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ARE YOU UP TO CODE? REVISIONS IN ELECTRICAL & SAFETY STANDARDS AVOID FAILURES WITH INFRARED AND ULTRASONIC INSPECTIONS RELIABILITY-CENTERED MAINTENANCE KEEPS THE SUBWAY ON TRACK Vol. 34, No. 1

February 2018

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MAINTENANCE, REPAIR AND OPERATIONS

FEBRUARY 2018

Vol. 34, No. 1 Established 1985 www.mromagazine.com www.twitter.com/mromagazine Rehana Begg, Editor 416-510-6851 rbegg@annexbusinessmedia.com Contributors Philip Allen, Philip Chow, Travis Gilmer, Michael Holdsworth, Miguel Lamsaki, L. (Tex) Leugner, Douglas Martin, Max Miller, James ReyesPicknell, Peter Phillips, Brooke Smith, Jeff Smith Jim Petsis, Publisher 416-510-6842 jpetsis@mromagazine.com Jay Armstrong, Sales Manager 416-510-6803 jarmstrong@mromagazine.com Mark Ryan, Art Director Barb Vowles, Account Coordinator 416-510-5103 bvowles@annexbusinessmedia.com Beata Olechnowicz, Circulation Manager 416-442-5600 x3543 bolechnowicz@annexbusinessmedia.com Tim Dimopoulos, Vice-President tdimopoulos@annexbusinessmedia.com Ted Markle, COO tmarkle@annexbusinessmedia.com Mike Fredericks, President & CEO Machinery and Equipment MRO is published by Annex Business Media, 111 Gordon Baker Rd., Suite 400, Toronto ON M2H 3R1; Tel. 416-442-5600, Fax 416-510-5140. Toll-free: 1-800-268-7742 in Canada, 1-800-387-0273 in the USA. Printed in Canada ISSN 0831-8603 (print); ISSN 1923-3698 (digital) PUBLICATION MAIL AGREEMENT #40065710 CIRCULATION email: blao@annexbizmedia.com Tel: 416.442.5600 ext 3552 Fax: 416-510-6875 or 416-442-2191 Mail: 111 Gordon Baker Rd., Suite 400, Toronto ON M2H 3R1 Subscription rates. Canada: 1 year $63.50, 2 years $101 United States: 1 year $108 Elsewhere: 1 year $123.50 Single copies $10 (Canada), $16.50 (U.S.), $21.50 (other). Add applicable taxes to all rates. On occasion, our subscription list is made available to organizations whose products or services may be of interest to our readers. If you would prefer not to receive such information, please contact our circulation department in any of the four ways listed above. Annex Privacy Officer Privacy@annexbusinessmedia.com, 800-668-2374 No part of the editorial content of this publication may be reprinted without the publisher’s written permission © 2018 Annex Publishing & Printing Inc. All rights reserved. Opinions expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of the editor or the publisher. No liability is assumed for errors or omissions.

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Broaden the field of services

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aintenance and operations teams are intrinsically motivated to strive for agile ways to configure work orders around production demands. They’re always looking for essential tools that improve the relationship between efficiency and profitability. Yet, keeping pace with digital transformation is viewed as a double-edged sword by companies that need to undergo major shifts or don’t have the right tools to coax them along. For laggard companies, change invariably means decoupling from a dogmatic adherence to what worked in the past in favour of leveraging technology. Digitalization is a megatrend that’s enveloping global industrial manufacturing at breakneck speed. Gartner, Inc. forecasts that 20.4 billion connected things will be in use worldwide by 2020 and that total spending on endpoints and services would reach almost $2 trillion in 2017. These numbers are impressive and the technology is being used to powerful effect on two fronts. The first is the opportunity to improve efficiency. Digital transformation is responsible for making smart components smarter. Sensors installed on equipment collect intelligent data, which is communicated to mobile technology, and in turn creates new, unchartered service possibilities across the supply chain. We can surmise improved processes, valuable metrics and KPIs that validate decision-making. The second is the potential for creating new revenue streams, such as selling a product as a service. Letting go of the status quo can seem insurmountable if we have to transform the way we learn, make decisions and interact with our operating environment. Companies grapple with turning the vast amounts of data into insights, and there is a real fear that too much automation will eliminate jobs usually performed by skilled-trades or blue-collar workers. Sure, there’s comfort in sticking to what we know, but the sheer magnitude in tech advancement is our new reality and it’s changing the fundamentals of the business core. Plants and facilities that are keen on cementing their future can now issue automated notifications and real-time visibility into spare parts inventory, equipment maintenance and repair history, or electrical inspection and compliance activity. By extension, for service technicians there is a growing dependence on mobile and touchscreen functionality for communicating and collaborating with back-office personnel to solve critical issues. The promise of solutions at the fingertips is palpable for those who want to simplify recordkeeping of work performed, or look for ways to expedite the monitoring of parts or materials used during routine maintenance of high-value assets. The consummate case study demonstrating how all of this is realized in practice has been unfolding on the pages of Machinery and Equipment MRO. Over the course of the past 11 issues, contributor Peter Phillips has led us through an entire enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation (“The ERP Challenge,” page 36), all the while homing in on how to establish integrated, effective maintenance, field services and spares management systems. The series, which wraps up in this issue, outlines task dependencies, discusses ways to profit from low-hanging fruit, and looks at the pains and gains involved in managing change associated with service lifecycles of equipment. Phillips would be the first to acknowledge that the journey was an arduous and time-consuming endeavour, but that the payoff has been worthwhile. If you haven’t read the full series or if you’re involved in making ongoing maintenance improvements, download our archived issues at Rehana Begg mromagazine.com.

Editor


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in this issue

Departments Editor’s Notebook / 3 Industry Newswatch / 6 Business Briefs / 9 MRO Quiz – Condition Monitoring / 24 Maintenance 101 / 36 What’s Up Doug? / 38 Spare Parts / 42

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Mr. O, The Practical Problem Solver / 42

Cover Story – Earn While You Learn The Regional Municipality of York secures the next generation of skills with its electrical maintenance apprenticeship.

Product News What’s new in condition monitoring / 40

Back on Track / 14

Sense of Power / 20

How the TTC uses reliability centered maintenance to steer trains.

Thermal imaging and diagnostic testing for preventative maintenance.

What’s new in actuators / 40

Up to Code / 26

Doing the Right Work / 30

Creating a safe work environment using permanent electrical safety devices.

Two thoughts can set you on course for scheduling the right maintenance work.

Back to Life / 32

The Maintenance Engineer’s Guide to Industrial Actuators / 34

Some bearing types are better reconditioning candidates than others.

Electromechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic – know the difference.

What’s new in generators / 41

Cover

Photo by Rehana Begg


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Updates to Canadian Electrical Code CSA Group, a leading standards development organization and global provider of testing and certification services, has released the 2018 Canadian Electrical Code, Part I (CE Code). The CE Code is updated every three years and is a critical component of Canada’s electrical safety system and aims to help maintain and enhance safety. Mary Cianchetti, president of Standards at CSA Group, said that the CE Code enables electrical workers to follow best practices that help ensure safety as new technologies become embedded in our everyday lives. Input from stakeholders is a critical component in developing the CE Code. CSA Group takes a consensus-based approach to all standards work, drawing on the expertise of more than 1,600 inhouse technical experts, as well as more than 9,000 volunteer subject-matter experts across the globe. The latest edition includes more than 260 updates and revisions aimed at improving clarity through streamlined requirements, helping ensure safer installation and maintenance of electrical equipment, and supporting the safe implementation of new technologies and renewable energy solutions. Some of the major changes include: • a new sub-section of rules for power over ethernet (POE) cables • the addition of demand factors for electric vehicle energy management systems

AUTOMATIC LUBRICATION SYSTEM GIVEAWAY Toronto – Automatic Greasing Systems specialist FLO Components Ltd. announced the winner of the final draw in its 40th Anniversary Giveaway Contest. Thomas Steckel of Guelph, Ont., is the lucky winner in the anniversary celebration contest. Steckel’s name was drawn randomly from eligible entries and he successfully answered a skill-testing question, said Gabriel Lopez, marketing specialist at FLO. Steckel had a choice of either the PowerLuber & PowerLock Pack or a FLO Components 18-point Automatic Lubrication System in a box, which, according to Lopez, is a complete automatic lubrication system kit capable of servicing up to 18 lubrication points on a piece of stationary or mobile equipment in many applications. Steckel

WORKPLACE SAFETY The fourth edition of CSA Z462 – Electrical Workplace Safety has been released in conjunction with the 2018 Canadian Electrical Code, Part I. The revised standard aims to help workers install, operate, and maintain electrical equipment safely and provide additional safeguards to those who work in close proximity to energized electrical equipment. The 2018 edition builds on previous editions with additional requirements, including: 1. Further to the risk-based approach to safety, safety controls must be developed and prioritized based on documented risk assessments. 2. Requirements for condition of maintenance, periodic inspections and program auditing have been added to the section on electrical safety programs. 3. The hierarchy of control is now mandatory with a new requirement that makes hazard elimination the first priority in the implementation of safety-related work practices. 4. Electrical safety programs are now required to include the investigation of “near miss” incidents. 5. The minimum threshold for potentially hazardous energy has been reduced from 50V to 30V. Later in 2018, look for the new companion standard, CSA Z463, Maintenance of Electrical Systems. For more information, visit www.csagroup.org. • the installation of an identified conductor at each control location for energy management system control devices • disconnecting means for certain LED luminaires • tamper-resistant receptacles in other areas where children may be present • mandated ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection for electric heating devices and controls near wet areas • new requirements in Section 78 to help prevent electric shock drowning Training solutions and electronic tools are available through CSA Group to help

users navigate the changes and their impact on different industries. CSA Group is one of the largest standards development organizations in North America, conducting research and developing standards for a broad range of technologies and functional areas. CSA Group is also a global provider of testing, inspection and certification services for products in many market sectors, and a leader in safety and environmental certification for Canada and the U.S. For more information, visit www. csagroup.org.

Certifying high-quality gearbox repair services

Tom Steckel wins the Flo Components contest.

chose the Lincoln 1884 PowerLuber & Lincoln 5900 PowerLock Coupler Pack. FLO Components Ltd., a lubrication systems specialist and a leading supplier of Total Lube Solutions in Ontario, thanks all contestants and sponsors. For more information, visit www.flocomponents.com/40th/.

Birmingham, AL – Motion Industries, Inc., a leading distributor of maintenance, repair and operation replacement parts, and subsidiary of Genuine Parts Company, reports that its service centres in Charleston, WV, Pensacola, FL, and Salt Lake City, UT, have become certified Rexnord partners in Falk gear drive repair. The three service centres each passed an extensive facility and process audit to verify repair execution to Rexnord’s original OEM work standards. Ray Tingle, vice president of Vertical Marketing – Material Handling at Rexnord, said, “Rexnord is expanding our service network as customers are seeking more – and local – options for high-quality gearbox repair services. Rexnord Certified Shop service techni-


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cians undergo the same rigorous training and follow the same industry-leading Falk RENEW standards of work and quality as Rexnord Service Centers. This allows Rexnord and our partners to extend the network of service centres to deliver high-quality gearbox repairs – locally. We are impressed by the workmanship at these Motion Industries service centres, and are pleased to announce their certifications. They earned it!” With the certifications, these service centres expand their offerings to provide customers with shorter lead times. Gearbox repairs at these sites are approved to Rexnord’s standards for quality, process and authentic OE parts content. Certification also ensures that all repairs are completed with authentic Falk or Rexnord parts. Tony Cefalu, Motion Industries senior vice president Hose, Shops, and Service Centers, commented, “Motion Industries has been committed to the repair business for many years and our footprint of shops demonstrates this. We are extremely pleased to partner with Rexnord on this certification program. This allows our customers to send their gearboxes to Motion for repair, knowing that they have been serviced by trained technicians following the same standards as the factory.” For more information, visit www.motionindustries.com.

