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Eiszeitalter u. Gegenwart

59—78 11 fig.

33

Hannover 1983

Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian Limbourg and the Consequences for the Loess Stratigraphy ERIK MEIJS, HERMAN MOCHER, GERARD OUWERKERK, ARIE ROMEIN &

H E N K STOLTENBERG *)

Evidence presence, Eltville tuff layer, correlation, Kesselt paleosol, interstadial milieu, parent material, loess, grain size distribution, X-ray diffraction analysis, pit section, Weichselian, inter­ pretation, heavy mineral. Dutsch, Belgian Limbourg A b s t r a c t : At the beginning of 1979 a tephra layer was found for the first time in the loess deposits of Southern Limbourg, The Netherlands (MEIJS 1980a). O n the basis of its stratigraphical position, its macroscopic appearance and its mineralogical composition, this tephra layer was correlated with the Eltville tuff. In the present paper these arguments of correlation are treated more in detail and are supple­ mented by the results of micromorphological and x-ray diffraction analyses. The discovery of the Eltville tuff in this region just beneath the Kesselt paleosol ( = Horizon of Nagelbeek), means that this paleosol is stratigraphically equivalent to the E4 tundragley. This is in conflict with the prevailing concept in Belgium and The Netherlands, according to which the Kesselt paleosol is correlated with the Stillfried-B paleosol, formed during the Denekamp interstadial and lying in a stratigraphical position beneath the Eltville tuff (see e. g. ZAGWIJN & PAEPE 1968). The Stillfried-B paleosol is about 10,000 years older than the E4 tundragley (SEMMEL 1967, VOGEL & VAN DER HAMMEN 1967).

[Der Nachweis des Vorkommens des Eltviller Tuffs in Belgisch und Niederländisch Limburg u n d die Folgen für die Löß-Stratigraphie] K u r z f a s s u n g : Anfang 1979 ist zum ersten Male in den Niederlanden ein vulkanischer Tuff in den Lößablagerungen von Süd-Limburg gefunden worden (MEIJS 1980a). Auf Grund der stratigraphischen Lage, des makroskopischen Aussehens und der mineralogischen Zusammensetzung wurde dieser Tuff mit dem Eltviller Tuff korreliert. In dieser Veröffentlichung werden die Korrelierungsbeweisgründe eingehend behandelt und mit den Ergebnissen mikromorphologischer und röntgenologischer Untersuchungen ergänzt. Die Entdeckung des Eltviller Tuffs in dieser Region gerade unter dem Kesselt-Paläoboden ( = Nagelbeek Horizont) bedeutet, daß dieser Paläoboden ein stratigraphisches Äquivalent des E i Naßbodens ist. Dieses steht im Widerspruch mit der in Belgien und die Niederlande herrschenden Ansicht, laut deren der Kesselt-Paläoboden mit dem im Denekamp Interstadial geformten Still­ fried-B Paläoboden korreliert wird (z. B. ZAGWIJN & PAEPE 1968). Der letztgenannte Paläoboden liegt aber stratigraphisch unter dem Eltviller Tuff und ist ungefähr 10.000 Jahr älter als der E4-Naßboden (SEMMEL 1967, VOGEL & VAN DER HAMMEN 1967).

*) Addresses of the authors: E. P. M . M e i j s , G. O u w e r k e r k , A. R o m e i n , Department of Physical Geography, University of Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 2, 3508 T C Utrecht, The Nether­ lands; H. J. M ü c h e r . H . S t o l t e n b e r g , Laboratory of Physical Geography and Soil Science, University of Amsterdam, Dapperstraat 115, 1093 BS Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ISSN-Nr. 0424 - 7116 / 83 / 0033 - X X X $ XXX © 1983 Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, D-7000 Stuttgart 1


Erik Meijs, Herman Mücher, Gerard Ouwerkerk, Arie Romein & Henk Stoltenberg

> 1 3 0 c m <— H o l o c e n e sotl

Laach-pumice

tuff

~v~

< — E1

''^'^KSä^^^SSg^-}30cm ..

L50cm

fXX X X XXXX [ <

Rambach/Wallertheim-tufT

• 7 5 c m < — L o h n e / H a m e r b e r g soil

Gräselberg/Kirchberg

tundragley

B u h l e n - t u f f {>)

Mosbach H u m u s horizons

Metternich-Kahlenberg pumice ("Gleestype")

•v "V"

WW'

J Weichsel

120 c m < -

truncated H o m b u r g / E r b a c h soil

tuff


Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian

61

Legend:

11 I 1 I Grey-brownpodzolicsoil (reddish brawn colour) j Light grey to dark grey-brown horizon (sometimes with a dark blue-greenish

[

orwhite-greyish appearance)

[_~_~J Indistinct greyish horizon with rusty spots r I ' ' I i| II I I

jl Rusty yellowish-coloured horizon I

V

V

| y y »l V

[\

Darkgrey-brownto reddish brown horizon (often with Fe and Mn coatings Humic, brownish black todark brown horizon and very thin clay skins on the structure planes) Ligbtbrightyellowishtowhite-greyishbleachedhorizon (oftenwith numerous sesquioxides and charcoal pieces) Pseudogleyed Grey-brawnpodzolicsoil (greenish, red and purple colours) Gravelly and/or sandy layer

o oooo

Gravel layer

e eee

Sediment layer containing shells

flt &

Krotowin

V Y -y"

Fossil ice-wedge F i l l i n

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Erosion level » »»

Laach pumice tuff

it I ii I ti

Eltville tuff

)()()()<

Rambach-Wallertheim tuff

•v v'v'i, /'

Buhlen tuff

>' Metternich-Kahlenberg pumice tuff(Glees type) (D

Location of sample with number

M e i | s , 1 9 8 1

Figure

1 : Idealized Weichselian loess profile, showing the stratigraphical position of the various tephra layers in Germany (according to BARTELS & HARD 1 9 7 3 ; BIBUS 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 8 0 ; BIBUS & SEMMEL 1 9 7 7 ; BRUNNACKER & H A H N 1 9 7 8 ; BRUNNACKER & TILLMANNS 1 9 7 8 ; LOHR & BRUNNACKER 1 9 7 4 ; ROHDENBURG 1 9 6 6 ; ROHDENBURG & MEYER 1 9 6 6 ; SCHÖN­ HALS et al. 1 9 6 4 ; SEMMEL 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 6 8 and WINDHEUSER & BRUNNACKER 1 9 7 8 ) .


