Page 1

Gas Fireplace

Why You Should Conduct


Occupant Surveys

At A Glance:


Heating/Cooling Technology Taken One Step Further

How To Implement Heat Pumps In Commercial Applications

EEVs: Advantages and Operation JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2011 | $5.00

Fan Selection:


TIPS for

Optimum Tankless Performance


The Elements of ENERGY ANALYSIS PM 40070230

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Zuba-Central low-ambient Heat PumPs Provide Heat even at -30ºC and beyond. Zuba-Central is an extraordinary heat pump that fits into new or existing ductwork with savings of up to 60% on annual home heating and cooling costs.** With the exclusive Hyper-Heat Inverter (H2i) technology, it provides excellent heating performance even when ambient temperatures reach -30ºC and beyond. It’s an environmentally friendly and effective geothermal alternative at only a fraction of the equipment cost. Plus, the outdoor unit is compact and quiet, so it goes unnoticed.

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60% on annual home heating and cooling costs.**

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VOL. 85 NO. 1


Beyond Standard Air The impact of altitude must be considered prior to specifying heating, cooling and air moving equipment. BY JOHN MURPHY

16 A Versatile Palette Ways to implement multiple ground source heat pumps in commercial systems. BY JOHN SIEGENTHALER

24 Don’t Forget To Flush

Maintenance is critical to achieving maximum performance and efficiency with tankless equipment. BY STEVE GOLDIE

38 Location, Location, Location Cover Photo iStockphoto

Study shows the impact of gas fireplace operation on energy costs.

40 Repeatability Rules Part II

The operation and advantages of using an electronic expansion valve. BY DAVE DEMMA


44 Master Yoda – The E5 Jedi Integrating exergy into today’s energy analysis. BY ROBERT BEAN

53 46 The Final Judge




Industry News


Manufacturer Supplier News






The Source




Boomers Plagued By Retirement Worries

Vector Created by: Matt Ward/Echo Enduring Media -

The hows and whys of occupant surveys (c) 2009; Distributed under the Creative Commons lisence. Poll reveals how prepared in high performance green buildings. Canadians are for their golden BY STEPHEN CARPENTER years. BY JOHN POWELL











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< UPFRONT Dames, Dollars & Dangers… And don’t call me Ma’am There are a few people in my social circle who have a vague understanding of what I do and, like you, I occasionally get asked for advice when their HVAC systems present a problem. Unlike you, I defer the questions and suggest that they seek the advice of an expert in the field. However, in the circumstance described below I did stick my oar in because the situation seemed such an egregious breach of professionalism. Some background will explain that conclusion. The gas furnace in question was originally installed two years ago under a no-heat situation and involved the buddy of a “go to” fellow in the neighbourhood. A no-heat situation arose recently with said furnace on a Friday evening. After many telephone calls, the owner was left with whoever was willing to show up: Company A. You can guess the result but perhaps not the extremes. Company A's technician noted there was no tag on the furnace and said the venting was incorrect; therefore he would have to report it. As an option he could quickly install a high efficiency replacement for $3,000, or at the risk of "losing much of the usable space in the room," he could re-vent it and that would take much longer. He refused to provide a written quote. Just to seal the deal, the customer was left with no heat (except for electric heaters kindly supplied by the “go to” guy) from Friday to Monday when the customer put in an angry call to Company A to find out what was going on. (The technician had identified a "faulty" gas valve as the offending part.) On his return with the new valve, the technician reiterated that he had to report the venting violation and she would be “cut off” if the situation was not resolved. After restarting the furnace, he launched into a lengthy description of the hazards and perils around the existing installation (interesting tactic – scare them into buying a furnace). After further discussion of dollars and dangers, he asked if there was anyone the customer would like to call. For a woman who owns her home, has a demanding career and is extremely competent that is insulting. So she ordered him out. Upon hearing the story I contacted my service provider and a diagnostic call was set up for later that day. Enter Company B - like night and day. Booties, polite, competent, professional and patient: If I were to advise companies on how to capture the growing female homeowner market – those few points would be a positive start. Respect the home and understand that you are an HVAC professional – they are not. If they were they would not be calling you. That said, explaining the situation in layman’s terms is worth the time and effort and a show of respect for the trust and money the customer may invest with your company. Company B's assessment: No issues with the venting, “go to” fellow’s contact apparently was qualified and did good work. Company B is investigating Company A’s claim of report (at time of writing there is no tag issue). The end result: Customer is relieved – no threat of CO poisoning for inhabitants (not to be taken lightly considering there is a child in the residence); possible service contract for Company B; and a well-connected, professional woman is extolling the virtues of Company B to her colleagues and friends.<> Editor



HPAC Magazine One Mount Pleasant Rd. Toronto, ON M4Y 2Y5 TEL: 416-764-2000 FAX: 416-764-1746 Editor Kerry Turner (416) 764-1549 ACCOUNT David Skene (416) 764-1590 MANAGER ACCOUNT John Chiasson (416) 764-1557 MANAGER Sales & Marketing Kim Rossiter (416) 764-1787 Coordinator Art Director Franca Romano (416) 764-1539 Production Manager Jennifer Reinhardt (416) 764-3842 Circulation Manager Bibi Khan (416) 764-1450 PUBLISHER Peter Leonard (416) 764-1510 Executive Publisher Tim Dimopoulos CONTRIBUTORS Robert Bean, Stephen Carpenter, Dave Demma, THIS ISSUE: Steve Goldie, John Murphy, John Powell, John Siegenthaler Rogers Media Inc. President and CEO Keith Pelley Rogers Publishing Ltd. President and CEO Brian Segal Senior Vice-President Business AND Professional Publishing John Milne SENIOR Vice-Presidents Michael Fox Vice-Presidents Immee Chee Wah, Patrick Renard

Publications Mail Agreement No. 40070230, Registration No. 10815 Return undeliverable items to: Heating Plumbing Air Conditioning, Circulation Dept., 8th Floor – 1 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto, ON M4Y 2Y5 Heating Plumbing Air Conditioning (established 1923) is published 7 times per year by Rogers Publishing Limited, a division of Rogers Media Inc. HPAC Magazine is the leading Canadian business publication for the owner/manager of mechanical contracting businesses and their supply partners. ISSN: 0017-9418 Contents Copyright © 2011 by Rogers Publishing Limited, may not be reprinted without permission. Subscriber Services: To subscribe, renew your subscription or to change your address or information… please visit us at Subscription Price per year: $40.00 CDN; Outside Canada per year: $80.00 US; Single copy Canada: $5.00 CDN. Heating Plumbing Air Conditioning is published 7 times per year except for occasional combined, expanded or premium issues, which count as two subscription issues. Mail Preferences: Occasionally we make our subscriber list available to reputable companies whose products or services may be of interest to you. If you do not want your name to be made available please contact us at or update your profile at HPAC Magazine receives unsolicited materials (including letters to the editor, press releases, promotional items and images) from time to time. HPAC Magazine, its affiliates and assignees may use, reproduce, publish, re-publish, distribute, store and archive such unsolicited submissions in whole or in part in any form or medium whatsoever, without compensation of any sort. Notice: HPAC Magazine, Rogers Publishing Limited, their staff, officers, directors and shareholders (hence known as the “Publisher”) assume no liability, obligations, or responsibility for claims arising from advertised products. The Publisher also reserves the right to limit liability for editorial errors, omissions and oversights to a printed correction in a subsequent issue. HPAC Magazine’s editorial is written for management level mechanical industry personnel who have documented training in the mechanical fields in which they work. Manufacturers’ printed instructions, datasheets and notices always take precedence to published editorial statements. Our environmental policy is available at We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Periodical Fund (CPF) for our publishing activities.

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Industry News

SEE THE LATEST HPAC e-newsletter @ organized in 17 blocks in three halls. Features included the Cleanroom Village and the Industrial Heat Pump Village. The next Chillventa will be held in the Exhibition Centre Nuremberg in October of 2012.

Sustainable Building Advisor Program Coming East

A Health and Safety Advisory developed by the Infrastructure Health & Safety Association, in association with the Ontario Ministry of Labour, warns contractors and workers in the geothermal industry of the dangers associated with handling ethanol/water mixtures. Vapours from the mixture can be ignited in a small space and near an ignition source, such as in a basement of a home. An ethanol/water mixture as low as 20 per cent of volume is classified as Class IC flammable liquid by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and The Ontario Fire Code classifies a Class IC liquid as flammable. The advisory addresses such things as dispensing, storage, equipment in proximity, and spill control. Geothermal_systems.pdf

Excellent mood at Chillventa Chillventa 2010 attracted 29,312 trade visitors from all over the world to the Nürnberg exhibition centre. Held in October 2010, the event set a new record with a 10 per cent increase in exhibitors to 881 companies. The congress program, with more than 400 international participants, started the day before the exhibition and was 8


Showcase Support For Solar The Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA) board of directors has launched Stand Up For Solar, an advocacy effort to showcase public and industry support for solar energy in Ontario and Canada. The hub of its campaign is a website portal, which provides one location for interested individuals to show their support for solar energy and the need for continued government support that helps to make Ontario and Canada a positive environment for investment in solar energy production. A companion Facebook Page and Twitter account allows CanSIA to spread the message within established social networks. The site also offers educational materials. Note: The Canadian Solar Industries Association CANSIA has moved to 605-150 Isabella St., Ottawa, ON K1S 1V7. continued on page 10

Graphic iStockphoto

Geothermal Safety Advisory Issued

The Sustainable Building Advisor Program that has been offered in Western Canada for several years is coming east. The nine-month part-time program is scheduled to run in Toronto in 2011 – as well as in Vancouver, Victoria, Calgary and Regina. The course is designed so working professionals can earn the designation of Certified Sustainable Building Advisor (CSBA). The Seattle-based program is accredited by various provincial and national architectural associations. Graduates can apply CSBA credits to the Green Building Certification Institute’s LEED AP Continuing Education program. The program is delivered in Canada by consulting company Brighter Green. Owner Dallas Jasper says: “With participants from architectural and engineering firms, construction and real estate companies, government, utilities and conservation organizations learning together, the program fosters a community of like-minded people who work in all aspects of the built environment. As this community grows, the sustainability of our built environment will increase also.” The program in Toronto is scheduled to start in October, 2011.

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< Industry News

continued from page 8

Call For Papers

Celebrate World Plumbing Day

Share your knowledge and design experience with others in the plumbing industry at the American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) 2011 Technical Symposium in Orlando, FL from October 27-30, 2011. ASPE is taking submissions from those interested in presenting technical sessions. Send in your mailing address, e-mail address and phone number, a brief professional biography about the presenter and a description of the presentation topic and what would be contained in the presentation. Presentations must be non-proprietary in nature and 1.5 or three hours in length. For more information contact Cliff Reis at ASPE, tel. 847296-0002 or e-mail submissions must be received by April 1, 2011.

