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$6.95 oct/11 v.56 n.10

Hamilton’s New Face


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12 hamilton City hall a Fine example OF mid-century mOdernism is sensitively restOred and updated, bringing this icOnic structure intO the 21st century. teXt david steiner

18 hamilton Farmers’ market and Central PuBliC liBrary

charles hOpe

Jessie cOlin JacksOn

tOm arban

Contents

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news

edcor/DIALOG + Lundholm team awardL ed Royal Alberta Museum project; call for submissions for the 2012 Governor General’s Medals in Architecture.

31 PraCtiCe

with hamiltOn’s industrial past becOming a distant memOry, architects and designers are helping tO revive the city thrOugh dynamic and thOughtFul interventiOns in the public realm. teXt ian chOdikOFF

25 ralPh klein legaCy Park and shePard wetlands rOadswOrth

calgary is the unlikely site OF recent and impressive advances in envirOnmental stewardship. teXt graham livesey

Andrew Jackson introduces the concept of community amenity contributions in the context of Vancouver, where they serve to improve the quality of urban life.

37 Calendar

UP NORTH at the Art Gallery of Alberta; Binary—2011 DX Black and White fundraising gala.

38 BaCkPage

The elusive Roadsworth adds unlikely beauty to urban environments across the globe, by Bethany Gibson.

OctOber 2011, v.56 n.10

the hamiltOn public library and Farmers’ market. phOtO by tOm arban.

Cover The NaTioNal Review of DesigN aND PRacTice/ The JouRNal of RecoRD of aRchiTecTuRe caNaDa | Raic

10/11 Canadian arChiteCt

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sCott norsworthy

viEwpoint

the new addItIon to the PerIMeter InstItute for theoretICaL PhysICs was desIGned by teePLe arChIteCts InC.

AbovE

A city-region’s economic and cultural vibrancy is often measured by tax revenues, employment statistics and housing prices. But its success in attracting and maintaining a degree of creativity and innovation depends upon a host of other variables, including the quality of its architecture and support of a design culture. New buildings to emerge in such areas provide a useful illustration of the types of innovation shaping these regional economies. As an example, recently completed architectural projects in the greater Hamilton and Waterloo regions help to clarify an image for these cities, allowing them to better define and articulate their capacities in evolving their creative identities. Situated an hour west of Toronto with just under 700,000 people, the Hamilton city-region has recently improved its waterfront and successfully transitioned a portion of its economy into knowledge-based technology sectors. Hamilton’s McMaster University has even established an Innovation Factory, and its McMaster Industry Liaison Office (MILO) links researchers with the private sector to negotiate sponsored contracts, funding, and the commercialization of ideas. Unfortunately, recently completed buildings at the university have failed to produce anything remotely innovative. Nevertheless, in addition to the two intelligent City-led projects featured in this issue, there is a concerted effort amongst Hamiltonians to preserve their built heritage while participating in the transformation of their downtown. Northwest of Hamilton, the Waterloo region has already become a leading North American 6 cAnAdiAn­ArchitEct 10/11

centre for innovation, hosting such important technology-based enterprises as Christie, OpenText and Research in Motion (RIM)–the makers of BlackBerry. The region is often compared to California’s Silicon Valley or Massachusetts’s Route 128—locations that also depend on nearby universities to bolster their competitive edge. A recent article in The Globe and Mail noted that in 2006, the Waterloo Region yielded 631 patents per million—almost four times the Canadian average. For Silicon Valley and Route 128, that rate was 725 and 682 respectively. The latest architectural symbol to illustrate Waterloo’s face of innovation opened in September. Designed by Teeple Architects Inc., the new $29-million, 55,000-square-foot addition to the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (PI) is a highly gestural counterpoint to the original and more cerebral facility completed by Saucier + Perrotte Architectes in 2004. Founded in 1999 through the financial support of Mike Lazarides, co-founder of RIM and the creator of the BlackBerry, the PI exists as the largest independent research facility of its kind in the world. In addition to the Perimeter Institute, three other exceptional research centres have been completed in the Waterloo Region over the past few years: the Balsillie School of International Affairs, and two facilities at the University of Waterloo–the Engineering V Building, and the Mike and Ophelia Lazaridis Quantum Nano Centre. The architectural merits of these buildings assertively project an image of innovation for the region. Perhaps the greatest challenge for Canadian cities is not whether they can attract creative industries, but how they can retain the necessary talent and capital to sustain a competitive advantage over other city-regions around the world. At the PI, part of the overall vision involves sharing its intellectual capital with local citizens, with the hope of improving the culture of innovation beyond the institute’s walls. For example, the PI often sponsors talks where researchers discuss scientific questions with the general public, and in 2009, initiated “Quantum to Cosmos: Ideas for the Future,” an innovative science outreach event that included pub talks, a sci-fi film festival, and a hands-on science exhibition. In addition to popular community programs sponsored by the PI and architecturally significant research facilities in the Waterloo region, successful new buildings that contribute to the public realm in cities like Hamilton are not only examples of critically important foundations of innovation and good design, but they also help sustain a city-region’s vibrant and creative economy–all while improving its liveability for future generations. Ian ChodIkoff

ichodikoff@cAnAdiAnArchitEct.coM

­Editor Ian ChodIkoff, OAA, FRAIC AssociAtE­Editor LesLIe Jen, MRAIC EditoriAl­Advisors John MCMInn, AADIpl. MarCo PoLo, OAA, FRAIC contributing­Editors GavIn affLeCk, OAQ, MRAIC herbert enns, MAA, MRAIC douGLas MaCLeod, nCARb rEgionAl­corrEspondEnts halifax ChrIstIne MaCy, OAA regina bernard fLaMan, SAA montreal davId theodore calgary davId a. down, AAA Winnipeg herbert enns, MAA vancouver adeLe weder publishEr toM arkeLL 416-510-6806 AssociAtE­publishEr GreG PaLIouras 416-510-6808 circulAtion­MAnAgEr beata oLeChnowICz 416-442-5600 ext. 3543 custoMEr­sErvicE MaLkIt Chana 416-442-5600 ext. 3539 production JessICa Jubb grAphic­dEsign sue wILLIaMson vicE­prEsidEnt­of­cAnAdiAn­publishing aLex PaPanou prEsidEnt­of­businEss­inforMAtion­group bruCe CreIGhton hEAd­officE 80 vaLLeybrook dr, toronto, on M3b 2s9 telephone 416-510-6845 facsimile 416-510-5140 e-mail edItors@CanadIanarChIteCt.CoM Web site www.CanadIanarChIteCt.CoM Canadian architect is published monthly by bIG Magazines LP, a div. of Glacier bIG holdings Company Ltd., a leading Canadian information company with interests in daily and community newspapers and business-tobusiness information services. the editors have made every reasonable effort to provide accurate and authoritative information, but they assume no liability for the accuracy or completeness of the text, or its fitness for any particular purpose. subscription rates Canada: $53.95 plus applicable taxes for one year; $85.95 plus applicable taxes for two years (hst – #809751274rt0001). Price per single copy: $6.95. students (prepaid with student Id, includes taxes): $34.97 for one year. usa: $103.95 us for one year. all other foreign: $123.95 us per year. us office of publication: 2424 niagara falls blvd, niagara falls, ny 143045709. Periodicals Postage Paid at niagara falls, ny. usPs #009-192. us postmaster: send address changes to Canadian architect, Po box 1118, niagara falls, ny 14304. return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Circulation dept., Canadian architect, 80 valleybrook dr, toronto, on Canada M3b 2s9. Postmaster: please forward forms 29b and 67b to 80 valleybrook dr, toronto, on Canada M3b 2s9. Printed in Canada. all rights reserved. the contents of this publication may not be reproduced either in part or in full without the consent of the copyright owner. from time to time we make our subscription list available to select companies and organizations whose product or service may interest you. If you do not wish your contact information to be made available, please contact us via one of the following methods: telephone 1-800-668-2374 facsimile 416-442-2191 e-mail privacyofficer@businessinformationgroup.ca mail Privacy officer, business Information Group, 80 valleybrook dr, toronto, on Canada M3b 2s9 member of the canadian business press member of the audit bureau of circulations publications mail agreement #40069240 issn 1923-3353 (online) issn 0008-2872 (print)