62

Erik Meijs, Herman Mücher, Gerard Ouwerkerk, Arie Romein & Henk Stoltenberg

1.

Introduction

1.1. T e p h r o s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l o e s s research H i t h e r t o t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t topics in t h e Q u a t e r n a r y lithostratigraphical research on Dutch loess deposits h a v e been paleosols, periglacial features a n d sedimentological characteristics. I n Belgium a n d G e r m a n y much research h a s been done i n t o t h e macroscopic a n d microscopical t e p h r o s t r a t i g r a p h y . D u r i n g t h e last 30 years v a r i o u s G e r m a n loess investigators h a v e discovered t e p h r a layers in loess profiles further a n d further a w a y f r o m t h e volcanic Eifel. I n this c o n n e c ­ tion m a n y publications h a v e a p p e a r e d about t e p h r a layers in G e r m a n loess deposits (see e. g. BIBUS 1980, WINDHEUSER. & BRUNNACKER 1978). So far five distinct t e p h r a layers h a v e been f o u n d in G e r m a n Weichselian loess sections in a w i d e a r e a a r o u n d t h e v o l c a n i c Eifel (SEMMEL 1967, L O H R & B R U N N A C K E R 1974; see figure 1).

I n Belgium much microscopical research h a s been done i n t o t h e volcanic h e a v y minerals present i n loess deposits (see e. g. J U V I G N E 1977, 1980). I n addition t o t h e E l t ­ ville tuff discovered in R o c o u r t b y R O H D E N B U R G & SEMMEL (1971), o n e more m a c r o scopically visible t e p h r a layer h a s been found (Laach lake tuff-5; H U L S H O F et al. 1 9 6 8 , P I S S A R T & J U V I G N E 1980).

1.2. T h e E l t v i l l e tuff i n G e r m a n y I n recent years t h e Eltville tuff has been recognised macroscopically over a w i d e area. According t o BIBUS & SEMMEL (1977) t h e tuff w a s emitted b y t h e „Korretsberg" v o l ­ c a n o (see figure 2). T h e Eltville tuff often consists of 2 t o 5 s e p a r a t e t e p h r a layers. T h e m a x i m u m t o t a l thickness of t h e loess layers b e t w e e n t h e u p p e r m o s t a n d lowest t e p h r a layer is 15 cm. T h e colour of t h e Eltville tuff layers differs from a r e a t o area. T h e l o w e r t w o layers h a v e colours v a r y i n g from olive-green t o d a r k greyish black, t h e m i d d l e layer ranges f r o m b r o w n t o d a r k greyish b r o w n a n d t h e upper t w o layers from d a r k greyish black t o black ( B I B U S 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 8 0 ; BIBUS & S e m m e l 1 9 7 7 ; F R E C H E N 1 9 5 9 ; L O H R & B R U N N A C K E R

1974;

S C H Ö N H A L S 1959).

O n t h e basis of differences in t h e colour a n d t h e mineralogical a n d m o r p h o m e t r i c composition of t h e Eltville tuff layers it w o u l d seem t h a t t h e b o t t o m layer is thicker in t h e Western p a r t a n d t h a t t h e t o p layer is thicker i n t h e Eastern p a r t of t h e distribution a r e a of t h e Eltville tuff. T h e second a n d f o u r t h l a y e r seem t o b e restricted t o r a t h e r a small a r e a ( a b o u t 80 a n d 40 k m r a d i u s resp.) a n d t h e m i d d l e l a y e r t o rather a large a r e a (about 160 k m radius) a r o u n d t h e " K o r r e t s b e r g " .

1.3. T h e t e p h r a l a y e r i n t h e v i c i n i t y of M a a s t r i c h t In T h e N e t h e r l a n d s a thin blackish layer, present in t h e U p p e r - P l e n i g l a c i a l loess, w a s correlated b y M E I J S (1980a) w i t h t h e Eltville tuff o n t h e basis of its stratigraphical position. In t h e same y e a r a n e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e mineralogical composition of this layer r e v e a ­ led t h a t it d i d indeed contain v o l c a n i c h e a v y m i n e r a l s ( O U W E R K E R K in M E I J S 1980b). This p a p e r r e p o r t s on a s t u d y of t h e m o r p h o m e t r i c , mineralogical a n d m i c r o m o r p h o logical composition of t h e discovered t e p h r a layer. T h e aim of t h e s t u d y was t o test t h e correctness of t h e correlation of this layer w i t h t h e Eltville tuff.


Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian

Figure

63

2 : Distribution area of the Eltville tuff and the locations of the sampled loess sections, containing the Eltville tuff in Dutch and adjacent Belgian Limbourg. (German area according to BIBUS 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 8 0 ; BIBUS & SEMMEL 1 9 7 7 ; FRECHEN 1 9 5 9 ; LOHR & BRUNNACKER 1 9 7 4 ; ROHDENBURG & MEYER 1 9 6 6 ; ROHDENBURG & SEMMEL 1 9 7 1 ; SABELBERG & LÖSCHER 1 9 7 8 ; SCHÖNHALS 1 9 5 9 and SEMMEL 1 9 6 7 ) .


64

Erik Meijs, Herman M端cher, Gerard Ouwerkerk, Arie Romein & Henk Stoltenberg 2.

Results

Figure 2 shows the locations where the samples for l a b o r a t o r y research were t a k e n . T h e loess sections a t these locations, and the position of the t e p h r a layer and the samples are indicated in figures 3 to 8.

Upper . Pleniglaciai

M e i , s & M u c h e i . 1981 SO

Figure

100

3: Position of the Eltville tuff layer near a fossil ice-wedge in the Nagelbeek pit (strongly cryoturbated).