Plumbing organizations from across the country are joining the Mechanical Contractors Association of Canada (MCAC) and the Canadian Institute of Plumbing and Heating (CIPH) to undertake activities on March 11, 2011, with the aim of raising awareness to the important role played by Canada’s plumbing industry. On March 11, MCAC, CIPH and WPC will be joined by other Canadian members of the World Plumbing Council (WPC), including the Mechanical Contractors Association of Alberta, the Canadian Standards Association, the Ontario and British Columbia Plumbing Inspectors Association, UA Local 787 and 67, and the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials to bring the globally important role of plumbing to everyone’s attention. continued on page 12



Aerial view rendering from the south of the Evergreen Brick Works site in Toronto, ON, winner of an Acknowledgment Award in the Holcim North American Awards 2008 competition.

Registrations In $2 Million US Holcim Awards Competition Close Soon

Graphic iStockphoto

Health Canada recently completed the analysis of the data from the first year of the Cross-Canada Survey of Radon Concentrations in Homes two-year study. While the radon levels in the vast majority of Canadian homes are below the current Canadian guideline of 200 Bq/m³, first-year results indicate that approximately seven per cent of Canadian homes have elevated radon levels. The two-year project involves gathering long-term (three-month or longer) indoor radon measurement results from across Canada. Over the two years of this study approximately 18,000 participants will be recruited via telephone. In the first year, approximately 9,000 homes were randomly selected across all provinces and territories and a long-term radon test was conducted during the 2009/2010 fall and winter heating season. The second year of the survey is underway. survey-sondage-eng.php

Image DTAH

Survey Reveals Radon Concentrations in Homes

Registrations for the Third International Holcim Awards competition to promote sustainable construction will close on March 23, 2011. Projects are eligible for the competition if they have reached an advanced stage of design. Construction/production must not have started before July 1, 2010. A step-by-step guide to entering the competition is available at:

“Sprinter has the lowest cost of ownership in its class.” Vincentric (independent, automotive researcher)1 Of the many reasons why you should consider a Sprinter, the most notable is its lowest cost of ownership in its class. As a result of having been built to the quality and standards one would expect from a Mercedes-Benz, you’ll enjoy the longest average maintenance intervals along with amazing fuel efficiency. Its taller, wider doors open to reveal an impressive cargo area of up to 547 cubic feet with a 6.4-foot ceiling – and with its payload of up to 5,375 lbs, that means you can load over 100 sheets of drywall, or over 80 bags of concrete. So you can rest assured that by driving a Sprinter, you’re driving profits as well. For more details, visit

The 2011 Mercedes-Benz Sprinter. Starting at $42,900*. © 2011 Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc. *Price does not include Freight, PDI, dealer Administrative fees, GST or PST. 1Based on Vincentric May, 2010 Canada Analysis of 3/4 Ton and 1 Ton vans.

< Industry News

continued from page 10

Coalition Aims To Set Precedent At its recent annual general meeting in Woodbridge, ON, the HVAC Coalition of Ontario presented an outline of its plan to tackle the emerging problem of electric utilities venturing into the HVAC business. According to Martin Luymes, vice president of the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI), the Coalition’s approach will include discussions with the Ministry of Energy, the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), the Electricity Distributors Association (EDA) and the Ontario Energy Association (OEA). These discussions are necessary to register the industry’s willingness to assist in achieving the government’s mandate to pursue aggressive energy conservation targets, primarily through initiatives to be delivered by electric utilities. The HVAC Coalition will be partnering on these efforts at times with the Electrical Contractors Association of Ontario (ECAO), which has addressed some of these issues already before the OEB. Luymes noted that the position that needs to be pre-



sented is that the industry wants to partner in the development and delivery of these initiatives and does not want to see utilities dabbling in HVAC (or electrical contracting) business where healthy competitive industries already exist, on the pretence of needing to achieve conservation targets. As an initial example of action at the local utility level, the Coalition will be addressing the recent activities of Norfolk Power and its unregulated affiliate Norfolk Energy in southwestern Ontario. Initially confined to selling geothermal systems, the company recently started selling furnaces and air conditioning systems. Luymes described the multi-pronged strategy of the Coalition in this case as one intended to induce “shock and awe.” A win in this case may set a precedent for other utilities. For more information, contact Martin Luymes at 800267-2231, ext. 235, or e-mail continued on page 14


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< Industry News

continued from page 12

CASA Names Training Manager The Canadian Automatic Sprinkler Association (CASA) has announced that Jamie McKenzie has joined its staff as national training manager and western regional manager. Based in the Vancouver area, McKenzie has been active in the sprinkler industry since 1976, 31 years of which have

been with SimplexGrinnell. McKenzie will be using his experience as a JTAC management trustee to represent CASA on all local JTAC’s across the country and the national sprinkler industry JTAC as well. McKenzie will serve as manager for the British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba/Saskatchewan regional groups. <>

Canada Green Building Council to Host Greenbuild 2011 The Canada Green Building Council (CaGBC) will be the host committee for Greenbuild 2011, the U.S. Green Building Council’s Annual conference and expo. Greenbuild will be held in Toronto, ON, October 4-7, 2011. As host committee Canada Green Building Council (CaGBC) will work with its chapter executives and local partners to deliver Canadian-centric off-site training, regional education and green building tours. “The CaGBC and USGBC have been longtime allies in the important work of building economic, environmental and social sustainability into the very fabric of our communities,” said Kimberly Lewis, vice president of conferences and events for the U.S. Green Building Council, the organization that convenes Greenbuild each year. “Greenbuild 2011 will be the first time we hold Greenbuild outside the U.S., but it’s been a truly international show for years, with attendees from more than 75 countries joining us in 2009.” The CaGBC will also host its National Symposium in Toronto April 13-14, 2011 with a focus on existing buildings and communities. 14



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A Versatile Palette How to apply multiple water-to-water heat pumps for heating and cooling in commercial applications.


nterest in ground source heat pumps continues to grow in North America and Europe. Although many first learn of this technology in the context of a single heat pump used in a residential application, there are several ways to implement multiple ground source heat pumps in commercial systems. The most common is the use of multiple water-to-air heat pumps served by a common “building loop” piping system as shown in Figure 1. In this system, each water-to-air heat pump can operate in either the heating or cooling mode at any time. The units operating in heating mode extract low grade heat from the building loop, upgrade the temperature of that heat and deliver it through a forced air distribution system that serves a small area of the building, perhaps a single room. When a heat pump switches to cooling mode, it dissipates heat into the building loop and delivers cooled/dehumidified air using the same localized ducting.


Figure 1 A common building loop piping system.

water-to-air heat pump

flex (reinforced) hoses (typical)

air/dirt separator

to / from earth loop

lead / lag circulator set (one circulator operates 24/7)

balancing valve


Photo iStockphoto

fluid feeder

reverse return building distribution piping (may require insulation to prevent condensation)




Figure 2 Three-stage heat plant.


W/W heat pumps (heating only) option of variable speed circulator and zone valves rather than zone circulators

#2 outdoor temperature sensor

#3 to/from other loads staging controller

ďŹ ll/purge to / from earth loop hydraulic separator / air / dirt separator

hydraulic separator / air / dirt separator

ďŹ&#x201A;uid feeder

FROM AIR TO WATER A less well known application involves multiple water-towater (w/w) heat pumps connected to an earth loop. Waterto-water heat pumps deliver their heat output to a stream of water rather than air. The heated water can be used for loads ranging from domestic water heating, to space heating, to snowmelting. For heating only situations, think of a multiple w/w heat pump system as similar to a multiple boiler system. Each heat pump represents a stage of heat production. The number of stages operating at any time depends on the current load. Figure 2 shows how three heating-only w/w heat pumps could be configured into a three-stage heat plant to serve a zoned hydronic distribution system. A hydraulic separator is used to interface the earth loop to the headers serving the left (evaporator) side of the heat pumps. Another hydraulic separator interfaces the right (condenser) side headers to the distribution system. Each heat pump has a circulator with an internal check valve on its evaporator and condenser side. These circulators only operate when their associated heat pump is on. The distribution system could also be designed for a single variable speed pressure-regulated circulator in

nation with zone valves or motorized ball valves. The latter are useful when the required flow rates through the heat pump exceed the nominal flow capacity of zone valves. Figure 3 shows this concept. The zone valves associated with each heat pump open only when that heat pump is operating. The speed of each pressure regulated circulator changes as necessary to maintain a constant pressure differential across the headers as the zone valves open and close. The headers should be designed for a design flow velocity of not more than two feet per second. This allows for very low head loss along the header and makes an ideal situation for constant differential pressure control by the circulator. The configuration shown in Figure 3 will reduce circulator energy use relative to the configuration shown in Figure 2, especially if high efficiency ECM-based circulators are used.

LOAD MATCHING As is true with a multiple boiler system, the greater the number of stages, the better the match between heat output and the load. This may eliminate the need for a buffer tank in the distribution system. Such buffer tanks are required in systems that use a single water-to-water heat continued on page 18 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2011 | HPAC



continued from page 17

Figure 3 Configuration for higher flow rates. #1

W/W heat pumps (heating only) purge valve

zone valve

zone valve #1 outdoor temperature sensor purge valve #1

staging controller

fill/purge to / from earth loop

variable speed pressure regulated circulator

variable speed pressure regulated circulators

hydraulic separator / air / dirt separator

hydraulic separator / air / dirt separator

fluid feeder

pump to supply a zoned distribution system. Most multistage boiler controllers with simple on/ off relay outputs can operate a multiple w/w heat pump system. Techniques such as boiler rotation, in which the operating order of the heat sources is rotated to achieve approximately equal run time, are equally applicable to multiple water-to-water heat pumps. The staging controller could also use outdoor reset control to adjust the supply water temperature to the distribution system based on outdoor conditions. This allows the condenser side of the heat pumps to operate at lower temperatures during partial load conditions. The overall coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be improved relative to systems that operate the heat pumps to maintain a set supply water temperature regardless of load. Multiple heating-only water-to-water heat pumps are well suited to “envelope-dominated” buildings equipped with low temperature hydronic heating distribution systems. Envelope dominated buildings are those in which 18


to/from other loads

the heating load is primarily determined by outside temperature and heat loss through the building’s exterior surfaces (e.g. walls, windows, doors, ceilings, etc). Buildings with heated slab on grade floors in which the maximum tube spacing in the floor slab does not exceed 12-inches are usually excellent candidates. Examples include garages, fire stations, aircraft hangers, vehicle service buildings and small to moderate size retail buildings.


