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November/December 2010

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SEEDS OF

CHANGE New rules bring more voices to forest planning

• Toward sustainable papermaking • PaperWeek preview

JOURNAL OF RECORD, PULP AND PAPER TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF CANADA CHU: Energy Optimization of Tissue Machines


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NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2010   Vol. 111, No. 6 PRINT EDITION ISSN 0316-4004

A Business Information Group Publication ON-LINE EDITION ISSN 1923-3515

FEATURES

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14  18  20 

A Reformation in Forest Management Tenure rules and forest management policies are being revamped in Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. The trend is toward ecosystem-based management, more stakeholder involvement in resource management decisions, and competitive bidding for wood supply. A Détente in the Boreal Forest From adversaries to allies: A forest products executive and a conservationist reveal how the agreement protecting Canada’s vast northern forests came to be.

FOREST MANAGEMENT

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PATH TO SUSTAINABILITY

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The Business Side of Sustainability The pursuit of sustainability has benefits for papermakers: products that boost productivity, minimize water use and reduce energy consumption. PaperWeek Returns in 2011 In its new format, PAPTAC’s annual meeting and conference alternates business and technical sessions, with plenty of opportunity to mix and mingle.

TERRACE BAY RESTART

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IN EVERY ISSUE

TECHNICAL PAPERS

22  PAPTAC Abstracts

A brief introduction to some of the technical papers available from the Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada at www.paptac.ca.

25  Low Consistency Refining of Oxalic Acid Pretreated Wood Shavings By T. Kang (Abitibibowater, Liverpool, N.S.), G. Soong (Pulp and Paper Centre, UBC), X.F. Chang (Dept. of Chemical Science, BCIT), R. Beatson (Dept. of Chemical Science, BCIT), J.A. Olson (Pulp and Paper Centre, UBC) and D.M. Martinez (Pulp and Paper Centre, UBC)

30  Multivariable Control and Energy Optimization of Tissue Machines

By S. Chu, R. MacHattie and J. Backström (Honeywell Process Solutions, North Vancouver, B.C.)

4 Editorial 6 News 35 Technology News 37 Classified Ads 38 Technology News: Machine Clothing

MISSION STATEMENT:

To promote the pulp and paper industry in Canada by publishing news of the people and their innovations in research, technology, management and financing, as well as forecasts of future trends. Authorized to publish papers of the Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, which are identified by the symbol Serving the industry since 1903.

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November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

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EDITORIAL

Dispatches from the trenches

T

his month, you’ll find several stories from writers who are not regular contributors to our magazine. They are bringing us the front-line perspective from a few significant events. The stories were originally written for other publications, and often that means they don’t translate well to a trade journal, but in these instances the writers have bridged that gap. Writing about an industry meeting and the restart of a mill, Monte Paulsen and Carl Clutchey have captured the mood of the occasion, and we can all relate to it. Clutchey takes us to the heart of the matter in his tale of Terrace Bay Pulp – the frustration of financing deals that fall through, working in B.C. to feed the family in Ontario, and lining up at the food bank when there’s no work to be found. There’s jubilation and profound relief in the entire region when the mill is fired up and money begins flowing. The situation at Terrace Bay Pulp is not unique, which is what makes it so moving. The lights are out at mills across the country. Some may come on again; others won’t.

Old adversaries bury the hatchet

Bruce Lourie and Wayne Clogg provided an insider’s view on the drafting of the Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement to attendees at the Sustainable Forestry Initiative’s annual meeting in Vancouver in September. Monte Paulsen was there to bring the story to a wider audience. In this case, it was all about finding a compromise that everyone could live with. In formal and informal meetings, environmentalists and industry reps came up with a deal that benefits both sides. Also on the environmental front, Carroll McCormick revisits Quebec’s Sustainable Forestry Act in a round-up of forest management legislation – our cover story this month. Quebec’s move to take planning away from individual companies and create a competitive market for fibre is being echoed in Ontario. Nova Scotia meanwhile has had lots of input into its plans, but is faced with a “two solitudes” situation. The three authors of a planning report on resource management had such divergent views that the report is really two reports in one: one author supports the status quo, the other two advocate change. Perhaps they should take a hint from the folks who penned the Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement. Overall, there’s a lot of good news in this issue. Mills are restarting and there’s been a flood of announcements about projects funded by the feds’ Green Transformation Program. All of which bodes well for 2011. Merry Christmas, and best wishes for the new year.

EDITORIAL Editor CINDY MACDONALD 416-510-6755 cindy@pulpandpapercanada.com Contributing Editors HEATHER LYNCH

Sustaining member, Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada; Member, Canadian Business Press and Audit Bureau of Circulation.

ADVISORY BOARD Richard Foucault Greg Hay Dr. Richard Kerekes Barbara van Lierop Dr. David McDonald Dennis McNinch Dr. Yonghao Ni Bryant Prosser Dr. Paul Stuart Ross Williams

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Cindy Macdonald Editor

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PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

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INDUSTRY NEWS

Locals celebrate the restart of Terrace Bay Pulp By Carl Clutchey, Thunder Bay Chronicle-Journal TERRACE BAY, ONT. — Some people believed it would never reopen. But they were wrong. Terrace Bay Pulp is back in business, a fact celebrated at a grand re-opening the afternoon of Oct. 4 as a forklift brought bales of fresh-made pulp into the operation’s giant warehouse. The mill has restarted only one line, with a capacity of 350,000 tonnes/year, producing northern bleached softwood kraft (NBSK) pulp. “The mill is in good shape, so it’s time to rock ‘n’ roll and make some pulp,” mill manager Bob Bryson shouted out to a crowd of workers, company officials, retirees and local politicians. Bryson has worked at the mill for more than three decades. The upbeat ceremony capped a grinding and often emotional effort to get the 62-year-old plant back on line 19 months after it sought court protection from its creditors while it restructured and paid off about $80 million in debt. The frustration and angst took hold in February of this year, when a tight credit market was blamed for stalling the company’s restructuring plans and forcing it to postpone a planned restart. In May, another bump in the road resulted in the restart being put off once again. With summer nearly over and a second lender having backed out of the plan to get Terrace Bay Pulp (TBP) back on line, the company hooked up with a little-known Toronto-based lender — Callidus Capital Corp. Experienced in rescuing cash-strapped companies that still look good on paper, Callidus agreed to provide Terrace Bay Pulp with $30 million. With the $25 million TBP already had promised from the province, the green light went on and 350 workers — many of whom had run out of employment insurance and had become regulars at food banks — prepared to re-enter the inside of a mill they hadn’t seen for nearly two years. On Sept. 24, a tiny window that offers a peek into the mill boiler turned red-hot orange. The plant was being fired up. Steam billowed out of the stack, and the roughly 2,000 people who live in Terrace Bay and nearby Schreiber let out a collective sigh of relief. “Nothing can beat the sight of coming down here again, and seeing smoke coming out of the stack,” remarked Ontario’s Northern Development, Mines and Forestry Minister, Michael Gravelle, who called the plant’s re-opening “the highlight of my political career.” Many workers who had spent the last two years making ends meet by commuting to contract jobs as far away as British Columbia couldn’t agree more. “I’m happy for our town, and it’s just nice to be able to come home at night and see my two daughters,” said TBP boiler operator Jim Fournier, 39. Terrace Bay Pulp founder Ken Buchanan Sr. paid tribute to Callidus president Sam Fleiser, who was among the crowd. “Sam worked diligently to help us get where we are today,” Buchanan said. “He helped lift this mill off the ground.” Four years ago it was Buchanan himself who was seen as the saviour, after his company took over the Terrace Bay mill from former owner Georgia-based Neenah Paper, which was making

Terrace Bay Pulp recovery boiler operator Jim Commisso keeps an eye on the control board during startup procedures. Photo: Carl Clutchey/The Thunder Bay Chronicle-Journal

plans to scrap it. At the celebration, Buchanan quipped: “This is the second opening we’ve had, and I hope it’s the last. It’s been a very hard grind to get where we are.” Traditionally, Terrace Bay’s pulp has gone mostly into the U.S. — to the other side of Lake Superior, as locals like to say. That’s expected to change, with the company’s sales team seeking new customers overseas.

Smurfit-Stone La Tuque resumes production after 11-day lockout

A conflict between Smurfit-Stone Container Corp. and one of the unions at the company’s La Tuque, Que., facility is resolved. The situation began with a 48-hour strike on Nov. 8 by Unik Local 34, which represents 140 paper machine workers at the containerboard mill. Smurfit-Stone proceeded to halt production and implement a lockout, saying it would not restart production until the union signed a new collective agreement. The work stoppage lasted 11 days, with workers returning to the facility on Nov. 19. Workers from Local 34 initially rejected the company’s contract offer, but a second vote several days later swung in favor of the deal. There was no change in the offer between the two votes, but local newspapers report there was tremendous pressure on the locked-out workers to accept the deal. Unik Local 34 represents only about one-third of the workers at the mill; 270 other workers represented by the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union Local 530 had accepted the contract offers months earlier. As well, the Smurfit-Stone mill is one of the largest enterprises in the region and locals were concerned about the effect the lockout would have on the local economy.

ALBERTA GAINS GROUND AGAINST MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE … U.S. TRADE COMMISSION ORDERS DUTIES ON COATED PAPER IMPORTS FROM CHIN s s s

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INDUSTRY NEWS AbitibiBowater gets go-ahead from courts, pension regulators to exit creditor protection

MONTREAL — AbitibiBowater has cleared the last legal hurdle of its restructuring process. The U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware has confirmed AbitibiBowater’s plan of reorganization under chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, clearing the way for the papermaker’s emergence from creditor protection in December. The reorganization plan already has creditor approval in both the U.S. and Canada, and has been approved by the Quebec Superior Court. AbitibiBowater recently finalized agreements with the government of Ontario related to funding relief for the solvency deficits in its pension plans. The company had earlier reached a similar agreement with the government of Quebec. The agreements will allow the company to meet its future pension obligations to beneficiaries in full. In addition, the Ontario government has reached a fiveyear agreement with what will become one of AbitibiBowater’s Canadian subsidiaries post-emergence, AbiBow Canada, regarding investment levels, governance, and sustainability at its pulp and paper operations in the province. The company directly employs approximately 8,500 workers and has in the order of 20,000 pensioners in Ontario and Quebec.

St. Marys secures $8.8 million loan for restart plus biomass co-gen deal

SAULT STE. MARIE, ONT. — With the assistance of a loan from the provincial government and promises of an appropriate wood supply, St. Marys Paper Corp. in Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., is gearing up to restart by early December. The groundwood mill has been closed since March. “This is important news for St. Marys, and for the local economy,” said Dennis Bunnell, chairman and CEO of St. Marys. “Our market studies confirmed that St. Marys Paper should continue producing supercalendered paper as its base product,” Bunnell noted. “As a result of the provincial support we can now implement our plans to transform the business by joining the expanding forest bio-economy business sector.” The transformation in underway. St. Marys Paper has signed a 10-year, 30-megawatt power-purchase agreement with the Ontario Power Authority for the electricity produced by a biomass-fueled co-generation plant to be built adjacent to the St. Marys Paper mill in Sault Ste. Marie. The plant will be operated by St. Marys Renewable Energy Corporation. The company still needs to finalize funding for the $175-million project. The co-generation plant will replace St. Marys’ aging boilers and allow wood waste, in this case, forest industry residuals, to be used as fuel in the new a bubbling fluidized bed boiler. The construction phase is expected to begin in 2011 and generate 400 jobs. About 30 people will work at the co-gen plant once it is operational, and another 125 will be employed providing biomass fuel and logistics.

St. Marys has negotiated a commitment of up to 400,000 tonnes of biomass annually from the Algoma and Northshore Crown Forests for the life of the project. The company also will engage in nano-technology product development partnerships and studies with the University of Toronto, and other bioeconomy projects with private sector partners and the Sault Ste. Marie Innovation Center.

West Fraser announces $37-million Hinton Pulp upgrade of boiler and pulp machine

VANCOUVER, B.C. — West Fraser will proceed with an energy efficiency upgrade of the pulp machine at its Hinton Pulp operation in Hinton, Alta. The project, which is expected to cost approximately $37 million, will be funded with credits earned under the Canadian government’s Pulp and Paper Green Transformation Program. PPGTP funding will be used to install new components and upgrade an existing boiler and pulp machine in order to increase energy efficiency and renewable electricity generation at the mill. Combined, these capital improvement projects will produce more than 10,000 megawatt hours of additional green power per year. These projects will also enable the mill to reduce its natural gas consumption by more than 112,000 gigajoules per year and cut greenhouse gas emissions by more than 5,600 tonnes annually. “The upgrades to the recovery boiler and pulp machine will allow the mill to produce more green power, reduce its natural gas consumption, and lower its carbon footprint. The successful completion of these projects is an important step for Hinton Pulp in improving its overall competitiveness and long-term outlook,” said Brian Grantham, general manager, Hinton Pulp. As a result of this project and other initiatives, pulp production is expected to increase to 420,000 tonnes, returning the mill to levels achieved when it ran two production lines.

Award-winning package

Ontario-based Strathcona Paper LP has won the 2010 Pulp & Paper International (PPI) Award for Innovative Product of the Year for its GreenChoice 100 recycled paperboard. Frank Dorrington, Strathcona Paper’s environmental supervisor (centre), accepted the Innovative Product award.

NA AND INDONESIA … SALE OF HOWE SOUND PULP AND PAPER COMPLETED … DOMTAR BREAKS OFF NEGOTIATIONS TO SELL PRINCE ALBERT MILL s s s pulpandpapercanada.com

November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

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INDUSTRY NEWS Tolko invests Green Transformation funds in power and recovery boilers

Tolko Industries’ kraft paper mill in The Pas, Manitoba, will receive $2.26 million in funding under the Pulp and Paper Green Transformation Program to improve the mill’s energy efficiency and increase renewable energy production. The alterations to the power and recovery boilers will promote better fuel combustion. The new equipment will increase the production of thermal energy from wood waste and black liquor by close to 114,000 gigajoules a year. This increase will reduce the mill’s need to use fossil fuels to compensate for renewable energy shortfalls, lowering the mill’s greenhouse gas emissions by around 10,000 tonnes per year. By reinforcing its environmental stewardship, Tolko is better able to meet market demands for sustainably manufactured pulp and paper products. “We thank the government for actively supporting the pulp and paper industry’s advancement in applying green technologies,” said Bob Snow, technical manager, Tolko’s Manitoba Kraft Papers Division. “These Green Transformation Program projects will provide both environmental and socioeconomic benefits for our employees and our community.”

BC Hydro purchases power from Zellstoff Celgar

CASTLEGAR, B.C. — BC Hydro is now purchasing clean electricity from the Zellstoff Celgar’s Green Energy Project as a result of a series of upgrades that allow the pulp mill to direct more steam to energy production. A new 48-megawatt condensing turbine is now generating electricity for use in the BC Hydro power grid. Zellstoff Celgar’s cogeneration facility will produce 238 gigawatt hours of electricity annually for sale to BC  Hydro under the terms of a 10-year electricity purchase agreement. The new clean energy generating capacity at the Zellstoff Celgar mill was made possible through a series of upgrades funded by $40 million from Natural Resources Canada’s Pulp and Paper Green Transformation Program and $17 million from Mercer International, Zellstoff Celgar’s parent company. The investments at the mill include upgrading the wood waste boiler and installing a new condensing turbine and other steam-saving equipment to allow the mill to generate energy in excess of its own needs that it can sell to BC Hydro. The mill BRIEFLY…

SKF has agreed to acquire US-based lubrication systems provider Lincoln Holdings Enterprises, Inc. Lincoln Industrial is complementary to SKF’s existing lubrication systems business. In addition, Lincoln Industrial provides SKF with improved access to the lubrication tools and equipment aftermarket in North America. Metro Waste Paper Recovery Inc. has changed its name to Cascades Recovery Inc. As a member of Cascades Specialty Products Group, Metro Waste has become an integral part of Cascades’ supply chain and supports its sustainability goals and responsible products. 8 

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

generates the steam it uses for its operations by burning wood waste and black liquor, a byproduct of the pulp-making process. In addition to the electricity purchase agreement with Zellstoff Celgar, BC Hydro has bioenergy agreements with Canfor Pulp in Prince George; PG Interior to Waste to Energy Ltd. in Prince George; and Domtar in Kamloops.

Norampac puts Green Transformation funding to use on paper machine

The Government of Canada’s investment of $83,000 in Norampac, a division of Cascades Canada Inc., will be used to improve the energy efficiency of the paper machine at Norampac’s Trenton pulp and paper mill. To increase energy recovery, Norampac has made improvements that have increased the efficiency of the mill’s heat exchangers. The recovery of this additional energy will reduce the mill’s energy requirements and its use of natural gas by more than 20,000 gigajoules per year. “This $481,000 project, in which the Pulp and Paper Green Transformation Program will invest $83,000, will allow Norampac Trenton to improve its environmental performance by reducing the use of fossil fuels,” said Marc-André Dépin, president and CEO of Norampac.

White Birch sale approved by Quebec court, still needs U.S. approval

The US$236-million sale of White Birch Paper Company, which owns three newsprint mills in Canada, to BD White Birch Investment, LLC, has been approved by a Quebec court. The company has been in bankruptcy protection since February. The sale of White Birch’s assets also includes a mill in Virginia, and the deal still needs approval of the U.S. bankruptcy courts. The majority owners of BD White Birch are funds managed by Black Diamond Capital Management, and its affiliates, with Caspian Capital Advisors also participating as equity owners. PEOPLE…

Chad Wasilenkoff of Fortress Paper Ltd. has been named Ernst & Young Entrepreneur Of The Year for the Pacific region. Peter Rippon has been appointed vice-president, pulp and energy, at West Fraser Timber Co. Rippon was previously operations manager, mechanical pulp and energy. Jim Futcher passed away on Sept. 26, 2010, in Ottawa from a form of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos. Futcher was a long-time member of PAPTAC. André Tremblay will take over as CEO of the Québec Forest Industry Council (CIFQ) in January. Tremblay has a career in law and has been general manager of Produits Forestiers Saguenay Inc. since 2004. Tremblay will also oversee the CIFQ’s communications and public affairs portfolio. pulpandpapercanada.com


BEING SMART WITH YOUR POWER IS SMART BUSINESS.