UPGRADES AT STEEL PRODUCTION FACILITIES ARE MAJOR INVESTMENTS Contrecoeur, QC – ArcelorMittal Long Products Canada is making major investments of nearly $70 million by 2020 in its Contrecoeur steel production facilities. The big spend is an investment in maintaining its leading position in steel in North America, with a focus on product quality through more modern plants and a reduced environmental footprint. ArcelorMittal will replace two reheating furnaces at its Contrecoeur-East wire rod mill ($30 million) and its Contrecoeur-West bar mill ($33 million). These new furnaces, which aim to increase the company’s rolling capacity by 100,000 tons, will enable greater productivity, optimal energy use and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. The work should extend until the first half of 2020. ArcelorMittal will also be replacing the dust collector at the Contrecoeur-West steelworks by the end of 2018 to improve its performance and increase health and safety for the

February 2018

Industrial hose facility expands rubber mixing operations

Norfolk, NE – Technology company Continental announced a US$9.3 million expansion of its rubber-mixing operations at its industrial hose plant in Norfolk to accommodate its North American manufacturing facilities by providing rubber for industrial hoses and whitewall tires for passenger cars. “We have plans to add in excess of 19,000 square feet to expand our rubber mixing capabilities and better serve our internal and external customers,” said Dan Granatowicz, plant manager. “We anticipate that the expansion will enable us to add in excess of 30 associates.” The Northeast Nebraska plant, less than 40 years old, currently employs slightly more than 360 people. Construction work is expected to be completed by the end of the first quarter of 2019. The facility primarily manufactures industrial hose and supplies compound for a variety of applications such as general purpose air and water, garden, mining, petroleum, steam and welding hose. For more information, visit www.contitech.us.

A training lab for CNC machine tool dealers and users Elk Grove Village, IL – With digitalization and the rapid changes in technology, training is more important than ever.

benefit of our workers and our communities. This work will cost approximately $6 million. The investments were made possible in part by the Québec government’s electricity rebate program for L-rate customers, announced by the Government of Quebec in the 2016-2017 Budget. This electricity rebate is intended for companies engaging in major investment projects in the manufacturing sector as well as in the transformation of natural resources. The ArcelorMittal investment project rebate is currently estimated at $25 million until 2020. François Perras, chief executive officer, ArcelorMittal Long Products Canada, said that the acquisition of high-performance equipment will help the company accelerate towards high-value-added steel production, with a focus on the automotive and construction industries. Source: ArcelorMittal Long Products Canada

Siemens expands its CNC training lab.

In support of this need, Siemens is expanding its Technical Application Center (TAC), which offers machine tool dealers, importers and end-users of Sinumerik CNCs a complete range of learning opportunities including classroom training, online instructor-led training, and online self-paced training. Occupying more than 3,150 square feet of dedicated space at the Elk Grove Village facility, the TAC is a short ride from O’Hare International Airport. The newly expanded Machine Lab now features three milling machines and one turning centre for hands-on learning, plus a Kuka robotic centre, and NX-CAM training station. Two state-of-the-art classrooms provide students with instructor-led, handson training using exclusive SinuTrain software and Sinumerik CNC simulators. “We’re excited to offer machine tool users a more expansive program to develop their employees,” says Sascha Fischer, segment manager, Siemens Motion Control, Machine Tool Business. In addition to the expansion of the TAC, a virtual TAC is also available at no cost, allowing individuals to watch professional-series webinars online. Live training webinars are presented monthly on topics ranging from Milling and Turning, to General Operations, Maintenance and Service. For more information, visit www.siemens.com.

Senior manufacturing executives optimistic about 2018 prospects Toronto – A recent study conducted by Machinery and Equipment MRO’s sister publication reveals that Canadian manufacturers are optimistic about their prospects in 2018. According to Plant Magazine’s 2018 Manufacturers’ Outlook study, 44 per cent of senior company executives are optimistic about the coming year, although most (50 per cent) qualify their optimism with caution.


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The study shows that senior executives are either very or somewhat concerned about what’s going on south of the border. U.S. protectionism is worrying 92 per cent of executives followed by global protectionism (90 per cent), U.S. President Donald Trump’s impact on nation-to-nation relationships (89 per cent) and the NAFTA renegotiation (88 per cent). Top choices for investment over the next three years are machinery, equipment and technology (79 per cent of respondents) and training (68 per cent). Controlling costs tops the list of challenges for 66 per cent of respondents, followed by pressures on prices (53 per cent) and improving productivity (49 per cent ). Companies lag in the adoption of advanced measures and technologies that would improve productivity. Only 36 per cent make use of automatic data access, analysis and review to measure and

monitor productivity; 46 per cent do it manually; 18 per cent don’t measure; and 59 per cent do not plan on a digital production transformation involving

Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) over the next 12 months. Download the report at http://bit.ly/ 2Ceewvk.

ROTATING EQUIPMENT MEETS STRICT QUALITY STANDARDS Toronto – Luff Industries, a Canadian manufacturer of conveyor components, is the first original equipment manufacturer in North America to achieve SKF Equipped status. The SKF Equipped program places strict quality standards on the design, manufacture and assembly of rotating equipment to achieve highest performance. To achieve SKF Equipped status, Luff was able to show it meets strict quality standards on the design, manufacture and assembly procedures of rotating equipment. For conveyor components, this provides a competitive edge in achieving longer service life and

reducing total cost of ownership. Luff Industries now has the right to label its conveyor components as “SKF Equipped” and use the SKF Equipped identity standard in its promotional material. Luff Industries offers a full line of idlers, pulleys and conveyor accessories, as well as provides a complete line of high-quality conveyor components worldwide. SKF is a leading global supplier of bearings, seals, mechatronics, lubrication systems and services, which include technical support, maintenance and reliability services, engineering consulting and training. For more information, visit www.luffindustries.com.

Business Briefs News and views about companies, people, product lines and more. • Waterloo, ON – Ray Lavender, president of the Board of Directors for Skills Ontario, announced the selection of Ian Howcroft as CEO, effective January 29. Howcroft replaces outgoing Skills Ontario CEO Gail Smyth, who retired in August 2017. • Ottawa – The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) and its Board of Directors announced the appointment of Ray Robinson, president and CEO of Saint John Energy, as chair of the association. Robinson will succeed Scott Thon who has held the position since January 2016. • Montreal – UL, “Underwriters Laboratories,” one of the world’s leading safety certification organizations, has granted the Harting Technology Group the approval and licensce for the Client Test Data program. Under this program, Harting is able to conduct testing in its own test laboratory and submit the data to UL in order to streamline the process for UL certification. As a con-

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sequence, UL certification requirements are now seamlessly integrated into Harting’s product development process, as samples can be tested in house. • Birmingham, Ala. – Motion Industries, Inc., announced three management changes: Randy Breaux was promoted to executive vice president of Marketing, Distribution and Purchasing. The increased cooperation among these disciplines allows the company to identify and plan for growing opportunities in the industry such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and automation. Kevin Storer was promoted to executive vice president of U.S. Operations and president of Mi Mexico, and will maintain responsibility for all field branch sales

in the United States and Mexico. Mark S ton ebu r n e r was promoted Randy to senior vice Breaux president of Industry Segments and Business Development. • Tallahassee, Fla. – Danfoss Kevin Storer Turbocor Compressors will be building a new facility in Tallahassee, Fla., and will add 120 new Mark jobs. The new Stoneburner facility will expand the company’s existing footprint within Innovation Park in Tallahassee, which includes the engineering and manufacturing operations of Danfoss and its brand-new Application Development Center. • Boston, MA – Emerson Bearing Boston, a bearing company catering to original equipment manufacturers and maintenance, repair and operations markets, has announced an ideal bearing solution for dairy, meat and seafood processing companies as well as bottling/

canning and cosmetic and pharmaceutical production companies. The company now carries NTN Sentinel Series stainless steel bearings, which are specifically designed for use in foodgrade settings, but are also well suited to corrosive environments. • Montreal – SNC-Lavalin has signed a Master Services Agreement, with approximate worth in excess of $100-million, with one of the world’s largest plastics, chemical and refining companies. The scope includes provision of all engineering support for the client’s Gulf Coast facilities. SNC-Lavalin is one of a limited number of firms with world-class expertise at scale in this field across engineering, procurement, construction, consulting services on cost and program management, training, and operations and maintenance. • Vancouver – Ritchie Bros. announced that as a result of structural changes undertaken by the company as part of its IronPlanet integration efforts, a mutual decision was reached with Jim Barr, group president, that he would be leaving the company effective February 16. MRO


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EARN While You LEARN Sometimes addressing the skills gap means finding the right talent and designing the training opportunity from scratch. BY REHANA BEGG

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oy F. Huetl knows first hand that the best way to learn something is to do it. It’s a mantra that the York Region director of Operations, Maintenance and Monitoring, Environmental Services, has encountered many times over his 35 years spent in the industry as a master electrician and one he revisited

when he initiated an electrical maintenance apprenticeship three years ago. Developing the program on behalf of The Regional Municipality of York was not only a way to give back to industry, but a chance to give someone an opportunity to learn a trade while preserving institutional knowledge, says Huetl. “At York Region we have 20 people in our

Jennifer Morgan, York Region manager, Centralized Maintenance Support, Environmental Services, says that the need for skilled tradespeople will endure.

maintenance division – licensed electricians, millwrights, all different types of tradespeople, but no apprentices.” While the rest of Canada is fixated on the “knowledge economy” (mining data), Huetl and his team are committed to the skilled trades. Contrary to a perception that the demand for skilled employees is waning, the relevance of skilled trades has anything but declined at Ontario’s Regional Municipality of York, which stretches north from the City of Toronto to Lake Simcoe and includes many hectares of protected greenbelt. “But even as we evolve and become more automated, the need for having skilled trades is not going away,” says Jennifer Morgan, York Region Manager, Centralized Maintenance Support, Environmental Services. “You still need skilled people to fix the automated equipment and society as a whole forgets that – it’s fundamental and needed regardless. We are going to need skilled trades to support automation.”


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Applicant demand If the need for electrical maintenance apprenticeships is one thing, getting it up and running is another. As the program’s champion, Huetl soon learned two primary stakeholders – labour relations and the union – needed to be involved. Even then, it would take another two years to finalize the details of the program. The call for applications, posted on Workopolis and the York Region careers board, brought in 400 resumés, says Morgan, who was handed the task of managing the apprenticeship program after Huetl was promoted to the role of director, Operations, Maintenance and Monitoring, Environmental Services. The process of pre-screening the number of applicants included a mechanical aptitude test written by 60 candidates, 10 follow-up interviews with 10 candidates, and finally, in-person interviews with four candidates conducted by both Morgan and Huetl. One candidate rose to the top as the strongest contender. Caitlyn Staudt scored high marks on the mechanical aptitude test and had the best overall disposition, says Huetl. Since every apprentice needs a mentor or designated trainer, Staudt was paired up with journeyperson electrician Dan Boate. A robotics technician by training, Boate was a natural fit, not least because he apprenticed as an electrician and worked under Huetl for 10 years at automotive supplier Magna International. “When we were planning out who we

Electrical maintenance apprentice Caitlyn Staudt (centre) has the support of her Regional Municipality of York colleagues Jennifer Morgan (left) and Roy F. Huetl (right).

were going to partner with Caitlyn, we needed someone who, first of all, knew their trade well, would treat the apprentice with respect and be willing to share their knowledge,” says Huetl, who remains close to the program.

