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THE ESSENTIALS OF LETTERING

^


Published by the

McGrei'w-Hill Bools^Conrnpaniy 5ucce5Sor.s io the Book DcptiHnionts of the

McGraw Publishing Company Publishers

Hill Publishing 0>mpany

of Books for

World

TKe Engineering' and Mining Journal American Macniniit Engineering Record Coal Age Electric Railway Journal Power Metallurgical and ClKemical Engineering Electrical

jwvrnrwsnnrjnrTTrj

r

iT

T iT iT

lT

iT

.HTiriTTmna


THE ESSENTIALS OF LETTERING A MANUAL FOR STUDENTS AND DESIGNERS

BY

THOMAS

E.

FRENCH

and

ROBERT MEIKLEJOHN

THE OHIO STATE UNIVEHSITY

THIRD EDITION THIRD IMPRESSION

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY 2.i9

6

WEST 3'iTH STREET, NEW YORK BOU\ERlE STREET. LONDON, E. C.

1912


Cdpyhicht,

1(109,

I'.IKI,

1012,

by Thomas E. Fuknch and Rdhkut MiuRi.iaoiiN

Printi-i!

and Ehxirolyped

by The

MapU

i'otk.

Pa.

Press


6b d u

7 ^^ e

PREFACE There are two general those

who

among

classes of persons

are interested in the study of the subject of

lettering, first, those

who have

to

use

letters to

convey

information on drawings, as engineering students and

draftsmen, architects,

etc.;

second, those

who

use

tering in design, as art students, artists, designers

craftsmen.

The foundation

is

the

same

for

let-

and

both,

whether the application be on a mechanical drawing or The first class may be concerned mainly a poster. with legibility and speed, and the second with beauty, but there can be no distinction in the principles of the

given in the

moreover a constant overlapping of the classes thus arbitrarily divided, as for example in the case of the architect, who has both to letter his office drawings and to design permanent inscriptions. One need only to recall on the one hand instances of the painful attempts of the engineering student to do something "artistic," and on the other the examples of is

first

part, for the ordinary lettering in

connection with drawing; the designer will need to go farther into the study of styles

and composition as

carried on in the later chapters.

A

subject.

There

made by otherwise competent art students, which have been ruined by inappropriate, ill-formed, childish lettering, to feel that there are some in both classes who have failed in the appreciation of lettering as an art. This book is designed as a general text-book on the subject. The draftsman may take up as much as is designs

student in an engineering course must be given

training in lettering as a necessary requirement in the

execution of technical drawing, but that this lettering

considered

to

on account of

it is

its

too often true

application

be mechanical drawing.

Let

it

is

be

emphasized here at the outset that lettering is not mechanical drawing, but is design, based on accepted forms and developed freehand.


Preface.

We

have taken a step farther

in sayinjr that there

To

is

the engineering student

it

may seem

to

be only of

no engineers' lettering as distinguished from other There is simply the adaptation by each lettering.

general interest, but to the architect, art student, and

draftsman of the style suitable to his particular needs. The map draftsman, the architectural draftsman, the machine draftsman will each select appropriate letters "Engineers' lettering," sofor his kind of work. called, is kept in bad repute by those who persist in making such mechanical caricatures as geometrical letters, block letters, etc. As there are forms, however, for each branch of drawing which are particularly adapted to it, the subject should be taught to engineers with reference to their chosen branch. The civil engineer, for example,

and the

will practice the

Modern Roman and

the

stump

letter,

map drawing on the other hand, will have no use for the Modem Roman, but should study in detail the Old Roman of both the early and Renaissance periods.

as these have

and

become standard

similar work.

The

letters in

architect,

designer,

some knowledge

of the history of the alphabet

different periods of

lutely essential.

It is

its

development

is

abso-

not in our province to discuss

the origin or derivation of the present alphabet, for this the

student

if

interested

is

referred to the standard

works on palaeography; but a short is

given in the

references

first

may be

historical outline

chapter in order that subsecjuent

understood.

be noticed that in the analytical plates the have been arranged in their family groups

It will

letters

instead of in the usual alphabetical order.

The assistance of Mr. Dard Hunter, Mr. W. A. Dwiggins, Mr. Ralph Fletcher Seymour, Dr. Rudolf von Larisch, Mr. Alfred

Bartlctt,

Mr. W.

J.

Norris, Mr.

Cree Sheets, Messrs. Curtis and Cameron, John Williams, Inc., the Century Company, and others who have made drawings for this book, or permitted the reproduction of their work, is gratefully acknowledged.


CONTENTS Page

Preface

v

CHAPTER

I

Design

— Optical —The Roman —Old Roman — Renaissance Roman — forms — Geometrical construction — Modillusions

Roman — Commercial

gothic

— Single

letters

— Single stroke inclined — Inclined Roman — Stump

.Art

III

— —

CH.A.PTER

—Method

—Freedom

of designing a

75

purpose

period,

successive,

monogram

and

continuous,

—De\nces and

letters.

CH.APTER 30

map

\1II 82

— —

Photomechanical processes Materials Size Methods of enlarging drawings Color Corrections Effects gained

through engraver's aid.

CH.APTER IX

in

in design

—Designs with separate

CHAPTER V Design Importance Old Roman

VII

Drawing for Reproduction

marks

rV'

Selection of Styles For architectural work Inscriptions and tablets For drawing For signals and signs For shop drawings.

M0N0GR.AMS, Ciphers and Marks Definitions Requirements The material Forms, superimposed, reversible

machine drawings, for architectural drawings, for maps Symmetrical composition P'ull panel Other title forms Record strip. Titles, for

64

different

CILAPTER

32

— Spacing—

script

Composition

.and

capi-

letters.

Composition and Titles

Letters

and

Principles

letters

stroke

letter

CHAPTER

Italic

—^The period, purpose and material — Ornament Legibility and beauty— Methods — Spacing—.Appropriate for branches of applied design — Suggestions.

letter

Single stroke vertical capitals

Principles

CH.APTER VI

for shading

— Reinhardt

Gothic writing

4

General proportions

tals

for

nouveau.

CHAPTER n

ern

i

Letter Construction

Analysis of letter

— Broad

and reed pens

Historical Outline

— Rules

Page pen construction Roman lower-case -The Uncial— The Celtic—The Gothic, or "Text letter"— Steel tion

42 in

composi-

Bibliography

85

Index

gi


CHAPTER

I

Historical Outline "If

we

invention

set aside the

of

speech,

may

fairly

still

the

more wonderful

discovery

of

ment about two thousand years ago, and have been

the

presen'ed for us on the

be accounted the most diflicult as well as the most fruitful of all the past achievements of the human intellect." aljthabet

For the general student

of history, as well as the art

student, the study of palaeography

Canon Taylor, from whom

is

an

interesting one.

the above quotation

is

taken,

two large volumes which is accepted as standard, although some of his theories are disputed by other palaeologists; and a bibliogra])hy of other works, both historical and practical, will be found at the end of this book. It is sufficient for us to say that our letters are the result of a long evolution probably from the Egyptian and through the Phcenician and Greek to the Roman. The forms of the letters of our present alphabet (with the exception of j, u, w, y, and z) reached their full develophas written a history of the alphabet*

*

The Alphabet,

Its Origin

and Development.

Roman

inscriptions of that

which we now call Old Roman, is the parent of all the styles, however diversified, which are in use to-day, and curiously enough, instead of being archaic, is the most useful and artistic one for the designer. period.

This early

letter,

in

Isaac Taylor, London.

li^"2^

IMPCAESARlDlVl

TRAIANOAVGCE MAXrMOTRI'SPOT Fig.

I.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Portion of Inscription on

tlie

Trajan Coiumu.


Historical Outline This monumental form was used in the earliest Latin manuscripts with such modifications as would naturally arise from the use of |he pen instead of the chisel. A variety known as rustic, although this name has nothing to do with its appearance, was in use This form, also from the second to the fifth century. however, is of no practical value to us. In the fourth century there was developed the uncial, a letter with beautiful curved outlines and of great value to the designer. In the evolution of this form, the Irish half-uncial, now known in design as Celtic, reached a degree of perfection and beauty never since surpassed. The wonderful book of Kells (early eighth century) in the Dublin

example

of lettering

museum

is

perhaps the

and illuminating

finest

extant.

be noted that up to this time there was not a separate alphabet of capitals and small letters; not until the latter part of the eighth century was this distinction made. This period marks an epoch in the history of It will

of lower case letters,

as

Caroline

the

present script writing

Caroline script,

is

this letter

of St. Martin's of Tours, developed

an alphabet

written,

will

it

be noted.

MtCauaBimuf indu^ae uxprtyruo itl rgno^2rt? imツサ (iuato.munuf hooaaoimuLtaf

facrtc

窶「

{jtr^jimuf uolwraca iT>

TuLLi cicen^oNis AJoheiLENNij

LiBeit pRjfnus e.xpLiciT-

)ncij>it iiBeiL Fig.

2.

secuN OuSv

窶認rom a Ninth Century Manuscript.

capitals

in

the church books.

Our

^emmixmen msmrabimufterauodrKmao

Abbot

all

minuscule.

the direct descendant of this

a reproduction of a ninth century manu-

showing

with a slanted pen.

Charlemagne

is

letter.

Figure 2

789 ordered the revision and In the activity in the monasteries which followed, Alcuin of York, the friend and advisor of Charlemagne, and who was writing.

rewriting of

which has been known ever since (Carlovingian)

This full round letter gradually became more compressed as parchment became more expensive, and is known from the eleventh century on as Gothic. During all this time, the old Roman were

in

constant use as

initial letters.

This


Historical Outline Gothic reached its extreme limit of angularity and compression in the fourteenth and lifteenth centuries,

when

the curves

When

the letter

is

had given place so

entirely to angles.

much compressed

that the black

strokes are wider than the white spaces between,

known as

as blackletter.

Old English

The

Italians,

larity of the

is

it is

The form commonly known

an English Gothic of

who never

English and

this period.

followed the extreme angu-

German

Gothic, went back

of the Gothic writing of that period, but soon after-

wards (1468) type was cut on Roman lower rase. Throughout the next century books were printed both The Roman finally replaced in Roman and Gothic. the Gothic entirely, except in Germany, whose modern German text is the sole survivor of the mediaeval form. In the sixteenth century, the Italic was designed. The graceful French script, the letter of the period of

extensive revival of

Roman

this

the period of the Italian

capital letters for

At the invention

monumental

of printing in the

fifteenth century, the first types

use.

middle of the

were cut

in imitation

In the eighteenth century the

the Louis' followed.

modifications which resulted in the

Renaissance (fifteenth century) to the Caroline minuscule as a model, and designed the Roman small letters, the letter of our books of today. The architects of the same period in their revival of classic architecture remodeled the old in

occurred.

use of the bold Gothic.

The

movement

letter,

which we

present century

good

are the

is

lettering.

German

call

Commercial

witnessing a most

The

leaders in

secessionists

and the

which they are producing may be under the general term of Art Nouveau.

varieties of letters classified

modern Roman

In the nineteenth century was begun the


CHAPTER

II

Letter Construction

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

General Proportions. Before combining letters words we must be familiar in detail with the forms and peculiarities of each letter. Letters vary in their proportion of width to height. Not only are the widths of the different letters in the same alphabet into

very uncriual, but different alphabets vary in their

"measure," some being tall and narrow, others short There is a certain proportion or appearance as in the ordinary printed or drawn letters which may be called normal or standard. The styles whose widths are less than these in proportion are called compressed or condensed, and those whose widths are greater are known as expanded or

and wide.

extended.

There in the

is also in the different styles a wide variation proportion of the thickness of the stem or stroke

of the letters to their height, ranging

1/3 to 1/16.

all

the

way from

Letters with heavy stems are called

Bold Face or Black Face, and those with thin stems, Light Face.

There is an optical illusion well known to all designwhich a horizontal line drawn across the middle In of a rectangle appears to be below the middle. order that the divisions may seem to be symmetrical such a line must be drawn above the middle. In the construction of letters this illusion must be provided In for in what may be called the "rule of stability." order to give the appearance of stability such letters as the B E K S X and Z, with the figures 3 and 8 must be drawn smaller at the top than the bottom. To see the effect of this illusion turn a printed page uj)side down and notice the letters mentioned. Another optical illusion which must be provided for in large carefully drawn letters is that a round letter of the same height as an adjacent square letter will appear smaller, as it touches the guide line at only one ers, in


Lettkr Construction point.

In order to give the appearance of equal round letters must be extended a trifle over

height, the

the guide line on top in regard/to the letter

and bottom.

This

pointed ends of the angular

is

renaissance are very similar in effect, and the general

A

term Old Roman is given to both. Type based on this form is called by the printers "Roman Oldstyle," and that based on the modern form, simply "Roman." With the newer faces of type, however, this distinction

corning to a sharp point at the guide line will

These general proportions and

peculiarities arc true

In this chapter we shall consider the two fundamental styles, the Roman Capitals and the all

styles.

Commercial Gothic.

THE ROMAN LETTER The Roman

is

the

foundation

there are countless variations of

it,

Although there may be said letter.

be three general forms, the early or classic, the and the modern. The classic and the

also true

letters.

appear smaller than its companions. The point may either be extended over the line, or cut off as in Fig. 14. These are delicate refinements and any exaggeration of them is much worse than not observing them at all. A letter drawn in outline will not appear to have the same proportion of stem to height as one of the same width of stem made solid, because in the first instance the eye sees the enclosed area and in the second sees the outside. On this account a letter which is to be filled in solid should be outlined in ink so that the outside edge of the ink line touches the penciled outline. of

to

renaissance,

is

not so significant.

The Roman

letter is

composed

of

two weights

of

corresponding to the down stroke and the up stroke of the broad reed pen with which it was origilines,

nally written;

which

will

and from

this

we can formulate

a rule

prevent the inexcusable fault of shading a

letter incorrectly.

With twenty centuries of established

form as precedent, it is, from the standpoint of design, as bad to shade a letter on the wrong stroke as it is to reverse it or to misspell the word in which it occurs. To determine the accented lines, we have then simply to draw the letter in one stroke and note which lines were made downward.

AMNUVWYZORSX Fig.

.5.


Letter Construction It will

be noticed that

the inclined shaded strokes

all

downward from left to which makes a secondary or supplementary rule applicable to X and Y. with the exception of

Z

arc

right (\)

RULES FOR SHADING ROMAN LETTERS This includes all down strokes. (i) Heavy Lines all vertical lines (except as noted above in M, N, and

U), and all lines slanting downward, left to right. All strokes all horizontal strokes. (2) Light Lines

upward from In the is d..

left to

Roman

right (except Z)

heavy line (a) body mark, the light

letter the

called the stem or

line (b) the hair line, the cross stroke (c) Fig.

which

4.

finishes all free

ends the

serif,

and

the cur\'es (d) connecting the serifs with the stem, brackets or

fillets.

THE OLD ROMAN Of

the

many existing inscriptions of the

early

period, that at the base of the Trajan

Rome Fig.

and

(114 A. D.)

I is

at

taken as a typical example.

a photograph of a portion of the inscription, an alphabet drawn carefully from this great

Fig. 5

classic

may be

Roman

Column

example.

ABCDE FGILM NOPRS T'OyX Fig.

5.

— Classic Roman.

Drawn from

the Trajan

Column.


OLD ROMAN

ITALIAN

1315

(renaissance)

TOMB OF HENRY

VII

N 11

ITALIAN 1455 Fig.

6.

MAR,SVPPIN1

—Two Examples

of

7

MONVMENT

Renaissance Roman.


Letter Construction At the time of the ItaHan Renaissance the architects went to the old Roman models for their letters, modifying and retming them. Fig. 6 illustrates two famous examples of Mediaeval Roman, differing widely in appearance, the Henry VII having the largest serifs that would ever be used, and the Marsuppini very small ones.

The Old Roman

is

and the hair

of the width of the

a light face letter, the

body stroke

from two-fifths

line

body

to two-thirds

stroke.

and the narrow

of these that

and it is the combination gives the variety and beauty to this style.

The

is

division

letters,

as follows:

U

being used for

is it

of later introduction, the until

comparatively recent

PRS

EF IJKL Fig.

is

often pure affectation.

XY

7.