There’s no doubt about it: big energy can cost big money. That’s why smart businesses don’t pay for wasted power. And that’s why we help BC pulp and paper mills make great energy management a part of doing business, every single day. To find out more about our expert resources and major financial incentives call 1 866 453 6400 or visit bchydro.com/industrial. A10-550


SUSTAINABILITY

A reformation in

FOREST

MANAGEMENT

Tenure rules and forestry regulations are being revamped in Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia. The trend is toward ecosystem-based management, more stakeholder involvement, and competitive bidding for wood.

N

By Carroll McCormick

ova Scotia and Ontario are in the discussion stage of the development of their new forest management programs, while Quebec has already turned its new policies into law. Already, there are a few common themes in this current round of tenure reform: a preference for competitive bidding over single-company licences; a nod to ecosystem-based resource management; and an opening of the planning process to a broader variety of stakeholders. Despite some recent examples of co-operation between the forest industry and conservation groups, the provincial forest management policies under development still show echoes of the traditional environment vs. industry paradigm.

Quebec: Government takes over planning

Quebec’s National Assembly adopted its new Sustainable Forest Development Act last April. The goals of taking forest management away from the forest industry and putting it in government hands seems to have been achieved, as well as a strengthening of local, regional and First Nations interests in the forest planning process.

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Photo: Grant Harder

SUSTAINABILITY

Jean-Pierre Dansereau, the director of the Fédération des producteurs de bois du Québec (FPBQ), which represents Quebec wood producers, is still worried that the new Act will place private wood sellers at a disadvantage. He expressed concern last year that Bill 57 (the proposed forest act) did not require that wood be purchased from private wood lot owners first and then from public lands only as a last resort. He reported that wood cut from private lots on contract was rotting on the ground while mills procured cheaper wood from public land. The new Act stipulates that a Wood Marketing Board for wood from public lands will be implemented in 2013. “Our Federation still agrees with the principle but also still questions if the conditions will be there for the Board to draw enough competitive buyers to set fair benchmark prices for wood being cut on public lands, particularly in depressed markets. We are very much afraid that woodlot owners we represent will keep facing unfair competition from the public lands, as they are now.” The “residuality principle” — which means that access to wood from public land is given to mills once what they can get from primary sources such as private lands has been taken in account — has been kept in the Act but the article that allowed the Minister to enforce ad hoc adjustments to wood allocation on public land twice a year has been dropped. “We feel this is an important weakening regarding the residuality principle enforcement,” notes Dansereau. Nicolas Mainville, Greenpeace Canada’s specialist in forestry campaigns, outlines what he regards as some of the new Act’s good features. “It abolishes the CAAF [timber supply and forest management agreements] and government takes over all planning and management: As of 2013, Quebec and the regions will decide where, how and when public forests can be logged. Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is part of the Act and should play a central role for future forest practices.” Greenpeace salutes this essential reform but questions how the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) plans to concretely apply EBM on the ground. “Will EBM become the new “sustainable development”, a great concept that is now profoundly violated by many stakeholders seeking greenwashing?” Mainville wonders. On the down side, he says, “Protection of forests and creation of protected areas is still excluded from the new Act, thus stopping conservation projects and allocating all the wood for industrial purposes. It briefly refers to the SADF (management strategy) for conservation purposes and joint work with MDDEP (Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks), but without concrete tools to make sure that the new Act ensures conservation. “There is no intact forest protection strategy. The government will allow the destruction of the last virgin areas of our productive forests (about 10-15% of total allocated land),” Mainville continues. Greenpeace considers this as a major failure from MNR and MDDEP. “The door is open for large scale tree farming, intensive monocultures and other environmentally non-friendly pracpulpandpapercanada.com

tices within the “intensive forest management” approach. Greenpeace is very preoccupied by the lack of environmental guidelines. Our main concern is that most of the concrete changes are not described in the Act, but will be in the SADF, now under revision.”

Nova Scotia: Adopt integrated resource management

In May, 2010, following community meetings attended by more than 2,000 residents, a resulting Phase One working paper, then feedback from stakeholders, then more paperwork, Nova Scotians finally got their hands on a report intended to re-evaluate the Department of Natural Resources’ (DNR) policies on forests, minerals, biodiversity and parks. Phase Two of the DNR strategy process is a report entitled A Natural Balance: Working Toward Nova Scotia’s Natural Resources Strategy. The section on forests contains more than 160 recommendations. In abbreviated form, these are: adopt a multi-aged forest management paradigm; implement an Integrated Resource Management Program; i.e., promote synergy among multiple uses of Crown land, and possibly some private lands; take a balanced approach between harvesting and ecosystem objectives; encourage stewardship and education initiatives to improve land use; and amend regulations to stop whole tree harvesting and phase out clearcutting. The recommendations also include improving tenure-of-supply arrangements. Still to come is a strategy based on the Phase Two report, which will guide future DNR policy and program decisions. According to Mike Hutchinson, project coordinator, Federation of Nova Scotia Woodland Owners, the Phase Two report, coming from the three experts tasked to write the recommendations was actually two reports, or viewpoints: one written by two panel members who took an environmental, “change required” angle, the other by the third panel member from an industry, “maintain the status quo because there’s no problem” perspective. Both viewpoints are compelling and the government is having a “heck of a time” combining them, says Hutchinson. “We do not know how far and in which direction the strategy will go.” Hutchinson is particularly supportive of some of the final report’s conclusions. “We have to reduce clearcutting. It does not mimic natural disturbances. Right now it is not used as a forester’s tool. It is used as an economic tool to generate wood supply and is being overused. Reducing clearcutting and changing harvesting methods is definitely part of the strategy, but we do not know to what extent.” In October, Natural Resources Minister John MacDonell announced the province was backing off on its earlier plan to introduce a mandatory licensing system for controlling clearcutting. According to Hutchinson, “The forest industry had been pushing hard on MLAs that they do not want mandatory licensing, saying that it will not work.” Whole tree harvesting is also under the magnifying glass. “Our soils are not fertile enough for it. I support the banning November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

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SUSTAINABILITY

of industrial whole tree harvesting,” Hutchinson says. Hutchinson hopes the strategy will include an incentive program for small wood lot owners for developing forest management programs. “What we are encouraging people to do is develop a management plan, documenting ways to achieve your goals, much like a financial plan,” Hutchinson says. He points to a fundamental problem with forest use that, in his opinion, really should change, but which would take time to correct. “There is no point trying to compete for paper on the world market. When you are competing on a world market where there is cheap labour and fast-growing trees, you are beating a dead horse. Why not look at value-added wood industries? For those of us who are looking at forests for what they will provide, and not what we can make them provide, it is a simple choice.”

Ontario: Competitive bidding not   fibre allocation

In 2009 the Ministry of Northern Development, Mines and Forestry (MNDMF) released A Proposed Framework To Modernize Ontario’s Forest Tenure and Pricing System, designed to “stimulate discussion on how the forest tenure and pricing system could be improved and updated to support a revitalized forest industry,” according to MNDMF. It was open for comment from April to the end of June this year. The framework has three main elements: New local forest management corporations (LFMC), would assume responsibility for the management, marketing and competitive sale of wood from Crown land, with the goal to maximize the value of the forests for Ontario. The second element is competitive markets; i.e., selling timber at market prices via competitive processes such as tendered and negotiated sales, rather than relying on government commitments that allocate fibre to individual mills or harvesters. The third element is what MNDMF calls a new revenue model: Each LFMC would be a standalone business whose revenues would come from Crown timber sold from its own management area. The Framework document implies that the existing pricing, tenure, licensing model is not working. Is this so? “We struggled with that question ourselves. We think the challenge in Ontario is that there has been an underutilization of wood. Somehow the government has suggested that this unused wood means that we need a new tenure system. But the underutilized wood is a sign of the times, not of a flawed system,” says Jamie Lim, president and CEO, Ontario Forest Industries Association (OFIA). “When we went to the town meetings, with the exception of three or four people, there was no support for this Framework.” OFIA says there is no “dog in the manger” attitude about unused wood in Ontario. Tenure systems are sometimes criticized for this; i.e., tenure holders sitting on their wood while new players cannot get access to any. “OFIA, for the past two 12 

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

years, has put out a position statement that we support putting Ontario’s 26 million cubic metres of industrial wood fibre back to work.” Lim refers to the Provincial Wood Supply Competition (PWSC) launched in November, 2009, as proof that there is a good system already in place working to allocate wood to companies with viable plans and simultaneously protect the wood supply for mills and plants that have survived the recession and continue to employ Ontarians. “It hit the reset button to open up the underutilized wood supply to competition, but also to protect the wood supply that was allocated and being used,” Lim says. “There has been a move away from single-entity Sustainable Forest Licenses (SFL) to a more inclusive enhanced shareholder co-op model. This means that wood is not being managed by a single company anymore. We asked government that instead of the Framework, it should finish what it started with the PWSC and accelerate the move from single entity SFLs to enhanced co-ops. We just completed one this summer: the Abitibi River Enhanced Co-op. This ensures that wood is being used in an effective and efficient manner by industry,” Lim says. The head scratcher, according to Lim, is that the PWSC is already dealing with the concerns voiced in the Framework. The Framework would simply undermine the mills that are still open, because they would continually have to bid and compete for supply. “It is that simple,” Lim says. Too, Lim explains, OFIA does not want forests run by people with no vested interests. “The Algonquin Forest Corporation, a Crown corporation, has some of the highest fibre costs and significantly higher staffing than any shareholder co-op.” Scott Jackson, manager, forest policy, OFIA, adds, “We have said that if the government is so convinced that its model is competitively sound, we would tolerate them introducing two pilot programs in areas that lack leadership and economic activity. Run them for five years, take what they have learned, have them independently assessed and compared to the enhanced co-ops. We really think the government should set up the pilot programs, finish the PWSC and support the enhanced co-ops elsewhere on the land base. That would be enough for this province and the tenure system status quo would be changed.” As for how this process could play out, Lim notes that, “Our members and us have been meeting with government. We are hopeful. We believe that there is an openness to reform tenure by testing these pilot projects against the revised tenure co-ops.” Regardless of what you call it, the clear direction of these reforms in the East is away from single-company forest licences, toward multi-stakeholder decision-making and integrated resource management. Competitive bidding for wood supply is will soon be the reality for pulp and paper companies in Quebec, and looms on the horizon for Ontario. PPC pulpandpapercanada.com


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SUSTAINABILITY

A détente in the

BOREAL

FOREST

From adversaries to allies: A forest products executive and a conservationist reveal how the Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement redefines the relationship between industry and activists.

By Monte Paulsen

T

he Canadian Boreal Forest Agree­ ment, which covers 72 million hectares of the coldest dirt on Earth, has spawned strange bedfellows. It brought the forest products industry and environmental groups to a mutually agreeable protection plan for Canada’s boreal forest. It has resulted in a regional cease-fire in the sprawling battle among rival certifiers of “green” wood and paper products: the Sustainable Forestry Ini­ tiative (SFI), which was created by the forest products industry, and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), which was founded by a coalition of forest conserva­ tion activists. Two gentlemen involved in hammer­ ing out the agreement shared a stage in September at the Sustainable Forestry Ini­ tiative’s annual conference in Vancouver. Wayne Clogg is a senior vice president at West Fraser Timber Company, a loyal SFI member and sometime target of envi­ ronmental protest in British Columbia.

Bruce Lourie and Wayne Clogg told participants at the Sustainable Forestry Initiative’s annual meeting the tale of how activists and industry reached a truce on the boreal forest issue.

14 

Bruce Lourie is president of the Ivey Foundation, a Toronto-based family char­ ity that has funded much of the activism targeted at companies such as West Fraser. Their comments both illuminated and illustrated the fragile truce that promises to remake Canada’s vast northern forest.

A tradition of   ‘throwing tomatoes’

Clogg appeared at ease speaking to the overwhelmingly male audience of timber industry executives and consultants. He summed up the boreal experiment suc­ cinctly in response to an audience question. “The traditional model is: government sets up a table. Bruce comes in. He sits at one end. I sit at the other. We spend our time throwing tomatoes at each other. We walk out. We both give a differ­ ent recommendation to government; they come out with something in the middle,” Clogg said. “And then we both dump all over them.” A throaty chuckle gurgled across the ballroom of the Renaissance Hotel. The West Fraser executive continued. “That’s the traditional model. What we’re trying to test here is: can these two sides get together, try and find that bal­ ance — it won’t be easy — bring some outside experts in and try and give a recommendation to government that we both support.” Lourie, playing Daniel to the lion’s den, spoke more formally. “This is essentially a culmination of probably 10 to 20 years of a much more adversarial relationship between conser­ vation organizations and forest compa­

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

nies,” Lourie began. “At the Ivey Foundation, we’ve been more associated with supporting what you would call the other side of the issue, supporting the conservation groups. So for many years we’ve supported groups like the Nature Conservancy, World Wildlife Fund, and we also support — I should be careful what I say here — more aggressive groups like ForestEthics.” Some audience members shifted uncomfortably in their seats. ForestEth­ ics has lobbed some big tomatoes at SFI. Lourie continued, “It was probably one of the most professional, the most nerve wracking, and really the most exciting gatherings of businesses and conservation groups that I’ve ever participated in.”

Big goals, ‘big gives’

The Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement is between 21 member companies of the Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC) and nine leading environmental organizations. Together, they plan to present recommendations to federal, pro­ vincial and First Nations governments. The agreement applies to 72 million hectares of public forest licensed to FPAC companies. That’s about a quarter of Can­ ada’s 307 million hectare boreal forest. “Just to put it in perspective, Canada’s boreal forest, if it was overlayed on the U.S., it would be about 40 per cent of the size of the continental U.S.,” Clogg said. “If you look at the northern fringe of that band of boreal forest, it’s pretty marginal from an economic forestry per­ spective,” Lourie said, “but it is still very important from an ecological perspective pulpandpapercanada.com


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SUSTAINABILITY

and increasingly from a carbon storage perspective... By many accounts, the boreal forest stores more carbon than any other ecosystem in the world.” The agreement, which was announced in May, is being implemented over the next three years. It is framed around six specific goals: 1) world-leading sustainable forest management practices; 2) creation of a network of protected areas that represent the diversity of ecosystems within the boreal region; 3) recovery of species at risk within the boreal forest, including species such as boreal caribou; 4) reducing greenhouse gas emissions along the full life cycle from forest to end-of-product life; 5) improved prosperity of the Canadian forest sector and the communities that depend on it; and 6) recognition by the marketplace (e.g., customers, investors, consumers) in ways that demonstrably benefit FPAC members and their products from the boreal forest. Lourie, who described the sixth goal as the “pot of gold at the end of the rainbow,” said, “Our hope is that [the boreal agreement] will deliver a competitive advantage as the world becomes more focused on green products and more focused on a low-carbon economy.” The path to such a future was paved by a controversial quid pro quo under which the forest companies agreed to suspend logging on nearly 30 million hectares so that caribou conservation plans can be enacted. “The deferral of logging on 30 million hectares was the big give from the forest companies’ side,” Lourie said. “In return, the big give from the conservation groups, and particularly from the more activist forest groups, was that they would end all of their campaigns that were targeted at signatory companies.” Those include high-profile ‘do not buy’ campaigns by Canopy, Greenpeace and ForestEthics.

Certification nearly   derailed agreement

Clogg and Lourie agreed that the first goal — defining the forest management 16 

practices that would be certified by organizations such as the Sustainable Forestry Initiative and Forest Stewardship Council — was the most difficult. “It may not surprise you to hear that this was one of the more contentious areas of the discussion,” Lourie said. “This was one point we had a few tense moments over,” Clogg concurred. “And it even threatened, I think, to derail the process.” Clogg described the process for the SFI audience. He said the environmental groups at the boreal table insisted on high forest management standards. “And for them, this meant embracing FSC in the boreal... However, for the FPAC member companies, this was a major stumbling block,” the West Fraser executive and SFI stalwart explained. “We had no appetite for a major conversion to FSC,” Clogg continued. “And the environmental interests felt that only FSC could give them the assurance that they sought about our performance on the ground.” Beer broke the standoff. “We had a discussion over a beer one night — and this was one of the benefits of this process, is that we began to break down the traditional barriers between the two sides — and we started to discuss the real objectives we were trying to achieve. And it turned out that our real objective was about forest management performance on the ground,” Clogg said. “So we hit upon the idea... of developing a set of on-the-ground forest practices in the boreal. The idea was to develop a boreal standard of practice which could be adopted and verified under any of the three certification systems in Canada,” he continued. They agreed to hire outside experts to help indentify best practices. “Finally, and this one has been controversial, we agreed to use the FSC boreal standard as a reference point. Not as a starting point. Not as a benchmark. But as a reference point, so that environmental proponents could support the new standards by comparing these to the standards they were most comfortable with,” Clogg said.

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

“For us this truly is a win-win. We will incorporate this element into our SFI audits of the boreal, and retain all of the other positive benefits that we like about the SFI program,” he continued.

Better than the status quo

“Why did West Fraser support the boreal agreement?” Clogg asked. It was a frontof-mind question for many in the industry audience. “After all, our company has a long history with forest campaigns. This goes way back to the Great Bear Rainforest campaign on the B.C. coast,” Clogg said. “So over the years, even though this hasn’t been a whole lot of fun — and I’ve had my share of scars — in fact we’ve learned to deal with campaigns and we’ve learned to carry on our business successfully.” “Quite simply,” Clogg replied to his own question, “we saw a window of opportunity to negotiate an outcome in the boreal that we thought was better than the status quo. Not just better for us, but better for both parties.” Both Clogg and Lourie described the boreal agreement as “in early days,” and both stressed that it will need the active support of governments, First Nations and other resource sectors (such as mining and oil) in order to succeed. Lourie noted that he had recently met with Syncrude, one of several oil sands operators now under pressure from the same sorts of conservation groups that had previously campaigned against the FPAC companies. “We met with the CEO of Syncrude. He was really excited about the model of the Boreal Forest Agreement, and I imagine there will be more of those kinds of conversations with different industry sectors going forward,” Lourie said. The Ivey Foundation president concluded with a puckish bit of good news for the timber industry audience. “Happily, I should tell you that all of the forest activists are now fighting the tar sands, so you guys won’t have to worry about them too much longer.” (This article first appeared on TheTyee.ca, on September 28, 2010.)