- 2 8 m bei 117 m N A P

Eltville-lufl

laver

MeijS & Mucher.

Figure

4: Position of the Eltville tuff layer in the Nagelbeek pit (weakly cryoturbated).

1981


Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian

65

T h e t e p h r a l a y e r was sampled v e r y carefully in order to p r e v e n t c o n t a m i n a t i o n w i t h adjacent loess m a t e r i a l .

't ROOTH Figure 5b. Figure 5a.

2 0 0 c m H o l o c e n e soil

50 cm Upper carbonate limit

>• 1 5 0 c m

< ^

50 cm

Kesselt soil

30 cm

cm 10 c m 15 c m 25 c m

Eltville-tuff l a y e r

^Lower carbonate 10 c m WEICHSEL

' V, I =•„'•'•• 5 10 c m

• 30 c m

limit

I

t r u n c a t e d R o c o u r t soil

Mens.1981

Figure

5: Position of the Eltville tuff layer in the Nekamie quarry near 't Rooth (weakly cryoturbated). 5A: Detailed profile containing the Eltville tuff layer. 5B: Complete loess section with the Eltville tuff.

5

Eiszeitalter u. Gegenwart


66

Erik Meijs, Herman Mücher, Gerard Ouwerkerk, Arie Romein 8c Henk Stoltenberg

VROENHOVEN WEST

Figure 6 b

H o l o c e n e soil •-150 c m

Figure 6 a

50 cm Upper carbonate limit

4 0 c m Kesselt soil 30 cm 20 cm 10 c m 30 cm *

+

+

I I I I I I "j E l t v i l l e - t u f f l a y e r

cm 20 cm 15 c m Lower

carbonate

70 cm 20 cm

WEICHSEL _l

10 c m 30 cm 15cm

Figure

M e i i s .

1981

6: Position of the almost undisturbed Eltville tuff layer in the Western wall of the Albert canal near Vroenhoven. 6A: Detailed section containing the Eltville tuff layer. 6B: Complete loess profile with the Eltville tuff.


Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian Figure Figure 8 B

67

8: Position of the undisturbed Eltville tuff in the Eastern wall of the Albert canal near Vroenhoven. 8A: NNW-SSE cross-section of a dry valley-side facing South-East. 8B: Detailed profile containing the Eltville tuff. 8C: Position of the loess and Eltville tuff samp­ les. Figure 8 c

7 mm

â&#x20AC;˘4

4

75

dark gray brown

cm

mm

olive c o l o u r e d black

m-,

+N.A.P. 74-

73

72-

69

6867 66 Eltville-tuff

layerts)

65WEICHSEL I

64

5


Erik Meijs, Herman Mücher, Gerard Ouwerkerk, Arie Romein & Henk Stoltenberg

68

2.1. Field observations During the fieldwork attention was given to paleosols, periglacial features and sedimentological characteristics, as well as to the macroscopic appearance of the tephra layer. The presence of calcium carbonate and manganese compounds in the loess profile was demonstrated by the use of 5 °/o H C L and 15 %> H2O2 resp. I n t h e vicinity of M a a s t r i c h t t h e lower p a r t of the thin t e p h r a layer is g e n e r a l l y d a r k g r e y t o d a r k greyish black a n d t h e u p p e r p a r t olive-green t o greyish g r e e n ) . O n the a v e r a g e the t e p h r a layer h a s a thickness of 2 m m . 1

I n those cases w h e r e t h e t e p h r a layer w a s influenced b y c r y o t u r b a t i o n a n d / o r solifluction processes, i t m a y consist of several layers (see figure 7 c a n d 7D). T h e undi­ s t u r b e d a n d almost u n d i s t u r b e d a p p e a r a n c e of t h e t e p h r a l a y e r occurs only in strongly t o m o d e r a t e l y stratified loess resp. (see figure 6A, 7B a n d 8B). I n t h e vicinity of Maastricht, t h e loess section d e p i c t e d in figure 8, is t h e o n l y one c o n t a i n i n g t h e t e p h r a l a y e r with a split a p p e a r a n c e which is n o t d u e t o solifluction a n d / o r c r y o t u r b a t i o n .

2.2. H e a v y m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n a n d g r a i n - s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n The samples taken for heavy mineral analysis were pre-treated with Na-dithionite (heated to 90° C) in order to preserve all the heavy minerals. Bromoform was used to separate the different grain-size fractions into light and heavy mineral sections. To do this narrow Edelman separatory funnels were used. Only the fraction 32—50 was separated by using a laboratory overflow centrifuge (IJLST 1973). From each sample 200 to 300 transparent grains were counted, using the line-counting method. The grain-size distribution of material smaller than 2 mm was established by sedimentation ( < 50 ftm) and sieving (50—2000 ^ m ) , following H2O2 and H C L pre-treatment and dispersion with Na4P2Ü7. T h e volcanic character of t h e discovered t h i n blackish l a y e r , represented in figures 3 t o 8, is d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e presence of t h e t r a n s p a r e n t v o l c a n i c h e a v y m i n e r a l s clinop y r o x e n e , olivine, b r o w n h o r n b l e n d e , t i t a n i t e a n d a p a t i t e . S o m e clinopyroxenes (espe­ cially in t h e large grain-size fractions) show a n outer z o n e of a k i n d of c o n v e r t e d vol­ canic glass. Of interest a r e t h e v a r y i n g volcanic h e a v y m i n e r a l p e r c e n t a g e s in the different grainsize fractions (see figure 9B). This v a r i a t i o n is p r o b a b l y d u e t o t h e greater initial size of the olivine a n d b r o w n h o r n b l e n d e grains in r e l a t i o n to those of clinopyroxene, a p a t i t e a n d t i t a n i t e . These results a r e in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e findings of F R E C H E N & R O S A U E R (1959), w h o also determined higher percentages of olivine a n d b r o w n h o r n b l e n d e in t h e large grain-size fractions of t h e loess deposits n e a r Kärlich ( G e r m a n y ) . I n t h e loess fraction of t h e n e w l y discovered t e p h r a l a y e r ( 3 2 — 5 0 / i m ) , t h e percen­ t a g e of t r a n s p a r e n t n o n - v o l c a n i c h e a v y m i n e r a l s is r a t h e r h i g h (see figure 9 c ) . T h e nonv o l c a n i c h e a v y m i n e r a l composition of this fraction does n o t differ from t h e heavy m i n e r a l composition of t h e loess samples 1 0 1 , I I I F a n d I V F ( s h o w n in figures 3 a n d 8c) a n d can be considered as t h e characteristic h e a v y m i n e r a l composition of Weichselian loess ( M Ü C H E R 1 9 7 3 ; J U V I G N E 1978). T h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n of t h e t e p h r a l a y e r b y loess m a t e r i a l m a y be d u e to t h e i n a c c u r a c y of t h e sampling, t h e grain-size d i s t r i b u t i o n of the volcanic minerals e m i t t e d a n d / o r t o the k i n d of sedimentation of t h e t e p h r a l a y e r .

