Page 1

A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

1


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT An examination of paradigms – The case of Koum Kapi, Chania

Georgia Ntoukaki Supervisor : Branka Dimitrijevic

Masters Thesis University of Strathclyde Department of Architecture MArch/Pg Dip Advanced Architectural Design

1. Main concepts of spatial understanding

Reference Number: 201469024

1. Main concepts of spatial understanding


Declaration

“I hereby declare that this dissertation submission is my own work and has been composed by myself. It contains no unacknowledged text and has not been submitted in any previous context. All quotations have been distinguished by quotation marks and all sources of information, text, illustration, tables, images etc. have been specifically acknowledged. I accept that if having signed this Declaration my work should be found at Examination to show evidence of academic dishonesty the work will fail and I will be liable to face the University Senate Discipline Committee.�

Name:

______Ntoukaki _Georgia______________________________

Signed: ______________________________________________________

Date:

_______19.08.2016_____________________________________


6


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Contents

Acknowledgements

9

Abstract

11

List of illustrations

13

Introduction 16 1. Main concepts of spatial understanding

18

1.1 Place and identity

20

1.2 Place with meaning

21

1.3 How do people perceive space?

23

1.4 Spatial cognition and the waterfront

24

2. Urban Waterfront

26

2.1 A definition

28

2.2 Waterfront and its relation to city

29

2.3 Building on the edge - a history of coastal cities

31

2.4 Case study 1 Barcelona waterfront

34

2.5 Case study 2 London Docklands

37

2.6 Case study 3 Hamburg

40

2.7 Key elements

43

3. Waterfront of Koum Kapi in Chania, Crete – a proposal

46

3.1 General History of Chania

48

3.2 Old Port and Koum Kapi

51

3.3 Analysis of intervention area of Koum Kapi- A wider context and existing situation

58

3.4 Analysis of intervention area of Koum Kapi - A closer look

69

3.5 Coast improvement proposal

85

Conclusion 102 Bibliography 104 Bibliography of illustrations

108

7


8


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Acknowledgements I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to my supervisor, Professor Branka Dimitrijevic for the continuous guidance and support during the whole process and giving me intellectual freedom in my work. Thanks are also due to my uncle and author Stamatis Apostolakis for providing me with direction, information and much needed books and sources about the city of Chania. In addition, I also acknowledge the important contribution of Areti Karveli, librarian of the Municipal Library of Chania for allowing me access to historical archives. Lastly, I would like to thank my parents, my brother and family for their unconditional support throughout my life and all my years in university.

1. Main concepts of spatial understanding

9


10


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Abstract The water element has always been inextricably linked with the existence and formation of cities and is a fundamental part of various cultures and civilizations. The waterfront is a combination of the natural elements and manmade urban fabric, a border between water and the city. It consequently affects the manner in which the city is designed and influences its structure and overall character. However what makes a space memorable and successful? Supplying a theoretical approach on spatial cognition and perception is imperative as the manner in which individuals understand and navigate space also affects urban place making. Urban planners have to be able to design places which engage the public, gain social value and enable people’s attachment to them, making said spaces meaningful. All these would make the waterfront more memorable and therefore attract large numbers of people on the shore. Over the past few decades urban waterfront regeneration has become a global phenomenon. The manner in which waterfronts are regarded has changed and many cities attempt to revitalise their urban environment and imageability by taking advantage of their previously overlooked shorelines. Through the analytical inspection of the three precedent studies of waterfronts –Barcelona, London, Hamburg-already regenerated or still in process of being redeveloped, the key aspects of successful, sustainable and thoughtful waterfront interventions will be documented. Through the identification of these key elements it can be stated that there are various ways in which a waterfront can be successfully reinterpreted. These points of reference will aid in focusing on the city of Chania in Crete, Greece and creating a proposal of the regeneration of the waterfront of the disregarded Koum Kapi delving into the ways public life can be improved in its shoreline.

11


12


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

List of illustrations

Figure 1. Fragmentation of spatial cognition

21

Figure 2. Emotional and intellectual connection with the city

22

Figure 3. Five senses in everyday life

24

Figure 4. Beachfront

25

Figure 5. Shoreline section

28

Figure 6. Diagram of port-city interrelation

29

Figure 7. Diagram adapted from Wrenn’s phases of waterfront development (1983)

30

Figure 8. Diagram adapted Hoyle’s more elaborate stages of port development (2000, p.405)

30

Figure 9. Baltimore’s inner harbour in the 1960s

33

Figure 10. Baltimore’s harbour nowadays.

33

Figure 11. Barcelona’s new submerged expressway on the waterfront

34

Figure 12. Main areas of intervention in Barcelona

35

Figure 13. Improved waterfront promenade

36

Figure 14. Canary Wharf

37

Figure 15. Main areas of intervention in London

38

Figure 16. Canary Wharf station

39

Figure 17. Main areas of intervention in Hamburg

41

Figure 18. Magellan-Terassen view

42

Figure 19. The region of Chania

48

Figure 20. Chania during Turkish siege in 1645

49

Figure 21. The old port after the German bombing in 1941

50

Figure 22. Diagram of areas of interest

51

Figure 23. The arsenals at the beginning of the 20th century

52

Figure 24. East arsenals today

53

Figure 25. Grand arsenal –Centre of Mediterranean architecture 53 Figure 26. South arsenals today

53

Figure 27. Old Port and lighthouse nowadays

54

Figure 28. Nelly’s. Koum Kapi in 1927

55

Figure 29. Koum Kapi early 20th century

56

Figure 30. Koum Kapi waterfront early 20th century

56

Figure 31. Koum Kapi nowadays

57

Figure 32. Map of Crete- greater area of Koum Kapi highlighted

58

Figure 33. Koum Kapi highlighted

59

Figure 34. Main roads in Chania

60

Figure 35. Important sites near the waterfront

61

Figure 36. Connectivity

62

Figure 37. Collage of existing situation on the waterfront

63

13


Figure 38. Panoramic views map

64

Figure 59. Intervention 2 plan

90

Figure 39. Panoramic views from Sabbinara bastion

65

Figure 60. Intervention 2 section B-B

92

Figure 40. Panoramic views from the east

65

Figure 61. Intervention 2 perspective

93

Figure 41. Views from the waterfront map

66

Figure 62. Intervention 3 plan

94

Figure 42. View 1

67

Figure 63. Intervention 3 section C-C

96

Figure 43. View 2

67

Figure 64. Intervention 3 perspective

97

Figure 44. View 3

67

Figure 65. Proposed planting

98

Figure 45. Current Land Use

68

Figure 66. Proposed materiality

Figure 46. Varying building heights

69

Figure 47. Sun path diagram

70

Figure 48. Example of sun diagram in section

71

Figure 49. Wind direction distribution

72

Figure 50. Accessibility

74

Figure 51. Existing benches

76

Figure 52. Existing lighting

78

Figure 53. Stairs towards the shore

80

Figure 54. Existing trees

82

Figure 55. Masterplan

84

Figure 56. Intervention 1 plan

86

Figure 57. Intervention 1 section A-A

88

Figure 58. Intervention 1 perspective

89

14

100


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

15


Introduction The urban environment is an integral part of human life. An ever increasing number of people are living within cities every day and continuously interact with each other. Expanding upon this theme, the urban environment whilst having its own manmade codes funnels mental messages to man. This may not only affect people’s feelings positively or negatively and determine their behaviour but can also affect their cognition and perception of the urban environment surrounding them. In the meantime, each person using his/hers basic perceptive abilities attempts to decode the messages received from the city environment and to interpret them in an attempt to be seamlessly integrated with in it. In addition to this, cities continuously transform due to constantly changing and evolving economic, social and political conditions. Consequently, this also has an effect on the boundaries of the city and as a result it generates new characterisations for city edges and frontiers as well as new cues for human perception. The endeavour of this thesis is primarily to comprehend how people perceive urban syntax and space and what makes a space successful and meaningful. This will be mostly focused on the investigation of a public space typology and city edge -the waterfront. The waterfront can be regarded as an amalgamation of human manufactured and natural objects, activities and utilities which ultimately shape the identity of a certain place. However what makes a place truly meaningful is human occupation, intentions and experiences (Relph, 1976, p.59). Initially inspection will be focused in the manner one understands, lives in and finally experiences the city and more specifically its coastal areas. It’s crucial to comprehend the meaning behind coastal form and how people engage and interact within the waterfront area. Some human activities entail an intervention in urban landscape and a condition of assimilation within it. In this framework an interpretation of the main relationships man forms inside the coastal environment and a further understanding of its spatial reading is essential. This

16

will be achieved through exploring different case studies as design examples to examine a multitude of spatial relationships and their meanings. The research will be investigating the space syntax and its role in user behaviour and spatial understanding as well as the effect coastal design has to the legibility and imagebility of the waterfront and as a result to its success. Driven by Bachelard’s work as a theoretical structure to draw upon the connection of water, space and cognitive and emotive experience ,this thesis gets insight from multiple fields connected with urban design. In his essay Water and Dreams (1983) Bachelard asserts that water is ephemeral as it constantly moves, though it acquires meaning when people associate their everyday life with the waterfront and life near the coastal edge. Additionally, Lynch in his passage ‘Reconsidering the image of the city’ argues that meaning exists in every spatial experience and pattern analysis one conducts in everyday life (1984, p.158). However, what makes a space memorable and successful? Some urban areas are more heavily used and enjoyed by the public than others. Kevin Lynch’s Image of the City (1960) and the Theory of good city form (1981) broaden the empirical research of how people perceive space and how they traverse within it. Therefore his work will hold a focal position in the understanding of the coastal environment and the relationship between coastal space and human interactions in it. Is what people encounter and experience in the waterfront a manmade fixed condition, or something open to personal interpretation? Is it possibly a combination of both? The psychological, social and cognitive dimension of the coast configuration is also interlinked with the spatial triad of Lefebvre’s Production of Space (1991). The ‘physical’, ‘mental’ and ‘social’ space which account for the perceived, conceived and lived environment accordingly, will be observed from the perspective of the waterfront. In his piece Contemporary urban space making at the water’s edge (2001), Richard Marshall raises awareness of the various complications and problems that occur in contemporary cities especially in the sector of public place making. They occur mainly due to the rapid evolution of cities and the inability of the public and especially the architect to adjust their way of thinking to better suit the ever


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

changing image and form of the city. The city is the natural expression of our society’s culture and progression and therefore reflects the manner in which people live in the contemporary world. The urban structure is created by heterogeneous and dispersed elements which inevitably lead the public to aspire and dream of an improvement in the urban environment. In this case the urban waterfront provides a place where new city planning prototypes can be seen and tested. By concentrating the attention only on the shoreline, we are given the opportunity to solely focus on specific solutions for the issues that arise in each case (Marshall, 2001, pp.3-4). The quality of urban environment is a crucial aspect of a city’s success. Being areas of former industries the waterfront areas are sometimes devalued and unappreciated. Nevertheless the waterfront has the capacity to be the forefront of a city’s image, improving the economy and adding further significance and desirability (Marshall, 2001, pp.9-10). Therefore after stressing the crucial and sensitive role of the urban waterfront in urban planning, it is worth mentioning that in the past few decade’s urban regeneration and redevelopment projects on coastal areas have become relatively frequent. This essay will deal with the waterfront as a boundary between the city and the sea, lake and river ,within the context of realisation of its value of the waterfront and its essential role not only in the formation of the identity of the city but also in its economic advancement this essay deals with the waterfront as a boundary between the city and the sea, lake and river.

creating urban locations interacting with water, creating a framework which essentially can result in the change of the quality of urban life whether it positive or negative. The waterfronts of London Docklands, Barcelona and Hamburg will be the three areas of attention. The third chapter will be focusing on the Old Port of the city of Chania in Crete, Greece and especially the area of Koum Kapi and the manner in which its waterfront can be regenerated. It is a place which attracts thousands of tourists every year, however, no attempt has been made to improve its environment. After a brief historical overview, an urban analysis will take place and new features to enhance the waterfront will be proposed. This will ensue using the key elements of success extracted from the previous three case studies. Finally in the conclusion the importance of the waterfront will be reaffirmed and a general overview of meaningful place making in coastal areas will be provided.