In the Renaissance Old Roman the narrow letters are sometimes wider in projiortion than those of the early period, but the above division is still very evident.

Some

in order to pre-

U

form, adopt the

serve legibility without using the

manuscript form u, as in Figs. 99 and loi. The beauty of the Roman letters depends not a little upon the appearance of the serifs and spurs which terminate every free end.

A CD GH MNO Q_TVW Z B

V

In careful Old Roman lettering, therefore, it is entirely in keeping to use V for U if the legibility is not affected. Its indiscriminate use however, as for example on office drawings should be avoided. Such use

In the proportion of width to height the Old Roman alphabet may be divided into two parts, the wide letters

Similarly, the curved

sharp times.

being one-eighth to one-tenth of the height of the letter,

U, Y, and Z arc letters of a later period than the our alphabet. J was not diilerentiated from I until the sixteenth century, and hence in designing strictly classical inscriptions I is sometimes used for J. J,

rest of

from a

chisel cut

made

These originated, probably,

across the end to prevent over-

and were copied by the penmen on account appearance which they gave. They are connected to the stems by small curved fillets or brackets, and great care must be observed in drawing cutting,

of the finished

these curves.

If

made even

a

trifle

too large, the

appearance of the letter is badly marred. Fig. 8 shows in detail several forms of these terminals.


'

Letter Construction (a)

Old Roman. on some renaissance

the serif of the classical

is

a longer

(b)

serif

as found

appreciation of the beautiful in lettering.

examples. (c)

the serif on the hair line of the A,

top

(d)

The

M, and N.

and bottom

spurs on horizontal

such as

lettering

an intimate and knowledge of the <â&#x20AC;&#x201D; forms, second, and

critical

more important, ing for

the feel-

composition,

which can be gained only by continued observaFig. S.â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Serifs tion and practice. Although difficult of execution both in individual form and in composition, the Old Roman as the foundation letter must be studied first by those who are interested in lettering as an art.

Those who wish only

the is

that the student

is

familiar with the

drawing instruments. While not mechanical drawing, a T square, triordinary

angle and dividers are necessary adjuncts.

are, first,

letter

assumed

of

lettering

lines,

T. requirements for in

It is

use

E and

proficiency

26 alone, but with such, even a slight knowledge of the historical forms will greatly increase the power of

to acquire the ability to letter

a shop drawing legibly and correctly

may

use the time

available with the single stroke letters of pages 23

and

In penciling, a very light free sketchy line should be employed, and the use of a very hard pencil avoided. The beginner's usual mistake is in cutting into the paper with hard wiry lines that cannot be erased and that hinder the motion of the pen. A 2H pencil sharpened to a long conical point is in general the best. Figs. 9 and 10 contain a carefully drawn Renaissance Roman alphabet. The stems are one-ninth of the height of the

letter,

and the hair

lines one-half the

width of the stems. The width of each letter is given in units, the unit being one-ninth of the height of the letter. A scale should be made by dividing the height into nine parts and marking these divisions on the edge of a strip of paper or a card.

The

fine-line circles

shown on

this plate are

and geometrical construction given for use in drawing the


I'lG. g.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Roman

Alphabet

(lirst hallj,

with a

Method 10

of Geometrical Construclion ior

Large

Letters.


Fig. io.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Roman Alphabet (second

half) with a

Method 11

of

Geometrical Construction for Large Letters.


Letter Construction letters to large size for architectural,

and other purposes

serifs,

and

will be described later. In studying this alphabet, top and bottom guide lines and a center or waist-line should be drawn, making the letters not less than one inch high, prefer-

much

ably

larger,

and

the letters

drawn

letter firmly in the

The

on

letters

as in the

in outline,

given in their alphabet-

ical order for convenience, but in studying

well to take 13,

them

and learn the

it

A of Fig. 11. O family the

indicated.

relationships. -5.

Fig. 12.

13^4

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Stages

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Typical Order and Direction of StroUes.

The widths should be marked

off from the paper keeping the stems of uniform width, following the general order and direction of strokes outlined in Fig. 11, always drawing the outlines of the main strokes of the letter first, then the

and the

of Construction.

letters B, P and R are sketched drawing the main stem, then starting the horizontal lines, then marking the extreme points of the curve. The inside lines of the curved strokes may be made before the outside, as the beauty of these letters depends largely on the shape of the enclosed space of the background. In inking the Old Roman as a solid freehand letter, a rather coarse writing pen should be used, and it is

The narrow curved

by

scale

The analyzed H is The letters with outside lines made first

is

-S_l

Fig. II.

fillets.

in their family order as given in Fig.

ju

jr.

them

the

outside curves of the O, Q, C, and D are circles and when done freehand should be drawn in two strokes as shown in Fig. 1 1. The inside curve is an ellipse, usually tilted at an angle as

In the

mind.

this plate are

finally

inclined sides should have the

freehand, fixing the proportion and characteristics of

each

and

typical for all the straight letters.

letters sketched,

12

first


OLD ROMAN r

-<rT7»

rrn

-?--'

;

r=p^

=4-lZ^-.J-.^Aj

1

J.

;'w'""T""S7":

Fig. ij.

—A

Shorl Serif

Roman

Alphalicl, Construe loi

13 /

on Squares.

4-


Lktter Construction better to ink a broad line

a brush for large as

shown

and

fill

first

and writers followed with other construcsome very complicated. The construction given in Figs. 9 and ro is on the

(using

architects

to the outline,

tions,

in Fig. 12, rather than to ink in the outline

order of these great precedents, but (

its

the inside

in.

The ampersand &) word ct. It is made in one

down

and build out

letters)

in Fig. 13

is

a

monogram

of

the Latin

practical use,

a great variety of forms, the

13

is

The modulus

Roman

The

alphabet, grouped in

family order, and with the letters enclosed in squares to

show

shorter

their proportions.

and

or metal.

The

serifs

on

thicker, suitable for raised letters in stone

In drawing them great care must be exer-

or unit

is

one-ninth of the height and

All the

fillets

on

vertical

with four centers with the construction shown in

the dotted lines.

method

for

stems, as has been stated, are one unit wide and

made

and the

drawing Roman letters in single stroke with a broad pen is given in Chapter V, page 44. Mechanical Construction. Occasions will arise, such as in the design of inscrijUion lettering, when it will be necessary to construct letters accurately with drawing instruments. Leonardo da Vinci published a book in 15 14 with a beautiful alphabet constructed geometrically, and several other noted mediaeval description of the

made

stems have a radius of seven-eighths of a unit. The small figure in all the other circles is the radius in units. The ellipses of the inside lines of the curved letters are

getting of a club-footed effect.

A

is

believed, will be found very

the light lines one-half unit.

this letter arc

cised to avoid any exaggeration of this shape,

is

the dimensions are given in terms of this unit.

all

another

it

easy to follow.

being an early form which shows clearly

derivation. Fig.

and

are

of

shown

in the

The dimensions for this construction O, Fig. 10, and are the same for all

the letters, the angle of

tilt

being 15 degrees, and the

found by marking the thickness of the stems from the outside curve, which is always a

radii of course being

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

circle.

In constructing these the

letters for

comment on page 40 should be

execution in stone observed.

This geometrical construction is given as a close mechanical approach to the forms of the letters. No 14


Letter Construction mechanical subtlety

construction,

and character

Figures 14 and 15 contain the alphabet and numerals Modern Roman, drawn in a slightly expanded

can impart the

however,

of the freehand curves.

of the

form, which

THE MODERN ROMAN

its

old prototype,

is

essentially inartistic

and

The

of

absolutely no value in design, as in the attempt for

uniformity

it

more pleasing

each

has become only mechanical and mo-

it is the standard letter of our government bureau of engraving and printing, coast survey,

and curved

lines,

horizontal lines from

topographic survey, and geological survey, and is in general use throughout the country for maps and all civil

it

therefore

must be mastered thoroughly

made with a much Roman, a usual proportion

while

may give some

It is generally

it

The

strokes of

letter

tised

over

and over

is

is

only by

it.

until

the student

The Roman

prac-

perfectly

letter is diflicult

strict attention to details that it

and

can be

In large letters an optical illusion similar to those mentioned on page 4 may be provided for. The width of the thickest part of a cuned letter, as the O, in order to appear to be of the same thickness as the stem of a straight letter, should be made a very little

of

effect of delicacy or refinement,

legibility of the letter at

to right.

should be studied and the

mastered.

width of stem to height being one to sLx, with comparatively very light hair lines and long serifs. This violent contrast, reduces greatly the

left

carefully.

vertical

letter

it

heavier face than

lines,

all

each

familiar with

engineering students.

the old

As is and inclined are made downward, and all

and should be followed

usual in freehand drawing,

in the

similar work;

work than

order and direction of strokes are indicated on

letter,

notonous, but

by

for ordinary

Using the width of the body stroke as a unit, the letters are sLx units high, and the width of each letter is indicated by the dimension in units. A convenient scale to mark off these dimensions may be made on the edge of a card or strip of paper.

In the eighteenth century modifications were introduced by some of the type founders which resulted in the letter in common use now in our books and newspapers, and which we have called Modern Roman. This modern form has lost all the variety and beauty of

is

the compressed or even the standard form.

a distance. 15


MODERN ROMAN c

I

a

3

4

s

I— 4j-

v.f-

l-M

!2

1 V4 ^

3|

r^^

H^

It

l-Mi

Hi-

Jt

1

A Fig. 14.

r

r-

r"^

"Hd

ILJ

^

— Construction of Modern Roman Letters and Figures. IG


MODERN ROMAN g

3

a

^

6

3

i)^

5

)'

r±ri

r'-d

riG. 15.

^

rrin

rii

rjir\

r^d

rij

2|

1

— Construction

of

Modem Roman 17

Letters anil Figures.

-


Letter Construction This variation is only "the width of a line," and must not be exaggerated. The curve of the round letters is not circular as in Taking the O as typical the outside the Old Roman. line is flattened slightly at the diagonals, as if it were made up of four curves at the extremities of the axes, and these connected by four longer curves, as illusThis is characteristic of all the trated in Fig. 1 6. curved letters, and the observance will give a grace to

terminal ball of the J,

wider.

The

inner line

is

in

used

to

a

Serifs.

lines

as is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Modern Roman

In practising the alphabet three horizontal guide should be drawn, the top, bottom and waist lines,

Great care must be

Modern Roman

not

Fig. 17.

nearly straight, and connected to

of the

the

to the rule that horizontal strokes are light.

avoid the crescent shape of Fig. i6.

The appearance

of

and B, illustrating the rule that two heavy strokes must never touch each other. It will be noticed that the numerals 2, 5, and 7 are exceptions

Modern Roman.

the outer by a transition curve.

a circle joined to the

R

curves of

the letters otherwise not obtainable.

Curve Shape

2 etc., is

stem by a small fillet. At (f) is shown the cusp or intersection

marred

shown

in the

upper

line of Fig. 14

penciled lightly using the

2H

and the

letters

pencil, with sharp con-

always adding the serifs and fillets last. In inking smaller sizes, the same order of strokes should be observed. For larger letters the inking

by poor serifs than in any other way. Correct and incorrect serifs and spurs are shown in enlarged form in Fig. 17. This figure also indicates that the

ical point,

oftener

18


Letter Construction

omit them. In very careful map work and the like the straight lines are sometimes inked with the ruling pen, and the

It has sometimes this style "Commercial Gothic." been called Egyptian, and in the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sun-ey, it is known as Block Letter. This letter should be used wherever boldness and Without legibility are of more concern than finish. the refinement and delicacy of the Roman, it is more easily made, and in "single stroke" form is used more on working drawings than all other styles

curves added freehand.

together.

should be done as described for the Old Roman, working out from a broad rough stroke between the lines.

In

letters

of the

smaller than 1/4" the

fillets

body strokes become so small

that

on the it is

serifs

best to

Figures 18 and 19 show the letter drawn with the thickness of stem one-sixth of the height, and in width a trifle expanded. In these plates a very

THE COMMERCIAL GOTHIC There is an unfortunate confusion about the term "Gothic" as applied to letters. All paleographers and art students apply the word, rightly, to the

"spur" has been added. In large brush or pen-made letters this spur adds materially in reslight

lieving the stiffness of appearance.

manuscript forms of the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries, written with a tilted pen and changing from the curved lines of the early or round Gothic But in this country to the angular of the later forms. the word Gothic is taken universally by printers, engravers, lithographers, the plain bold letter

and

sign writers to

made with uniform

For very bold, heavy

made

This in

serifs.

serif.)

Since the

letter is best

solid,

drawn

may be

stems

much

thicker are

in outline first

instead of building

it

and much care must be exercised

and

England the letter is called sansword is in such general favor by those who use letters commercially, we have called

without

one-fifth the height.

the

Strokes

not good except in special cases.

mean

strokes

effect,

to

(In

in

filled

Roman,

keeping the stems

Failure to obser\-e this rule results

uniform width. unpleasant appearance, as

in a very

The 19

and

out as the

order and

in Fig. 20.

direction of strokes for the outline


COMMERCIAL

60THIC

NHLFETN 1

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

4

1

5

'^

'^

d

4


COMMERCIAL.

GOTHIC

V

OQC G PP UT^

01

2

3

4

U51-I

Usi-I

U54-I

U5-J

5 6

R B S 8 3 2 U5-1

UaJ

U5J

6 9 5 7 & U^U

u^iJ

Iai^

Uj-J

L^iJ

Flc. 19.

— Spurred Commercial Gothic. 21

UaiA

UiJ

v-Al^

k5i-^


Letter Construction letter

is

in

may be

analyzed

in Fig. 21.

seen from the

already

entire

examples

typical

of

in

BB

will

made a

trifle

bull's-eye

/ncorrecr

be noticed that

O

O

By

of

ters,

done

in "single

of lettering

let-

and every engineer

must have absolute command of these styles. The and rapidly can be acquired by any draftsman, but it requires much careful practice with strict attention from the outset to the form and ability to letter well

proportion of each

and

letter, to

the sequence of strokes.

to the rules for composition.

The term

For the desired height,

"single stroke" does not

mean

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Typical Order and Direction

of Strokes.

necessary width, and for Gothic letters one which will also make the same width of line when drawn horizontally, obliquely or vertically. Leonardt's ball point 506F or 516F will make a line of sufficient width for letters 1/4" high, which is as large as would be used on an ordinary working drawing. For 3/16" letters 516EF or Gillott's 1032 are suitable, for smaller sizes Hunt's shot points, Gillott's 1050, 404 and 604 may be used. For single stroke letters larger than 1/4", the Payzant pens and Shepard pens are useful. The ruling pen should never be used for lettering. A coarse lettering pen may be made from an old ruling pen by rubbing

on draw-

stroke" or "one stroke"

either vertical or inclined,

pen, but the width

a pen must be selected which will give

Fig. :i.

the

amount

is

the exactly

of Fig. 16.

far the greatest is

letter.

the

pen

"full" to avoid the

effect

SINGLE STROKE LETTERS

ings

lifting

\^\

This is just the opposite of the rhomboidal shape

Roman

made without

is

circular shape.

Fig. 20.

is

the stem of the

therefore,

letter,

be drawn. It

letter

that the width of the stroke of the

guide lines as shown the upper line of Fig. 14 should

In the practice of this

of the

Roman

general similar to the

given, as

that the 22


STROKE GOTHIC

UPRIGHT SINGLE

|i

iH'

LW

E T N'- N' iK M M' j^ V

WXVZ

0>Q>C;GOUyL P a e s s; h 3 2 €> 6 a S i u—/'

£>,--'

>>—/-'

f/

*l v'^^

"'^—#'2

'v^'

i!!=r

->-•''

3>.

THE ABILITY TO LEITTEIR NA/ELL CAN BE ACQUIRED ONLV BV PERSISTENT AND CAREFUL PRACTICE ON WORKING DRAWINGS THE! STYLE! OF LETTERS IS USUALLY OF THE SIMPLEST CHARACTER, T H El '^COMMERCIAL GOTHIC"bE-

USED MORE THAN ANY OTHER STYLE LETTERS IN WORDS SHOULD BE CLOSE TOGETHER, BUT WORDS WELL SEPARATED.