J

) Not all blackish and grey-greenish thin layers in the loess profile (especially in stratified loess) are tephra layers! Most of them consist of Mn- and Fe-oxides and hydroxides and/or opaque minerals (MÜCHER et al. 1981).


Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian

69

B UFA, 109a a n d u F B a n d K r a Z b U F C l o g Z c a n d

D

Weight

%

~J

|..

:

! • . " f r j . v mi n e r a l b

Volcanic heavy m i n e r a l s

Emi$

Light minerals

Remaining heavy inerals Volcanic heavy

Figure 9A: Grain-size distribution of the pure Eltville tuff sample 109Z and the underlying calcareous loess sample 101, as indicated in figure 3. 9B: Average volcanic heavy mineral percentages in the grain-size fractions 32—50, 50—75 and 75—150 ,um of the Eltville tuff, found in the vicinity of Maastricht. 9C: Percentages of the volcanic heavy minerals in relation to percentages of the nonvolcanic heavy minerals in the fractions 32—50, 50—75 and 75—150 of sample 109Z. 9D: Percentages of the volcanic and non-volcanic heavy minerals in relation to percentages of the light minerals in the fractions 32—50, 50—75, 75—150 and 150—300 ftm of sample 109Z.


Erik Meijs, Herman Mücher, Gerard Ouwerkerk, Arie Romein & Henk Stoltenberg

70

liddle

and

upper

Eltville-tut)

laye

Absolute Weight Grammes

H i i ITTTi liddle

I

:::::::!:

I

and

upper E l t v i l l e - TuM layer

Light minerals

WALLERTHEIM Volcanic heavy minerals

9 E : Absolute weights of the volcanic and non-volcanic heavy minerals in relation to the absolute weights of the light minerals in the fractions 3 2 — 5 0 , 5 0 — 7 5 , 7 5 — 1 5 0 and 1 5 0 — 3 0 0 pm of 5 0 0 grammes of dried and decalcified, pure Eltville tuff (sample 109Z).

9 F : Grain-size distribution of the clinopyroxenes present in the separate Eltville tuff layers in Elz and Wallertheim (Germany), according to FRECHEN ( 1 9 5 9 ; the locations are indicated in fig. 2 ) .

I t should be b o r n e in m i n d t h e t e p h r a layer consists m a i n l y of light minerals (see figure 9D) a n d its grain-size distribution almost resembles t h a t of loess (see figure 9 A ) . Figure 9E shows t h a t the grain-size fraction 3 2 — 5 0 fim minerals of volcanic origin.

contains the most h e a v y

2.3. X - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n X-ray diffraction analyses of powder specimens were carried out with a Philips X-ray diffraction camera (debeye-Scherrer powder camera, diameter 114.83 mm, Koo -radiation with Fe-filter), using a Philips 3 kW-generator, type PW 1 1 2 0 / 0 0 . co

The light minerals were pre-treated at 2 0 ° C with 5 °/o H C L for 3 minutes in order to dissolve the calcium carbonate. I n a d d i t i o n t o the d a t a o b t a i n e d by h e a v y m i n e r a l analysis, x - r a y diffraction h a s revealed the presence of traces of phlogopite, p r e h n i t e a n d haiiyne in the heavy m i n e r a l section a n d biotite, oc-tridimite, " h i g h " sanidine, nepheline, " h i g h " orthoclase and a n orthoclase in the light mineral section of the t e p h r a layer.


Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian

7!

2.4. M i c r o m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n For micromorphological investigation undisturbed samples were collected in the field in tins measuring 8x6x4 cm. The thin sections 20 /urn thick, were described using the terminology of BREWER (1976).

A c c o r d i n g t o the d a t a o b t a i n e d b y m i c r o m o r p h o l o g i c a l investigation of t h e t e p h r a layer, it seems t h a t the t e p h r a material w a s first deposited in situ in t h e s h a p e of m i c r o lapilli o r pisolite aggregates ( 5 0 — 5 0 0 /um), consisting of greyish b r o w n fine m a t e r i a l ( < 1 0 M m ) a n d some s c a t t e r e d mineral g r a i n s ( 1 0 — 4 0 / / m ) . This w a s f o l l o w e d b y a slight p r e c i p i t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l volcanic m i n e r a l s ( 1 6 — 1 1 0 / ^ m ) . D u r i n g a n d after t h e s e d i m e n t a t i o n of tephra m a t e r i a l , loess w a s deposited between t h e aggregates. N e x t , owing to disintegration, p r o b a b l y as a result of r a i n d r o p impact (splash), p a r t of t h e aggregates was d e s t r o y e d ; as a result t h e t e p h r a l a y e r n o w consists of aggregates a n d a n a m o r p h o u s mass, which a r e slightly intermingled w i t h calcareous loess m a t e r i a l . F i n a l l y t h e t e p h r a layer w a s b u r r i e d b y a s e c o n d a r y l a m i n a t e d loess deposit due t o r a i n w a s h . l

T h e in situ position of t h e t e p h r a l a y e r c a n be concluded from t h e fact t h a t it is only slightly intermingled w i t h loess.

3. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and discussion In i n t e r p r e t i n g the d a t a mentioned in section 2 , a n d in c o m p a r i n g t h e m w i t h d a t a for G e r m a n y , w e shall give special a t t e n t i o n t o t h e mineralogical composition, t h e stratig r a p h i c a l position a n d t h e macroscopic a p p e a r a n c e of t h e discovered t e p h r a l a y e r near Maastricht a n d the Eltville tuff in G e r m a n y . 3.1. Mineralogical composition W i t h r e g a r d to the mineralogical c o n t e n t , t h e found t e p h r a layer c a n b e correlated only w i t h t h e Eltville tuff (because of t h e presence of „ h i g h " sanidine a n d a n o r t h o c l a s e ) . I t s h o u l d be added, t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e s of the h e a v y minerals c l i n o p y r o x e n e , olivine a n d b r o w n h o r n b l e n d e of Eltville tuff samples, m e n t i o n e d b y J U V I G N E (in J U V I G N E & SEMMEL 1 9 8 1 ) , b y F R E C H E N ( 1 9 5 9 a n d i n B I B U S 1 9 7 3 ) a n d in this p u b l i c a t i o n , some­

times s h o w r a t h e r large differences. This a s p e c t will be dealt w i t h extensively elsewhere ( M E I J S , in p r e p . ) . O n e of t h e reasons f o r such differences is for instance t h e different h e a v y m i n e r a l content of t h e separate E l t v i l l e tuff layers. This w a s first noticed b y F R E C H E N ( 1 9 5 9 ) , after h e h a d examined t h e individual E l t v i l l e tuff layers in E l z a n d W a l l e r t h e i m ( G e r m a n y ; f o r t h e locations see figure 2 ) . H e f o u n d t h a t t h e l o w e r t w o grey-blackish a n d b r o w n i s h t e p h r a layers s h o w a higher p e r c e n t a g e of olivine t h a n t h e u p p e r blackish layer. I n this connection a s t u d y w a s done b y t h e authors on t h e h e a v y m i n e r a l c o n t e n t of three E l t v i l l e tuff layers s a m p l e d in t h e f o r m e r „ K l ü t e r " b r i c k y a r d a t A m B i n g e r t n e a r Wiesbaden ( G e r m a n y ; see fig. 1 0 ) . T h e l o w e r d a r k grey-greenish t e p h r a l a y e r (thickness 2 m m ) shows a close resemblance in colour a n d in h e a v y m i n e r a l composition t o t h e t e p h ­ ra layer discovered n e a r Maastricht ( 3 1 , 1 % olivine, 6 5 , 6 % c l i n o p y r o x e n e a n d 3 , 3 °/o b r o w n h o r n b l e n d e in t h e fraction > 7 5 a m ) . T h e u p p e r t w o d a r k b r o w n a n d black t e p h r a layers, which w e r e sampled t o g e t h e r (thickness 2 8 m m ; see fig. 1 0 ) , show a considerably lower p e r c e n t a g e of olivine ( 1 4 , 5 % olivine, 8 1 , 8 % c l i n o p y r o x e n e , 2 , 5 °/o b r o w n h o r n b l e n d e a n d 1 , 2 % titanite in t h e fraction > 7 5 ^ m ) . P r o b a b l y t h e percentage of olivine in t h e black t e p h r a layer (so n o t sampled together w i t h t h e d a r k b r o w n one) will be even lower! i


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Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian

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Comparison of these d a t a w i t h those for D u t c h a n d Belgian L i m b o u r g suggests t h a t t h e h e a v y mineral c o n t e n t of t h e t e p h r a layer n e a r Maastricht corresponds only t o t h a t of t h e lowest Eltville tuff layer in G e r m a n y (see figure 10). 3.2. M a c r o s c o p i c a p p e a r a n c e a n d m o r p h o m e t r i c c o m p o s i t i o n So far the E l t v i l l e tuff has been observed in a split form b y several G e r m a n loess explorers (see figure 2 a n d 10). N e a r Maastricht such a split f o r m could only be found at one location ( V r o e n h o v e n E a s t ; see figure 8). A t this location t h e 4 mm thick l o w e r tephra l a y e r , which is n o r m a l l y present in this region, has a slightly rusty a n d h a r d e n e d , black l o w e r p a r t , and a looser, olive-coloured u p p e r p a r t . F o u r cm a b o v e this t e p h r a layer a d a r k greyish b r o w n , 7 m m thick layer is present, c o n t a i n i n g v o l c a n i c h e a v y minerals only in t h e grain-size fraction 7 5 — 1 5 0 ßm (see fig. 8 c ) . W i t h regard t o t h e m o r p h o m e t r i c composition F R E C H E N (1959) revealed t h a t t h e clinopyroxenes in t h e u p p e r E l t v i l l e tuff layers h a v e a higher a v e r a g e grain-size t h a n those in the lower layers (see fig. 9 F ) . L O H R & B R U N N A C K E R (1974) observed t h a t a t m a n y locations in G e r m a n y , the lowest E l t v i l l e tuff layer is divided i n t o a black lower p a r t a n d an olive-coloured u p p e r p a r t . Concluding it can be said t h a t a t t h e V r o e n h o v e n East location near Maastricht, as well as in G e r m a n y , the lowest t e p h r a layer is d i v i d e d into a blackish a n d an o l i v e coloured part, w h i l e t h e u p p e r l a y e r is showing a higher a v e r a g e grain-size t h a n t h e l o w e r one. 3.3.

Stratigraphical position 3.3.1.

