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Volume 75 Number 1 Fall 2014

Why Won’t Boys Sing? Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys


3 In Memoriam Dale Shaffner, p. 3

Choir Enrollment

Paul Remsey, p. 4 Stephen Partin, p. 4

Figure 1 shows that of the 196 students at the school, 54% of girls enrolled in

4 Editor’sGeorgia Mailbox Musicians at Nashville

choir, while only 11% of boys enrolled in choir. This dramatic difference exemplifies the

very problem of male enrollment that many schools face.

Georgia Student Named to Army Band CNAfME Advocacy Day Announced

Joshua N. Pedde, p. 20

Maribeth Gail Yoder-White, p. 20

7 Association GMEA Board Minutes, p. 11

GMEA Budget, p. 13 Division Statewide Sixth-Grade Honor Choir, p. 20

15 22 Focus on Instruction Why Won’t Boys Sing? p. 22

Why Won’t Boys Sing? p. 22 Figure 1

Cobb County Reflections on Method Book Selection, p.in30Music Self-Concept Male Singers, Selecting Secular Music for the Public High School Chorus, p. 34 p. 41 Behavior Management Through Middle School Students’ Eyes, p.37 The averages shown in Figure 2 demonstrate how boys’ self-concepts are tied to

41 DistrictBestNewsPractice Trend in Cobb County, p. 41

their enrollment in choir. When comparing the SCIM averages of boys and girls, there was an unsurprising significance (p= <.0001) between the girls’ higher average of 0.675

Georgians Speak at Midwest Clinic, p. 42

and the boys’ average of 0.540. Table 1 shows results from a correlation matrix and

49 University News New Faculty Announced, p. 49

highlights the attributional beliefs with significant relationships to SCIM.

The Changing Georgia Scene, p. 58

60 Historical Profile The Seventh All-State Event, p. 60

Columbus State UniversityWind Ensemble, p. 56

George Corradino, p. 60

INDEX OF ADVERTISERS Alfred Music/Make Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Georgia State University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . back cover

Armstrong State University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Lee University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Berry College. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Quaver Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Columbus State University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

University of Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inside front cover

D’Addario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

University of West Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Georgia Regents University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

University of West Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Georgia Southern University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Yamaha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Georgia Southern University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Young Harris College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57




Published Fall, Winter, Spring, and Summer by the GEORGIA MUSIC EDUCATORS, INC. at 218 Willis Drive, Stockbridge, GA 30281. Subscription for members $4.00 per year as part of annual MENC/GMEA dues. Subscription for nonmembers $16.00 per year. POSTMASTER: SEND FORM 3579 TO GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, 218 Willis Drive, Stockbridge, GA 30281.


Mary Leglar, School of Music, University of Georgia, 250 River Road, Athens, GA 30602; (o) 706-542-3737, (h) 706-769-7491, (f ) 706-542-2773, (email)

GMEA Headquarters

218 Willis Drive, Stockbridge, GA 30281, 678-289-9299, (fax) 678-289-9250,

GMEA Board: Executive Committee

President: Frank Folds, 565 Georgian Hills Drive, Lawrenceville, GA 30045, (o) 770-736-5762, (f ) 770-982-6942, (email) President-Elect: John Odom, 240 Browns Hill Ct., Tyrone, GA 30290, 770-486-2710 (email) Immediate Past President: Mary Land, 231 High Trail Vista Circle, #20111, Jasper, GA 30143, (o) 706-253-1830 ext.353, (f ) 706-253-1835, (email) Vice President for Performance Evaluations: Carl Rieke, Ola Middle School, 353 N Ola Rd., McDonough, GA 30252, (o) 770-715-0955, (f ) 770-288-2114, (email) Vice President for All State Events: Kerry Bryant, 2503 Olney Falls Dr., Braselton, GA 30517, (o) 678-425-0979, (email) Past Presidents’ Council Representative: Bernadette Scruggs, 1395 Midland Way, Lawrenceville, GA 30043, (o) 770-495-5413, (f ) 678-957-3108, (email) Executive Director (non-voting): Cecil Wilder, 218 Willis Drive, Stockbridge, GA 30281, (o)678-289-9299, (f )678-289-9250, (email)

GMEA Board: Division Chairs

Band: Neil Ruby, 113 Central Road, Carrollton, GA 30116, 770-832-7527, (email) Choral: Jeff Funderburk, DeKalb School of the Arts, 1192 Clarendon Avenue, Avondale, Estates, GA 30002, (o) 678-676-2564, (f ) 678-676-2510, (email) ElementAry: Karen R. Leamon, 4199 Liberty Pointe Lane, Auburn, GA 30011, (o) 770-963-7174, (f ) 770-277-4448, (email) Music Education College Division: Carol Benton, Dept. of Art, Music, Theatre, 11935 Abercorn St., Savannah, GA 31419, (o) 912-344-2822, (email) Orchestra: Nicole L. Thompson, 295 Oakmere Drive, Alpharetta, Ga 30009, (o) 678-234-1554, (email) Piano: Donna S. Dasher, 32 Magnolia Marsh Dr., Richmond Hill, GA 31324, (o) 912-660-0574, (f ) 912-727-4490, (email)

