a radio network. There are different ways for municipalities to receive and process these signals – most commonly, drive-by and walk-by data collection – which are then downloaded and sent to the utility. “What we also offer is a fixed radio network that allows two-way communication with a meter from the office,” says Gruebl. Smart choice saves money A number of utilities are rolling out smart meters to their constituents as a way to accurately measure and thus manage

and save water. “One of the most important features of smart meters, like our iPerl, is they can detect and measure as little flow as 1 metre per hour. Mechanical meters do not detect this,” explains Gruebl. To have accurate data concerning a utility’s network is to be able to manage that network. Smart meters offer a method that provides accurate, up-todate consumer information that saves water and improves revenue – at the same time, costing less than building a new dam or desalination plant.

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A licence to weld Electrofusion welding is growing in South Africa at a rapid pace, but it’s important that installers have access to the right information regarding how to use the technology. Incorrect use of the technology may impede its future growth and success. BY FRANCES RINGWOOD


lectrofusion in South Africa is nothing new. In fact, this welding technique has been around in the local market for somewhere between 20 to 25 years. Recent economic shifts have affected buying patterns so that certain pipe installers are being tempted to use cheaply manufactured electrofusion systems. At the same time, there are very good products coming out of Europe and the Middle East. Vastly different qualities in products and processes have reignited engineers’ interest in electrofusion, and how it can be implemented and tested the right way to ensure value for clients while preventing reputational damage. Philip Gordon is the national product manager of plastics at South African fluid conveyancing company Incledon. He provides some context for understanding the electrofusion landscape in South Africa. When to choose electrofusion “At Incledon, the brand of electrofusion system we import is manufactured by Israeli company Plasson. It’s one of the better-known brands globally and it’s


JAN/FEB 2016

been successfully used by a number How it works of leading pipe manufacturers here in Renier Snyman, technical and product South Africa. The first uses of electromanager, DPI Plastics, whose company fusion were in Europe – mainly on gas provides pipe installation services, lines where it was important to produce explains how the technology works and reliable welds and prevent leakages. describes some of the difficulties asso“Since then, more ciated with testing and more engineers standards. The electrofusion began using the “When it comes to welding machine technology for water the European sysis much more and sewage pipes tems, which my colbecause the system league mentioned, lightweight and is simply faster and jointing can be user-friendly than more reliable than carried out on pipes the machinery used between 20 mm and the more traditional for butt welding butt welding meth800 mm in diameter. od. Today, electrofuFor up to 400 mm, sion is the most popularly used method a single weld is used and, for up to for welding high-density polyethylene 800 mm, a double weld is applied,” ex(HDPE) pipes in Europe. In South Africa, plains Snyman. we still rely heavily on butt welding, “To carry out electrofusion welding, and this may be a sign we have some a welding machine needs to be taken catching up to do,” explains Gordon. into the field, and this basically functions Electrofusion welding can only be just like a large computer with a mothused on HDPE pipes and fittings. A simierboard and a central processing unit. lar, yet distinct, method can be used on A coupling is placed around the weld polypropylene pipes and, for these purwhere a piece of wire inside the couposes, Incledon imports a thermoplastic plings is then heated with a 40 V current. welding system from Portuguese-Italian The welding machine’s job is to sense company Coprax. the resistance in the join and stop the

PIPES, PUMPS & VALVES OPPOSITE PAGE HDPE pipe installation (Source: H&J Pipe Joining Services) RIGHT Electrofusion welding machine

current once the two sections of pipe are welded together,” he adds. The electrofusion welding machine is much more lightweight and user-friendly than the machinery used for butt welding. It’s typically 16 kg as opposed to the heavier, more old-fashioned equipment that typically weighs about 70 kg to 80 kg. Electrofusion welding machines are also compatible with many different kinds of generators, while butt welding machines need a specialist power source. Standards testing As yet, no electrofusion welding method can receive a South African Standards Bureau (SABS) stamp of approval because – according to both Gordon and Snyman – “the SABS is unable to test to the appropriate specification because the standards body doesn’t have the equipment needed to conduct these tests.”

Most testing is done using standard pressure tests, where HDPE pipelines are tested at about 1.5 times the pressure they would work under in normal conditions, for about two hours. “This is different from butt welding, which is regulated by the SABS,” says Snyman. A thorough butt welding test requires engineers to try to pull apart each join after it’s made in order to test the strength of that join. Few engineers will actually go to the trouble of this process for a water or wastewater pipe, however, and most still rely only on a pressure test, even though butt welds are governed by clear norms and standards. Embracing electrofusion Pranesh Maniraj, specialist in national sales and marketing for polyethylene pipes at Marley Pipe Systems, explains why electrofusion is an excellent choice

for the installation of HDPE for water and wastewater conveyancing projects. “To ensure the successful adoption of electrofusion, the intricacies and challenges of this method, in terms of JAN/FEB 2016





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product standards and practically, need between electrofusion and butt welding a role in what welding method should to be understood by the wider plastic is accessibility. “Electrofusion is particube selected. “For pipes being installed pipe manufacturing and installation larly helpful for applications where acusing horizontal directional drilling, community,” says Maniraj. cess is constrained – such as in trenches, electrofusion cannot be used because “Butt welding around the pumps, it’s desirable to have the least friction is something still Before new technology or even when during drilling, for which butt welding used quite exten- is fully embraced, working at height. would be the better option,” he explains. sively. However, Size also needs mindsets must change looking at newer to be considered; Conclusion technologies, new innovations have butt-welding can be used on pipes up There are a number of factors to be conmade it so that manufacturers can to two or even three metres, thus it is sidered before an electrofusion system use mobile telephone applications to recommended for the much larger pipe is put in place. In some instances, butt detect fittings or directly contact memdiameters. When it comes to pipe mawelding is better; in other instances, bers of the installation team to stop or terial, electrofusion can be used to weld electrofusion wins out. continue a process accordingly based different grades of Nonetheless, as on data being received. What I’m saying the same materithe use of electELECROFUSION DEFINED is this: the plastic pipe industry is techal – for example, rofusion in South Electrofusion is a rapid and nology driven – like everything else. medium-density Africa increases, simple method for permanent Everything has to get better. But, before polyethylene and it is becoming joining. Electrofusion is achieved new technology is embraced, mindsets HDPE. In terms of important that by placing an electrofusion sicker have to change first. pipe structure, butt the proper over two prepared weld ends “I’m passionate about quality and fusion requires standards and (or out sur face) and passing a it’s important to be aware of the the exact same testing methods specific amount of energy through impediments to quality electrofusion standard dimenare put into place the heating wire contained in the electric fusion socket. installation, so that the technology is sional ratio rating by oversight not unfairly dismissed, blocking future and the same authorities. This generations from the sustainability that wall thicknesses. prevents the new technology offers,” he explains. Electrofusion allows for different wall infiltration of inferior technologies into thicknesses to be welded together, South Africa and the wider African marElectrofusion or butt welding? requiring an outside coupling that works ket, guarding against quality issues that According to Maniraj, one of the on the fitting itself,” he says. Maniraj might otherwise impede desperately biggest factors affecting the choice adds that installation methods also play needed technological progress.



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Water and Sanitation Africa January/February 2016  

Water and Sanitation Africa The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA), dealing with the preservation, treatment...

Water and Sanitation Africa January/February 2016  

Water and Sanitation Africa The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA), dealing with the preservation, treatment...

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