The first chapter will supply a necessary theoretical approach on spatial understanding and perception. Subsequently the focus will move on to the waterfront, its relation to the city and how it has been and may be improved in contemporary regeneration schemes. The essay examines case studies of already regenerated waterfronts and aspires to showcase a legitimate urban design process structure. The composition of the design of the waterfront should have coherent structure, become a focal part in the life of the public and have timelessness. Timelessness in the manner that it can continue be utilised by the public by allowing space for future changes and adaptations. Only then a place can truly endure time. Through the analysis of the examples, the aim is to research the strategies followed in urban planning suitable for each case and the method of

17


1. Main concepts of spatial understanding

18


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Author’s 19own


1.1 Place and identity “To be human is to live in a world that is filled with significant places: to be human is to have and know your place.”(Edward Relph, Place and Placelessness, 1976, p.1) The philosophy of place first appears in Greek philosophy, more remarkably in Aristotle’s text as ‘topos’. It was considered irrevocably connected with being and human existence as to exist means to exist and survive in place (Dovey, 2010, p.4). The built environment is created by groups or individuals and along with social, economic and cultural factors has the ability to form people’s identity. Sociologists, anthropologists, philosophers and geographers have stated that the meaning people give to a place can become a fundamental part of the identity of the individuals living in those places (Rose, 1995, p.88). In his book Jonathan Rutherford (1990, p.19) states that “identity marks the conjuncture of our past with the social, cultural and economic relations we live within”. When people get attached to a place they tend to identify themselves with this place whether in the wider sense of a country or a city or the smaller scale of a neighbourhood and a house. Although the places people live in have an effect on their space and environment preferences the opposite occurs too, as people design, personalise and decorate the places they spend the majority of their time in (Hauge, 2007). In his book Place and Placelessness Relph (1976) states that the more intense the connection and emotions one has in a certain place the stronger he/she will identify himself with it. However he notes that in contemporary societies the authenticity of the sense of place one has is often compromised leading to a feeling of placelessness. This occurs with the mass creation of anonymous places and environments undermining culture, individuality and diversity. The consequences of such a deed is a disconnection between humans and the urban fabric allowing to the commitment to nothing. Relph (1976) claimed that there is an inherent need for individuals have, which is to belong to a certain place or group. It is necessary for people to both be able to experience a sense of belonging in a

20

place and be able to recognise different identities as they proceed in urban space. The individual identity of a place can be recognised by a sense of distinctiveness when entering specific areas, a feeling of uniqueness or even with visible separation in between places to indicate the changes that occur in urban environments. Landscape elements and features provide more meaning to places and can change the public’s attitude towards it. Relph (1976) also argues that close attachment, familiarity and maintenance of a place can be connected with the sense of belonging. This feeling can also be called rootedness, the sense of having roots in a place, fitting in it and having formed a bond with it (Ujang, Zakariya, 2015). Additionally the identity of a place is more or less defined by the activities and events occurring in space. Individual and mass identity is greatly defined by the built environment (Ujang, Zakariya, 2015). Lynch (1960, p.8) describes the term of identity as the ability to distinguish an object among others due to its characteristics and to realise it is a separate entity, distinct among others. The same occurs in spatial identity. To be able to create places with distinctive character urban planners are invited to comprehend the process of how the public gains a sense of place and the meanings attached in local spaces. Identity is strongly connected with imageability, the characteristics that will evoke a strong mental image in the onlooker. Imageability, visibility and legibility are points of focus in urban design in order to create well-formed cities which attract attention and invite user participation (Lynch, 1960, pp. 9-10). Furthermore individual and community identities can create stronger connections between the public and the city. Creating a sense of attachment to space whether public or private and giving it social value to accommodate the various needs the public has should be one of the objectives urban designers have.


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

1.2 Place with meaning “A house that has been experienced is not an inert box. Inhabited space transcends geometrical space.” (Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, 2008, p.47) As specified by Speller (2000) place is a space that has attained meaning through people’s interactions and continuous contact with it. Similarly, Relph (1976, p.59) claims that the actions, experiences and intentions people have within space is what provides it with meaning and transforms it from space to place. Phenomenology ,the branch of philosophy investigating the individual perceptions and occurrences in a person’s lifetime, also deals with place as it is an integral part of people’s life and experiences. Heidegger in his book Being and Time (1962) examines the nature in ‘being’ by using the term ‘dasein’ which means ‘being there’, existing somewhere in the world. In his work, dwelling is not only connected to living in a building but creating a wold which has meaning and the user is emotionally attached to it. Additionally Norberg Schulz (1980, p.5) investigates the concept of ‘genius loci’, the ‘spirit’ of a place, its unique character setting it apart from all others. He claims that the architect should be able to envision the ‘genius loci’ of urban space and that he has a responsibility to design places with meaning and significance to assist man to dwell within the urban environment.

Figure 1. Fragmentation of spatial cognition

The concept of meaning is an urban syntax notion closely intertwined with that of identity. What makes a place meaningful and full of substance? People have an inherent need to apply meaning and significance in their life and actions. The same desire exists in place making necessitating the creation of memorable places, spaces that have a value in citizen’s life. Every human has connections and associations with certain parts of the urban environment and this relationship is filled with memories and meanings attached to each place. The viewer selects, organises and provides meaning in what he sees and encounters daily. This meaning can be either practical or emotional. However the meaning given to places varies between different people. The world is perceived differently by each human

21


due to diverse experiences, education, social, economic and even psychological factors (Lynch, 1960, p.1-9). Moreover, the field of environmental phycology examines the manner individuals structure their life and actions around certain spaces. It is suggested that locations where people associate certain activities with these specific whereabouts become more meaningful. This can happen with places like home, school, office, grocery store etc. It can also be argued the locations become more meaningful to the users as they act as borders between diverse roles and social settings. The notion of home is connected to private life and dwelling and work is related to being employed and functioning within a group. However, meaningful places can also exist in specific social contexts amongst groups or because they are easily recognisable and identifiable and may aid navigation in urban space (Nurmi and Bhattacharya, 2008).

(Salama, 2007, p.93). Therefore when studying space it is important to take into account not only its form and structure but the ways humans dwell, experience and feel within it as we are both emotive and rational beings.

Meaningful space occurs with experience. Through the constant negotiation and renegotiation of its significances and with the constant interpretation of the architectural forms, objects and activities happening within this space (Ioannidis, 2011, p.21). Canter (1977) claims that urban environments are usually neutral. When one is approaching an unfamiliar environment they usually have a feeling of unsettlement and uncertainty. This is understandable as the form and general organisation of a place cannot be fully comprehended at first glance. On the contrary, space acquires more meaning with repeated visits, continuous exposure to the urban setting and through comprehending its spatial characteristics, signs and messages. Steadman (2003) noted that form and physical characteristics also hold a great importance in the meaning of a location. The sense of belonging and rootedness is connected with the emotional experiences people have in space. Nonetheless a loss of form and distinctiveness could also affect spatial perception and attachment. To be able to fully capture the meaning of a location and to create place with substantial meaning designers ought to be able to manipulate and understand form. Just as important it is to take into account spatial perception and cognition and being able to comprehend and use architectural symbolism and visual mechanisms to convey messages about urban settings and locations to the users

22

Figure 2. Emotional and intellectual connection with the city


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

1.3 How do people perceive space? “I confront the city with my body, my legs measure the length of the arcade and the width of the square, my gaze unconsciously projects my body onto the façade of the cathedral, where it roams over the mouldings and contours, sensing the size of recesses and projections; my body weight meets the mass of cathedral door, and my hand grasps the door pull as I enter the dark void behind. I experience myself in the city and the city exists through my embodied experience. The city and my body supplement and define each other. I dwell in the city and the city dwells in me.” (Juhani Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin. 2005, p.40) Spatial perception is a rather personal matter. It depends both on the differences and values of culture, and the separate personal experiences and background of each person living within the urban realm. Due to this, spatial cognition and understanding may vary in different degrees, smaller or larger, between each individual. The senses are the primary tools used for spatial cognition and experiencing the world. Even if vision is the principal sense used to navigate in and comprehend space the remaining senses also take part in spatial perception in varying grades. For example, Pallasmaa (2005, p.55) states that ‘every city has its spectrum of tastes and odours’. Different parts of a city have varying scents informing the users of their diverse functions and characteristics. Additionally, through the sense of touch people experience the texture, density and even the temperature of their surroundings (Pallasmaa, 2005, p.56). Zumthor (2006, p.29) professes that ‘interiors are like large instruments, collecting sound, amplifying it, transmitting it elsewhere’. Hearing, can be helpful with orientation and offers warning of what is happening in urban space. As explained, people experience the world with their bodies and utilise their bodies as points of reference when navigating through space. Kant states that the three planes of Cartesian space acquire meaning when in relation to the human body. Therefore each person has a different view of the world and a different understanding of his/hers surroundings (Kant, 1992, p.366).As every person has an

individual sense of perception that is linked to their own sense of self and identity, the manner humans perceive themselves affects their perception of space. Through gathering the endless data from the environment, its form, shape and architecture, people are able to form subjective opinions of their surroundings and achieve better self-awareness (Pallasmaa, 2005, p.41). Moreover, it is believed that the initial perception of the quality and atmosphere of a space is unconscious and ‘calls for our entire embodied and existential sense’ (Pallasmaa, 2014, p.231). There are means to understand the process of spatial cognition and the elements most people come in contact with daily. Kevin Lynch in his books ‘Image of the City’ (1960) and ‘Theory of Good City Form’ (1981) investigates how humans perceive and utilize spatial information as they navigate within the city. He claims that perception is an intricate and complex process as it requires accumulating, categorising, arranging and understanding of surrounding information about urban space. Additionally he was one of the first to utilise mental maps to comprehend how the users perceive the city, their different perspectives and to be able to design cities in way the user would find legible, useful and meaningful. In his work he identifies five elements that aid in spatial navigation and cognition. Paths, the lanes in which the user moves and observes the city through them. Edges, the linear components which cannot be considered as paths, but are borders between different components, conditions or disruptions in the continuity if an element. Districts, city sections with common characteristics, recognisable from the inside but can also be used as points of reference from the outside. Nodes, which are path junctions, intersections, connections and strategic points of entrance. Landmarks, points of reference used by people, observed but not entered, buildings, signs and other corporeal entities. Nonetheless Lynch claims that all these elements overlap and assimilate with each other to create a full image of the city to the observer (Lynch, 1960, pp.46-49).

23


1.4 Spatial cognition and the waterfront

“More than any other element, water is a complete poetic reality. ‌ human language has a liquid quality, a flow in its overall effect, water in its consonants.â€? (Gaston Bachelard, Water and Dreams, 1983, p.15) When taking into account the five elements Lynch (1960) uses for spatial differentiation and perception it is rather obvious why a waterfront can have a great influence in the order, design and overall feel of a port city. A waterfront could potentially comprise several urban components or even an amalgamation of them. It encompasses a path, it can potentially be a district, an edge, a node and a landmark. It can be considered a linear plane, an area with similar structures, a border between the city and the water, an intersection and a point of reference and navigation. The waterfront can offer a break from the tightly structured urban fabric as it generally is a more open and loosely designed and planned. It has a great role in the creation of the port city, sometimes dominating its structure in accordance to the shape and form of the shoreline. All these make it highly legible and imageable.

Figure 3. Five senses in everyday life

24

People are attracted to the water edge in any of its forms as part of their inherent fascination and attraction to nature. The urban waterfront can be considered as a point of separation, a border between the structure of the urban environment and the wildness of nature. In addition, the urban waterfront edge can be interpreted as a series of complementary relations between the city, its inhabitants and water. Water is both an ephemeral and permanent element. It changes continuously yet it defines the way urban designers approach the edge of the city and the morphological transformations of the waterfront (Ioannidis, 2011, p.151).The contemporary need to reclaim this urban frontier (Bruttomesso, 2001) affects greatly the psychospatial effect it has on the users when they experience it. When trying to re-establish the connection between the urban fabric and water all physical characteristics are scrutinised. Points of connection, pathways, architecture, materiality, texture, landscaping, street furniture, distance from amenities, relation to water and viewpoints are some of the factors that contribute to


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

the formulation of the underlying character of the place. Moreover the smells, noises and sounds water generates, whether sea, river or pond, are widely different from the city’s, making the waterfront even more distinguishable from the urban context. The emotive response it evokes is also important to acquire a full embodied experience of the location. All these leave a stronger impression of place to the public, make it more unique, memorable, provide a strong sensory experience and therefore attract a multitude of people to the shore. However, as the manner each person perceives space is different the same applies to the perception of the waterfront. Lefebvre (1991, pp.41-52) asserts that space and space cognition occurs by the interrelations of his three ‘fields’ of space. The ‘physical’ or ‘perceived’ can be described as the daily reality, routine and experiences people have in the urban fabric. The ‘mental’ or ‘conceived’ space refers to the visions, concepts, designs and plans theorists and planners have about urban locations. The ‘social’ or ‘lived’ is the space of the inhabitants and users of the city. All three are able to formulate a more comprehensive understanding of space within an urban environment, affect its creation and structure and cooperatively formulate the identity of the society within the city (Salama and Wiedmann, 2013, p. 163). This can be also utilised in case of the urban waterfront, creating a fuller image of the place. Additionally another point that needs to be taken into account is that different users observe and perceive the shoreline in dissimilar ways depending on their own personal intended use of the place. Therefore residents, tourists, swimmers, fishermen, sailors, workers may possibly have different views on this urban area (West, 1989).