ING

rsiOTES OM DF=!/=V\A'THE LETTERS SHOULD MOT BE LESS TMAM OME OME SIXTEENITM MOF=? Is/10F^E TI-I>^M EIGHTH OF^ /XM irvlCH IM HEIC3HT llvl

IMSS

THEiSE

SOtvlEWH/COFig.

—rE:i=?s

l_e:-i

/^p?e n/I/t^de FORrvl

ii^

EXTEMCDECS

— Analysis and Composition of Upright Gothic.

22.^

23

/^


Letti'.r

its

Construction

points very blunt and grinding a smooth ball end

drawn

to such proportion that roughly each fills a square space. In the proportion of width to height a general rule is that the smaller the letters the more

on them.

Some draftsmen prepare

a new writing pen by dropby holding it in a match iiame for two or three seconds, and some break it in further by writing a word or two lightly, on a hard Arkan-

same time makes a

sas oil stone.

seldom used

ping

it

extended they should be. A low extended letter is more legible than a high compressed one and at the

in alcohol, or

Single Stroke Vertical Caps.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The upright single

stroke "commercial gothic" letter

shown

in Fig.

better appearance.

This

letter is

Before commencing the practice of this alphabet, some time should be spent in preliminary practice to gain control of the pen. It

22

in

compressed form.

should be held easily as in writing, the strokes drawn with a steady, even motion, and a slight uniform pressure on the paper, not enough to spread the

^EE. Fig. 24.

For the first practice, draw in pencil and bottom guide lines for 1/4" letters and with a 516F ball pointed pen make directly in ink a series of vertical lines, drawing the pen down with a finger riioy^ment in the position shown in Fig. 23. This one stroke must be practised until the beginner can get lines vertical and of equal weight. nibs of the pen.

the

Fig. 2J.

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Position for Single Stroke Lettering.

a standard letter for working drawings of

scriptions. lighter

face.

It is the letter of Figs.

The analyzed

letters

18

all

de-

and 19 with

of Fig.

22

/////\\\\\CCC3DD â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Practice Strokes.

are 24

top


Lettkr Construction

Remember

that

it

drawing, not writing, and that of the penman must be

is

Professor

Follows

in

his

dictionary*

says:

"The

writer believes that for mechanical drawing, sloping

movements

the flourish

all

is

An argument used lettering is better than vertical. by those who favor vertical lettering is that there is only one vertical as against any number of slopes, and that it should therefore be easier to teach and But as a get uniformity with the vertical lettering.

not so objectionable, but the aim should be to have them vertical. When this stroke has been mastered,

matter of fact, it is probably easier to get a sufficiently uniform slope than a sufficiently exact vertical,

the succeeding strokes of Fig. 24 should be taken up.

because a very slight deviation from the vertical is In the average mechanical drawing noticeable. there are so many truly vertical lines to compare with that the eye more readily detects a deviation from the

avoided. vertical,

It if

may be found

so,

difficult to

direction lines

keep the

may be drawn,

lines

as in

It is 23, an inch or so apart to aid the eye. ruinous to the appearance of upright letters to allow

Fig.

them

to slant forward.

A

slight

backward

slant

These strokes are the elements of which the single After sufficient pracstroke letters are composed. tice with them, they should be combined into letters one pattern letter then drawing directly

than from any given slope.

Then, again, the

in the order of Fig. 22, penciling in

vertical

and numbering

sloping lettering stands out more clearly by contrast with

its

strokes,

in ink several beside

it.

p- 11 C

M— Ik

yl

K

I

\

A/

f

the vertical

/

and the horizontal

lines of the

drawing."

PI IN YV L. Care must be taken to much Ink. 1 Fig. 2=;. Too 11 J ^ keep all angles and mtersections clean and sharp; getting too much ink on the pen is responsible for appearances of the kind

order and direction of strokes for the capitals of this form are the same as in the upright form, but these letters are usually not extended.

shown

proportion of

1

in Fig. 25.

Single

Stroke

Inclined

Capitals.

—The

stroke letter inclined to a slope of between Go is

preferred

by perhaps a majority

The

\

of

A common

slope for the inclined letters is to the giving an angle of 68° -|-, which

2 to 5,

may be made by

single

and 70°

line

draftsmen.

and

five

on a

laying off two units on a horizontal Triangles of 67 1/2° vertical line.

* Universal Dictionary of

25

Mechanical Drawing.

G. H. Follows. 1906.


STROKE GOTHIC

INCLINED SINGLE Order and d'fVCf'On of sfrvi'es used

or higher

ML EF TMiN/'KmhMhAW

II

^

Ib^ 'ef'ers^

^

/

i

'^

j"

I

'-air

'

"^

WtMumvmMwimx/wyff^'z jiMiLE'P TMMKmf-mmywx yzm o> o c

O/zfer arrd dtnec/ion ofsfrokes for smaller /effers

Compressed

/br^r?

^

AmCDEF6HIJKLMNOP0RSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Fig. 27.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Analysis

of Strokes for Single Stroke Inclined

26

Caps and Lower-case.


Letter Construction by the dealers and are very convenient. In rapid lettering some find it easier to use a somewhat

cipher

are sold

greater slant (as If

much

O

the cur\'e

should

will

be noted

is

narrower than the O, and the

back-bone of the 6 and 9 are made of the same

ciu-\-es.

as 60°).

containing

a rectangle

flexible

it

be

a

inclined,

would take the form

illustrated in Fig.

26,

sharp in

upper right-hand and lower left-hand corners, and stretched flat in the other two corners. It is the

the observance of this characteristic that

is

the secret

of success with the inclined letters.

Fig. 29.

— Practice Strokes,

witii

Direction Lines.

ARE USED BY MANY DRAFTSMEN IN PREFERENCE TO THE UPRIGHT INCLINED GOTHIC CAPITALS

D6 9 Fig. 28.

SINGLE STROKE CAPITALS.

KEEP THE LETTERS CLOSE TOGETHER AND THE STROKES UNIFORM IN SLANT AND THICKNESS.

— Relationships.

Fig. 28 illustrates this principle with the curs-es used in the S family,

showing the directions of the major axes

of the ellipses formed.

The

Fig. 30.

close relationship of the

In practising the inclined letters the top and bottom guide lines should be drawn, and a sufficient number

and 3 should be noted. The second line of Fig. 28 shows the relationship of the o, 6, and 9. The

B

,

—Composition.

S, 8

27


Lettkr Construction This

keep the letters This slope must be observed

of direction lines at the given angle to to

a uniform slope.

with particular care in the case of the letters with sloping sides as ecjual

shown

^4,

11',

etc.,

whose

lines

It is

must make

Figs.

27

and

29.

Fig.

30

illustrates

is

its

fast.

swing has been mastered These letters are used

with the inclined gothic capitals and are made with two-thirds the height of the capitals, the

ascending

use for this purjiosc

very legible, and after

bodies

the

appearance of this letter in paragra]:ih composition. Single Stroke Inclined Lower-case. Thus far our discussion has been entirely on capital letters. The minuscule or lower case letters of the Roman and upright gothic are very rarely used on working drawings because of the difficulty of execution. It is desirable, however, to have a lower-case letter for notes on drawings on account of the increased legibility, as we read words by their word-shapes and are more familiar with these shapes in lower-case letters. Paragraphs printed entirely in capital, letters are monotonous in form and hard to read. The one letter to

all

can be written very

angles on each side of the direction line, as in

minuscule reduced to its lowest unnecessary hooks and appendages.

letter is the

terms, omitting

letters

the capitals

hdfltkll

extending to the height of

and the descenders gjpqy dropping the

same distance below.

Fig. 31.

—Basis

All the letters of the

— the

of Reinhardt Letter.

Reinhardt alphabet are based

straight line, and the ellipse whose conjugate axes are the slope line and the horizontal line, and consequently whose major axis

on two elements

the single stroke in-

Reinhardt letter in honor of Mr. Charles W. I^einhardt of the Engineering News whose work has for a generation been admired by draftsmen, and who first reduced the style to a system in his well-known book "Lettering for Engineers." clined letter, called the

is

about 45°. Fig. 31. The general direction of is always downward or from left to right, and

strokes

their order

The 28

is

effect

given in the last three lines of Fig. 27. of this letter depends almost entirely


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Design and Composition on the uniformity of slope, and constant care must be observed to keep the strokes parallel.

BeginnersVardcssMisUkes

ahedfhopquvN xys

Then

the sharp extremities.

take up the letters as

given in Fig. 27, noticing the order and direction of strokes, and swinging them to a mental count of one,

two, one, two.

^c

Fig. 32.

Draw and

Fig. 34.

top and bottom guide lines, and slope lines,

practice the

7776'

O

as the basis of the curved letters,

''Reinhardf letter is

As soon as the shapes of the letters have been learned way the entire practice should be devoted to In this their composition into words and sentences. the one rule must be remembered Keep llie letters The close together, and with full, uniform bodies.

used

in this

for notes on working drawings,

and can be made of especial

very rapidly. It is

value on drawings

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Fractions.

made

beginner's invariable mistake

cramp the

for photo - reproduction.

too

far

letters

apart.

is

to

and space them

Fig.

32.

Words ^

When necessary, on account ofrestricted space, it may be very much compressed and

an example

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

rhythm and swing has been acquired, the

pen moving faster in the middle of the stroke than

of spacing of letters,

words and

Ovi

IS

lines.

Special attention should be paid to the practice of the numerals, getting them round and full-bodied.

and

distinct still be held clear Composition (Drawn by C. W. Reinhardt). Fig. ^i. until a certain

wu

should be separated to a distance Fig. about equal to the height of the Paragraphs are always indented. Fig. letter.

Fractions are

made with

a horizontal line

ing over the guide lines as

at

29

shown

and extend-

in Fig. 34.


ITALICIZED

ROMAN A.ND STUMP LETTERS

IHLFE TNKMAVW XYZ14 O Q CGD UJPR BS83220695577& abc defgh ijklnnn opqrst uvwxyz -^ 1234567800 The stump letter is a simform ofthe printer italic, and is much used in map drawing, patent office

plified

drawing and similar work. Fig. 36.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Inclined Roman,

with

30

Stump

Letters for Lower-case.


Letter Construction

A

variation of the Reinhardt letter,

"pumpkin seed" In

letter is preferred

the curves of

it

elliptical, as in Fig. 35. is

the

same

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

ROMAN CAPITALS

inclined or italicized

shown in Fig. and as capitals

36,

is

form

of

Roman

capitals,

stump

letters

which

lines.

slant letters,

requirement

the

first

letters,

two strokeriKould be/ In

this, is

as in

all

tht

uniformity of

and width of line. The hafi- lines may be made same stroke as the body, or added with a quick down stroke. This second method is preferred by some draftsmen as it prevents the blur in the angle which sometimes occurs with a sharp pen and paper whose fibre is apt to catch. The strokes of Fig. 37 should be mastered before attempting to draw the letters. either with. the

follow.

a fine flexible pen, the very small

one stroke, springing the pen for the shaded by making two strokes for the

lines, the large sizes

stems and following the same orders as in Figs. 14 and 15. In letters less than 1/4" high, brackets on the serifs of the

Except for the smallest used for the shaded slope

used for water features on maps

for the

made with

sizes in

time for its execution, consequently it should not be chosen except for display work. A^ fine flexible pen should be selected for letters from 1-20" to i-io" high, the Gillott 290 and 291, i-io" to 2-10" Gillott 170, for larger ones, Giilcm_303,. /

as the Reinhardt.

as

It is

much more

as the

abdgpq are pointed instead of The remainder of the alphabet

INCLINED

The

known

by some draftsmen.

body marks should not be attempted. 2, 5 and 7 are shown.

Alternate forms of the numerals,

mill uiillo

STUMP LETTERS

The stump letter is a simplified form of the printer's and is much used in map drawing, patent office

I

italic,

a

%i( l,U^

drawing, and other careful work. It is more difficult than the single stroke letter of Fig. 27 and requires

U U U4

Fig. 37.

31

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Practice Strokes for Stump Letters.


CHAPTER

III

Composition and Titles becoming familiar with

After

individual

we

letters

are

ready

the to

forms of the

is

compose them

gained not by spacing the

at equal

letters

dis-

tances apart, but so that the areas of white space

words and the words into sentences, and, as one reads an entire word or even a group of several words at a glance, the necessity for proper spacing of the letters and words is evidently of just as much importance as the correct formation of the letters.

between the

into

makes

it

letter in

letters

are approximately equal.

This

necessary to consider the shape of each

connection with the following

for example,

the

word

letter.

LETTERING.

Take,

In Fig. 38

the letters have been spaced so that the clear dis-

LETTERING

LETTERING

Fig. 39.

In

this

letters

in

spacing of

we

shall

words,

have

(2)

to notice (i)

lines, all of

(3)

which are design problems

the disposition of white

tances between

the spacing of

the spacing of words,

and black, and

the

ever,

sideration, the L,

be given. letters

in

words uniformity of

The

equal. first

eflect,

how-

appear much But if the word be

letters

letters

into

con-

and T would be set closer gether because of the amount of white space cluded between them, the two T's still closer

solution

In spacing

them are

not uniform; the

farther apart than the last ones. spaced taking the shapes of the

in

their suc-

depends on the artistic perception of the draftsman more than on any rules which might cessful

is

they have a

effect

32

E

maximum

of white space

to-

in-

as

under them.


Composition and Titles

N

while between the vertical stems I and

and

the widest space,

left

closer than the

IN

the

G

would be

would be a

set

less than a space equal to the height of the letter nor more than twice this space. For the spacing of lines, no fixed rules can be given. In the Old Roman the lines are frequently drawn very close together, sometimes closer than those in Fig. 6. The clear distance between lines of Old Roman may vary from one-third to one and

little

away from

as

its

stroke cun'es

Thus while no two

of

the letters are the

the line of the N.

distance apart,

the

word appears

to

same be uniformly

spaced.

A with

word or all

line

one-half times the height of the

should be sketched in very lightly

the details of the letters omitted, the effect

lettering,

it is

In inscription

letter.

usually less than the height.

should be penciled more carefully and the details

For single stroke caps the space may be from and three-fourths, and for single stroke lower case and stump letters two to three

added.

times the height of the body.

studied and the letters shifted until the appearance is

uniform.

When

this

is

satisfactory,

the

three-fourths to one

lino

must be kept close together. The snap and "swing" of the professional draftsman's work comes largely from two things keeping the letters full and round and close together, and the strokes to a uniform slope. The beginner's invariable mistake of cramping the letters and spacing them too far apart has already been

The appearance of notes with several lines is improved by keeping the right edge as straight as possible, as well as the left. (See Figs. 30 and ^;}.) Paragraphs should always be indented.

mentioned.

necessary information concerning

In single stroke

lettering, the letters

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

TITLES

Every drawing should have a

in

compressed

lettering)

should

never

giving

the

a style that conforms to its character. This information will, of course, vary for different classes of drawings, but two items are alwavs necessarv, the names and the

Words should be spaced so as to be read easily and naturally. The clear distance between words (except

title,

be 33

it

in


Composition and Titles

Even

date.

be dated.

(2)

a machine or structural

(3)

Name and Name and

the merest sketch should always

In general, the

of

title

drawing should contain: (i) Name of machine or structure. (2) General name of parts (or simply "details"). (3) Name of purchaser, if special machine. (4) Manufacturer; company or tirm name and

(6)

usually date of completion of tracing.

(7)

Number

(8)

Key

and address

of architect.

(in the set).

to materials.

Signed

approval of

trustees

or commission

A map

title

would contain as many as necessary

of the following items:

marks

(i)

Kind— "Map

of the draftsman, tracer, checker, approval of

(2)

Name.

chief draftsman, engineer or superintendent.

(3)

Location of

tract.

(4)

Purpose,

special features are represented.

Drafting room record; names,

initials

or

Numbers; of the drawing, of the order. The filing number is often repeated in the upper left hand corner upside down, for convenience drawing should be reversed

in the

drawer. architectural drawing

would have part or

Kind

if

whom

(5)

For

(6)

Engineer

(7)

Date

(8)

Scale

of," etc.

made.

in charge.

(of survey).

—stated and drawn.

(9) Authorities. (10) Legend or key to symbols.

all

of the following: (i)

Name

for public buildings.

often omitted from fully dimensioned detail

in case the

An

(6)

(10)

drawings.

(8)

Scale.