Many water-to-water heat pumps are equipped with refrigerant reversing valves that allow them to operate as either a hydronic heat source or a chiller. When the reversing valve is not energized the unit operates as a heat source. When the reversing valve is powered on by a 24 VAC signal, the previous functions of the evaporator and condenser are reversed and the unit delivers chilled water. Some buildings do not have “envelope-dominated” loads. Instead, they have internal spaces with significant heat generation from people, appliances or industrial processes. Such spaces often require year-round cooling. The load near the perimeter of the building changes from heating to cooling depending on the outdoor temperature and solar heat gain. The system shown in Figure 1, which uses multiple water-to-air heat pumps, is the standard approach to provide both heating and cooling in such buildings. However, reversible water-to-water heat pumps bring some unique opportunities to such applications. One opportunity is when either a radiant panel or chilled beam cooling is used to offset the sensible cooling load, while one or more chilled water air handlers, equipped with drip pans, handles the latent cooling load. Chilled water continued on page 20

Introducing the


continued from page 18

Figure 4 Configuration for supply of heated and chilled water.


reversing valve




thermal expansion valve






heat pump


reversing valve

3-way diverter valve

heat pump

compressor B

reversing valve




thermal expansion valve


3-way diverter valve

heat pump

compressor B

hydraulic separator / air / dirt separator

thermal expansion valve




3-way diverter valve


fluid feeder


reversing valve

radiant floor distribution



temperature controller

chilled water cooling distribution

to / from earth loop

heat pump

thermal expansion valve




simultaneous loads heat pump

is required for all of these terminal units. The water supplied to the air handler must have a temperature low enough to sustain the necessary rate of moisture removal (e.g. latent cooling load). The chilled water supplied to radiant panels or chilled beams must be a few degrees above the dewpoint temperature of the space to avoid condensate formation. The latter is usually accomplished using a mixing valve regulated by a dewpoint controller. Figure 4 shows a way to configure multiple water to water heat pumps to simultaneously supply both heated and chilled water. This system includes two buffer tanks, one for heated water and the other for chilled water. Either tank can be supplied from any of the upper three reversible w/w heat pumps at any time. Each of these heat pumps uses a single load side circulator and diverting valve to determine which set of mains its output is directed to. A controller monitors the temperature of each buffer tank and

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stages on heat pumps in either heating or cooling mode to maintain each tank within an acceptable temperature range. The earth loop circulator is turned on only when the temperature of the fluid in the headers on the left side of the heat pump array drifts outside a preset range. Each buffer tank in this system does “double duty” in the sense of providing hydraulic separation of the circulator(s) in the distribution system from those providing flow through the heat pumps. When there is a simultaneous demand for both heating and cooling, the w/w heat pump shown at the bottom of the schematic operates in “double duty.” It extracts low grade heat from the chilled water buffer tank and dissipates that heat, along with the heat generated by its compressor, into the heated water buffer tank. This heat pump operates at a very high effective COP considering that the electrical energy by a single comHPGSales_HPAC 11/24/2010 1:56 used PM Page 1

pressor produces both heating and cooling capacity. Any supplemental heating or cooling required to maintain the buffer tanks within acceptable temperature limits is handled by the upper group of heat pumps operating in whatever mode is required. Ground source heat pump systems will continue to gain market share in North America. HVAC designers, especially those dealing with hydronic heating and cooling systems, should learn how to leverage the unique characteristics offered by water-to-water heat pumps. <> John Siegenthaler, P.E. is the author of Modern Hydronic Heating. The third edition of this book is now available. Visit his website hydronicpros. com for reference information and software to assist in hydronic system design. Siegenthaler can be reached at

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Beyond Standard Air The impact of altitude on the performance of heating, cooling and air moving equipment must be considered prior to specifying. BY JOHN MURPHY


he effects of altitude on psychrometric calculations and fan selection is a subject that still causes confusion within the industry and continues to be the subject of frequently-asked questions.


As altitude increases, the average barometric pressure drops and air density decreases. Standard air has historically been defined by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) as having a density of 0.075 lb/ft3, which equates to air density at sea level (barometric pressure of 29.92 in. Hg). The 2009 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals (page 18.13) states that this condition is represented by either saturated air at 60F dry bulb, or dry air at 69F dry bulb. Since the performance of heating, cooling, and air-moving

equipment is commonly rated at standard air conditions, catalogued performance data cannot be used directly for higher altitude applications. For instance, at a barometric pressure of 24 in. Hg (approximately 6,000 ft. altitude), catalogued data may be off by as much as 20 to 40 per cent. While areas above 6,000 ft. are statistically limited, a number of locations have barometric pressures in the range of 29 to 27 in. Hg. In this range, catalogued ratings may differ from actual conditions by three to 20 per cent. FAN PERFORMANCE DATA

Fans are considered to be constant-volume devices. That is, a given fan will deliver a specific volumetric flow rate (cfm) at a specific fan rotational speed (rpm). The mass of air that the fan moves at a given speed will vary based on


The equations used in psychrometric calculations remain the same for all altitudes. However, some of the factors used in these equations are affected by altitude. The sensible heat gain (QS) equation is often displayed as follows:

0.075 lb/ft3 × 0.241 Btu/lbF × 60 min/hr = 1.085 The latent heat gain (QL) equation is often displayed as follows: QL = 0.69 × cfm × ∆W (gr/lb)

QS = 1.085 × cfm × ∆T However, the 1.085 in this equation is not a constant. Rather, it is the product of the density (r) and specific heat (Cp) of the air at standard air conditions, and the conversion factor of 60 minutes per hour.

However, the 0.69 in this equation is not a constant. Rather, it is the product of the density and latent heat of vaporization (∆hvap) of the air at standard air conditions, and the conversion factors of 60 minutes per hour and 7,000 grains/lb.

QS = (r × Cp × 60 min/hr) × cfm x ∆T

QL = (r × ∆hvap × 60 min/hr / 7,000 gr/lb) × cfm × ∆W

The specific heat for 69F dry air at sea level is 0.241 Btu/lbF. Therefore, at standard air conditions, these properties result in the value 1.085.

The latent heat of vaporization for 69F dry air at sea level is 1,076 Btu/lb. Therefore, at standard air conditions, these properties result in the value 0.69.



Air Density Ratio

Figure 1 Air Density Ratios Elevation


Sea level 1000 ft. 2000 ft. 3000 ft. 4000 ft. 5000 ft. 6000 ft. 7000 ft.

29.92 in Hg. 28.86 in. Hg. 27.82 in. Hg. 26.81 in. Hg. 25.84 in. Hg. 24.89 in. Hg. 23.98 in. Hg. 23.09 in. Hg.

to selecting a fan. The procedure for selecting a fan at actual altitude (or temperatures) is outlined in the following steps: 1) Determine the actual air density and calculate the air density ratio, which is the density of air at actual conditions divided by density at standard conditions. Figure 1 provides a useful chart for determining the air density ratio based on altitude and air temperature. Air Density Ratio = Densityactual Densitystandard 2) Divide the design static pressure at actual conditions by the air density ratio determined in Step 1. SPstandard = SPactual Air Density Ratio

Air Temperature, ˚F

the density of the air being moved. Air density also changes the static pressure that the fan will develop and the horsepower needed to drive it. Fan and air handler manufacturers typically catalogue fan performance data at standard air conditions. If the airflow requirement for a given application is stated at non-standard conditions, a density correction must be made prior

3) Use the actual design airflow (cfm) and the static pressure corrected for standard conditions (see Step 2) to select the fan from the performance tables/charts and to determine the speed (rpm) and horsepower requirement of the fan at standard conditions. 4) The fan speed (rpm) is the same at both actual and standard conditions. RPMactual = RPMstandard

(0.075 lb/ft3 × 1076 Btu/lb × 60 min/hr)/7,000 gr/lb = 0.69 The total heat gain (QT) equation is often displayed as follows: QT = 4.5 × cfm × ∆h However, the 4.5 in this equation is not a constant. Rather, it is the product of the density of the air at standard air conditions and the conversion factor of 60 minutes per hour. QT = (r × 60 min/hr) × cfm × ∆h For standard air density, the result is the value 4.5.

5) Multiply the input power requirement by the air density ratio to determine the actual input power required. Poweractual = Air Density Ratio × Powerstandard It is important to note that most pressure loss charts for other system components, such as ducts, filters, coils, and dampers, are also based on standard air conditions. Summary

Although the wide-scale use of computer software to select HVAC equipment has made the process of correcting for altitude simpler, a fundamental understanding is still important to prevent mistakes and troubleshoot problems. <>

0.075 lb/ft3 × 60 min/hr = 4.5 Air at other conditions and other altitudes will cause these factors to change.

John Murphy is an applications engineer with Trane, a business of Ingersoll Rand in La Crosse, WI. This article originally appeared in Trane’s Engineers Newsletter, December 2010 ( JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2011 | HPAC


< plumbing

Don’t Forget To Flush BY STEVE GOLDIE



Photo: Bradford White-Canada

sumer might have had a difficult time hiring an installer willing or able to install a tankless, whereas today there are many companies who specialize in these installations. Tankless water heaters have definitely become mainstream, and like them or not, they are here to stay. Both the benefits and the limitations of the technology are now well understood. For the most part I have seen a dramatic improvement in how these appliances are installed and applied over the past couple of years. However, in the area of maintenance there is still a lack of awareness, both by installers and end users, of how important it is that these units get serviced, and specifically flushed on an annual basis. The flow through design and relatively narrow water passages in the heat exchangers make them very susceptible to scale build up. This will decrease efficontinued on page 26

Figure 1 Flushing Set Up

Graphic: Rinnai America


ince 2011 represents the start of my fourth decade in the plumbing and heating industry, I definitely feel old enough to say things like “time flies.” The older I get, the faster it flies so this past decade, the one I have spent mostly on the wholesale side of the business, has been a bit of a blur. When I pause to consider how things have changed it is somewhat staggering and can make an old brain freeze up. So instead of attempting a comprehensive overview of what is new in our world and taking the risk of pushing my grey matter into lockout mode, I am going to have a look at just one of the newer technologies: the tankless water heater. To keep things really simple, I am going to focus on its maintenance requirements. The tankless, or “on demand” water heater could more accurately be described as a borrowed rather than a new technology since it has been widely used for decades in other parts of the world. When I put down the tools and came to the wholesale world almost 10 years ago, there were barely more than a couple of manufacturers trying to carve out a tiny market share, and none of the major tank style companies offered a tankless option. Today, there are multiple companies fighting for a significant and growing market share and all of the traditional tank style manufacturFlushing is relatively easy ers now have tankless if the appliance is installed options of their own. with isolation/purge valves. Ten years ago a con-


Fossil tooth from Leonodus, earliest known shark.