Work orders York Region consists of nine local cities and towns, and provides a variety

of programs and services to 1.2 million residents, 51,000 businesses and 600,000 employees. The municipality delivers water and wastewater services to the towns of Aurora, East Gwillimbury, Georgina, King, Newmarket, Richmond Hill, Whitchurch-Stouffville and the cities of Markham and Vaughan. This means the maintenance division services more than 200 sites within the

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Staudt’s apprenticeship will include training in the installation and repair of electrical components.

municipality. Work orders or PMs loaded into the CMMS (Maximo) can range from emergency repairs, to preventative and predictive maintenance work on a vast array of electrical components, including motors, variable frequency drives, electric actuators or MCCs (motor control centres). The work is divided between two teams whose team leads are dedicated to either water or wastewater work. The team leads create the work schedules and assign work to the maintenance team members. Since the work varies depending on the priority, Boate will gradually train Staudt on how to install, replace and repair typical electrical components – all in the context of water and wastewater management systems and compliance. Staudt, who completed her studies as an electrical engineering technician at Fleming College, and who has only been on the job for a couple of months (at the time of being interviewed), has already learned some fundamentals: “On any given day we could be pulling out VFDs [variable frequency drives] and controls of the pumps, doing IR scans – basically

just maintenance work,” she says. The apprenticeship includes 1,800 hours of training per term, with three eight-week visits to trade school over the course of a five-year commitment. “It’s a long haul,” says Huetl. In addition, all employees go through an extensive safety program, says Morgan. “We follow all regulations, including the ESA [Electrical Safety Authority] regulations, working from heights, confined spaces, safety compliance, Lockout/ Tagout…there’s lots of training.” For all the effort, the financial rewards for Staudt include employee benefits from York Region, and a weekly wage, starting at 50 per cent of a journeyperson’s wage. The pay is raised 10 per cent after each term until she reaches the full journeyperson’s wage and after completing her Certificate of Qualification with the Ontario College of Trades. Maintenance staff who work in water and wastewater operations require additional licensing administered under the Ontario Water Wastewater Certification Office. “We encourage all of our maintenance

and technical staff to get licensing,” says Huetl, adding that once Staudt has completed her apprenticeship, she will have her Level 1 water/wastewater licence, which will qualify her to earn more money than the base journeyperson. In turn, the municipality benefits, as the program guarantees that an apprentice will be licensed to work as an electrician, a water operator and a wastewater operator. The responsibility of ensuring the care, diligence and skill of the team is a basic and necessary part of doing the work for both Huetl and Morgan. Moreover, Staudt is being trained in the municipality’s culture, says Huetl. “Caitlyn is early in her career; she is going to see a lot of good things and learn a variety of techniques. She’s going to have to make decisions on how to react and what’s good for her. With all of the training, we are going to get a top-notch electrician who is also trained in water and wastewater. And that’s important. We are training someone from Day 1 in our system and for the industry. Having great mentors – under Morgan and Boate – is going to be a win-win. We have an excellent employee now, but we’re going to have a licensed employee in five years.”

Jill of trades The fact of being female in a traditionally male-centred trade was a non-issue in the apprenticeship application process, says Huetl. He acknowledges Staudt coming into a male-dominated field and wanted to make sure that she would be treated with respect, and, to date, she has fit in perfectly. “The strongest candidate was given the opportunity,” says Huetl. In Canada, women account for 47.5 per cent of the labour force but make up only 28 per cent of the manufacturing workforce, and this number drops significantly to 4.5 per cent for women in skilled trades, according to “Untapped


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Potential – Attracting and engaging women in Canadian manufacturing,” a report released in October 2017 by the Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters, a trade and industry association. At York Region, Staudt’s journey to success is bolstered by the benefit of working with Morgan, a female chemical engineer, whose 21 years of experience can help mould her expertise. “The mentality that I have is that I don’t let my gender stop me,” says Morgan. “I believe I am fully capable of doing any job. I just try to do the best I can with every position that I have, and it’s gotten me to this point.”

Upon completion of the training, Caitlyn Staudt will be licensed to work as an electrician, a water operator and a wastewater operator.

Capturing skills Throughout Staudt’s apprenticeship, Huetl and Morgan will be refining the way they administer the apprenticeship program. Meanwhile, they have already decided that their next apprentice will be a millwright. “We’re getting to a stage where a lot of our staff are retiring,” says Huetl. “Before we lose all that experience, we’ll bring in apprentices and share that knowledge.” As part of the Memorandum of Understanding with the union, CUPE 905,

Huetl requested the provision to have Staudt stay on contract two years following her completion of the program. But even though the municipality is paying for the training, an apprentice can leave once she receives her qualification. “We can’t hold back anybody,” says Huetl. For Staudt, the support from her electrical maintenance peers and mentors sparks a healthy dose of ambition to be

a licensed electrician and fosters a need to inspire her 13-year-old stepdaughter Phoebe. “I love this work,” she says. “I used to do satellite work, so coming here means I use a lot more brainpower. It’s challenging troubleshooting, but I like a challenge.” MRO Rehana Begg is the editor of Machinery and Equipment MRO magazine. Reach her at rbegg@annexbusinessmedia.com.

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BACK TRACK on

How Toronto’s subway system uses reliability-centered maintenance to keep the city moving. BY MIGUEL LAMSAKI AND JAMES REYES-PICKNELL

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hen we think of utilities we think of electric power, water, wastewater, gas, telecommunications and, increasingly, our internet service. We rarely think of public transit as a utility, yet in some cases our transit systems operate their own utilities as a part of providing their vital services. Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is one such transit provider. It has a mandate to move people around Canada’s largest city. On any given day it moves roughly three million people on a combination of subways that run on four rapid transit lines, buses on some 149 routes, streetcars on 11 lines and a para-transit service for elderly and disabled passengers. Toronto has some of the densest road traffic in Canada, with commuters

spending some 45 hours per year in traffic congestion, roughly half of that spent by commuters in New York, according to a global traffic study. TTC is the third most heavily used mass transit system in North America, just after New York and Mexico cities. The cost of this congestion to Canada’s economy is estimated at $3 billion per year. Delays to service contribute to congestion and that loss, and they upset customers who sometimes give up on transit and start driving – making the problem of congestion and the pollution it creates even worse! TTC’s subway system infrastructure comprises 84 stations on four lines that cross the city east-west, north-south and city centre – northwest into Vaughan, a city just north of Toronto. Trains are powered by 600 VDC through the train

rails managed by TTC’s electrical group within its subway infrastructure department. Each line has three rails, two that carry the trains (one of those provides for communications, the other for negative power return), plus a third (positive) power rail. TTC manages those rails, communications, signals to train operators and electric power distribution throughout its entire system. Power distribution for the trains also supports the city’s DC-powered streetcars that run along tracks at street level. TTC’s subway infrastructure assets vary in age – the oldest was commissioned with the first trains in 1954 and the newest was commissioned with the Vaughan line in December 2017. Rail assets like track switches, train stops, rails, power interfaces between rail cars and


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at both. A 120-fold improvement in flight safety is attributable largely to RCM and without RCM the commercial airline industry would be nowhere near as large and successful as it is today. RCM has been adapted for use in nuclear power, in military systems, in electric utilities and a large range of other industries.

In 2017, TTC applied RCM to: • rail switches that are used to redirect trains from one track to another, • train stops, used as a safety stop to prevent trains from overrunning driver signals, • traction rectifiers for its Scarborough Rapid Transit line (a unique light rail section of the system that is almost identical to Vancouver’s SkyTrain), • oil-filled, power rectifier transformers that reduce 13.8 KVAC to 600 VDC for traction power on trains and streetcars, • station uninterruptible power supplies, • the Scarborough Rapid Transit Power Rail Shoe Interface to transfer power to the trains, • the General Railway Signal track circuits that are used to detect the presence or absence of a train on any given section of track for signal and control purposes, • the DC Feeder Breakers that supply power to track sections, and • the isolation switches used to isolate track sections for maintenance and other track work.

the third rail, and much of the signal equipment are exposed to a variety of environments – hot and humid summers, cold and snowy winters, road salt in outdoor locations, and all of it exposed to heavy use and a surprising amount of litter and other debris that tend to accumulate at track level. The environment for maintainers is dangerous. TTC has suffered few worker fatalities in its history but most have happened to track-level workers in the subway infrastructure department. Anything that can be done to reduce worker exposure to risks is a positive development for TTC. Reducing track-level work and failures that lead to that work is a priority. It reduces safety risks as well as system delays and has the potential to reduce operating costs.

Taking the RCM track TTC is also embarking on an asset management journey. Identification of risks and what to do about them to mitigate the risks and their consequences is a major aspect of good asset management. To that end, TTC began using reliability centered maintenance (RCM) in 2017 as a method to determine the optimal failure management strategies for its subway infrastructure assets beginning with those contributing to excessive service delays. RCM arose in the aircraft industry in the late 1970s as a method to optimize aircraft maintenance programs to reduce the ratio of maintenance to flying hours and to improve on airline flight safety. It has proven highly successful

All of these assets either contributed a great deal to system delays or had the potential to do so. All are critical to subway operation. Results of those analyses have produced revised maintenance programs for all of these assets, moving away from heavy reliance on manufacturers’ recommendations. In many cases, due to the varied operating environments along the TTC track systems, maintenance has seasonal and location-specific drivers.

Failure modes Analysis of failure data, much of it leveraging the experience of system maintainers, revealed a number of failure modes that were more common in some locations than others. Using these observations, the analysis teams, all TTC employees, could precisely target the right maintenance and inspection actions where needed. In a number of these assets overall maintenance effort was reduced while improving system integrity. Heavily used track sections (such


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In the SRT the power rail is located just below the carriage. The power rail interface unit mounts below the carriage and the two arms (red and grey) push the shoes against the power rail under spring force (springs on the left). Carbon inserts located on the brass “shoes” make contact with two parts of the rail.

as entrance and exit to yards) and areas where track is subject to exceptional levels of vibrations, require much more frequent work. Many of these problems arise due to threaded fasteners coming loose. Rather than have technicians tighten them repeatedly and possibly damage threads, the use of torque paste was introduced. It provides a visible indication when fasteners come loose and is easily spotted, even by less-skilled observers. This sort of labour savings idea, introduced across many of the assets, enables leverage of lower-skilled workers and frees up TTC maintainers’ time to focus where their skills are most needed. A number of potentially dangerous situations, previously not well understood, were identified and actions taken to make the system safer both for workers and for the travelling public. While everyone participating had a good appreciation of the potential safety impacts of equipment failure, most were surprised at the number of failure modes and causes that could give rise to those situations. Perhaps one of the more unexpected, yet welcome, results was the high level of interdepartmental collaboration aimed at achieving a single goal – safe

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and reliable services that all TTC customers deserve. RCM is a multi-disciplinary analysis method that works best when all affected disciplines co-operate in the analysis. It is fair to say that all those who participated, even those who were reluctant at first, found the effort to be well worthwhile and educational. Even employees who had been there for many years were learning something about the assets they had been maintaining.

Avoiding failure Here are a few of examples that illustrate what RCM has been achieving. Each asset has certain functions. Failure to perform those functions or the consequences that arise when they are not performed are what we are working to avoid or minimize. Events that lead to those failures are known as failure modes and each may have one or more causes. It’s the causes of those failure modes that we must address to avoid failures and their consequences. In the Scarborough Rapid Transit power rail and collector shoe interface analysis, we have a team of subway infrastructure, signals, electrical, rail and subway rail cars groups. Historically, many failures resulted in finger pointing

Skills Management Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) produces a variety of outputs, including tasks that operators and non-technical personnel can perform with a small amount of training. A number of TTC analyses revealed failures that were relatively easily detected visually and with simple checks of asset integrity. Those checks (including kicking rail switch throw and detection rods to ensure they are not loose, and looking for debris or ballast rocks that can block movement paths) do not require a great deal of skill, yet track inspectors who walk the tracks looking for problems need to know what exactly they are looking for. The RCM analyses have identified a number of specific failure causes that previously may have been ignored that are now being added to inspectors’ lists.

among these groups and now they were working together. The interfacing shoe collects DC power from the positive DC electrified power rail for traction power. It is subject to vibration and wear, and it must move sideways, in and out, accommodating for variations in distance from rail car to the third rail. It must also ramp on and off different power rail sections. Mounted on the rail cars all of which operate primarily outdoors, there are two interface shoes per side and if both do not make full contact, sparking and damage to the shoe and rail can occur. If not positioned correctly in the horizontal plane, it can lose contact or, if too far extended, it can catch the power rail. That causes rail damage and often rips the interface mechanism from the rail car. A total of 33 different failure modes events were identified, nine of which had potential safety consequences. Previously, many of these failures had been allowed to occur and replacements of the interface units for overhaul were carried out periodically. Following an analysis, only a few “run to failure” decisions were made and a number of condition-based maintenance tasks specified. There are now inspections of both shoes and rails for wear, checking of securing bolts for tightness of shoe components known to come loose, a study of shock loading along the power rail for areas of high impact where damage is most likely to occur, and an inspection of track insulator gaps. Examination of past failures also revealed some failures to be seasonal. They occur because of snow and ice buildup in the interface mechanism – inspection and clearing of ice and snow was specified when certain weather conditions are present. The rail switches analysis involved a team from the rail, electrical and signals groups. There are 397 switches in the subway system, in four different track configurations using three switch machine designs. Some are indoors in tunnels and often suffering from water damage to their foundations. Some are outdoors and subjected to ground movement on a seasonal basis. Most are mounted on rock ballast, others on concrete. The most common configuration was chosen for analysis and to ensure all likely failure modes were captured, those located outdoors at one end of the subway system – Kipling Station – were examined. A total of 72 failure mode events were identified, many of which involve move-


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The Toronto Transit Commission uses reliability-centered maintenance as part of its asset management journey. RCM helps to determine optimal failure management strategies and enhances overall safety.

ment of track components affecting layout geometry. While the switches carry trains from one track to another, they also transmit negative power and carry electrical signals for the operating signals equipment. Among the failure modes, 22 had potential safety impacts, some severe enough to derail a train. Most failure modes could be dealt with using inspections and condition measurements. In some instances, cleaning, greasing and rail grinding tasks dealt with the age and usage-related failures. Insulators between track sections tend to deteriorate with repeated train passage leading to bridging of track sections and erroneous signalling information to train controllers. Rigorous inspection of insulators and grinding of rail “flow” across them corrects that problem. The team recommended an extensive study of shock and vibration levels at switch locations to identify those that were most severe – those would require more frequent inspections. Overall maintenance effort, given the shift of focus to more heavily used locations and less on light-use locations, was reduced. The machines that move the rails at those switches were the subject of another analysis. The most common design is installed at 87 of the above locations. Its job is to move the rails, lock them in position and provide a feedback signal of switch position to control. The movements are relatively small, but the operating forces can be large – these

switches are bending tapered steel rails. They are remotely operated but can be hand cranked if necessary and for maintenance purposes. The machines are robust in design and installed at grade adjacent to switches where train-induced vibration is high. Despite the rugged application, they require careful set up and adjustment. Some settings are smaller than the amount of rail movement at severe shock locations!