Figure 4. Beachfront

25


2. Urban Waterfront

26


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Author’s 27own


2.1 A definition There is certain degree of consensus in the characterisation of the waterfront. According to the definition of the ‘Oxford American Dictionary of Current English’ the term waterfront can be defined as a part of the city adjacent to a harbour, lake, pond, river (Dong, 2004). Torre (1989: vii) additionally considers any type of natural or manmade canal, creek, stream, bay, ocean shore and estuary as representations of waterfront. Another certified definition comes from the US federal Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 section 306a which describes the urban waterfront as any developed coastal area which is heavily inhabited and used for urban residential, recreational, commercial, shipping and industrial purposes. Bruttomesso (2001) labels the waterfront with more flexibility and inclusivity in regard to the type of the body of water, as a border condition of a zone that is both part of the city environment and at the same type in contact with a substantial amount of water. Additionally there are other terms also used to describe waterfronts referring to a portion or even the whole area and sometimes specifying the type of water. Such terms are ‘city port’ illustrating a city around a port (Tunbridge & Ashworth, 1992, Hoyle, 2002) and ‘harbour front’ the area that is overlooking a harbour. Other words used as well are river edge, water edge, riverfront and riverside (Hoyle, 2002, Hussein, 2006, Mann, 1973, Watson, 1986) Taking into consideration a geographical and geological aspect the waterfront is a zone consisting of the shoreline and a strip of land and water on either side of the respective coastline (Figure 5). It is therefore the area in which the terrestrial environment affects the water and may have varying widths determined as suitable in each case, namely the natural conditions and manmade structures in the area. Wrenn (1983) describes urban waterfronts as port areas of large urban agglomerations such as those of Baltimore, Seattle and Boston. He also refers to smaller towns with active ports, commercial fishing

28

villages and smaller industrial cities situated along navigable waters. The scope of the definition can be related to different uses of coastal areas, such as housing, large industrial zones or coastal parks. In some

Figure 5. Shoreline section

cases the limits may be indistinguishable, especially in derelict industrial areas where only a small portion is adjacent to a trade or residential area, and can possibly jumpstart a regeneration effort in the area (Goodwin, 1999). Furthermore Wrenn (1983) mentions that urban waterfronts can be divided into five classifications according to their location in regards to water. These are: areas located on a peninsula, areas located in a bay, regions on banks of a river, zones on banks of intersecting rivers, and finally areas located on a large body of water. At the same time the shape of the shoreline in each case is also of great importance as it can have a great impact in the relation of the city and the water. The distance from the city centre and the length of the shoreline could influence decision making about planning of public places on the waterfront or public spaces in its neighbouring areas. The closer the waterfront is to the city centre the more likely that it is better connected and the more extended the coast the more public spaces are likely to exist along it (Al Ansari, 2009).


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

2.2 Waterfront and its relation to city Over the past few decades contemporary cities often face issues with urban dispersion and disconnection and loss of sometimes viable urban space. Addressing this predicament provides the opportunity to propose new solutions to improve urban vitality on the area of the waterfront (Marshall, 2001. p3-4). Nowadays cities are on a quest to reuse new underutilized zones, in order to reduce the pressure on and density of the city centre. Under this scope water becomes a valuable asset for any city that has it in any of its forms. It provides an opportunity to upgrade the image of the city and at the same time apply new urban development models. The water element has always been inextricably linked with the existence and formation of cities and is a fundamental part of various cultures and civilizations. Water is a magnet of attraction for activities of leisure and culture and even religious rituals. No matter the activity people are attracted to the border between land and sea (Brenn and Rigby, 1996, p.13) Additionally, in some cases, the connection with water is the reason behind the existence, evolution and the organisational, economic, cultural and social growth of cities. This significance is shown in the multitude of uses, functions and activities that can be found in waterfront areas. The great importance attached to the waterfront lies in the fact that it is the boundary between the land and the sea, an area charged with symbolism, memories, historical trails, feelings and socioeconomic attributes. It is the border between city and nature and holds a part of the city’s heritage. The waterfront therefore, offers the opportunity to combine open spaces next to water with any artificial manmade features of an urban shoreline. Furthermore redevelopments and design interventions aim to become successful and popular in general public opinion. However it should be noted that urban evolution should not happen only for the profit and personal gain of any individual concerned but for the greater benefit of humanity. The waterfront can become the stage in which some of the most significant parts of the city can be placed and ideas for regeneration may take form and materialize (Marshall, 2001, p.4)

Even when not directly accessible and only visible, the waterfront becomes a focal point of most activities in coastal cities. Water serves various purposes as it is a primary source of nourishment, irrigation, defence, trade and transportation and therefore areas near it are ideal for humans to settle and civilizations to develop and thrive (Kostopoulou, 2013). It is an interaction zone of city and port, land and sea. It belongs to the city yet it is always connected with the port. (Figure 6.)

Figure 6. Diagram of port-city interrelation

29


Even though the interface and evolution of each port city depends on different social, economic and local factors there is a general description of waterfront development, decline and revival that applies to most cities. Wrenn (1983) and Hoyle (2000) identify similar stages for the historical evolution of port cities. More specifically the four stages Wrenn recognises are: • The appearance of the waterfront, which is the period of initial development, creation of settlement and early infrastructure in shoreline areas. • The growth and development of waterfronts, in which the activities taking place have boosted the economy leading to the rapid development of the waterfront. New infrastructure for transport is created and industry and transportation are the primary uses of the area. Congestion and environmental pollution start to appear. • The decline of the waterfront, as due to different needs industries are moved and port cities lose their primary function. This led to the deterioration of city ports, lack of accessibility and to derelict and abandoned waterfronts. • The rediscovery and renewal of the waterfront, with governments and private investors attempting to rehabilitate neglected areas and to mend the loss of connection between city and port. The public regains access and a variety of recreational, commercial and residential uses are provided (Wrenn, 1983, Timur, 2013).

Figure 7. Diagram adapted from Wrenn’s phases of waterfront development (1983)

30

Figure 8. Diagram adapted Hoyle’s more elaborate stages of port development (2000, p.405)

The relatively new trend of redevelopment of waterfront areas has led to various categorizations of different typologies of regeneration. In their book ‘The New Waterfront, a Worldwide Urban Success Story’, Breen and Rigby (1996) suggest several typologies whilst mentioning that aspects from each one could be combined. In detail the following are mentioned: • Commercial redevelopment A tourist pole of attraction providing various bars, restaurants, hotels, shops, open markets along the shoreline • Historical redevelopment Focusing on the presentation, restoration reinvention and modernisation of the existing infrastructure • Cultural, educational and Environmental redevelopment Museums, theatres, open concert spaces, aquariums, ecologic and technological parks are created targeting both specific and general audiences.


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

• Residential redevelopment One of the most challenging endeavours as it attempts to connect the privacy of the home and the public coast, sometimes creating a barriers between the city and the waterfront • Recreational redevelopment Organising outdoor areas and creating parks, pedestrian routes, squares, cycle paths, piers, restaurants and cafes targeting a wide range of users.

2.3 Building on the edge - a history of coastal cities As mentioned previously, humans have been inextricably connected with water from the very beginning of their evolution. Nearly 70-75% percent of earth’s surface is covered by water and its existence allows for the survival of every species and life form on earth (Graham et al, 2010). Moreover human bodies contain a large percentage of water and are biologically depended upon it for sustenance. Therefore humans were in search of locations with fresh water to locate and settle (Leakey and Lewin, 1979). Whether it was near the sea, a river or lake, most major settlements and early ancient cities were located near water (Benevolo, 1980 p.17, Torre 1989 pp.3-5). Throughout the development period of the first port cities the progress of both the port and city parts is parallel. The influence of the port is also great in the urban planning and the architecture of the city. In many cases the roads were shaped with the curvature of the harbour in mind, buildings were arranged along the shore line in such a way that allowed various viewpoints from the inner city to the port and openings were facing towards the sea horizon (Benevolo , 2009 pp. 71-73). Even the fortifications of the cities included the port and followed its lines as it developed (Kostof, 1992). During the Middle Ages and then later during the Renaissance period, the small ports of European cities become epicentres of business, banking, services , military and trade. Trade is one of the most important reasons for the existence and prosperity of port cities. The primary products exchanged were cattle, meat, wood, spices, fabrics and precious metals (Hein, 2011, p.27). The importance of trade was so immense that European cities in the Renaissance period, competed with each other to achieve the most exchanges with the rest of the world. This need for control also influenced their urban development (Hoyle and Pinder 1992, p.4). Economic prosperity and sovereignty of port cities led to an increase of population which in turn made necessary the spatial expansion of cities. Although new neighbourhoods were organised taking into consideration the port, the improvement and extension of cities’

31


road networks sometimes led to the expansion of the city towards the mainland and further from the city centre and the harbour. A new period of maritime networks and widespread reliance on port cities began and cities such as London, Liverpool, Marseille and Hamburg started to gain prominence (Hoyle and Pinder 1992, p.1). Port related activities became the focal use of the shoreline. However after the functionality driven design approach of the 17th century, more importance is given to the image and organisation of the port. Attempts to ‘monumentalise’ the waterfront were made with the creation of public spaces and residential buildings along it. Noteworthy examples are the cities of London, Boston, Bordeaux and Amsterdam (Al Ansari, 2009, p.17). After the 18th century, the Industrial revolution brought radical changes in the history of the waterfront. The introduction of steam engines brought turmoil in the pre-existing maritime world. Sailing boats were made obsolete by steamships and the overall structure of labour, ports and shipping companies was altered. This allowed for cheaper and faster travel which in turn accelerated globalisation (Hein, 2011, pp.43-44). Moreover, the infrastructure, size and location of ports underwent major changes. The steam engine, being a major technological development triggered significant changes in transport and communications. Larger and faster ships were constructed creating new requirements on maritime transport and ports. New extended and upgraded facilities and deeper shipping lanes were necessary to accommodate the increased trade and transport flow. In the course of the 19th century the waterfront was used solely for industrial and port related activities. Additionally there was a rapid increase of population in industrial centres leading to intensified urbanisation and extension of the city further away from the port. In addition, the general public had limited access to the port creating a further disconnection of the port with the city (Hein, 2011, p.44-57). During the start of the 20th century, railway and the emerging aircraft technology halted any remaining connection between cities and ports, further industrialisation took place to follow the ever increasing quantity demands and the role of the port started shirking. After the Second World War, vast areas in large cities like London

32

and New York were deindustrialised and port activities seized. Additionally, as a result of the increasing competition in ship building, the demand for deeper shipping lanes and deep water access, many port cities suffered. The tipping point for all these changes was containerisation. By the 1950s containers were introduced, which became a revolutionary innovation that altered the world of shipping and transportation. Standardised shipping containers made transportation faster, cheaper and allowed for highly consistent and reliable shipping schedules. Investments in new larger infrastructures were made, leaving various historical ports such as London and Liverpool to wane and European shipbuilding to decline. The need for more space forced ports to draw away from central cities locations with limited open areas near the shoreline. Transhipment of goods was improved in areas with better connections to rail and motorway transportation. Upgraded transport connections in ports made faster deliveries possible, allowing the areas accommodating for this need to gain an advantage (Hein, 2011, p.51-57). Nevertheless, the increase of containerisation led to a sharp reduction of local employees in docks leading to the depopulation of port cities and vast urban areas becoming derelict (Kostopoulou, 2013, p. 4580). According to Hein (2011, p.60), port cities underwent severe modifications in land use, economic activity and with docks completely reorganised, their built environment. The close functional and spatial relationship between port and city was dissolved, not only in a physical but also a social and economic level. All this, led to the process of transformation and redevelopment of port areas. In the second half of the 20th century the revitalisation of the waterfront emerged as one of the most crucial urban design issues. It generated the opportunity to reimagine the image of the city and revive urban areas with various different activities (Marshall, 2001, p.5). Abandoned zones were intended to be recovered whilst proposing restorations and additions improving living standards of areas close to the city centre. Numerous cities underwent such interventions such as Liverpool, London, Hamburg, Naples, Glasgow, Baltimore, Boston and Barcelona with a vast range of outcomes, generating strategies for successful waterfront renewal (Bruttomesso, 2001,p.41-42).