GMEA Board: District Chairs

District 1: Kenza Murray, 1100 Ebenezer Rd., Rincon, GA 31326, (h) 912-728-8257, (o) 912-754-6404 x1245, (f ) 912-754-6893, (email) District 2: Andrew C. Bell, 2153 Highway 280 W., Cordele, GA 31015, (h) 229-322-1028, (o) 229-276-3430 x2209, (f ) 229-276-3436, District 3: Jonathan Carmack, 7611 Whitesville Road, Columbus, GA 31904, 423-741-2130, (email) District 4: D. Alan Fowler, 10245 Eagle Drive, Covington, GA 30014, 770-784-2920, (email) District 5: Carolyn Landreau, 9310 Scott Road, Roswell, GA 30076, 770-650-4230, (email) District 6: Samuel Miller, 800 N. Moseley Dr., Stockbridge, GA 30281, 770-389-2784, (email) District 7: Bob Steelnack, 326 Mount Alto Rd. SW, Rome, GA 30165, (h) 706-331-5187, (o) 706-236-1844 x7644, (f) 706-236-1846, District 8: Catheryn Shaw, 2379 Copeland Rd., Valdosta, GA 31601, 229-2452280, (email) District 9: Pat Gallagher, 1010 Turner Rd., Jasper, GA 30143, (h) 770-289-5943, (o) 706-253-1800 x 154, (f ) 770-289-5943,


District 10: Gene Hundley, 108 Pate Street, Swainsboro, GA 30401, (h) 912-687-3078, (o) 478-237-5104, (f) 478-237-7296, District 11: Lloyd McDonald, 1127 Alderly Lane, Warner Robins, GA 31088, (h) 770-241-3842, (o) 478-953-0430 x3444, (f ) 478-953-0438, District 12: Paula Krupiczewicz, 3400 Hwy 293 North, Kennesaw, GA 30144, (h) 601-818-0387, (o) 770-975-6685 x303, District 13: Lee Newman, 5300 Spalding Dr., Norcross, GA 30092, (email) District 14: Dion Muldrow, 1300 Cedar Shoals Drive, Athens, GA 30605, 706-546-5375, (email)

GMEA Board: Appointed Members (Member-at-Large)

Member-at-Large: Skip Taylor, 1601 Oconee Crossing Circle, Watkinsville, GA 30677, (o) 706-461-3696, (f ) 706-542-2776, (email) Member-at-Large: Sue McDonald, 1127 Alderly Lane, Warner Robins, GA 31088, (o) 478-929-7814, (h) 478-333-3046, (email) Editor, Ga. Music News: Mary Leglar, 1081 Ramblewood Pl., Watkinsville, GA 30677, (o) 706-542-2755, (f ) 706-542-2773, (email) CNAfME Advisor: David Gregory, 10313 Big Canoe, Big Canoe, GA 30143, (h) 706-268-1875, (o) 770-720-9207, (f ) 706-268-1865, (email) Department of Education Representative: Joe Searle, Governor’s Honors Program, 1862 Twin Towers, Atlanta, GA 30334, (o) 404-657-0183, (f ) 404-657-7096, (email)

Appointed Members (Nonvoting)

Georgia School Boards Association: Julia Bernath, 210 Lackland Ct., Atlanta, GA 30350, (email) Georgia Association of Secondary School Principals: Hal Ridley, 2633 Hwy. 120, Tallapoosa, GA 30176, (o) 770-646-8600, (f ) 770-646-0108, (email) Georgia School Superintendents Association: Rob Johnson, Laurens County Schools, 467 Firetower Rd., Dublin, GA 31021, (o) 478-272-4767, (email) Georgia Association of Educational Leaders: Mark Wilson, 1231 College Drive, Madison, GA 30650, (o) 706-342-2336, (email) Georgia Association of School Music Dealers: Harry Bergwall, 119 Cobb Pkway N., Marietta, GA 30062, 678-361-5877, (email)

Committee Chairs (Non-Board)

Music in our Schools Month: Darlene Guida, 542 Oak Trail, Hampton, GA 30228, (o) 770-473-2790, (f ) 770-603-5198, (email) Professional Standards and Ethics Chair: Jay Wucher, 1133 River Green Ct., McDonough, GA 30252, (h) 770-288-2174, (email) Government Relations: Peter Lemonds, 2390 Meadow Falls Lane, Duluth, GA 30097, (h) 770-814-2601, (o) 770-232-3393, (f ) 770-232-3332, (email) Historian/Archivist: Derik Clackum, 333 Liberty Church Rd., Ranger, GA 30734, (h) 770-861-2580, (email) Technology: Pat Gallagher, 1010 Turner Rd., Jasper, GA 30143, (h) 770-289-5943, (o) 706-253-1800 x 154, (f ) 770-289-5943, Research: John Wayman, 1314 Heathers Cove Circle, Hiawassee, GA 30546, (h) 214-454-3691, Retired Members: Fritz Siler, 3110 Deer Chase Ct. SW, Snellville, GA 30039, (h) 770-978-1287, (o) 678-336-3351, (f ) 678-336-3399, (email) Mentoring Chair: Herb Cox, 720 W. Hembree Crossing, Roswell, GA 30076, (h) 770-475-1710, Tri-M Advisor: Charles Hernandez, 224 Welsh Trail, Macon, GA 31216, (h) 478-290-8877, (o) 478-779-3064, (f ) 478-779-3045, (email)