First SharkBite push-fit fitting, 1/2" coupling.

Only the fittest survive and thrive. And the fittest fittings. That’s why SharkBite push-fit fittings have quickly evolved from our first 1/2" coupling to the industry’s only Total Rough-In Solution™ . With a fast-growing full line of 1/4" to 1"

push-fit fittings and PEX tubing, and a wide range of valves with integral SharkBite connectors. Speed, depth and dominance. It all makes SharkBite the natural selection.

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< plumbing

continued from page 24

Isolation/purge valves, from a number of be installed on all

Photo: Webstone

tankless water heaters.

Photo: Watts Canada

manufacturers, should

ciency and lead to premature failures if left unchecked. This is by no means a criticism of the design -- it is simply physics at work. All of the water we pipe to our houses, our potable water, has different degrees of dissolved mineral solids within it and they are measured in parts per million (ppm) which is one milligram per litre of water. When we talk about “hard” or “soft” water this is what we are referring to. Many people seem to believe that if they have “soft” water there is no risk of scale build up in their water heating appliances, but this is untrue as even soft water can contain up to 60 ppm of minerals. These minerals, most commonly calcium carbonate and magnesium, have been dissolved and absorbed into the rivers, lakes and groundwater systems that we draw our potable water from. As we heat this water up the minerals become less soluble, meaning they crystallize and look for something to “grab hold” of. This is usually the bottom of your kettle, or the reservoir of your coffee maker. Every appliance we use to heat up water is going to have scale build up eventually, and the tankless water heater is no different. So now that we know where the scale comes from, how do we get rid of it? In a tankless water heater, the best way to deal with it is by regularly flushing the appliance with a de-scaling solution. This procedure is relatively easy, particularly if the appliance has been installed with a pair of isolation/purge valves. These valve sets are available from many of the tankless manufacturers as well as from at least a couple of valve companies. The isolation/purge valves allow one to shut the appliance off on both the inlet and outlet side, isolating it from the piping system. The purge valves enable the connec26


tion of hoses through which the de-scaling solution is circulated. As shown in Figure 1, a suitable de-scaling kit would consist of a five-gallon bucket, a pair of laundry hoses and a small pump, either submersible or an inline transfer pump. The solution would be placed in the bucket and circulated in a closed loop through the appliance and back to the bucket. The duration and frequency of this procedure depends on just how hard the water is and how much use the appliance gets, but once a year is a good starting point and 45 minutes should be long enough. If it has been left too long between flushings it may take longer and perhaps the frequency should be adjusted accordingly. The solution should be allowed to circulate until it is returning to the bucket clean. Once the appliance has been de-scaled, the solution can be poured down the drain. The process should be repeated with fresh clean water until all traces of the solution have been removed. Most manufacturers provide detailed de-scaling instructions in their manuals, but who reads those things. As for de-scaling solution, there are several options. Most wholesalers stock some type of de-scaling, or de-liming solution, but be sure to confirm whichever one you choose is suitable to be used in potable systems. CLR is also an option, which is approved for use in potable systems, but my choice is plain and simple vinegar. Straight white vinegar is a cheap and effective solution that can be used full strength or in a 50/50 water to vinegar mixture. Vinegar is a good choice to clean those shower heads up as well, as they get plugged up with the same calcium scale that plugs up the inside of tankless water heaters. I guess cold showers could be a solution as well but not one I would be too happy to employ. If you want to keep the hot showers flowing for you and your customers, do not forget to flush. <> Photo: Noritz

which are available

Steve Goldie is with Noble as manager of the heating department. In his current position Goldie focuses on product specification and system design solutions. He can be reached at

Liberty pumps offers 6 different series of sump pumps to meet your specific pumping needs. All feature energy efficient motor designs that minimize energy consumption. For the absolute best in basement groundwater protection look no further than Liberty Pumps!

8 0 0 . 5 4 3 . 2 5 5 0

280-Series 450-Series



250-Series Copyright Š Liberty Pumps, Inc. 2010 All rights reserved.


One of Americas fastest growing,


Capable of navigating 1½-winch pressurized The Turbopower 99 from Engineered Water

Saniflo Canada has introduced Sanistar, a

lines and taking 90-degree turns typical in

Heating Solutions is a condensing gas wa-

wall-hung toilet with no external water tank.

pool piping, Ridgid’s SeeSnake microDrain

ter heater with 99 percent thermal efficien-

The macerator pump and an electrical acti-

D65S camera system allows for inspections

cy. Heaters are available with inputs from

vated flushing mechanism are built-in. The

in lines up to three inches. The system fea-

500,000-to 2-million Btu and store 330 to

unit comes with a wall bracket system, which

tures a 65-foot flexible cable and a 22 mil-

1,200 gallons of water at set point tempera-

can be mounted inside the wall and adjusted

limetre camera head. It stands 17.5 inches

ture. Flue products can be vented through

to a height that is most comfortable for the

high, 6.6 inches wide and weighs less than

PVC pipe. 24612_GRA_AD_HalfPage.qxd

user. PM Page 1

10 pounds.


Eco-Friendly Solutions for Restaurants from Bradford White ®

Bradford White® is proud to have earned the endorsement of the Green Restaurant Association for both the UltraEfficient eF Series® of commercial water heaters and the energy-saving line of EverHot® tankless water Heaters. The Green Restaurant Association endorses products that exemplify environmental leadership in their category and meet the GRA Product Endorsement Standards. GRA’s environmental consultants work hand in hand with manufacturers to assess their products and give them GRA’s endorsement stamp of approval. Since 1990, The GRA has been helping restaurants cut energy, water and waste costs. The GRA has been instrumental in helping restaurants realize that environmental responsibility can equal fiscal gain. Some Certified Green Restaurants® save thousands of dollars each year, and through the help of the GRA’s consultants, are able to access rebates, incentives and other money saving programs. Bradford White’s commitment to green innovation and environmental responsibility is evident in many of the products currently available from Bradford White wholesalers. Talk to your Bradford White representative about all of Bradford White’s Eco-Friendly water heating solutions.

Built to be the Best eF Series Ultra High Efficiency Water Heaters ®



EverHot Tankless Water Heaters ® | Mississauga, ON | 866.690.0961 ©2011, Bradford White Corporation. All rights reserved.

85% Facial coverage Better protection 20% than other eye/facewashes

Axor, the designer brand of Hansgrohe, has introduced Axor Urquiola, a collection that extends from faucets to washbasins, bathtubs and accessories. The faucets have generously-shaped levers and the singlehole faucet incorporates a toothbrush holder or soap dish on one side while the handle comes up from the other side. The vessel sinks and tubs are a modern interpretation of an old fashioned washtub created in a single cast. Both sides of the washbasins feature slot-like openings like the handles of a washtub, which serve a practical function as a towel or washcloth holder.

Liberty Pumps’ CSP-series crawl space pump kit is designed to remove unwanted groundwater from around foundations, crawl spaces and lowlying areas. The kit, which is compatible with Liberty’s 1/3-horsepower and ½-horsepower energy sump pumps, features a 15-inch high sump basin has ½-inch perforated holes to allow water to enter the unit.




QA Graphics has created a web interface to streamline the integration process of its Energy Efficiency Education Dashboard (EEED) with Johnson Controls Inc.’s Metasys building management system. The new web application is an interface between the MSEA network and Data Manager, which collects the live building data to distribute it for viewing on the final EEED interface. After installing

The Dewalt Plumbing Quick Check: Extreme

the web application, it handles the point con-

Duty Edition includes the most commonly

figuration, MSEA login, MSEA data retrieval,

used mathematical formulas simplified and

Designed for driving or removing sheet metal

and the formatting of the returned data for

compiled in a durable, easy-to-use reference

screws in tight spaces and blind spots, the

display on the EEED.

guide. The step-by-step approach and practi-

Mighty-Right right angle impact driver fea-

cal examples used in the text convey impor-

tures an LED light integrated into bit area

tant math concepts to enhance code compli-

sight line with a separate on/off switch. With

ance and installation safety. Topics include

a fully-charged battery, it is capable of deliv-

the conversion of water measurements, siz-

ering 140 in-lbs. maximum torque. The hex

ing horizontal drains, sizing vent pipe and

socket drive shaft accepts any ¼" hex shank



TurboTorch has introduced a durable and lightweight tote with a telescopic pull handle. It is designed to accommodate an acetylene “B” tank. The tote is constructed with

Circle Snap torch cutting guides are ideal for

a wide stable base and metal framework.

weldlets, threadlets and matching saddlecut

It also features multiple pockets designed

Thermo-Snap Clamps are suited to multi-use

holes, according to Sumner Manufactur-

to hold alloys, tips and handles. There is a

applications, including copper, PVC and ABS

ing. They come in three holders, each with

metal sleeve for hot tip storage and an ad-

pipes. Available in five heavy duty sizes, the

four hole sizes ranging from 17/16 inches to

justable security strap to secure the tote in

pre-mounted brackets are UV protected and

213/16 inches. Each guide contains earthen

a vehicle. The tote is also available in a kit.

are easy to reopen to make an addition.

magnets that secure them to steel plate or

pipe while cutting.




MANUFACTURERS • distributors • wholesalers • associations

A Popular Manoeuvre: Two industry Leaders Move To Split Businesses Under an initiative approved by its board, Fortune Brands has announced plans to separate its three consumer businesses, including Fortune Brands Home & Security LLC. With annual sales exceeding $3 billion, its largest single brand is Moen. The intent is to spin off Home & Security to shareholders.  ITT Corporation recently announced that it will separate the company’s businesses into three distinct, publicly traded companies. Under the plan, ITT would execute tax-free spin offs to shareholders of its water-related businesses and its Defense & Information Solutions segment. ITT shareholders will own shares in all three corporations following the completion of the transaction. ITT expects to finalize and execute the plan before the end of this year. Following the spinoff, a standalone, renamed water technology corporation will be formed through the combination of three of ITT’s current businesses: Residential & Commercial Water, Flow Control and Water & Wastewater. Gretchen McClain, currently president of ITT Fluid and Motion Control, will lead the standalone corporation.

Hydronic Marketing Strategy Gets The Go Ahead The Canadian Hydronics Council (CHC) launched an action plan in 2009 to develop a long term strategy for growing the hydronic heating market and to generate the necessary industry commitment to support its vision. CHC recently announced that 14 major industry manufacturers have joined the marketing program known as Beautiful Heat. With a budget of $5 million over the next three years, the campaign is expected to begin in May 2011.

uct suite and Yorkland’s value-added offerings, clients can expect a total solution as they look for energy savings and meeting their sustainability goals,” said Gerry Cellucci of Yorkland Controls Ltd.