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 9. Baltimore’s inner harbour in the 1960s

Figure 10. Baltimore’s harbour nowadays

33


2.4 Case study 1 - Barcelona waterfront Barcelona is one of the most prominent and successful cases of urban and waterfront redevelopment and is considered as a ‘model’ reference for other cities wanting urban regeneration (Essex and Chalkley, 2003). The transformation of the city occurred mostly due to the fact that Barcelona hosted the 1992 Olympic Games which required a great extent of new infrastructure and development (Monlcus, 2011). This was a great opportunity to revitalise some of the marginalised neighbourhoods of the city as well as redevelop the ignored and disconnected waterfront. During the period from the city’s bid for the Games (1983), its election by the IOC (1986), and the Olympics (1992), Barcelona managed to redefine and cement its role as a European metropolis through numerous interventions. (Diagram of main interventions) One of the most significant parts of the city’s urban planning was the placement of the Olympic Village on the deindustrialised waterfront (Jauhiainen, 1995). As Monclus (2011) states the objective was the revitalisation of the degraded area and the ‘opening of the city towards the sea’. This allowed the recovery of 5.2 kilometres of coastline for public space. The proposed site for the Olympic Village was Parc de Mar in the greater area of Poblenou which was facing numerous problems. It was derelict industrial land with a devalued shoreline and was disconnected from the city centre as a result of passing railway tracks. This area was transformed from an industrial wasteland to a residential area with a thousands of apartments and housing units. Carbonell (2005) describes the current Olympic Village district as an area with high quality of life offering a multitude of services, parks and green spaces which is attracting millions of people every year. In addition, a water cleaning system and pollution control was also implemented in the planning of the area, minimizing the risks from the contaminated by the port industries water and rehabilitating the shoreline (Jauhiainen, 1995). The situation improved further when the railway network was restructured, no longer disrupting the connection with the rest of the city. A total of 4km of railway tracks were reallocated in a different part of the city and underground metro connections where built in the Parc de Mar general region for

34

public use. Additionally a new expressway (Figure 11.)was created running along the waterfront with a design that created no visual and physical obstructions towards the sea. The highway was ‘submerged’ underground in a lower channel whilst normal road connections and traffic were kept at ground level (Nello, 1997).

Figure 11. Barcelona’s new submerged expressway on the waterfront

After these infrastructure improvements, the government was able to create six artificial beaches along the coast, Bogatell, Nova Icaria, Nova Mar Bella, San Sebastia, Mar Bella and Barceloneta (Kassens-Noor, 2012, p.30). Carbonell (2005) mentions that from 1993 the waterfront has become one of the major attractions for both the citizens and tourists. The beaches of Mar Bella ,Nova Icaria and Bogatell particularly attract more than 3 million people every year and one of the main reasons is their close vicinity to the new metro stations provided in the redevelopment.


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 12. Main areas of intervention in Barcelona 35


numerous shops, restaurants, cafes, a cinema , conference rooms, auditoriums and various others facilities. It is currently considered as a major city landmark and tourist attraction (Wang, 2002). Through all these interventions the waterfront of Barcelona managed to reinvent its identity and image. Taking everything into account it is easy to understand why it is considered a great case of waterfront redevelopment. There was only a small amount of negative effects in the overall scheme. One of the criticisms was that the working class population was moved from the area of Poblenou to allow the redevelopment to take place. However the new Olympic housing units created were no longer affordable to the lower classes contributing to the gentrification of the district (Smith, 2008). On the other hand the area has attracted middle class citizens and has become one of the liveliest quarters of the city. Barcelona has now become a hotspot for tourism globally. The improvements on its waterfront have been one of the major reason behind this as now both locals and tourists are able to fully enjoy the shores in a multitude of manners. Figure 13. Improved waterfront promenade

Another major part of the intervention is Port Olimpic which has become a marina for both touristic and sports boats in the Spanish coastline. It provides ample space for more than 700 yachts and is one of the most visited in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, the area has numerous restaurants, clubs, bars, cafeterias and retail shops and is visited by large crowds every weekend. All these offer an alternative to similar areas in the city centre, relieving some of the excess crowd pressure there (Carbonnell,2005). A similar development occurred in Port Vell. This old port was renovated by the Port Authority and has become fully integrated with the rest of Barcelona whilst retaining its identity and character. The redevelopment has a more commercial, leisure and tourist focused purpose (Monclus, 2011). Part of this plan was the creation of a wooden suspension bridge for pedestrians named Rambla del Mar. This bridge connects the old port promenade with the Maritime Museum and the Maremagnum centre which has

36


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

2.5 Case study 2 - London Docklands The London Docklands regeneration has been a highly controversial project of port reuse and has gathered a great amount of attention both nationally and internationally. The greatest part of the redevelopment took part when the English government established the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) in 1981 aiming to not only physically transform the waterfront but also bring social and economic advancement in the greater area of East London (Hoyle, Pinder and Husain, 1988). Formerly, the results of previous attempts in the later 1960s produced limited and modest outcomes and the region remained devalued. However in the 1980s the Docklands became an emblem of the Thatcher government vision to transform the country (Hein, 2011, pp.78-79). The overall targeted area for the redevelopment was over 20 square kilometres containing 88km of waterfront making it a rather ambitious urban plan (Barnes et al, 1996, p.15). It covered zones of the East End Boroughs of Newham, Southwark and Tower Hamlets which were some of the most deprived districts of greater London (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1998). Whilst the LDDC received huge amounts of public sector funds (Malone, 1996) it was aimed to invite the private sector to invest further into the development as it was reckoned too expensive to be solely funded by the government (Marshal, 2001, p.164). The area was promoted mainly to international businesses, real estate corporations and new higher class residents (Hein, 2011). However opinions where polarized on this move as the planning control was completely in the hands of LDDC and local authorities had little say in the overall progression of the development (Marshal, 2001). Strategic planning for local needs was deemed to be a disincentive for private investors and the focus of the LDDC was to create market confidence (Malone, 1996). Incentives like tax reduction, exemption from development land tax and more flexible planning controls were given to potential investors (Hoyle, Pinder and Husain, 1988). The remaining working class in the area was neglected as the planning was focused on private housing rather than public housing. This resulted in the loss of the public access to the waterfront as the majority could not afford

the new accommodation built (Malone, 1996). The restricted power of the local authorities and the limitation of urban planning resulted in the uneven development of the area. The greatest part of the regeneration took place in the districts closer to the City like the Isle of Dogs and Canary Wharf (Malone, 1996). It is worth mentioning that the LDDC did not produce an overall Master plan for the redevelopment but a multitude of smaller scale local plans which were thought to be more flexible and easier to be built more rapidly (Marshal, 2001, p.165). Canary Wharf (Figure 14.) became a symbol of the dockland transformation, becoming a centre of global finance and representing a new identity and lifestyle. As Hein (2011, p65.) states ‘it was built to challenge the financial centre in the City of London’. Derelict and obsolete industrial buildings were transformed into an epicentre of office and financial developments, becoming a major financial district which was further establishing London in the world community. However it also underwent a period of depression after its redevelopment as the demand for office spaces and housing did not meet the expectations and predictions of the planners and was not properly connected with London’s transport network (Malone, 1996, pp.43-44).

Figure 14. Canary Wharf

37


Figure 15. Main areas of intervention in London

38


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

The LDDC also focused on revitalizing the riverfront through environmental initiatives. They focused their development framework on landscaping and designing the shoreline effectively. Public spaces were designed, pedestrian, cycle and road connections were created and green spaces were prioritised with 160,000 trees planted (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1998, p.35). However some parts of the public transport infrastructure were implemented and realised quite late. Marshal (2001,p.165) mentions the underground line of Jubilee as a prime example of this, as it was finally opened for the public nearly 20 years after the project was introduced. Another initiative was that of the improvement and then preservation of the ecological integrity of the area. A number of ecology parks like Lavender Pond and Bow Creek were implemented becoming nesting areas for various wildlife species.

in which urban regeneration planning took place in the United Kingdom. The whole process helped to create a new approach to conservation and heritage protection, as well as to demonstrate that large scale projects can be economically feasible in the right conditions and circumstances. However it did not fully manage to address the social and economic issues in the greater area of the redevelopment and focused more on the physical transformation of East London overlooking planning regulations and disregarding local authorities. This in turn led to the overall incoherence of the design and the lack of a well thought master plan for London.

Additionally there was a lot of focus on the retention and preservation of key buildings to maintain the heritage and identity of the region. (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1998, p.35). Numerous buildings were listed as being of historical interest and therefore to be preserved and in some cases restored. Four types can be identified: • Buildings built before 1700 and that still had original characteristics • Selected buildings from 1700 to 1840 • Buildings with certain character from 1840 to 1914 • Some buildings of high quality built between 1914 and 1939 (Marshal, 2001, p.166) These buildings ranged from churches, warehouses and industrial structures -which were considered controversial as some were of the opinion that they should be demolished- to a small number of houses. However their original uses where not always possible to be restored and the vast majority now has commercial, office and residential purposes. The combination of old and new has allowed the area to maintain its historical character whilst becoming a livelier city district (Marshal, 2001, pp.167-168). In conclusion, although the outcomes of the redevelopment of the Docklands was debatable, it still managed to alter the manner

Figure 16. Canary Wharf station

39


2.6 Case study 3 - Hamburg

as well as provide noise pollution solutions in a sustainable manner (Bruns-Berentelg, 2006).

Hamburg is situated near the river Elbe and is considered the second largest port in Europe. Its location is focal as it is the most eastern port in the North Sea and lays 100 kilometres upstream from it. As Germany does not possess a long shoreline and a large number of ports the harbour of Hamburg became for the mainland an avenue for opening up towards the sea (Schubert, 2014). As Hein (2011, p.192) mentions, after the areas where shipping companies and warehouses were located were abandoned, the city attempted to reclaim the waterfront and create a new urban districts there with housing, office space, entertainment outlets and landmarks. The city attempted to cement its role as a prominent European capital and followed the lead of other cities like Barcelona London and Rotterdam in waterfront regeneration aiming for a multifunctional urban scheme. The start of the redevelopment came with the ‘String of Pearls’ .That was the name of the intended redevelopment zone on the northern part of the river Elbe which had a heterogeneous mixture of land uses. The project focused on smaller scale interventions centred on market led tactics to upgrade the overall image of the waterfront and the city. Most of the zone of the port belongs to the city of Hamburg, and the Hamburg Port Authority (HPA) was the administrative and planning authority overlooking the whole redevelopment process (Schubert, 2014).

Once a competition for the master plan of the HafenCity took place, specific districts were designed concentrating on housing, offices, leisure and shopping. Nearly 5,500 flats were designed for 10,000 to 12,000 residents along with projected estimates for schools community hubs and other types of social infrastructure. More than 20,000 job opportunities will be created and public space will be a priority for the redevelopment. As the Master plan states, nearly 5.8 hectares close to residential areas, have been selected for the creation of public parks and playgrounds. Moreover, almost 3 hectares of privately owned green space like parks and outdoor play areas will become available for public access. Furthermore, seafront promenades and plazas will extend to a zone of over 11 hectares (Bruns-Berentelg, 2006, pp.60-61). Additionally flood control and protection became a crucial part of the overall planning as the whole area is situated within the river Elbe flood plain. A new authority was created to overlook the process called Gesellschaft für Hafen und Stadtentwicklung GmbH (GHS). It was a quango, a semi-public body run autonomously but still receiving funds from the government and its aim was to accelerate the regeneration procedure (Desfor et al., 2011.p.91). The institution has been promoting the redevelopment through television, internet, radio and other media channels trying to acquire public acceptance and more investors. The projects is reshaping the waterfront and the city making HafenCity a model of fruitful collaboration between the public and private sector and an area for citizens from diverse backgrounds (Hein, 2011).

The biggest transformation however, took place when the HafenCity initiative started in 2000 with a master plan which was revised and finalised in 2006 (Bruns-Berentelg, 2006). The site is around 155 hectares and is located between the river Elbe and Hamburg’s centre which gives it a premium opportunity to create a better connection between the city and the river after over 100 years of disconnection. The full regeneration of the area is expected to take over 25 years to complete. It will be a complete reworking of the former and current port services, derelict housing, railway tracks and industries that are presently taking over the zone of the intervention (Schubert, 2014). Focus will be given to create new subway stations and connections, new marinas, public ferry lines and other public transportation means,

40

Cultural and educational facilities were focused upon to aid social integration and to promote the city not only on Europe but on the global scale. HafenCity University was established in 2006 on the renowned riverside location of Magdeburger Hafen. The institute provides architecture, civil engineering, geomatics engineering and city planning courses. In addition buildings designed by internationally famous architects are also being built along the edge of the Elbe. On the Überseequartier quarter of the redevelopment zone Rem Koolhaas designed a new Science Centre with a theatre and an aquarium in 2008, however construction still has not started (Bruns-


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 17. Main areas of intervention in Hamburg

41


Berentelg, 2006). Massimiliano Fuksas created plans for the Cruise Centre and Richard Meier designed the Hamburg-America Centre which was completed in 2009 (Hein, 2011). Another prominent building will be the Elbe Philharmonic Concert Hall by Herzog & de Meuron located on neighbourhood of KaiserhĂśft. It will be a 106m tall building including a concert hall with a capacity of 2,200 people and a smaller auditorium in an area around apartments and 5 star hotels with spectacular views along the river (Bruns-Berentelg, 2006). Similar attempts have been made in landscape design of public spaces, focusing on key landscaping projects. Such an example is the Magellan -Terassen a public waterfront square by architects Benedetta Tagliabue and Enric Miralles which opened in 2005 (Hein.2011,p.195).