Georgia Music News Advertising

GMN Advertising Representative: Cindy Reed, 218 Willis Drive, Stockbridge, GA, 30281, 678-289-9299, (fax) 678-289-9250, (email) Deadlines: July 20, September 20, February 10, March 20 Copyright © 2014 by the Georgia Music Educators Association Printing by Southeastern Color Lithographers, Athens, GA


NOTES FROM THE EDITOR What’s “playing” in the education world? At the moment, the popular recordings (those with badly worn grooves) include standards-based curriculum, criteria-based teacher evaluation systems, “one-size-fits-all” instruction, EdTPA, merit pay, rubrics, and lists of “Best Practices.” Do we detect a theme emerging? Ah yes! It’s teacher accountability—with emphasis on testing to establish it. Not that we mind being tested—it’s part of life—but we do (if I’m hearing teachers correctly) occasionally find the process troublesome and annoying. Student progress, measured by highstakes testing, can certainly be an indicator of an effective teacher. Likewise, striving to meet standards is not a bad idea (I believe in high standards—and as do most teachers). However, when excessive and cumbersome forms of “measurement” threaten to take over, it’s hard to stay on balance and, in the opinion of many, the “joy” of teaching/ learning is diminished. How do we keep our balance? How do we manage this type of stress? Take courage! Don’t panic! The profession has survived similar movements and has, in fact, emerged better. I’m confident we can do it again. If you can recall the late ’60s and early ’70s, you know of what I speak. If you’re too young to do that, then look up the lists of teacher competency expectations this era produced. The memory brings a smile—teacher competency jokes abounded: “Must be able to leap tall buildings in a single bound,” etc. Yes, much has always been expected of teachers, but we’re up to it—even the harsh criticism. We can keep our balance if we focus on the people in front of us. If we do that, the process of proving ourselves will, to a large extent, become less burdensome. My opinion about this was reinforced recently in an article by Patricia Bourne in The Voice, Washington’s state MEA journal. “In the classrooms of highly effective ‘student-first’ teachers, a culture is created that moves learners—and GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

learning—forward. . . . Every student in the class knows he is valued and appreciated. . . . These exemplary teachers understand it is connections— one human to another—that stimulate and open learning possibilities. These is no denying that the positive relationship between teacher and students—forged

In This Issue…

The leaves are already falling, and we’re well on our way into another year. This is a busy time, as proven in the pages of this issue. The task of preparing the GMEA budget is completed. It is presented in Association News, as are the minutes of the last GMEA Board meeting. Also our executive director has some wise words on membership responsibility. Catch up on the In-Service Conference preparation in Division and note the fine conductors GMEA has tapped for the Sixth-Grade Statewide Honor Chorus. We’re proud of our members who will present at the Chicago-based Midwest Clinic in December. You will find them listed in District News. Also, note in Editor’s Mailbox announcements of the Georgia students chosen to perform with the NAfME All-National Honor Ensembles and the U.S. Army All-American Marching Band. Congratulations to these students and their directors. And, don’t miss the Changing Georgia Scene—also in District News. Make these new teachers welcome and encourage them to take advantage of the upcoming 2015 In-Service Conference. As usual, Focus on Instruction contains reports and reflections on classroom activity—always for the purpose of exploring tools and strategies that musically educate. We’re grateful to these Georgia authors for sharing their ideas, concerns and experiments. I know you will find this section

with trust, consistency, direct and ageappropriate communication—provides unbridled potential for growth, regardless of setting. The advances made with the best academic standards are no match to the power of a teacher with heart, eyes, thoughts, and energies focused on the individuals in his/her classroom.”

informative. New collegiate faces are presented in University News, as well as general news on campus activities and new programs. And finally, Bill Fry has contributed a new chapter to our All-State story. Read it in Historical Profile. You will find his account fascinating and an interesting thread in the saga of Georgia All-State groups. Enjoy!

IN MEMORIAM Dale Samuel Shaffner 1924-2014 Dale Shaffner, band director at Rossville High School for 40 years, until his retirement in 1984, died on Sept. 8. He is survived by his son, Richard Shaffner of Ringgold, two grandchildren, two great grandchildren, and several nieces and nephews. As a teenager in Middletown, Pa., Shaffner was inspired to become a musician while watching the U.S. military bands perform 3

at the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg. Shortly thereafter, he began taking private lessons on the clarinet, but when he expressed interest in joining the local high school band, the director asked him to play flute. He agreed and became very proficient on that instrument. Shaffner’s musical career was interrupted by World War II. Called to serve in the infantry, he managed to secure a position in the company band. After his company completed their training, they were shipped to England for the invasion of France. However, when Shaffner’s band arrived in France, the Battle of the Bulge had broken out, and the musicians were used as guards instead of as a band. Upon returning home from the war, Shaffner married Alma Louise Beard, the sister of an army buddy. Taking advantage of the G.I. Bill, he went to the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music to earn a music degree and certification. After graduation, he won a position as flute player in the Chattanooga Symphony. Shaffner moved to the Rossville area in 1949. He is the founder of the Rossville Lions Club and was a member of the Chattanooga Symphony and Opera Association.