Scale or scales; desirable on general drawings, •

(7)

(5)

address of client or owner.

(9) Office record.

address. (5) Date;

(4)

Date.

location of building.

of view elevation, plan, perspective (sometimes put on different part of sheet). 34

(11)

North point.

(12)

Certilication.


Composition and Titles which

In each case these items must be "displayed" to their relative importance judged from the point of view of the persons who would use the drawing, the more important lines being made prominent by the size and arrangement of the letters.

and

according

is

balanced or "justified" from a center

of elliptical or oval outline, as Fig. 42.

times the wording pyramid form.

necessitates a

1

I

a^

1

1

1

1

1!

I

I

line,

Some-

pyTamid or inverted

AW or 'f lAi!. 1/

I

OlHIIiq

/Âť

A*toC.

[

lAfi Al [.J

\Ca

111

M

^

M.

^^

rii lUi i|KijÂŤ,

f'

l.S'oo

({)lllh

IK'IIIK

)S

cq o

aasoo. I

Fis. 40.

The position and shape of the title will depend on the space provided or left for it. The lower right hand corner of the sheet is from long custom and on account of convenience in filing, the usual location, and in laying out a drawing this corner is reserved The shape is a matter of design. The if possible. commonest form is that of the symmetrical title

^^12 Fig. 41.

In designing a symmetrical

title

one would

write out the arrangement on a piece of paper

count 35

the letters in

each

line,

first

and

counting a space be-


Composition and Titles tween words as a

letter,

and, after making allowance

for letters of different widths, as I

the

middle

first

layout for the

of

each

40

Fig.

line.

title

illustrates

A

of Fig. 42.

only enough of the letter to show the space

and W, marking

The

occupy.

length

in.

Some

prefer to

half sketched

backward from

this half

practice the

little

will

first

TERDM

OIL FIELDS CO.

F.

first

it

then be

FRONT -ELEVATION

SHOWING

&

and the

the center line, but after a

CENTRAL OHIO U. S. G.

work

should

half

this

transferred to the other side

the

vertical center

MAP OF

GAS AND

of

CiARLEJ-P-WCDDJ •ARClilTE.CT •

COLUMBUS. SCALE

O.

67^)

62500

Fig.

1912 Fig. 42.

is

then

tant line

ing

is

lines

line

for

letters

first

to

and the work

commenc-

effect

the right,

if

and drawing ,3a

43.— a

Full-panel Title.

After this most

be found preferable.

line

the other lines

of

The most impor-

and working

the last half of the line

will

important

then sketched in very lightly,

on the center

making

method

— Symmetrical TiUe.

drawn, and guide appropriate size for each line. line

WILLIAMJONBV1LDING--CLEVEIAMD

is

satisfactory

may be

in

size

and spacing,

executed in the same way,

at this stage will

be as

in Fig. 41.

The

should then be studied, lines or letters shifted necessary and the title completed in pencil. As a rule, all letters should be inked entirely free-


Composition and Titles hand. ings

Sometimes, on highly finished maps or drawfor reproduction the straight lines are ruled

and the curves drawn freehand, or, for "large letters, the curves may be drawn with the compass or French curve. To avoid blotting, the strokes should not be filled in solid until after the drawing has been finished. The general rule, never combine vertical and slant letters in the same title, should be observed.

DETAL OP BEAVER .STREET ELEV\T10N 5CALE J INCH

BUILDING

37 WtiT

34.".5T

The

full

panel

5CALE:

DATE

HOWELL & THOMAS ARCHITECTS

COL-SAV. & TRUST

a variation of the symmetrical

form, often used in architectural work,

5ID£ ELEVATION

3-13-09

— "Left Edge" Composition.

title,

5

179

GREEN ARCHITECTS NYC.

Fig. 44.

Alo.

/io.

1

NEW YORK CITY KIRBY PETIT "•"

DD.WD.PORim OMcmnAn, OHIO. SHEET

RtSIDCliCC rOR

p-OOT POR AMERICAN BANK NOTE CO.

=

OFFICE BUILDING

and is therefore of value for quick sketchesSpace fillers are sometimes added to give balance, but they must be handled carefully for artistic effect. Formerly titles were often made with cun-ed lines and much elaborate ornamentation. These forms are, happily, obsolete, and any decoration or ornapenciling,

is

-

made by Fig. 45.

spacing the letters so that the lines are of equal length,

no matter how many letters each contains. Fig. 43 is an example. The Old Roman is the only letter that permits of this wide letter spacing. Another form often used in architectural and other work is illustrated in Fig. 44. This form has a distinct advantage in not requiring careful preliminary

BLD6.

COLVMBUO,

OHIO.

— Boxed Tide.

ment is now considered as bad form. Letters should not be drawn or shaded in an attempt to make them appear to have thickness or to stand out from the paper. Punctuation marks are not necessary in a title

except in case of abbreviations.

The

^07 Z^

title

on a working drawing

is

usually boxed


Composition and Titles from the drawing as

off

illustrated in Fig.

large offices the parts of this kind of

common

to

all

45.

In

which are drawings are often printed on the title

tracing cloth in order to save time in the drafting

room. Fig. 46 is the blank form of a well-known company. The originals of Figs. 45 and 46 are about five inches long, on sheets from 18 to 30 inches. A form of title which is growing in favor is the "record strip," a narrow strip marked off entirely across the lower part of the sheet, containing the information reciuircd of orders,

changes,

of such a title

ings to

it is

is

in the title, etc.

shown

The

and space

for record

general arrangement

in Fig. 47.

In shop draw-

often printed in blank on the paper or cloth

be used.

The

lettering

on

all

in single stroke, often

titles is done very quickly without preliminary penciling.

such


CHAPTER

IV

Selection of Styles amount

In lettering a drawing the style selected and the of time spent in its execution must be appropriate to the kind of drawing. A carefully rendered

in each stroke as in Fig. 48 giving being incised.

map

or display drawing will require careful lettering

a single stroke

and

will

shop

detail requires only legibility

permit of time for

its

For Architectural Work.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

For smaller

all

INCISED -EFFECT IS -OBTAINED -BY

the

titles,

and notes

put on drawings for information; the second. Design Lettering, covering drawings of letters to be executed in stone or

USING-THIRD-LINE Z J'R

bronze or other material in connection with

design.

The Old Roman pose all

letter,

his

is the architect's one general purwhich serves him, with few exceptions, for

work

in

both divisions.

and lettering on working drawings, Old Roman, Fig. 49, based on the

titles

execution, while a

and demands speed. There are two dis-

tinct divisions in the architect's use of letters, the first,

Office Lettering, including

Its

Fig.

48.â&#x20AC;&#x201D; An

Effective

Roman

center line of the regular letter

Old Roman

given

is

usually is

drawn

Letter.

characteristics

have been fully discussed and illustrated in Chapter II. For titles on finished architectural drawings the

Sometimes emphasis

the appearance of

it

very effective.

in outline, as in Fig. 13.

A

given by running a center line 39

much

It

can be

of

is

much used and is and may be

rapidly

and beauty of its parent. freedom may be taken with this

of the variety

good deal

made


Selection of Styles letter

if it is

done with a

real regard

and

feeling for

to

its

be used.

Letters on stone are generally incised,

V

form, and depend for their effect not on

beauty.

or sunk, in

For notes on architectural drawings the Reinhardt The letter is well adapted, as it is simple and legible. key to good form is simplicity. The day of the wild letter on which the architects allowed their fancy free There is an individuality in lettering rein is passed. often as marked as in handwriting, but there must be

the outline but on the shadows cast by the sides.

Consec^uently the strokes must be wider than for the

same

This

is

also true

for all letters

which

of difference in color.

PQR5T0VV/WXY.^

W

^&

ABCbcrotijjriLnno

— Single Stroke Roman.

P ClRoSTU

of flourishes,

riot

and indeed

/X\6CDErQ11!JKl/AriI10

OPQR5TUVWXYZI; no grossncss of exaggeration, nor nor wandering of free lines.

when drawn on paper.

depend on shadow instead

ABCDEFGHIJKLAAN Fig. 49.

effect

for "scjuare-sunk,"

Fig. 50.

AYZlfc:

— Free Modifications.

JModificatifns »f the proportions, whli^aare legiti-

mate and sometimes

m^B,

])lcasing, are often

such as

construction of Figs. 9 and 10 may be used for accurate drawings for this purpose, keeping the diam-

mscrip-

eters of fillets

The

the "high-waistecl'lletters of Fig. 50.

The

architect slrould not attempt to desi,

tions for

permanent structures

until

he

is

limitations

pf^e

as given, but increasing the

width of the strokes. If far above the eye the letters will be made taller in proportion to their width and with much wider hori-

'loroughly

familiar with lette^lt their construction ajig spacing,

and knows the character and

and curves

material 4U


Selection of Styles zontal

than the standard form,

lines

to

allow

For a finished map, vertical modern Roman for land features, and inclined Roman and stump letters for water features should be used. The well-known maps of the Geological Survey contain good examples

for

foreshortening.

In designing lettering for large inscriptions, to be cut on public buildings for example, the architects will

draw the

often

letters

to

full

size,

each on a

of this kind of lettering.

For signals, signs or other lettering designed to be painted in connection with railway or other engineering, legibility is the first requirement, and no letter

separate sheet, and tack them up on a wall to study

In very careful work model

the spacing.

letters are

sometimes made

One

rule

in plaster and studied in place. must be remembered Never crowd Old

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

but

Roman. Bronze

tablets are usually

either flat-top or

made with raised The body

modeled round.

making

on the tablet illustrated in Fig. 96 are and the hair lines 2/3 of this width. In

should

be

but executed rapidly. The single stroke capitals, either upright or inclined, for titles, and the Reinhardt

full size

letters as

for notes should

be familiar with the Uncial

stump

given in the succeeding chapter,

clerks'

architect should

and Gothic

On

for use with the appropriate architectural styles.

For

gothic

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

design drawings for cast bronze work, a shrinkage of 1/8" in 10" should be allowed.

The

commercial

For Shop Drawings. On working drawings of any kind no time may be wasted on lettering. It must be legible and uniform, sized and placed well,

letters,

strokes

of the letters

1:7 1/2,

upright

the

permitted.

Map Drawing. â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The

style of lettering

done

on a

map

will depend upon the purpose for which the map made. If for constructive purposes, such as a railroad or sewer map, the single stroke Gothic for titles and the Rcinhardt for notes, are to be preferred.

letters,

be used exclusively. Roman letters, "geometrical" letters, and shipping

marking

letters are all

out of plac%.

patent office drawings the lettering in

stump

occasion to

make

letters.

is

generally

Any draftsman who has

patent drawings should send to the

Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C, requesting a copy of the " Rules of Practice," which gives all the requirements for drawing and lettering.

is

41


CHAPTER V Letters The

in

comparison the most useful be used oftener than all other styles together, and it is safe to recommend that the student when in doubt use Old Roman. The Old Roman letters have been discussed and aiialyzx'd in Chapter II and it will be the first duty of

were written for those use lettering only as an adjunct to the "graj)hical language" of their office drawings. Lettering in design is a far wider field. preceding

who

Here the designer uses statement

words

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;but

for

it

information

own

its

He

composition.

lettering not only to

convey

to

uses

by

The

artist

the

make

a

written

the designer to

forms.

a back-

or decorative designer must then

not only be familiar with

the

fundamental forms

explained in the previous chapters and the rules

ui)<)n

which they are based but must have at his command other historical and modern alphabets and know the appropriateness of each for

its

They must will

Referring to the historical outline of Chapter I

it is

THE OLD ROMAN that the

Old Roman

is

familiar with these

to

the adjoining letters.

not be tortured out of shape nor driven to to do,

but once the

artist

has that real feeling of personal acquaintance and familiarity, the letters can be coaxed into doing almost anything he wishes them to do. The lower limb of a

be considered.

remembered

become thoroughly form is shown

early

do things they do not want

In this chapter the principles and peculiarities of

and periods

It will

considered with reference

place.

the useful letters of different styles

An

all

in Figs, i and 5, and some Renaissance forms in Figs. 6, g and 10. These are monumental forms of classic beauty and dignity. As a pen-drawn letter the Old Roman admits of much freer treatment, and in composition not only the position, but the size and shape of each letter is

with his ornament, he uses fill

and beyond

letter for the designer.

inherent beauty of line and it

as ornament, to break a space or to

ground.

the styles,

chapters

students and draftsmen

Design

may be extended and the following letter, a vowel usually, perched on it, the swash lines of the letter

the parent of all

42


Letters in Design be increased indefinitely. They may however be condensed if lack of space demands it. In condensing, the straight line letters and narrow letters may be compressed up to the limit before the O family have

R and Q may extend almost indefmitely, the top of a T may reach above the guide line and allow letters to play under it, two letters may have a common stroke round letters may be linked together, serifs may run into each other, and feet may be shortened or lengthened, all easily and naturally if the designer be on sufficiently intimate

Roman

,

(D\PRSEDRQM^

terms with the family; but the

in its dignity resents

any such familiarity from

0,UFbD0UBTv5 -AR^ -Tl^AfToRS

V5INGJVCNORAM-6

-

•A^D•MAKi -US -LP^E'TE-QOOD WE-OFT-MIGHT-WIN-BY- FEARING. •TO -ATTEMPT- - -^HAJ^PEARi^

(PNJOMDMEI^

Fig. 51.

To make

a stranger. its

— Freedom

in

WH-SQEFRIKDM

Composition.

Fig. 52.

a letter larger or smaller than

been squeezed out of round. The expedient of using common strokes in monogram-combinations, and of linking the round letters will often save the required space. Fig. 52 is an extreme example. For careful work in design the Roman is to be regarded as a draivn letter, to be outlined and finished

no more apparent reason than the desire pure affectation. illustrates something of the freedom

fellows with

for oddity

is

Fig.

51

referred

to.

Old Roman

letters should not be stretched out in extended form, but the spaces between the letters may

43


Letters as has been described. effectively,

after the

single stroke with a

It

may however be

manner

in

corner

ivrillcn

Large

of Fig.

72, tilted at a slight angle as shown in Fig. 53 and N W, etc. The figure turned for the thin lines of shows also the little extra stroke used to form the fillet.

used for such touches as

serifs

Roman

letters

may be made

easily

and rapidly same

position as the pen.

IIBCE EM

roman -written- in

//AAFIB

thin-l1ne5 bgj qvxy

Fig. 5j.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Broiid Pen

Roman

surprising

how

single-stroke- with tie;- pen -turned- for -

Fig. 54.

Construction.

After the forms of the letters have been learned

they almost shape themselves

on

in single stroke with a flat sable brush held in the

M

is

may be

horizontal lines, etc.

of the old scribes, in

broad pen, such as those

Design

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Broad Pen Roman.

ROMAN LOWER-CASE. The

it

when

so-called

Classic

forms of the Old

consist only of capital letters,

and designs

done in single stroke with the broad pen. Larger letters are built up of two strokes for the body mark, and for very large ones the full stroke of the pen may be made for the thin lines. If a reed pen is used it may be cut either scjuare Its across or at a slant, to fit the hand of the writer.

and

calling for stateliness or dignity of

sition capitals

Roman

in titles, inscriptions,

would be used throughout.

compo-

A

para-

graph or page of solid caps, however, is not easily read, as we read words by their shapes and are accustomed to these shapes in lower-case letter combinations, hence in longer sentences, quotations and the 44


Letters in Design vention of printing, so for models to combine with our Roman capitals we go back to the type forms of Jenson

a less formal effect and at the same time greater legibility is secured by using caps and lower case. like,

of the fifteenth centurs".

and the master printers

Type

degenerated so steadily after that period that William Morris once exclaimed, "There has not been a decent

so^^^^

m^^^mi

from which

book printed since the sixteenth centun,-." But we have the same freedom in our pen-drawn small letters as in the capitals, not being limited by the

*° *^^^ examples M^^M ^^^ithis perfected Ro-

of

man

type^ to wit, the

works

of

daLccideefg^nijklmn

the great Venetian printers of the fifteenth century, of whom Nicholas Jenson produced the

(®pqrisstuvwxyz<S Fig.

and most Roman characters from 1470 to 1476,

completest

like print.