On the right track More than 73 failure mode events were identified, 10 with potential safety consequences. A number of condition monitoring checks were identified, several involving monitoring of operating parameters (such as switch operating speed, or current when moving) as indicators of when deterioration requires intervention. One installation check was repurposed as a failure finding test to ensure switch setup is maintained. Some locations tended to be more prone to failure than others. A study of track shock and vibration is being performed to identify which locations require more frequent checks than others. Before analysis, these machines were subject to a general inspection monthly, six-monthly “servicing,” and replacement at 15 or 25 years, depending on high- or low-usage locations. The checks were specified more precisely, the sixmonth service was replaced with inspections and an annual greasing. A simple

“kick test” was introduced to reveal excessive looseness of component assemblies. Overall maintenance effort was reduced as it was with all other analyses. In the electrical and signals work a number of identified failure modes could be eliminated along with corresponding work tasks. In the case of the track circuits, a 24 per cent work reduction was identified as task frequencies for inspections were adjusted up and down depending on location of the circuit. These are just a few examples and work continues in 2018 on other equipment. Overall benefits are showing up in reduced work, better targeting of technicians’ efforts, increased understanding of system failures and their causes and leveraging of less-skilled trades to free up time in the more stretched, highly skilled trades. Currently working for the Toronto Transit Commission’s subway infrastructure department, Miguel Lamsaki is a mechanical engineer with more than 15 years of professional experience in asset management. Lamsaki holds master’s degrees in Petroleum Engineering and Business Administration. James Reyes-Picknell of Barrie, Ont.-based Conscious Asset Management is the co-author of Reliability Centered Maintenance – Reengineered: Practical Optimization of the RCM Process with RCM-R (Productivity Press, 2017). Visit his website at www.consciousasset.com or email him at james@concsciousasset.com.


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SENSE OF POWER

Thermal imaging and ultrasonic testing are important tools in your preventative maintenance program.

Infrared inspection windows provide a proactive means of encouraging thermal inspections and make the process safer by eliminating the need to open access doors and reducing the risk of working around a live source.

BY MICHAEL HOLDSWORTH AND PHILIP CHOW

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well-executed preventative maintenance program is the cornerstone of every plant’s asset management strategy. Ensuring that equipment is regularly serviced and tested helps mitigate the likelihood of an unexpected failure and associated downtime. While a number of plant systems and equipment will show telltale signs when maintenance is required, such as dirty filters, squeaky belts or visual alarms, electrical equipment is often assumed to be in good working order, as operational issues may not be readily apparent. If left uncorrected, minor issues can persist, damaging equipment and resulting in service interruptions. Fortunately for plant managers, there are two easy-to-use, cost-effective diagnostic tools that should be incorporated into every electrical preventative maintenance program: thermal imaging and ultrasonic testing. Over the past decade, thermal imaging has seen significant market penetration in maintenance and service industries. The first commercial thermal imaging cameras date back to the 1980s and used liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling for the infrared detectors. The cooling system

was necessary to ensure that the internal detectors were not biased by heat produced within the camera’s electronics. This resulted in a large device that was both cumbersome and expensive to operate. Consequently, thermal inspections of electrical power systems were not performed very often and were confined to facilities that could afford the expense. With the exponential growth of the digital industry, thermal imaging detectors were upgraded with electronics that do not require the need for cooling, and, as a result, cameras decreased in size and cost. Today’s thermal imaging cameras are analogous to regular digital cameras. However, instead of relying on electromagnetic radiation in the visible light spectrum (400nm – 700nm) to pro-

duce a photograph, these cameras sense radiated heat in the infrared spectrum (700nm – 1mm). Changes in infrared radiation produce a corresponding change in voltage, current or resistance within the imager, and this is converted into a visible image through digital signal processing.

Equipment options A multitude of thermal imaging cameras are available in today’s market, with models ranging from the size of a smartphone to about the size of a video camera. Different camera models will have varying performance criteria, which include temperature range, detector resolution, field of view, focus/zoom options and accuracy. Cameras offer a variety


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of image processing features, such as different colour palettes; recording infrared photos and corresponding digital photos with the same image capture, to avoid the need of having a separate digital camera; and hybrid images, which incorporate thermal blending/fusion between visible and infrared images, to make identification easier when compared to straight infrared images. Digital images are typically stored on a removable, secure digital (SD) memory card, or on a camera’s onboard memory, which is accessible via Micro-USB. Software is often included with the purchase of a thermal imager and can help users create inspection reports, with images recorded on site. Other notable camera features include wireless connectivity for data transfer, impact resistance to withstand inadvertent drops and enclosure ratings to protect against water spray and the elements. Thermal imaging cameras range in price from $2,000 to $10,000, for base models, to upwards of $20,000 for more specialized models. For the purposes of inspecting electrical power distribution equipment within a plant environment, a base model camera should be more than sufficient.

Electrical load Before undertaking a thermal inspection of electrical equipment, an important factor to consider is if sufficient electrical load will be present on the system. Thermal energy (“heat”) within a power system is proportional to the load (current or Amps) and resistance in the system. Inspection work needs to be performed while plant equipment is operational, to ensure meaningful results are recorded. When inspecting equipment, the primary source of concern is “loose” or high impedance connections. Predominantly caused by the thermal expansion and contraction of materials, loose connections are typically found in equipment lugs, where wires/ cables terminate onto a circuit breaker or disconnect switch, fuseholders, joints and terminations on bus work (switchboards, switchgear and bus duct systems) and cable splices. Al-

though aluminum conductors are widely used and are a cost-effective alternative to copper, attention should be given to the inherent properties of aluminum, which can result in loose connections. Aluminum conductors require the use of dual-rated terminations (Cu-Al) to mitigate the effect of “cold flow” and varying co-efficients of expansion and contraction; and can be subject to the buildup of aluminum oxide (a by-product of the oxidation of aluminum), which can greatly increase the electrical resistance of a circuit. If left uncorrected, high impedance can result in equipment damage,

premature failure and can create a fire risk. Thermal imaging can also help to speedily diagnose other common issues, including load imbalances, overloaded circuits, blown fuses, verifying that a heat tracing circuit is operational and motor overheating.

Ultrasonic testing Larger plants will typically use medium voltage power distribution systems (5 - 15kV or higher), given the greater physical footprint and distributed concentrations of electrical loads. With higher operating voltages, medium volt-

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age equipment can be subject to additional destructive phenomena over time, which can result in insulation breakdown, leading to flashovers and premature equipment failure. Partial discharges, corona and tracking are caused by the localized dielectric breakdown of insulating materials, typically resulting from voids, treeing or defects in the insulation. Ultrasonic testing provides

a means of detecting ultrasounds produced by partial discharges, arcing, etc. An ultrasonic tester consists of a sensor (parabolic dish or cone), a detector and an amplifier to translate the emitted ultrasounds to the audible range. A coarse buzzing or grinding sound, will be audible when an issue is present. Although there are fewer manufacturers of ultrasonic test kits, products are available from brand-name suppliers and costs are comparable to a base model thermal imager. Ultrasonic testing can also be used to perform safety checks for signs of arcing in low-voltage equipment, prior to opening covers for a thermal inspection, and can help diagnose issues with mechanical systems in a plant, including motor bearings, compressors and pressurized gas systems.

Implementation costs After researching available equipment options, plant managers are faced with the question of what is the most cost-effective way to implement thermal and ultrasonic inspections. Personnel must be trained in the use of test equipment and require an understanding of power

An infrared inspection of a seemingly fine pump control panel has shown a hot spot on a fuse holder. Hot spots are typically the result of high impedance or loose connections.

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distribution systems and potential issues, and they have to observe workplace safety and PPE requirements. It is important to document inspection results in a proper report format since they will serve as a comparison for future inspection work, and, in the event of an unexpected failure, insurance companies may ask to review maintenance records. Test equipment should be periodically recalibrated to ensure accurate results and a secure storage space is advisable to prevent theft. Given these factors – employee turnover and maintenance personnel are often inundated with ongoing work orders – it is often more cost-effective to retain a contract service provider to complete inspection work. There are several important considerations to take into account when procuring inspection services. The service provider should have significant experience with electrical power systems and performing thermal and ultrasonic inspections. Familiarity with how electrical equipment is installed and maintained, as well as applicable codes and standards – such as the Canadian Electrical Code, NFPA and IEEE – should be an im-

portant qualification. Finally, quality of service and the quality of deliverables, such as reports and meaningful recommendations, should not be sacrificed for the lowest cost.

Preventative maintenance Thermal inspections and ultrasonic testing of electrical power systems should be incorporated into your plant’s preventative maintenance program. Industry standards and property insurance companies recommend performing inspections on an annual basis, at a minimum. The frequency of inspections should be increased to semi-annual or quarterly, where warranted by loss experience or changes in electrical loads or operating conditions. Infrared inspection windows provide a proactive means of encouraging thermal inspections and make the process safer, by eliminating the need to open access doors and reducing the risk of working around a live source. Infrared windows should be installed on all new applicable equipment and can be retroactively installed on existing equipment. Windows should be situated to provide a clear view of cables

terminating on bus work and cables terminating in circuit breakers. Whether you choose to perform inspection work in-house or contract a service provider, installing windows will provide ease of access and reduce inspection time and costs. By including these two diagnostic tests in your facility’s operating budget, you can proactively detect operational issues in your electrical power systems, minimize unexpected downtime and maintain important records of ongoing maintenance. MRO Michael Holdsworth, C.Tech., has enjoyed a career spanning more than 50 years in engineering, construction and facility operations. In his current role as senior technical manager at C2C Enertec Inc., Mike helps facility operators and plant managers implement preventative maintenance programs for their electrical power systems. He can be reached at mholdsworth@c2cenertec.com. Philip Chow, P.Eng., P.E., is a senior project manager and electrical engineer specializing in electrical infrastructure projects and construction in mission critical facilities. He can be reached at philip.chow@hhangus.com.