Figure 18. Magellan-Terassen view

42

All these interventions have promoted Hamburg as a global maritime centre, keeping the connection between the port, the ever expanding city and its citizens alive. HafenCity provided a larger scale regeneration which was more plan-led and pro-active tactic. Another strategy with an even more regional character has become prominent called ‘Leap across the River Elbe’. It will transform the overall urban planning of Hamburg and therefore its planning and realisation is expected to last at least two generations. The island of Wilhelmsburg is the epicentre of the redevelopment to improve the quality of life in the area. The Internationale Bauausstellung IBA Hamburg (International Building Exhibition) and the International Garden Show 2013 (IGA) were held there to speed up the redevelopment process (Desfor et al., 2011).


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

2.7 Key elements From what has been studied so far, it can be concluded that the redevelopment and regeneration of the waterfront acts as a representative example showcasing the ability of each city to take advantage of new opportunities, to recreate and reimagine the image of the city and to adapt to new prevailing technologies. The waterfront becomes the beacon of the new image of the city but the overall intervention procedure is quite complex and there are numerous parameters that need to be accounted for during planning. The relationship between water and the built environment, which sometimes has blurred boundaries, requires a multifaceted approach, integrated planning and investment in time and money. The interventions affect not only the image and character of the city but also its heritage, economy, social structure and the environment of the wider area of the waterfront zone. The outcomes in these sectors can either be positive or negative after the redevelopment. It depends in each case on the design and overall approach of every individual project. The waterfront has become an important part of the urban environment and the life within it, aiding in the transformation of the former industrial city zones and redefining its place as a contemporary location to both reside and work in. For a successful regeneration to occur a prerequisite is the development of a good organisation plan, the predetermination of the planning targets and the proper assessment and recognition of the character of the intervention region. Giovinazzi and Moretti (2010) identify 10 principles for sustainable and more fruitful waterfront development of urban waterfronts. These principles were developed through a collaboration of the Cities on Water initiative and Wasserstadt GmbH in Berlin during the processes of various international seminars and were presented in the EXPO 2000 World Exhibition and provide valid reference for redevelopment projects. The principles mentioned by Giovinazzi and Moretti (2010, pp.58-59) are the following:

1.

“Secure the quality of water and the environment”

The rehabilitation and preservation of the quality of water in the streams, rivers, lakes, bays, canals and the sea surrounding the urban environment is an essential criterion for all waterfront developments. The quality can have an effect on the type and range of uses taking place near water, the extent of accessibility for the public and any impacts for public health. Therefore, each local municipality and government is accountable for the sustainable reclamation of derelict banks and buildings along the shoreline as well as any presence of contaminated water. In the case of Barcelona attempts were made to improve the quality of water as in many areas was polluted by former industries along the shore of the city. 2.

“Waterfronts are part of the existing urban fabric”

New waterfront redevelopments should take into account that the waterside is a vital part of the urban fabric and ensure a solid connection between water and the city. It contributes to the overall character and vitality of the existing city and should be utilised for various functions such as entertainment, culture and even marine transport. In addition, it is part of the urban landscape and should be considered in the overall city planning and landscaping to create a more coherent image of the city. This can be seen in the cases of Barcelona in which the waterfront was part of a metropolitan plan, of London which attempted to rebrand East London as a global economic centre and of Hamburg which is redefining the overall image of the river Elbe through multiple interventions. 3.

“The historic identity gives character”

The identity, heritage and character of the waterfront should be safeguarded as it gives place more meaning for its user’s. Landmarks,

43


buildings of historic and architectural significance should be preserved and restored. The industrial past of most waterfront cities is to be retained if the aim is a sustainable and feasible regeneration. New structures should be able to be successfully incorporated with the existing urban fabric eve if they are of completely different architecture. For example in Hamburg, even though the HafenCity initiative has completely transformed the riverside of Elbe, important buildings are being preserved and names of places and streets are being preserved to retain the memory of former industrial uses (Hein,2011,p.195) 4.

“Mixed use is a priority”(Giovinazzi and Moretti ,2010, pp.58-59)

Waterfronts should acknowledge and celebrate their dual relationship with both water and the city by offering a multitude of cultural, commercial, leisure and housing uses for the public. New housing districts should be diverse not only functionally but socially as well. Additionally, accessibility to water is to become priority as water is the main protagonist of the intervention. In the case of Barcelona the regeneration created a wide variety of activities and functions on the waterfront for leisure and entertainment as well as provided new residential neighbourhoods for the citizens. In Hamburg, Hafencity has become an educational, cultural, residential and offices quarter meeting a multitude of needs. 5.

“Public access is a prerequisite”

The waterfront should not be isolated and disconnected from the city and it should be visually and physically accessible to the public, citizens and tourists respectively. Viewpoints and vistas toward the waterfront and the water should be created to provide visual access. Additionally new pathways and physical connections such as new railway tracks, subway stations and other public transportation mediums should be provided from the urban core towards the

44

shoreline. High construction in all redevelopment aspects quality should be ensured to guarantee prolonged and rigorous use. When looking back at the case studies, it is evident that new open public places and plazas were created to attract more people in all three cities. Furthermore new subway stations, bus services and other means of public transportations were implemented to make the regenerated areas easily accessible by a large number of individuals. 6.

“Planning in public private partnerships speeds the process”

Redevelopments should derive from a collaboration of public and private investments. Public authorities should be able to ensure the superiority of the design planning and provide much needed infrastructure and stability. Private investors should be able to provide market knowledge, promote the project and be able to accelerate its construction and completion. Both London and Hamburg attempted to have engage both the public and private sector in their redevelopment process and managed to attract private investors and public funds to finance their ambitious planning process. 7.

“Public participation is an element of sustainability”

It is of great importance to ensure the public is well informed and involved in the overall development process from beginning until the end of the project. The planning and competitions created should be transparent and opportunities for public participation should also be created. Cities should benefit from sustainable waterfront development not only in ecological and economical terms but also socially. The community should be informed and involved in discussions continuously from the start. The opinion the public has for the regeneration and its planning can seriously influence its future use and success.


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

8.

“Waterfronts are long term projects”

Waterfronts have to be redeveloped progressively so the whole city can profit from their potential and prospective transformation. The regeneration affects many generations of people and therefore need to provide a wide assortment of architecture, public space like plazas and parks, and art. The authorities of the redevelopment should warrant that it is taking place autonomously away from short term interests but with a more longstanding view and character. 9.

“Re-vitalization is an ongoing process”

The master planning must be founded on thorough analysis of the core functions and significances the waterfront. However plans should be flexible and be able to adapt to change and amendments as situations and circumstances alter over time. From the beginning till the finalisation of the development the authorities managing the process should prioritise equally the waterfront and its progress. When we look at the above concept it is apparent that in the case of Hamburg this has been one of the most important principles used by the redevelopment team. Both the designers and authorities are flexible to alterations on the initial plan as the circumstances change and its obvious from the masterplan amendments for HafenCity in 2006. 10.

“Waterfronts profit from international networking”

The redevelopment of waterfronts is an extremely intricate process which encompasses specialists and knowledge from various disciplines. Waterfront regeneration has become an issue of international importance as numerous cities have attempted to reclaim their port in the past 50 years. The exchange of knowledge procured from various levels of waterfront redevelopment in an international level offers essential information and data of past projects and provide aid for future redevelopments (Giovinazzi and Moretti, 2010, pp.58-59).

45


3. Waterfront of Koum Kapi in Chania, Crete – a proposal

46


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Author’s 47own


3.1 General History of Chania

Figure 19. The region of Chania

The city of Chania is the capital of the region of Chania in the western part of Crete, the largest island of Greece and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. It currently is the second largest city in the island following the city of Irakleion. As Kladou-Bletsa (1998, p.17) affirms the region of Chania has had human settlements from the Neolithic period. The temperate climate, abundant existence of drinkable water, the soil that allowed cultivation and the strategic location of Souda Bay were the main reasons for this continuity. The city is thought to be the site of the ancient Minoan city state of Kydonia. However, Kydonia like most ancient settlements of Crete was conquered by the Saracens in 828 A.D. There are many opinions on how the current name Chania came to be and its etymology. Some say it is a corruption of the name of ancient Kydonia, others from the Saracen name Khan. Another estimation is that is derives from the Arabic word for small inn ‘Khani’.

48

When the Venetians occupied Crete in 1252 they came across the name Chania and adapted it to La Canea (Kladou-Bletsa, 1998, p.18). According to the Venetian Great council, they chose La Canea as the grounds for the new settlement as the area had a seaside hill providing safe ground for a fort, had a natural bay in which a port could be created and there was an abundance of construction materials from the remains of ancient Kydonia (Tsivis, 1990, pp.3637). Initially the Venetians settled in Castello-known nowadays as Kasteli- which was naturally fortified and they further secured it by repairing the old Byzantine wall for their needs including the entirety of the inhabited area. During the 13th and 14th century the initial Byzantine fortifications were enough, however as the needs grew and the danger from the Ottoman Empire became more prominent the need for renovation of the old and creation of new more robust walls became apparent (Cosmescu, 2015, pp. 109-110). In 1536 the architect Michel Sammiceli finalised the principles in which the new fortifications had to be constructed. The extensive construction finally concluded in 1568 (Kladou-Bletsa, 1998, p.18). The external wall had total length of around 3,500 metres along with the breakwater structure Kydonia. Its width is roughly 20 meters long, the height 25m and on its eastern, southern and west side it has a 50 meter long and 10 meter deep ditch. The wall had five defensive salient structures (Tsivis, 1990, pp.48-50). The pentagonal structure at the south of the fortifications was named piattaforma. At the northeast, stands the bastion of Santa Lucia, at the southwest the Schiavo or San Dimitri bastion, the northwest Gritti and finally at the northeast the Sabbionara bastion. The walls had three main gates for entrance and exit. Porta Retimiota which was situated right next to the piattaforma, Porta Sabbionara in the Sabbionara bastion and the much smaller one on the Gritti bastion, Porta del Colombo which the locals called ‘little door’.


Figure 20. Chania during Turkish siege in 1645

A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

49


At the start of the 20th century parts of the old walls were torn down to connect the old city with the new districts. Namely the salient of piattaforma or Plata Forma was torn down to construct the municipal market in 1897 (Tsivis, 1990, Cosmescu, 2015).During the June of 1645 the city was under siege by the Turks and they managed to overtake Chania on the 22nd of August 1645 and remained under Turkish occupation until 1889. They repaired the walls as they were of military and defensive use and for years the city largely kept its Venetian characteristics. Due to lack of space and because expansion of settlements beyond the walls was not allowed new additions and even on the existing buildings were built to accommodate the growing population (Kladou-Bletsa, 1998, pp.18-19). Mosques and minarets were added and some churches were converted into mosques. In the central part of the harbour the Yali mosque was constructed and dedicated to the current Pasha (Tsivis, 1990). However there was no urban planning and the unsymmetrical and often arbitrary way of building distorted the existing street plan. The large streets of the Venetians became narrower and in some cases became dead ends. From 1889 and until 1913 when the official connection with the rest of Greece was finally established, Crete became an independent state. It received a sovereign and a constitution. King George of Greece was the High Commissioner and Eleftherios Venizelos, who would later become the prime minister of Greece, became the Minister of Justice. The subsequent period brought development and increase of opportunities in the area (Kladou-Bletsa, 1998, p.29, Manousakas, 2009, p.14). A great part of the Muslim population left and many Cretans living abroad came back. Steps were taken to organise the city outside and inside of the walls (Manousakas, 2009, p.14). KladouBletsa (1998) asserts that in 1901a new town plan was drafted. The decision was made to take down parts of the old fortifications to better unify the city. The new planning was based of the central roads connecting the Court headquarters, the municipality, the municipal Gardens and the area of Koum Kapi. During the Second World War the old town was heavily bombarded in 1941 and a large portion of its buildings was destroyed. It therefore nowadays maintains only part of its initial core and has expanded further out from the historical quarters (Perdikogianni, 2003). Afterwards, there were some minor attempts for reconstruction but many buildings were demolished by

50

the state to make space for new constructions. Finally in 1965 the old town was proclaimed a protected listed monument (Manousakas, 2009). Since then the city has become a major tourist destination with both the old and new living quarters being lively epicentres with numerous landmarks.