Roman

and reached

its

definite

form

It

should look

much

better, or at least

very different.

lower-

The body

case letter was the final step in the evolution from the Caroline,

Lower-case.

body as arc the printers, and can extend lines or combine shapes, giving an individuality to the It is no lettered page impossible to the printed one. compliment to a designer to say that his lettering looks

— Jenson Type.

Referring again to the history, the

— A Roman

size of the type

—W. MORRIS. Fig. 55.

-lb.

after the in-

fifths

45

letters are

made from

one-half to three-

the height of the capitals, with the ascenders


-

Letters in Design Cap line Waist line -

Baseline-^

equal to the caps and the descenders slightly shorter. Much care and Judgment must be exercised in having the small letters "fit" the caps; the usual fault is

pai£"*^ cc

light.

The

strokes will be thinner

EUEKE KAISERLICH

-t" line

mno

UnD k'ONlGLICHE MAIEST^T/ALLEB CN^DIGSTER

pqrstuvwxyz

Eine

HERR,!

Empfindung beseelt

unsere Herzen: aie Treue

Si7ic)le'5tTokeRomarL writ

und Land/w/elche seinahrhunderlen die

zu Furst

tea witK broad pea is a letter

oFmuch piTLctical value as it b DotK artistic and legible. Fig. 57.

them too

in getting

Fig. 58.

— A Light Face German E.itample.

than those of the caps but are not reduced in the same proportion as the heights, and the bodies of the letters same time be a little wider in proportion

— Broad Pen Lower-case.

will at the

than 40

the

corresponding

capitals.

The

principal


Letters in Design diiEculty in

the page to

The

drawing lower-case a uniform color.

letters is in

keeping

tion,

A

spacing

for

Fig. 55

with a

is

a once popular type face, Fig. 56 a free

pen-drawn style. Fig. 58 a light face letter from Dr. von Larisch's "Unterricht," and Fig. 59 a modern

MODERN TYPE FACE .

practice

satisfactory results with lower-case can be obtained.

a page' of lower-case composition is to divide the sp^^ between base lines into three equal parts, making the caps and ascenders simplest

Much

must be spent in composiwith careful study of good examples, before

as the w.

type-face of classic beauty.

The examples

distinctive, classic

of printer's type are given as care-

examples Their composition is not fully

beauty, named after a famous old family of art-craftsmen,

studied

of

the

individual

to be copied.

Far

writer to try to imitate their regularity. of the lettered

page

is

in its

letters.

less is the

The charm

freedom and individuality.

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

THE UNCIAL

BGHIJKLQSUVWXZ^ â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

In historical order the next letter for the designer is the Uncial, although it is the later or Lombardic form

Fig. 5g.

Delia Rubbia Type.

shown in Fig. and j are on the "t line" half-way between the "waist line" and the

two-thirds and the bodies one-third, as 57.

The

which

"cap

is

dots on

the

Bat!iiiimniiiiiii[in)ix:)[iHH

i

Fig. 60.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; From a German Bronze.

line."

The letters of Fig. 57 are wTitten with a broad pen held in the same position as for the single stroke capitals, turning it when necessary for such letters

that

is

of particular value

and

interest.

There

is

not

form of the Roman. It has many and wide variations developed by different

in this letter the fixed

47


^mmmmm'i' GERIMAN

LJMCI/\J_ =

L

FRENCH Fig. 6i.

-^•l^-J

UMCIALS

—Two Practical Uncial Forms. 48


Letters in Design scribes

and

in

different

characteristics are easy to

countries,

but

remember and

its

Several practical working examples are given in the accompanying figures. The upper alphabet of Fig. 61 was drawn from German bronzes, and the lower

general

the letter

is

CiHOPftM Fig. 62.

vsaxyz

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Compressed Uncial.

Fig. 6;.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; E.xtended

The normal square may be compressed as

not difficult to draw.

adapted from French sources.

called

proportion of these alphabets

These letters are sometimes Versals from their use on the manuscript page

to indicate the

beginning of a section or paragraph.

in Fig. 62 or

49

extended as

Uncial.

in Fig. 63.


Letters in Design Fig. 64 Fig.

is

an American

tyj^e

form of pleasing design.

65 contains suggestions for treatment of orna-

mented initials, drawn from various sources. Much of the charm of such work, however, lies in the color, which cannot be indicated in black and white.

The

Uncial bodies

single stroke in the

drawing the

may be made

same way

as the

successfully in

Roman

letters,

finer lines with the corner of the reed,

or with a finer pen.

GSHCQQOQQR Fig. 64.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Missal Type.

The Uncial may be used in all caps, although some regard must be had for the reading public's lack of familiarity with

it.

It is apjjropriate in ecclesiastical

work or wdth any Gothic design, and is of particular value for initials, and as caps for Gothic lower-case letters.

Lines of Uncial should be kept close together,

Fig. 65.

50

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Ornamented

Initials

from Manuscriiits.


Letters in Design forms are obsolete and rnust be modified to be deit has a primitive strength that com-

always closer than the height of the letter. Fig. 66 from the shrine of St. Simeon illustrates the extreme

and

of this close spacing,

modern example

that

is

Fig. 67

is

cipherable, but

a single stroke

6a bist ip hicDcneL/GG'heiliqeT 0)613?

VATGT^ a^s6^^/66^^

well spaced.

oe oem nBoie/ -zukocnme ans oem Reic]i/6ein a3ill6 Qeschehe cDie im himmeL

:^.-r;m'^-:rju<fy :L:/.:&&m

fiLso fiuch fiUF

ei^en- qib

ans heare anseR TfiqLiches BROT an6 vGRqiB ans an^*

^f^m-f}!:

iur/^mTmi:

Fig. 67.

— From Dr.

v.

Larisch's " Unterricht."

bines well with the characteristic spirals

ments of the ornament of that period.

and

interlace-

Fig. 68

is

a

y\a:6ccIt)eii^hiLTn Fig. 66.

— Embossed

wnopqRSt7u_;c(^^

Silver, 13S0.

THE CELTIC

The

Irish

centuries,

half-uncial

known

of

the

Fig. OS.

sixth

in design as Celtic,

been used recently with good

is

effect.

— Celtic Alphabet.

Book

of Kells.

and seventh working alphabet adapted from the Book of Kells and Fig. 69 is an example showing its derivation from

a style that has

Many

of

its

ol


.

Letters in Design the Celtic, ful

by Mr. Dwiggins, one

of the artists success-

with this style, and whose work for Mr. Alfred

Bartlctt, the publisher,

o

is

well

known.

turmun^icmralcm* ^imc accepwte famfWumi ,

|N£ da^, with

life

and

^

heaRUT

m(ftticoft(tttOttc$ et|o(otau|

more than time enough to find a woR^d ldwell

jiimncmtponcmfuperalta!

Is

I'lG. 6y.

Ii\'

iJtmumDimlo$*6(6na*

Sanac ctmt)iuit)ucmmwt5

W". A. Dwiggins.

jupplor muocotio*

THE GOTHIC The

general term Gothic

is

^

given to the manuscript

9ototct)mmpatr(mt

They

afjimmctfpirttulon^

letters of the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries.

are essentially "written" letters

made

with one stroke

from Roman and Uncial which may be called "drawn" letters. Their lowercase changes from the Round Gothic* following the of the pen, as distinguished

ientglouatttcoctmtam

*

biackletter as a printing type

nW

ic(?atcm:mc0t)cu$t)mi$:et

Caroline, to the pointed Gothic or "biackletter" of the twelfth and following centuries.

The

i

nocflalm$pc(a:tc:aic$at>o

was gradually

The name proposed by Mr. De Vinne.

Fig. 70.

52

— Gothic Page by Albrecht

Diirer, 1515.


— Letters in Design

may

made without changing the direction of the For all good design the stronger Uncial caps should be used with the Gothic lower-case. One absolute rule must be obsen-ed Never use all caps in Gothic, The Gothic is ^Titten with a broad pen tilted about 45°. Either a reed pen or a steel "round-writing" pen may be used. The steel pens, of which the

Roman, and by the seventeenth cenGermany was the only country still using Gothic. As is well known that country now uses Roman for displaced by the

publications,

scientific

but adheres to the

illegible

©erman ^ractur as the popular type.

The is

letter

to the

Gothic.

form.

generally

known

as

Wih

lEngltsI)

ordinary reader the most familiar style of Its bristling angularity

The

it

to

be a

late

become more and their only

"Sonnecken" are the numbered in

capitals of these later forms

compKcated and weak advantage

shows

is

in

that in such

design,

be

pen.

tury

of eleven

work as engrossing they

used alone they

will

best, are usually

half sizes

inii iairiiiTilTi^^

Fig. 71.

— A German Bronze, 53

1514.

(Weimar.)

i

sold in sets to 6.

When

only carry sufhcient ink without

riiiiiiii!iriiiiriWiPitiTi!iiiiiiyiii!i.aii!iTi.iiii»i ai fMinin'ii^^^

KUMiULiNtfliiiiuii

from


Letters in Design one or two strokes. A brass clip is sometimes sold with them, l)ut a more satisfactory ink holder may be made of a rubber band added as blotting

shown

The

in Fig. 72.

on the under side

Fig. 72.

The

or goose are sometimes used for smaller writing, but

for

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

is

The pen

held as illustrated in Fig. 73, and the whole secret is to maintain this position and angle

is

much more

is

comfortable, as well

shape with a sharp penknife or narrow blade surgeon's scalpel and an ink holder of annealed watch spring bent and inIt is cut to

Fig. 73.

English or Japanese reeds are the satisfactory, although those from India are thicker

throughout,

and harder.

made from

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Position

for

Gothic Writing.

whatever the direction of the stroke. The first practice should be the drawing of the elements in Fig. 74. When these are mastered lettering in Gothic will be found to be easy and interest-

serted as in Fig. 72.

Quill pens

(|uill

and Reed Pens, with Ink Holders.

as better artistically.

most

more trouble cutting a

than a reed.

JiUed behind the rubber

of the pen.

Steel

reed pen

ink

the average student has

the wing feathers of turkey 54


Letters in Design pen as large as No. i 1/2, rule guide an inch apart (ordinary ruled writing paper will serve very well), add some vertical direction lines and practice stroke i until it can be made confidently, always vertical and with its ends ing.

space between

Select a

same

lines three-eighths of

in turn

should not be

of the stroke.

ways

letters

wherever possible being just the

as the space between strokes of the letters, which

A

much

if

any more than the width

printed page of text letters

is

al-

unsatisfactory, because the letters cannot be set

cut off clean at 45°.

* Fig. 74.

When

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Practice Strokes for Gothic Writing.

motion has been mastered, practise the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, a'nd 7, which are the elements of which the small letters are composed, then strokes

this

numbered

combine them into letters as shown in Fig. 75. The terminal blocks on the lower end of such letters as the "i" are squares, made by lifting the pressure from the pen, and setting it back as shown in Fig. 74, and the spikes of the angles, if used, may be made with a little side slip of the pen while the stroke is being made. In combining these letters into words the one requirement

is

to

keep the

letters close

l^fi|fl)p|fte dose tD0flbfp Fig. Lower-case. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Analyzed 75.

sufficiently close,

exactness.

Gotliic

and because

machine-made and spontaneity of

of the

It lacks the irregularity

the written page.

An

alphabet of round forms similar to those used in The order of strokes will is given in Fig. 76.

Fig. 70

together, the 55


Letters in Design be evident

On account

after practicing the angular.

the variety in combination this letter

Similarly B, H, I, K, L and R are closely related, having the same beginning strokes.

of

makes a more

The alphabet

interesting page than the angular form.

The

uncial capitals have already been

recommended

for use with the Gothic lower-case, as being

In

English.

of Fig.

79

is

all

a usual form of Old

this th^ spikes, hairlines

and

flourishes

much

stronger in design than the Gothic capitals, but several

81 is

forms of the

latter. are

and the order shown in Fig. 77.

given in Figs. 79, 80 and

of strokes for the

typical letters

They may be made with

the

'3-

same Fig. 77.

-3'

3

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Typical Gothic Capitals Analyzed.

j

are added with a line pen after the page has been written,

p'ig.

80

is

a simpler form, written without re-

touching, and suitable for rapid engrossing and similar

work. '

I

Fig. 76.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Gothic Alphabet.

pen as the small

letters,

(After Durer.)

making

the

small letters

three-fifths to two-thirds the height of the capitals.

Fig. 7S.

arranged in their family groups, their forms, which appear complicated, can be remembered without trouble. In the O family the C is the foundation letter, and from it the G, O, Q, T, and one form of E, U and are developed as shown in Fig. 78.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Family

Groups.

If the capitals are

Fig. 81, letter of

adapted from the tomb of Richard II, is a beauty, and popular among designers,

much

although not so well

W

known and consequently

legible to the general reader.

56

not so


Letters in Design an old form of Fractur or " German Text," which may be of occasipnal value. The paramount desii^' in the use of Gothic in design is for blackness, i.e., richness and "color," in effect. legibili for legibility, Words should be separated only enough tor Fig. 82

<-r/^ (rf{ qr'^

rrfj -T^^lV

^'^

/Vl\

i^mmlUiiiPllili^'iiti'

^

is

^p^^g^ ^jdely. Short lines are often out with space fillers of spots or running figures *° ^^'°'^'^ ^">' ^^'^'^'^ "holes" on the page. Flourishes on the ascenders and descenders are characteristic of the later Gothic, and may be used

^^^

^

jj^^^ ^^^

filled

M^ O

1^ /t ^li'7'0 ClfT Tff^'fl '^ "t int l/!Jv vPi'O'^U

'

>5J Fig.

judiciously with good effect.

79.—"Ofd English."

57


Letters in Design

The Gothic

is

priate use

is

good or allowed to pass, where equally poor Roman would be immediately condemned. as

essentially a letter for ecclesiastical

and other serious work, and

its

misplaced or inappro-

The

a grave mistake.

beautiful letters of Albrechl Diircr, Fig. 70, are

worth careful study.

In the original, which

Fig.

82.â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Old "German

the size of this reproduction, the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; English Gothic.

twice

m^^^^^

UIDIi Fig. 8i.

is

lines just (Westminster Abbey, 1400.)

above

it

Te.\t."

initial

and the two

are in red, as are also the spacing

lines.

ITALIC

Although Gothic is easier than Roman, it is worse maltreated by amateurs and inexpert designers, and impossible things in initials and designs are accepted

Thus

AND SCRIPT

far all the letters considered in this chapter

have been ujiright forms. 58

In the period of the Italian


Letters in Design Renaissance some of the historians and scribes, probfast, acquired a slanted

ity to

ably from the habit of writing

Its effect is the e.xact opposite of Gothic, giving light-

writing, which became much the fashion. When Aldus Manutius in the sixteenth century cut the first font of inclined type he selected a carefully written manuscript of Petrarch from which to model it. In

ness for blackness and caprice for dignity.

work

in

perhaps greater degree than any other.

ends of the unaccented strokes

The

in the capitals

free

become

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO

PQRSTUVWXYZ& 'e/^m/KL mnop grsiuiiMxyx^ &S-&0

aa

abcdefglnjklmnopqrstuvwxyz Fig. its stiff est

form now

83.â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Italic.

Italic is

simply an inclined

Roman,

Fig. 84.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;French

Script.

such as Fig. 36.

which often

is a freer inclined or sometimes showing its origin from the cursive or written form. For the designer the so-called French

swash

Script of the period of the Louis, a letter full of quaint-

effect is fatal.

Script, in lettering,

and grace

tie

up with each other and

A general rule has been stated

most interesting and valuable, as it admits of a freedom of treatment that gives individualness

lines

with the ascenders and descenders of the small letters; but the curves must be spontaneous. A labored

vertical letter

is

slopes 59

that styles of different

should not be used together.

The

notable


Letters in Design exception to this rule

is

in the case of

Script used in combination in

what

Old Roman and

The angle of slant varies widely both in historical and modern examples and is as explained on page 27.

sometimes called Colonial Composition, when the Roman is used for the display words and Italic or Script for the less important words and lines. Fig. 97 by Mr. Seymour, is an artistic example. is

a matter of individuality.