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Mind the Gap Follow these guidelines to ensure your condition-monitoring program passes the sniff test. BY L. (TEX) LEUGNER

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onitoring equipment condition has been around since the wheel was created. When the wheel began to squeak, people learned to grease the wheel hub with tallow. Thus began condition monitoring of machines using the senses of sound, sight, touch and smell. However, sensory perceptions have the disadvantage of being subjective and imprecise, and unique condition-monitoring technologies have been developed. The applied use of condition monitoring can only be justified if its use can demonstrate a clear economic benefit. There is evidence that the intelligent use of condition monitoring will provide improvements in the reliability, productivity and efficiency of equipment, specifically: •e  limination or reduction of catastrophic machine failures. •e  limination or reduction of secondary damage where failure has occurred. • reduction in maintenance costs by avoiding repairs. • reductions in downtime with scope of repair reductions. • increases in production by scheduling repair at a more convenient time. • advanced warning of problems, permitting effective planning and scheduling. • reduction of risk to personnel and equipment from a safety perspective that should reduce insurance costs. • the elimination of ineffective or unnecessary preventive maintenance tasks that may permit the extension of timebased tasks. In order to properly establish an effective condition-monitoring program, it is first necessary to determine the critical machines to which the program is applied. The next step in

the process is to apply all of those condition monitoring technologies that will be most effective at providing the best and most complete condition information that applies to specific critical machines. For example, vibration analyses must be applied to rotating equipment while both oil and vibration analyses should be applied to all critical rotating machines that use lubricants of any quantity. Infrared thermography and oil analyses should always be applied to equipment such as transformers that contain oil. Ultrasonic devices can be used for internal leak detection in steam traps and hydraulic control valves, in bearing condition monitoring and for locating certain electrical problems such as arcing, tracking and corona discharge that temperature monitoring cannot detect. Use the following checklist to help you evaluate the efficacy of your practice and provide guidance on filling the gaps. 1. Do you collect condition-monitoring data at regularly scheduled intervals?  Logic: The data collection interval may be hours of operation, units of production or some other defined interval, but unless this interval is first established, the data gathered may be non-repeatable and therefore suspect. 2. When a new or recently repaired machine is installed or


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gears. These are just a few examples of the importance of operating temperatures. Every machine has its limitation and these must be known. 5. Do you select and apply the correct oil analyses tests for lubricated machines?  Logic: If extreme wear is suspected in gear drives after a particle count has been carried out, a ferrographic analysis should be considered to determine the source of potential gear or bearing failure. In recirculating systems (where combustion doesn’t occur), such as in turbines and hydraulics, always test lubricant acid number, which provides an indication of the oil’s remaining life. Diesel engines should have the base number monitored to provide an indication of reserve alkalinity confirming remaining oil life. Unnecessary oil changes are performed much too frequently. 6. Does your plant carry out regular condition monitoring of electrical transformers?  Logic: Poorly maintained or neglected transformers can unexpectedly explode causing serious damage to both plant and personnel. In addition to annual thermographic analyses, minimum condition monitoring of transformers should include power factor testing of 0.5 per cent acceptance, oil analyses tests including dielectric breakdown with a normal reading of 35 kilovolts, neutralization number of .04 (never to exceed .40 after which the oil must be replaced) and water content that should not exceed 30 parts per million. 7. In addition to annual thermographic or scheduled vibration analyses, does your plant carry out electric motor tests that may confirm additional potential faults?  Logic: Electrical problems associated with internal motor circuits such as faulty insulation, open circuits, broken rotor bars, uneven air gap, rotor bar to ring high resistance or winding short circuits may not become apparent without applying such tests as motor circuit and motor current analyses. put back into service is a new condition baseline established?  Logic: The condition of the machine has changed, thus the baseline and data collected may have changed, often dramatically. This baseline data establishes a new trend and should be compared to that of the machine before its condition changed as a result of the repair. 3. Do you only apply condition monitoring on critical machines? Logic: There is no value in applying condition monitoring to a machine that can be permitted to run to failure and replaced economically. Examples include small electric motors or pumps. 4. Do you know the operating temperatures of every piece of critical equipment in your plant? Logic: Grease containing mineral oil will begin to oxidize at a temperature of 71 degrees C in all rolling element bearings. Always be aware of the insulation class and maximum winding temperatures in electric motors, as excessive temperature will cause premature failures. Worm gear drives operate best at oil temperatures of about 60 - 65 degrees C, and high temperatures promote pitting of phosphor bronze

8. Does your plant regularly confirm the knowledge level of technicians and tradespersons by ensuring that sufficient training is regularly provided to keep personnel familiar with improvements in condition-monitoring techniques along with reminders of older tools that may be gathering dust in the tool room?  Logic: Every experienced vibration analyst will be aware that the most common sources of vibration are unbalance, bent shaft, mechanical looseness, misalignment and defective bearings. However the analyst may be unaware that the old “stroboscope” remains the best and fastest tool to determine if a vibration exists by simply determining if the phase of a rotating machine component is erratic. Oil analyses reports are regularly received in plants across Canada and the most common complaint is that personnel do not know how to accurately interpret the results. MRO L. (Tex) Leugner, the author of Practical Handbook of Machinery Lubrication, is a 15-year veteran of Royal Canadian Electrical Mechanical Engineers, where he served as a technical specialist. He was the founder and operations manager of Maintenance Technolgy International Inc. for 30 years. Leugner holds an STLE lubricant specialist certification and is a millwright and heav-yduty mechanic. He can be reached at texleug@shaw.ca.


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Upto

Code Obsoleting the absence of voltage test? BY PHILIP ALLEN

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or a decade, thousands of users have deployed Permanent Electrical Safety Devices (PESDs) to reduce the risks in isolating electrical energy. This elegantly simple innovation increases the probability that workers are only exposed to “zero voltage” when doing an absence of voltage test. The cumulative experience has amassed by using PESDs encouraged standards developer UL to create a new product specification for permanently mounted Absence of Voltage Testers (AVTs). Because UL acted, the 2018 edition of the NFPA 70E 120.5(N) also included an exception allowing AVTs to be another way to create an electrically safe work condition instead of a portable voltmeter. But perhaps the real accomplishment in the NFPA 70E 120.5(N) is that the foundational principles for permanent voltage test devices now exist in a consensus standard. Looming questions remain; will AVTs obsolete the portable voltmeter? Will electricians trust them? How will OSHA weigh in on the use of an AVT over the tried-and-true voltmeter test? No doubt, these issues will be settled over time. At least for now, guiding principles are in place to fuel innovation and determine the future for AVT product standards. The consensus standards processes, new product engineering innovations, better product certifications will result in AVTs that will stand up to the rigours of daily usage in the field by workers who depend upon them for their safety. Without question, the highest risk task for qualified electrical workers is

creating an electrically safe work condition. The minimum OSHA compliance for this task is essentially a qualified worker donned in PPE with a voltmeter in hand and doing a voltage test inside an electrical panel. Over the past decade, a deeper understanding of arc flash energy highlighted the risk of voltage exposure to health and safety managers. Since then, many Fortune 1,000 companies mitigated this risk by installing hundreds of thousands of PESDs into electrical equipment as part of their safety programs as aids for isolating electrical energy during Lockout/Tagout (LOTO). Validated installation procedures for PESDs combined with LOTO procedures significantly reduces the likelihood that workers will be exposed to voltage when creating an electrically safe work condition. The collective experience of PESDs along with a proven safety record over the past decade led to the creation of another device in the PESD family – the AVT. An AVT automates the process of creating an electrically safe work condition that may ultimately eliminate the manual six-step voltmeter test required by OSHA 1910.333(b)(2)(iv)(B). The minimum requirements for this device are described in the 2016 version of the UL-1436 specification. Once AVTs earn industry acceptance, perhaps AVTs will be standard features on every electrical disconnect or circuit breaker? However, industry acceptance doesn’t happen overnight, as evidenced by the history of other innovative electrical devices such as the Ground Fault Circuit Interrupt-

er (GFCI) outlet and the circuit breaker. Each one of these devices laboured through years of improvements and modifications before earning their place as standard electrical devices.

The laborious code and standard cycle As a teenager in the 1970s, I watched my friend’s mom freeze with a hedge trimmer in her hand and unable to move because ground fault current was paralyzing her body. Luckily, she avoided injury because her quick-acting husband unplugged the trimmer from the 120VAC outlet. Today, these incidents rarely occur because the codes require GFCI outlets on every outdoor outlet without exception. The unquestioning reliability record of GFCI outlets is a result of five major and many numerous minor revisions to the original 1971 UL-943 GFCI outlet specification. As the GFCI’s safety and reliability reputation grew, standards committees subsequently responded with 20 new code references from 1971 to 1999. A similar narrative surrounds the development of the circuit breaker. After Thomas Edison invented the first circuit breaker in 1876, it took until 1898 before it was used in an application. In 1904, ITE (formally Cutter Manufacturing Co.) became the first manufacturer of circuit breakers. The first published circuit breaker product standard wasn’t until 1922 and almost 40 years later circuit breaker panels replaced fuses – at least for residential construction (fuses still compete with resettable circuit breakers


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in certain applications). Both the circuit breaker and GFCI outlet were welcome electrical safety innovations, but only after they earned acceptance by users through years of design improvements, technical advancement and manufacturing innovations – all of which were supported and inspired by code revision cycles, standards and – most important – safety. At this early developmental stage of AVTs, fully vetting and understanding the foundational principles of operation help insure that AVTs may eventually become the de facto standard equipment on all electrical isolation devices. Looking between the lines of 2018 NFPA 70E 120.5(N), one discovers four principles for PESDs can be gleaned from this text:

NFPA 70E 120.5(N) Exception No. 1: An adequately rated permanently mounted test device (a) shall be permitted to be used to verify the absence of voltage of the conductors or circuit parts at the work location, provided it meets the following requirements: (1) It is permanently mounted and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and tests the conductors

February 2018

and circuit parts at the point of work (b); (2) It is listed and labelled (c) for the purpose of verifying the absence of voltage; (3) It tests each phase conductor or circuit part both phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground; (4) The test device is verified as operating satisfactorily on any known voltage source before and after verifying the absence of voltage (d). (a) A  robust high impedance design combined with an overvoltage rating of CAT III(1000V)/IV(600V) ensures that voltage surges do not damage the device and create an unsafe or dangerous condition. Power distribution systems are good applications for permanently mounted test devices but require a minimum of a CAT IV(600V) overvoltage rating. (b)  The above phrase “installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and tests the conductors and circuit parts at the point of work” reaffirms that permanently mounted test devices require a validated installation procedure documented by the end-user for every installed device. The concept of “proper installation” is a common theme in

each new edition of the NFPA 70E. Obviously, permanently mounted test devices are both dangerous and useless if installed incorrectly or not at the “point of work.” (c)  A suitable “listed and labelled” ab-


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ers began using a CAT III/IV UL listed impedance protected test points with a CAT III/IV UL listed voltmeter to verify absence of voltage from outside the electrical panel. This combination of a portable and permanent adequately rated device is an example of an innovation that clearly meets the intent of requirements of NFPA 70E 120.5 (N) (3)-(4).

A SIL-3 reliability primes the innovation pump

sence of voltage tester also needs a listing and labelling for both the correct environmental enclosure rating (UL Type and IP) as well as a suitable overvoltage rating. (d) Over the past several years, many us-

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However, the most important far-reaching effect of the UL-1436 specification is the introduction of a reliability standard based upon a Safety Integrity Level 3 (SIL-3) for absence of voltage testing systems. Notice that the term “system” is used because only a system, not a device, can be SIL-3 rated. Furthermore, a “system” does not require all, or any, SIL-3 components, but rather must be engineered to both fail safely and meet a minimum uptime reliability performance measure. With the foundational principles of PESDs laid out in NFPA 70E 120.5(N) the door is now wide open for plenty of innovation on “absence of voltage systems.”

Getting back to our GFCI story What forces will affect today’s accepted practice of creating and verifying an electrically safe work condition? I can’t remember the last time I used an electric hedge trimmer with an extension cord. Why? Because all my yard tools are now battery powered, so l have less need for GFCIs. In this case, forces like product standards, consensus standards and field experience application will inevitably collide with other yet unknown forces to help answer this question in the years to come. At least for now, permanent absence of voltage testing devices is recognized in a consensus standard and also has a product specification with a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Let’s enjoy this journey and see where it will take us. This article was submitted by Philip Allen, CEO, owner and founder, Grace Engineered Products, Inc., Davenport, IA. Allen is an innovator in electrical workplace safety and holds four U.S. patents on innovative electrical safety products. His passion for innovation helped make PESDs and the GracePort a household name among the industrial electrical community. For more information, visit www.graceport.com.