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A NEW VISION A NEW INDUSTRY A NEW CONFERENCE

PAPERWEEK CANADA February 1-3, 2011 Fairmont The Queen Elizabeth Hotel Montreal

The Annual Conference of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry

Environment

Biomass Combustion

GHG Emissions

Emerging Technologies

Energy management

New Market Trends

Synergies

Leadership

Water Recycling

Synergies

Sustainability Energy Cogenaration Different Perspectives

Experience a new synergy based on an innovative approach, combining business and technical tools that will address the key challenges and opportunities of today’s industry. Such a comprehensive opportunity BUSINESS TRACK takes place once a year in Canada A full business track featuring sessions on:

TECHNICAL TRACK

15 technical sessions from industry experts featuring presentations on: Process Control Environment Energy Cost Savings Bleaching Mechanical Pulping Research Paper Machine Technology

Partnering for Transformation: Industry, Employees, Governments and Communities How Green Marketing can be Profitable, Sustainable, and also Help Attract New Employees to the Industry Outlook on Economic and Market Trends How Becoming Energy Wise Makes Business Sense Innovation in Application: Transforming your Company

Visit paperweekcanada.ca for full details

Also featuring: International Forest Biorefinery Symposium The development and implementation of the concept of the integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) in existing pulp and paper mills is a major, albeit non unique, element of the industry’s strategy for revival.

Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada

Contact Information: Carmie Lato 514-392-6969 / clato@paptac.ca


ENVIRONMENT

The Business Side of Sustainability For papermakers, the pursuit of “sustainability” has produced innovations in chemistry that boost productivity, and minimize water and energy consumption.

T

raditionally, the focus for a wide range of paper producers had been to deliver high productivity with little concern for the amount of raw materials and energy employed; just get as much product as possible to the marketplace and keep things running. Many did this very effectively. Today’s expectation is still high productivity, but the difference is a change in the definition of success. Success today also requires a reduction in raw material usage, reformulations to lower costs, minimization of energy employed, and tighter control of water usage. Beyond the mill, fine paper grades must meet the needs of digital presses running with entirely new inks. Packaging grades must be lighter but stronger, and eliminate proven coatings in favor of new, green formulations. Add in the pursuit of increased quality of life for communities and employees at the mill — profitable for stakeholders and shareholders alike — and you can see the sweeping reach of the sustainability equation. Because of the increasingly important business dimension of sustainability, top management from many global companies is actively weaving the “less is more” concept and the bigger picture dimension of sustainability into their long-term plans, often measured by each operation’s carbon footprint. “Mapping the carbon footprint of production facilities has become commonplace and part of the cultural change at pulp and paper mills,” says Fred Clark, vice-president, sustainability at Eka Chemicals, the AkzoNobel pulp and paper division. “Often the reduc18 

tion targets are challenging. At Eka and the other AkzoNobel business units, we have taken the initiative seriously and are aiming to reduce our carbon footprint by 10% in 2015 relative to 2009. Our ambition is to achieve a 20-25% reduction by 2020. Partnering with leaders in the pulp and paper industry, including NGOs, to support sustainability efforts and helping them reach ambitious goals is fundamental to our own success.” With this approach, Eka Chemicals joins a forward-thining cadre of chemical companies that are addressing their own carbon footprint, and compiling sustainability data about their products for customers. Sun Chemical, for example, has just made carbon footprint data available for its product lines. At Eka Chemicals, “more and more customers ask for eco-profiles of our products,” confirms Clark.

High-performance chemistry

Sustainability challenges usher in a new role for chemistry, which requires a holistic view from the forest through pulp and papermaking, as well as the processes that follow, always working in innovative ways to meet continuously increasing demands for a more sustainable industry. As Tom Lindstrom, a professor at the Swedish Royal Institute and a guru in sustainable packaging and innovation sees it, “Reducing the use of fibre remains on the forefront of this effort, through basis weight reduction in packaging grades, or filler substitution in fine papers. This means a greater role for chemistry, including utilizing retention, drainage and strength enhancements in new ways, or taking advantage of new

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

By Martin Koepenick, Innova

product or application technology in these areas.” “On another front,” he continues, “nano-cellulose developments are advancing quite rapidly to enhance strength to entirely new levels, which will bring about all kinds of innovations in formulations. It’s interesting to note the keen interest from entrepreneurs in the cosmetics, medical, food and many other industries who are contacting us from all over the world to tap into the inherent properties of nano-cellulose for their own performance and sustainability reasons.” Lindstrom also notes that there’s a lot of interest in the use of clays for biobarriers, which also fit into the sustainability model. Process improvement through better chemistry is not a new phenomenon. “We have been developing and promoting sustainable products and providing sustainability benefits since our invention of the microparticle-based retention system 30 years ago,” says Mark Zempel, paper chemicals marketing manager for Eka Chemicals. “The modern versions of this concept are now allowing unprecedented filler levels in graphic grades, maintaining or improving productivity and quality at the same time. Similarly, use of new retention, dewatering and strength concepts is allowing board producers to reduce basis weights, optimize furnish mix, and increase productivity. These each contribute positively to a mill’s sustainability metrics — improved productivity, for example, can result in fewer resources (energy, water, etc.) consumed for each ton produced.” In concert with advances in chemistry, much has been happening on the paper pulpandpapercanada.com


By having employees participate in Robert Swan’s Leadership on the Edge 2008 Antarctica expedition, AkzoNobel encouraged the company’s future leaders to act as real ambassadors for sustainability in their jobs and everyday life.

equipment side to attain the same goals. Alain Lascar, director of applications and marketing for Kadant’s fiberline group, explains: “In the recycled fibre sector, we are helping customers utilize contaminated, but high quality fibre, gaining a high yield, reducing energy costs, and minimizing the chemicals employed. While we do try to help lower chemical costs, we have a high respect for high performance chemistries, because they deliver advantages needed to produce a sheet with fewer imperfections. Just as we deliver more fibre from waste paper, effective nanoparticle systems retain more of the fibre, minerals and additives in the sheet.”

Better, lighter base sheet

Globally, today’s base sheet is typically more uniform, even though it’s produced at very high speeds. The ratio of filler to fibre has shifted notably in the direction of filler, sometimes to nearly half the content of the sheet. Ranging from newer alternatives such as eucalyptus fibre to heavily contaminated waste fibre, or even bamboo, bagasse and straw, paper formulations in the new millennium are entirely different, continuing to evolve to incorporate fibre from sustainable resources. Complimentary to the fibre changes, applications of advanced chemistries at the wet end have become standard practice. But there is nothing standard at all about the effect they have had on retention of fibre, minerals and other additives. Greater knowledge of the sheet on a nano level allows for impressive productivity at lower dosages of advanced chemistry. What’s more, the base sheet can be designed to be single-, double-, or pulpandpapercanada.com

triple-coated more precisely. Consider the sustainability implications of Eka Chemicals’ fourth generation nanoparticle, anionic colloidal silica. The product has a high structure and surface area and is typically added after the screen. It dramatically reduces chemical addition because of its strong interaction with polymers and starch. As with the previous generations, this nanoparticle silica product is in and of itself a sustainable chemistry: an inorganic colloidal mineral in water with no VOC impact and requiring very simple dosing equipment. The true sustainability impact, however, is on the paper or board process itself: even small amounts of this new product allow reductions in other, less sustainable additives, and provide new maximum levels of performance in retention and dewatering. In one case, production rate increased more than 10%, while sewer losses were reduced due to improved retention of fines and filler. In other cases, dramatic reductions in wet strength resin or retention polymer have been possible along with the productivity gains. According to Eka Chemicals’ Zempel “When you combine these new additives with best-in-class injection technology like Wetend Technologies’ TrumpJet systems, you maximize their performance while also making huge impacts on water and energy savings. Using thin stock as the dilution medium reduces water consumption and also prevents the need to heat it to process temperature.”

filler content is energy savings. Clay and carbonates dry much more easily and quickly than wet fibre. The addition of filler can dramatically increase the drainage rate and the water removal rates during pressing and drying. With 20% filler addition, the drainage time often decreases by 20% compared to the unfilled paper. Energy gains are the inherent result. Indeed, in mill trials, 4 -5% starch encapsulated kaolin clay was shown to have no statistical impact on strength and slide angle, to provide faster drainage and drying, and to reduce steam demand by 10%.

Faster-drying sheet has energy bonus

Martin Koepenick of Innova has written about the paper industry and innovations in technology for more than 25 years.. He can be reached at mkoepen@gmail.com

In addition to a reduction in raw materials costs, another benefit of increased

Sustainability a sustainable trend for paper

Sustainability progress will continue to accelerate throughout the pulp, papermaking, converting and printing processes, especially as alternative value-added solutions make “attainability” happen sooner and at lower overall costs. In addition to its own goals regarding greenhouse gas reduction and water management, Eka Chemicals has a business goal of having 30% of revenue from eco-premium solutions by 2015. Ecopremium refers to those solutions which are superior to the mainstream competitive solution with respect to energy efficiency, use of natural resources, emissions, toxicity, waste, and land use. Clearly, papermakers can expect more options in their pursuit of sustainability. PPC

November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

19


PAPERWEEK PREVIEW

PaperWeek returns in 2011 PAPTAC has expanded the scope of its annual meeting to become a three-day conference and networking event By Cindy Macdonald, Editor

T

he new format for the Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada’s (PAPTAC) annual meeting and conference alternates business and technical sessions, with plenty of opportunity to mix and mingle. Luncheons, coffee breaks and end-of-day receptions are arranged to give attendees time for the face-to-face discussions that are so important in our geographically-dispersed industry. Although the format of the meeting has changed from conference-plus-EXFOR® trade show to conference-plus-networking, the exchange of knowledge and camaraderie continue to be the core values of this annual event. PaperWeek Canada 2011 runs from Feb. 1-3 at the Fairmont Queen Elizabeth in Montreal. For up-to-date details on the event, please visit www.paperweekcanada.ca. What follows is a preliminary schedule (as of Nov. 30), and is subject to change. Prior to the official opening of PaperWeek, on Monday, Jan. 31, there will be meetings of various industry groups plus the mill managers’ roundtable, an invitation-only event.

Opportunities to learn and converse

PaperWeek’s first day is Tuesday, Feb. 1. The schedule is packed, so things get off to an early start with a welcome event at 7:30 a.m. and then the business session starting at 8:00 a.m. The first business track is presented by FPInnovations, and will focus on innovation. This is followed by concurrent technical sessions on mechanical pulping and research, as well as the first session of the Forest Biorefinery Symposium. Following the conference luncheon, a business session presented by KPMG runs until 3:30 p.m. The technical track then resumes with further sessions on research, bleaching and biorefining. The day concludes with a cocktail reception. Wednesday, Feb. 2, follows a similar format. A business session presented by Cascades will discuss the benefits of green marketing, followed by concurrent technical sessions on paper machine technology, environment, and biorefining. After lunch, the business topic is partnerships between industry, government and communities, presented by Natural Resources Canada. Technical topics on Wednesday afternoon are paper machine

technology, energy, and biorefining. A cocktail reception wraps up the day’s events. Thursday is a half-day, opening with a session on energy conservation presented by Hydro Québec. Technical sessions will cover paper machine technology and process control. A luncheon will follow.

Biorefinery symposium draws on global knowledge

The biorefining sessions at PaperWeek Canada are part of the International Forest Biorefinery Symposium organized by École Polytechnique in Montreal. The symposium will cover biorefining technologies, conversions of kraft pulp mills, energy and water integration and optimization, supply chain design, sustainability and energy efficiency, bioproducts, and markets. Speakers and presenters at the poster session hail from Canada, U.S., Sweden, Finland, Iran, and India. There will be two biorefining keynote speakers: M. Wellisch, research advisor, sustainable conversion of bioresources, Natural Resources Canada, and T. Berntsson, a professor with the Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.

Montreal welcomes you

The Fairmont Queen Elizabeth Hotel is offering a special rate of $165/night to conference attendees. Please see the PaperWeek web site for details. Registration fees for PaperWeek are $620 for PAPTAC members, and $900 for non-members, with discounted rates available to presenters, retired PAPTAC members, students, and representatives of PAPTAC supplier company members. The registration fee grants access to all PAPTAC-sponsored events, including lunches and receptions. As in the past, awards for research and technical papers and for service to the Canadian pulp and paper industry will be presented at the beginning of sessions and during PAPTAC’s annual general meeting. Stay tuned to www.paperweekcanada.ca for the detailed PaperWeek program. PPC

PAPTAC Annual Meeting 2010

20 

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

pulpandpapercanada.com


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LEADERSHIP: Bringing chemistry to life. Sustainability is about achieving and maintaining a high quality of life for our local and global communities as well as our own associates. For Buckman, that means: • Supporting volunteer service organizations. • Encouraging our associates to volunteer their time and talent. • Sponsoring educational opportunities for youth.

RESPONSIBILITY: Making a future, not just a living. Buckman has positioned itself for long-term business success by establishing everything from global and supply chain management to worldwide financial and accounting standards. We employ the most up-to-date tools and plans to ensure our financial sustainability.

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PAPTAC ABSTRACTS

(Full peer-reviewed manuscripts available at www.paptac.ca)

Whole Log Chipping of Mountain Pine Beetle Killed Wood for the Pulp and Paper Industry By B. Dalpke and P. Bicho

Déchiquetage de grumes entières détruites par le dendroctone du pin ponderosa destinées à l’industrie des pâtes et papiers Abstract: To alleviate the current chip supply shortage in the province of British Columbia, and to make use of mountain pinebeetle-killed wood that is unsuitable for lumber production, whole log chipping of heavily checked, grey-stage beetle-killed wood to provide an additional chip supply for the pulp and paper industry is explored. Chipping productivity, hog fuel and fibre recovery, and chip quality of a satellite chipping yard are evaluated. Whole log chipping of heavily checked grey-stage trees resulted in high ratios of pins and fines, but otherwise good quality chips. Kraft

and TMP pulps made from such whole log chips did not show any quality concerns. Heavily-checked, grey-stage mountain pine beetle-killed wood thus provides a suitable source of raw material for whole log chipping operations and the resulting chips can be used to supplement the chip feed of kraft and TMP mills. Paper presented at the PAPTAC Annual Meeting 2010 in Montreal, Que., February 2-3, 2010. Full manuscript available at www.paptac.ca.

Refining of Long Fibre Fractions after Fractionation By Q. Zha, R. Lanouette, K.-N. Law, J.-P. Bousquet, S. Bussières

Raffinage des fractions de fibres longues après fractionnement Abstract: In this work, a primary-stage black spruce TMP was fractionated into long and short fibre fractions using two-stage screening. The long fraction (secondary reject) was further fractionated with a two-stage slotted screen to obtain earlywood and latewood enriched fractions. These fractions were refined to evaluate the efficiency of fractionation in order to improve the overall pulp quality. We observed that refining consistency, number of refining stages and the fraction itself influenced the refining behavior of the long fibre fractions. The latewood-enriched fraction had a better fibre development potential than the earlywood-

enriched fraction but it required higher energy consumption. Low consistency refining consumed less refining energy but it led to lower mechanical properties. Separate refining could reduce refining energy and increase handsheet’s light scattering coefficient. Recombination of these refined fractions indicated that energy saving without too much strength loss is possible. Paper presented at 94th PAPTAC Annual Meeting in Montreal, February 5-7, 2008 Full manuscript available at www.paptac.ca.

The Impact of Wood Species on the Treatment of Brownstock with Hydrogen Peroxide By D. Davies, G. Pageau, H.U. Süss

Effets des essences de bois sur le traitement de la pâte brune avec du peroxyde d’hydrogène Abstract: The Howe Sound mill uses an ODEopDD sequence to produce fully bleached kraft pulp from northern softwood. Tests of ClO2 consumption by the liquid portion of the 3.5% consistency stock feeding the Do stage were generally under 10% of total Do stage usage but did reach that level on occasion. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2) was added to the bleach feed just minutes prior to ClO2 addition in the hopes of reducing overall bleaching cost. Key findings of the trial were that costs can indeed be reduced as long

22 

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

as there is only trace ClO2 residual in the filtrate used for dilution and peroxide dosage is kept low enough to ensure it is completely consumed before ClO2 is added. Paper presented at 94th PAPTAC Annual Meeting in Montreal, February 5-7, 2008 Full manuscript available at www.paptac.ca.

pulpandpapercanada.com


(Full peer-reviewed manuscripts available at www.paptac.ca)

PAPTAC ABSTRACTS

Decontamination of Whitewater Fines by Laboratory-Scale Flotation M. Ricard, G. Dorris, C. Lapointe, N. Pagé, Y. Ben

Décontamination de fines d’eau blanche par flottation en laboratoire Abstract: To our knowledge, mills have not yet developed strategies to selectively remove contaminated or aged fines from the wet end of the machine. To alleviate some of the drawbacks associated with non-selective means of cleaning whitewater, we have explored the use of dispersed air flotation. We carried out flotation tests on nine process water samples that were obtained from six different mills producing various types of paper or board. We found that laboratory flotation improved the quality of mill process water solids and increased the brightness of the handsheets made from whitewater fines by up to 2.4 units while reducing their extractives

and ink content by up to 59% and 48%, respectively. Flotation selectively removed the smallest and most contaminated solids from paper machine waters. Decontamination of whitewater by flotation may lead to improved sheet properties, reduction in the use of papermaking and bleaching chemicals, improved paper machine runnability, and increased water system closure. Paper presented at 94th PAPTAC Annual Meeting in Montreal, February 5-7, 2008 Full manuscript available at www.paptac.ca.

Measuring Uniformity in Kraft Digesters Using Flow-Following Sensors By E. Albadvi, T. C. M. Graham, E. Liu, M. Alaqqad, C. P. J. Bennington, R. J. Kerekes, M. Martinez, S. Mirabbasi

Détermination de l’uniformité du fonctionnement des lessiveurs kraft à l’aide de capteurs miniatures injectables dans la suspension Abstract: Variability studies in kraft pulp digesters have been the subject of intense interest for many years. This paper reviews the various past approaches to measure this variability and then introduces a new method of its measurement: the SmartChip. This device measures and records the temperature directly within the digester as it flows with the wood chips during the kraft cook. Multiple SmartChips deployed in a single cook will then provide insight on the temperature variability and heat transfer mechanisms occurring within the digester. Moreover, by taking pulp samples in the vicinity of the SmartChip sensors, correla-

tions between nonuniformity and temperature gradients can be established. The SmartChips have been tested in two laboratory batch digesters and as expected, little variability was observed in these small scale devices. These findings suggest that the SmartChip works well under the harsh conditions of the kraft cook and further work is warranted to develop the instrument for its use at the industrial scale. Paper presented at the 2010 PacWest Conference in Sun Peaks, B.C., June 9-12, 2010. Full manuscript available at www.paptac.ca.