You Knew Them As... Mueller Flow Control has changed its name to Flocor Inc. “Our name may be new, but our management team and employees remain firmly in place,” said Kevin Fullan, Flocor vice president and general manager. “Our warehouse and office locations, phone numbers and contact people also stay the same.” The name change follows a requirement of the ownership change one year ago when Mueller Flow Control was acquired by the Deschenes Group Inc.  In an initiative to better reflect the breadth of the company’s energy-efficient product offerings, Exhausto has changed its name to Enervex. The name Enervex is derived from: ENERgy-efficiency, Ventilation, Exhaust and eXchange/ recovery. “Today, our focus is much broader than exhaust systems. We are using our background in energy-efficient product development to create a variety of applications in many different industries. As a result, it’s critical that our name evokes the full scope of our capabilities,” explained Enervex CEO, Steen Hagensen. continued on page 32


• Heatlink Group Inc. is moving its Mississauga,

Yorkland Deal Puts Complete Analytical Package In Its Offerings As the first eSight Energy business partner in Canada, Yorkland Controls Ltd. will be reselling eSight as a part of a complete analytical package to help clients optimize their facilities and save on energy costs. “We are excited about representing eSight as we consider their offering the best solution to our marketplace in the energy analytics field. Together with eSight’s

ON operations to Units 5-7, 2810 Argentia Road. The new warehouse is larger with three trailer height loading and shipment bays. According to Heatlink, the features of the new building will facilitate quicker turnarounds and improve its ability to meet the needs of its Eastern Canadian customers. HPG Sales, a division of Hydronic Parts Group, has moved its London, ON location to 41 Adelaide St. N., Units 77-79, ON N6B 3P4, tel. 519-649-1908, fax. 519-649-6348.




continued from page 31

Celebrating 90 Years Of Innovation And Growth Bradley Corporation was founded in 1921, four years after Harry Bradley (founder of Allen Bradley Corporation) designed the washfountain with the intention of saving workers’ washing time, floor space and water consumption in factories. Today, Bradley continues to design and manufacture commercial plumbing fixtures, washroom accessories and partitions, emergency fixtures and solid plastic lockers. “Starting with the concept of the washfountain, which is still manufactured 90 years later, Bradley continues to reinvent exciting new washroom technologies,” said Jon Dommisse, director of marketing and product development for Bradley Corp. “From day one our mission has been to manufacture green products and technologies that help customers reduce water consumption and energy costs. We use recycled materials and new technologies, such as photovoltaics, in our products, and continue to make our manufacturing processes more efficient with less waste.”


• Noble, a subsidiary of Rona,

Bradley Then and Now 



has acquired the assets of La Boutique Plomberie Décoration 25 Inc. of St-Eustache, QC. La Boutique de Plomberie Décoration 25 specializes in the retail sales of plumbing products and fixtures with one retail store and one parts outlet. It has a 15,000 squarefoot showroom with more than 30 complete bathroom settings on display. An expansion project will add another 10,000 square feet. SIE, located in Baie-D’Urfé, QC, has become a division of Laurentide Controls Ltd. SIE will continue to operate out of its current location and the telephone number (800-3638482) remains the same. SIE is a manufacturers’ representative and an A.S.M.E. certified assembler of safety valves for air, steam, liquids and gases. Laurentide Controls is the exclusive sales and service representative in Eastern Canada for Emerson Process Management companies as well as companies such as Velan, ABZ, Det-Tronics. The MCS division has separated from Munters Group to establish an independent company called Polygon. Representatives describe it as “a customer centric organization dedicated to delivering right first time solutions for the prevention and mitigation of fire, water and the effects of humidity.”

PEOPLE Belimo has hired Luc Brochu as bilingual district sales manager for the Montreal, QC region. He brings 14 years experience in the HVAC industry, with a specialty in refrigeration, to the position. Royal Group recently announced that it Brochu has appointed three new staffers to its pipe systems division. Steven Piper was named national specification manager for Canada, Alice Tourout was named customer service director for North America and Chad Hall was named western regional sales manager for electrical fittings in the United States. Prior to joining Royal Group, Piper was president of Piper Technical Services and a specification engineer for Harrington Corporation. Tourout most recently worked at Brenntag Inc., where she was responsible for customer service and business process improvements. Thomas Ramsey has joined Purafil Inc. as its director of business development. In his new role Ramsey will focus on the development of strategic business relationships and commercializing Purafil products and services within a

Join The Green Scene

newly-formed business unit identified as Purafil Scientific, and across the company. Paul Sellars has been named vice president of sales for Reliance Worldwide USA, manufacturers and distributors of Cash Acme and SharkBite branded products. Prior to joining Reliance, Sellars served as director of sales for Rinnai America Corporation, Sellars with previous positions at State Industries, Jacuzzi Whirlpool Bath and Kohler Co. Wolseley Canada has named 25-year industry veteran Joe Marques to the position of manager of national accounts. Previously regional sales manager, southwest for Wolseley’s Ontario Mechanical Group, Marques’ Marques earlier roles include national retail coordinator, retail sales account manager and branch manager with Emco. Wolseley has also named Roch St-Hilaire general manager, HVAC/R Group St-Hilaire for Eastern Canada.

New WatcoFlex Bath Waste ...installs faster/easier TM

Special patent pending PVC flexible tubing. Eliminates four field joints. Innovator overflow parts assemble by hand. No screws. Approved by IAPMO. It’s green. You’ll get used to seeing it. Just ask your wholesaler


1220 South Powell Road, Independence, MO 64057-2724 Phone 816-796-3900 • FAX 816-796-0875 A Division of WCM Industries, Inc.




The Optima Series of hydronic controls from Triangle Tube includes four new boiler controls to integrate the boiler with other

The ePIV two-way valve from Belimo directly measures flow by combining a magnetic flow meter

heat sources such as solar or geothermal

and a two-way control valve. The ePIV now ranges in size from 2½" to 6".

systems. The controls can also be used to connect and control up to 16 boilers with full modulation, outdoor reset and lead stage rotation.

Caleffiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 163 and 164 Series radiant Hydromixers are designed for direct mounting to a Hydrolink 559 Series hydraulic separator/ manifold. The 163 Series provides a fixed

The H Series hydronic wall heater from King

temperature constant flow to maintain a low

Electrical Mfg. Company is designed for small spaces. The unit can be used for sup-

Taco, Inc. and Schneider Electric have collab-

temperature radiant panel. The 164 Series

plemental heat in a floor heating system or

orated on the development of Advantage, a

incorporates a modulating three-point float-

in laundry rooms, mud rooms and hallways.

line of commercial variable speed AC drives,

ing actuator to regulate the fluid temperature

Features include a silent squirrel cage blow-

which includes open and enclosed models.

in heating and air conditioning systems in

er, a permanently lubricated motor and bare

The compact S-Flex enclosed drive offers

response to a separately sourced outdoor

copper tube ends for water connection.

preprogrammed parameters for pump appli-

reset controller. Both Series come with a

cations, EZ-M mounting and a dedicated wir-

three-speed pump, check valve, adjustable

ing terminal block.

differential pressure bypass valve, supply and return temperature gauges and secondary circuit shut-off valves.

Honeywell has introduced enhancements to its Aquatrol hydronic boiler controls to simplify installation. Aquatrol comes with intuitive, colour-coded wiring terminals. It is pre-programmed with common installation settings, but for advanced customized options, a plain-language digital screen guides users through on-screen menus. Its modular design allows expansion up to 64 zones of heating. It will work with any digital thermostat and control up to two stages of heating.



The Danfoss AB-QM control valve line is available in ½" to 6", with flow rates up to 640

Fulton’s Tribute model boiler is designed with

gpm. It can be specified with electronic or

the capability to operate at sub 9 ppm NOx

non-electronic actuators. Designed to re-

with the Fulton SC-750 advanced boiler con-

place both the control valve and the manual

trol system. It utilizes a fibre mesh burner,

balancing valve, the AB-QM can be properly

variable-speed fan and integrated gas train.

The wall-mounted, modulating-condensing

sized using only the flow requirement.

The Tribute features full 4 to 1 modulation

Mascot II low NOx boiler from Laars is a

and a stainless steel jacket.

sealed-combustion, fully-modulating system. It is available as a 125 MBH input boiler or combination boiler and water heater. The boiler features a built-in condensate trap and

Bryan Triple-Flex™ boiler technology delivers minimum 90% operating efficiencies.

auto air-elimination vent, zero clearance installation, the option of multiple boiler stag-


ing to handle larger sized heating loads, and

Get the industry’s highest operating efficiencies with the Triple-Flex™ Ultra-High Efficiency Condensing Boilers from the flex tube leader, Bryan.

common venting.

Minimum 90% thermal efficiency with 160° return, 180° supply@100% load in the demanding high temperature heating systems found on most projects. Efficiencies of up to 99% will be delivered with lower temperature design systems. Retrofit systems or new installations, one boiler does it all, Bryan Triple-Flex™. Patent Pending

Jaga Climate Systems offers the Iguana-Plus series for use in residential or commercial

Get the whole story now at



Originators of the “Flexible Water Tube” design

buildings, fitting a variety of spaces in new construction builds and retrofits. Each product is also available in more than 30 colours.

Bryan Steam LLC • Leaders Since 1916 783 N. Chili Ave., Peru, IN 46970 / Phone: 765-473-6651 / Fax: 765-473-3074 E-Mail: /

Commercial/Industrial Steam and Hot Water Boilers, Boiler Room Accessories




Robur’s GAHP-AR Series air-to-water reversible heat pump supplies hot water up to 140F With efficiency ratings that range from 80 to

or chilled water down to 37.4F. The same unit

95 per cent AFUE, the low profile Ducane gas

is suitable for heating or cooling by reversing

furnaces from Allied Air Enterprises are avail-

the absorption cycle, using the outside air for

able in five model families. The complete

heat rejection in cooling mode and as a heat

line will include models with variable-speed

source in heating mode.

The Trane XC95m is a fully modulating com-

motors and two-stage gas valve options. All

municating furnace with a variable-speed

units will feature 33-inch high cabinets and

blower motor with Comfort-R technology,

multi-positional upflow/horizontal and down-

which allows cooling, heating humidity con-

flow configurations.

trol. The XC95m features a heavy gauge, two-

tone powder-painted cabinet, durable adaptive silicon Nitride hot surface igniter and a one-piece aluminized steel primary heat exchanger.