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Doing the

RIGHT WORK How to balance operational expectations and maintenance requirements to achieve the highest equipment availability. BY JEFF SMITH

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here are things a tradesperson is required to do that are simply unpleasant. Anyone who has replaced house rollers on a mining shovel or cleaned slewing rings knows there is no easy way – it’s just a dirty job. At one point I was deep in the bowels of a P&H shovel covered in grease thinking, Why wouldn’t we adjust the auto-lubrication system to supply the correct amount of grease, instead of massively over-greasing and then sending the junior tradesperson to clean up the mess? The mentality at the time was if a little grease is good then a lot must be way better. Fast forward through 30 years of reliability engineering experience to gain a better understanding of “the right work.” Currently, most organizations have some form of preventative maintenance program. This program may have developed over time and grown to the point where it is hard to execute within the operational campaign (seasonal, batch process, demand driven, or 24/7 with annual shutdowns). It may have been developed by one of the structured work identification methods, such as reliability-centered maintenance (RCM), preventative maintenance optimization, failure modes and effects analysis engineered decisions simply copied out of a vendor’s maintenance manual. Regardless of the source, it exists. If you asked your tradesperson, “Are we doing the right work?” What would they say? I have had answers ranging from rants that would make a trucker blush, to total apathy (it’s too messed-up to care). I have seldom heard, “Yes, we do the right work; we don’t over-maintain or under-maintain, and we react appropriately to the detection of failures.”

Is it correct? How do we define “correct” work? First, let’s consider what is “correct” for whom? If it’s a maintenance conversation, the correct work means everything is always fixed to a like-new condition, cleaned and painted. Operations should only get the asset if they cherish it and keep it polished. If it’s operations’ choice, maintenance is another dimension that does not correlate to time, so it’s fixed without ever giving it to mainte-

nance. (After all, if we give it to them they may take too long to give it back.) If it’s accounting defining “correct,” it needs to run perfectly for the needs of the operation and not require any money spent on it. And don’t forget, cost avoidance doesn’t make the balance sheet. So if you avoided an engine failure with diligent maintenance, we don’t care.

The right work So how do we define the “right work”? Die-hard RCM practitioners will tell you, “Just do RCM and you will create a Utopia.” Don’t get me wrong; it’s a good tool. A tool in identifying and managing the loss of function is a key component to having a well-developed maintenance program. But the right work may not have anything to do with maintenance. The right work may be to control operational loading or to select the correct equipment in the first place. It may be a fleet sizing answer to enable maintenance. The right work needs to enable the requirements of the operation and align with the operational campaign. The right work is also a moving target as assets travel throughout their life. The work that is required to maintain an asset in year one is not necessarily the same work that would be required in year 30. If your work on assets does not take into account your asset renewal strategies, you may be decommissioning reconditioned assets. In defining the right work, let’s first consider the choices if we are doing an analysis of the asset, such as a centrifugal pump. It is determined that the impeller needs to be changed at six months due to wear induced by the product we are required to transfer. A maintenance solution would be to shut down and change the impeller every six months, but there are several ways to align the expectations of operations and the requirements of maintenance.

Operations / production have expectations; maintenance has requirements The most cost-effective production and maintenance strat-


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egies can only be realized by matching the requirements to the expectations. The balancing of the operational expectations and maintenance requirements will result in the highest equipment availability numbers. This is the key to defining the “right work.”

Expectations • The requirement of an organization to meet its operational and production goals. • They are the duration of the desired operational campaign. • They can be defined by the desired use. • There are costs to unrealistic expectations. • If operational expectations are the driving factor, the work will be deferred, resulting in reactive maintenance.

Requirements • Organizations must have a clear understanding of the maintenance program requirements. • Strong work identification methodology application identifies the required work. • Life cycle engineering identifies transitioning requirements throughout an asset’s life. • If maintenance requirements are the driving force, the risk of equipment failure will be overmitigated. This results in excessive scheduled downtime and high maintenance costs. In our impeller example, the maintenance strategy of changing it out every six months is fine if it aligns with our operational campaign. But for the sake of discussion, let’s say there is a two-year operational campaign requirement. Option 1: Accept the failure. If we interrupt our operational campaign by having the failure, we incur lost production. Let us assume two hours at $100,000 per hour. Loss: $200,000 annual Option 2: We schedule a shutdown and change the impeller. We incur downtime of two hours so we lose the same production. Before you interject, this is an opportunity to do other work, consider if this opportunity is required, then the operational campaign is unrealistic. I once asked an organization why they ran their maintenance program based on opportunity maintenance and they replied, “Because we are so good at it!” Loss: $200,000 annual Option 3: Redundancy. We install a second pump to use during the impeller change. Let’s say we spend $100,000 to install it and increase our maintenance costs by $5,000 per year from inspections and exercising the new pump. The issue with redundancy is that it leads you to a scenario that becomes a complete redundant facility beside the first one. But we all know if we had two facilities, we would just run them both. Loss: $100,000 initial, $5,000 annual Option 4: Buffer capacity. If this pump transferred product to a tank, could the tank be enlarged to provide a three-hour window for maintenance? The tank would be pumped full

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and the impeller changed without impacting the operational campaign. Let’s assume we could do this for $50,000. Loss: $50,000 one-time spend Option 5: Durability. Perhaps we could buy a better impeller that would last the full two-year operational campaign. This would enable the operation to meet its objectives without impacting its operational goals. Loss: $5,000 higher repair cost The example given is an over-simplification, but the intent is to convey the message that there are often solutions outside of maintenance. The needs of the operation should be the target for defining the “right work.” Once the failure-mode-driven strategies are selected, they must be grouped into logical interventions and align with operational requirements. This should also be considered with condition-based monitoring. If I can only detect a week ahead of a failure on a long operational campaign, there is little added value. Detection ability must be defined and considered. If I cannot detect the onset of failure early enough to align the intervention with my operational campaign, at least I can reduce the mean time to repair by having the parts staged and ready. But as stated earlier, there is high risk in using “opportunity” maintenance as a strategy. Defining the right work starts by understanding the nature of failures for your individual asset types. This can be conducted several ways. I use a combination of methodologies such as RCM on mission critical assets, FMEA and PMO on balance of plant assets – depending on whether they are green- or brownfield projects. I would also use engineered decisions on low critical assets. During an RCM analysis, “Is it worth doing?” is asked at the failure mode level. This question also needs to be propagated and considered on a higher level. It may not make sense to do vibration analysis on a unit if you are trying to justify a complete program based on one failure mode. However, if we consider it as a complete program, conducting vibration analysis on a less-critical asset may be warranted. Other considerations may be the use of maintenance staff during operations. There may be contractual staffing levels, workloads and job description considerations. 
Another aspect of defining the right work is the logical groupings of interventions. For example, I may need to do injectors at 15,000 h and turbos at 20,000 h on an engine. Rather than have two interventions, I would conscientiously choose to discard remaining useful life to reduce the number of interventions, thereby enabling utilization. This logic can be applied to many assets. If the failure modes are understood, it enables profiling the failures to logical groups. For example, car disk brakes: the pads may last 80,000 kilometres, the rotors 160,000 kilometres and the brake fluid 240,000 kilometres. As you can see, they fall into logical groupings. Understand two things about your asset. First, what is the first point of failure (the shortest interval that requires the asset to be taken out of service) and group all other interventions into units of that frequency. Second, consider what is truly “life limiting” and what determines this asset as no longer repairable. These two thoughts will start you on your way to correctly defining the “right work.” MRO Jeff Smith is a reliability subject matter expert and the owner of 4TG Industrial. His work spans a cross-section of industries, including oil sands, mining, pulp and paper, packaging, petrochemical, marine, brewing, transportation, synfuels and others. Reach him at smith@4tgind.ca or visit www.4tg-industrial.com.


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Back to Life A worn or lightly damaged bearing can be salvaged by a reconditioning program. BY REHANA BEGG

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achines in heavy industry tend to be high-value assets. Add to this the rising importance of sustainability and the need for cost savings by preserving resources, and the case for using reconditioned bearings becomes clear. But how do you know whether to replace or repair a bearing? Some bearing types are better candidates than others, explains Jason Allen, strategic segment manager, NSK, a global manufacturer of ball and rolling bearings. MRO: What are the benefits and drawbacks of using a reconditioned bearing?

Jason Allen: Using a reconditioned/refurbished bearing has several benefits. Reconditioning is a timely, reliable and cost-effective means of maintaining productivity and reducing downtime. Reconditioned bearings offer an alternative to the higher cost of newly manufactured bearings as well as offering a potentially shorter lead time with the same warranty as a new bearing. One drawback – not all bearings can be reconditioned. MRO: What type of savings are involved in a repair and reconditioning process versus a replacement bearing? What’s involved in a typical bearing repair? JA: A reconditioned bearing is more cost-efficient than purchasing a new bearing. The level of savings depends on the level of reconditioning that will need to be done. NSK can handle various procedures from a simple pressure cleaning and repack to raceway regrind and manufacturing of new components. Additional cost reductions could be achieved in inventory cost, lead times and freight.

level of wear. NSK will inspect and determine if the bearing is a good candidate. Recommendations will then be made on the level of reconditioning that is needed. Using reconditioning can improve profitability through a reduction in unplanned downtime, bearing replacement cost, waste disposal and lead times for bearing replacement. MRO: Which types of bearings are candidates for refurbishing? JA: Larger bore bearings are better candidates due to their higher cost. Investing in reconditioning offers greater value. All bearing types – including tapered, spherical, cylindrical and ball – from all manufacturers can be reconditioned. Custom-designed bearings are also often candidates for reconditioning because of their limited availability. MRO: When bearings are being reconditioned, what is used in the interim? JA: Many customers typically have multiple bearings on hand that run on the same application. They use the additional sets while the bearings are being reconditioned – it’s a rotating process. MRO: Reconditioned or not, what is the best way to extend bearing life?

MRO: How do you decide whether you should repair or replace? Is it always economical?

JA: Bearing end-users should not underestimate the contamination condition. Contamination continuously leads to the decreased performance of bearings as it interferes with the lubrication oil film being developed between the balls and the raceways, creating internal damage. Even minute amounts of contamination will decrease bearing life. End-users should pay close attention to the environment of the application as well as the bearing handling. MRO

JA: Not all bearings can be reconditioned. Many factors contribute to the potential to recondition, including size, type and

Jason Allen is a strategic segment manager with 19 years of experience with NSK. For more information, visit nskamericas.com.


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Maintenance benefits of electromechanical actuators, most notably those with integrated electronics, are being experienced in many markets, including on- and off-highway vehicles.

The Maintenance Engineer’s Guide to

INDUSTRIAL ACTUATORS Comparing electromechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic actuators. BY TRAVIS GILMER AND MAX MILLER

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ctuators provide the push and pull of industrial automation. If something is moving on the plant floor, odds are good that an actuator is involved. Actuators vary according to the type of energy that drives them, with electromechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic being the most common types. Each type has its advantages, and understanding the differences can help maintenance engineers reduce downtime and costs.

Actuator basics The basics of determining the mechanical requirements for an actuator are similar regardless of energy type. Motion application designers first determine how much force is needed to move the load by calculating the weight of the moving parts combined with the friction force. The designer then determines the motion profile of the application. This

consists of the amount of time the load will be moving – be it forward, reverse or dwell. The motion profile also includes the time it takes to accelerate and decelerate from zero speed to required speed and vice versa. In addition, it can contain any acceleration and deceleration times from one speed to another, if not starting or ending at zero speed. The total combined time of one profile is called a cycle and can be measured in seconds, minutes or hours. By creating the motion profile, the designer can calculate the force needed to overcome inertia of the load as stated by Newton’s Second Law (Force = Mass x Acceleration). The faster the required acceleration, the more force required to overcome the inertia, and that force will likely be higher than the weight and friction force initially used to select the actuator. To compensate for this, apply a service factor or safety factor to the cal-

culated force. The service factor protects the equipment and reduces wear; the safety factor protects the people around the equipment. The weight and friction force adjusted by the appropriate service and safety factors define the work that needs to be done. The actuator is what does that work, and most industrial applications bring one of the three main actuator types – pneumatic, hydraulic or electric – to the task. All three types require electrical controls for start-stop to extend and to return. All three types are usually totally contained and protected from contamination, mount in similar fashion but differ in cost, installation, energy efficiency, power density, intelligence and maintainability.