Stephen Andrew Partin 1962-2014 Stephen Andrew Partin, a native of Georgia, graduated from Coffee High School in Douglas in 1981. He received a B.M.Ed. degree from Valdosta State College in 1985 and served with the Jeff Davis County High School Band and the music education staff in the Jeff Davis County School System. After earning and M.A. in music education from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in 1995, he served as one of the directors of bands at Crisp County Middle School and as assistant director of bands at Crisp County High School until his death. An accomplished guitarist, he performed with many recording artists, including the Osborn Bowen Family Singers and with Bob and Diane Turman in “Foxfire.” Partin is survived by his parents, Homer and Eddie Sue Turner Partin of Douglas, his son, Tyler Keith Partin of Cordele, and two stepsons, Chuck Strickland of Brunswick and 4

Kristen Strickland of Mayport Naval Station in Florida.

Paul Ramsey 1949-2014 Paul Ramsey of Bremen was born in Haleyville, Ala., the son of the late Johnnie Basil Ramsey and the late Velma Wakefield Ramsey. Survivors include his wife, Cheri Lyn Ramsey of Bremen; two daughters and sons-in-law, Mary and Gerard Mack and Melanie and Ivan Flores all of Marietta; one step-daughter and son-in-law, Tracie and Jose Ramirez of Dallas, Georgia; one stepson and daughter-in-law, Bobby Carroll and Teresa Smith of Cedartown; and

EDITORS MAILBOX Dear Editor, I am writing from the American Composers Forum, a national nonprofit organization that supports composers. You may be familiar with our work commissioning and publishing new works for middle-level performers: BandQuest ( and ChoralQuest ( I’m writing today because we recently launched a new, national program for teenage composers and are currently working to get the word out as far and wide as possible. Thank you for taking the time to look at these materials.  

American Composers Forum Launches NextNotesTM High School Composition Awards The American Composers Forum (ACF) announces the launch of a new, national program designed to nurture the next generation of creative voices in music composition. The NextNotesTM High School Composition Awards will encourage and recognize the creativity of high school composers and award outstanding talent with mentorship, scholarship funds, and a

one brother and sister-in-law, Howell Wayne and Kumi Ramsey of Dallas, Tex. Ramsey began his teaching career in Rome at Model High School in 1971. After attending graduate school he started the instrumental music program at Hillside Academy in West Point, Miss. Later, he was named as band director at Central High School in Carrollton. His last teaching position was Haralson County High School, where he taught for 22 years until his retirement in 2011. Ramsey received a B.S. degree in music education from Jacksonville State University, and the M.M.Ed. from Mississippi State University. He was a member of several civic and professional organizations, including the NAfME, GMEA, Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, the Professional Association of Georgia Educators, and others. He was honored at his funeral with music performed by current and past members of the Haralson County High School Marching Band.

performance of their work by professional musicians. “The NextNotesTM High School Composition Awards is unlike any music composition contest that’s ever been conceived before. With no limits on style or content, this competition should attract music creators of all backgrounds and abilities, and give an opportunity for young people to engage with making original music like no other program has done before,” said Dr. Daniel Ott, composer and music educator at Fordham University and the Juilliard School, and NextNotes advisor. Students in grades 9-12 are invited to apply with a single composition in any genre or style by the deadline of January 12, 2015. Applications are submitted electronically through an on-line process. Six composers will be chosen to receive a scholarship along with travel to Minneapolis-St. Paul for a twoday workshop with professional composer mentors and professional musicians in June 2015. The workshop will conclude with an awards ceremony and culminating concert of the winning works. Interested high school composers are encouraged to visit the website www. and connect via Twitter (@NextNotes), Facebook (ACF Ed), and on Tumblr, Instagram, and Vine (all acfnextnotes). For more information, GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

please visit or email Suzanna Altman, Director of Education and Community Engagement, at saltman@ The American Composers Forum enriches lives by nurturing the creative spirit of composers and communities. We provide new opportunities for composers and their music to flourish, and engage communities in the creation, performance and enjoyment of new music. ACF’s primary vision is to facilitate an ecosystem of creativity through music. Our goal is to make composers, and the music they create, a vibrant and integral part of our culture. Programs reflect the diversity of our world, and we partner with a variety of ensembles and organizations including faith communities, rural and urban schools, healthcare facilities and arts presenters and performing groups. With its education programs, ACF strives to be the leading national resource to mentor and nurture student learning through the creation of new music by providing curricular and professional support for educators and composers in schools and communities.

Georgia Musicians Perform in All-National Honor Ensembles

Eleven Georgia students have been named to the 2014 NAfME All-National Honor Ensembles. They will join 670 of the most musically talented and skilled high school students in the United States to perform at the National NAfME In-Service Conference. The ensembles will appear on the stage of the Grand Ole Opry House in Nashville, Tenn., on October 29, 2014. Congratulations to students and directors: Hye Ri Bae, Concert Band, piano, Lambert High School, Scott McCloy, director; Jonathan Craig, Orchestra, trombone, Lambert High School, Scott McCloy, director; Chip Frankhauser, Mixed Choir, tenor 1, Lovett School, Jerry Ulrich, director; Grant Kendrick, Mixed Choir, bass 2, Lamar County Comprehensive High School, Natoya Fletcher, director; Trever Kiefer, Concert Band, tuba, Lassiter High School, James Thompson, director; Sean Kwak, Concert Band, trombone, Blair Callaway, director; Andrew Lukman, Orchestra, violin 1, Roswell High School, Sara Payne, director; Matthew Paynter, Concert Band, trombone, Heritage High School, Blair Callaway, director; Caroline Wu, Orchestra, violin 2, Roswell High School, Sara Payne, director; GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