Paleosols

T h e tundragleys, present in t h e U p p e r - P l e n i g l a c i a l loess deposits of Western E u r o p e , a r e v e r y weakly developed arctic o r subarctic soils, t e n d i n g t o w a r d s R a n k e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o humification a n d clay f o r m a t i o n , there were also p a r t i c u l a r p o d z o l i c and gley p r o ­ cesses. This has caused t h e often visible rustiness in these paleosols a n d t h e rust c o l o u r e d h o r i z o n beneath t h e m ( R O H D E N B U R G & M E Y E R 1966, SEMMEL 1968). I n the m i d d l e p a r t of G e r m a n y t h e E4 ( = Erbenheim-4) t u n d r a g l e y (according to SCHÖNHALS et al. 1964) differs in a typological w a y from t h e o t h e r tundragleys, in t h a t it shows practically n o rustyness a n d displays m o r e P a r a - R e n d z i n a properties (SEMMEL 1968; fig. 1). T h e r e is a clear resemblance b e t w e e n t h e E4 t u n d r a g l e y and the Kesselt paleosol ( = H o r i z o n of N a g e l b e e k , according t o H A E S A E R T S et al. 1981) in the v i c i n i t y of Maastricht. H e r e t o o t h e Kesselt paleosol shows t h e differences mentioned a b o v e w i t h respect to the u n d e r - a n d o v e r l y i n g tundragleys ) . 2

O n t o p of t h e M i d d l e - P l e n i g l a c i a l loess in G e r m a n y one often finds a characteristic, subarctic B r o w n - P o d z o l i c paleosol (the so-called L o h n e or H a i n e r b e r g paleosol; see fig. 1). I t represents t h e strongest soil-formation period d u r i n g Weichselian time. This paleosol consists of d a r k g r e y - b r o w n i s h t o red-brownish, decalcified loess material, w i t h a suba n g u l a r to p l a t y s t r u c t u r e a n d t h i n clay skins a n d iron and m a n g a n e s e coatings o n t h e peds (SEMMEL 1968). I n their p u b l i c a t i o n BIBUS & SEMMEL (1977) r e p o r t t h e discovery of 2) According to soil-micromorphological research, the rusty yellowish coloured Kesselt "paleosol" sensu stricto (GULLENTOPS 1 9 5 4 ) , unlike the Kesselt paleosol ( = Horizon of Nagelbeek), does not show any signs of soil-formation (MÜCHER in HAESAERTS et al. 1 9 8 1 ; see fig. 3 ) .


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Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian

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a typological equivalent of t h e L o h n e paleosol in t h e vicinity of M ö n s (Belgium). After e x a m i n i n g some loess sections in t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of Wiesbaden ( G e r m a n y ) a n d Möns (Belgium), w e were able t o locate t h e presence of t h e L o h n e paleosol in Belgium in t h e H a r m i g n i e s q u a r r y , a b o u t 5 k m t o t h e South of M ö n s . I n this pit, c o n t a i n i n g one of t h e most complete Weichselian loess sections of Western E u r o p e , w e w e r e also able t o establish t h e typological a n d s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l equivalence of t h e K C 2 t u n d r a g l e y t o t h e Kesselt paleosol ( H o r i z o n of N a g e l b e e k ) in t h e vicinity of Maastricht a n d t o t h e E4 t u n d r a g l e y near Wiesbaden (see figure 1 1 ) . T h e possibility exists h o w e v e r , t h e equivalent of t h e L o h n e paleosol in H a r m i g n i e s is representing t h e B3 h o r i z o n of t h e t r u n c a t e d Eemian G r e y B r o w n P o d z o l i c paleosol. But o n t h e basis of h e a v y mineral d a t a of t h e fraction 3 0 — 6 3 /urn of loess m a t e r i a l present b e n e a t h this paleosol, showing a t y p i c a l Weichselian h e a v y mineral composition (see J U V I G N E 1 9 7 8 ) , this possibility can be precluded. I n T h e N e t h e r l a n d s , t h e N a g e l b e e k p i t is t h e o n l y location w h e r e a typological equivalent of t h e L o h n e paleosol could be recognised. U n f o r t u n a t e l y its stratigraphical position does n o t offer enough s u p p o r t t o a positive correlation w i t h t h e L o h n e paleosol. So a t this location t h e discovered t e p h r a layer lies b e t w e e n t h e typological equivalent of t h e L o h n e paleosol a n d t h e H o r i z o n of Nagelbeek (Kesselt paleosol), which is in com­ plete accordance w i t h t h e stratigraphical position of t h e Eltville tuff in G e r m a n y . 3.3.2.

Sedimentological

characteristics

I n t h e Western p a r t of G e r m a n y t h e typical unstratified loess generally appears for the first time a b o v e t h e E4 t u n d r a g l e y ( L O H R & B R U N N A C K E R 1 9 7 4 ; R O H D E N B U R G & SEMMEL 1 9 7 1 , a n d SABELBERG & L Ö S C H E R 1 9 7 8 ) .

I n t h e lower m i d d l e R h i n e area t h e Eltville tuff is often situated w i t h i n v e r y clearly stratified loess. I n general this loess contains some g r a v e l l y layers situated b o t h below a n d a b o v e t h e t e p h r a l a y e r (BARTELS & H A R D 1 9 7 3 ) . L O H R & B R U N N A C K E R ( 1 9 7 4 ) also

found gravelly a n d / o r s a n d y sediment layers below a n d a b o v e t h e Eltville tuff in m a n y loess profiles (some of t h e m only at a distance of 2 0 k m from Southern L i m b o u r g ) . These d a t a closely resemble those for t h e sediment s t r a t a u n d e r - a n d overlying t h e t e p h r a layer u n d e r consideration n e a r Maastricht (see figure 5 , 6 , 7 A , 7 B a n d 8 B ) . 3.3.3.

Periglacial

features

I n Hessen R O H D E N B U R G ( 1 9 6 6 ) discovered in t h e U p p e r - P l e n i g l a c i a l loess deposits 6 distinct fossil ice-wedge generations (see fig. 1 ) . I n t h e lower m i d d l e R h i n e area a generation of big fossil ice-wedges lies directly below t h e E4 t u n d r a g l e y . These wedges a r e filled w i t h E4 soil m a t e r i a l . D i r e c t l y a b o v e this paleosol there is an extensive system of big fossil ice-wedges, filled w i t h typical unstratified loess ( L O H R & B R U N N A C K E R 1 9 7 4 ; see figure 1 ) . I n t h e vicinity of Maastricht t h e r e is a clear similarity between t h e fossil ice-wedge generations lying b e l o w a n d above t h e Kesselt paleosol ( H o r i z o n of N a g e l b e e k ) a n d t h e u p p e r t h r e e fossil ice-wedge generations in G e r m a n y (see figure 1, 3 a n d 4 ) . 4.