Some

are only a few degrees

the perpendicular, others are nearly 30 degrees.

ofT

The

2 to 5

average.

slojje

If the

le

mentioned on page 25 is a pleasing has been well mastered, the

Roman

formafe SSonfieif eines ^uc6jfaben

bei

denkbar gunjiigjjem ^nfc6faJJ an TlacHbar im ^ori= und Satjbifd

^einen

giebt den ^afifiab fur den (cunflferfc/ien

^ert einer Scfirifi, kfar

Fig. S6.

abcdaf^nvj^Imnopgrs/t italic

Italic

and

Script

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Script,

in all

caps or caps and

In practising inclined

letters

Script,

zu

fefen fein

by Heinrich Wieynk.

not be

practice,

Qanzes muf.

(Larisch.)

but the script will probably with discouraging difficult,

made

in

same proportion as the upright lower case, but their widths are somewhat narrower. There must be careful discrimination and restraint

the

lower-case.

and

much

die dabei afs

uberfichtfidj

results before the curves will come smoothly. ' The heights of the lower case letters are

by RudoLf Koch.

may be used

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

letter will

require Fig. S5.

und

such as Figs. 83, 84 be drawn

85, slant direction lines should always

in

60

order that the flourishing shall not be overdone.


Letters in Design Fig.

103

is

be taken as a license for carelessness. The lines of the letters have been studied with the same seriousness

an appropriate and clever example of

script in design.

as the apparently free lines of the characteristic orna-

"ART NOUVEAU" Under

this

general head

we have

classified all those

variations which have been developed in the

modern (^

\>

{IIWOPQI Fig. 87.

:VWXY

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; A Stencil Form.

Fig.

school of "secessionists," particularly in

Germany.

Using the old forms as a basis a new

has been

life

Stencil

Form,

(.\fter Gras.set.)

ment of this school, which have their "points of interest" and rules of composition definitely established. In range these modern letters e.xtend from forms but

given them in their adaptation in the characteristic style of those artists, who appreciate so thoroughly the

slightly modified from the historical, through forms of good design but not so easily legible because of their newness and one's consequent lack of familiarity with

value of letters as ornament.

The

88.â&#x20AC;&#x201D; .\

apparently free or formless character must not Gl


e

Letters them, tp weird conceptions inspired only by

tlie

in

Design

wild

desire for novelty.

C7yXTnP:6(ITe nBERO ;sYMPHoi)Y;av;mTfiy KeiiVfiR!Wf.liBYHMn

|lmigun^ettccr3)cnkcr

m m

RlD0tJFQ;rflRPi;Z18KHI Fig. 89.

—An Uncial Adaptation.

(After Otto

Fig. 91.

— Gothic, by Rudolf Koch.

m^t

(Larisch.)

Hupp.)

^BCPCFGHIJ TT.GcoK^cyXuuiol. EUtJ esX 0'\m se%^meIt^fn.\ncItcnlCll^mo^eKne ct poascOc

une r

IG. 90.

— A Free Uncial Adaptation.

The modern forms

iiw>i\>i<)iu\lilc

lijjncs

Lcs

hic5 inM'quec.

inleKKompues <^utflnel^Icn^ dc

®A ^\> bcMicoup ccfeffeT f $t $t le ^<9^V ^w ^w Fio. 92. — In the Style of George Auriol. *"

of real value are all designed

with an intimate acquaintance and regard for the 02

<0^

tf)^


Letters in Design

tions of their

The "new

and 88 are modern adapta89 and 90 show derivation from the Uncial, 91 is a modern Gothic

historical forms.

Roman

Figs. 87

application in

in stencil form, Figs.

in carding, stenciling or

in

a good practical form

sibly incapable of judging, feel that they are being

and

of

which works well

of Fig. 94 in

advertising, but

its

use will be criticized by persons

composition in Fig. 98. tall letter

needlework, and in posters

adoption in any design must be considered carefully. An inappropriate use will be offensive, and sometimes even a correct and appropriate

and 92 a cursive or script form. Fig. 93, an original alphabet by Mr. Hunter East Aurora, is strongly Viennese. It is shown

The

art" letter naturally suggests itself for modern craft work in metals or leather,

is

monograms and marks.

who although

imposed upon.

1234^ iWXYZi 6789 Fig. 93.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;By Dard Hunter.

Fig. 94.

63

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;A

Compressed Form.

pos-


CHAPTER

VI

Design and Composition For the general designer or decorative designing of lettering does not

new shapes tion

of

for the letters,

suitable

pleasing

long ago, and

an

artist

design to

styles

The

form.

it

and

mean

means simply their

be called invention, but as has been said these are working with an intimate knowledge of the

the

artist

the invention of

torical forms.

into

and others

general shapes were designed

would be inordinate presumption for to create a new alphabet and through his say to the public: "This is my letter, you

in

the second, to

No

real letter

some both; but such forms

necessary to add here that lettering

is

ornament, and that all the misguided attempts to make letters appear solid by adding shadows, by drawing them in perspective, or by making them of cobble stones or branches of trees like porch furniture, are eminently bad. The designer's problem is then to select the appropriate combinations and by arrangement and spacing to make a pleasing effect. In this there should be

make reading make writing

shapes are ever invented, they are

The new work

that of beauty,

It is scarcely

satisfactory to the eye."

evolutions.

is

essentially flat

must learn to read it." Mr. Lewis F. Day, the English designer and author, said:* "There are two conditions on which the artist may be permitted to tamper with the alphabet: whatin the hrst place, to

It

are not to be taken seriously.

it

ever he docs ought, run smoother, and,

his-

but natural that in the attempt at novelty some designs miss the requirement of legibility,

the selec-

composition

men

considered

all

of the continental artists

(i)

the period, (2)

the purpose,

(3)

the

material.

shows a freshness and variety and beauty of line, and an originality of design that may in some cases almost

The

period or general historical style of the other

parts of the design or ornament must be noted, the lettering

Alphabets Old and New.

64

must

first

of all

be appropriate.

and

Gothic


— Design and Composition letters for

example would

Renaissance or Barocco

of course be out of place in a

design.

Similarly,

if

the

1 tvj

i'umc zLKincL >3© a

F-aTl^InIC/-?

-"

riiG'rinLnjUL

rOS QENStC^JJS i£CA.C/ CO; -i iji.'.'-:.Ra-TJj lis BV HJS i/J7£ CrLr.klXyTIL -

fAGi aMI>

^i!S I>AJiC.rlT£R-J5/-i;ii

.

--•—-In!

From

a

GJJLAJTL'iJi •K£COG>JrrJO>i

^_GI PI All

Fig. 95. "Religion," by E. A. Abbey. CopyriHht 1908, E. A. Abbey a Copley Print, Copyright 190S, by Curtis & Cameron.

lettering is

1 -a

-'

'J

predominant the ornament must fit the even if the ornament be only a border.

letter selected

Fig.

65

96.—Bronze

Tablet, by T. E. F,

1 I


Design and Composition

On some

page 72 the

letters

discussed in Chapter V, and

of their appropriate uses

tabular form and

may be

have been

set forth in

studied with profit in connec-

tion with the choice of letter combinations.

The purpose of the inscription is again an important consideration in the selection of the style. E.xamjjles will readily suggest themselves, but the key-word again is appropriateness.

Ons SKINNER! Tf^ES ENTinC

Clearness and legibility are of course fundamental conditions, but these are relative terms; they do not necessarily

what Dr.

FRANCESCAI D^ RIMINI

mean

v.

the property of being read at a glance, Larisch calls brutal legibility. The leg-

ibility of a sign or advertisement is not necessary nor even desirable in lettering used as ornament. Beauti-

designed ornament assumes that the observer has time to examine it and enjoy its detail. An extreme example is shown in Fig. 95, a reproduction fully

of

one of the

(Art,

Science,

\

WITH AK.'APPIiECIATIOT^ By

LYMAN BGLOVER. IRALPH FLETCHER. SEYMOUR CHICAGO MDCCCCI

Edwin A. Abbey's four medallions Justice and Religion), in the Penn-

late

ITublisher

sylvania State Capitol.

Mr. Abbey, one of the greatwas at the same time the greatest master of lettering in decoration. Not since Albrecht Durcr has there been a great master so familiar with the details and the beauties of lettering. est of

modern

painters

Fig.

66

97.â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Title

Page, by Ralph Fletcher Seymour.


Design and Composition

The backgrounds

and not the outline that defines the letter (page 40); the same is true to a lesser extent in wood or bronze,

of these medallions have not the an advertisement, indeed at first sight of the originals one does not notice the lettering at all. legibility of

or other materials where the surface of the letter the

EIME

:

TRR^^ENE

Fig.

:

in

iEIMEM

i

color as the background.

is

Stubborn mater-

such as beaten silver or copper, or cast metals, cannot have the same delicacy of design as engraved

ials

HM

98.— By Dard Hunter.

HE IS WISEST WHO HAS THE MOST CAUTION HE ONLY WINS WHO GOES FAR ENOUGH' Fig. 99.

same

— Roman, by

\V. A.

Fig. 100.

— By Rudolf Melichar.

(Larisch.)

metals. Rough paper demands bolder treatment than smooth paper. Letters for needlework, or leather, or stenciling must be designed strictly with reference to the surface and te.xture of the materials used. When these three points have been considered the

Dwiggins.

The material upon which the lettering is to be done must of course be considered. In stone it is the shadow

designer will begin his problem.

After deciding

upon

the general form of the space to be used he will write 67


— Design and Composition out the inscription roughly, selecting the important words or lines for emphasis by size or position, and will

li^.

iOMMEMOKATETHhVlC

'QUN?

ENTOF.WHICH ^TRIOTISM-OF ll?AdrEDT>-Ti^i5

Fig. I02.

Bronze Tablet, designed by McKim, Mead

& White,

Archts. Courtesy of Jno. Williams.

make Fig. ioi.

a

number

Inc., N. Y.

of miniature sketches, not

more than

an inch or two in height, for composition. This arrangement of the relation of white and black is the

—Title Page, by Ralph Fletcher Seymour. 68


Design and Composition important step, and the

top and bottom guide lines for each line of letters very If the design is symmetrical the method of lightly.

drawing cannot be scheme of composition has

full size

started until a satisfactory

procedure will be as given under the head of title designing on pages 35 and 36, working from the

been determined.

center line,

and

desired effect

is

shifting letters

obtained.

and

lines until

If the design is

the

unsym-

metrical or massed, suitable treatment will suggest

'^IJn^^dA

FlDM

far

awa^we come

t^e snow in the stRcet: &

to )ou, the

winJ on

Xjo tdi ofgReat-tidings strange and MinstRcZs er maids, stand toRth Fig.

104.— By

\\\

.\.

it-

the door.

tRue

on the

floor.

Dwiggins.

but in every case the copy should be \\Tittcn down adopted arrangement and the letters counted approximate spacing. the for

self,

in the

Fig. 103.

artist using letters in design is assumed to know laws of design and will follow the same principles the It in the lettermg as in any other part of the design. is, however, more difficult to bring letters under these laws than landscape or figure composition.

The

— Cover Desigt^of "An Unofficwl Lo\'e Story." Published by the Century Co. N. Y. .

When

the design in the

little

balanced and harmonious the laid

sketch seems to be

final

drawing should be

When one

out carefully in the same proportion, penciling 69

has become a master of the

letters

he

may


Design and Composition use them to form ornament, but it is safer for the amateur to preserve the historical forms and put his ornament on the background.

On

account of the varying widths of Roman letters sometimes difficult to space a word to a given length by counting letters from a center line. Fig. 105 illustrates a method of spacing, on the old principle of it

is

similar triangles.

Suppose it is reqiyred to put the word PROBLEM on the line and to the length ab. A line ac is drawn from a at any angle, another line ilc drawn parallel it and the word sketched in this space, starting at and spacing each letter with reference to the one before it, allowing the word to end where it will. The end of the last letter (at c) is connected with b and lines parallel to cb drawn from each letter, thus dividing

to

a

ab proportionately. The proportionate height of bf is obtained from ce by the construction shown, after

which the word can be sketched in its final position. After one has become familiar with the letters the line ac only need be drawn and the proportionate widths marked on it starting at a as in the word

"SPACING." The

final

adjustment

will

be secured only after

Fig. 105.

"0

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Method of Spacing

to

Given Length.


Design and Composition has been adapted perfectly to its surroundings, with the areas of space so balanced that no gaping whites nor spots of black mar the effect. Do not hesitate to erase a whole line if it is felt that shifting it even a sixteenth of an inch would improve the each

letter

full size in pencil only,

and from

on

detail

paper or tracing paper

this transferred to the material.

an alphabet designed with Japanese is no real alphabet in that language), appropriate use may be found in occasional for which Fig.

1

06

is

characters (there

design.

At

this stage the trained designer

can see clearly the

exact appearance of the finished drawing; the beginner is

often surprised at the difference in effect

letters are inked,

and

when

the

has taken the place This part of designing

solid black

of the gray pencil outline.

it is gained only by experience. a drawing for reproduction, a printed cover page for example, a full size sketch on paper of the same color and texture as that to be used in the

cannot be taught, If the

work

is

a great aid in studying the effect before final enlarged drawing for the engraver. Suggestions on drawing for reproduction will be

printing

is

making the

Fig. 106.

found

in

Book

Chapter VIII. covers in cloth are printed with brass stamps,

and the drawing, made to fmished size in smooth binder's cloth, of the selected shade, sent for the die-cutter to work from.

color on is

often

Designs for execution in stone or bronze are made

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

.\

Japanese Suggestion,

connection with Japanese design. vertical panels.

The two

fillers

It

may be

on the

or words, for the well-known symbols, '

and "long

The

used in

last line are

"good luck"

life."

following page gives a summary, in tabular


The Letters and Their Uses (Propriety)

OLD ROMAN

—The "general purpose architectural All

initials.

plates, etc. (Sincerity)

miamii ® m

P"or classic and renaissance design. All caps for corner stones, tablets, signs, titles on drawings, or caps and lower-case for posters, book covers, book letter."

inscriptions,

caps Permits of wide letter-spacing.

All caps, or caps

Gothic design.

and Gothic lower-case.

For

Initials, versals, illuminating,

ecclesiastical

monograms,

work or with anv etc.

Lines close

together.

—Never

(nignity)

all caps. Ecclesiastical work, inscriptions, illuminating, engrossing, work medieval design; book covers of appropriate titles. May be etched or engraved on metal. Letters must be kept close together.

in

(Caprice)

^-rre/pc/)

/cr(pl6^^

.Ml caps, or better caps

for posters,

(I.cEil.ility)

Roman lower-case —Less

(Boldness)

COMMERCIAL GOTHIC — All caps.

titles,

headings, etc.

Effect crude.

For graceful,

fanciful, quaint effects.

covers, ciphers, etc.

Colonial

With Old Roman

style.

MODERN ROMAN

—For

^m

—For

ART MQa^EAU

map

Single letters readable at a greater distance than any other

For bold brush-work,

stone, etc. Letters

(Novelty)

Book

formal than Roman cai)itals. A subordinate letter, but words more legible than all caj)s, hence should be used for sentences, paragraphs or solid pages.

style.

(ironotony)

and lower-case.

Louis XV, XVI, &c., design.

may

be

titles

on working drawings,

much compressed

signs, inscriptions

on

or extended but not widely spaced.

titles and important features, all caps, less important land and lower-case. Water features inclined. Used by sign writers and engravers. Inartistic and useless in design.

w'ork

features, caps

all

work in the "moderne stil." Etching, stenciling, saw-piercing, work in general. Monograms, marks, posters, etc.

crafts

72

arts

and


Design and Composition form, of the letters used in design, with suggestions as The characterto the appropriate uses for each style. designation given to each may seem fanciful, but it simply an effort to " personify " the styles and to aid in giving that sympathetic acquaintance which the istic is

successful designer

must

attempt to go into detail in any of the branches of design in which lettering is used would carry us past

r$Sil%mtuVoi â&#x20AC;&#x201D; By R. F.

the limits of this book. for

example

is

Seymour.

The

really the

than at any time since printing was invented, the " Art of Illuminating" is coming again to a rightful place

among

feel.

To

Fig. 107.

Ages, and naturally declined ^after the invention of In the present revival of lettering, when the printing. beauty of the hand-written page is appreciated more

lettering on a book-plate most important part of it,

the arts.