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news Projects

The Ledcor/DIALOG + Lundholm team has been selected to design and build the new Royal Alberta Museum to be situated in the heart of Edmonton’s downtown arts district. The Ledcor/ DIALOG + Lundholm team is fully integrated across all disciplines including architecture, interior design, planning, structural, mechanical, and electrical engineering. The three other competitors vying for the $260-million project were Richard Meier/IBI Group with Graham Construction, Maki/Moriyama & Teshima/Arndt Tkalcic Bengert with PCL, and Diamond & Schmitt/HIP Architects with EllisDon. The design-build proponents worked through an intense 48-day period to prepare design and fixed-price construction proposals. The Royal Alberta Museum will have double the space of the existing museum with greatly expanded galleries and enough space to house their extensive collection of human and natural history artifacts in one facility. Renowned Alberta landscape architect Doug Carlyle of Carlye + Associates is also part of the design team, commissioned to provide landscape design for the extensive site work on the project. www.designdialog.ca Levitt Goodman architects to design Laurentian University’s school of architecture.

After a lengthy vetting process that began with more than 30 submissions, Laurentian University has selected a design team for Canada’s next School of Architecture. “Their vision and knowledge really impressed the selection committee, along with their portfolio,” said Laurentian School of Architecture community steering committee chair, Blaine Nicholls. “The design team fully grasped the way we wanted to represent our northern environment while helping to create a truly public building that will be a landmark in the city.” Levitt Goodman will work to prepare an interim space, to be occupied by the School of Architecture’s first cohort in September 2013, and is also tasked with designing the School’s permanent new home. In 2004, Levitt Goodman designed the School of Architecture at the University of Waterloo in Cambridge, a conversion of a 100-year-old silk mill.

ledcor/dialog­+­lundholM

Ledcor/diaLoG + Lundholm team awarded royal alberta Museum project.

next generation of tradespeople in green construction. The facility is designed to the standards of the Living Building Challenge, the most rigorous sustainability program on the planet. The challenge requires projects to meet a stringent list of qualifications, including net-zero energy and water consumption while addressing critical environmental, social and economic factors. At 6,780 square metres, the Centre of Excellence is currently one of the largest buildings to pursue Living Building certification. Innovative sustainability components throughout the building add up to make the Centre of Excellence one of the greenest educational facilities in the world. These include net-zero energy and water consumption made possible through features such as an in-floor radiant heating and cooling system, using an on-site water source drawn from 61 metres below the building; the largest array of photovoltaic solar panels in Western Canada; and composite concrete/wood panels in the gymnasium that contain piping for heating and cooling—the first of their kind in North America. Nearly 100% of the wood in the building is BC-sourced, including local pine from beetleinfested forests in the Okanagan. The Centre’s planned educational programming includes sustainable construction management technology, carpentry, applied ecology and conservation, and green building design and construction, as well as the research and development of alternative and renewable energy sources. www.alivingclassroom.com

okanagan college centre of excellence sets sights on the Living Building challenge.

awards

Penticton’s Okanagan College Centre of Excellence in Sustainable Building Technologies and Renewable Energy Conservation is a new educational facility that will train British Columbia’s

call for submissions for the 2012 Governor General’s Medals in architecture.

Architecture Canada | RAIC and the Canada Council for the Arts (CCA) are pleased to invite

­the­winning­design­proposal­for­ the­new­royal­alberta­MuseuM­to­be­ built­in­downtown­edMonton.

aBoVe

architects to participate in the competition for the 2012 Governor General’s Medals in Architecture. The 2012 competition continues a tradition initiated by the Massey Medals in 1950, providing an important source of understanding of the nature of Canadian architecture and the regional, cultural and historic forces expressed in the built environment. Projects built in and outside of Canada, completed between January 1, 2004 and September 1, 2011 and for which licensed/registered architects who are Canadian citizens or permanent residents of Canada were the lead design architects, are eligible to be submitted. Submissions must be received before 4:00pm on Thursday, December 1, 2011. www.raic.org/honours_and_awards/awards_gg_ medals/2012call/index_e.htm heritage toronto honours Paul oberman with a 2011 special achievement award.

Heritage Toronto recently announced the 2011 Heritage Toronto Special Achievement Award Recipient—the late Paul Oberman, a developer and friend to the heritage community who had a passion for restoring and managing heritage properties. Oberman was active in Canada’s real estate industry for almost three decades. A visionary with a passion for architecture, urban design and business, he owned and operated Equifund Corporation from 1983 to 1996, and subsequently was the President and Chief Executive Officer of Woodcliffe Landmark Properties until his passing in March of 2011. Under his direction and commitment, these companies became recognized as industry leaders in the areas of architectural merit and heritage preservation. 10/11­­canadian architect

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His many successful projects include the North Toronto Station, King James Place, and most recently the Shops of Summerhill and the ongoing redevelopment on Market Street. His projects have been widely published and have received numerous awards, including Canada’s highest architectural honour, the Governor General’s Award for Architecture, and recognition by Heritage Canada for outstanding stewardship of Canada’s architectural heritage. Oberman was also a generous supporter of many heritage organizations and a vocal supporter and ally when heritage buildings were threatened. www.heritagetoronto.org top ontario interior designers honoured at the 2011 arido awards gala.

The Association of Registered Interior Designers of Ontario (ARIDO) recently announced the winners of its annual awards program. One of the most highly regarded honours in the industry, the ARIDO Awards annually recognize excellence, innovation and creativity in interior design. This year’s winners include a Project of the Year, 11 Awards of Excellence and 16 Awards of Merit, including two Awards of Merit for Sustainable Design. ARIDO Fellows George Yabu and Glenn Pushelberg of the Toronto-based firm Yabu Pushelberg, received the coveted Project of the

10­canadian architect­10/11

Year Award for their work on the iconic Paris department store, Printemps Haussman. With this project, the interior designers successfully captured the essence of luxury while creating a fresh, modern appeal, breathing new life into a classic retail landmark. For a full list of winners, please visit the ARIDO website. www.arido.ca/awards.php?year=2011

special mentions will be published in several print magazines including eVolo_06. www.evolo.us/architecture/registration-evolo-2012skyscraper-competition/

coMPetitions

Carleton University in Ottawa recently announced new MA and PhD graduate degrees in Architecture. On offer for the first time beginning September 2011, they are extremely unique in the North American context. The school has also introduced a Diploma in Architectural conservation. Carleton’s location in the National Capital Region and existing architecture programs make this diploma unique in Ontario and a benefit to Canada. There are also two different Master level programs—a Master of Architectural Studies, and a Master of Architecture Professional (M.Arch1). Lastly, there is a Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture. Carleton is one of a few universities worldwide that has the available resources and established research strengths necessary to offer a doctoral program in architecture, combining a practical and theoretical approach to learning and research. www.carleton.ca/fgpa/new-graduate-programs/

eVolo 2012 skyscraper competition.

eVolo invites students, architects, engineers, designers, and artists from around the globe to take part in this competition, taking into consideration the relationship between the skyscraper and the natural world, the skyscraper and the community, and the skyscraper and the city. The competition is also an investigation of public and private space and of the role of the individual and the collective in the creation of a dynamic and adaptive vertical community. There are no restrictions in regards to site, program or size. November 15, 2011 is the early registration deadline. The late registration deadline is January 17, 2012, followed by a project submission deadline of January 24, 2012. The first-place winner takes $5,000 US; second place gets $2,000 US; and third place is awarded $1,000 US. Winners and

what’s new new architecture programs on offer at carleton University.