David Yun, Concert Band, percussion, Heritage High School, Blair Callaway, director; Rachel Zhu, Concert Band, flute 1, Northview High School, Kelly Dickerson, director. The NAfME All-National Honors Ensembles include a concert band, symphony orchestra, mixed chorus, and jazz ensemble. The concert band and symphony orchestra will each have approximately 150 instrumentalists, the jazz ensemble will have 20 instrumentalists, and the mixed chorus will have approximately 350 vocalists. Ensemble conductors are Mark Camphouse, professor of music and conductor of the Wind Symphony at George Mason University (Concert Band); Gerard Schwarz, music director, Eastern Music Festival Conductor Laureate, Seattle Symphony (Symphony Orchestra); and Edith Copley, Regents’ Professor, director of choral studies, Northern Arizona University (Mixed Choir).

Grayson Mullis Named to AllAmerican Marching Band Grayson Mullis, a Winder-Barrow High School student, has recently been selected to play bass drum in the 2015 U.S. Army AllAmerican Marching Band. Students named to membership receive a selection tour stop at their school during the fall of their senior year and an all-expenses paid trip to bowl week in during January of the their senior

year. During bowl week, the band members receive instruction from top collegiate, high school, and drum and bugle corps instructors from across the country as well as educational sessions with members of the U.S. Army Band. The U.S. Army All-American Marching Band, featuring 125 top marching band members from across the United States, has performed at the U.S Army All-American Bowl since 2008. The 2015 performance will be televised on NBC from San Antonio, Tex., at 1:00 p.m. on January 3. The performances will also be available for viewing via an online stream that day.

Collegiate Advocacy Summit Announced NAfME invited collegiate members to take part in the 2015 NAfME Collegiate Advocacy Summit on June 15, 2015. Collegians are invited to • share their passion for music with the nation’s leaders; • meet face-to-face with U.S. legislators and their staffs on Capitol Hill; • receive special leadership training; • network with NAfME state and national leaders; • enjoy the nation’s capital; • meet new friends and colleagues; • come away inspired. Watch the NAfMe Website for more forthcoming information.

Multiple Ways of Knowing

Music study promotes fluency in knowledge systems beyond the linguistic and mathematical, enabling a deeper and broader understanding of our world and of the human experience.

A teacher’s thoughts on expanding the mind

  Music is expression, emotion, understanding, peace, love, and much more.

Music to me and many others is a way of life. It takes the stress away with an outlet that is safe and sound. It’s a universal language that brings together so many from backgrounds of all kinds. It matures young high school kids into mature adults. It creates a higher level of thinking. But most of all, it allows students to feel compassion, when otherwise they don’t feel it at all. Where does the next generation take us? Certainly with music there’s an infinite amount of possibilities.


Introducing Kaplan Vivo and Amo, violin strings designed to combine the richness of gut with the projection of synthetics. Now, even the most reďŹ ned players can discover new dimensions in their sound while wielding greater control over their musical voice. This is a new era of classical music. Be a part of it. With Kaplan, the movement begins now.




Welcome back for another school year. I trust it is off to a great start. Amid the hustle of the beginning of the year, I hope you take time to appreciate what a great profession we have and the impact we have on the young lives we touch. Your state, division, and district officers are working diligently to make your professional association what it can be for you. From working to provide a first rate In-Service Conference, to striving to standardize procedures for LGPE across divisions, to hiring the best clinicians for statewide honor groups, they are collaborating and communicating to produce the best possible experience for you and your students. If you have the opportunity, please make plans to attend the NAfME national conference in Nashville. The conference runs from October 26-29. There are several presenters from Georgia as well as students in the All-National Honors Ensembles. I also encourage you to join us for the 2015 ISC in Savannah, as we say a fond farewell to that gracious city. The conference is January 29-31 and will feature many exciting clinics and performances. We kick it off with a General Session on Thursday at 10 a.m. with our awards recipients. Maribeth YoderWhite, Southern Division president, will give the keynote, and we will be entertained by Back in Time, a rock and soul group made up of GMEA retired members headed by Mercer Crook. You won’t want to miss this! As we begin a new school year, we also come to the end of an era. Mary Leglar has been the editor of the Georgia Music News for as long as I can remember. She has had a passion for making it a top flight professional periodical. It is considered by colleagues in GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

other states to be among the best. Dr. Leglar has left an indelible mark on Georgia, both as editor and professor of music education at the University of Georgia. This will be her last issue as editor and we want to wish her well in her retirement. It has been a personal and professional pleasure to know you and work with you, Mary. Thank you for your service to music education, to Georgia, and to GMEA.

FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Cecil Wilder, GMEA Executive Director

Another school year is under way, and we are all back to our day jobs and whatever that entails. District meetings have been held, and event applications are being submitted. Hopefully the steps which have been taken to streamline that process are making your life a little easier. Oh, if only schools and school systems would follow our lead where paperwork is concerned!!