Beautiful things

may be done

The

wishing to go into illuminating

referred to

design.

particularly to " Writing

Another special subject into which we the art of illuminating, which may be defined as the brightening of a page by the use of colors and gold and As an art it flourished throughout the Middle silver. is

by the student

for temporar}' work.

but the design of ex libris is a subject in itself. Fig. 108 is a book-plate in which letters have been used as cannot enter

easily

of lettering, on vellum, parchment, Japan papers or even "cover papers," by designing a page of writing, usually in Gothic or Roman lower-case and illuminating the initials and border. In the simplest design it would mean only the boxing of the initials as in Figs. Real illuminating always implies the 55 and 65. Pure gold, application of metals in addition to color. of shell the form in either used, burnished, should be only useful bronzes are silver and Gold gold, or leaf.

ing,"

student

the books mentioned

is

in the last chapter,

and Illuminating and Letter-

by Edward Johnston.

that the student in practicing in any branch of design do not application lettering for that he set a delinite probbut simply copy alphabets, It is

recommended


Design and Composition

The

title page, and gain from it not forms, but experience in letter knowledge of the only important part, the composition. more far the

lem, as a book cover or

l''iG.

loS.

figures in this chapter are given to illustrate

good design and composition in a variety and should have careful study.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Book Plate by Thomas Moring.

From

"

One Hundred Book 74

Plates."

of subjects,


CHAPTER

VII

Monograms, Ciphers and Marks One

of the severe tests of a designer's skill is

monogram

or cipher.

with

not only knowledge and intimate and sympathetic

It requires

of the laws of design,

acquaintance

and

design of letter combinations in

in the

originality

the

letter-forms,

ingenuity and inventive ability

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

but a

power

certain

to devise

combinations where none are evident.

A monogram, two or more

strictly

speaking,

is

a combination of

which a part of each letter forms common to speak of any combination of interwoven or superimposed letters as a monogram, but if each letter is separate and complete such devices are not really monograms, but ciphers; and although usage and even some dictionary definitions have sanctioned the broader use of the word, we shall make the distinction, mainly for convenience in letters in

part of another.

It is

A

not as pleasing as a well designed cipher.

mongrel

combination of the two, in three letter designs, in which two of the letters are monogram and the third a separate letter is, however, to be avoided if at all possible. It should be pure monogram or pure cipher. In this distinction it should not be understood that a

monogram

device

is

essential

is

better than a cipher as a design.

for ornament, indeed

requirement

is

beauty.

is

The

ornament and an

It is very often true

that a given combination of letters cannot be

made

into

anything but an ugly monogram, it is very seldom the case that the same combination cannot be combined into satisfactory,

The laws

if

not beautiful, cipher.

of unity, balance,

symmetry,

etc., will of

course apply in this as in any other branch of design. Absolute symmetry about a central axis is not at all

reference.

necessary, but balance must be maintained.

As a rule the designing of a monogram requires more ingenuity than a cipher, and is consequently more interesting as a problem, hut the result is often

considered.

The and

period, purpose,

The

the letters

and material must again be

period or style must be appropriate,

must

all

belong to the same

stvle.

It


Monograms, Ciphers and Marks is

The

absolutely intolerable to mix styles.

The

position.

florid

"Louis

XV"

The important

ness.

designs sometimes

letter

Care must be taken, especially

may

be.

It is

permissible to reverse any letter but the

order.

The legibility.

A

trademark or commercial device must read easily, mark may be decipherable with difficulty but both must be decorative, and hence good design.

The

material on which the device

ment and

is

to

be executed

amount

These are

of orna-

work.

the character of the background.

Monograms and

ciphers

successive or condnuous.

may

be either superimposed, In the superimposed design

the prominent letter will be emphasized by

device of the

its size,

Rookwood

Pottery, Fig. 117,

last. is

of particular value in applied design in craft

Fig.

109 illustrates possibilities with

all

the

letters of the alphabet.

In attacking the problem the shape of the space

by

the

first

consideration.

If

the

monogram

is

to

the quality of line composing

enclosed in a circle or other geometrical outline

The

must be arranged as free ornament

successive

naturally

formed

in

a

well-known example. Many of these are found in the French designs of the seventeenth century, when perfect symmetry about the vertical axis was particularly sought for. In comparatively rare cases a reversible monogram reading either from top or bottom can be made.

while a private

will influence the style of letter, the

com-

in three-letter

event will destroy the value of the design however good

(the last, in initials of

to

purpose will again determine the

form the last and placed

binations, not to get an "accidental" letter, as such an

it

The

in the successive

larger than the others

in the middle.

be prominent by position, size or strength. The monogram to be perfect must read in the correct is

made much

letter is

used by engravers are of no value to craftsmen. Excessive ornamentation is an acknowledgment of weakpersons)

Sometimes

free ends.

desire

should be for simplicity and purity of line and com-

it or by its position on top. and continuous designs will read

from left to right, the continuous being one stroke and therefore having only two

the place 76

it is

to its

is

be it

and even if to be used proportions must be designed for

fit

the space,

to occupy.


Monograms, Ciphers and Marks

The

letters to

studied.

and

AH

I

be combined should be

them

several of

set

down and

M O T U V W X Y are symmetrical, reversible (upside

down) along

N

S and Z. If the given letters are included in this group it is evident that the first form, a symmetrical superimposed device, is an easy solution. Fig. no. with

Fig.

Pairs such as

no.

CD, CO, GD, EB

(script)

and doubles

balance left and right and as symmetrical arrangement in of possibility suggest the successive, form. Fig. 1 1 1. the second, either the first, or

HH, DC, QD,

a?

This form Fig. log.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Superimposed Forms.

usually

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Reversible Monograms and Ciphers. 77

is

more

etc.,

possible oftener than the legible.

first,

and

is


Monograms, Ciphers and Marks If strict monogram is being striven for, a careful study should be made to find common strokes. Thus in R L, Fig. 112, the has four possible lines for use as stems for the R and L. Evidently using the

M

M

first

stem would give a faulty

result, as in

RM L.

Fig. III.

The

After analyzing the letters in this way the designer should try the different styles of letter in little sketches, beginning with the Roman. This letter does not per-

free

(i),

reading

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Successive Forms.

ends of each

letter

should be studied with

reference to the possibility of connecting

them

into

continuous monogram, Fig. 113. Sometimes free ends may be improvised as in E B. A vertical script is a useful letter for continuous forms. Fig. 115. For autograph monograms the continuous device is par-

FiG. 113.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Continuous Monograms.

mit of many liberties, it is not flexible, but when one does get a good design in Old Roman it is sure to have dignity and character. If after a half dozen trials no

ticularly good.

78


Monograms, Ciphers and Marks possibilities

seem

to suggest

variation

is

its

much more amenable

probably with the given

be worked into acceptable design in either

themselves pass on to the

Uncial, which on account of

admitting of more to treatment;

letters there will

monogram

or cipher.

The

and

next form, script,

is

the favorite letter of the

be several

Fig. 115.

engravers.

It

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Script,

Designed by \.

.\.

combines much more

Turbayne.

easily into cipher

than into monogram, and allows such freedom that it is safe to say that any combination may be done passably in

Fig. 114.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; O.

S.

U.

Uncial and Gothic.

suggested Uncial combinations, in both

and

it.

monogram

I'lG.

cipher, Fig. 114.

Gothic may be tried next. Old English capitals are themselves sufficiently complicated as not to invite further complication, but the simpler forms can often

116.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

J.

R. C.

Various Treatments of the Same Monogram.

The modern, "new

art," letters offer the

tractive field for the ingenious

The 79

monogram

variations of form which they present,

most

at-

designer.

and the


Monograms, Ciphers and Marks possibilities

them

originality

for

the most interesting of

and individuality make all to play with. This

It

pierced,

etched,

effects are

and

stenciled

work.

Striking

WiLUAM (74j OVTON Fig. 117.

hominum Salvatop

jesu

possession of such marks the literary

is

very

people of

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Various Historical and other Devices.

monogram may be made by

letters

artistic

The Studio"

I'lG. iiS.

real

and

France and Germany. M. George Auriol is the acknowledged master of

letters from a black Often a pleasing device, although not a

secured by cutting the

background.

be a monogram, or initial, or even a device letters; it need not be legible but it must be

distinctive. The common among

style naturally suggests itself for use in the art-crafts,

in

may

without

using

enclosed with good composition in some shape,

this decoration,

and

his published

designs form two most fascinating

Fig. 118.

The modern

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Designs with Separate Letters.

separated

cachet or

mark bears much

the

same

1

his

business house, being the stamp of individuality with his

shows examples

books.

Fig.

of his style, the lirst device being

own characteristic signature. The illustrations of this chapter are selected from monograms designed by the authors (except as cred-

relation to an individual that a trade-mark does to a

which he may mark

19

drawings of these little

productions or possessions. SO


Monograms, Ciphers and Marks while some unite easily and others with difficulty, a satisfactory monogram or cipher in some style is pos-

and, with some exceptions, are in actual use; and may be said for the benefit of the beginner who may

ited), it

think his

initials

are impossible of combination, that

J.O.

JR. Fig. 119.

sible

'" H

with any two or three

B.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Designs by George Auriol.

81

letter

combination.


CHAPTER

VIII

Drawing for Reproduction As the for

greatest

amount

of designed lettering

reproduction the student should

make

done

paratively

is

familiar with the modern graphic processes and the requirements necessary in drawing for them. Line drawings are usually reproduced by the jjhoto-mcchanical

process

ing

is

known

as zinc etching, in

photographed on a process

some reduction

fully), in

the

hand-drawn character and quality

smooth

and

effect is

as three or four times as large as the cut.

if

a very

The

best

one and one-half times, linear. A reducing glass, a concave lens mounted like a reading glass, is sometimes used to aid in judging the effect of the drawing on reduction. If lines are drawn too close together the space between them will choke in

(when a particularly fine result is desired a copper is used), which is etched with acid leaving the lines in relief, and giving, when mounted type-high on a wood base, a printing block which can be used along with type on an ordinary jirinting press. Wash drawings and jihotographs are reproduced in a similar way on copper by what is known as the half-tone process, in which the negative is made through a ruled "screen" in front of the plate, which breaks up the

the rej^roduction and

plate plate

is

mar

the effect.

As suggested on page 71 a sketch the

from.

The

to the

proj)ortions of this sketch

desired size by proportional dividers, or by

made on com-

If

S2

size of the

made to work may be enlarged

finished cut should usually be

paper

size.

for zinc etching should be

is

wanted the drawing may be as much

general size

Drawings

board

of the original

the reduction should be very slight, but

plate, generally with

a series of dots of varying

(Bristol

black drawing ink, and preferably larger than If it is desired to preserve

printed so as to give a positive on a sensitized zinc

tints into

paper

the required reproduction.

which the draw-

in size, the negative film reversed

smooth white

generally used, and tracing cloth works very success-

himself

scale, or

by diagonals as

making a

illustrated in Fig. 120.

a diagonal ab across the original sketch afbg be


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Drawing for Reproduction

f

extended, lines ci and ce

'W^

on

it,

as

c,

and

may be drawn from any

will enclose

point

a rectangle adce of the same

proportion as the original.

A line of letters, as the block ]ii]h, may be located both for size and position by extending its sides to the edges of the original sheet and drawing lines through Where these lines these points from the corner a. intersect the edges of the enlarged sheet will give points from which the enlarged block may be located, as shown. If more than one color is to be used, for example, if some letters or parts of the ornament are to be red these parts may be drawn with an opaque vermilion, which will photograph the same as black, or they may be drawn in black and the color indicated on the margin. The engraver will make two plates from the same negative, and will block out the colors on the zinc, giving two plates, one for the red and one for the black, of exactly the same size, and which will consequently ,

register accurately in the printing.

One

ver}'

convenient thing not permissible in other reproduction simply painting

may be done on drawings for any irregularities may be corrected by

work,

Fig.

1

20.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Method of Enlarging a Drawing.

out with French 83

white

(blanc

d'argent).

If

it

is


Drawing for Reproduction desired

mav

be

to

is

out

The

position.

engraver

shift

cut

a

line

after

it

has been inked

and pasted on

in

Plates

it

left will not trouble the be tooled out when the etching

may be

saved, and in

not possible in drawing

many

may be added by

textures

to

imitate

tints,

very closely

backgrounds and

the engraver's use of the

mechanical shading commonly known as In this the drawing is made the Ben Day process. in outline, with the patterns to be used indicated on The shading films, which come in a it by numbers.

method

finished.

Often time

may be "grained"

charcoal or pencil texture, and

the required

edges thus

as they will

X

cases effects

may be

secured with the aid of the engraver. If a design or border is symmetrical about a center line, one-half only need be drawn and the engraver can reverse the design for the other side.

of

great variety of stipples, cross-hatchings, grains and inked and applied directly on the plate, or

lines, are

in

84

some cases on the drawing.


CHAPTER

IX

Bibliography The

De

For the indicates its limits. go thoroughly into the subject student who expects to and seriously it is only an introduction. The aim has been not to multiply examples, but to give an adequate number of practical working styles for the ordinary draftsman and designer, with examples of composition An indexed in sufficient variety to illustrate the text. clipping file of good work in lettering and design should be started, and the habit of studying critically the work found in the magazines and other artistic publications title

book

of this

De Vinne A

The

following

list

of

most public

books

Some

Gress,

is

given to aid those

libraries.

raphy.

(i)

Edward

by the best .\merican

N.

Y.

Art and Practice of TypogThe Oswald Publishing

work and excellent chapters on composi160 pp., over tion, with many modern e.xamples. 600 ill. and specimens.

A

history of printing, with reproductions of the

of early masters,

who

Skinner, H.

of these will be

M.

—The Story

of the Letters

and Figures.

Orville Brewer, Chicago, 1905. A popular story for boys and girls, of the development of letters from the Phoenician. Good for supplementary school reading.

HISTORY, ETC.

—The Story of the Alphabet.

Apple-

Strange,

interesting

Edward F.—*Alphabets.

Geo.

Bell

&

Sons, 1898.

ton, 1907.

An

The

Co., 1910.

particular value in the designer's library.

Clodd,

history of printing types

Edmund G.—The

found in * would be of Those marked

pursue the study.

Printing Types.

Press, 1900.

authority.

cultivated.

will

L.—Plain

Theo.

Vinne,

little

book

hieroglyphics, etc., disputing

on

some

primitive

\

writing,

valuable

298 pp.

theories of Taylor.

S5

200

book, ill.

both

historical

and

practical.


Bibliography Taylor, Isaac

—The Alphabet.

opment. The most

2 V.

Sir E.

M.

formal writing, manuscript hooks, laying gold, etc. 500 pp. 218 ill. 23 pi.

and burnishing

von

R.

Larisch,

—* Unterricht Second

Schrift.

—Handbook of Greek and Latin

Palaeography.

A

quill pens,

exhaustive and authoritative work on the

subject.

Thompson,

Origin and DevelLondon, 1899.

Its

2d ed.

Dr.

V.

Larisch

on modern

Appleton, 1893.

standard work on the history of writing.

Stevens, Thos.

Brown,

PRACTICAL BOOKS FOR DESIGNERS

F.

C.

—*Letters

&

Lettering.

W.

Roman

&

Strange, E. F.

Guild, 1902.

By an

architect.

A

collection

examples with accompanying

text.

of

211

(3)

Johnston,

Essay on ".Art in the .\lphabet," and nearly 200 working alphabets. 256 pp. in

&

De-

useful

little

book, particularly for

117 pp.

65

ill.

i).

Ornament.

COLLECTIONS OF ALPHABETS, ETC.

Edward

Letters.

A

Scribners,

examples on stone, wood, bronze, etc. Chapters on monograms, ciphers, conjoined letters, initials, etc. 218 pp. 186 ill.

Koch, Rudolf

Edward ^Writing & Illuminating & Lettering. The Macmillan Company, 1906.

Larisch,

historical

—*Manuscript

and Inscription London, John Hogg, 1909.

valuable working supplement to Writing

1906.

Johnston,

and

lower-case.

—*Alphabets (See

inating

Many

for Printers

ill.

ed.

An

—*Lettering

—^Lettering

alphabets and

214 pp.

Day, Lewis F. *Alphabets Old and New. 3rd Revised and enlarged. Scribners, igii.

Day, Lewis F.