Sanyo is offering six new indoor four-way ceiling mounted cassette models to its Flexi Dectron’s Dry-O-Tron DSV Series is designed

Multi line. The indoor models are available

Thermafiber has launched SafingPaks fire

for light commercial and residential indoor

in 9,000, 12,000 and 18,000 Btuh nominal

stop insulation. The precut pieces of Safing

pool and spa areas. The DSV Series includes

capacities. All models are rated at 16+ SEER

Insulation are packaged in a resealable bag

variable frequency drive (VFD) controlled ple-

and 8.5 HSPF. Available in cooling only, with

with an easy-grip handle. Thermafiber miner-

num fans, optional electronically-commutated

low ambient, and heat pump varieties, the

al wool insulation offers recycled content of

(EC) motors, micro channel condensing coils

models can connect to any current Flexi-multi

up to 90 per cent and contributes to 33 LEED

and the Supervisaire controller. The dehu-

outdoor unit and can be used in conjunction

credits across four categories.

midifier offers a choice of three refrigerants:

with wall-mounted units.

R134a, R407C or R410A.



The SMART-Space Controller (SSC) from Reli-

WhisperGreen-Lite models from Panasonic

able Controls has been listed by the BACnet

feature a contemporary flush mount grille

Testing Laboratories in the Other BACnet

with a light fixture and night light. All models include a brushless DC motor and offer

Device category. It is a fully programmable controller with multi-sensor capability and

Dri-Steem offers a redesigned XT electrode

ten-point, on-screen direct control. Designed

steam humidifier line that includes a 5 lbs/

detects and compensates for additional

for small point-count, standalone or distrib-

hr (2.3 kg/h) model. New features include a

static pressure. Select models feature built-

uted network applications supporting up to

corrosion-resistant, stainless steel enclosure

in variable speed controls that range from 0

200 SSCs per network, models include up to

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< heating

Location, Location, Location Does running a gas fireplace in winter increase energy use and reduce room temperature? Research results show that it can if consideration is not given to fireplace and thermostat positioning.


Figure 1 First floor layout of the CCHT Experimental House, hen a fireplace is operated in close proximity to showing fireplace and thermostat locations the houseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s central thermostat, the heat introduced by the fireplace can cause the heating system to delay its normal cycle of operation, affecting energy consumption in the home. As a result, the fireplace ends up essentially replacing the furnace as the main source of heat in the home. Not only is the fireplace usually less efficient than the furnace, but it also directs heat to a single room â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and can leave other rooms cooler in the process. During the past two winters, researchers have used the Canadian Centre for Housing Technologyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (CCHT) twin houses to measure the impact of operating a gas fireplace on energy consumption and on room temperatures. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) funded the project. CCHT is jointly operated by the National Research Council, Natural Resources Canada and CMHC. Three different modes of fireplace operation were examined: continuous evening Legend fireplace operation from It is estimated that almost a 18:00 to 24:00 with the furquarter of Canadian homes have nace providing continuous a gas-burning fireplace, many of air circulation; continuous which are used daily during the evening fireplace operation electrical consumption decreased. However, eveheating season. from 18:00 to 24:00 with ning fireplace operation resulted in an increase in 2007 Natural Resources Canada no continuous air circulatotal energy consumption (natural gas and electricSurvey of Household Energy Use tion provided by the furnace; ity for fan operation) by 12.5 per cent for continand fireplace operation by a deduous furnace fan operation and icated thermostat. Additionally, 11.6 per cent without continuous the impact of fireplace pilot light fan operation. In addition to this, THE FIREPLACE operation was investigated. the temperature in the second The technology examined in this study is a Evening operation of the gas floor bedroom furthest away from direct-vent, zero clearance, natural gas firefireplace heated the main floor the fireplace dropped by up to 2C place, with a standing pilot light and 48W family room, the location of the in the evening. circulating fan. The fireplace has a maxigas fireplace, well above the 22C Operation of the fireplace by mum input of 20,000 Btuh with a measured set-point of the furnace thermodedicated thermostat control steady state efficiency of rated fireplace effistat. During this time, furnace resulted in an average increase in ciency of 76.1 per cent. gas consumption and furnace fan total heating system energy con-



Figure 2 Second floor layout of the CCHT Experimental House

temperatures in the bedrooms on the second floor were 1C to 2C cooler than the rest of the house, on average. The pilot light also had an impact on energy use. It released some heat into the home and reduced furnace operation, resulting in an average increase of five per cent in total energy consumption for heating. The impact of having the opening of the fireplace vent was also examined, but for only four days in relatively mild weather (>0C). A small increase in energy consumption for heating was detected (3.6 per cent increase), however, more data are needed to fully understand this effect. While other models of fireplaces and other house layouts would likely give different results, this experiment highlights the potential for a gas fireplace to actually increase home energy use, and reduce room temperatures. The full project report is available at sumption of 9.8 per cent during the experiment. Despite fireplace.html. this increase in consumption, the total heat output from For more information, contact Marianne Armstrong at the furnace and fireplace combined was 2.3 per cent lower. FLIR bSeries - HPAC Sep08:3.375x4.875 9/8/08 4:55 PM P 613-991-0967 or <> Because of the near continuous operation of the fireplace,

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< refrigeration

Repeatability Rules Part II


n Part I of this feature (see it online at, September/October p.34), some of the major elements for maintaining maximum system efficiency were discussed. These include maintaining suction line pressure drop at a minimum, setting system set-points to the design criteria and maintaining a schedule of regular maintenance. In addition, the function of the electronic expansion valve (EEV) was discussed, including the negative effects on system performance resulting from high superheat at the evaporator outlet. The next issues to consider are the operation and advantages of using an EEV. What is it about the EEV that makes it a superior choice for consistent superheat control? Let’s look at a very common EEV application, as seen in Figure 1. Liquid refrigerant is supplied to the inlet of the EEV in the same manner that it would be supplied to a mechanical thermostatic expansion valve (TEV). In a mechanical TEV it is the force balance between the refrigerant charge in the sensing bulb (acting against the top of the element diaphragm) versus the sum of the evaporator pressure + adjustment spring pressure (acting against the bottom of

the element diaphragm) that determines what percentage the valve port is open. As the system conditions change, the sensing bulb temperature and evaporator pressure will change, causing a change in the force balance, resulting in a new valve opening percentage. Given the limitations of mechanical operation due to hysteresis of the element diaphragm and adjustment spring, there can frequently be a fair amount of delay and/or overshoot as the valve position changes in response to the conditions. It is because of this that the mechanical TEV cannot be expected to operate at a low superheat without some variation. For that reason its set point will typically be set high enough to ensure that the expected variation will not result in a floodback condition. In addition, the typical mechanical TEV can operate reasonably well down to approximately 40 to 50 per cent of its rated capacity (25 per cent for a balanced ported mechanical TEV). This will prove to be a limiting factor in year round applications where lowering the head pressure in the colder ambient temperatures of spring/fall/ winter can offer more efficient operation and lower energy consumption.

Figure 1 EEV Application


The most effective variety of EEV’s will utilize a step motor to drive the valve open or closed. Unlike common induction or commutated motors, which are designed to rotate continuously, a step motor has the ability to rotate a small fraction of a revolution as it receives the step signal sent by its controller. As applied in EEVs, the step motor transforms its rotation into linear movement by employing a digital linear actuator (DLA): a simple gear train, which then turns a threaded shaft, accomplishing valve opening/closing. An added ben40


Graphic courtesy Sporlan Division – Parker Hannifin Corporation


efit of the DLA is the available increased linear force required to close the valve’s piston against the typical pressure differential present across the valve’s port (see Figure 2). While the EEV is a state of the art valve and has the potential to provide a much more stable superheat than its mechanical counterpart, it only operates in response to the controller’s signal. In a sense it is a “stupid” component. Without a controller outfitted with a well-conceived algorithm (program) that has been properly fine tuned in the field for its particular application…well, let’s just say that a state of the art Ferrari is not going to win any races with some bum behind the wheel. The technology is only as good as the “brain” directing the racecar’s operation. Likewise, to receive the maximum potential benefit from the marvelous technology that the EEV offers it is essential that its control be the result of the top expertise and experience of the person/persons creating the algorithm, and the field personnel’s ability to fine tune the adjustable parameters.

“…a state of the art Ferrari is not going to win any races with some bum behind the wheel. The technology is only as good as the “brain” directing the racecar’s operation.” Figure 2 Step Motor With Gear Train


Given that the function of an expansion valve is to maintain superheat at the evaporator outlet, temperature and pressure from that location is supplied to the EEV controller via a temperature sensor and pressure transducer. The controller is outfitted with a sophisticated PID (proportional, integral, derivative) algorithm that has been designed to calculate the superheat from the temperature and pressure data supplied to it, and then drive the step motor to the position required to maintain the superheat set point. Without going into a lot of technical jargon to describe the function of the PID, let’s simply state this: »»The P function allows the controller to change the output (valve position) in proportion to the input (superheat). »»The I function will sense the average deviation from the set point and apply an offset to compensate for this deviation (which is continually changing in response to

the system load and system condition changes). »» The D function will sense the superheat’s rate of change, and uses this to attempt a prediction of future valve position. It is this complex set of instructions that will constantly monitor the superheat and minutely drive the EEV open or closed in either small or large increments to meet the constantly changing conditions any HVAC/R system might see. For example, a large tonnage EEV applied on a chiller would have approximately 6,400 steps of stroke from a fully open position to a fully closed position. That is a linear distance of .0000783 inches per step of resolution. Couple this minute amount of change in valve stroke with the instantaneous nature of digital control and it is easy to see how the EEV can offer superior control over its mechanical counterpart. A MAJOR BENEFIT

Now, let’s look at another one of the major benefits of the EEV as compared to the mechanical TEV. That is its ability to operate at a very low percentage of its rated capacity. While most air conditioning applications will typically operate only during warmer months of the year, refrigeration equipment will operate year around. As discussed in the opening segment, lowering the compression ratio will result in a significant increase in compressor capacity. Additionally, lowering the pressure that the compressor pistons must operate against (discharge pressure) will yield a lower motor amp draw, further increasing the compressor efficiency. continued on page 42

Table I Comparative Compressor Performance Data Saturated Suction Temp Degrees F

Saturated Condensing Temp Degrees F

Current Amps

Compressor Capacity Btu/h











< refrigeration

continued from page 41

Table II Comparative Expansion Valve Capacities At Varying Condensing Temperatures Evaporator Condensing Liquid Î&#x201D;P Across Temperature Temperature Temperature Expansion Degrees F Degrees F Degrees F Valve Port