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civic Pride

a classic mid-century modern structure in hamilton is resPectfully uPdated, retaining a sense of timeless elegance. Hamilton City Hall Renovations, Hamilton, ontaRio GaRwood-Jones & HanHam aRCHiteCts in assoCiation witH mCCallum satHeR aRCHiteCts inC. text david steineR Photos Jessie Colin JaCkson Project

architects

12 canadian architect 10/11

Hamilton City Hall is a building whose fortunes reflect its city. Built on a manufacturing economy, Hamilton declined over several decades as its industries slowly disappeared. Half a century ago, it was a city with many options. But as infrastructure crumbled, the city grew shabby. Employment opportunities disappeared, and buildings aged without needed repairs. Recently, a number of factors (steady jobs in the health-care sector, low cost of living, proximity to Toronto) have changed the city’s fortunes. Anticipating an urban revival, Hamilton chose to restore its City Hall, making an architectural monument fit for contemporary civic requirements. And


the best thing that everyone involved did was refrain from tinkering with the original. In a city like Hamilton, where the recent past has been disappointing, the urge to set a course for new territory in architectural design is understandable. Civic leaders often look to cutting-edge landmarks as a way to bolster their city’s image. Such routes are often misguided though, creating architectural oddities. Instead, Hamilton proceeded with restraint, and a classic Canadian building was resurrected. Hamilton City Hall was originally built in 1960. At the time, Stanley

tHe Completely Renovated Hamilton City Hall still keeps Good time witH its modeRnist-eRa CloCk. aBove tHe inteRioR of tHe main lobby—inCludinG its ColouRful muRal by GeoRGe fRanklin aRbuCkle—was RestoRed to its oRiGinal state. oPPosite

Roscoe was the City’s architect, and he designed numerous civic buildings, all in a modern style. For City Hall, he led a design team that produced one of the finer examples of International Style Modernism in Ontario. After 50 years, however, the structure no longer had the capacity to serve its 10/11 canadian architect

13


occupants appropriately. Poorly insulated walls, excessive heat gain and loss through an outdated curtain wall, no barrier-free access, inadequate life-safety features, and no capacity for contemporary infrastructure technology rendered the building obsolete. City council explored a few options—tearing it down and rebuilding on the same site, moving to a new location, and undergoing a major renovation—eventually settling on this last option. Any intervention that would alter the original form and character would be excluded: no new wing or radical reorganization was requested. The architects and contractor reviewed the original design—an exquisitely simple and flexible layout—and set a plan to adapt the building to contemporary standards, keeping its iconic structure intact. Listed as a heritage building, design and reconstruction had to proceed with extreme care. Of the historical issues involved, replacing the glass and marble cladding proved most challenging. The new curtain wall, with alternating bands of clear vision glass and coloured spandrel glass, was detailed to look identical to the original. At some point, that original glass had been covered in a dark film to reduce heat gain. As contemporary glass coatings eliminate the need for such films, City Hall’s façade looks more transparent, and less somber, than it has in years. Of the two cladding types, replacing the Georgia marble was the most difficult. In addition to its considerable expense, the stone is soft and porous, ill-suited to a cold climate. Structural testing showed the 65-mm-thick marble slabs were cracking and beginning to fail. GarwoodJones & Hanham Architects proposed a local limestone, but the cost was still excessive. The city settled on white precast concrete. A faux grid of shallow grooves, cast into the face of the panels, are meant to replicate the joint lines of the original stone cladding. Given that the building is perhaps the key civic marker, concrete panels seem like a nearsighted decision and incongruous with the rest of the design’s devotion to the original. Though the grooves “give the same texture as the original design,” says EllisDon’s project manager Scott Hunter, the precast concrete lacks the character and variety of stone. Two subtle additions to the exterior were installed on the north side: a barrier-free ramp that circumvents the stairs between the elevated turnabout and the second-floor entry, and a green roof that the councillors’ offices overlook. The turnabout’s handrails—removed and refinished— continue along the length of the ramp, making the addition and the existing seamless. a woman stRolls past tHe plaza at City Hall. left tHe oRiGinal stanley RosCoe-desiGned staiRCase.

toP left

14 canadian architect 10/11


Renovations to the interior of the first and second floors are so subtle that they look like fresher versions of the originals. Some of the spaces have been rearranged (clerks have moved to the first floor and the mayor’s office moved up to the second); a restaurant is now at the northeast corner of the lobby; and a marble wall, inscribed with a quote in Latin, has been relocated a few metres west. The original terrazzo floor throughout the public space was polished to look new. A new translucent glass-walled boardroom has been erected at the western end of the second floor (previously the clerks’ area). Set down in the middle of the wide hall, the room is closed on top, accommodates 30 people, and was the most contentious interior addition. It is visible from the public lobby and is surrounded by the councillors’ offices. A “luminous ceiling,” as described by Ross Hanham, principal at GarwoodJones & Hanham Architects, composed of backlit translucent panels running the length of the second floor, passes over the boardroom box below. The ceiling was removed during the renovation, the plastic panels were repaired or replaced, and the backlighting was updated. The original customer-service desk, clad in white marble and black granite, has been placed at the east end of the boardroom, reminiscent of the space’s former use. New reception desks, installed throughout the building and clad in the same white marble and black granite, are the only other major interior additions. A gypsum-board ceiling was installed throughout the building to conceal new mechanical systems, lighting, and information technology. As the original 1960 building was neither barrierfree nor sprinklered, both systems were incorporated into the renovation to conform to current building codes. Heritage guidelines wisely mandated that most of the original interior finishes had to remain. Anything demountable—wood panelling, railings, millwork, murals—was removed, catalogued, stored, and refurbished. Where removal wasn’t possible—terrazzo flooring, stone cladding on structural columns, and mosaic tiles—a layer of plywood protected these surfaces over the course of construction. Even the ceremonial stair in the main entry, with its cherrywood slats and veneer, was encased in rigid insulation and plywood, allowing workers to use it throughout construction. Many interior elements, though protected by plywood, had additional requirements for moisture and humidity. During construction, the building was stripped to its structure, requiring toP right tHe entiRe CuRtain wall and exteRioR CladdinG of tHis stoiC winGsHaped buildinG was ReplaCed duRinG tHe Renovation. right tHe new CounCil CHambeRs.