Understanding the Effect of Chemical Pretreatment on Properties of Aspen CTMP By Z. Yuan, Y. Gao, K. Li

Effet du prétraitement chimique sur les propriétés de la pâte chimico-thermomécanique (PCTM) de tremble Abstract: In this study, the effect of sulfite and sodium hydroxide pretreatment on aspen CTMP fiber properties was examined in comparison with the impregnation with water only, aiming to understand how the impregnation chemicals affect fibre morphology and fibre surface chemistry and how these properties relate to fiber separation, refining, and pulp properties. Impregnation of wood chips with sulfite resulted in more long fibers, less fines and shives, and a higher brightness compared with impregnation of wood chips with water only. It is observed that sulphonated pulps have more middle lamella coated fibers after the first-stage pulpandpapercanada.com

refining and more flake-like fines than the pulp produced from water impregnation. This is mainly attributed to the difference in fiber separation. The pulp produced from water impregnation has a lower light scattering coefficient than the sulphonated pulp although the former has more fines. Paper presented at 94th PAPTAC Annual Meeting in Montreal, February 5-7, 2008 Full manuscript available at www.paptac.ca.

November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

23


PAPTAC ABSTRACTS (Full peer-reviewed manuscripts available at www.paptac.ca)

On-Line Measurement of Air Content in Pulp and Papermaking Systems. Part II: Applications to Defoamer Addition and to the Correction of a Consistency Transmitter By G. Dorris, S. Gendron, N. Pagé, T. Murray, Y. Ben, H. Peters

Mesure en ligne de la teneur en air des systèmes de fabrication de pâtes et papiers. Partie II : utilisation lors de l’ajout d’anti-mousse et pour la correction d’un convertisseur de concentration Abstract: We have previously described the use of a pressurebased, on-line air content probe in various commercial flotation cells used for the removal of ink and other hydrophobic contaminants from recycled pulps. In this second report, other uses of the air content probe are described. For example, the probe was installed in the foam tank of a recycling mill to correct the signal of a microwave consistency transmitter. Without this correction, predicted consistencies of flotation rejects were highly erroneous. We also describe how the air content measurement was successfully

used to automatically control defoamer addition in the foam tank of flotation rejects. Finally, on-line measurement of air content in the vat of two kraft brownstock washers is shown to provide useful information on the effect of air on pulp drainage and washer effectiveness. Paper presented at 94th PAPTAC Annual Meeting in Montreal, February 5-7, 2008 Full manuscript available at www.paptac.ca.

Automation of a Microcontaminants Deposition Tester Relating the Rate of Deposition to the Pressure Drop Across a Collector By G. Dorris and C. Castro

Automatisation d’un appareil d’essai de dépôts de contaminants indiquant la vitesse de dépôt lors de la chute de pression dans un collecteur Abstract: The importance of organic microcontaminants (i.e. pitch and microstickies) as contributors to deposition problems in paper machines is recognized but there is no consensus in the industry on a microcontaminants definition and on monitoring method. Rather than measuring the quantity of pitch/microstickies in pulp or whitewater samples, we previously described a means of monitoring their deposition rate in forming fabrics because this is one of the most common deposit locations in paper mills using recycled pulps. In this report, we describe the automation of this dynamic deposition test, whose key feature is the continuous measurement of pressure across a fabric rather than the measurement of deposited material. The sigmoid shape of the deposition curve is

explained by a change in flow regime as the pores of the fabric are progressively plugged. Capture of the P100 whitewater elements in the fabric is caused by a combination of overlapping phenomena such as surface pore deposition, pore bridging by fibrillar elements, and filtration of flowing elements when the pores start to be constricted. To obtain a measurable rate of deposition, the presence of lypophilic extractives is required both on the surface of the fines and also in the water phase, as colloidal particles. Paper presented at 94th PAPTAC Annual Meeting in Montreal, February 5-7, 2008 Full manuscript available at www.paptac.ca.

For up-to-date industry news visit www.pulpandpapercanada.com 24 

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

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ENERGY SAVINGS

Low Consistency Refining of Oxalic Acid Pretreated Wood Shavings By T. Kang, G. Soong, X.F. Chang, R. Beatson, J.A. Olson, and D.M. Martinez Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of wood shavings as a raw material for the low consistency (LC) refining at the primary refining stage to significantly reduce electrical energy consumption. It was possible to produce wood shavings with longer fibre length than wood chips. Oxalic acid, followed by alkaline peroxide, was applied to both wood shavings and wood chips before LC refining. LC refined wood shavings were found to be a low energy raw material. The refining energy was reduced by about 33% using wood shavings compared to wood chips at a given freeness, and oxalic acid pretreatment of wood shavings further reduced the refining energy by approximately 57%. Tensile strength and brightness of LC refined wood shavings was found to be higher than high-consistency refined wood chips. Oxalic acid pretreatment further improved the tensile strength of LC refined wood shavings, but not the brightness. This study demonstrates the potential to develop a novel mechanical pulping process that produces high tensile, high brightness pulp with half the electrical energy consumption.

M

echanical pulping of wood chips offers major advantages such as lower capital cost, higher yield and better paper properties, including light scattering coefficient, smoothness and bulk. However, the high energy consumption and rising electrical energy costs associated with the process hinder its full utilization. This current situation has created a large demand for the development of more energy-efficient mechanical pulping processes and alternative raw materials for mechanical pulping. Traditionally, the high consistency (HC), energy-intensive chip refiner has been used as a primary and/or secondary refiner, while the low consistency (LC) refiner is either not used or used as a third stage refiner or as a post refiner or, rarely, as a reject refiner. However, the LC refiner is gaining more attention because it consumes less energy than the high consistency refiner to achieve the same quality change in pulp [1-3]. Recent work has shown that energy reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by replacing the HC refiner with a LC refiner in the secondary refiner position [4-7]. Another way to reduce energy consumption is to modify the properties of the raw material. There have been many attempts using mechanical, chemical and biological pre-treatments on wood chips prior to refining. Compression of wood chips prior to refining was shown to improve chemical and enzyme penetration into wood chips and to reduce the energy consumption in refining [8-10]. Chemical pretreatment such as alkaline peroxide pretreatment (APMP) [11-14] can reduce the refining energy by softening the lignin. pulpandpapercanada.com

Enzymes including cellulases, xylanase, pectinase, manganese peroxidise and proteinase have been used to pretreat wood chips prior to refining and decreased the refining energy [1, 15-19]. Oxalic acid is secreted by wood-decaying fungi [20], and has been shown to break down hemicellulose, resulting in a reduction in refining energy [21-22]. Although wood chips are the main feed material in HC thermomechanical pulp (TMP) refin-

T. KANG AbitibiBowater, Liverpool, N.S. Formerly Pulp and Paper Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.

G. SOONG Pulp and Paper Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.

X.F. CHANG Department of Chemical Science, British Columbia Institute of Technology, Burnaby, B.C.

R. BEATSON Department of Chemical Science, British Columbia Institute of Technology, Burnaby, B.C.

J.A. OLSON Pulp and Paper Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.

D.M. MARTINEZ Pulp and Paper Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.

November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

25

T82


reened before cording Bauertensile . Fibre (FQA, TAPPI od chip ed with glacial ith tap en in a n ready

ndustry m wood esigned energy d to be   range  ngs and wood 21 mm.

2

2

4

2

Shavings

3

60 min/70°C

120 min/90°C

Water 0.08M, pH:2.5 120 min/90°C

(LCR)

pH:12-13 Wood chips Although the longer initial fibre length is shown for wood Wood Alkaline 18-21% consistency Water Oxalic acid chips peroxidedecreases shavings, fibre length of wood shavings more than (HCR) 120 min/90°C 120 min/90°C Washing 0.08M, pH:2.5 of refining. This is shown in Fig.3. Chelation wood chips as a function (NaOH, Chelation Oxalic for acid chemical pretreatment HO, Fig. 1.Oxalic Experimental design of length. wood chips and wood Washing pretreatment further decreases the fibre 120 min/90°C design for , MgSO Figure 1.acid Experimental chemical pretreatment 2

shavings.

0.04M, pH:2.5

Washing

Steamingand wood shavings. of wood chips Wood Steaming Oxalic acid Shavings

3

120 min/90°C 0.08M, pH:2.5

2

4

Na2SiO3 & DTPA): 60 min/70°C

Wood shavings 4-6% consistency (LCR)

Chips pH:12-13 Refining Water Chips/0.08M OA 120305 min/90°C A Sprout-Waldron mm atmospheric single disc refiner 2.5 Shavings (Koppers Co. Inc., Muncy, USA) equipped with D2A507 Ni Shavings/0.04M OA Figure 1. Experimental design for chemical pretreatment Hard plates was used for all refining runs. Wood OA chips and Shavings/0.08M of wood chips and wood shavings. 2 wood shavings were separately refined at 18-21% consistency (referred Refining to as HC refining), and the shavings were also refined at1.54-6% consistency (referred to single as LC disc refining). A Sprout-Waldron 305 mm atmospheric refinerAfter refining, the pulp discharged from the refiner was neutralized (Koppers Co. Inc., Muncy, USA) equipped with D2A507 Ni with acid (Hfor Hardsulphuric plates used 2SOall 4). refining runs. Wood chips and 1 was

wood shavings were separately refined at 18-21% consistency

(referred to as HC refining), and the shavings were also Measurements

refined at0.54-6% consistency (referred to as LC refining). After refining, pulphot discharged from the refinerT262) was neutralized The pulpsthewere disintegrated (TAPPI and screened with sulphuric acid (H 2SO4). 0 (TAPPI T275) on a Somerville screen (0.15 mm slots) before

Figure 2. Photos of wood shavings (top) and (bottom).

Although the longer initial fibre length is show shavings, fibre length of wood shavings decreas Figurewood 2. Photos of shavings (top) (top) andThis woodis chip chips as wood a function of refining. sho Fig. 2. Photos of wood shavings (bottom). and wood chips (bottom). Oxalic acid pretreatment further decreases the fib

of oxalic acid. Afterfibre oxaliclength acid treatment, Although the longer initial is shown for woo both chips and shavings weredecreases washed, more tha 3 shavings, fibre length of wood shavings Chips chelated with DTPA (60 min at wood chips as a function of refining. This is60°C), shown in Fig. 1000 paper samples 2000 4000 pulp testing.0All pulp and were3000 tested according Measurements washed and steamed. Subsequently, the Chips/0.0 Oxalic acid pretreatment further decreases the fibre length. to TAPPI standards (CSF: TAPPI T227, fibre length by Bauer2.5 were impregnated with 6% sodium Shavings samples Net refining energy,TAPPI kWh/t McNett classifier: TAPPI T233, bulk: tensile The pulps were hot disintegrated (TAPPI T262) andT411, screened hydroxide (NaOH), 4% hydrogen perox- Shavings/0 Fig.strength: 3. Fibre length as T494, refining energy. 3 TAPPI ISO T525). (TAPPI T275) on aa function Somerville screen (0.15 mm slots) beforeFibre Figure 3. Fibre length asofabrightness: function of TAPPI refining energy. ide (H2O2), 0.05% magnesiumChips sulphate Shavings/0 2 length was measured using the fibre quality analyzer (FQA, pulp testing. All pulp and paper samples were tested according ing process, wood shavings can be mixed obtained from Quesnel River Pulp, British (MgSO ), 1% sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) 4 Chips/0.08M OA Fig. 4or shows the (CSF: decrease freeness withlength refining for both tochips TAPPI standards T227, fibre by BauerEquipment, Hawkesbury, Canada) according to TAPPI withOpTest used solely for TAPPI theinsame Columbia, Canada, and were used for pro-2.5 and 0.5% DTPA for 60 min atShavings 70°C at a wood chips and T271. wood shavings. For control without oxalicchip McNett classifier: TAPPI bulk:the TAPPI T411, standard method ToT233, measure fibre length of tensile wood process [23-24]. When 100% wood shavducing both wood chips and wood shav- consistency of 20%. The initial pH of the OA Shavings/0.04M 1.5 Fibre more refining isWood required for wood strength: TAPPI T494, ISO TAPPI T525). shavings, chopped wood chips or ings. shavings were boiled ingsor areacid usedpretreament, for TMP refining, thebrightness: refin-energy shavings werewith produced using bleaching liquor was raised using NaOH Shavings/0.08M OA 2 length was measured using the fibre quality analyzer chips to be reach the similar freeness level. instance, and 5 ml(FQA, of3171 glacial ml ofcan deionized water, ml of 30% H2OFor ing 5energy reduced up to525%, but a metal (Nardini-MS 1440E, Brazil) to the range of 12-13 before the bleach2lathe OpTest Equipment, Hawkesbury, Canada) to TAPPI kWh/t of refining energy for wood chipsaccording is required to with reach tap acid about 90 min. The pulp was washed fibreacetic shortening isfor increased [24]. Industry at a speed of 160 rpm as described earlier ing bag 1 was sealed. The pretreated wood standard T271.only To measure fibre of length of wood chipfor 100 mlmethod CSF, while 2112 kWh/t refining energy planer wood shavings wasfines investigated as using [24].a The thickness and in width of wood1.5 shavings and wood chips were then directly water and then the removed 200 mesh screen a or shavings, chopped wood chips or shavings were boiled with a new energy-saving raw material for LC shavings wereare about mm and 20 mm fed through a refiner. Figure 1 shows the Britt according to TAPPI fibres then3 ready 5 ml Jar of deionized water, 5 ml of T261. 30% HThe 2O2 and 5 ml of glacial 0.5 refining, but limited tensile strength develrespectively. Wood chips for FQA analysis. acetic acid for about 90 min. The pulp was washed with tap were produced 1 experimental design for chemical pretreatopment andand fibre shortening a major chipper at the water then the fines was removed usingusing a 200amesh screen in aBritish Columbia ment of wood chips and wood shavings. problem [24]. The shorter fibre length of Institute of Technology, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Britt Jar according to TAPPI T261. The fibres are then readyBurnaby, Canada. 0 0.5 Refining the industry planer shavings can be overfor FQA analysis. 0 1000 2000 300 come tailor-made [25].initial Chemical pretreatment A Sprout-Waldron 305 mm atmospherInbythe previouswood studyshavings (25), the fibre length of industry This study examines the was use of cus- shorter Both wood and shavings (Koppers Co. Inc., RESULTS AND DISCUSSION planer wood shavings much than chips that from wood were sepa- 0 ic single disc refiner Net refining energy, kWh/t tom made long-fibred wood shavings and rately impregnated with 0.5% diethylene- Muncy, USA) equipped with D2A507 chips. This problem can be solved using a specially designed 0 1000 2000 3000 40 oxalicInacid to (25), extractthehemitriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) for 60 Figure Ni Hard plates was usedasfor all refiningof refinin the pre-treatment previous study initial fibre length of industry 3. Fibre length a function knife in the shaving process (24, 26). The energy  cellulose as awood feed material LCmuch refining minthan at that 60°Cfrom at awood consistency of 10%. runs. Wood chips and wood shavings were planer shavingstowas shorter Net refining energy, kWh/t as aconsumption for producing wood shavings was found to be  means This of creating a novel, lowusing After washing, designed they were atmospherically separately refined at 18-21% consistency chips. problem can beultra solved a specially Fig.3.4Fibre shows the as decrease in freeness with refin as low as 5 kWh/t while that for wood chips is in the range  Figure a function ofthe refining knife in thepulp. shaving process (24, 26). for The  energy  energy mechanical steamed 20 min, and then impregnated (referredlength to as HC refining), and shav- energy. wood chips and wood shavings. For the between  15‐25  kWh/t  (26).  Fig. 2with shows wood shavings and oxalic acid/ ings were also refined at 4-6% consistencycontrol w consumption for producing wood shavings was found to be  either 0.04M or 0.08M acid pretreament, more refining energy is for requir the decrease freeness with refining bo wood chips used in the study. The fibre length of wood as low as 5 kWh/t while that for wood chips is in the range  Na-oxalate solution buffered at pHFig. 2.5 4forshows (referred to as LC in refining). After refining, EXPERIMENTAL chips to reach the similar freeness level. For in wood chips and wood shavings. For the control without oxal 2.51 mm while that2ofshows wood chips wasat2.21 mm. of 10%. the pulp discharged from the refiner was between  15‐25  kWh/t  (26).  Fig. wood 120 min at shavings 90°C aand consistency Rawshavings material was acid pretreament, more refining energy is required for woo kWh/t of refining energy for wood chips is requ wood pine chips(Pinus usedcontorta) in the logs study. fibrecontrol length of woodused water instead neutralized with sulphuric acid (H2SO4). experiment Lodgepole wereThe The chips 100 to reach the similar level.kWh/t For instance, 317 ml CSF, whilefreeness only 2112 of refinin shavings was 2.51 mm while that of wood chips was 2.21 mm. kWh/t of refining energy for wood chips is required to reac 26  PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010 pulpandpapercanada.com 100 ml CSF, while only 2112 kWh/t of refining energy f Fibre length, mm

refiner 507 Ni ps and istency re also . After ralized

Atmospheric

(Na2SiO3) and 0.5% DTPA for 60 min at 70ºC at a consistency Refining of 20%. The initial pH Water of the bleaching liquor was raised using 120 min/90°C Wood was chips NaOH bleaching bag Wood to the range of 12-13 before theAlkaline 18-21% consistency Oxalic acid shavings and wood chips chips The pretreated sealed. wood were peroxide (HCR) 120 min/90°C Washing then directly fed 0.08M, through pH:2.5 a refiner. Fig.1 shows the Chelation (NaOH, Chelation experimental design for pretreatment Oxalicchemical acid H O , of wood chips Washing 120 min/90°C MgSO , and wood shavings. Washing Figure 2. Photos 0.04M, of wood pH:2.5 shavings (top) Na SiO and wood chips Steaming Atmospheric Wood shavings & DTPA): (bottom). Wood Steaming Oxalic acid Refining 4-6% consistency

Fibre length, mm

atment

Fibre length, mm

T83

sealed. The pretreated wood shavings and wood chips were then directly fed through a refiner. Fig.1 shows the ENERGY SAVINGS experimental design for chemical pretreatment of wood chips and wood shavings.