Expansion Valve Nominal Capacity Btu/h

Expansion Valve Actual Capacity Btu/h

% of Rated Capacity Required




A seemingly simple solution would be to -20 60 50 75 1 12,593 135% oversize the expansion -20 40 50 45 1 10,366 164% valve so that there would be sufficient capacity year around, but the limitations of Table I illustrates the drastic improvements in compressor the mechanical TEV and the fact that it can only operate capacity and motor amperage for a Discus semi-hermetic down to approximately 40 per cent of its rated capacity compressor by taking advantage of the natural lower ambiprevent this possibility. Oversizing the expansion valve to ent temperatures during the colder months, and lowering the provide sufficient capacity during reduced ambient condicondensing temperature to 70F. tions would result in floodback problems during the sumAs such, it makes sense to take advantage of the lower mer months. ambient temperatures during the spring/fall/winter months Now, with the EEVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to precisely control superheat and allow the equipment to operate at reduced discharge down to approximately 10 per cent of its rated capacity, it pressures. can readily be oversized to provide the needed capacity at There are three conditions that will determine the expanthe reduced ambient condition, and still maintain consission valve capacity (EEV or mechanical TEV); temperature tent superheat during the summer months when the valve of the liquid refrigerant entering the expansion valve, satucapacity is much greater than the evaporator load. ration temperature of the refrigerant in the evaporator and The EEV has been available for use in systems since the the pressure drop across the expansion valve port. It is early 1990s. It is proven and reliable and offers the most quite common for the typical supermarket multiplex rack stable and consistent control of the superheat at the outlet to utilize a subcooler, maintaining the liquid refrigerant at a of the evaporator. This allows any air conditioning or refrigconstant temperature year around. eration system to operate at peak efficiency; one major It is also common to see some form of suction line regbenefit of the EEV. Another is the simplicity in setting it. ulator, which will keep the evaporator saturation temperaRather than the countless hours spent setting the 100+ ture fairly constant. This leaves the pressure drop across mechanical TEVs used in the typical supermarket applicathe expansion valve port as the only condition that might tion of yesteryear, now that labour can be reduced to a vary during the course of the year. The pressure drop quick and easy few minutes per valve, as the superheat set across the expansion valve is directly influenced by the point is easily entered into the controller. discharge pressure, so the expansion valve capacity will Add to those benefits the fact that the EEV can realistically increase or decrease as the discharge pressure increases allow the system to operate at the lowest possible condensor decreases. ing temperature approved by the compressor manufacturer Some compressor manufacturers have approved applicaand there is every reason to specify it. This is yet another tions of their products down to condensing temperatures example of the wonder of advancing technology. <> as low as 40F. While this offers peak compressor efficiency and very low motor amperage draw, the resulting pressure Dave Demma holds a degree in refrigeradrop across the expansion valve at this condition is quite tion engineering and worked as a journeyman low. It is so low that a mechanical expansion valve sized refrigeration technician before moving into the correctly for the summer ambient condition will have insufmanufacturing sector where he regularly trains ficient capacity to meet the evaporator load in the reduced contractor and engineering groups. He can be ambient condition (see the table in Table II, for a 17,000 reached at Btuh application). -20






< hvac


Master Yoda – the E Jedi


ear with me while I take you on a journey to a Galaxy far, far away…where there are five words that every Jedi involved in intergalactic HVAC calls must know, at least on some rudimentary level. We will call them E factor 5 - or E5; those being efficiency, entropy, efficacy, energy and exergy…yes E-X-E-R-G-Y. It is not a spelling mistake and you need to appreciate its significance if you want to be a true Jedi HVAC technician. Yoda, a Jedi master, was a master of E5. He saw a force in everything - either in action (kinetic energy) or waiting to be activated (potential energy). He sensed kinetic energy in sound, light, motion, electrical currents and heat and when advising Luke on his lame efforts to try, he says: “No. Try not. Do or do not.” He is telling Luke to release the force into action – to use kinetic energy. The energy in the force is stored in such things as chemicals, gravity, nuclear and mechanical systems, which have within them all the potential to “do.” Yoda saw this kinetic and potential energy in people. He saw it for what it was, a fixed resource, which was neither created nor destroyed – always conserved and always accessible. Like many processes in the universe, when energy converts from one form to another unrecoverable energy is released, this is measured or described by the word entropy. Entropy expresses the quantity of heat served in beverages from the Chalmun's Cantina on the planet Tatooine, cool44


ing and evaporating into thin air. Indeed, if entropy were an emotion it would follow along the lines of Led Zeppelin, dazed, confused and wasted. Like all master Jedi, Yoda didn’t like to see things wasted. He very much believed in take what you need but use what you take – this is the basis for his philosophy on energy efficiency. For him what goes in also comes out but nothing is wasted or destroyed in the process. In this, the Jedi were also taught to see energy in highly concentrated forms, such as in the light sabers or as an invisible force field to protect their jets during dogfights. The ability for energy to evenly surround the jet was known as its efficacy. Thus the first four words - energy, efficacy, entropy and efficiency are well known to the Jedi and understood by most others but “e-x-e-r-g-y” is the force of energy that is more important than all others. Exergy is wasted by bullies like Darth Vader who had immense power and rather than use an appropriate dose he would unleash tremendous kinetic energy on the least of his enemies in a manner akin to hitting a finishing nail with a 25-lb. sledgehammer – he had a bad attitude and bad exergy efficiency. Here on earth we take the potential energy in gas, oil, coal or wood; chemical forms of energy and release its fullest thermal potential through the combustion process to create heat energy. In the case of space heating, the heat energy is divided up, some is released into the home to

Photo Anton Koschany

“Take only the fuel we need” and “use all that we take” are important principles, but matching up source temperatures with load temperatures is the ultimate goal. BY ROBERT BEAN

condition the occupants and then subsequently flows outside as heat loss. In the case of a condensing boiler or furnace, some is captured but unused in the condensate and some is released out through the venting. When this heat is distributed evenly throughout the house for comfort (like the invisible force field around the Jedi jets) we say it has good efficacy. Low intensity radiant floor cooling and heating like the force field has good efficacy, a high intensity fireplace like the light saber has bad efficacy. In all cases the heat dissipates back into the environment as entropy but the energy first released as heat from the fuel is never destroyed. It just went from a potential form to a kinetic form – this is the First Law of Thermodynamics. When most, if not all of the heat from a unit of energy, travels through the home for comfort conditioning rather than out the venting, or down the drain, we say it is energy efficient. We are taking only the fuel we need and using all that we take (or as much as technology allows). There is one thing however, that is not conserved - rather it is destroyed and unrecoverable - this loss is a loss of exergy. Exergy asks: Why are we taking the potential energy in a nonrenewable energy source and converting it into a high quality temperature of say 1,500C (2,800F) for heating, or using coal fired plants to generate electricity to run a compressor for around -5C (23F) for cooling when all we need in high performance homes conditioned with radiant is low quality fluid temperatures in the range of 15.5C (60F) for cooling and 32C (90F) for heating? Using high quality temperatures for space conditioning is bad exergy efficiency in the same way that Darth Vader has bad exergy efficiency. When we can heat and cool our buildings without using combustion or compression by tapping into renewable energy sources in the earth, sun, wind and water, we have good exergy efficiency because the exergy in these earth elements is significantly closer to what we need to keep us comfortable. Fortunately, exergy efficiency does exist at higher quality temperatures when used in cogeneration coupled to district heating systems, for example. Combustion temperatures of 1,500C (2,800F) can turn water into steam to drive a turbine for electrical power generation resulting in high quality condensate that could be cascaded down in temperature using other heat exchangers for other processes.

It does this until the temperature is low enough to be used for space heating – this as well, would be good exergy efficiency. Exergy efficiency is all about matching up source temperatures with load temperatures and the closer the two are the better the exergy efficiency. So why is this important to the universe? When we convert energy from one form to another we release entropy and in the process destroy exergy. The energy is always conserved but the exergy is lost. For this reason we should only use the fixed supply of nonrenewable energy for high quality applications so the exergy is not destroyed and use low quality energy for low temperature applications so the exergy is always optimized. The magnitude of this challenge is demonstrated by observing plumes of heat coming out of hundreds of thousands of homes during Canadian winters. Society ignorantly sees this as entropy and efficiency (or lack thereof) but the real waste is the loss of exergy. Can you image how beneficial it would be to capture all that exergy which is currently destroyed in every home? If you can see this, then you realize why consolidating thousands upon thousands of exergy inefficient systems into single community-based combined power, heating and cooling plants is essential for sustainability. This is especially true when these plants incorporate renewable energy with nonrenewable energy. Not only do these poly-generation plants extend the availability of nonrenewables for future generations, they provide energy and exergy efficiencies beyond what we currently obtain from traditional systems. Exergy is not a word from: “A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away…” it is a here and now word and must be integrated into today’s energy analysis. May you and yours have good exergy efficiency in 2011. <> Robert Bean, R.E.T., P.L.(Eng.), is a registered practitioner in building construction engineering technology (ASET) and a professional licensee in mechanical engineering (APEGGA). He has over 30 years experience in the construction industry specializing in energy and indoor environmental quality and is the author and lecturer for professional development programs addressing building science, thermal comfort quality, indoor air quality and radiant based HVAC systems. JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2011 | HPAC



The Final Judge

The operation was a success but the patient died: The role of occupant surveys. BY STEPHEN CARPENTER


n October 2010 Enermodal celebrated the first anniversary of its Kitchener, ON headquarters, named A Grander View. A triple LEED Platinum candidate (NC, CI, EB:O&M), the headquarters was designed to be the most energy-efficient office in Canada. One year of monitored building data confirms this goal (see Figure 1). The Headquarters uses 69 kWh/m2 compared with the Canadian average of 375 kWh/m2. This finding confirms Enermodal’s energy modeling predictions (see Figure 2). The first six months of occupancy had higher than predicted energy use, but as Enermodal’s commissioning agents and monitoring and verification (M&V) team fine-tuned building operation, energy use decreased to match predicted usage. These results show the importance of extended commissioning and M&V if buildings are to achieve their performance potential. Building owners and design teams put a great deal of emphasis on the design and construction phase of proj-

WHAT’S REQUIRED? To qualify for the LEED 2009 (optional thermal comfort) or required EB:O&M point, the owner or a consultant must Figure 2 A Grander View – Predicted and Actual Average Daily Energy Use by Month

Photo iStockphoto

Figure 1 Annual Energy Costs

ects and for good reason. Energy efficiency strategies and technology must be incorporated early on to be effective. Yet, creating a truly successful green building is also determined by activities that take place long after the last construction truck has left and the design team has received their cheques. After all, at the end of construction, the trial for the building has just begun, overseen by the final judge: building occupants. Enermodal conducted occupancy surveys for several of its building projects, including A Grander View, and found the results to be a valuable way to discover and correct problems, quantify the value of various building upgrades, and – under LEED 2009 and EB:O&M – achieve a fairly inexpensive LEED point.




send a paper or electronic survey to all occupants and receive responses from at least 30 per cent of occupants. All answers must be on a seven point scale and address defined topics (e.g. acoustic quality, thermal comfort, office furniture). If 20 per cent of respondents indicate they are dissatisfied in a particular subject area, the building design and management team must take action.

tic quality issues, which primarily involved people talking too loudly in the open concept offices with a very quiet HVAC system. Enermodal installed sound masking equipment and educated employees on the importance of using meeting rooms for even relatively short meetings or conference calls.