Conclusions

U p till n o w t h e Kesselt paleosol ( H o r i z o n of N a g e l b e e k ) present in Belgium a n d T h e N e t h e r l a n d s has been correlated w i t h t h e Stillfried-B paleosol (see e. g. Z A G W I J N & P A E P E 1 9 6 8 ) , which w a s f o r m e d during t h e D e n e k a m p interstadial ( ± 3 2 , 0 0 0 — 2 9 , 0 0 0 B P ; V O G E L & VAN DER H A M M E N 1 9 6 7 ) . Because there is n o w clear evidence of t h e presence of


76

Erik Meijs, Herman Mücher, Gerard Ouwerkerk, Arie Romein & Henk Stoltenberg

t h e Eltville tuff i n this region r i g h t b e n e a t h t h e Kesselt paleosol ( H o r i z o n of N a g e l b e e k ) , this paleosol a p p e a r s t o b e equivalent t o t h e E4 t u n d r a g l e y in G e r m a n y , which is about 1 0 , 0 0 0 years y o u n g e r t h a n t h e Stillfried-B paleosol (SEMMEL 1 9 6 7 ) . As a result t h e division between t h e U p p e r - a n d Middle-Pleniglacial in Belgium a n d T h e N e t h e r l a n d s m u s t come much l o w e r in t h e loess profile, just o n t o p of t h e equivalent of t h e Stillfried-B paleosol (in G e r m a n y t h e so-called L o h n e paleosol). A correlation m o d e l , c o n t a i n i n g some idealized U p p e r - P l e n i g l a c i a l loess sections has been constructed in o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l position of t h e various U p p e r - P l e n i g l a c i a l paleosol horizons in relation t o t h e position of t h e E l t v i l l e tuff in G e r m a n y , Belgium a n d T h e N e t h e r l a n d s (figure 1 1 ) .

5.

Acknowledgements

T h e authors wish t o t h a n k Prof. J . I . S . Z O N N E V E L D f o r critically r e a d i n g t h e m a n u ­ script and for suggesting i m p r o v e m e n t s . T h a n k s is also d u e t o Prof. A . SEMMEL a n d Prof. P . H A E S A E R T S for a c c o m p a n i m e n t and e x p l a n a t i o n in t h e " K l ü t e r " brickyard a n d t h e H a r m i g n i e s q u a r r y respectively. A p p r e c i a t i o n is e x t e n d e d t o O . B E R G M E I J E R - D E V R E , J . R U S S C H E N a n d M . W . H . VAN

E L K for m a k i n g some of t h e d r a w i n g s , t o G. H U I J G E N a n d T . LEKKERKERKER for t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c w o r k , t o C . ZEEGERS for m a k i n g t h e thin sections a n d t o S . M . M N A B for i m p r o v i n g the English. C

6.

References

BARTELS, G. & HARD, G. (1973): Rodderbergtuff im Rheinischen Quartärprofil zur zeitlichen Stellung des Rodderberg-Vulkanismus — Catena, 1 (1/2): 31—56, 9 Abb., 4 Bild.; Giessen. BIBUS, E. (1973): Ausbildung und Lagerungsverhältnisse quartärer Tuffvorkommen in der Wetterau — Notizb. hess. L.-Amt Bodenforsch., 101: 346—361, 6 Abb.; Wiesbaden. — (1980): Zur Relief-, Boden- und Sedimententwicklung am unteren Mittelrhein — Frankfurter geow. Arb., D (1): 296 S., 50 Abb., 8 Tab.; Frankfurt a. M. — & SEMMEL, A. (1977): Stratigraphische Leithorizonte im Würmlöß des Mittelrheingebietes — Geol. Jb. Hessen, 105: 141—147, 4 Abb.; Wiesbaden. BREWER, R. (1976): Fabric and mineral analysis of soils: 482 p.; New York. BRUNNACKER, K. & HAHN, J. (1978): Der Jungpleistozäne Löß samt paläolitischen Kulturen in den Rheinlanden als Glied einer zeitlichen und räumlichen Faziesänderung — Beitr. Quartär- und Landschaftsforschung (Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Julius Fink): 37—53, 2 Abb.; Wien. — & TILLMANNS, W. (1978): Die vulkanischen Tuffe im Löß-Profil von Wallertheim/Rhein­ hessen — Geol. Jb. Hessen, 106: 255—259, 2 Abb.; Wiesbaden. FRECHEN, J. (1959): Die basaltischen Ausbläser von Kärlich (Neuwieder Becken) und die Ver­ breitung ihrer Tuffe — Fortschr. Geol. Rheinl. u. Westf., 4: 301—312, 3 Abb., 1 Tab., 1 Taf.; Krefeld. — Sc ROSAUER, E. A. (1959): Aufbau und Gliederung des Würmlöß-Profils von Kärlich im Neuwieder Becken — Fortschr. Geol. Rheinl. u. Westf., 4: 267—282, 8 Abb., 6 Tab., 3 Taf.; Krefeld. GULLENTOPS, F. (1954): Contribution ä la Chronologie du pleistocene et des formes du relief en Belgique — Memoires de l'Inst. Geol. de l'Universite de Louvain, 18: 252 p.; Louvain.