A big concern around the state seems to be the Student Learning Objectives with which all teachers are being required to contend. I have been asked on several occasions what the GMEA position is on these. Of course, we are in favor of student learning objectives in principle; however, the way the state of Georgia has seen fit to define them, not so much. There is not a lot of help we can offer you in the design and implementation of these, since school systems are being allowed to structure, implement, and assess them on their own. A central issue is that learning objectives in music are skill-based, as well as knowledge and fact-based. This makes the objectives more difficult and time-consuming to assess at the level of the individual student. That can be a difficult concept to get across to some administrators and politicians, especially since, in the words of Upton Sinclair, “It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends on not understanding it.” If you are fortunate enough to have a principal or superintendent who does not fit this description, I would be happy to talk with him or her, provided he/she would like to have the conversation. Another somewhat related topic is the fact that this is an election year. I am told in a typical election about 35% of Georgia teachers actually vote. If that is so, shame on the other 65%. I was taught growing up that if you don’t vote, you have no right to complain. I hope you are among those who do vote. I also hope that, before you vote, you make every effort to inform yourself about how each candidate truly stands on educational issues. In the case of incumbents, don’t be fooled by election year promises that are not consistent with past decisions and positions. In the case of challengers, listen closely to what they say and make sure their rhetoric includes what they plan to do and how they plan to accomplish it, not just what the other fellow failed to do. Equally important, I hope you vote with those educational issues being central to your voting decisions. Too many politicians are notorious for using hot button topics 7

as a distraction to keep voters’ minds away from the things which are really important to their lives and to the well-being of the state and nation. Not every issue is a political issue and not every problem has a political solution. It is up to you to stay informed about candidates and their suitability and commitment to doing the people’s business.

Remember, citizenship is hard work, and patriotism doesn’t mean always agreeing with your government. As always, I wish the best for you and your students as you go about the very important business of education. What you are doing is the key to the future success of your students and the future of our society. Whenever

you become discouraged or frustrated by those who, even though they have no training or qualifications where schools are concerned, believe they know more about how education should be delivered than the trained professionals, hold on to the words of Garrison Keillor: “Nothing you do for children is ever wasted.”


Notes from the Historian

David Gregory, State Advisor

Derick Clackum, Chair

The 2014-15 academic year is off to a great start, and CNAfME chapters across the state are up and running and are deeply involved in music activities on their respective campuses. Many events and activities are scheduled for this year, and already our college men and women are more involved in their profession than ever before. Individual chapters of CNAfME are planning a wide range of locally designed projects that will have positive impact on music education programs at all levels of public school instruction. Students are assisting with marching band programs as adjunct instructors, they are organizing and assisting with choral and band festivals on their campuses, sectional rehearsal assistance is being provided to bands and orchestras, private instruction clinic and programs are in place in a number of schools, and in-service clinics are being planned and presented in various settings across the state. In short, CNAfME men and women are heavily involved in the music education programs of Georgia, and are very focused on their college preparation for a career in teaching music. As we all know, a tremendously important part of undergraduate music education is the GMEA In-Service Conference each year. In fact, the yearly conference is the most significant professional growth opportunity for all music educators, both current and future. Plans are being developed for another year of truly exceptional clinics at the 2015 conference, and CNAfME men and women will again be involved in organizing and assisting with them. This year’s conference will feature eight 8

CNAfME-track clinic sessions, each of which will present invaluable ideas and information for soon-to-be music educators. These clinics also will be of tremendous help to experienced teachers in that they possibly will offer new and different insights into teaching strategies and methodologies. I encourage everyone to make plans to be present for as many of these terrific sessions as possible. The clinics scheduled for the CNAfME track are as follows: “With Every Breath You Take” (J. D. Burnett, clinician), “Becoming a Professional” (Martha Shaw and David Gregory, clinicians), “Finally It’s Here” (Susana Lalama, clinician), “I Never Learned That in College” (Charles Laux, clinician), “Non-Negotiables of Superior Rehearsals” (Alfred Watkins, clinician), “Little Things, Big Differences, All Levels” (David Gregory, clinician), “A Beginning Teacher’s Survival Guide” (John Wayman, clinician), and “New National Standards” (Martin Norgaard, clinician). Additionally, the CNAfME general membership meeting will be held Friday afternoon at 4:45. With a schedule of clinic offerings such as the one presented above, it is a certainty that attendees will have tremendous opportunities for professional and personal growth. I look forward to seeing everyone in Savannah in January, our final visit to that wonderful convention city. Be sure to check your conference schedule and make arrangements to attend as many of the terrific CNAfME clinics as possible. Have a great fall, and let’s meet this January in Savannah for one more time.