10/11 canadian architect

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1 1

2 tower floor 1 open offiCes 2 elevatoR & staiR CoRe

1

2

3

5

4 6

second floor 1 2 3 4 5 6

CounCil CHambeR new boaRd Room CounCilloRs’ offiCes elevatoR & staiR CoRe GReen Roof soutH entRanCe fRom wisHbone

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5 0

ground floor 1 entRy off main stReet 2 CentRal staiRCase & infoRmation kiosk

50’

3 new Café 4 elevatoR & staiR CoRe 5 CaR paRk entRanCe

the contractor to minimize interior exposure to two weeks (new cladding was ready to install as the existing was removed). Given the hazards of such an aggressive renovation, it is a remarkable achievement that the restored building appears as a finer version of its former self. Efficiency—from an energy and economic perspective—has been increased while the overall image, inside and out, remains unchanged. Now a symbol of Hamilton’s reviving prosperity, the newly restored Hamilton City Hall demonstrates a wise adage: repair what once worked well and leave everything else alone. ca David Steiner is a freelance writer living in Toronto.

tHe Renovated CounCil CHambeRs; Hamilton City Hall in its downtown Context; tHe Renewed muniCipal beaCon Conveys optimism and tRanspaRenCy.

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16 canadian architect 10/11

client City of Hamilton architect team miCHelle austin, emma Cubitt, ian desRosieRs, JavieR GuaRdia, Ross HanHam, doRa lomax, Rez a-maJeed, amanda massendeR, bob pRinCe, GReG satHeR, kevin van HaRtinGsveldt, GRaCe wanG, Holland younG. structural sCHoRn Consultants inC. mechanical/electrical GRoup eiGHt enGineeRinG ltd. landscaPe wendy sHeaReR landsCape aRCHiteCt heritage +vG aRCHiteCts contractor abe: ellisdon and blaCk & mCdonald, in Joint ventuRe area 139,810 ft2 Budget $55.2 m comPletion June 2010


Wire Mesh Building Envelope, Aurora GO Transit Station, Aurora, Ontario NORR Limited, Architects, Engineers, Planners Greg Bryson

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street smart this renovateD Public library anD Farmers’ market rePresents an imPortant milestone in elevating Downtown hamilton’s image as an urbane anD cultural Destination. Deck-F to go here. Deck-F to go here. DeckF to go here. Deck-F to go here. Deck-F to go here. Deck-F to go here.

Project Hamilton Farmers’ market and Central PubliC library, Hamilton, ontario architects rdH arCHiteCts inC. witH david Premi arCHiteCts inC. text ian CHodikoFF Photos tom arban

From the early-to-mid 20th century, Hamilton was a thriving urban centre with factories and heavy industry. By the mid-1960s, the city already began to lose much of its industrial dominance, forcing its economy to develop alternatives to steel refineries and manufacturing. As a testament to its resilience, Hamilton began attracting a wide range of creative industries and entrepreneurs around 10 years ago. Today, young Hamil18 canaDian architect 10/11

tonians can be spotted wearing T-shirts emblazoned with slogans that might read “Art is the New Steel.” Less than an hour’s drive west of Toronto, the city is an increasingly attractive alternative for those interested in affordable home ownership and avoiding the stressful commuter traffic that chokes its larger metropolis to the east. Despite the successful revitalization of Hess Village and the impressive overhaul of the Art Gallery of Hamilton, there remain many challenges to the city’s core. If there is one location in the city that exemplifies these ongoing challenges, Jackson Square would be such a place. Jackson Square is a classic superblock—the result of a

once popular process of amalgamating humanscaled and pedestrian-friendly 19th-century city blocks into a singular super-sized city block. In the name of “urban renewal,” the development of Jackson Square in the 1970s was seen as an efficient way to eliminate social problems found in aging and derelict historic buildings, invariably combining small parcels of land into a large indoor shopping centre with labyrinthine circulation patterns linking office buildings above with food courts below. Phase 1 of Jackson Square was completed in 1972, but its last component wasn’t finished until 1985 with the arrival of Copps Coliseum, a 19,000-seat indoor arena. One of Jackson Square’s most important civic


amenities is the Central Public Library and Farmers’ Market. Designed by Anthony Butler and completed in 1980, the Neo-Brutalist concrete architecture completely engulfed the existing farmers’ market that had been in continuous operation since the 1830s—with a sixstorey undulating concrete-and-glass structure. As a reminder of the original scale of architecture in the area, the stoic 1853 Coppley Building remains standing across the street, representing a remarkable example of pre-Confederation architecture. The challenges associated with transforming the Hamilton Central Public Library and Farmers’ Market into a contemporary and pedestrian-

friendly environment was immediately apparent to both Rounthwaite Dick and Hadley Architects (RDH) and David Premi Architects (dp.Ai) when they won the commission in early 2008. Their supportive client was Ken Roberts, the Chief Librarian for the Hamilton Public Library. From the outset, the librarian’s goals were clear: he wanted the facility to gain significant street presence. With the Copps Coliseum next door, Roberts also understood “the opportunity to capture people’s interest and cause them to alter their views of the downtown.” By and large, the combined efforts of the architect team and Roberts were successful. The most striking component to the $13-mil-

tHe new addition to tHe Hamilton PubliC library Features Curved seCtions oF unitized Curtain wall to Create a more Fluid and visible PresenCe on tHe street. above Pulsing multi-Coloured led ligHts HelP enliven tHis seCtion oF tHe street.

oPPosite toP

lion project is the ground-floor addition of a 96-metre-long continuous glass vestibule running the entire length of the building and varying in depth from 3.5 to 8.6 metres. This doubleglazed ribbon incorporates an ingenious frit pattern on the inside face of the glass panes, abstractly resembling the stacked pages of a book. To maximize the building’s transparency while 10/11 canaDian architect

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20 canaDian architect 10/11


Clear sigHt lines, exPosed Ceilings and Custom millwork make For a brigHt and oPen ground-Floor library sPaCe. oPPosite bottom, leFt to right tHe glass vestibule is Clearly distinguisHable From tHe original 1980 building; a view into tHe lower-level Farmers’ market. above tHe new entry vestibule to tHe PubliC library Features a green wall and disPlay Case along its barrier-Free ramP. oPPosite toP

minimizing construction costs, ultra-clear glazing was used on the lower portions of the exterior curtain wall and on all of the interior partitions built and installed by Ferguson Neudorf, a company headquartered in nearby Beamsville. Adding dynamism to the new curtain wall, numerous strips of LED lighting pulse multi-coloured light at all times of day and night. At one end of the glass ribbon, an ingenious switch-back barrier-free ramp at the library’s entry incorporates an attractive display. A blank wall at one corner of the entrance will eventually be filled in with art, but the wall at the western edge already includes a lush green wall to help clean and humidify the circulating air. This new entrance, along with the entire north façade, is a welcome alternative to the previous library design, where the children’s storytelling area once offered miserable views out onto the street through poorly insulated windows, capturing the banality of huddled smokers and all varieties of street life conducting their daily business. With ample seating and a cozy fireplace, the redesigned children’s reading area remains a popular destination for families while providing a mesmerizing view of the busy market below. David Premi was the prime consultant for the entire project. A native Hamiltonian, he worked with RDH in Toronto for nearly seven years before moving back to his hometown several years ago. Standing in his 10-person downtown office

overlooking historic Gore Park, Premi is enormously proud to participate in the evolution of his city. The development of a strong relationship with both the client and community allowed him to translate ideas and insight back into the project. Tyler Sharp, a senior associate at RDH, acted as the project designer. He was responsible for much of the technical and design detailing for the commission, efforts which clarified the project’s architecture. For example, he cleverly hid the steel supports between the glass panels over the sliding entry doors, aligning the 40-inch-wide glass panels with the original concrete waffle slabs. Additionally, he helped Premi resolve the tricky double-glazed low-iron section of fritted curved glass terminating each end of the glazed vestibule. All of these devices contributed to the overall success of the design. The interiors are minimal and convey the feeling of a retail or museum experience rather than a public library. For security reasons, a 3’-6” sightline is established throughout the ground floor, yielding a surprisingly open plan. White Corian book stacks, display racks, and work tables reinforce a clean and orderly environment while colourful Cappellini chairs offset the otherwise monochromatic colour palette. The Information Commons is undoubtedly the most popular area of the library, with its 50 computer terminals constantly in use throughout the day. Special holographic film was applied to one side 10/11 canaDian architect