Figure 21. The old port after the German bombing in 1941


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

3.2 Old Port and Koum Kapi

Figure 22. Diagram of areas of interest

51


The old Venetian harbour of Chania was one of the main areas that were encircled by the new fortifications. The spatial pattern of the city the can be identified as a vast number of streets leading towards the port and some squares in-between. One of the main roads Ruga Maistra started from the harbour and led towards one of the fortification gates of the wall, Porta Retemniota (Perdikogianni, 2003). On its east side the port has extensive dockyards named arsenals and their construction started in the 14th century. The harbour provided space for around 40 galleys and the shipyards were used to construct and repair Venetian ships. Where now a quay exists and a promenade encircles the entirety of the old harbour, there was only water and there was a direct ship access from the sea to the arsenals. From the original 17 arsenal structures seven still exist today on the south part of the port and two on the east. They were long and narrow with 10 meter high roofs and arched entrances. The Grand arsenal was erected from 1585 until 1601 and was 45 metres long and 16 meters wide. During the Turkish occupation a second floor was added. Nowadays it has been completely restored and it houses the Centre of the Mediterranean architecture, hosting exhibitions and cultural events (Cosmescu, 2015, pp.110-111). The other arsenals act occasionally as exhibition and conference halls and host various types of events. Even the old customs controls building, which is situated between the arsenals and the Grand arsenal, is currently being renovated to become a multiuse event space for the municipality. Additionally the prominent lighthouse of the port was also initially a Venetian construction, however its structure was drastically altered during the Egyptian occupation between 1830 and 1840. Moreover during that period attempts were made to dredge the old port so it could become deeper (Tsivis, 1990, p.162). Nowadays, the old port has maintained its Venetian and Ottoman architectural characteristics and has become one of the most important places to visit in Chania. Numerous Venetian houses still remain especially in the neighbourhoods of Kasteli and Topanas (Cosmescu, 2015, p.110). It has a vast promenade with numerous tourist shops, restaurants, cafeterias, a marina for boats and various historical landmarks like the restored lighthouse, the naval museum, the arsenals and the Firkas fortress. The main passenger port has been transferred to another location along the Souda bay and only small tourist boats use the

52

old port. As Perdikogianni (2003) states the overall city’s function as a tourist attraction can be traced from 1967 when authorities had thoughts to restore the old walls in order to develop it as a crucial place to visit.

Figure 23. The arsenals at the beginning of the 20th century


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 25. Grand arnsenal –Centre of Mediterranean architecture

Figure 24. East arsenals today

53 today Figure 26. South arsenals


Figure 27. Old Port and lighthouse nowadays

54


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

On the other hand, the area of Koum Kapi was right outside the Venetian walls and was one of the first settlements outside the fort (Kladou-Bletsa, 1998, p.22). Its name derives from the Turkish translation of the title of the Sabbionara bastion as it lied directly east from the structure. As the water was shallow and sand was visible it was called Kum Kapisi – the gate of sand (Tsivis, 1990, p.49). During the Egyptian occupation families of Bedouins resided in the district. The Egyptians had brought them there to use along with slaves for labour. Later in 1884 the Cretan county transferred even more Bedouins as there was an extreme need for working hands. The people of Crete thought hard working labour jobs like being a water carrier or driving a horse drawn carriage to be demeaning. The living conditions were beyond terrible, with workers staying in tents and structures which were built with left over materials (Tsivis, 1990, p.220). In the 1920s, after the Great fire of Smyrna (1922) and the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923 the Arab population deserted the neighbourhood and Greek refugees became the area’s main inhabitants. From the end of the 19th century till nearly the 1980s the area of Koum Kapi was one of the most degraded in the whole city of Chania. Sewers and slaughterhouses contaminated the sea, making the overall region unhealthy for its inhabitants. Furthermore, mostly people of lower incomes resided there and there was a lack of green and recreational spaces. In the 1980s, the area was connected with the main city drainage system and the water was disinfected and has been ever since repeatedly checked for bacteria and been found uncontaminated. Nowadays Koum Kapi is considered to be a central part of the city and within walking distance of many amenities and important buildings. In the past few years it has also become an epicentre for cafés, restaurants and bars and many locals and some tourists swim on the shore in the summertime. However, the vast majority of tourist’s seem to prefer the more picturesque old port to Koum Kapi and only pass through it during their strolls. The area is also very close to the theatre of the Easter trench, an open theatre hosting touring shows during the summer months. It still preserves its old urban planning matrix with narrow plots and streets which has created contemporary planning issues as there is a lack of open spaces. Some of the current structures in the area, although now a central and notable district, offer lower level living conditions due to

small spaces. Remains of the Arab and refugee shanty constructions still accommodate the current Cretan population (Kladou-Bletsa, 1998, p.53). Attempts have been made in the past to improve the outlook of the area and create a more liveable and enjoyable place for citizen and tourists. A competition took place in 2013 for the redevelopment of the shoreline and the promenade but it still has not been implemented and living conditions remain the same. It is therefore of great importance to analyse the area and provide a clear, coherent plan for a new and better image of the Koum Kapi.

Figure 28. Koum Kapi in 1927

55


Figure 29. Koum Kapi early 20th century

Figure 30. Koum Kapi waterfront early 20th century

56


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 31. Koum Kapi nowadays

57


3.3 Analysis of intervention area of Koum Kapi- a wider context and existing situation

Figure 32. Map of Crete- greater area of Koum Kapi highlighted

58


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT Figure 33. Koum Kapi highlighted

59


Figure 34. Main roads in Chania

60


A Important MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT Figure 35. sites near the waterfront

61


Figure 36. Connectivity

This diagram highlights the main car accesses in the old port and the bay of Koum Kapi connecting them with the rest of the city. It also shows that the entirety of the shoreline as well as the lighthouse is fully accessible to pedestrians.

62

Figure 37. Collage showing the existing situation in Koum Kapi: the cars parked near the pavement,the narrow promenade overtaken by the tents, the beach front and the narrow plots of the houses on the waterfront


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 37. Collage of existing situation on the waterfront

63


Figure 38. Panoramic views map

64


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 39. Panoramic views from Sabbinara bastion

Figure 40. Panoramic views from the east

65


Figure 41. Views from the waterfront map

66


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 43. View 2

Figure 42. View 1

Figure 44. View 3

67


Figure 45. Current Land Use 68


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

3.4 Analysis of intervention area of Koum Kapi -A closer look Current Land use The area of Koum Kapi is mostly residential. There is an abundance of restaurants, cafeterias and bars mostly distributed along the waterfront for views towards the sea. Some buildings are mix-use with the ground floor being a cafĂŠ or bar and the rest of the floors being used for residential purposes. Most buildings are up to three floors high with only a couple being over four floors and never exceeding five. Due to the area being so close to the heart of the city and its proximity to the sea three hotels operate in it. The theatre of the eastern trench is 2mins walk from the centre of the shoreline and provides entertainment throughout the summer months. All these make Koum Kapi a central and lively part of the city. However there is a small number of buildings that have been left unused and unoccupied, tuning them derelict and deteriorating the image of the waterfront. These buildings could be reused or restored by giving them new functions. They could potentially become galleries, exhibitions centres or even small museums showing the history of the place to attract people in the area.

Figure 46.Varying building heights

69


Figure 47.

70


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Sun Path The site is facing north making it more shaded. It allows for views towards the sea throughout the whole day as there is got direct sunlight from there. However visitors can still enjoy viewing sunrises and sunsets from the two edges of the Koum Kapi bay. The sun is still very prominent all year round in Chania, even though the waterfront of Koum Kapi doesn’t have much direct sunlight and it is shaded by the buildings surrounding it. Photovoltaic panels can be implemented on the more elevated parts of the location or even on the street lights to provide an alternative energy source.

Figure 48. Example of sun diagram in section

71


Figure 49.

72


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Wind direction

The majority of the wind currents throughout the year are coming from the west and northwest. This makes the eastern part with the sandy beach a great place to sit and be more protected. Additionally the majority of the wind currents are filtered through the western buildings and remains of the fortifications blocking them from the waterfront. In the west zone closest to the old port and fortifications, street furniture and seating in multiple levels could provide further protection from the breeze.

73


Figure 50. Accessibility

74


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Accessibility The shoreline road name Akti Miaouli is both open for pedestrians and cars in some areas. Cars have access only on a small portion on the west side of the road and then further down on the east lot. Nevertheless cars can enter most roads that are vertical to the shore and are mostly used by the residents of the area for parking. There is pedestrian access along the entirety of the shoreline with varying widths of pavement as one goes along the road. Tents and outside tables and chairs from the cafeterias sometimes impede the accessibility and allow only narrow passage to pedestrians. Access is also obstructed by the varying cars and motorcycles parked along the portion of the road where there is car access.

75


Figure 51.

76


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Street furniture

There is only a small number of benches scattered along the waterfront of Koum Kapi. Restaurants and cafeterias have over taken a large part of the pavement and therefore there is a lack of public seating in the particular spots. More seating could be provided in the area to allow more people to experience the space longer and enjoy the view and overall feeling of the area. A creative way to implement this is needed to make sure that the area attracts the newer generations too.

77


Figure 52.

78


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Street lighting

The street lighting along the shoreline is quite adequate and provides enough luminosity during the night. The lighting fixtures however are quite antiquated and could be updated in the intervention. Photovoltaic panels could be added on top of the lighting fixtures to provide renewable electricity and promote sustainability. Additionally, lighting could be added at the Sabbionara bastion to showcase even further the history and exact location of the bastion.

79


Figure 53.

80


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Access to beach

Multiple points of access existing along the promenade. Namely there are 8 staircases leading to the beach, however there are no ramps enabling disabled access. The existing staircases can be refurbished, as they have been corroded by the sea, and at least one ramp should be added along the shoreline.

81


Figure 54.

82


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Planting

Due to the warm and temperate climate of Chania there is a small number of palm trees planted along the shore. However there is a distinct lack of greenery in most areas and instead there is an abundance of paving and asphalt. Small plots with shrubbery and small flowers can be implemented to give more vibrancy in the area. This would make the waterfront more attractive and inviting to the public. Large areas with grass would not be ideal in this case, as there is not much rainfall in the island. Especially during the summer months it is very dry and large patches of green that need a lot of water would not be sustainable.

83


Figure 55. Masterplan

84


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

3.5 Coast improvement proposal Overview of intervention The waterfront of Koum Kapi is a place with an abundance of views towards the sea and blue sky. A linear shoreline with not a lot of depth, an edge between land and sea, a barrier from nature to man-made environment. The main objective of this intervention is redesigning this boundary between the city of Chania and the sea as well as the recovery of the waterfront for the general public. This will occur with creating a closer connection with the sea, an overall promotion of the water element through the design and finally providing an improvement of the quality of live through a creation of multiple interventions along the shore.

indigenous to the area and can adapt to the climate close to the sea will be the main choices to be implanted in the area. Finally some derelict and currently unused bindings along the waterfront could potentially be renovated to resemble how they looked in the past and reused for different functions. They could become, exhibition spaces, galleries, hosting various cultural events and even become small museums promoting the history of the neighbourhood. Though all these implementations and changes the character of the Koum Kapi waterfront could be improved and enriched. Multiple Meeting and resting points will be provided and unobstructed views throughout the whole expanse of the shoreline will be generated inviting more people into the area and successfully connecting Koum Kapi with the old port for tourists.

The promenade will be reshaped and widened, the entirety of the zone will become pedestrianized to allow for uninterrupted movement and unobstructed views. It becomes a series of different sceneries, views, feelings, experiences, movements and resting points. The western part of the waterfront has a larger height difference from the pavement to the sea and a zone full of outside seating and tables from cafeterias and taverns. On the other hand the eastern part has more of a sandy beach and is mostly residential. Multiple points of access as well as ramps towards the sea are necessary in the composition. A viewing platform can be constructed to provide closer views and a better connection with the sea. It will allow people to experience the area in a different light and offers a new character to the overall shoreline. Though this the city is immersed within the sea. A bike lane has also been implemented running along the entirety of the shore of Koum Kapi and allowing for alternative and more sustainable means of transportation within it. The cafeteria tents are arranged in a linear fashion on the western part of the waterfront and only occupy a part of the expanse of the promenade to allow for better circulation. Furthermore, as far as the landscaping element of the intervention goes, trees which are

85


Figure 56. Intervention 1 plan

86


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Intervention 1 The pavement performs as a marker directing movement and showing were to stop or continue moving. The zones with no motive are intended for pedestrian circulation and also as places for views towards the sea. In the first of the master plan interventions the pavement of the promenade has varying square levels to invite a wide diversity of users and activities. It also allows for large groups of people to gather and closely experience the sea from the waterfront. Additionally, the multiple levels will provide protection from the mainly west coming wind currents and will allow the users to use the space even when the weather is not as good. The different levels are also intermingled with patches of planting and trees to provide shading and a feeling closer to nature. This intervention is at the point of the shoreline closest to the Sabbionara bastion and then the old port so it will be one of the first things visitors see when approaching from that direction. To improve the image of the waterfront the tents are also arranged parallel to the waterfront and pushed back for a wider space for pedestrian movement to be created. Given its nature and character it can become a landmark and meeting point of the area for both the younger and older generations. A new urban plaza connecting the historic Venetian port with the newer neighbourhood of Koum Kapi.