TABLE I. Pulp properties. 700

Raw material 600

Oxalic acid Pretreatment

Refining Refining Chips/Control Consistency energy Chips/0.08M OA (%) (kWh/t) Shavings/Control

CSF, ml

500 Shavings/0.04M OA 1646 Wood – 21 Shavings/0.08M OA 2242 chips 2759 400 3171 Wood 0.08 M 18 1522 300 chips pH 2.5 1994 2221 200 2683 Wood – 6 593 100 shavings 1134 wood shavings is required for 67 ml CSF. This 1533 equates to 2112 acid 0 about 33% reduction in refining energy. For oxalic Wood 0 wood chips 0.04and M wood 5 3000 there is545 1000 2000 shavings, 4000 pretreated a further shavings in refiningpHenergy, 2.5 1017 0.08M reduction except for treatment with 1375 Net wood refiningshavings. energy, kWh/t oxalic acid used in When comparing the 1628 control for wood chip at 100 ml CSF (3171 kWh/t) to wood Wood 0.08 M 5 906 shavings pretreated with 0.04 M oxalic acid at 101 ml CSF shavings 1546 Figure 4. FreenesspH as 2.5 a function of refining energy. (1375 kWh/t), about 57% energy reduction can be1877 achieved. concentration of oxalic acid shavings should beand optimized to obtain 2155 As The refining continues for both wood wood chips,

CSF, ml

3 maximum freeness at acm given energy. /g asrefining shown in Table I. the the bulk was reduced downdrop to 2.0 Lower refining energy is required for wood shavings than wood chips700 to reach the same bulk (2.0 cm3/g). In other words, a sheet made from wood shavings gives denser sheet structure Chips/Control than that from wood chips at a given refining energy. Chips/0.08MThinner OA 600 wood shavings allowed for better penetration of chemicals Shavings/Control during the pretreatment stage than the thicker wood chips, 500 in more flexible fibres for Shavings/0.04M OA which resulted wood shavings at Shavings/0.08M OA lower refining energy. The energy required both for wood 400 wood chips at the same bulk can be reduced shavings and further by oxalic acid pretreatment, except for 0.08 M oxalic acid pretreatment used in wood shavings. 300

chips

pH 2.5

Wood shavings

-

Wood

6

0.04 M pH 2.5 Bulk

shavings CSF (ml) Wood

5

3 (cm /g) 0.08 M

shavings

5

pH 2.5

1994 2221 2683 593 1134 1533 2112 545 1017 1375 1628 906 1546 1877 2155

169 68 67 644 412 166 67 482 357 Bauer 101 R48 71 (%) 563 138 74 58.8 51

2.4 57.8 20.7 21.5 2.0 53.1 18.6 28.3 2.0 51.8 19.6 28.6 3.7 76.4 12.5 11.2 3.0 64.9 17.4 17.8 2.3 60.2 20.0 19.8 2.0 52.2 23.6 24.2 3.1 68.2 17.6 14.2 2.7 62.7 18.6 18.7 McNett fractions 2.1 R200 54.8 24.5 20.7 P200 2.0 52.1 26.3 21.7 3.2 (%) 74.1 13.9(%)12.0 2.2 55.6 24.4 20.0 2.1 48.2 29.0 18.8 22.522.9 2.0 43.2 33.0 23.7

PEER REVIEWED

T84

268 2.4 159 2.2 57.9 18.5 23.7 122 2.1 51.8 19.5 28.7 Fig. 5 shows the tensile strength development with refining. 100 2.0 50.3 20.1 29.7 For the control, tensile strength of wood shavings is higher 271 2.7 59.9 17.6 22.5 than wood 2.4 chips at a given refining energy. Oxalic21.5 acid 169 57.8 20.7 pretreatment (0.04M) further increases the tensile strength 68 2.0 53.1 18.6 28.3 of both wood shavings and wood chips at a given refining energy. 67 2.0 51.8 19.6 28.6 Although average fibre length was less for12.5 wood shavings 644 3.7 76.4 11.2 with refining3.0 as shown in Fig.3, paper to be 412 64.9 strength 17.4 seems17.8 improved by of chemicals 166 2.3 better penetration 60.2 20.0 during 19.8the pretreatment stage. stiffness showsCSF a23.6 similar trend as fractions Bauer Raw 2.0 OxalicTensile acid Refining Refining 67 52.2 24.2 McNett Bulk material energy using R48 R200 P200 shown in Fig. 6. In the Consistency previous study industry wood 482 3.1 Pretreatment 68.2 17.6 14.2 (%) (%) (%) (ml) (cm3/g) shavingsWood and the maximum obtainable 357 2.7 wood chips(%)(25), (kWh/t) 62.7 18.6 18.7 21 1646 268 2.4 58.8 18.8 22.5 101 54.8 24.5 2.2 tensile strength lower than 20.7 that chips2.1 for LC refined shavings 2242 was159 57.9 of18.5 23.7 2759 51.8 71 26.3 2.1 of21.7 HC refined 2.0 wood chips. This was a52.1 major 122 limitation using19.5 28.7 3171 2.0 50.3 20.1 29.7 563 3.2 74.1 13.9 be 12.0 industry Wood shavings in LC refining, but this100 can improved 0.08 M 18 1522 271 2.7 59.9 17.6 22.5 138 20.0 both by utilizing custom generated 55.6 wood oxalic acid20.7 21.5 chips2.2 pH 2.5 1994 shavings, 16924.4 2.4 57.8 74 22.9 2221 6829.0 2.0 53.1 18.6 28.3 and alkaline 2.1 peroxide pretreatment. 48.2 2683 6733.0 2.0 51.8 19.6 28.6 51 2.0 43.2 23.7 Wood shavings

70

Wood shavings

60

Wood shavings

Tensile index, Nm/g

(1375 kWh/t), about 57% energy reduction can be achieved. The concentration of oxalic acid should be optimized to obtain the maximum freeness drop at a given refining energy.

50

-

6

0.04 M pH 2.5

5

0.08 M pH 2.5

5

593 1134 1533 2112 545 1017 1375 1628 906 1546 1877 2155

644 412 166 67 482 357 101 71 563 138 74 51

3.7 3.0 2.3 2.0 3.1 2.7 2.1 2.0 3.2 2.2 2.1 2.0

76.4 64.9 60.2 52.2 68.2 62.7 54.8 52.1 74.1 55.6 48.2 43.2

12.5 17.4 20.0 23.6 17.6 18.6 24.5 26.3 13.9 24.4 29.0 33.0

11.2 17.8 19.8 24.2 14.2 18.7 20.7 21.7 12.0 20.0 22.9 23.7

Fig. 5 shows the tensile strength development with refining. For the control, tensile strength of wood shavings is higher than wood chips at a given refining energy. Oxalic acid 30 pretreatment (0.04M) further increases the tensile strength of For the control at about 2100-2200 kWh/t, slightly higher 200 both wood shavings and woodChips/Control chips at a given refining energy. amount of long fraction (R48) is shown for wood chips Chips/0.08M OA Although average fibre length was less for wood shavings relative to shavings, but their middle fraction (P48/R200) is Shavings/Control 20 100 with refining as shown in Fig.3, paper strength seems to be slightly lower and the amount of fines fraction is similar. Shavings/0.04M OA improved by better penetration of chemicals during the Oxalic pretreament (0.08M for both chips and shavings) Shavings/0.08M OA pretreatment stage. Tensile stiffness shows a similar trend as 10 0 decreases further the amount of the long fractions (R48). shown in Fig. 6. In the previous study using industry 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 wood shavings and wood chips (25), the maximum obtainable kWh/t tensile strength forNet LCrefining refinedenergy, shavings was lower than that of Net refining energy, kWh/t HC refined wood chips. This was a major limitation of using Fig. industry 5. Tensileshavings strengthin as LC a function of refining refining, but this energy. can be improved Figure 5. Tensile strength as a confidence function of interval. refining energy. Fig. 4. Freeness as a function of refining energy. Error bars represent the 95% Figure 4. Freeness as a function of refining energy. both by utilizing custom generated wood shavings, oxalic acid Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval. and alkaline peroxide pretreatment. Measurements (FQA, OpTest Equipment, Hawkesbury, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As refiningTABLE continues for both wood shavings and wood chips, I. PULP PROPERTIES. 3 The pulps were hot disintegrated (TAPCanada) according to TAPPI standard In the previous study [25], the initial fibre the bulk was reduced down to 2.0 cm /g as shown in Table I. PI T262) and screened (TAPPI T275) method T271. To measure fibre length length of industry planer wood shavings Lower refining energy is required for wood shavings than 3 of wood chip or shavings, chopped 70 on a Somerville screen (0.15 mm slots) wood was much shorter than that from wood wood chips to reach the same bulk (2.0 cm /g). In other words, before pulp testing. All pulp and paper chips or shavings were boiled with 5 ml of chips. This problem can be solved using a sheet made from wood shavings gives denser sheet structure samples were tested according to TAPdeionized water, 5 ml of 30% H O and 5 a specially designed knife in the shaving than that from wood chips at a given refining energy. Thinner 2 2 60 PI standards TAPPI fibre ml ofofglacial acetic acid for about 90 min. process [24, 26]. The energy consumption wood shavings(CSF: allowed for T227, better penetration chemicals length the by Bauer-McNett classifier: The pulp waschips, washed with tap water and for producing wood shavings was found to during pretreatment stage thanTAPthe thicker wood PI T233, bulk:in TAPPI T411, fibres tensilefor then fines removed using a 200 which resulted more flexible woodthe shavings at 50mesh be as low as 5 kWh/t while that for wood strength: TAPPI T494,The ISOenergy brightness: screen a Britt Jar according to TAPPI chips is in the range between 15-25 kWh/t lower refining energy. required bothinfor wood shavings and wood chips at the can The be reduced TAPPI T525). Fibre length wassame mea-bulkT261. fibres are then ready for FQA [26]. Fig. 2 shows wood shavings and 40 further oxalic except analysis. for 0.08 M oxalic sured by using the acid fibrepretreatment, quality analyzer wood chips used in the study. The fibre acid pretreatment used in wood shavings. Tensile index, Nm/g

pulpandpapercanada.com

For the control at about 2100-2200 kWh/t, slightly higher amount of long fraction (R48) is shown for wood chips

40

30 November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA  Chips/Control Chips/0.08M OA

27


60

8

This study demonstrates the potential to develop a novel Chips/Control Chips/0.08M OA mechanical pulping process that produces high tensile, high Shavings/Control brightness pulp with half the electrical energy. Shavings/0.04M OA

6

Both wood chips and wood shavings produced in the laboratory were used as a feeding material in HC and LC refining processes, respectively. Fibre length of wood shavings was longer than that of wood chips. As refining 40 proceeded, fibre length of LC refined wood shavings was reduced more than that of HC refined wood chips. Oxalic acid pretreatment further reduced the fibre length of LC refined wood shavings. A great advantage of using wood shavings 30 was found in reducing refining energy over wood chips. LC refined wood shavings reduced the refining energy about 33% compared to HC refined wood chips at a given freeness. Oxalic acid followed by alkaline peroxide pretreatment of 20 wood shavings further reduced refining energy by 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 approximately 57%.

50

4 Chips/Control Chips/0.08M OA

2

Shavings/Control Shavings/0.04M OA Shavings/0.08M OA

0 0

1000

2000

3000

Net refining energy, kWh/t

Shavings/0.08M OA

ISO Brightness, %

Tensile stiffness index, MNm/kg

ENERGY SAVINGS

4000

Net refining energy, kWh/t

Tensile strength of LC refined wood shavings was much Fig. 6.6.Tensile stiffness index as aas function of refining energy. Fig. 7. ISO brightness as wood a as function of energy. Figure Tensile stiffness index a function of refining higher than HC refined at refining aof given refining energy. Figure 7. ISO brightness a chips function refining energy. energy. Maximum obtainable tensile strength of LC refined wood length of wood shavings was 2.51 mm reach the same bulk (2.0 shaving cm3/g). In other and wood thewood maximum was also higher thanchips HC [25], refined chips.obtain0.04M Fig. 7 that shows the changes in 2.21 ISO mm. brightnesswords, of sheets as made a pretreatment increased further therefined tensileshavings strength while of wood chips was a sheet fromoxalic woodacid shavings able tensile strength for LC function of refining. Forinitial the fibre control, brightness of thinner wood shavings refining, did Although the longer length gives denser sheet structureofthan that from with was lower thanwhile that 0.08M of HC oxalic refinedacid wood thickness of wood shavings is much higher than wood seem energy. to change chips. their tensile strength. is shown for wood shavings, fibre length of wood chipschips. at a given not refining This was a major limitation of using Alkaline peroxide penetrates intothan thinner woodThinner shavingswood bettershavings allowed for bet- industry shavings in LC refining, but this can wood shavings decreases more wood The same trend was observed in theof chemicals than thicker wood chips. Brightness refined wood wascustom foundgenerto be chips as a function of refining. This is ter penetration during oftheLC be improved bothshavings by utilizing previous study although the brightness is relatively lower in higher than HC refined wood shavings. Oxalic acid shown in Fig. 3. Oxalic acid pretreatment pretreatment stage than the thicker wood ated wood shavings, oxalic acid and alkaline this study (25). The alkaline peroxide bleaching in the pretreatment improved the brightness of HC refined wood further decreases the fibre length. chips, which resulted in more flexible peroxide pretreatment. previous study was done at about pH 11, and the present study chips, but it decreased the brightness of LC refined wood Figure 4 shows the decrease in freeness for for wood at lowerslightly. refinFigure 7 shows the changes in ISO was done at the pH 12-13. This may be thefibres reason the shavingsshavings with refining for both wood chips and ing energy. The energy required both for brightness of sheets as a function of refinlower brightness in this study (27). Oxalic acid pretreatment wood shavings. For the control without wood shavings and wood chips at the same ing. For the control, the reduces brightness slightly for wood shavings, but it increases This study indicates that a longer fibrebrightness length ofof wood oxalic acidforpretreament, refining bulk can reduced further by oxalic acid thinner wood shavings is much higher than brightness wood chips. more For wood shavings, the be highest shavings can be produced using a specially designed knife in a energy is required wood chipseven to reach pretreatment, except for 0.08 M oxalic wood chips. peroxide penetrates brightness can befor achieved without oxalic acid metal lathe. acid These shavings can Alkaline be used as a feed material for pretreatment. the similar freeness level. For instance, pretreatment used in woodLC shavings. into thinner wood in shavings betterpulping. than refining as a primary stage refiner mechanical Since2100-2200 LC refiningthicker consumes thanwas HC 3171 kWh/t of refining energy for wood For the control at about wood much chips. less The energy same trend refining,ofwood has a great potential to be a the low chips 60 is required to reach 100 ml CSF, kWh/t, slightly higher amount long shavings observed in the previous study although Chips/Control rawchips material in mechanical pulping. Pre-deformed while only 2112 kWh/t of refining energy fraction (R48) is shown energy for wood brightness is relatively lower in this study Chips/0.08M OA structure caused by theThe shavings process bleaching and the in thinner for wood shavings is required for 67 ml relative to shavings, but their middle frac[25]. alkaline peroxide the Shavings/Control thickness has a great advantage over thicker wood chips. This Shavings/0.04M OA CSF. This equates to about 33% reduction tion (P48/R200) is slightly lower and the previous study was done at about pH 11, Shavings/0.08M OA makes it easier to separate fibres from wood shavings during 50 energy. For oxalic acid pretreat- amount of fines fraction is similar. Oxalic and the present study was done at the pH in refining refining process, and for water or chemicals to penetrate into ed wood chips and wood shavings, there pretreament (0.08M for both chips and 12-13. This may be the reason for the lower the thinner pre-deformed structure of wood shavings during is a further reduction in refining energy, shavings) decreases further the amount of brightness in this study [27]. Oxalic acid the pretreatment stage. As a consequence, refining of wood except for treatment with 0.08M oxalic the long fractions (R48). shavings would result pretreatment brightness slightlylower for in morereduces flexible fibres using 40 in wood shavings. When comacid used Figure 5 shows the tensile strength develwood shavings, but it increases brightness energy refining energy. paring the control for wood chip at 100 opment with refining. For the control, tensile for wood chips. For wood shavings, the ml CSF (3171 kWh/t) to wood shavings strength of wood shavingsACKNOWLEDGEMENTS is higher than highest brightness can be achieved even pretreated with 0.04 M oxalic acid at 101 wood chips at a given refining energy. Oxalic without oxalic acid pretreatment. 30 was funded by the Natural Sciences and ml CSF (1375 kWh/t), about 57% energy acid pretreatment (0.04M)This furtherwork increases Research Council of Canada through the reduction can be achieved. The concentra- the tensile strength of bothEngineering wood shavings CONCLUSIONS and demonstrates Developmenttheprogram tion of oxalic acid should be optimized to and wood chips at a givenCollaborative refining energy.Research This study potential and to through support of our partners BC Hydro, obtain20the maximum freeness drop at a Although average fibre length was the less for develop a novel mechanical pulpingPaprican, process Catalyst Papers, Howe Sound Pulp and Paper, West Fraser given refining energy. wood shavings 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 with refining as shown in that produces high tensile, high brightness River Pulp, Arkema, Honeywell, pulpCanfor, with halfAndritz, the electrical energy. As refining continues for both wood Fig. 3, paper strength seemsQuesnel to be improved WestCan Engineering, Advanced Fiber Technologies, Ontario Both wood chips and wood shavings shavings and wood chips, the bulk was by better penetration of chemicals during the Net refining energy, kWh/t Power Authority and CEATI international. reduced down to 2.0 cm3/g as shown in pretreatment stage. Tensile stiffness shows produced in the laboratory were used as a Figure 7. ISO brightness as a function of refining energy. Table I. Lower refining energy is required a similar trend as shown in Fig. 6. In the feeding material in HC and LC refining for wood shavings than wood chips to previous study using industry wood shavings processes, respectively. Fibre length of wood ISO Brightness, %

T85

brightness for wood chips. For wood shavings, the highest brightness can be achieved even without oxalic acid pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS

28 

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

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sh m L S re e st th m re th th sh e

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T E C th C Q W P


PEER REVIEWED shavings was longer than that of wood chips. As refining proceeded, fibre length of LC refined wood shavings was reduced more than that of HC refined wood chips. Oxalic acid pretreatment further reduced the fibre length of LC refined wood shavings. A great advantage of using wood shavings was found in reducing refining energy over wood chips. LC refined wood shavings reduced the refining energy about 33% compared to HC refined wood chips at a given freeness. Oxalic acid followed by alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wood shavings further reduced refining energy by approximately 57%. Tensile strength of LC refined wood shavings was much higher than HC refined wood chips at a given refining energy. Maximum obtainable tensile strength of LC refined wood shaving was also higher than HC refined wood chips. 0.04M oxalic acid pretreatment increased further the tensile strength of wood shavings with refining, while 0.08M oxalic acid did not seem to change their tensile strength. Brightness of LC refined wood shavings was found to be higher than HC refined wood shavings. Oxalic acid pretreatment improved the brightness of HC refined wood chips, but it decreased the brightness of LC refined wood shavings slightly. This study indicates that a longer fibre length of wood shavings can be produced using a specially designed knife in a metal lathe. These shavings can be used as a feed material for LC refining as a primary stage refiner in mechanical pulping. Since LC refining consumes much less energy than HC refining, wood shavings has a great potential to be a low energy raw material in mechanical pulping. Pre-deformed structure caused by the shavings process and the thinner thickness has a great advantage over thicker wood chips. This makes it easier to separate fibres from wood shavings during refining process, and for water or chemicals to penetrate into the thinner pre-deformed structure of wood shavings during the pretreatment stage. As a consequence, refining of wood shavings would result in more flexible fibres using lower energy refining energy.

and Development program and through the support of our partners BC Hydro, Paprican, Catalyst Papers, Howe Sound Pulp and Paper, West Fraser Quesnel River Pulp, Canfor, Andritz, Arkema, Honeywell, WestCan Engineering, Advanced Fiber Technologies, Ontario Power Authority and CEATI international.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

sistency Refining of Oxalic Acid Pretreated Wood Shavings, Pulp & Paper Canada 111(6):T82-T86 (Nov./Dec. 2010). Paper presented at PacWest Conference, 9-12 June 2010, Sun Peaks, B.C. Not to be reproduced without permission of PAPTAC. Manuscript received Jan. 1, 2010.