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ColourFul seating and Flooring HelP deFine tHe CHildren’s reading area; tHe new automatiC booksorting deviCe remains a Constant Curiosity For Patrons; tHe renovated Portion oF tHe library overlooks tHe Farmers’ market below; tHe ever-PoPular inFormation Commons is always Filled to CaPaCity—exCePt wHen tHe library is Closed, as tHis image illustrates.

oPPosite, toP to bottom

james st. n

york blvD.

site Plan

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grounD level 1 library entranCe 2 CHildren’s ColleCtion 3 market CaFé

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of the glass near the north entrance, but the projection experiment only succeeds at night. This modest achievement enlivens York Boulevard, a street that can use all the animation it can get, despite the fact that it recently reverted to a twoway street—part of a successful city-wide plan to improve the quality of life for pedestrians and small businesses alike. Hamilton was one of several North American cities that greatly suffered when 1950s traffic planners changed many of its arterials into one-way streets. Visitors enter the farmers’ market from the library’s vestibule or through a number of sliding glass doors that open up to the sidewalk. Several market stalls are located at street level, with the bulk of the 67 vendors located on the lower level. Due to its growing popularity, the farmers’ market is currently operating beyond its 50-stall capacity, so it is inevitable that the current space allotted to the market will eventually expand and take over a portion of the underperforming retail space located in the adjacent Jackson Square Mall. Since the library’s opening last January, attendance has increased by 20 percent. This upward trend virtually assures that the public lecture rooms, along with the library’s upper floors, will be renovated when more funding becomes available. With the success of both the library and the farmers’ market, one can easily imagine subsequent renovations to Jackson Square where, perhaps, the construction of a wide stairway will eventually draw people up to an existing rooftop terrace. With nearby James Street North undergoing a miniature cultural renaissance of its own, Hamiltonians’ efforts to improve the image of their oft-misunderstood city continues, evolving a city rich in heritage and hometown pride. ca

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lower level 1 market stalls 2 atrium 3 loading doCk

4 library suPPort areas 5 entry stair 6 storage

22 canaDian architect 10/11

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clients City oF Hamilton and Hamilton PubliC library architect team rdH arCHiteCts: bob goyeCHe, tyler sHarP, Cara mCkibbin, bunty sambHi, sCott waugH. dP.ai–david Premi arCHiteCts inC: david Premi, magdalena kisielewska, roland meCH, sam gargarello. structural/mechanical/electrical grouP eigHt engineering ltd. contractor kemP ConstruCtion ltd. area 5,525 m2 buDget $13.5 m comPletion February 2011


uPPer library

library

market

vestibule

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Productive infrastructure

chaRleS­hope

calgary shows its sustainable side with this deePly thoughtful and environmentally beneficial Project. Project­Ralph­Klein­legacy­paRK­enviRonmental­education­centRe­ and­ShepaRd­WetlandS,­calgaRy,­albeRta architect­SimpSon­RobeRtS­aRchitectuRe­inteRioR­deSign landscaPe­caRSon­ •­mcculloch­aSSociateS teXt­gRaham­liveSey

In our contemporary zeal to develop a massive amount of land, we tend to site plan rather than build sites from our land forms. —William Rees Morrish, Civilizing Terrains: Mountains, Mounds and Mesas Canada, as a large and relatively unpopulated country, relies enormously on constructed infrastructure including transportation, power supply, water treatment, waste management, and communications systems. The engineering of these systems, along with associated processes of heavy resource extraction, is a quintessentially Canadian enterprise. Furthermore, infrastructure has been vital to the maintenance of cities and agricultural landscapes since the dawn of urbanization. Urban infrastructure has tended to be, until recently, enormously expensive and largely mono-functional, typically involving extensive channels and networks that flow materials from source to dump. As we move forward to develop more sustainable forms of urban infrastructure, we will be faced with complex design challenges and the need to innovate. Given the environmental impacts of contemporary

­the­neW­enviRonmental­education­centRe­exiStS­aS­the­ public­focal­point­foR­the­ambitiouS­ReStoRation­of­the­ShepaRd­ WetlandS.

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cities, it is essential for us to create infrastructure that is better designed, more integrated, and multi-functional. Many cities today are pioneering in areas of urban infrastructure. For example, Edmonton is a world leader in solid waste management, recycling, and composting. According to the Edmonton Waste Management Centre’s website, it employs “North America’s largest collection of modern, sustainable waste-processing and research facilities.” Somewhat paradoxically, Calgary, a city infamous for its sprawl, is also a leader in a number of crucial areas, particularly parks development and wastewater management. As evidence of this, Calgary placed first in the world in the 2010 Mercer Quality of Living “Eco-City” Rankings, a section of the survey that measures water availability and potability, waste removal, sewage, air pollution, and traffic congestion. There are some advantages to low density and expanding cities like Calgary. The recently completed Ralph Klein Legacy Park (which includes the Environmental Education Centre) and the Shepard Wetlands project capture these conditions. The clients for the project were two City of Calgary departments: Water Resources and Parks. The City of Calgary has developed world-leading facilities and processes for treating sewage, and has more recently begun to aggressively address the treatment of stormwater runoff. According to Wolf Keller, Director of Water Resources, approximately 30 percent of Calgary’s runoff is being treated before being put into the Bow River, what he terms a 10/11­­canadian architect

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Steve­nagy

chaRleS­hope

chaRleS­hope

“small” and vital watershed system. The project began as the development of the Shepard Wetlands by Water Resources. However, beginning in 2003 and then again in 2007, funding was made available to develop a legacy park project for this area of the city. In 2003, former Mayor Dave Bronconnier announced the establishment of the ENMAX Parks Program which is fund-

­a­vieW­of­the­neW­education­centRe­iS­fRamed­by­gabion­ Retaining­WallS,­viSible­in­the­foRegRound.­ middle­the­SouthWeSteRn­elevation­of­the­building­iS­StRongly­expReSSed­ thRough­an­elongated­Wall­of­Stone-filled­gabion­baSKetS.­ above­the­in­­teRioR­mateRial­palette­iS­compRiSed­laRgely­of­Stone­ and­glulam­Wood­elementS. toP