87


Figure 57. Intervention 1 section A-A

88


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 58. Intervention 1 perspective

89


Figure 59. Intervention 2 plan

90


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Intervention 2 The second intervention will include a large 50m long viewing platform and a wider ‘green’ area. Through the platform will be able to have near 360 degree view of not only the sea but also the city. It will provide a longer expanse for people to walk on and experience the waterfront. As it will be further away from the beach it will be quieter and allow from contemplation and thinking and achieving a stronger connection with water. At the same time it will visually and mentally separate the western more commercial part of the waterfront with all the restaurants and cafeterias and the eastern beach portion of it. Additionally, as it is at the same level as the promenade it will be fully accessible to people with special needs. The zone of planting, flowerbeds and benches will become a much needed addition as there is an extreme lack of green areas in Koum Kapi. Trees and bushes will give new life in the area and will add vibrancy and harmony. This intervention will provide spaces for people to seat, the trees providing shade from the sun, and people will be able to enjoy obstructed views to the beach. It will become easier, to meet with friends, family, relax from the hectic city life and even contemplate and meditate. It could potentially also have a playground for children to attract more families. This will be ideal as different types of people will want to use the space. Families, seniors, teenagers will all have something to enjoy along the expanse of the waterfront.

91


Figure 60. Intervention 2 section B-B

92


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 61. Intervention 2 perspective

93


Figure 62. Intervention 3 plan

94


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Intervention 3 The third point of the redevelopment is the eastern part of the shoreline. It has a wider expanse of sand and thus a more organised beach can be created with beach equipment like umbrellas and sunbeds. A large ramp and two staircases will be implemented to improve accessibility to the shore. Additionally, on the promenade level as in this portion of the waterfront it is quite wide and lengthy trapezoid patches of planting and trees will be supplemented. Benches will also be added to the formation in varying angles for multiple views. Through this the benches will be able to have more shade and the closeness to the planting will promote a better connection to nature. Additionally these additions are close to the edge of the promenade and therefore will provide unobstructed views towards the sea and the city. The promenade will still be wide enough to allow for an unobstructed bike lane and pedestrian circulation in between the green patches. Through this both the flow of people as well as gathering spots will be encouraged. Each small intervention will have varying flows, functions and influences on people and how they will occupy the space.

95


Figure 63. Intervention 3 section C-C

96


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 64. Intervention 3 perspective

97


Figure 98 65. Proposed planting


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Proposed planting Trees and shrubs that thrive near the sea and in the warm Mediterranean weather will be used for the redevelopment of the waterfront. Additionally care has been taken to select trees that need minimal maintenance and water as the area especially during the summer is very dry and there is minimal rainfall throughout the year. It is important to select trees that provide shade all year long as sunlight is prominent even during winter. Tamarix is a tree that can been found along Cretan shorelines and is indigenous to the area. The same can be said about pine trees and eucalyptus. The golden wattle will provide shade and colour during the blooming period. They are all trees of varying heights which can also be trimmed to a desired shape. When placed strategically they don’t only provide shade but can also frame different views or even obstruct and hide objects from the overall composition. Furthermore aromatic and indigenous shrubs and low plants can also be implementing to complete the composition. Thyme and lavender are aromatic, samphire is a coastal plant the can grow in both sand and rock formations and the pink rock rose is native and may provide colour and vibrancy.

99


Figure 66. Proposed materiality

100


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Proposed materiality Cobblestone is the prevailing material for paving in many historic Greek cities. The contemporary built buildings on the waterfront are mostly concrete and the older structures are traditionally made by stone. Nowadays the majority of intervention area has been paved with concrete tiles and large stone slabs. To be more sustainable it is imperative to use materials that can easily be sourced in the area and don’t have to be transported from the mainland. In the regeneration proposal the promenade’s pavement can be made up of an amalgamation of the existing types of materials as well as new types of stone or stone formation patterns in varying combinations to provide the area with a new identity and character. The combinations could even potentially showcase the types of the three different interventions creating a visual and mental separation in between the varying types of spaces. A line of different coloured or textured paving can be added before each new intervention to demonstrate the difference the alternating transformations.

101


Conclusion Through the examination of this essay it is clear that the waterfront always attracted human settlements. It is a combination of a manmade environment and the natural elements, a border between the city and water. Water defines the manner in which urban designers approach the edge of the city as it is so fundamentally different and distinguishable from the structure that the city provides. The waterfront therefore, has a great influence on how the city is designed, structured, its character and the emotions it evokes. Spatial perception is a full embodied experience as people perceive and navigate space through the senses and their bodies. However the manner in which each individual perceives and understands space and in this particular case the waterfront is open to personal interpretation. Nevertheless it is people and the continuous use of a public space which gives that place meaning. Numerous points of reference like legibility, paths, connections, materiality, landscaping smells and noises affect the way people perceive space and how they form attachment with it. The more connections and emotions one has for a place the more he will be able to identify with it and acquire a sense of place. It is therefore important for urban planners to be able to create places which continuously invite public participation, gain social value and manage to have the public generate an attachment to them. All these elements would make the waterfront more memorable and therefore attract larger numbers of people to the shore. Over the previous decades the manner in which waterfronts are regarded within the urban environment context has changed. Port cities are no longer only focused on shipping, their functions have been expanded and diversified. In Europe and all over the world numerous motivated urban regenerations attempts have been made in port cities near the sea or a river. This managed to change the imageability of the waterfront whether with overall or partial interventions. These cities, regardless of their size and the manner in which they were redeveloped, attempted to revitalise their urban environment taking advantage of their previously overlooked shorelines. They have now become ‘melting pots’ of innovation and advancements in economy,

102

society and culture as well as places with historical memory. Urban waterfront regeneration has become a global phenomenon in the 21st century and has lead cities to radical transformations on their urban fabric. However, this can have both positive and negative effects on the city and the living conditions in the area. It can attract more locals and tourists, create more employment opportunities, generate better transport connections, provide new functions and uses around the waterfront and promote the adaptive reuse of historical buildings. On the other hand, unthoughtful regeneration can also make waterfronts extremely commercial, standardised, without character and essentially no identity. Furthermore, in some cases heritage is casted out to maximise possible profits, as well as working class population is neglected leading to the gentrification of the area. Through the analytical inspection of the three case studies of already regenerated or still in process of being redeveloped waterfronts the key aspects of successful and sustainable waterfront interventions are identified. Ever though their scale differs, the key strategic planning steps taken can still be recognised. Depending of the specificities, particularities, the political climate and the existing circumstances, each city has a unique approach on urban redevelopments. However there are some key tactics that can be recognised in waterfront regenerations. The cities of Barcelona, London and Hamburg underwent radical changes over long periods of time and did not attempt to transform ‘overnight’. These interventions operated as incentives for expanding the city and as elements that contributed to the sequential evolution, continuity and consistency of the coastal zone. Hamburg and Barcelona focused on public spaces and creating an entertainment and leisure lead overall intervention featuring multiple ways for the public to utilise the waterfront. Urban parks and plazas near water were created, theatres, museums, retail centres and zones with restaurants and cafeterias were constructed. London attempted to make the eastern Docklands a new global economic epicentre whilst transforming the waterfront of river Thames. Even though it has been a highly controversial intervention it did manage to show that larger scale projects can be feasible if the right conditions are in place.


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

In summary, it can be concluded that the regeneration of the waterfront showcases the capacity of each city to adapt and reinvent their image. This requires a multifaceted approach as it affects the character, society, economy, heritage and environment of the greater intervention. It is important to realise that there are some fundamental factors one can study for more successful redevelopments. An overall master plan of the entirety of the intervention and the new land uses that will be created is imperative as well as a plausible timescale for the entirety of the intervention. Moreover the community should be involved in the planning stage and be allowed to express their opinion on the changes as they will be the primary users of the place. Accessibility to the waterfront should not be in any case disrupted. On the contrary, more connections with the city centre should created for pedestrians and public transportation. Furthermore the collaboration of the public and the private sector in many cases is vital. This will attract more investors and will allow for a more realistic prediction of market demand and availability. It is also constructive to attempt to introduce varying functions in the area that will appeal to different types of users and therefore attract larger quantities of people.

Learning from past cases urban designers and architects can determine methods on how to generate urban planning with vision for the sustainable redevelopment of the waterfront revitalising the city and its environment. Such endeavours should be reconnecting the city with the water element and focusing on the human and cultural factor and not only concentrating in economic dimensions. However this is only tested through passage of time and the continuous use of the public. It is therefore imperative to ensure that the heritage and history of the place is preserved when altering the image of the waterfront. A harmonious relationship between old and contemporary elements has to be formed, always in parallel with their immediate connection with water. This may occur not only with the utilisation of previous ‘models’ of redevelopment but with international networks that promote mutual learning, encourage knowledge exchange and give eminence on real understanding of each unique situation. Only then the attempts for the successful creation of cultural, social and economic epicentres can come to fruition.

Through the identification of these key elements it can be inferred that there are various ways in which a waterfront can be successfully reinterpreted. A proposal of the regeneration of the Koum Kapi in Crete delved into the ways public life can be improved on the waterfront of this overlooked area. This seafront neighbourhood belongs to the more contemporary part of the town as it was created outside the Venetian and Turkish fortifications of the historic city. Generally speaking, even though it offers scenic views to the sea, has a long beach expanse and is adjacent to the central parts of the current city it still remains a disregarded district with an underdeveloped promenade. A more leisure oriented waterfront, offering numerous activities to diverse user categories could potentially reinvigorate the neighbourhood, improve conditions and even increase the property values on the shore. The waterfront could benefit from utilising different interventions promoting socialisation, human interaction as well as contemplation and meditation therefore allowing for a wide variety of experiences along its expanse.

103


Bibliography Al Ansari, F. (2009). Public Open Space on the Transforming Urban Waterfronts of Bahrain – The Case of Manama City. Ph.D. Newcastle University School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, 353 p., Newcastle. Altman, I. and Zube, E. (1989). Public places and spaces. New York: Plenum Press. Ashworth, G. J. and Tunbridge, J. E. (1990) The Tourist-historic City. Belhaven, London. Augé, M. (1995). Non-places. London: Verso. Bachelard, G. (1983). Water and dreams. Dallas: Pegasus Foundation. Bachelard, G. (2008). The poetics of space. Translated by Jolas, M. Boston: Beacon Press. Barnes, J., Colenutt, B. and Malone, P. (1996) London: Docklands and the state, in: P. Malone (Ed.) City, Capital and Water, pp. 15–36. London: Routledge. Benevolo, L. (1977). History of modern architecture. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press. Benevolo, L. (1980). The history of the city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Benevolo, L. (1995). The European city. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Boyer, M. (1994). The city of collective memory. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Breen, A., Rigby, D. (1996), The New Waterfront: A Worldwide Urban Success Story, Thames & Hudson, London.

104

Bruns-Berentelg, J., (ed.) (2006) HafenCity Hamburg–The Masterplan. Ministry of Urban Development and Environment and Ministry of Labour and Economic Affairs, Hamburg December,2006. Bruttomesso, R. (2001), ‘Comlexity on the Urban Waterfront’, in R. Marshall, (ed.) Waterfronts in Post-industrial Cities, Spon Press, London, pp. 39-49. Carbonell, J., (2002). The Olympic Village, ten years on Barcelona: the legacy of the Games 1992-2002. Barcelona, Centre d’Estudis Olympics (UAB). Carley, M., Garcia-Ferrari, M. S. and Smith, H. (2007) The Cool Sea; Waterfront Communities Project Toolkit, Edinburgh: Waterfronts Communities Project Cooper, M., (1994). Spatial Discourses and Social Boundaries: Reimagining the Toronto Waterfront. City & Society, 7(1), pp.93-117. Cosmescu, D. (2015). Venetian Renaissance fortifications in the Mediterranean. Jefferson: McFarland Cross, J.E., (2001), November. What is sense of place. In Archives of the Twelfth Headwaters Conference (pp. 2-4). Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions, (1998), Regenerating London Docklands. London: Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions Desfor, G., Laidley, J., Stevens, Q., Schubert, D. (eds), (2011). Transforming urban waterfronts. New York: Routledge. Feyen, J., Shannon, K. and Neville, M. (2009). Water and urban development paradigms. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC. Georgopoulou, M., (2001), Venice’s Mediterranean Colonies. Architecture and Urbanism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Giovinazzi, O. and Moretti, M., (2010). Port Cities and Urban Waterfront: Transformations and Opportunities. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 2.