Electromechanical actuators Electromechanical actuators are also called electric actuators or cylinders, and if they have an onboard microprocessor, they are known as “smart actuators.” For higher cycle rates, an electromechanical actuator consists of a servo motor, gearing and ball-screw-driven rod. For intermittent duty cycles, usually 25 per cent of actuator dynamic load capability, a DC or an AC motor replaces the servo, and both ball screw and lead screw options are available. Duty cycle is mathematically defined by the formula (On Time)/(On Time+Off Time) x 100= % Duty Cycle, which is limited by the heat generated inside the motor. Determining the duty cycle for a given load can be tricky. At some light loads, the actuator may approach 100 per cent duty cycle or at least operate for multiple cycles before it must be turned off to cool the motor. The benefits of electromechanical actuators include lower operating cost due to higher efficiency. From a traditional maintenance perspective, this higher efficiency corresponds to fewer replacements and because they do not require air or hydraulic fluids for their power source, there are no leaks to contend with. A caveat is that with the expansion of Industrial Internet of Things and requirements for more flexibility from existing production lines, electromechanical actuators are starting to be embedded with microcontrollers. This adds a new dimension of operation along with a new dimension of maintenance capability.

Smart maintenance With an onboard chip, electromechanical actuators can now be programmed to

Image courtesy of Thomson Industries

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maintain constant speed under changing loads. Acceleration and deceleration can be controlled precisely. Positioning can be monitored and held without power if desired. Actuators can participate more easily and cost-effectively in plant networks, promoting potential benefits for the maintenance function. This addSelf-contained, electroed level of intelligence is contribmechanical actuators, uting to a more energy-efficient such as the Thomson operation. The fact that some Electrak HD, free up previously external devices, like machine pumps, valves, hoses and associated relays and limit switches, are fluids to be serviced or now being replaced by internal replaced. electronics eliminates the previously required effort to maintain An interconnected factory employing smart electro-mechanical the external devices and their re- actuators realizes countless benefits, including significant lated wiring. tion of the cylinder’s travel reductions in maintenance and downtime. These additional benefits of is controlled by the methe smart actuators will be supchanical limits on the actuported by diagnostic information delivEfficiency of the system can vary as ator or hard stops. Pneumatic actuators ered across the network bus. Onboard the type of hydraulic pump varies to tend to be noisy as the actuator contacts electronics can, for example, track the meet the design criteria. Gear pumps are the hard stop at each end of its limit number of cycles the actuator has run relatively inexpensive and, when new, of travel also decreasing their life with and provide operating temperature mea- are 85 to 90 per cent efficient. Vane and every impact. Most pneumatic applisurements and current consumption. piston pumps have efficiencies of 90 per cations do not require position control Analysis of these factors could help de- cent or higher. The most efficient sys- during travel. termine whether increases in tempera- tem will use a pressure-compensated If compressed air is already available ture or current consumption are related piston pump that will idle automatical- in the plant, pneumatic actuators/cylto abnormal wear on the system or to ap- ly but maintain pressure when flow is inders are the least expensive to install plication demands. This can also benefit not required. Operating the pump with and operate. If a constant, reliable air maintenance simply by shutting down a an electric motor controlled by a vari- supply is not available, the cost of proprocess to protect the application before able frequency drive or a servo motor viding it could counter the other beneoverheating or current spikes damage by a servo drive will greatly increase the fits of pneumatic actuators. Pneumatic the actuator. overall efficiency of a hydraulic system. actuators are also the least efficient in Proportional valves can be incorporated use of kilowatts, and maintenance of air Hydraulic actuators into the system to control acceleration/ leaks is a constant issue. If power density is a priority, hydrau- deceleration and be used to achieve midlic actuators/cylinders may be the best stroke position. This comparison is for a Toward a digital future choice. A two-inch bore hydraulic cylin- single-axis actuator, but many hydraulic As more plant devices add intelligence, der operating at 1,000 PSI can, for exam- power units can provide flow to multiple actuators will increasingly be called to ple, push more than 3,000 pounds. A hy- cylinders. duty on new applications. There will still draulic system requires a reservoir of oil, External leaks at pipe and hose fittings be a place for pneumatic and hydraulic electric motor, pump, oil filter, relief valve may occur over time due to vibration actuators in economical or high-force and directional control valve. The speed and other factors. The cylinder rod itself applications. As newer technologies required and the size of the cylinder will emits a film of oil out into the plant en- emerge, the differences between the determine the size of pump (GPM), and vironment with every stroke. Internal three types of actuation will be reduced. the size of the pump will determine the leaks present an even greater mainte- If ease of integration, precision, mainsize of the electric motor, reservoir, filter, nance challenge. Leaks inside the pump, tainability and lower cost of ownership relief valve and directional control valve. pressure controls, directional valves and is desired, the trend toward smart elecThe higher the speed required, the more cylinder convert pressure and flow to tromechanical actuators will continue the system will cost. heat or wasted energy. Any of these can to increase. MRO A hydraulic system converts kilowatts lead to reduced actuator speed. Repairinto flow and pressure. There are pres- ing leaks or replacing leaking actuators Travis Gilmer is a product line specialist – Insure losses in each component, includ- is an important part of the job. dustrial Linear Actuators – Americas with ing the conductors, hose and pipe. With Thomson Industries. Max Miller began his caproper design, these losses can be kept Pneumatic actuators reer with Berry Bearing Company in Chicago. to a few percentage points. Cylinders are Pneumatic actuators are used primarily He has been with Motion Industries for 23 efficient until they begin to wear and in simple applications requiring move- years. leak around the piston. Pumps reflect ment of relatively light loads back and For more information, visit MotionIndustries. wear through internal leaks. forth between two positions. The posi- com.


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The ERP Challenge All maintenance systems go. BY PETER PHILLIPS

– Part 11

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fter a two-year journey, our enterprise resource planning project at a Canadian building products manufacturer went live on January 2. Overall, it was a successful launch of the ERP maintenance module. There were few issues and the plants are adapting well to their new system. Over the next few months, our implementation team will continue to support the plant. We are proud of how the plants have taken to the new system; early signs show they have fully embraced the new software. Right now we are in hyper-care mode. Plants are using the basic maintenance functions to plan and execute work orders and to replenish their spare-part inventory. Within two to three months, as they master the basic transactions, we will introduce more advanced functions of the software and provide them with the necessary training. New users will be trained on the software and maintenance systems. An important step on our journey now is to assess the lessons we learned over the whole implementation so that we are prepared for our next ERP implementation. Following are some of the lessons we learned and are worth keeping in mind when launching a new maintenance system.

ERP champion Appoint a project champion at the outset. The implementation needs to be this person’s sole purpose. They need to be relieved of their other maintenance duties and completely focus on the preparation activities for the new system. Gathering

master data, applying proper nomenclatures/data structure and data validations are nearly a full-time job. Other activities, such as overseeing the organization of the stockroom, will round out a full day’s work each and every day. There will be lots of planning meetings to attend and information to pass on to the rest of the plant implementation team. This is a vital position; choose the right person for the role.

Reinforcement and support Every implementation activity needs to be fully supported by the corporate office and the plant management. A weak link at the plant level is very noticeable. Things to look for: missing data submission deadlines, poor quality and quantity of master data and inadequate data structure. People need to know their roles and responsibilities during the implementation process. Strong leadership and support are required, and teams should comprise people who want to be involved. Plant and maintenance managers play a key role in the success of this implementation; keep them closely involved.

Clear and direct instructions Every maintenance system implementation requires a lot of guidance. Weekly meetings at the plant level and conference calls with other plant teams are essential. Everyone needs to be given the same message; everyone needs to the hear issues and concerns surrounding the implementation. Meeting minutes need to be taken and distributed to all attendees. Our most successful plants during the implementation had weekly meetings


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and displayed their weekly progress on project plans. Roles, responsibilities and deadlines were clearly identified and documented. Falling behind was not an option.

Storeroom organization Start early to create a functional storeroom. The time to purge and organize parts is the most underestimated, time-consuming task the plant will face. Having parts in distinct bin locations is an absolute must if you want the storeroom to function and reordering processes that work. Every part needs a home because part barcodes will be applied to bins so that scanners can be used to withdraw parts from the storeroom. If your storeroom is an unorganized mess, it will be your biggest challenge to prepare it for the new maintenance system. Developing a functional storeroom will take many, many hours, so make sure you allocate sufficient resources to get the job done and apply those resources every day.

Spare part data

Short-term care

ERP systems need extremely accurate inventory, especially if you want the replenishment process to work properly. Errors in reorder points, reorder quantities and physical counts will cause an extreme amount of rework after going live. Check to see if you have the right parts on replenishment. If you don’t ensure all of this part data are correct, you will get an unpleasant surprise the first day you go live.

During the implementation you will undoubtedly push some things off that can be done after Go-Live. First of all, these items need to be recorded along the way during the implementation or they will fall by the wayside. Provisions need to be made to work on these items after you launch the software. Questions such as how will these items be completed; who is responsible for them; and should we keep our full-time plant champion to lead the activities will arise. Whatever you decide, be sure to follow the same type of project plan you used during implementation.

Going live Go-Live activities need to be co-ordinated at the corporate and plant levels. A major issue we had was the number of daily meetings we were required to attend, which inevitably cut into the time we needed to use the software. We had corporate, IT, regional and plant meetings every day. At each meeting we reported the same information and the number of daily meetings was by far the largest complaint from plants. Better co-ordination and a reporting structure could have restricted the number of meetings.

Software training Prepare training materials well in advance. The development and design of the training materials need to be done by a competent person who understands training design and the use of adult learning principles. The development and delivery of your software training can make or break your implementation and long-term success of a new system. Instructors need to be experts in the topics they are delivering. The training materials used during training need to be designed in such a way that any question a user may have after the training can be quickly answered in the materials they received.

List of transactions ERP systems tend to have a lot of transactional codes that don’t always make a lot of sense to a new user. ERP systems by their very nature tend to be complicated; every piece of data is linked to multiple tables, which all roll up into the financial module. Make sure everyone gets a copy of these transactions so they can navigate the software. Giving these codes in dribs and dabs does not work. Make sure all transactions are covered in the training.

Long-term care People come and go in every industry and they don’t usually come completely trained in the software or systems we use. We will need to have support staff train new personnel, whether we have in-house resources or use outside services. One of the easiest ways to introduce people to their new positions is to have maintenance systems. Systems are documents that clearly set out the roles and responsibilities of every maintenance position. The systems also clearly describe all the procedures and processes that each position must follow in order to have a functional maintenance department. You will need to develop these documents for the maintenance manager, supervisor, planner and storeroom clerk, to name a few. These systems assist new hires to quickly understand their roles and responsibilities in your maintenance department. Systems like these will sustain the long-term health and welfare of your maintenance department. It is important to develop these systems well in advance of your software launch. This ERP experience has been a long and successful journey but we still have a long way to go and there will be challenges ahead. It will take one to two years to fully realize the potential of our new ERP and the systems we have put in place. We expect them to help us with equipment reliability. We have paved the road to our future. Maintaining the condition of our new highway is our next challenge. MRO Peter Phillips of Trailwalk Holdings, a Nova Scotia-based maintenance consulting and training company, can be reached at 902-798-3601 or at peter@trailwalk.ca.


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Machinery and Equipment MRO

February 2018

Lubrication by Twos Applying a simple troubleshooting method can get you to the appropriate amount of lubrication needed for a bearing. BY DOUGLAS MARTIN

I

am often asked: How much grease does this bearing need? or What oil flow rate does this bearing need? The unfortunate thing about these two questions is that there is no simple answer if the only information given is the bearing part number and its speed (RPM). There is more than one factor involved in selecting the amount of lubrication for a bearing, but to simplify things, consider breaking it all down into twos. There are two common types of (rolling element bearing) lubrication: grease and oil. There are two main jobs for each lubricant type: Grease 1 – To lubricate 2 – To seal (prevent ingress and remove contamination) Oil 1 – To lubricate 2 – To maintain an operating temperature at the rolling contact interface There are two main lubrication mechanisms: Film separation 1 – an oil film 2 – a dry film Boundary lubrication (some surface contact, i.e., metal to metal) There are two main factors that control oil film: 1 – Relative speed of the two surfaces 2 – The operating viscosity of the oil at the interface

Two drops for two weeks Bear in mind that the only job of the lubricant is to separate the surfaces. So how much is needed for this task? E.R. Booser conducted an experiment in which he ran a ball bearing on only two initial drops of oil at 36,000 RPM for two weeks at 100°C before encountering any failures, writes Piet M. Lugt in his book, Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings (Wiley Tribology Series, December 2012). From this we can deduce that not very much grease or oil is needed for lubrication. The question about the amount of grease or oil to select is rather about the other factors of temperature control and cleanliness. By keeping the “rules of twos” in mind, typical questions can be answered:

Question: Which is a better lubricant: grease or oil? This all depends on the application: Is the application heavily contaminated? > Grease is probably better Does the machine have high shaft speeds? > Oil is probably better Are you looking for a simple low-cost design? > Grease is probably better

Is there heat associated with the process? > Oil is probably better

Question: Which provides a better lubricating oil film: oil or grease? Given that the speed is high enough for (elasto) hydrodynamic lubrication (fast enough to create an oil wedge between the rolling surfaces), oil is better as there is typically more than enough oil available to create the film. With grease, there is very little oil available in the lubricating gap. Typically, the lubricating gap is in starvation mode and there is typically some degree of boundary lubrication.