26­canadian architect­10/11

ed by the ENMAX Legacy Fund. The Fund directs a portion of ENMAX dividends derived from the City-owned energy corporation every year. The legacy parks initiative has led to the restoration of a number of older parks and the development of new parks such as the Ralph Klein Legacy Park, named after the former mayor of Calgary and premier of Alberta. The Ralph Klein Legacy Park was dedicated in 2010, the centennial year of Calgary’s Parks department. Both Bronconnier, and the current mayor of Calgary, Naheed Nenshi, have been strong advocates of the legacy parks program. The initiative created a highly productive and collaborative process between the two departments and the consultant team. The resulting scheme involves the Ralph Klein Legacy Park (approximately 30 hectares) and includes a park, the Environmental Education Centre, and surrounding wetlands. The remainder of the site (approximately 200 hectares) is devoted to a five-cell constructed wetland that is designed to process storm wastewater in order to open up development options in east Calgary. Engineered by CH2M Hill Canada, the constructed wetland is the largest in Canada and one of the largest in North America, and takes stormwater from an area of about 6,000 hectares—much of it currently undeveloped—to process it in stages and then send it down a 9.5-kilometre-long discharge canal to the Bow River. While the engineered wetland is devoted to the cleansing of stormwater, it will have a relatively simple bio-culture incorporated in the park that is separate from the larger system. This complex habitat will become an important outdoor classroom for the educational programs as it evolves. The project also provides stormwater retention during peak periods of intense rain and snowmelt. The landscape design for Ralph Klein Legacy Park was handled by Carson • McCulloch Associates of Calgary. Gary Carson, the principal in charge of the landscape design, was involved with various schemes for the site for over a decade before the final program was settled upon. Using excavated soil taken to create the wetlands, a series of dramatic earth forms were created to structure the park. The overall shaping of the site is striking, an intentionally chiselled landscape reminiscent of Neolithic earthworks, or land art from the 1960s. The parking lots and building are formally organized with a southeast orientation to get a complete integration of building and landscape. Beyond the sculpting of earth, the planting and movement systems are simple and locally responsive. Water in the park is carefully choreographed as part of the educational program of the project. On one of the mounds, a small island itself, dramatic steel columns referred to as “sentinels” have been erected by the distinguished American sculptor Beverly Pepper. These provide a focal element in the design of the new landscape, and underscore an ambitious program on the part of both Water Resources and Parks to incorporate provocative contemporary art into projects financed by the City. The building component for the entire project is the Environmental Education Centre by Simpson Roberts Architecture Interior Design Inc. As a structure, it occupies the key location in the park and is nestled within the larger wetland. The facility acts as a bridging element that emerges from the land and then marches out over the adjacent wetland. It begins as a heavy form clad in gabion baskets and ends as a light-framed structure clad in metal and glass. Quoting Chris Roberts, the principal architect for the project, the building is a kind of “jungle gym” that can be explored from all angles. This includes the ability to walk over the building and on catwalks under the building that are suspended just above water level. The organization of the building is simple and direct, employing a generous singleloaded corridor that provides access to the various multi-functional and service spaces. The loose programming of the building will allow it to evolve over time. Currently, the facility is primarily dedicated to educational programs, but also supports space for corporate functions, an artist’s studio, administrative spaces and the offices of the environmental non-profit Ducks Unlimited. The building will be heavily used by schoolchildren who visit the site to learn about the local environment. The classrooms are


chaRleS­hope

city­of­calgaRy

Steve­nagy

designed to open up to the exterior, weather permitting. The building is particularly striking, especially when looking at the southwestern elevation with its strong and intriguing figural elements. Intentionally horizontal in its organization, the building is structured by gabion baskets at the entry end and sits atop a series of concrete piers when it projects over the water. The gabion baskets are used to retain the landscape, but when extended into the building, they form part of a rainscreen wall system—the baskets are beautifully precise and filled with handselected local stone. The main floor acts as a series of discrete pavilions, with the façades, deck elements, and upper floor tying the various programmed spaces together. However, the strong figural aspects of the architecture are undermined by a less-developed northwest façade. The building’s interiors are generally well detailed, employing a multitude of materials. It is worth noting that the tectonic expression attempts to overtly demonstrate various green building materials and assemblies. Meeting LEED Gold standards, the Environmental Education Centre includes strategies such as water conservation, green roofs, solar shading, integrating

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solar panels for heating domestic water, using adjacent wetlands to cool the building, and minimizing construction waste. According to Anne Charlton, Director of Parks, the overall project was a very successful collaboration between all parties, and was clearly intended to raise the standard of public space and facility design in Calgary. Effectively a work of landscape urbanism, the development is consistent with recent efforts to merge sustainable space design and infrastructure to make large civil engineering projects become more multi-functional. Combining their complementary skill sets, the design team produced an integrated work of architecture, landscape architecture, and engineering that represents a new direction for large urban infrastructure projects. Calgary’s ever10/11­­canadian architect

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expanding and evolving ambitious parks system is successfully being driven by the requirement that any stormwater managed by the City must be returned to the Bow River system as clean as possible. Soon the park system will be connected to Calgary’s new ring road and a new perimeter greenway system. The Ralph Klein Legacy Park and Shepard Wetlands demonstrates how today’s infrastructure can exist as an essential urban amenity, providing a host of accessible opportunities for citizens and wildlife. It is also intended to be a cultural landscape, part of a legacy of park design dating back to the formation of the City’s Parks Department in 1910. Finally, the scheme also demonstrates how an evocative landscape and architecture can be formed out of what was initially a largely featureless site. ca Graham Livesey is an Associate Professor in the Master of Architecture program at the University of Calgary.

200’

solar panels

photovoltaic panels

FSC-certified glulam structure triple-glazed c/w opening windows green roof large overhangs for window shadowing rain screen-insulated structure radiant-heated concrete slab toilet-composting room

schematic section

28­canadian architect­10/11

client­city­of­calgaRy­paRKS architect team­chRiS­RobeRtS,­maRK­latimeR,­Stephan­cieSliK structural­Read­joneS­chRiStoffeRSen mechanical­Snc­lavalin/Wiebe­foReSt­engineeRing electrical­StebnicKi­+­paRtneRS civil­ch2m­hill­canada Public art­beveRly­peppeR interiors­dotted­i contractor­gRaham­conStRuction­&­engineeRing area­1,932­m2­ budget­$14.4­m­(enviRonmental­education­centRe);­$20­m­(Ralph­ Klein­legacy­paRK;­$87­m­(ShepaRd­conStRucted­WetlandS) comPletion­febRuaRy­2011


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Practice

christopher­grAbowski

creative Financing

A­brief­discussion­thAt­explores­the­wAys­in­which­community­ Amendment­contributions­Are­improving­vAncouver’s­public­ reAlm.

teXt

­Andrew­JAckson

As they stroll along the grand boulevards of Paris, few visitors understand the creative financial mechanisms that underwrote the city’s reconstruction in the 1850s. Between 1851 and 1869, the Prefect of the Seine, Baron Georges-Eugènes Haussmann, oversaw the expenditure of some 2.5 billion francs and took the view that “expenditures on public works were not expenditures at all but investments readily recoverable in rising tax revenues from the growing population and from increased property values that the expenditures themselves created,” according to historian David H. Pinkney. In 1918, New York City adopted its own form of “creative financing” to preserve its landmark buildings, by allowing owners to transfer their rights to develop to other sites. Since then, Transferable Density Rights (TDRs) have preserved many historic buildings in New York, with over one hundred municipalities in the United States having adopted similar legislation. Such policy mechanisms are less common in Canada.