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS? LEED SURVEY BEST PRACTICES While conducting occupant surveys for LEED is relatively new, there are a few best practices to follow: »» In the case of building renovations, conduct an occupancy survey before and after the changes to quantify the benefits of the improvements (and discover if any aspects of building use were negatively impacted). »» Compare your survey results to a large database of results from other buildings of the same type. For its building clients, Enermodal uses a database of over 400 North American buildings. »» Use a building’s LEED and energy consultant to administer the survey because these firms have the expertise to analyze the results and provide concrete recommendations and associated costs.

For years, the building industry has debated how green buildings affect occupant health and comfort. Occupancy surveys provide quantifiable answers directly from the source. The survey also provides facility managers with a rationale for prioritizing certain building upgrades and expenditures. For the building operator, the surveys often reveal that many employee complaints arise not from true building issues but from a lack of education (e.g., how to correctly customize their work space for thermal or lighting comfort). And finally, all workplaces include individuals who tend to view all things in a negative light. An occupant survey helps owners and facility managers to prove that most people are happy with the office temperature, for example.

WHAT ARE THE COSTS? SURVEY RESULTS Enermodal conducted an anonymous, online occupancy survey of all employees at the site one year after construction completion. The results were compared with a North American database of results from other buildings. The building received the following results as percentage of satisfied employees and its percentile compared with the database of buildings: As a result of this data, Enermodal targeted the acousTable 1 Occupant Satisfaction General Building Satisfaction

% Employees Satisfied







Cleanliness & Maintenance



Office Furnishings



Air Quality



Office Layout



Thermal Comfort



Acoustic Quality



Not all LEED consultants provide the survey administration, analysis and recommendations as part of their service offering and the cost will vary by consultant. But generally, the occupant survey is a relatively inexpensive LEED point to target. Some property managers worry that negative results in certain areas of the survey will shine a light on problem areas of the building, leading to employee unrest. However, in Enermodal’s experience, the problems highlighted by the survey are there (and annoy occupants) regardless of whether or not they are overtly identified and solved. Given the amount of time, money and effort that goes into designing and constructing a high performance green building, it only makes sense to invest in an occupant survey to find out if you succeeded. <> Stephen Carpenter, P.Eng., LEED AP, president of Enermodal Engineering, was the co-author of the LEED Canada Reference Manual and has served on many Canada Green Building Council (CaGBC) committees to develop new LEED rating systems and application guides. JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2011 | HPAC


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COHA Boiler and Efficiency Training

Information on the Canadian Hydronics Council two-day Introduction to Hydronic Heating Installations course is available at or tel. 416-695-0447.

The Canadian Oil Heat Association (COHA) is offering burner and efficiency training courtesy of R.W. Beckett Canada Ltd. with trainer Steve Lamoureux. Visit or tel. 905-946-0264.

HRAI SkillTech Academy

CMCEF National Seminar Program

Subsidies and incentives are available for SkillTech’s residential courses, including the new Indoor Air Quality Awareness three-day program.

The Canadian Mechanical Contracting Education Foundation program includes: commissioning, dispatcher training, change out and project management.

LEED Canada Training

Solar Installer Certification Programs

Sign up for one of the Canada Green Building Council’s (CaGBC) LEED workshops at or tel. 613-241-1184.

For information on Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA) workshops and training courses, visit or tel. 866-522-6742.

TECA’s Quality First Training

GeoExchange Training

To register for the Thermal Environmental Comfort Association’s (TECA) Quality First training courses, e-mail or call 604-594-5956.

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Calendar 2011


World Plumbing Day March 11

ISH 2011 March 15-19

CaGBC National Symposium April 13-14

Plumbing organizations across the country will join the Mechanical Contractors Association of Canada (MCAC), the Canadian Institute of Plumbing and Heating (CIPH) and the World Plumbing Council to raise the awareness of the role of Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plumbing industry.

ISH in Frankfurt am Main is a showcase for innovative bathroom design, energy efficient heating and air-conditioning technology and renewable energies.

This year the Canada Green Building Council will hold its National Symposium at the Allstream Centre in Toronto, ON.

MCEE April 20-21

KBIS April 26-28

IEA Heat Pump Conference May 16-19

Eastern Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mechanical and electrical trade show will be held at Place Bonaventure in Montreal, QC.

The Kitchen & Bath Industry Show returns to the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, NV.

The 10th International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Conference will be held at Chinzan-so in Tokyo, Japan.

RETScreen 2011 June 20-22

Oilheat 2011 June 21-22

ABC 2011 June 26-29

The RETScreen Annual Conference & Training Institute will be held at the Scotiabank Convention Centre in Niagara Falls, ON.

The Canadian Oil Heat Association will hold its symposium at White Oaks Conference Resort & Spa in Niagara on the Lake, ON.

The Canadian Institute of Plumbing and Heating is heading to the Fairmont Empress in Victoria, BC for its annual meeting.

Intersolar North America July 12-14

HRAI 43rd Annual Meeting August 25-27

The premier platform for the solar industry in North America will be held at the Moscone Center in San Franciso, CA.

The Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada will meet at the White Oaks Conference Resort & Spa in Niagara on the Lake, ON.

Geothermal Power Investment Workshop September 14

Greenbuild International Conference & Expo October 5-7

RSES Annual Conference November 2-5

Thousands of building professionals will come together at Greenbuild in Toronto, ON (see page 14).

National GreenBuilding Conference November 30-December 1



The 74th RSES Annual Conference and HVACR Technology Expo will be held at the Sheraton Norfolk Waterside Hotel in Norfolk, VA.

The Canadian Geothermal Energy Association (CanGEA) will hold the Toronto, ON, Geothermal Power Investment Workshop and Networking Reception.

CanGEA Geothermal Power Forum and Networking Event November 9 The Canadian Geothermal Energy Association (CanGEA) invites geothermal developers, investors, energy companies and policy makers to explore advances and opportunities in the industry at this Calgary, AB event.

Construct Canada November 30-December 2 Construct Canada will be held in the South Building of the Metro Toronto Convention Centre.


John Powell is web editor with, a go-to resource for Canadian retail financial advisors offering news about financial markets, insurance and investments. HPACMAG.COM


One-third of working boomers in Manitoba and Saskatchewan plan to retire in the next five years (37% versus 25% nationally). » 61% feel financially ready to retire. » Seven in 10 worry they won’t have enough money to last through their retirement. » They are the most likely to have a financial plan (45% versus 36% nationally). » 53% feel behind in their retirement savings compared to their peers. » To grow their retirement nest eggs, nearly a third (30%) will continue to work.



ccording to a poll conducted by TD Waterhouse, 67 per cent of boomers say they are worried they won’t have enough money to retire and only a scant 15 per cent feel they are fully prepared to do so. When comparing those who have a solid retirement plan with those who do not, the difference in a boomer’s peace of mind is very clear. Boomers who have a financial plan are more likely to feel happy (55 per cent versus 31 per cent) or relieved (37 per cent versus 22 per cent) than those who do not have one. “Most Canadians recognize the importance of planning ahead to ensure that they are financially ready when they stop working. Yet, it’s concerning that even as boomers approach retirement age, many still haven’t established a comprehensive plan for achieving a financially-secure retirement,” says Patricia Lovett-Reid, senior vice-president, TD Waterhouse. How do boomers plan to fund their retirements? RRSPs (61 per cent), Old Age Security – Canada Pension Plan (60 per cent) and company pensions (47 per cent) top the list of options, while 39 per cent plan to work during their retirement. When thinking about retirement, the top fears voiced by boomers were: keeping healthy and active (74 per cent), maintaining their current standard of living (67 per cent) and running out of money (67 per cent). The TD poll also divided sentiment and feeling by geographical area as shown here in the provincial synopses. The TD Waterhouse Boomer Happiness Index polled boomers (age 45-64) and pre-boomers (age 65-74) through a custom, online survey. The survey, which was conducted by Environics Research from December 2-7, 2010, polled 1,000 Canadians.


As the clock keeps on ticking, Canadian baby boomers are beginning to fret more and more. BY JOHN POWELL


Boomers Plagued By Retirement Worries


65% of Ontarians surveyed worry they won’t have enough money to last through retirement. » 39% feel financially ill equipped to navigate retirement. » 52% feel like they are behind in their savings. » 24% are ‘scared’ of their looming retirement. » 49% worry they will lose their family home as a result of their inadequate savings. » 33% have a financial plan in place for retirement. » 52% feel they ONTARIO are behind in their retirement savings compared to their peers. continued on page 54 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2011 | HPAC





continued from page 53

» » » » » » »

57% 79% 32% 64% 46% 79% 75%

of boomers stated they feel unprepared, compared to 42% nationally. worry they won’t have enough money to last through retirement. have a financial plan in place for retirement. feel behind in their retirement savings compared to their peers. say they will keep working to fund their retirement. feel they will not have enough money to last through retirement. worry about maintaining their current standard of living.

ALBERTA 7% feel ‘very well-prepared’ for retirement. » 78% percent say they worry that they won’t have enough money to last through retirement. » 42% have a financial plan in place for retirement. » Albertans are among the most likely in the country to work during their retirement to supplement their savings (46% versus 39% nationally). » The top three ways they plan to fund retirement are: Old Age Security and Canada Pension Plan (72%), RRSPs (70%) and company pensions (49%). » They are among the most likely in the country to say that their top fear about retirement is maintaining their current standard of living (77% vs. 67% nationally). » 78% worry about not having enough money to last through retirement.



65% worry their retirement nest egg will run out too soon. ATLANTIC » 30% say they are working CANADA hard to build up their savings, but report they are more than 10 years away from retiring. » Only 35% have a financial plan in place for retirement – the lowest in the country. » The top three ways boomers and pre-boomers in Atlantic Canada plan to fund their retirement are: Old Age Security and Canada Pension Plan (75%), RRSPs (54%) and company pensions (46%). » 50% feel like they are behind where they should be in terms of retirement savings compared to their peers. » 26% will fund their retirement by continuing to work.

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