This work was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada through the Collaborative Research pulpandpapercanada.com

LITERATURE

1. MUSSELMAN, R., LETARTE, D., SIMARD, R., LACHANCE, C. Third stage low consistency refining of TMP for newprint/directory grades, Proc. Appita Conf., p.363-368 (1996). 2. MUENSTER, H., FERRITSIUS, O., LECOURT, M., PETIT-CONIL, M. Energy savings in TMP by high temperature LC/MC refining, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., p.213-223 (2005). 3. SABOURIN, M., Minimizing TMP energy consumption using a combination of chip pre-treatment, RTS and multiple stage low consistency refining, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., CD-ROM (2007). 4. HAMMAR, L-Å., HTUN, M., SVENSSON, B. A two-stage refining process to save energy for mechanical pulps, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., p. 257-262 (1997). 5. XU, E.C., KOEFLER, H., ANTENSTEINER, P. Some latest developments in alkali peroxide mechanical pulping, Part 2: Low consistency secondary refining, Pulp Paper Can. 104(10):47-51 (2003). 6. ERIKSEN, O., HAMMAR, L-Å. Refining mechanisms and development of TMP properties in a lowconsistency refiner, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., p. 62-75 (2007). 7. HAMMAR, L-Å., SALMÉN, L., SANDBERG, C., SUNDSTRÖM, L. The effect of process conditions on pulp quality development at low consistency refining of mechanical pulp – TMP, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., p.182-185 (2009). 8. FRAZIER, W.C., WILLIAMS, G.J. Reduction of specific energy in mechanical pulping by axial precompression of wood, Pulp Paper Can. 83(6):87-92 (1982). 9. GORSKI, D., ENGSTRAND, P., HILL, J., JOHANSSON, L. Review: Reduction of energy consumption in refining through mechanical pretreatment of wood chips, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., p. 17-21 (2009). 10. HART, P.W., WAITE, D.M., THIBAULT, L., TOMASHEK, J., ROUSSEAU, M-E., HILL, C., SABOURIN, M.J. Selective enzyme impregnation of chips to reduce specific refining energy in alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping, Holzforschung. 63(4):418-423 (2009). 11. BOHN, W., SFERRAZZA, M. Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping, a revolution in mechanical pulping, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., p. 184-200 (1989).

12. YUAN, Z., HEITNER, C., MCGARRY, P., Evaluation of the APMP process for mature and juvenile loblolly pine, Tappi J. 5(7):24-32 (2006). 13. BIAN, Y., NI, Y., YUAN, Z., HEITNER, C., BEAULIEU, S., Improving TMP rejects refining through alkaline peroxide pretreatment for value-added mechanical papers, Tappi J. 6(3):24-32 (2007). 14. ZANUTTINI, M., MARZOCCHI, V. Alkaline chemi-mechanical pulp from poplar. Relationship between chemical state, swelling and papermaking properties, Holzforschung. 57(5):489-459 (2003). 15. MAIJALA, P., KLEEN, M., WESTIN, C., POPPIUS-LEVLIN, K., HERRANEN, K., LEHTO, J.H., REPONEN, P., MÄENTAUSTA, O., METTÄLÄ, A., HATAKKA, A. Biomechanical pulping of softwood with enzymes and white-rot fungus Physisporinus rivulosus, Enzyme & Microbial Tech. 43(2):169-177 (2008). 16. PETIT-CONIL, M., HODDENBAGH, J.M.A., MEYER, V., TOLAN, J. Can enzymes really be used to reduce chip refining energies? A study of xylanase pre-treatment of hardwood chips, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., p. 71-77 (2005). 17. MANSFIELD, S.D., WONG, K.K.Y., RICHARDSON, J.D. Improvements in mechanical pulp processing with proteinase treatments, Appita J. 52(6):436-440 (1999). 18. PENG, P., FERRITSIUS, R., ANGSAS, U., Method of producing mechnical pulp and the mechanical pulp thus produced, US Patent, Publication No. US2005/0241785 A1 (2005). 19. PERE, J., ELLMÉN, J., VIIKARI, L. Process for preparing mechanical pulp, US Patent, Publication No. US2007/0151683 A1 (2007). 20. GREEN, F., LARSEN, M.J., WINANDY, J.E., HIGHLEY, T.L. Role of oxalic acid in incipient brownrot decay, Material & Organism. 26(3):191-213 (1991). 21. KENEALY, W., HORN, E., HOUTMAN, C. Vapor-phase diethyl oxalate pretreatment of wood chips: Part 1. Energy savings and improved pulps, Holzforschung. 61(3):223-229 (2007). 22. MEYER-PINSON, V., RUEL, K., GAUDARD, F., VALTAT, G., PETIT-CONIL, M., KUREK, B. Oxalic acid: a microbial metabolite of interest for the pulping industry, C.R.Biologies. 327(9-10):917-925 (2004). 23. LEASK, R.A. A potential use of a wider range of raw material in thermomechanical pulping, Tappi J. 60(12):82-87 (1977). 24. VIFORR, S., SALMÉN, L. From wood shavings to mechanical pulp- a new raw material?, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 20(4):418-422 (2005). 25. KANG, T., SOONG, G., OLSON, J.A., MARTINEZ, D.M. Low consistency refining of wood shavings, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., p. 317-321 (2009). 26. HEDBLOM-HUE, S., MALM, Å, SALMÉN, L. Shear cut chips for mechanical pulping with lower energy demand, Proc. Intl. Mech. Pulp. Conf., p. 143148 (2001). 27. MOLDENIUS, S., The effects of peroxide bleaching on the strength and surface properties of mechanical pulping, J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 10(6):172-177 (1984).

Résumé: La présente étude porte sur la possibilité d’utiliser des rognures de bois comme matière première pour le raffinage basse concentration (BC) à la première étape de raffinage, afin de réduire considérablement la consommation d’énergie électrique. Il a été possible de produire des rognures de bois dotées de fibres plus longues que les copeaux de bois. Nous avons appliqué de l’acide oxalique, puis du peroxyde alcalin, tant aux rognures qu’aux copeaux avant le raffinage basse concentration. Nous avons constaté que les rognures de bois après raffinage basse concentration étaient une matière première à faible consommation d’énergie. Comparativement à l’énergie consommée par les copeaux de bois, celle utilisée pour le raffinage a été réduite d’environ 33 % lorsque nous avons utilisé des rognures de bois à un indice d’égouttage donné, et le prétraitement des rognures avec de l’acide oxalique a encore réduit d’environ 57 % l’énergie de raffinage requise. La résistance à la traction et la blancheur de la pâte de rognures raffinées à basse concentration étaient plus élevées que celles de la pâte de copeaux de bois après raffinage à haute concentration. Le prétraitement à l’acide oxalique a aussi amélioré davantage la résistance à la traction de la pâte de rognures de bois raffinées à basse concentration, mais non la blancheur. La présente étude démontre qu’il est possible de développer un nouveau procédé de mise en pâte mécanique qui produit des pâtes à forte résistance à la traction et à blancheur élevée, et qui exige la moitié moins d’énergie électrique. Reference: Kang, T., Soong, G., Chang, X.F., Beatson, R., Olson, J.A., Martinez, D.M. Low Con-

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T86


T87

TISSUE

Multivariable Control and Energy Optimization of Tissue Machines By S. Chu, R. MacHattie and J. Backström

Abstract: The desire to increase profits by minimizing operating costs without sacrificing paper quality and runnability is a goal all papermakers strive for. Modern tissue machines are typically equipped with more than twenty low-level control loops and multiple sheet property measurements at various locations along the machine. It is a large and strongly coupled process that can be difficult for control engineers to optimize without advanced multivariable control techniques. This paper examines the process interactions and energy cost reductions using model predictive control (MPC) technology with an optimization layer that automatically drives the process towards the lowest cost while honoring hard process and quality constraints. The studied paper machine was equipped with a fast scanning moisture measurement before the Yankee dryer in addition to the measurements of a traditional reel scanner.

T

raditional and through-air dried (TAD) tissue manufacturing expends more resources removing water than any other function. Knowing the water content throughout the process and the efficiencies of the various water removal elements used, allows an advanced control system to control the process in the most economical manner. The studied paper machine was equipped with an ExPress Moisture scanner measurement [1] before the Yankee dryer in addition to the measurements of a traditional reel scanner. With these measurements along with advanced multivariable control, the economic efficiencies of each drying element and the optimization layer, it was shown that the advanced control system distributed the drying load such that significant economic benefits were realized. Several trials were run with different energy costs. It is given that energy costs change with time, so the cost of energy is updated in the advanced control system periodically, which can have a big impact on how the tissue machine is optimized. In all trials, the more expensive manipulated variables (MVs) were driven down to their lower operating cost limits and the cheaper MVs were driven to their higher operating cost limits. Significant energy cost savings were realized without sacrificing paper quality and machine runability.

MACHINE OVERVIEW

The paper machine studied uses two TADs and a Yankee dryer to dewater the tissue (Fig. 1). A traditional reel scanner measuring Dry Weight and Reel Moisture along with an ExPress Moisture scanner 30 

(located after TAD2) measuring TAD Moisture are the on-line measurements available. Before the optimization trials, the machine direction (MD) controls were multivariable but only Stock Flow and TAD2 exhaust temperature were used in cascade control. The setpoints for the rest of the manipulated variables (MVs) were fixed based on operator experience and previous operating conditions. A new multivariable control strategy was devised to take advantage of the economic optimization layer in the multivariable MPC. The control strategy was based on customer requirements, a benefit analysis of MPC MD controls [3], and a case study that was published [2]. Several new MVs were added to the control strategy with process upper and lower limits. The MVs added were TAD1 Supply Temperature (TAD1 Supply Temp), TAD1 dry end differential pressure (TAD1 DE DP), TAD1 gap pressure (TAD1 Gap Pres), TAD2 dry end differential pressure (TAD2 DE DP) and TAD2 gap pressure (TAD2 Gap Pres). Furthermore, Machine Speed and Tickler Refiner were added as disturbance variables (DVs) to the control strategy. These provide feedforward information to MVs such that disturbances will be minimized before their impact on the controlled variables (CVs) is measured. Figure 1 shows the relative locations of the MVs and CVs and Fig. 2 shows the control matrix. Bump tests were performed to determine the transfer functions between the MVs and CVs.

EXPRESS MOISTURE MEASUREMENT TAD MEASUREMENT

For moisture, traditional tissue machine MD controls almost always include controlling the

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

S. CHU, Honeywell Process Solutions, North Vancouver, BC

R. MACHATTIE, Honeywell Process Solutions, North Vancouver, BC

J. BACKSTRÖM, Honeywell Process Solutions, North Vancouver, BC pulpandpapercanada.com


PEER REVIEWED

T88

reel moisture only (i.e. the final product moisture). However, the final moisture is controlled by many elements far up the machine where the moisture levels are different, and there are drying elements between those locations and the reel that can further change the moisture [4]. The various drying elements that can manipulate moisture also have varying efficiencies and costs. These costs change with time. It has long been understood that better control will lead to better quality and cost performance and this can be achieved by measuring the moisture further up the machine, but this has not been practical, until recently [5]. With the ExPress Moisture scanner located after TAD2, FIG. 1. Paper machine overview with Profit multivariable MPC. Figure 1: Paper Machine Overview with Profit Multivariable MPC moisture can now be measured upstream Figure 1: Paper Machine Overview with Profit Multivariable MPC of the reel and closer to the critical Yankee TAD1 TAD1 Yankee Stock Stock TAD1 DE TAD1 TAD2 Exh TAD2 DE TAD2 Tickler Supply Machine Yankee drying elements. Combining this new Supply Gap Hood TAD1 TAD1 Yankee Flow DPDE Gap PresTAD2Temp DP TAD2 Gap Pres Fan Stock MachineSpeed Stock Flow TAD1 TAD1 Exh TAD2 DE Tickler Refiner Supply Temp Supply Gap Pressure HoodTemp Speed Flow Speed Flow DP Gap Pres Temp DP Gap Pres Refiner Fan direct moisture measurement with the Temp Pressure Temp Speed Dry Weight reel moisture measurement via the Profit Dry Weight multivariable MPC along with the ecoReel Reel Moisture nomic efficiencies of these various dryMoisture ing elements then makes it possible to TAD TAD Moisture Moisture truly optimize the energy consumption TAD1 TAD1 of the machine, since the control has Exhaust Exhaust Pressure Pressure direct feedback of process changes and Figure ProfitMultivariable Multivariable MPC MPC Control true moisture levels going into various Figure 2: 2: Profit ControlMatrix Matrix FIG. 2. Profit multivariable MPC control matrix. machine sections. As the cost of difIt has longlong beenbeen understood that better controlcontrol will lead to lead to EXPRESS MOISTURE MOISTURE MEASUREMENT MEASUREMENT – – TAD It has understood that better will TAD ferent energy forms change, the EXPRESS Profit better quality and Coefficients cost performance and this can be achieved MEASUREMENT TABLE I. TAD Regulatory Loops with Linear Objective better quality and cost performance and this can be achieved MEASUREMENT by measuring the moisture further up the machine, but this has controller with the optimization layerFor willmoisture, traditional tissue machine MD controls almost measuring the until moisture further the machine, but this has MV Energy Fuel Units Linear Objrecently Coef Cost/Eng Unit Foralways moisture, traditional tissue machine MD notbybeen practical, [5].upWith the ExPress include controlling the reel moisture onlycontrols (i.e. the almost final automatically adjust and attain the always lowest not been practical, until TAD2, recently [5]. With thebeExPress include controlling the reel moisture onlyis(i.e. the final Moisture scanner located after moisture can now product moisture). However, the final moisture controlled Moisture scanner located after TAD2, can now be upstream of the reel and closer to themoisture critical drying product moisture). However, final moisture is moisture controlled degmeasured possible operating cost while maintaining by many elements far upTemp thethemachine where TAD1 Supply Gas the F measured upstreamthis of new the 0.680 reel andmoisture closer to the critical drying elements. Combining direct measurement by levels manyare elements farand upthere the machine where the between moisture different, are drying elements the product quality. TAD1 DE DP Electricity Inch Hwith O the reel 47.267 Combining new direct via moisture moisture this measurement the measurement Profit 2 elements. levels are different, and there are drying elements between those locations and the reel that can further change the

with-0.030 themeasurement economic efficiencies of Profit TAD1 Gap Electricity O with the MPC reelalong moisture via the moisture [4]. The various drying elements that can manipulate those locations and thePres reel that can further change the Inch Hmultivariable 2 various drying elements it possible to truly MPC alongthen withmakes the economic efficiencies of moisture also have varying efficiencies andGas costs. costs TAD2 Exh Temp Degthese F multivariable 5.858 [4]. The various drying elements that canThese manipulate TAD REGULATORY CONTROLmoisture optimize the energy consumption ofthen the makes machine, since the to truly these various drying elements it possible change also with time. DE moisture have varying efficienciesElectricity and costs. These costs Inch H2O TAD2 DP 40.249 control has direct feedback of processofchanges and true LOOPS optimize the energy consumption the machine, since the change with TAD2 time. Gap Pres Electricity Inch H2O -16.415 control has direct feedback of process changes and true Each TAD has several regulatory control 2

loops that can affect TAD Moisture and Reel Moisture. The regulatory control loops have different efficiencies and costs because of the various forms of energy that each consumes. The temperature control loops consume natural gas and the pressure control loops consume electricity. By adding the temperature and pressure loops in the control strategy along with associating costs and defining upper and lower limits with each loop, the Profit multivariable MPC with the economic optimization layer can distribute the drying load in the TADs to minimize costs while not upsetting quality (i.e. maintaining TAD Moisture and Reel Moisture). Table I shows the TAD loops that affect the TAD Moisture and Reel Moisture. pulpandpapercanada.com

MV TAD1 TAD1 TAD1 TAD2 TAD2 TAD2

Supply Temp DE DP Gap Pres Exh Temp DE DP Gap Pres

Energy Fuel

2 Units

Linear Obj Coef Cost/Eng Unit

Gas Electricity Electricity Gas Electricity Electricity

deg F Inch H2O Inch H2O Deg F Inch H2O Inch H2O

0.680 47.267 -0.030 5.858 40.249 -16.415

LINEAR OBJECTIVE COEFFICIENTS

The linear objective coefficients are parameters in the objective function of the optimization layer. The general form of the objective function is eq. 1: Minimize J = ∑bj × MVj j

(1)

where are the linear objective coefficients for the MVs representing the energy cost per engineering unit of the MVs. Bump tests were performed to determine the linear objective coefficients for each MV used in the Optimizer. Table I shows the linear objective coefficients for the MVs used in the Profit multivariable MPC with the optimization layer.