­A­youth­performs­AeriAl­gymnAstics­off­the­rAiling­At­the­ coAl­hArbour­community­centre­in­vAncouver-—A­building­ thAt­wAs­funded­through­A­community­Amenity­contribution.

aBOve

In the history of urban planning in Canada, 1953 was a turning point for creative financing at the municipal level. That year, the province of British Columbia granted a unique Charter to the City of Vancouver, which, among other things, permitted discretionary zoning. In 1975, Vancouver’s planning officials utilized this acquired authority to apply discretionary zoning—or approve a project based on objective criteria—and give bonus density to certain developments in exchange for community facilities. In 1989, these “amenity bonuses” were formalized to create an interesting experiment in creative financing for the City—the Community Amenity Contribution (CAC). In a recent interview, the director of real estate services at the City of Vancouver, Michael Flanigan, claims that the Vancouver Charter remains “the envy of every Canadian city.” The director of city planning for the City of Vancouver, Brent Toderian, agrees with Flanigan, but places equal emphasis on the abilities of officials who oversee the discretionary zoning system. With regard to the policy of CACs, Toderian adds, “it has been a 10/11­­canadian architect

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courtesy­merrick­Architecture

­emery­bArnes­pArk­represents­Another­exAmple­of­A­community­Amenity­contribution­where­developers­helped­finAnce­ this­populAr­urbAn­pArk­in­vAncouver.

aBOve

cornerstone of the Vancouver model of city building.” While Vancouver’s Development Cost Levies (DCLs) help fund childcare facilities, parks, social housing, and engineering services, CACs pay for a wider range of services, including artists’ studios, community gardens, non-market housing, park refurbishments, public art, cultural facilities, drug treatment facilities, greenways, and bicycle lanes. Before examining individual CACs, it is important to understand how local architects and their clients negotiate them. After deducting hard costs, soft costs, a 15% developer profit, and overhead for two to three years, the City of Vancouver negotiates for 70% to 80% of the additional density—also considered a “land-lift” because of the increased value to the property—in the form of a CAC. Flanigan proudly mentions the recent $46.2-million CAC deal for the rezoning of Arbutus Village, a seven-acre site master-planned by DIALOG. Toderian notes that CACs sometimes vary from 70% to 80% of the “land-lift,” depending on the risk associated with a particular development. Not surprisingly, developers and landowners often balk at such levies. Similarly, Gregory Borowski, a principal at Merrick Architecture, often fields difficult questions from his clients who ask: “What’s in it for me?” As some negotiations over developments last two to three years, frustrated developers end up placing additional burdens on their architects to speed up the projects. Despite delays in negotiating CACs, deputy executive director of the Urban Development Institute (UDI), Jeffrey Fisher, says that on large complex sites, negotiated CACs are generally preferred by developers, whereas on simpler sites or on smaller lots, fixed CACs are preferable. This is not surprising, because developers benefit considerably from CACs. First 32­canadian architect­10/11

of all, a developer benefits from the increase in land value created by the rezoning itself. Second, developers may benefit from the increased amenity around their developments. Third, the developer benefits from the additional density included in the rezoning. “At the end of the day,” says Toderian, “developers are not required to provide a CAC, but [then again] the City is not required to grant a rezoning.” Local activist Terry Martin, who once chaired the City of Vancouver’s Board of Variance, questions whether local residents have the ability to affect rezoning hearings due to the influence of the development industry on City Council. In response, Toderian and Borowski point out that CACs “transform the politics of rezoning.” At a recent rezoning hearing that has yet to come forward to a public hearing, it is anticipated that a proposal submitted by Borowski’s firm would receive support by a local artists’ group because these artists are eligible to apply for a juried selection process assigning studio space for a set time period. As for the form of CACs, Borowski finds that many clients prefer cash payments to onsite facilities, as clients fear the delays associated with additional construction. Some clients prefer a cash CAC payment since it does not entail construction cost escalation risk or the requirement to construct a facility for use elsewhere in the city. Gregory Henriquez, whose firm Henriquez Partners Architects recently completed the Michael Smith Laboratories at UBC and the Woodward’s Redevelopment, says “the more creative the developer, the more likely they are to integrate the CAC into their projects. The political and cultural value of including physical amenities into a market residential project is rarely understood.” This approach can be found in two of Henriquez’s projects currently under development—one on 6th Avenue and Fir Street and the other on 700 West 8th Avenue. Do such negotiated amenities affect affordability in Vancouver? At the UDI, Fisher believes there is a direct link between CACs and affordability. At the City, Toderian, citing research by Coriolis Consulting, questions this link because “in a competitive market, prices are determined by many factors.” Architects like Henriquez believe that the genuine affordability crisis in Vancouver has more to do with foreign direct investment than CACs. “Vancouver has become the safety-deposit box for the world,” Henriquez explains. He criticizes talk of a real estate bubble in Vancouver. “Everyone thinks we have reached a bubble, but we are not even close,” Henriquez contends. “On a global scale, Vancouver is still underpriced,” he adds. Can CACs and TDRs increase the supply of affordable housing in Vancouver? During a recent lecture at Simon Fraser University, local architect Michael Geller said that these planning mechanisms provide the best way to fund new non-market housing in the Lower Mainland. While this has always been part of the City’s density bonus program, over-reliance on CACs supports high-density development, placing more demands on community amenities than what CACs and DCLs can mitigate. “You should not do density to get public benefits, because this is the tail wagging the dog,” Toderian explains. So far, the most significant CACs have come from the large rezonings around the downtown core. For example, in Southeast False Creek’s Olympic Village, 252 affordable housing units, a 45,000-square-foot Creekside Community Centre, and extensive new waterfront walkways were incorporated into this much-maligned development. Similarly, the Downtown South neighbourhood has experienced a significant boon in community amenities over the last 10 years. As an example, in 2001, the City approved the rezoning of 1133 Seymour Street where two residential towers were to be placed at either end of a site. Now completed, the Hewitt + Company Architectsdesigned project overlooks the new Emery Barnes Park which was itself partially realized through CACs. In return for an increase in density—rais-


courtesy­henriquez­pArtners­Architects

ing the FSR from 5.05 to 8.08—the developers committed to provide a 13,871-square-foot cultural amenity facility that eventually became a 170seat boutique cinema for the non-profit Vancouver International Film Festival. Today, the Vancouver International Film Centre and 1133 Seymour Street provide a good example of a CAC because “people can see the community amenity alongside the development that created it,” explains Toderian. Borowski feels that the adjacent Emery Barnes Park also represents a successful example of a CAC. For its recent Symphony Place project, the developer Solterra negotiated a $6-million CAC, of which $2 million went to the renovation of the nearby Orpheum Theatre, $2 million to the Affordable Housing Fund, and another $2 million to Emery Barnes Park. In return, the City increased the site’s FSR from 5.0 to 9.3. Responsible for the park’s design, the manager of research and planning at the Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, Tilo Driessen, describes Emery Barnes as a “fabulously successful park patronized by a diverse social mix.” When asked whether tonier neighbourhoods such as Downtown South can leverage larger CACs at rezoning hearings, Toderian insists, “Absolutely not!” The amount for a CAC is determined by professionally prepared financial analysis and vary due to a number of economic factors and not by politics or influence. Not only do land prices in different neighbourhoods affect the size of CACs, but the relative rate of development also plays a role, explains Flanigan. To test these claims, it is useful to compare the CACs in Downtown South with those in the disadvantaged Downtown Eastside, such as the rezoning of 550 Taylor Street where the City collected just over $1 million in 1997. Between 2004 and 2009, this CAC, along with another $187,500 CAC, paid for the redevelopment of the infamous 300-square-foot “Pigeon Park” located one block from the corner of the troubled intersection of Main and Hastings. With these CACs, the City provided new sidewalks, replaced existing benches, installed a new drinking fountain, and added new trees to Pigeon Park. Whatever the differences between Pigeon Park and Emery Barnes Park,