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Goodwin, R. 1999, ‘Redeveloping Deteriorated Urban Waterfronts: The Effectiveness of U.S. Coastal Management Programs’, Coastal Management, vol. 27, no. 1999, pp. 239-69 Graham, S., Parkinson C., Chahine M., (2010) The Water Cycle: Feature Articles. NASA Earth Observatory [online] Available at: http:// earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Water/ [Accessed 5 Jul. 2016] Hans Harms. (2008). Changes on the Waterfront - Transforming Harbor Areas. Institute of Urban & Regional Development. UC Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development. Retrieved from: http:// escholarship.org/uc/item/18w3g52t Hauge, Å.L., (2007) Identity and place: a critical comparison of three identity theories. Architectural science review, 50(1), pp.44-51. Hauptmann, D., Neidich, W. and Angelidakis, A. (2010). Cognitive architecture. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time. New York: Harper. Heidegger, M. (1976). What is called thinking? London: Harper Perennial. Hein, C. (2011). Port cities. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Hendrix, J.S. (2006). Architecture and Psychoanalysis: Peter Eisenman and Jacques Lacan [in English]. Peter Lang, New York. Hillier, B. (1996). Space is the Machine. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Hillier, B., and Hanson, J. (1984). The Social Logic of Space. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Hoyle, B. ,Pinder, D. (1992). European port cities in transition. London: Belhaven Press in association with the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

Hoyle, B. (2000), ‘Global and Local Change on the Port-City Waterfront’, The Geographical Review, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 395-417. Hoyle, B. (2002), ‘Urban Waterfront Revitalization in Developing Countries: The Example of Zanzibar’s Stone Town’, The Geographical Journal, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 141-61. Hoyle, B., Pinder, D. and Husain, M. (1988). Revitalising the waterfront. London: Belhaven Press. Ioannidis, K. (2011). Designing the Edge: An Inquiry into the Psychospatial Nature of Meaning in the Architecture of the Urban Waterfront [in English].. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology Jauhiainen, J.S., (1995). Waterfront redevelopment and urban policy: The case of Barcelona, Cardiff and Genoa. European Planning Studies, 3(1), pp.3-23. Kant, I. (1992). CONCERNING THE ULTIMATE GROUND OF THE DIFFERENTIATION OF DIRECTIONS IN SPACE (1768). In: David Walford (ed.) Theoretical Philosophy, 1755–1770. pp. 361-372. [Online]. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available from: Cambridge Books Online [Accessed 10 July 2016]. Kant, I., Walford, D. and Meerbote, R. (1992). Theoretical philosophy, 1755-1770. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kant, I. and Smith, N. (1965). Immanuel Kant’s Critique of pure reason. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Kassens-Noor, E. (2012). Planning Olympic legacies. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Kladou-Bletsa, A., (1998), Τα Χανιά έξω από τα τείχη (Chania outside the walls), Athens: Technical Chamber of Greece

105


Klein, S.B., & Nichols, S. (2012). Memory and the sense of personal identity. Mind, 121,677-702

Norberg-Schultz, C. (1980). Genius loci: Towards a phenomenology of architecture. London: Academy Editions.

Kostof, S. (1992) The City Assembled: The Elements of Urban Form Through History, Thames & Hudson Ltd., London.

Nurmi, P. and Bhattacharya, S., (2008, May). Identifying meaningful places: The non-parametric way. In International Conference on Pervasive Computing (pp. 111-127). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Kostopoulou, S. 2013, On the Revitalized Waterfront: Creative Milieu for Creative Tourism. Sustainability 2013, 5, 4578-4593. Leakey, R., Lewin, R. (1979), People of the Lake: Man; his Origin, Nature & Future,London: Collins Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. Oxford, OX, UK: Blackwell. Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Lynch, K. (1981). A theory of good city form. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Malone, P. (1996). City, capital, and water. London: Routledge. Manousakas, M. (2009), The old town of Chania a journey through time. Chania: Banousis-M.Barberi Editions Marshall, R. (2001). Waterfronts in post industrial cities. London: Spon Press. Monclus, F. (2011). Barcelona 1992. In: J. Gold and M. Gold, ed., Olympic Cities: City Agendas, Planning, and the World’s Games, 1896 - 2016, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, pp.268-286. Montgomery, C. (2013). Happy city. New York : Farrar, Straus and Giroux Montgomery, J. (1998) Making a City: Urbanity, Vitality and Urban Design.Journal of Urban Design, 3: 1, 93-116 Moore, R. (2013). Why we build. London :Pan Macmillan

106

Ó Nualláin, S. (2000). Spatial cognition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Pallasmaa, J. (2005). The eyes of the skin. Chichester: Wiley-Academy. Pallasmaa, J., (2014). Space, place and atmosphere. Emotion and peripherical perception in architectural experience. Lebenswelt. Aesthetics and philosophy of experience., (4). Penn, A. (2001). Space syntax and spatial cognition: Or why the axial line? Paper presented at the Third International Space Syntax Symposium, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. Peponis, J. and Wineman, J. (2002). Spatial Structure of Environmen and Behavior. In R. Bechtel and A.Churchman (ed.) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 271-291. Perdikogianni, I., (2003). Heraklion and Chania: A study of the evolution of their spatial and functional patterns. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Space Syntax Symposium. London: University College London(pp. 19-1). Relph, E. (1976). Place and placelessness. London: Pion. Rose, G. (1995) Place and identity: A Sense of Place. In Massey, D. and Jess, P. (eds) A place in the world: Places, cultures and globalization. 87-132. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rose, M. M. (2012). The Sensory Experiencing of Urban Design: Urban Studies, 3271–3287.


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Rutherford, J. (1990). “A Place Called Home: Identity and the Cultural Politics of Difference.” In Identity, Community, Culture, Difference, edited by J. Rutherford.London: Lawrence & Wishart, pp. 9-27. Salama, A.M. and Wiedmann, F., 2013. The Production of Urban Qualities in the Emerging City of Doha: Urban Space Diversity as a Case for Investigating the ‘Lived Space’. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 7(2), pp.160-172. Salama, A.M., (2007). Mediterranean Visual Messages: The Conundrum of Identity, ISMS, and Meaning in Contemporary Egyptian Architecture.Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 1(1), pp.86-104. Schubert, D., (2014). Waterfront transformations and city/port interface areas in Hamburg. Dimensión Empresarial, 13(1), pp.9-20. Sepe, M. (2013). Urban history and cultural resources in urban regeneration: a case of creative waterfront renewal. Planning Perspectives, 28(4), pp.595-613. Shane, G. (2002) The machine in the city: Phenomenology and everyday life in New York, in: P. Madsen & R. Plunz (Eds.) The Urban Lifeworld, pp. 218-236 (London, Routledge) Sharr, A. (2007). Heidegger for Architects. London: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. Smith, C. (2000). Content Analysis and Narrative Analysis, In Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology, edited by H.T. Reis and C.M. Judd, 313-35: Cambridge University Press, New York, Cambridge, UK. Smith, M. (2008). When the games come to town: host cities and the local impacts of the Olympics. London East Research Institute, Working paper, University of East London [online] http://www.gamesmonitor. org.uk/files/When-the-Games-Come-to-Town-M-Smith- 2008.pdf

Speller, G. (2000). A community in transition: A longitudinal study of place attachment and identity process in the context of an enforced relocation. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Surrey, Guildford, England. Torre, L. A. (1989), Waterfront Development, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York Tsivis, I., (1990) Χανιά 1252-1940 (Chania 1252-1940), Athens: Gnosi Ujang, N. ,Zakariya, K., (2015). The notion of place, place meaning and identity in urban regeneration. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,170, pp.709-717. Umut Pekin Timur (2013). Urban Waterfront Regenerations, Advances in Landscape Architecture, Dr. Murat Ozyavuz (Ed.), InTech, DOI: 10.5772/55759. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/ books/advances-in-landscape-architecture/urban-waterfrontregenerations Wang, C. (2002). Waterfront regeneration. Town & Country Planning Summer School, Cardiff University, Wales. Weisman, G. (1981). Evaluating architectural legibility: Wayfinding in the built environment. Environment & Behavior, 13, 189-204. West, N., (1989). Urban-waterfront developments: a geographic problem in search of a model. Geoforum, 20(4), pp.459-468. Wrenn, D. M., Casazza, J. A. & Smart, J. E. (1983), Urban Waterfront Development, Urban Land Institute, Washington, D.C. Zumthor, P. (2006). Atmospheres. Basel: Birkhäuser.

107


Bibliography of illustrations

Figure 16. Canary Wharf station (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 17. Main areas of intervention in Hamburg (Author’s image

Figure 1. Fragmentation of spatial cognition (Author’s image digital) Figure 2. Emotional and intellectual connection with the city (Author’s image digital) Figure 3. Five senses in everyday life (Author’s image digital) Figure 4. Beachfront (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 5. Shoreline section (Author’s image digital) Figure 6. Diagram of port-city interrelation (Author’s image digital) Figure 7. Diagram adapted from Wrenn’s phases of waterfront development (1983) (Author’s image digital) Figure 8. Diagram adapted Hoyle’s more elaborate stages of port development (2000, p.405) (Author’s image digital) Figure 9. Baltimore’s inner harbour in the 1960s. Available at: http:// www.metrojacksonville.com/article/2014-aug-baltimores-innerharbor-vs-jacksonvilles-riverfront [Accessed 10 August 2016] Figure 10. Eric Taylor .Baltimore’s harbour nowadays. Available at: http://erictaylorphoto.com/aerials/aer_20080923_2842_2 [Accessed 10 August 2016] Figure 11. Barcelona’s new submerged expressway on the waterfront (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 12. Main areas of intervention in Barcelona (Author’s image digital) Figure 13. Improved waterfront promenade (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 14. Canary Wharf (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 15. Main areas of intervention in London (Author’s image digital)

108

digital) Figure 18. Magellan-Terassen view. Available at: http://www.guidingarchitects.net/tours/hafencity-west/ [Accessed 6 August 2016] Figure 19. The region of Chania (Author’s image digital) Figure 20. Chania during Turkish siege in 1645 (Manousakas, 2009:71) Figure 21. The old port after the German bombing in 1941. Available at: http://flashnews.gr/post/227827/ta-bombardismena-xania-apotoys-nazi-sygklonistikes-fwto [Accesses 25 July 2016] Figure 22. Diagram of areas of interest (Author’s image digital) Figure 23. The arsenals at the beginning of the 20th century (Manousakas, 2009:108) Figure 24. East arsenals today (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 25. Grand arsenal –Centre of Mediterranean architecture (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 26. South arsenals today (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 27. Old Port and lighthouse nowadays (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 28. Nelly’s. Koum Kapi in 1927. Available at: http://www.lifo.gr/ team/omorfia/34448 [Accessed 10 June 2016] Figure 29. Koum Kapi early 20th century (Chania Municipal Library) Figure 30. Koum Kapi waterfront early 20th century. Available at: http://www.ert.gr/chania-ipografike-i-ekponisi-tis-architektonikismeletis-gia-tin-paralia-tou-koum-kapi/ [Accessed 8 August 2016] Figure 31. Koum Kapi nowadays (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 32. Map of Crete- greater area of Koum Kapi highlighted (Author’s image digital)


A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF THE WATERFRONT

Figure 33. Koum Kapi highlighted (Author’s image digital)

Figure 56. Intervention 1 plan (Author’s image digital)

Figure 34. Main roads in Chania (Author’s image digital)

Figure 57. Intervention 1 section A-A (Author’s image digital)

Figure 35. Important sites near the waterfront (Author’s image digital)

Figure 58. Intervention 1 perspective (Author’s image digital)

Figure 36. Connectivity (Author’s image digital)

Figure 59. Intervention 2 plan (Author’s image digital)

Figure 37. Collage of existing situation on the waterfront (Author’s

Figure 60. Intervention 2 section B-B (Author’s image digital)

photographs digital)

Figure 61. Intervention 2 perspective (Author’s image digital)

Figure 38. Panoramic views map (Author’s image digital)

Figure 62. Intervention 3 plan (Author’s image digital)

Figure 39. Panoramic views from Sabbinara bastion (Author’s

Figure 63. Intervention 3 section C-C (Author’s image digital)

photograph digital)

Figure 64. Intervention 3 perspective (Author’s image digital)

Figure 40. Panoramic views from the east (Author’s photograph

Figure 65. Proposed planting (Author’s image digital)

digital)

Figure 66. Proposed materiality (Author’s image digital)

Figure 41. Views from the waterfront map (Author’s image digital) Figure 42. View 1.Available at:

https://greece.terrabook.com/

chania/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/koum-kapi-5.jpg [Accessed 5 August 2016] Figure 43. View 2 (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 44. View 3 (Author’s photograph digital) Figure 45. Current Land Use (Author’s image digital) Figure 46. Varying building heights (Author’s image digital) Figure 47. Sun path diagram (Author’s image digital) Figure 48. Example of sun diagram in section (Author’s image digital) Figure 49. Wind direction distribution (Author’s image digital) Figure 50. Accessibility (Author’s image digital) Figure 51. Existing benches (Author’s image digital) Figure 52. Existing lighting (Author’s image digital) Figure 53. Stairs towards the shore (Author’s image digital) Figure 54. Existing trees (Author’s image digital)

Word Count :16.324 Turnitin : 13%

Figure 55. Masterplan (Author’s image digital)

109


112

Master in Architecture thesis  

A multidisciplinary analysis of the waterfront Georgia Ntoukaki Strathclyde University

Master in Architecture thesis  

A multidisciplinary analysis of the waterfront Georgia Ntoukaki Strathclyde University

Advertisement