November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

31


T89

TISSUE Table II. MV Cost Ranking - Trial 1. MV

Energy Unit Low Limit High Limit

TAD1 Supply Temp Deg F TAD1 DE DP Inch H2O TAD1 Gap Pres Inch H2O TAD2 Exh Temp Deg F Figure Gas Costs TAD2 3: DETAD DP Natural Inch H2O Trial 1 Gap Pres TAD2 Inch H2O

Linear Obj Coef Cost/Eng Unit

300.0 450.0 1.0 3.9 0.4 1.5 175.0 250.0 and1.0 Electrical Costs3.5 0.2 1.5

0.68 47.30 -0.03 5.86 Figure 40.26 3: Trial 1 -16.40

Process Cost Gain (Cost/% (%Moi/Eng Unit) Moi)

TAD

-0.12 -5.12 1.95 -0.45 Natural -3.14 4.25

Optimization Rank Behavior

5.48 9.24 0.02 13.02 Costs and 12.82 3.86

Gas

4 450 (max) 3 Controlling Moi 6 0.4 (max) 1 175 (min) Electrical Costs2 1 (min) 5 0.2 (max)

Figure 6: TAD2 Manipulated Variables – Trial 1 tem

Controlled Variables 12.7

25

12.6 12.5

20

15

12.2 12.1 10

12

DW (lb/ream)

DW (lb/ream)

12.3

Moisture (%)

12.4

11.9 5

11.8 11.7

ReelDwt PV

ReelMoi PV

ExpressMoi PV 12:19:52

Fig.4.4.Total Total Costs costs -–Trial Figure Trial1.1 Figure 7: CVs undisturbed – Trial 1 Figure 6: TAD2 Manipulated Variables – Trial 1

12:13:25

12:06:58

12:00:31

11:54:04

11:47:37

11:41:10

11:34:43

11:28:16

11:21:49

11:15:22

11:08:55

11:02:28

10:56:01

10:49:34

10:43:07

10:36:40

10:30:13

10:23:46

10:17:19

9:57:58

10:10:52

9:51:31

10:04:25

9:45:04

9:38:37

9:32:10

9:25:43

9:19:16

9:12:49

9:06:22

8:59:55

8:53:28

8:47:01

0 8:40:34

Figure 4. Total Costs – Trial 1 Fig. 3.3:TAD gas costs andand electrical costsTrial 1. Figure TADnatural Natural Gas Costs Electrical CostsTrial 1

8:34:07

11.6

Time

Fig

ECONOMIC OPTIMIZER – TRIAL 2 tem Controlled Variables Since the energy costs change with time, the cost of energy is updated in the control system periodically, which can have a big impact on how the machine is optimized. Trial 2 shows that even though different MVs were manipulated to minimize energy costs, all CVs remained undisturbed. Natural gas costs varied greatly in 2008. The peak of the natural gas cost was in the summer of 2008 and it was approximately double the cost in trial 1. Trial 2 was performed with the cost of natural gas at close to its peak. With the increased price of natural gas, the natural gas costs were higher than the electrical costs. This is reflected during this trial as natural gas usage decreased as electrical usage Figure 3: TAD Natural Gas Costs and Electrical Costsincreased (Figure 8). Tablevariables 3 shows -each Trial Figure 1 Fig. 5.4.TAD1 - Trial 1. Fig. 6. TAD2 manipulated TrialMV 1. along with their Totalmanipulated Costs – Trialvariables 1Variables Figure 5: TAD1 Manipulated – Trial 1 respective coefficients, process gains Figure 6:linear TAD2objective Manipulated Variables – Trial 1 and cost rankings. As expected, TAD2 exhaust temperature Figure 5: TAD1 Manipulated Variables – Trial 1 and TAD1 Figure 7: CVs undisturbed – Trial 1 ECONOMIC OPTIMIZER - TRIAL 1 The trial sequence was as follows: o TAD2 Exh2Temp (rank 1)since is driven supply temperature are ranked 1 and respectively both A trial was performed with the economic - Baseline data was collected between to its lowest cost operating limit (175 tem MVs consume natural gas. Controlled Variables optimization layer turned on with the lin- 8:30 - 9:30. deg F). See Fig. ECONOMIC OPTIMIZER – TRIAL 2 6. The trial sequence was as follows: ear objective coefficients that are shown o 100.0 relative costSince unitsthe of energy energy.costs change o TAD2 DE DPthe (rank driven isto with time, cost2)ofisenergy - Baseline data was collected 3:00 – 3:24. inch in Table I. To rank the cost of each MV, See Fig. 4. its lowest costbetween operating limit updated in the control system periodically, which can(1.0 have a the linear objective coefficients must be - Attempted to put optimizer ononconSeeis Fig. 6. big impact how the H2O). machine optimized. Trial 2 shows thatSome even though werethe manipulated to minimize converted to a relative cost in common trol between 9:30 -4 10:44. windupdifferent o MVs To keep TAD1 Moisture the costs,MVs all CVs remained undisturbed. units of Cost /% Moi. This can be accom- errors were encounteredenergy with some same, TAD1 Sup Temp (rank 4), 4 plished by taking the linear objective on the DCS that prevented TAD2 Gap and of TAD1 Naturalthe gasProfit costs varied greatly in Pres 2008.(rank The5)peak the natural gascaused cost was in thePres summer and to it was coefficients and dividing by their respec- controller from optimizing. This Gap (rank of 6) 2008 are driven their double themaximum cost in trial 1. Trial 2limits was performed tive process gains. Table II shows each some abnormal behaviorapproximately and hence higher operating (450 deg with the cost of naturalF,gas to itsH2O peak. With the MV along with their respective linear energy costs. 0.2 at andclose 0.4 inch respectively). increased price of natural gas, the natural gas costs objective coefficients, process gains and - 10:44 - 12:30 - all windup errors were These are the low cost MVs. Seewere Figs. higher than the electrical costs. This is reflected during this cost rankings. cleared and optimizer on 5 and 6. trial as natural gas usage decreased as electrical usage Figure 4. Total Costs – Trial 1 increased (Figure 8). Table 3 shows each MV along with their Figure 5: TAD1 Manipulated Variables – Trial 12010 respective objective– coefficients, process gains and cost 32  PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December Figure 7: CVslinear undisturbed Trial 1 pulpandpapercanada.com rankings. As expected, TAD2 exhaust temperature and TAD1 12.7

25

12.6 12.5

20

DW (lb/ream)

12.3

15

12.2 12.1

10

12

11.9

5

11.8 11.7

ReelDwt PV

ReelMoi PV

ExpressMoi PV

12:19:52

12:13:25

12:06:58

12:00:31

11:54:04

11:47:37

11:41:10

11:34:43

11:28:16

11:21:49

11:15:22

11:08:55

11:02:28

10:56:01

10:49:34

10:43:07

10:36:40

10:30:13

10:23:46

10:17:19

10:10:52

10:04:25

9:57:58

9:51:31

9:45:04

9:38:37

9:32:10

9:25:43

9:19:16

9:12:49

9:06:22

8:59:55

8:53:28

8:47:01

8:40:34

0

8:34:07

11.6

Time

12.7

25

12.6 12.5

20

15

12.2 12.1

10

12

11.9

5

11.8 11.7

ReelDwt PV

ReelMoi PV

ExpressMoi PV

Time

12:19:52

12:13:25

12:06:58

12:00:31

11:54:04

11:47:37

11:41:10

11:34:43

11:28:16

11:21:49

11:15:22

11:08:55

11:02:28

10:56:01

10:49:34

10:43:07

10:36:40

10:30:13

10:23:46

10:17:19

10:10:52

10:04:25

9:57:58

9:51:31

9:45:04

9:38:37

9:32:10

9:25:43

9:19:16

9:12:49

9:06:22

8:59:55

8:53:28

8:47:01

0

8:40:34

11.6

8:34:07

DW (lb/ream)

12.3

Moisture (%)

12.4

Moisture (%)

12.4

EC Sin upd big tha ene Na nat app wit inc hig tria inc res ran sup MV Th


Throughout the trial (3:00 – 5:00) all CVs (Reel Dry Weight, Reel Moisture and TAD Moisture) were undisturbed, see PEER REVIEWED Figure 12. Total energy costs during steady state optimization (4:25 – 5:00) = 99.4 relative cost units Cost of energy, see Figure 9. The Linear Obj Process energy cost reduction was 0.6%. Coef Gain (Cost/% Optimization

Table III. MV cost ranking - Trial 2. MV

Energy Unit Low Limit High Limit

Cost/eng unit

(%Moi/eng unit) Moi)

Table 3: MV Cost Ranking – Trial 2

TAD1 Supply Temp Deg F 300.0 450.0 TAD1 DE DP Inch H2O 1.0 3.7 TAD1 Gap Pres Inch H2O 0.4 1.5 TAD2 Exh Temp Deg F 175.0 250.0 TAD2 DE DP Inch H2O 1.0 2.9 Figure 6: TAD2 Manipulated – Trial o Pres 100.0 relative unitsVariables of energy. See 1 TAD2 Gap Inch H2cost O 0.2 1.5

1.41 55.64 MV -5.43 TAD1 Supply Temp TAD1 DE DP 10.40 TAD1 Gap Prs TAD2 Exh Temp 28.01 TAD2 DE DP -24.97 TAD2 Gap Prs

eng unit deg F inch H2O inch H2O deg F inch H2O inch H2O

-0.12 -5.12 Low1.95 Limit High Limit 300.0 450.0 1.0 3.7 -0.45 0.4 1.5 175.0 -3.14 250.0 1.0 2.9 4.25 1.5 0.2

11.40 10.86 2.78 23.11 8.92 5.88

Rank 2 3 6 1 4 5

T90

Behavior

Controlling Moi 3.7 (max) Optimization Rank (max) Behavior 0.4 2 controlling Moi 3.7 (max) 3 175 (min) 0.4 (max) 6 175 (min) 1 2.9 (max) 4 2.9 (max) 0.2 (max) 0.2 (max) 5

Linear Obj Process Cost Coef Gain (Cost/% (Cost/eng unit) (%Moi/eng unit) Moi) 1.41 -0.12 11.40 55.64 -5.12 10.86 -5.43 1.95 2.78 10.40 -0.45 23.11 28.01 -3.14 8.92 -24.97 4.25 5.88

Figure 9. The Optimizer was turned on at 3:25. Natural gas Controlled Variables usage decreased and electrical usage increased. See Figure 8. o Some sheet breaks and machine upsets were encountered during the trial between 3:35 – 4:25. o Machine settles down to steady state conditions after 4:25. o TAD2 Exh Temp (rank 1) is driven to its lowest cost operating limit (175 deg F). See Figure 11. o To offset the low TAD2 Exh Temp (rank 1), Figure 9: Total Costs – Trial 2 TAD1 DE DP (rank 3), TAD2 DE DP (rank 4), TAD2 Gap Pres (rank 5), and TAD1 Gap Pres (rank 6) are driven to their maximum Fig. 7.7: CVs undisturbed - Trial 1. 1 Fig. 8: 8. TAD TAD natural gas costs andand electrical costsCosts - Trial– 2. Figure Natural Gas Costs Electrical Figure CVs undisturbed – Trial operating limits (3.7, 2.9, 0.2 and 0.4 inch Trial 2 H2O respectively) to help dry the sheet. These are the low–cost MVs.2 See Figures 10 ECONOMIC OPTIMIZER TRIAL and 11. 5 Since the energy costs change with time, the cost of energy is o in TAD1 Sup system Temp periodically, (rank 2) is which withincan its have a updated the control limits and therefore performing big impactoperating on how the machine is optimized. Trial 2 shows TAD Moisture and Reel Moisture control. that even though different MVs were manipulated to minimize SeeallFigure 10. energy costs, CVs remained undisturbed. Throughout thegas trialcosts (3:00varied – 5:00)greatly all CVsin(Reel Weight, Natural 2008.Dry The peak of the Reel Moisture andcost TADwas Moisture) were undisturbed, see it was natural gas in the summer of 2008 and Figure approximately 12. double the cost in trial 1. Trial 2 was performed with thecosts costduring of natural at close to its peak. the Total energy steadygasstate optimization (4:25With – increased price of natural gas, the natural gas costs were 5:00) = 99.4 relative cost units of energy, see Figure 9. The than thewas electrical energy higher cost reduction 0.6%. costs. This is reflected during this trial as natural gas usage decreased as electrical usage increased (Figure 8). Table 3 shows each MV along with their Table 3: MV Cost Ranking – Trial 2 respective linear objective coefficients, process gains and cost Fig. 9. Total costs -– Trial 2. 2 Fig. 10. TAD1 manipulated variables - Trial 2. Figure 9: Total Costs Trial Obj Process Cost rankings. As expected, Linear TAD2 exhaust temperature and TAD1 Figure 10: TAD1 Manipulated Variables – Trial 2 Coef Gain (Cost/% Optimization unit) (%Moi/eng Moi) Rank Behavior MV eng unit Low Limit High Limit supply temperature are(Cost/eng ranked 1 andunit) 2 respectively since both TAD1 Supply Temp F 300.0 450.0 1.41 11.40 2 controlling Moi oinchdeg TAD1 DP gas. (rank 3) is-0.12 ECONOMIC OPTIMIZER - TRIAL 2 price of natural gas, the natural gas costs 3.7 (max) TAD1 DE DP MVs H2O 1.0 DE 3.7 55.64 -5.12within 10.86 3 consume natural 0.4 (max) TAD1 Gap Prs inch H2O 0.4 1.5 -5.43 1.95 2.78 6 limits and Since the energy costs change with time, were higher than the electrical costs. This 175 (min) TAD2 Exh Temp deg F 175.0 controlling 250.0 10.40Reel Moisture -0.45 23.11 1 trial was as28.01 follows:-3.14 TAD2 DE DP The inch H2O sequence 1.0 2.9 8.92 4 2.9 (max) 0.2 of (max)energy is updated in the control TAD2 Gap Prs inch H2O 0.2 Moisture. 1.5 -24.97 Fig. 5. 4.25 5.88 5 cost and TAD See the is reflected during this trial as natural - Baseline data was collected between 3:00 – 3:24. Throughout the trial (8:30 - 12:20) all system periodically, which can have a big gas usage decreased as electrical usage CVs (Reel Dry Weight, Reel Moisture impact on how the machine is optimized. increased (Fig. 8). Table III shows each 4 and Express Moisture) were undisturbed, Trial 2 shows that even though different MV along with their respective linear see Fig. 7. MVs were manipulated to minimize ener- objective coefficients, process gains and 98.8 relative cost units of energy is gy costs, all CVs remained undisturbed. cost rankings. As expected, TAD2 exhaust achieved while the Energy Optimizer is Natural gas costs varied greatly in 2008. temperature and TAD1 supply temperaon, i.e. a 1.2% energy saving, see Fig. 4. The peak of the natural gas cost was in the ture are ranked 1 and 2 respectively since In this trial, the cost of natural gas is summer of 2008 and it was approximately both MVs consume natural gas. less than electricity. Natural gas usage double the cost in Trial 1. Trial 2 was The trial sequence was as follows: increased and electricity usage decreased, performed with the cost of natural gas - Baseline data was collected between see Fig. 3. at close to its peak. With the increased 3:00 - 3:24.

Fi

-

12.7

25

12.6 12.5

20

DW (lb/ream)

12.3

15

12.2 12.1

10

12

Moisture (%)

12.4

11.9

5

11.8 11.7

ReelDwt PV

ReelMoi PV

ExpressMoi PV

12:19:52

12:13:25

12:06:58

12:00:31

11:54:04

11:47:37

11:41:10

11:34:43

11:28:16

11:21:49

11:15:22

11:08:55

11:02:28

10:56:01

10:49:34

10:43:07

10:36:40

10:30:13

10:23:46

10:17:19

9:57:58

10:10:52

9:51:31

10:04:25

9:45:04

9:38:37

9:32:10

9:25:43

9:19:16

9:12:49

9:06:22

8:59:55

8:53:28

8:47:01

8:40:34

0

8:34:07

11.6

Time

pulpandpapercanada.com

Figure 10: TAD1 Manipulated Variables – Trial 2

November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

33

Fi


Figure 10: TAD1 Manipulated Variables – Trial 2

T91

TISSUE

Fig. 11. TAD2 manipulated variables - Trial 2.

Figure 12: CVs CVs undisturbed undisturbed –- Trial Trial 2. 2 Fig. 12.