­built­on­A­sloped­wAterfront­site­Along­vAncouver’s­ burrArd­inlet,­the­coAl­hArbour­community­centre­forms­pArt­ of­A­much­lArger­redevelopment­of­coAl­hArbour—An­importAnt­AreA­of­the­city’s­downtown­thAt­includes­dAycAre­And­ educAtionAl­fAcilities,­retAil­And­numerous­residentiAl­developments.­since­the­community­centre­wAs­completed­in­2002­­ (it­wAs­pArtiAlly­funded­by­developers­to­fulfill­A­successful­ community­Amenity­contribution),­coAl­hArbour­hAs­evolved­ And­mAtured,­further­contributing­to­vAncouver’s­imAge­As­A­ highly­liveAble­city.

aBOve

critics cannot ignore the fact that this CAC provided tangible amenities to some of Canada’s poorest citizens. Thus far, it seems that the most trenchant criticism of CACs concerns transparency. It is generally agreed upon that the City has not adequately documented how it distributes revenue from CACs. In the final analysis, the best test of CACs comes not from their relative size, but from their effect on local liveability. Noting the lack of a similar policy in nearby Seattle, Borowski tells the anecdotal story of his father-inlaw who pays for an annual membership at the University of Washington fitness centre because there are no public community centres available. In a similar vein, Toderian compares the community amenities at Concord Pacific’s False Creek North in Vancouver to the lack of comparable amenities at Concord CityPlace in Toronto. In theory, CACs are abstract financial instruments debated at City Hall but in reality, these creative financial instruments (or lack thereof) help determine and improve the quality of life in urban areas. “Visitors don’t realize how we can provide for all of these amenities in Vancouver,” notes Toderian. Doubtless, Baron Haussmann would understand Toderian’s frustration. ca Andrew Jackson currently lives in Vancouver where he is a PhD candidate at the University of British Columbia.

10/11­­canadian architect

­33


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Tom Arkell 416-510-6806 Greg Paliouras 416-510-6808 Canadian Architect 12 Concorde Place, Suite 800 Toronto, ON M3C 4J2 www.canadianarchitect.com

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Calendar UP NORTH

September 10, 2011-January 8, 2012 This exhibition at the Art Gallery of Alberta features work by four artists from three circumpolar countries, bringing together the traditions of landscape representation with new forms of performance and sculpture. www.youraga.ca

projects by Toronto-based Hariri Pontarini Architects. Through selected working models, sketches, final renderings and models, drawings, material samples and mockups, each project is considered in light of its conceptual process of design and construction with a focus on materials, details and craft.

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September 14-November 26, 2011 The Eric Arthur Gallery at the University of Toronto will showcase the work of graduate students from the Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Design, which examines uncharted territories of architecture, landscape and urban design, opening them up to the explorations and imagination of the school’s emerging designers.

October 1-December 31, 2011 Environmental concerns push architects to build taller, yet respect for the surrounding neighbourhood grounds many tall projects. Three Torontobased firms—architectsAlliance, Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects, and RAW—explore this idea through three new installations at Toronto’s Architecture at Harbourfront Centre. Visual artist Douglas Walker also contributes. www.harbourfrontcentre.com

Hariri Pontarini Architects— Intermission: 18 Years, 18 Projects

September 15-October 30, 2011 This exhibition at the MacLaren Art Centre in Barrie, Ontario surveys 18

Bernard Cache lecture

October 31, 2011 Bernard Cache of ArchiLab in Paris, France lectures

at 6:00pm at the National Gallery in Ottawa. Catherine Mosbach lecture

November 8, 2011 Paris-based landscape architect Catherine Mosbach delivers a lecture at the Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape & Design at the University of Toronto at 6:30pm. www.daniels.utoronto.ca/lectures Stephen teeple lecture

November 10, 2011 Stephen Teeple, principal of Teeple Architects in Toronto, delivers this lecture at 7:00pm at the University of Calgary downtown campus. www.ucalgary.ca/evds Giancarlo Mazzanti lecture

November 10, 2011 Celebrated architect Giancarlo Mazzanti of Equipo Mazzanti in Bogotá delivers the keynote lecture for the series at 6:30pm at the Ryerson University Department of Architectural Science in Toronto.

Binary: 2011 dX Black & White Fundraising Gala

November 12, 2011 This year’s gala features three high-profile Canadians: principals of New York-based architectural firm Asymptote, Lise Anne Couture and Hani Rashid, along with Hani’s designer brother Karim Rashid. The event aims to raise funds to support youth education programs at the Design Exchange (DX) in Toronto. www.dx.org/gala Finn Geipel lecture

November 15, 2011 Architect Finn Geipel of LIN in Paris delivers a lecture at the Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape & Design at the University of Toronto at 6:30pm. www.daniels.utoronto.ca/lectures

For­more­inFormation­about­ these,­and­additional­listings­oF­Canadian­and­international­events,­please­visit www.canadianarchitect.com

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Backpage

ROadswORth

grOund cOntrOl

the pROvOcative stReet aRt Of ROadswORth pROvides much insight intO the ROle Of the pedestRian, the dOminance Of the caR, and the value Of the public Realm. teXt

bethany gibsOn ROadswORth

phOtOS

A giant zipper opens the asphalt, scissors cut the dotted centre line of a busy street, hands claw up through the pavement, a light switch is flicked on. When these stencilled images started appearing on the streets of Montreal in 2001, many thought the pieces—cleanly and cleverly integrated with the urban infrastructure and road markings—were the work of the city itself. Street artist Roadsworth loves that confusion. He wants to incite surprise and delight, to throw passersby off their rhythm, out of their reverie. To be startled, to question, to think. He pulls us into the conversation, demanding aesthetic, intellectual and active participation in this space we call public— but which is in fact highly managed, and discouraging of true engagement. Roadsworth’s playful tone calls to us to be playful, embodies the energy and potential that our shared space has to delight, to connect us with each other, to stimulate imagination and compassion. His artistic language is satirical, underlining the absurdity of many facets of urban living and consumerism, and subverting the language of advertising which so dominates our field of vision and culture in North America. Roadsworth had pulled off close to 300 interventions when he was ar­ rested in 2004. He was charged with 51 counts of public mischief, which 38 canadian architect 10/11

One Of ROadswORth’s many inteRventiOns that alteR the public Realm, cOntRibuting jOy and suRpRise tO daily life.

aBOVe

threatened huge fines, jail time and a criminal record. Prominent members of the arts community in Montreal and beyond, as well as people who had seen and enjoyed what he did, rallied support, and a wider discussion— about public art, about who uses public space and how—was opened. Even before the resolution of the court case (Roadsworth paid a nominal fine, and painted a schoolyard as community service), the artist was granted a permit by the city to execute his first commission. Since then, he has made public art around the world, for private organizations, arts festivals, muni­ cipalities and schools, including most recently, the Eaton Centre in Mon­ treal (Fragile is Roadsworth’s first major indoor installation). A Roadsworth piece takes inspiration from and refers to its surround­ ings—natural, architectural and historical—and requires that we look not only at the creation itself, but also the environment in which it resides. The urban landscape can be ugly, uninspiring, lacking in obvious humanity or aesthetic consideration; Roadsworth challenges an inherent assumption that it must be so by injecting beauty, colour, humour and a sense of joy and wonder, where before there was just a parking lot. ca Bethany Gibson is co-author of the recently published book Roadsworth (Goose Lane Editions), and the fiction editor for Goose Lane Editions. She lives and works in Fredericton, New Brunswick.


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Canadian Architect October 2011  

Canadian Architect is a magazine for architects and related professionals practicing in Canada. Canada’s only monthly design publication, Ca...

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