Question: How much oil or grease do I need? Very little for lubrication, but for “other jobs” consider: Operating temperature of application • Is the (base) oil selected viscous enough at the operating temperature to provide a film? • If not, then there needs to be cooling (oil flow) to take away the heat and control temperature so the oil can form a separating film. Degree of contamination • This will control how frequently you will add grease to take away the contamination. • This will help select the appropriate filtration with oil circulation. • This will help determine how frequently you will need to change an oil bath. Degree of machine vibration • This will control how frequently you will replenish the grease (as vibration causes grease to leave the bearing cavity). The operating temperature • This will cause aging of the oil (base oil of the grease/deterioration of the additives). The orientation of the shaft • Grease will not stay put in a bearing with a vertical shaft. Outer ring rotation • Outer ring rotation centrifuges the grease away from the bearing and can cause oil/soap separation. There are in fact formalized calculations that can be used to determine how much and how frequently a bearing needs lubrication. These calculations are available on the internet and on smartphone applications that can be downloaded from the respective app stores. But before you start, think twice before you jump into the calculations. Remember the factors that influence the second job of the lubricant. MRO Douglas Martin is a heavy-duty machinery engineer based in Vancouver. He specializes in the design of rotating equipment, failure analysis and lubrication. Reach him at mro.whats.up.doug@gmail.com.


MainTrain 2018: Connect, Learn, Contribute SEPTEMBER 24 –27 | Brookstreet Hotel | Ottawa, ON | 1-877-523-7255

The Plant Engineering & Maintenance Association of Canada invites you to its national conference - MainTrain PEMAC’s MainTrain conference is a source of professional development for maintenance, reliability and asset management professionals in every industry, in both public and private sector businesses, that invest capital in equipment & facilities. Save the date for MainTrain 2018 to Connect, Learn and Contribute as you gather the insights and tools to develop effective strategies and solutions for your asset management, maintenance and reliability programs.

SPONSORSHIP IS NOW OPEN: • Network with existing clients, and make new connections • Connect and build relationships with key decision makers from the public and private sector, from across the country, and around the world • Have the opportunity to promote your products and services in a variety of ways including in our MainTrain Demo Lounge • Get recognized through our many branding opportunities throughout the week

To register as a sponsor or for more information on MainTrain 2018 go to: www.MainTrain.ca, email events@pemac.org or call 1-877-523-7255 ex 4. We look forward to partnering with you!

Platinum Sponsors:

PEMAC is a member of:

Media Partner:

@MainTrain2018

pemac.org

gfmam.org


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Machinery and Equipment MRO

February 2018

WHAT’S NEW IN CONDITION MONITORING Wearable thermal imaging sensors Flir Systems, Inc. announced the “Thermal by Flir” program designed for technology partners who use Flir thermal imaging sensors. Their co-operative product development and marketing program supports OEMs and product innovators who use thermal imaging sensors in their products. One of the first partner innovations under the program is the Arsenz ThermoGlass, a wearable augmented-reality device that mounts to glasses, which allows the wearer to see a thermal image at a glance and operates hands-free. www.flir.com

Remote vibration monitoring

Better walkaround data collection

The new Fluke 3560 FC vibration sensor wirelessly and remotely captures simple vibration screening data on imbalance and misalignment. Remote vibration monitoring allows maintenance managers to monitor asset health with ease and reduce reliance on vibration specialists. The sensor is small enough to fit into hardto-reach places and data generated are wirelessly transmitted and stored on Fluke Connect Condition Monitoring software that can be viewed on mobile devices.

The SKF QuickCollect sensor is a bluetooth-enabled handheld sensor that connects to apps that work with both iOS and Android tablets and smartphones (and iOS smart watch). The sensor combines vibration and temperature sensing, and allows maintenance and reliability personnel to view velocity, acceleration enveloping and temperature measurements on rotating machinery. View data immediately or push it to the cloud for further analysis. Rugged design.

www.fluke.com

www.skf.com

WHAT’S NEW IN VALVES AND ACTUATORS Poly bolted ball valves Bee Valve Inc., a manufacturer of low-pressure fluid control and handling products, offers two new ball valves to its line of polypropylene bolted ball valves: a 2" full port three-way bottom-load valve and a 2” full port three-way side-load flange valve. These new ball valves are manufactured from glass-reinforced polypropylene for strength and durability and will not rust or corrode. The valves incorporate a self-aligning ball that rotates freely against Teflon seats. The ball valves come standard with EPDM O-rings and Viton O-ring stem seal. www.beevalve.com

Pneumatic actuator for diaphragm valves

Electromechanical linear actuators handle heavy loads

KSB’s Luxembourg subsidiary SISTO Armaturen S.A. launched a doubleacting or single-acting pneumatic actuator that’s designed for diaphragm valves used in food and beverage and sterile industries. The actuator housing and the valve bonnet in the MD30-MD115 actuator range are made from a single piece of material, which reduces the actuator’s overall height to accommodate block-bodied multi-port valves. The actuators are also 45 per cent lighter than the two-piece design.

Thomson Industries, Inc. has extended the capability of its popular Electrak HD electromechanical linear actuator line to loads of up to 16 kilonewtons (3,600 lbs). It delivers heavy-load handling capacity comparable to hydraulic technologies but with greater controllability, smaller footprint and low maintenance. Electrak HD actuators simply connect to a power supply and PLC or other control source to bring the benefits of onboard electronics to high-load applications.

www.ksb.com

www.thomsonlinear.com


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February 2018

What’s New in drive technology, connectors, generators and more... Make secure connections

Drive technology with cooling options In addition to the IndraDrive Mi motorintegrated and motor-near drives, Rexroth has developed decentralized supply and mains modules that allow manufacturers to install all electrical drive components directly on the machine. The new modules have convection and forced-air cooling options that do not require any process water for cooling. The modules come with cooling options for a wide range of applications, in conveying and handling technology, and in food and packaging technology. www.boschrexroth.ca

Press black steel pipe between twoand-a-half and four inches using the new Ridgid Press Booster. The tool, used with Viega MegaPress XL Jaws and Rings, builds on the power of the Ridgid RP 340, attaching to the tool to multiply its output for fast connections on larger diameter pipe. MegaPress XL makes connections in under 25 seconds. Simply attach the booster to the end of the RP 340, press the trigger on the tool three times, and you have a secure press connection. Hard-to-reach angles are a breeze with an actuator that can rotate 180 degrees on the press ring. Weighs less than 22 pounds. ridgid.com

Connectors for explosive environments Harting’s Han Ex connector series has been certified to the National Electric Code’s NEC 500 standard for use in Class I, Division II hazardous locations, making them available for use across North America. An ideal alternative to hard-wiring electrical connections, the Han Ex range is well suited for applications in the oil and gas, mining and chemical industries and in process automation. www.harting.ca

Servo package consisting of drive, motor and controller With its Sinamics S210 converter designed specifically for use with the newly developed Simotics S-1FK2 motors, Siemens is offering a new servo drive system in an initial offering from 50 – 750 watts. The converters come with integrated safety functions and enable rapid engineering via motion technology objects in Simatic S7-1500 controllers. They are connected to higher-level controllers via Profinet and are quickly and easily programmed by automatic motor parameterization and one-button tuning. Typical uses include packaging machines, handling applications such as pick-and-place, wood and plastics processing and digital printing. usa.siemens.com/sinamics-s210

Portable gas-powered electric-start generator Larson Electronics LLC has a new portable generator that features an electric start. The GPG-4KW-1P-120.240 is a portable gas-powered generator with a durable 7.0 HP air-cooled overhead engine that features an electric start. It features a four-gallon fuel tank with an EZ-pull recoil start that can produce 3,300 watts of constant running power and 4,000 watts at its peak. The heavy-duty allsteel tank provides up to eight hours of runtime at half load. It comes with multiple receptacle options, oil shutoff safeguards to protect the engine and integrated circuit breaker to prevent system overload. www.larsonelectronics.com

Sensing when maintenance is needed Under the product family name isense, igus has developed various sensors and monitoring modules to help simplify production processes. For instance, the isense PRT.W sensor detects wear in slewing ring bearings. igus also offers measuring systems for drylin linear guides, energy chains, cable carriers and chainflex continuous flex cables. Data are sent to an icom communication module, which collects all values, such as the speed and acceleration of e-chains, the electrical properties of highly flexible chainflex cables or the abrasion values of linear guides and slewing ring bearings. www.igus.com


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Machinery and Equipment MRO

February 2018

Innovation spells opportunity Canadian Industrial Manufacturing CEOs are confident about growth opportunities in the next three years and see innovation as the key to a future that is driven by talent, skill, relationships and intelligent deals. According to findings from PwC’s 20th CEO Survey, “the human factor is working in consort with technology to create opportunities, not remove jobs.” However, the human factor presents challenges: CEOs deem recruiting most difficult when it comes to attracting people talented in creativity and innovation or leadership (both 81 per cent), emotional intelligence (70 per cent), problem solving (69 per cent) and adaptability (68 per cent). Source: PwC, 20th Annual Global CEO Survey

Mr. 0, The Practical Problem Solver

KEY INDICATORS Industrial Capacity: Canadian industries operated at 85.0 per cent of their production capacity in the third quarter, up from 84.3 per cent the previous quarter, reports Statistics Canada. This was the fifth consecutive quarterly increase. The increase in the third quarter was mainly driven by construction and electric power generation, transmission and distribution. Capacity utilization in the machinery manufacturing industry continued to grow, up 2.7 percentage points to 91.3 per cent in the third quarter as most subsectors increased production. Manufacturing Sales: Manufacturing sales rose 3.4 per cent to a record high $55.5 billion in November 2017, mainly due to higher sales in the transportation equipment, petroleum and coal product and chemical industries. Overall, 12 of 21 industries, representing 81 per cent of the manufacturing sector, posted increases in November 2017. Source: Statistics Canada

Let there be light Energy efficiency, longer life span and the absence of mercury are only some of the benefits of using LED lighting. LED lighting uses an average of 40 per cent less power than fluorescents and 80 per cent less than incandescents to produce the same amount of light, proving there is good reason to switch. Accord-

ing to industry intelligence and analytics firm IHS Markit, which has tracked the market share for top LED component suppliers for many years, one LED component and lighting company, Nichia, can claim credit for having saved the most carbon overall – 10 per cent of all LED lighting reduction achieved in 2017, which translates into 57 million tons of CO2 – about the same as 16 coal plants. Savings achieved by each company relate to the energy saved by the use of that company’s components while installed in lighting applications, reports IHS Markit. It does not include a whole lifecycle analysis, which would likely lead to a small additional positive benefit, due to the longer life of LEDs.

This issue’s tip was culled from www.ihsmarkit.com.


SmartCheck The palm-sized condition monitoring breakthrough that can help you avoid costly machine downtime! FAG SmartCheck takes condition monitoring to a whole new level of convenience and portability: Intuitive Plug & play convenience means SmartCheck is ready to go right out of the box with preinstalled monitoring configurations. Innovative Compact, baseball-sized design goes where you need it. SmartCheck can be accessed via the internet or smartphonesupported apps. Scalable Configuration can be expanded and monitoring functions can be extended to multiple units. Versatile Perfect for monitoring equipment such as electric and geared motors, pumps, gearboxes, fans, spindles and machine tools & much more. Turn your machine into a “smart� machine with FAG SmartCheck and stop breakdowns before they occur!

For more information: Email: info.ca@schaeffler.com www.schaeffler.ca

Superior-quality products. Comprehensive reliable solutions.

MRO January 2018  
MRO January 2018