Most members are probably not aware that GMEA has an archive of the organization’s history, located in the library at Georgia College and State University in Milledgeville. I wasn’t aware of it until this year. I am also sure that I didn’t know what the GMEA historian’s office entailed. When President Frank Folds approached me with the idea of becoming the GMEA historian, I was interested, if a little unsure of what was involved. But Frank’s offer was well presented, sort of like the perfect lure on the end of a fisherman’s line. Frank said that one of the historian’s jobs was to take pictures of events and awards at the annual GMEA In-Service, which I normally attend anyway, so I felt I could assist him with that. It turned out to be a pleasant task, as almost everybody wants to have his or her picture taken. Still, I had an idea that this historian thing might be a little more than just taking pictures. After the In-Service, Executive Director Cecil Wilder asked if I would undertake the task of updating the “Short History of GMEA” that appears at the end of the Constitution and By-Laws on our OPUS site. Again, that seemed like an innocent enough project. When I inquired where I would find the information to update the history, that’s when Cecil told me about the GMEA archives. It seems that at some point, the filing cabinets in the GMEA office were groaning GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

under the weight of documents and recordings that had accumulated over several decades. Georgia College and State University Library was approached about housing our archives because they already had a large collection of GMEA files. These files were from the 1940s and 1950s, and were donated by Max Noah, the first GMEA executive secretary, and Maggie Jenkins, the first secretary/treasurer. Both Max and Maggie were on the faculty of what was then the Georgia State College for Women (now Georgia College and State University). They also were the hosts to the GMEA State Music Festivals, held in Milledgeville from the late ’40s to the early ’50s. So, as soon as I could break away from my busy retirement schedule (pause for laughs), I ventured forth to Milledgeville and began to get acquainted with what was stored in the archives. I was very impressed with the personnel and archive facilities at GCSU. Needless to say, there is a great amount of material there, most from the 1940s through the 1980s, but not so much from the ’90s to the present. My first challenge became apparent immediately. The files were stored as they were received, but not necessarily in chronological order, so I could see they needed to be reorganized. In addition, I noted that when GMEA began storing files on computers in the 1990s, we stopped keeping all our records on paper. I realized immediately why there was a lot of missing material from 1990 to present. The files were neither transferred from digital to paper files nor stored in digital form in the archives. The third challenge I saw was that although we have thousands of All-State and In-Service recordings in the archives, they have not been digitalized so they can be made available online to the membership. Suddenly the enormity of the task became clearer. We are talking a long-term project that will require a lot of work, since the recordings are in many formats, from reel-toreel and cassette to LP, CD, and VHS. The archive situation is at a critical juncture. Record files and recordings are important, not only so that the present membership can have access, but also for future generations to have our history available for research and exploration. The archives tell the story of how Georgia has gone from a state that was struggling to start music programs, to one that is now a leader in the nation. I would like to see the entire collection digitized and made available online, so that GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

GMEA members can access everything in the collection. This could take several years of effort and will need our financial support, but it is a task worth doing. With

the assistance of GMEA members and staff, and the GCSU Library, I am ready to give it my best effort.

Retired Members Fritz Siler, Chair

Last of days . . . Don’t miss them! This year will mark the end of many journeys over the years to Savannah for the GMEA convention. There have been other sites that were hosts of the convention, but Savannah has been the longest running. There are many memories of great times, incredible musical and personal experiences, and of course the lengthy ride over and back again if you live anywhere but the Savannah area. We all have our places of habit and habitat when we arrive in Savannah: favorite places to stay and eat, and a few watering holes to visit. There are sessions outside of the GMEA convention to attend, like the jam session at Huey’s. After this year’s sojourn we will embark on learning new routines and concert venues at the Classic Center in Athens. Those who attended school or frequent the UGA campus will know their way around, and welcome the change of venue. There will be discoveries of new places to eat, as well as enjoy the social amenities of Athens. Parking will be an adjustment,

but there is plentiful parking available. The restaurants are plentiful and offer a wide variety of foods. There are several with a brewery on site. There will a place for jam sessions on Thursday night, with the students from the All-State Jazz Ensemble invited to sit in with the pros. There will be places for the various organizations to meet and greet one another after hours of clinics and classes. The convention will be whatever we make it to be, no matter where it is held. The move in 2016, for some, will be a break in tradition. However, it is the people and the music that makes our special gathering what it is. Continue to be a part of the social benefits of being retired, of visiting with old friends and colleagues this year in Savannah. Make plans for the next chapter while you are there with all your friends who attend. One episode ends this year, leading us into the next chapter in Athens. Let’s take advantage of both opportunities. Register! I hope to see you there in Savannah again this year, and then in Athens, for the 2016 gathering. Classic Center, Athens



creators, thinkers, achievers.


2015 Scholarship/Service Award and Music Major Audition Dates: Instrumental: February 7, 21, March 7, April 18 Voice: February 7, 21 March 7, April 18 Piano: February 7, March 7 Marching Band: April 25 (Drum Line, Color Guard & Majorette) Register Now For Your Audition at:

department of music



MINUTES GMEA Board of Directors Marriott Courtyard Hotel Stockbridge May 17, 2014 I. The meeting was called to order at 10:10 by President Frank Folds.   The following members were present: Carl Rieke, vice president for performance evaluations; Kerry Bryant, vice president for All-State events; Mary Land, immediate past president; Bernadette Scruggs, Past Presidents’ Council representative; Cecil Wilder, executive director; Robin Christian, Band Division; Jeff Funderburk, Choral Division; Carol Benton, College Division; Karen Leamon, Elementary Division; Nicole Thompson, Orchestra Division; Donna Dasher, Piano Division; Eric Turner (proxy for Kenya Murray), District One; Andy Bell, District Two; Jason Thorne, District Three; Quentin Goins, District Four; Garnetta Penn, District Five; Richard Prouty, District Six; Bob Steelnack, District Seven; Michael Thomas, District Eight; Pat Gallagher, District Nine; Gene Hundley, District Ten; Lloyd McDonald, District Eleven; Paula Krupiczewicz, District Twelve; Chad Deal, District Thirteen; Sue McDonald, member-at-large; Albert Bussey, MultiCultural Awareness chair; Julia Bernath, Georgia School Board Association representative; Dr. Rob Johnson, Georgia School Superintendents’ Association representative; Harry Bergwall, Georgia Association of School Music Dealers representative. This constitutes a quorum.   The voting procedure was reviewed and the minutes of the board meeting held on May 18, 2013 were approved. II. The following action items were presented and voted on:   A. A proposal was brought from the Orchestra Division that the Statewide Honor Orchestra event be moved to the same weekend and location as Instrumental All-State. The AllState Orchestras would continue to be organized in the same manner, with 9-10 and 11-12 as full orchestras and Middle School remaining a string orchestra, while the Statewide Orchestras would continue as string orchestras. The All-State audition GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