Evidence of the Presence of the Eltville Tuff Layer in Dutch and Belgian

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HAESAERTS, P . &c VAN VLIET, B. (1974): Compte rendu de l'excursion du 25 Mai 1974, consacree a la stratigraphie des limons aux environs de Möns — Ann. Soc. Geol. Belg., 97 (II): 547—• 560; Liege. — Sc VAN VLIET-LANÖE, B. (1981): Phenomenes periglaciaires et sols fossiles observes a MaisieresCanal, ä Harmignies et ä Rocourt — Biuletyn feriglacjalny, 28: 291—324; Lodz. — , JUVIGNE, E., KUYL, O., MÜCHER, H. &C ROEBROEKS, W . (1981): Compte rendu de l'excursion du 13 Juin 1981, en Hesbaye et au Limbourg Neerlandais, consacree a la chronostratigraphie des loess du Pleistocene Superieur — Ann. boc. Geol. Beig., 104: 223—240; Liege. HULSHOF, A. K., JUNGEBIUS, P. D . & RIEZEBOS, P. A. (1968): A late-glacial volcanic ash deposit in Southeastern Belgium — Geol. & Mijnb., 47: 106—111; Den Haag. JUVIGNE, E. (1977): Zone de dispersion et age des poussieres volcaniques du Tuf de Rocourt — Ann. Soc. Geol. Belg., 100: 13—22; Liege. — (1978): Les mineraux denses transparents des loess de Belgique — Z. Geomorph. N . F., 22 (1): 68—88; Berlin-Stuttgart. — (1980): Vulkanische Schwerminerale in rezenten Böden Mitteleuropas — Geol. Rdsch., 69 (3): 982—996; Stuttgart. •— 6c SEMMEL, A. (1981): Un tuf volcanique semblable a PEltviller Tuff dans les loess de Hesbaye (Belgique) et du Limbourg neerlandais — Eiszeitalter u. Gegenwart, 31: 83—90, 6 fig., 1 tab.; Hannover. LOHR, H . 6C BRUNNACKER, K. (1974): Metternicher und Eltviller Tuff-Horizont im Würm-Löß am Mittel- und Niederrhein — Notizbl. hess. L.-Amt Bodenforsch., 102: 168—190, 2 Abb., 1 Tab.; Wiesbaden. MEIJS, E. P. M. (1980a): Doktoraal verslag van het veldwerk Zuid-Limburg, uitgevoerd in de zomers van de jaren 1975—1980 — Internal report University of Utrecht (dept. Phys. Geogr.): 49 p . ; Utrecht. — (1980b): A short note on the presence of the Eltville Tuff layer in the surroundings of Maastricht — Geol. 6c Mijnb., 59 (4): 409—410; Den Haag. MÜCHER, H . J. (1973): Enkele aspekten van de loss en zijn noordelijke begrenzing in het byzonder in Belgisch en Nederlands Limburg en daaraangrenzende gebied in Duitsland — Geogr. Tijdschr. N . R., 7 (4): 259—276; Leiden. — , DE PLOEY, J. SC SAVAT, J. (1981): Response of loess materials to simulated translocation by water: micromorphological observations — Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 6: 331— 336; Chichester, New York, Brisbane, Toronto. PISSART, A. 6c JUVIGNE, E. (1980): Genese et age d'une trace de butte periglaciaire (pingo ou palse) de la Konnerzvenn (Hautes-Fanges, Belgique) — Ann. Soc. Geol. Belg., 103: 73—87; Liege. ROHDENBURG, H . (1966): Eiskeilhorizonte in südniedersächsischen und nordhessischen Löß-Profilen — Gött. bodenk. Ber., 2: 137—170; Göttingen. — 8i MEYER, B. (1966): Zur Feinstratigraphie und Paläopedologie des Jungpleistozäns nach Untersuchungen an südniedersächsischen und nordhessischen Löß-Profilen — Gött. bodenk. Ber., 2: 135 S.; Göttingen. — & SEMMEL, A. (1971): Bemerkungen zur Stratigraphie des Würm-Lösses im westlichen Mittel­ europa — Notizbl. hess. L.-Amt Bodenforsch., 99: 246—252, 2 Abb.; Wiesbaden. SABELBERG, U. & LÖSCHER, M. (1978): Neue Beobachtungen zur Würmlöß-Stratigraphie südlich Heidelberg — Beitr. Quartär- und Landschaftsforschung, Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Julius Fink: 473—489, 2 Abb., 1 Tab.; Wien. SEMMEL, A. (1967): Neue Fundstellen von vulkanischem Material in hessischen Lössen — Notizbl. hess. L.-Amt Bodenforsch., 95: 104—108, 1 Abb.; Wiesbaden. — (1968): Studien über den Verlauf jungpleistozäner Formung in Hessen — Frankf. Geogr. Hefte, 45: 133 S., 35 Abb.; Frankfurt a. M. SCHÖNHALS, E. (1959): Der Basalt-Tuff von Kärlich als Leithorizont des Würm-Hochglazials — Fortschr. Geol. Rheinl. u. Westf., 4: 313—322, 2 Abb., 1 Taf.; Krefeld. — , ROHDENBURG, H . 6C SEMMEL, A. (1964): Ergebnisse neuerer Untersuchungen zur WürmlößGliederung in Hessen — Eiszeitalter u. Gegenwart, 15: 199—206, 1 Abb.; Öhringen.


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Erik Meijs, Herman Mücher, Gerard Ouwerkerk, Arie Romein & Henk Stoltenberg

VOGEL, J. C. SC VAN DER HAMMEN, T. (1967): The Denekamp- and Paudorf interstadials — Geol. & Mijnb., 46: 188—194; Den Haag. WINDHEUSER, H . SC BRUNNACKER, K. ( 1 9 7 8 ) : Zeitstellung und Tephrostratigraphie des quartären

Osteifel-Vulkanismus — Geol. Jb. Hessen, 106: 2 6 1 — 2 7 1 , 5 Abb.; Wiesbaden. IJLST, L. ( 1 9 7 3 ) : A laboratory overflow-centrifuge for heavy liquid mineral separation — The American Mineralogist, 5 8 : 1 0 8 8 — 1 0 9 3 ; Menasha (Wise). ZAGWIJN, W. & PAEPE, R. ( 1 9 6 8 ) : Die Stratigraphie der weichselzeitlichen Ablagerungen

der

Niederlande und Belgiens —• Eiszeitalter u. Gegenwart, 19: 1 2 9 — 1 4 6 , 6 Abb.; Öhringen. Manuscript accepted am 2 0 . 5. 1 9 8 3 .


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