European authority

Inland Printer, Chicago, 1906.

.\n artistic

Bates

the recognized

Ornamentaler Wien, 1909.

letters.

signers. (2)

is

in

ed., enlarged.

&

Lettering.

&

Illum-

16 pi.

—Klassische Schriften, Dresden.

25 plates illustrating the letters of Gutenberg, Diirer, W. Morris, Koenig, Hupp, etc.

In the Artistic Crafts series of Technical HandbooLs. Complete practical instruction in preparing reed and

R. von Beispiele Kunstlerischer Schrift. Anton Schroll, Wien. 3V., 1900-1906. Drawings

illustrating composition,

artists in their characteristic letters.

86

by well known


Bibliography

Weimar, William Monumental Schriften. und Schenk, Wein, 1898.

Lehner, Jos. and Mader, Ed. Neue Schriften und Firmcnschilder Im Modernen Stil. Wolfrum & Co., Wien, n. d. A collection of Art Nouveau composition. Beautiful color

Petzendorfer,

L.

schemes.

60

68 plates of inscriptions on stone, bronze and wood.

Atlas.

Jul.

Bradley, John

Hoffman,

A

varied collection of type specimens and drawn

alphabets and

initials.

L. — *Schriften

Petzendorfer,

123

Stuttgart, 1905. Newer type specimens, examples of composition

Rhead, G. W.

initials, .-Vrt

Folge,

monograms and

Nouveau.

—An Alphabet of Roman

141 pi.

Delamotte, F.

letters,

Herbert,

i6mo., 290 pp.

20

Large

art

of

pi.

A.

J.

pi-

Illuminating

&

Letter-

2).

—Illuminated

An

Manuscripts.

Putnam,

exhaustive history of manuscript books

illustrations in color.

and Numerals.

21

Lon-

1911.

Van

,Laing,

J. J.

—*Manual

51

pi.

A

letters.

87

practical

lilllc

of Illumination.

handbook.

with

356 pp.

Newton.

Nostrand, 1904. pi.

of

P'-

F.—*Writing &

ing (See

drawn Roman.

27

list

Museum.

43 PP-

Johnston, E.

high on each plate.

—Alphabets

and

A Primer of the Art of Illumination. London, Crosby, Lockwood & Son, 1S97.

Capitals, to-

J.—Lettering and Writing. B. T. Batsford, London, igo8. By a pupil of Edward Johnston. 15 plates of pen

17 pp.

19

illumination.

B. T. Batsford, London, 1903. Old Roman from Trajan's column. 26 plates, one

Turbayne, A. A.

history of the .\rt of Illumination,

Illuminated Manuscripts. Bradley, John W. don, Methuen & Co. 1905. An interesting and scholarly story of the

etc.

Smith, P.

Borders.

South Kensington, 1901.

manuscripts in the Victoria and .Mbert 175 PP-

Neue

gether with three sets of lower case

letter 7 in.

— Illuminated Letters and

of Education,

pi.

Atlas.

in

W.

Board

Stuttgart, 1898.

A

ILLUMINATING

(4)

pi.

—* Schriften

Gerlach

100 pp.

Windsor

&


Bibliography Laing,

J. J.

—*Companion &

Windsor

to

Manual

The older books, such as Shaw, Humphreys and The Art of Illuminating by Wyatt, now out of print, may be found in many of the large libraries.

of Illumination.

Newton.

"Borders, capitals, texts and detail finishings, etc." 28

pi.

H. Illuminated Manuscripts in Clasand Mediaeval Times; their Art and Cambridge, 1892. their Technique.

Middleton,

J.

— Schriften Atlas (See many Edward — Illuminated Manuscripts.

Pctzendorfer, L.

Quaile,

pool,

An

illuminated

Henry Young

&

interesting sketch of

characteristics.

Robinson,

S. F.

Auriol,

George

H.

149 pp.

A Liver-

Auriol,

Sons, 1897. 26

hi.story

and

Livre

Cachets

des

Paris, Librairie

Benker, H.

Dtiblin,

book.

1908. first

book.

— Das Monogramm der Gegenwart.

Plau-

en, C. Stoll.

beautiful

book with full sized reproductions from Durrow, Lindisfarne and Kells.

20 plates of monograms especially for needle work.

Bergling,

Colored plates.

Margaret.

— Early

J.

M.

—Art

Monograms and

Lettering.

Chicago, 1912. Christian Art in Ireland.

A

Board of Education, South Kensington. An illustrated handbook. Whithard, Philip. Illuminating and Missal Painting, London, Crosby, Lockwod & Son, 1909. A practical treatise on materials and methods of

portfolio

modern

of

designs

particularly

for

engravers.

Day, L. F.

working.

artistic little

Uniform with the

the Gospel books of

Stokes,

most

Henry Floury,

1908

A

Premier

Monogrammes.

George *Le Second Livre des Cachets, Marques, Monogrammes et ex Libris. Paris,

pi.

— Celtic Illuminative Art.

et

Centrale des Beaux-Arts, 1901.

initials.

their origin,

—*Le

Marques

3).

Contains

MONOGRAMS

(5)

sical

Diebener,

—*Lettering

in

Ornament

(See 2).

Wilhelm— Monogramme und Dekorationen.

Leipzig, 19 10. "Ftir

145 pp.

Uhren

plates of

88

und

Kdelmetall-gravierung."

Monograms and

Devices.

145


Bibliography

Nowack, Hans

— Das

Moderne Monogramm.

modern Roman

Wicn,

Wilson, Victor T.

26 plates containing 676 two-letter ciphers.

Petzendorfer, L.

New

— Schriften Atlas, Neue Folge (See A. — *Monograms & Ciphers. The 3).

135 plates containing

all

Daniels,

the two-letter

and many size,

— —

1907.

Draftsmen, Engineers Van Nostrand, 1895. for

"A practical

system of freehand lettering for working

drawings."

23 pp.

8

(8)

Bailey,

pi.

Sherman, C. E. The Theory and Practice of Lettering. Midland Publishing Company, Columbus, Ohio. Showing in

and strokes

SCHOOL WORK, ETC.

T.— The

School Arts Alphabet Sheets. School Arts Press, Boston, Mass.

Henry

Ever)- public school art teacher should have this set.

Bull,

Schuyler—The

A B C

of Lettering for Public

Rochester, N. Y., 190S. Schools. Four plates and sheet of instructions.

6th ed., 1904. detail the construction

Copley,

York, 1903. Heyny, William Modern Lettering, .Artistic and Practical. Comstock, 1909. Strong, Chas. J. The Art of Show Card Writing. Detroit School of Lettering, Detroit, Mich.,

Written for Civil Engineers. Elaborate rules for mechanical spacing. 82 pp. 48 pi.

and Students.

Parsons,

others have prepared

SHOW CARD AND COMMERCIAL LETTERING Davids, Thaddeus Davids' Practical Letterer. New

—Lettering

Valpey,

many

the

pi.

(7)

ENGINEERING LETTERING

W.

Esser,

and composition by

23

text-books or collections of alphabets for draftsmen.

with

A Text-Book on Plain Lettering. S. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 3d ed., 1909.

Reinhardt, C.

Fish,

95 pp.

Meinhardt, Cromwell and

combinations drawn in large 27 plates of alphabets and numerals.

Jacoby, Henry

of letter-forms

sketch-method.

Turbayne, A. Caxton Co., London, 1909. three-letter

York, 1903.

Development

Contains about 20 plates of modern monograms.

(6)

and stump letters. One of on the subject. 49 pp. 11 pi. Free-hand Lettering. John Wiley, Capitals,

the original te.xt-books

Ferd Schenk.

of

89


Bibliography Shaylor, H.

W.

Ginn

A

The

cards

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Book

of

Alphabets for Use

in Schools.

Victoria

&

and

leaflets

issued

by Alfred

give

beautiful

examples of lettering

and

S.

Kensington,

This should not be considered as a complete bibit contains most of the better known works in the various divisions. Many books out of

Bartlett,

liography, but

Boston; Paul Elder, San Francisco, and other publishers

and Albert Museum,

London.

Co., 1908. 24-page copybook of good forms.

suggestive

print

in design.

and rare are not included,

ordinarily be accessible.

Photographs of Trajan's Column and other classical inscriptions may be had from the Director of

titles to

list

as they

would not

contains sufficient

guide in the selection of a reference library for

school or individual.

90

The


INDEX Blank title forms, 38 Block letter, 19 Bold face, 4

Commercial Gothic alphabets,

Composition, 64

Ampersand, 14

Book Book Book

Applied design, 71, 72 Appropriateness, 64

Books on lettering, 85 Boxed title, 37, 38

Compressed

letters, 4, 29,

Architects' use of letters, inscription lettering,

Brackets,

Contents of

titles,

Abbey, E. Accidental

A.,

66 76

letter,

Alcuin of York,

2

Aldus Manutius, 59 Alphabets, books of, collections

of,

86

forms of

titles,

Art-crafts, 63, 72,

Art Nouveau,

of Kells,

2,

6,

title,

34

freedom

63

42

in,

29 43

34

Continuous monograms, 78

Day, Len-is F., 64 Delia Robbia type, 47 Design, in lettering, 64 of monograms, 75

shrinkage, 41

44

80

3, 61, 62,

in,

Reinhardt

8

letters, 19,

72

of,

Colonial, 60

51

plates, 73

Brush

37

uses

covers, 71

Broad pens, 44, 46, 47, 50, 54, 55 Bronze tablets, 41, 65, 68, 71

40, 41 office lettering,

39 Architectural drawing, contents of

for signals, etc., 41

Cachets, 80

Caroline minuscule, 2

laws

Auriol, George, 62, 80, 81

Celtic,

symmetrical, to reverse, 84

Autograph monograms, 78

Charlemagne,

Beginners' mistakes, 29

Ciphers, 75 Civil engineers, 15

Ben Day

Colonial composition, 60

uses

of, 63,

films,

72

84

2,

51

of,

69

with separate

2

Development,

letters,

80

i

De\ices, historical, 80

separate

letter,

80

Bibliography, 85

Color in reproduction, S3

Drawing instruments, g

Blackletter, 3, 52

Commercial Gothic,

Drawings, for reproduction, 82

3,

91

19

20, 21,

23


Index Drawings,

Drop

line,

Gothic, in monograms, 79 position for writing, 54

82

to enlarge,

to correct,

83

uses

46

72

of, 58,

Larisch, Dr.

Government Bureaus, 15

Durer, Albrecht, 52, 58. 66 Dwiggins, \V. A., 52, 67, 69

Laws

books on, 89

of, 7

Historical devices, 80

Engrossing, 56

Histor}',

Extended

Fillets, 6, 8,

59

72

General proportions of

letters,

4

Initials,

ornamental, 50

Inking,

5, 12, 18, 19,

25,

German

text, 3, 53,

9,

14

58

34

Marsuppini monument, 36

Mechanical construction of Roman, 14

2,

Missal type, 50

Italic, 3, 30, 58,

59

51

Modern Roman,

J,

use of

I for,

uses

S

3,

15

of,

72

Monograms, 75

Japanese, 71

books on, 88

Jenson type, 45

Commercial Gothic)

7

Material, 67, 76, 82

Irish half-uncial,

definitions, 75,

alphabets, 55, 56, 57, 58 (see

title,

w^ork, 19, 31, 41

alphabets, 16, 17

Gothic, 52, 62

commercial

Map Map

Invention of printing, 3

Geological survey, 15, 41

Geometrical construction,

34

Marks, 80

Individuality, 40, 45, 80.

43

title,

Manuscripts, 2

single stroke caps, 25

in composition, 42,

of,

Machine drawing 30, 31

alphabet, 26

Fractions, 29

uses

Roman,

Inclined

in script, 60

script,

47

single stroke, 28

Illuminating, 73 Incised letters, 39

14

Follows, G. H., 25

French

letters,

24

Flourishes, in Gothic, 57

Freedom

Lombardic

Lower-case, Roman, 44 proportion of capitals, 46

books on, 85 Hunter, Uard, 63, 67

I

letters, 4,

66

Light face, 4

Henry VH, tomb

Engraving, 82 Evolution,

66

47,

of design, 69, 75

Leonardo da Vinci, 14

Half-uncial, 51

Ellipses, 14 lettering,

v.,

62

60,

Legibility, 28, 44,

Half-tone process, 82

Engineering

Koch, Rudolph,

Kells,

Book

of, 2,

Morris, William, 45

51

92

76


Index

in

monograms, 79

uses

alphabets,

angle of

q 6, 7, 10, 11, 13,

tilt,

39,

40

Paper

for architectural work, 39,

geometrical construction

of, 10, it,

14

oflice

drawing, 41

Pencil texture, to imitate, S4

in design, 42

Penciling,

inking, 12

Pens, 22, 31, 44, 53 to prepare, 24

in

monograms, 78

9,

Richard

tomb

II,

alphabets, 45, 46, 47 uses of, 72

modern,

3, 15, 16,

monogram-combinations, 43

Practical books for designers, 86

old (see

Practice strokes, for Gothic writing, 55

"oldstyle," 5

spacing, ^3

for

wide letter-spacing, 37, 43 written with broad pen, 44

incHned single stroke, 27

Optical illusions,

Order and

Roman, for

letters,

31

upright single stroke, 24 Printing, invention of, 3

4,

plates,

15

direction

of

strokes,

for

12

Old

Pumpkin

82

seed

letter, 31 Punctuation marks, 37

uses

Old Roman)

Renaissance.

5. 7,

8

rules for shading,

6

Round

Gothic, 52, 55

Round-writing pens, 53 Rules, of stability, 4 for composition, 29

for

Gmhic

Quill pens, 54

for single stroke upright letters, 23

Record

for single stroke inclined letters, 26

Reducing

Rustic, 2 strip,

letters,

38

glass,

82

Sans-serif, 19

93

53

Roman

for spacing, 53

Gothic capitals, 56 for Gothic lower-case, 55

17

of, 7 2

for shading

Commercial Gothic, 22

for

56

lower-case, 44

proportions, 8

72

of,

lines, 5

Photo-mechanical processes, 82

of,

82

letter, 5

in titles, 37

uses

for,

in design, 42

18, ^;^

stump

41

8

Reversible monograms, 76, 77

accented

scale, 9, 15

Patent

40

S, 7,

Reproduction, drawing

Roman

14

compressed, 43

letter, 28, 29, 40,

Renaissance Roman,

64

in monograms, 75 on titles, 37 Ornamental initials, 50

53

3,

Reinhardt

excessive, 76 flat,

i,

44, 54 Reinhardt, Charles W., 28

Celtic, 51

72

of, 63,

Old English, Old Roman,

Reed pen,

Ornament, 70

\pA- Art, 6i

letters,

6


Index 60

Script, 3, 58, 5Q,

in

Serifs, 6, 8, 9, 14,

Seymour, R.

Show^ard Signals

Stump

monograms, 79 18

F., 66, 68,

lettering,

and

letters, 31,

41

Uncial, the,

books on, 8g

"t"

line,

Table of

signs, 41

letters

and

their uses,

inclined lower-case, 28

Text

Tomb

vertical caps, 24

Sketches, 68, 71

of

57

Spacing, 32, 3i, 57, 70 Stencil letters, 61 Stone, letters on, 40, 71

60

72

Upright single stroke,

23,

24

Vorsals, 49

Vertical single stroke caps, 24

55

Henry VII,

Trajan's column,

Sonnecken pens, 53 fillers,

letters,

72

of, 50,

use with Gothic, 53

47

inclined caps, 25

letters, 25, 27,

monograms, 79

use

Tablets, bronze, 41, 65, 68, 71 Taylor, Isaac, i

Space

in

73

Single-stroke letters, 22

Slope of inclined

2, 47 alphabets, 48, 49, 50, 89, 90

Superimposed monograms, 77 Symmetrical title, 25

i,

7

6

Waist

Triangles, slope, 25

line, 18,

White, use

Type, Delia Robbia, 47 Jenson, 45 Missal, 50

of,

47

83

Wieynk, Heinrich, 60

Working drawing

titles,

37, 38, 41

Zinc etching, 82 U, use of sharp

V

for,

8

OJ CXD

GD General p Gcologica Gcomclri<

German

A

CD CD

^y

t

Li^^'

Gothic, 5 alph:

comt

94


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