Figure 11: TAD2 Manipulated Variables – Trial 2

5

CONCLUSION

o 100.0 relative cost units of energy. See Fig. 9. - The Optimizer was turned on at 3:25. Natural gas usage decreased and electrical usage increased. See Fig. 8. o Some sheet breaks and machine upsets were encountered during the trial between 3:35 - 4:25. o Machine settles down to steady state conditions after 4:25. o TAD2 Exh Temp (rank 1) is driven to its lowest cost operating limit (175 deg F). See Fig. 11. o To offset the low TAD2 Exh Temp (rank 1), TAD1 DE DP (rank 3), TAD2 DE DP (rank 4), TAD2 Gap Pres (rank 5), and TAD1 Gap Pres (rank 6) are driven to their maximum operating limits (3.7, 2.9, 0.2 and 0.4 inch H2O respectively) to help dry the sheet. These are the low cost MVs. See Figs. 10 and 11. o TAD1 Sup Temp (rank 2) is within its operating limits and therefore performing TAD Moisture and Reel Moisture control. See Fig. 10. Throughout the trial (3:00 - 5:00) all CVs (Reel Dry Weight, Reel Moisture and TAD Moisture) were undisturbed, see Fig. 12. Total energy costs during steady state optimization (4:25 - 5:00) = 99.4 relative cost units of energy, see Fig. 9. The energy cost reduction was 0.6%.

the press and reel on tissue machines. This LITERATURE New sensor technology now permits the high F. HARAN, R. placement BESELT, R.ofMACHATTIE, technology is well proven and reliable 1.  Embedded High-speed Solid State Sensor, Pulp & precision moisture measurements at almost any Optic location enough for continuous control, Canada, (2007). This between the providpress andPaper reel on 108:12, tissuepp.57-60 machines. 2.  J.U. BACKSTRÖM, P. BAKER, A Benefit Analysis ing positive results fortechnology producersisglobally. well provenof and reliable enough for continuous Model Predictive Machine Directional Control of When combined withcontrol, multivariable con-positive Paper results Machines,for Proceedings fromglobally. 2008 Control Sysproviding producers Pacific Conference, 16-18, Vancouver, When combined with tems/Pan multivariable control, itJuneproduces trol, it produces consistent drying along BC, Canada, pp. 197-202 (2008). consistent drying along the length of the machine, increasing the length of the machine, increasing 3.  S. CHU, Wet End Control Applications using a Mulproduct quality and reducing manufacturing costs. Strategy, With the Model Predictive Control Proceedings product quality and reducing manufactur- tivariable Jasper, the AB, Canada, addition of energy costs,from thePACWEST system is2008, ableJune to18-21, optimize ing costs. With the machine additiontoofstay energy within (2008). product quality requirements, while 4.  T. STEELE, R. MACHATTIE, A. PAAVOLA, B. costs, the system is able to optimize the possible running at the lowest balancing various& Control VYSE, energy Tissue & costs, Towel Quality Measurement machine to stay within product Presentation from Tissue America 2008 energy forms quality and their Advances, associated costs as well asWorld product Conference, Marchwas 11-14, Miami, FL (2008). quality. at A the 1.2%lowest energy cost reduction achieved with the requirements, while running 5.  P. BAKER, R. MACHATTIE, B. VYSE, Early optimization enabled. and Control of Paper Machine Moisture, possible energy costs,energy balancing variouslayerMeasurement from 2008 Control Systems/Pan Pacific energy forms and their associated costs as Proceedings Conference, June 16-18, Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp. well as product quality.REFERENCES A 1.2% energy cost 105-110 (2008). reduction was achieved the energy [1] with F. Haran, R. Beselt, R. MacHattie, “Embedded Highoptimization layer enabled.speed Solid State Optic Sensor”, Pulp & Paper Canada,

CONCLUSION

Keywords: MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL; MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL (MPC)

New sensor technology now permits the placement of high precision moisture measurements at almost any location between

34 

108:12, pp.57-60 (2007). [2] J. U. Backström, P. Baker, “A Benefit Analysis of Model Predictive Machine Directional Control of Paper Machines”, Proceedings from 2008 Control Systems/Pan Résumé: Les fabricants de papier visent tous à accroître leurs profits en réduisant les coûts PacificlaConference, Juneet16-18, Vancouver, BC, d’exploitation, mais sans sacrifier qualité du papier l’aptitude au passage surCanada, machine. Les pp. 197-202 machines à papier mince modernes sont (2008). en général dotées de plus de vingt boucles de régulation de faible niveau et de multiples éléments permettant de mesurer les propriétés de la feuille à [3] S. Chu, “Wet End Control Applications using a divers endroits le long de la machine. C’est un vaste procédé compliqué en raison de son imporMultivariable Model le Predictive Control Strategy”, tant couplage et les préposés aux services techniques trouvent difficile à optimiser sans avoir recours à des techniques deProceedings régulation multivariables perfectionnées. présente from PACWEST 2008, La June 18-21,communication Jasper, évalue les interactions du procédé et les réductions AB, Canada, (2008). du coût de l’énergie possibles à l’aide d’un modèle prévisionnel de commande avec un module d’optimisation qui entraîne le processus automatiquement vers [4] le coût plus bas, en tenantA. compte de laB. nature du “Tissue processus T. leSteele, R. tout MacHattie, Paavola, Vyse, &et des contraintes de qualité. La machine papier à Measurement l’étude était dotée appareilAdvances”, de mesure de la Towel àQuality & d’un Control teneur en eau à balayage rapide installé avant la sécherie monocylindrique (Yankee), en plus des from Tissue World America 2008 mesures prises à l’aide d’unPresentation scanner classique à l’enrouleuse. Conference, March 11-14, Miami, FL (2008). [5] P. Baker, R. MacHattie, B. Vyse, “Early Measurement Reference: CHU, S., MACHATTIE, R., BACKSTRÖM, J. Multivariable Control and Energy and Control of Paper Machine Moisture”, Proceedings Optimization of Tissue Machines. Pulp & Paper Canada 111(6): T87-T91 (Nov/Dec 2010). Paper prefrom 2008 Systems/Pan PacificSystems Conference, June15-17, in sented at PacWest 2009, June 10-13, 2009 inControl Sun Peaks, B.C. and Control 2010, Sept. Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp. 105-110 (2008).received January Stockholm, Sweden. Not to be 16-18, reproduced without permission of PAPTAC. Manuscript 01, 2009. Revised manuscript approved for publication by the Review Panel July 12, 2010.

TECHNOLOGY; MACHINE DIRECTION (MD); CONTROL; ENERGY OPTIMIZATION; 6 ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION; TISSUE MACHINES; MAXIMIZING PROFIT; EXPRESS MOISTURE SENSOR; MOISTURE CONTROL; YANKEE DRYER CONTROL; THROUGH AIR DRYER (TAD) CONTROL.

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

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TECHNOLOGY NEWS

J.D. Irving implements enterprise GIS to enable more efficient workflows J.D. Irving has completed an enterprise geographic information system (GIS) deployment that has centralized geographic information throughout the organization and extended its GIS to other business areas. The new GIS platform has also allowed JDI to centrally manage workflows for its forestry operations, resulting in more efficient processes. “Centralizing our geographic information into one enterprise system has created significant efficiencies and allowed us to create standards for managing GIS data and workflows,” said Joe Pelham, GIS IS leader, IT division, JDI. “The system has helped to improve the quality of data and increased our capability for developing targeted applications to support the diverse needs of our various businesses.” “JDI has a successful history of using GIS to manage forests sustainably,” said Alex Miller, president, ESRI Canada. JDI was the first forest products company in North America to use ESRI technology back in 1983, and has used GIS in its forestry operations to manage more than six million acres of land in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Maine. “While the use of GIS data and maps is inherent in forest management, users across their different lines of businesses can apply and benefit from advanced geographic analysis through their enterprise GIS. This allows them to gain unprecedented insight about their resources and workflows, enhance decision making, and strengthen JDI’s ability to meet its broad range of environmental and business objectives.” The Irving project began in 2007 and involved migrating numerous GIS applications and hundreds of datasets managed across 10 regional offices into a single geodatabase. ESRI’s ArcGIS technology provided JDI with

ArcGIS Workflow Manager allows you to create, manage and execute workflows using simple visual tools.

comprehensive functionality for building the enterprise GIS. It allows hundreds of users throughout the organization to view, edit, and distribute geographic information on servers, desktops, mobile devices and over the Web. The technology seamlessly integrates with other business systems, providing JDI with the capability to leverage GIS applications and data in their business processes. The company also implemented the Job Tracking for ArcGIS Server extension (JTX) to improve workflow management for processes including harvesting timber, planting trees, managing wildlife habitat, building roads, and managing land ownership. JTX automates and tracks each job in the GIS workflow including loading field data, editing the enterprise

geodatabase, and producing maps and reports. The system passes the job from one user to the next, prompting for input and approvals until the entire workflow is completed. It improves user productivity by automating tasks and helps JDI to effectively manage a dispersed workforce by distributing work geographically. Staff and management can view every stage of the workflow by job type, number and priority, increasing accountability and enabling them to easily create and assign work to the appropriate resources. ESRI Canada, www.esricanada.com.

New generation of polyurethane pressure roll covers for tissue machines The Rebel polyurethane roll cover technology from Xerium Technologies is uniquely engineered to maximize tissue machine performance. Rebel’s stable dynamic properties, consistent pressure roll nip intensities, consistent cover hardness and superior tensile strength provide faster startups and increased drainage control. In addition, Rebel roll covers ensure minimal pulpandpapercanada.com

process variability in summer to winter temperature changes and sustained superior nip conditions and tissue quality. Rebel is available in a wide hardness range and in all venting combinations of suction, blind drilled and grooved. Excellent hardness stability assures a uniform Yankee/Pressure Roll nip for the life of the cover. Xerium Technologies, www.xerium.co November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

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TECHNOLOGY NEWS HR system provides self-service functions

Howe Sound Pulp & Paper Corp. has chosen an emPath® human resources and payroll system for its pulp and paper complex in Port Mellon, B.C. Distributed by Now Solutions, emPath is is a Web-based HRMS/payroll solution that leverages Microsoft®.NET technology. EmPath provides comprehensive administrative and workflow capabilities, as well as employee empowerment via employee and manager self-service. “EmPath gives us the ability to access information and reports in a user-friendly, versatile single solution. As a result, we’ll be able to have optimal functionality in a cost-effective, scalable solution,” says Marc Turenne, systems superintendent for Howe Sound. Now Solutions, 905-671-9888, www.nowsolutions.com

AFT makes major contribution to UBC’s new LC refining research facility

A new low-consistency (LC) refiner system donated to the Pulp and Paper Centre at the University of British Columbia (UBC) was started up in August, marking another milestone in the University’s research program to enhance paper quality and reduce energy consumption. Advanced Fiber Technologies (AFT) contributed the key process equipment to enable UBC to expand its capabilities in LC refining -- a technology that is now being exploited by the world’s leading papermakers to significantly improve the energy efficiency of mechanical pulp production, according to James Olson, a professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at UBC and a member of the Advanced Papermaking Initiative. “We are now starting up the most state-of-the-art, universitybased LC refining facility in the world,” Olson says. A member of the Aikawa Group, AFT designs and manufactures screening components and Finebar® refiner plates for the worldwide pulp and paper industry. To UBC, the company donated a 16-inch Aikawa AWW single-disc LC refiner plus Finebar refiner plates to process a full range of hardwood, softwood, and recycled fibers. The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) provided funding to purchase ancillary equipment and West Fraser Mills in British Columbia donated a 150 HP motor to drive the refiner. “AFT has consistently contributed to R&D to fully understand the science of screening,” says Dr. Robert Gooding, vice -president of technology at AFT. “This most recent contribution underscores our commitment to LC refining research.” After a short “learning curve” to understand the complexities and nuances of the new facility, fundamental research and development will begin in earnest. The LC refining facility will allow UBC to test new ideas and concepts for pre-treatment, power reduction strategies, advanced controls, and the impact on paper surface qualities. “Of course, we will be eager to perform sponsored research for pulp product development to help the industry further improve its paper products,” Olson says. Gooding adds that AFT will also utilize the facility for fundamental research on plate geometries and power-gap relationships, as well as supporting customer trials. Advanced Fiber Technologies, 819-562-4754, www.aikawagroup.com/html/aft.html

Pump shaft seal system saves water, maintenance

James Walker has developed a reliable, cost effective alternative to mechanical seals and compression packing. The KlickFix® cartridge sealing system contains multiple in-built lips that can be sequentially deployed in order to provide extended sealing

36 

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

life and predictable operational performance. Easy to fit, the cartridge has the potential to significantly outperform traditional mechanical seals and compression packings. To date the longest KlickFix trial has been running at a mill in North America where the cartridge replaced a tungsten carbide faced mechanical seal on a 2.25” shaft Allis-Chalmers pump. The mechanical seal required clean water flush at a rate of 20 US gallons/hour and had an operational life of between nine and eleven months pumping a 3-5% process paper stock concentration. Following the installation of a KlickFix cartridge, the flush rate was immediately reduced to less than 2 US gallons/hour – a 90% reduction in clean water consumption. The KlickFix cartridge has now been in continuous operation without leakage or adjustment for more than three and a half years James Walker www.jameswalker.biz/klickfix

Professional Connections Careers PulP & PaPer Jobs Freeman Staffing, Inc. specializes in the placement of engineers (all disciplines), production type supervisors, managers, mill and/or plant managers and corporate executives in the pulp & paper industry, North America-wide. For specific current job searches call us or contact our web site. All resumes are treated with complete confidentiality.

Freeman Staffing, Inc.

(800) 221-9629 or FAX (360) 653-8271 email: markp@freemanstaffing.com

web site: www.freemanstaffing.com

Consultants Global Know-how and Local Service for the Forest Industry Pöyry (Montreal) Inc. Montreal, QC 514 341 3221

Pöyry Forest Industry Consulting Inc. Tarrytown, NY Montreal, QC 914 332 4000 514 845 8715

Pöyry (Vancouver) Inc. Vancouver, BC 604 689 0344

Pöyry (Appleton) LLC Appleton, WI 920 954 2000

Engineering balanced sustainability for a complex world. www.poyry.ca

Engineering services for the pulp and paper industry

Telephone 416. 391. 2322 E-mail mail@dickeng.com Web site www.dickeng.com

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November/December 2010  PULP & PAPER CANADA 

37


TECHNOLOGY NEWS

FOCUS: PAPER MACHINE CLOTHING Metso fabrics contribute to world speed record

Metso’s fabrics contributed to a new world speed record for newsprint paper machines, 2,020 m/min, achieved with Rhein Papier PM 1 in Germany on September 9, 2010. During the 24-hour record run, the press felt in both the pick-up and 1st press was Metso’s Transmaster Open (TMO). According to Metso both positions are considered to be the most demanding fabric positions on the entire line. September also saw the machine’s best ever average monthly speed, 1,937 m/min. Metso reports that the machine performed very well during the record run, with a high efficiency rate (97 %) and extremely good runnability. General manager of Rhein Papier, Juha Ebeling, commented: “This would never have been possible without the TMO duo, which worked like a dream on the first press. At best the dry content measured over 55%, when the speed exceeded 2,000 m/ min. The edges of the web moved evenly through the press and dryer sections, and we succeeded in keeping the draw between the press and dryer section small. These factors determine the machine’s runnability, because if there are problems here, it will lead to breaks and a reduction in speed.” Metso, www.metso.com

Carbon nanotubes used in forming fabric

Stable, robust carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been used for the first time in the manufacture of a forming fabric and successfully put into operation in the Voith Paper pilot paper machine. As an additive, carbon offers very good stability and can withstand high mechanical stresses. The machine clothing community has worked for some time on trying to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into forming fabrics, to reduce strain and increase wear resistance. The company is continuing to work on bringing carbon nanotubes for forming fabrics onto the market. Voith Paper, www.voithpaper.com

Hollow yarns improve dewatering for press fabric AstenJohnson’s FlexFlow™ press fabric may be the world’s most compressible seamed fabric, due to the company’s patented cross machine direction hollow monofilament yarns. Sheet smoothness is a benefit for the papermaker because of the planar surface of the base under

38 

compression in the nip. FlexFlow offers better nip dewatering, plus increased sheet solids and therefore reduced steam usage. The amount of vacuum required at uhle box is also lower. AstenJohnson, www.astenjohnson.com

Press fabric provides uniform pressure and dimensional stability Impact press fabric from Xerium features a unique combination of innovative raw materials, highly compressible base structure elements and exclusive needling technology. Hydrophilic base

yarns aligned perfectly parallel provide an ideal combination of pressure uniformity, mark-free surface, exceptional dimensional stability and immediate nip saturation. This new base concept, along with the exclusive Huyperm and Huyperpunch-D needling technology, produces a premium press fabric family that provides immediate startup, active self-cleaning and optimum steady-state performance. In addition, Impact press fabrics contribute to lower energy consumption, and superior sheet quality and printability. Xerium Technologies,   www.xerium.com

Repair, not replace Q&A about forming fabric repair with Dawn Cammack, FabFix

What types of paper machine clothing can you repair? We repair all styles of single, double and triple layer synthetic forming fabrics (wet-end fabrics) for all types of paper products ranging from tissue to cartonboard. Why should companies consider fabric repair rather than purchasing a new fabric? Companies should consider fabric repair because of the potential cost savings involved, which can be significant, especially when the fabric is damaged relatively early in its life-cycle. How long does a repair take, generally? A fabric repair can take anywhere from one day to two weeks or more, depending on the complexity of the fabric’s construction, the size of the defect and the number of damaged yarns in the defective area. How does your method compare to other methods of fabric repair Other methods of fabric repair consist of the adhesive-backed iron-on patch and the do-it-yourself baseball stitch.

PULP & PAPER CANADA  November/December 2010

The do-it-yourself baseball stitch is an attempt to close the damaged area while providing some machine side support, but this type of repair is ugly and can leave defects in the web because of the degree to which the surface of the repair is out-of-plane with the rest of the fabric’s surface. These repair methods are performed on the papermachine, and are temporary stopgap measures at best. Our handwoven fabric repairs are permanent. We reconstruct the damaged area by replacing the damaged yarns with yarns from a similarly woven fabric sample. These new yarns are individually woven into the damaged fabric in-plane with the top and bottom sides of the fabric. We use a sewing needle and microscope to manually reconstruct the original weave pattern and restore the fabric’s original drainage capabilities and dimensional support. What types of damage can you repair? We repair tears, holes, scratches and creases. There is no upper limit to the size of the repair. We can repair anything with enough time and money. The photos above show a relatively large doubleand-a-half layer fabric repair. It took 12 days to complete.

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GREEN. Our Color. Our Commitment. At Buckman, the most important commitment we can make is to a sustainable future.

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just good for the planet; it’s good for business. And we know it isn’t just about the environment; it’s about people, too. You can depend on Buckman to find the sustainable path forward. And to help you do the same.

For more information call 877-BUCKMAN (877-282-5626) or visit buckman.com ©2010 Buckman Laboratories International, Inc.

Pulp & Paper Canada December 2010  

Pulp & Paper Canada is Canada’s national magazine for the pulp and paper industry, providing accurate business and technical information for...

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