results would also be used to pick the Statewide Honor Orchestras, and those students selected would be the students who did not qualify for one of the All-State Orchestras (in rank order based on the audition scores) until the instrumentation is full. The acceptance fee would also be the same as for the All-State Orchestras. It was further proposed that the names of the Statewide Honor Orchestras be changed. These names would be Eleventh and Twelfth Grade String Orchestra, Ninth and Tenth Grade String Orchestra; both middle school orchestras would be identified by the name of the conductor, as is the custom in the Band Division. It was pointed out that, due to the added concert presentations, Saturday’s concerts will need to start earlier in the day.    The proposal was adopted by a margin of 23-1 with one abstaining, to begin with the 2014-2015 school year.   B. A proposal was brought from the Executive Committee to change the online student event application, registration, and acceptance processes as follows:     Currently all GMEA student event applications require the signature of both the member and the school’s principal. The proposal is to eliminate those requirements and replace them with a box on the online application form that must be checked by the member agreeing to the conditions of the application. The member will not be allowed to proceed with the application until he or she has checked the box. The conditions will read as follows:   “By checking this box I am certifying that my school’s head administrator is aware that I am registering these students or student groups for this event and that he/she is aware that attendance at the event may require the students to be absent from school. I further agree to abide by the rules and policies governing this event and to fulfill any responsibilities attached to the event including, but not limited to, being on site during the event (or having a designated adult on site, such as a parent or assistant director), assisting with the running of the event and, in the case of all state events, being available to judge or serve in another capacity at the auditions, both district and final, and the actual All-State event

[Choral Division only]. I acknowledge that, if I fail to fulfill any of these professional responsibilities, my school administration will be notified of that failure.”   If this change is adopted it will eliminate the need for members to send in any paper to the office in conjunction with the application, provided payment is made via credit card or electronic funds transfer from a bank. A member choosing to pay with a paper check will be supplied with an invoice for the amount owed, to be submitted to the booster club treasurer or school bookkeeper, that he/she will mail to the GMEA office along with the check. All late and reprocessing fees will apply as in the past.   In the case of All-State acceptance forms, we now require a waiver concerning the video recording of the students involved that must be signed by the student and the parent. We propose to eliminate this requirement and replace it with a disclaimer to be checked by the member that will read as follows:   “By checking this box I am certifying that I have made the parents or guardians of every student on my acceptance list aware that the All-State performance in which their child will be participating will be video recorded for resale to directors, students, and parents and that they should not allow their children to participate if they are unwilling for this to de done. I further certify that I have made these parents aware that they can read this information along with the dress, behavior, and attendance policies attached to this event at the GMEA website and have provided them with the link to that web page.”   The member will not be allowed to proceed with the acceptance process until he or she has checked the disclaimer box. If this change is made, it will become unnecessary for the member to mail any paper to the office as long as payment is made via credit card or electronic funds transfer. If the member chooses to pay with a paper check, OPUS will print an invoice that the member can give to his/her booster club treasurer or school bookkeeper for payment. The member will then mail the invoice to the office in the same envelope as the check.   The proposal was adopted 11

unanimously.   C. A proposal was brought from the Executive Committee to discontinue the All-College Band and All-College Orchestra events beginning with the 2014-2015 school year due to declining enrollment and increasing financial deficits. After lengthy discussion it was decided to discontinue the AllCollege Orchestra permanently and to suspend the All-College Band until a committee can be appointed by President Frank Folds to restructure the event in a way that will encourage greater participation, establish a more workable audition procedure, and return it to financial viability. No prospective date for the completion of this work was set. The All-College Chorus will continue as is for the 20142015 school year.   The proposal, as amended, was passed by a vote of 25-0. President Frank Folds appointed Neil Ruby, Kerry Bryant, Beth Taylor, and one more person to be named later to serve on this committee.   D. A proposal was brought from the Executive Committee to have the Band, Choral and Orchestra Division chairs create a statement of expectations to be given to all LGPE adjudicators prior to each event for which they are hired. T statement is to be ready for the Board of Directors by the May 2015 board meeting. The proposal passed unanimously with the understanding that, because we are a unified association, the document must be the same for all divisions. The three division chairs were asked to have the document ready in time for the respective division councils to discuss at their meetings during the 2015 All-State events so that the board can decide on it next May.   E. A proposal was brought from the Elementary and Choral Divisions that the maximum number of students who can be registered for Statewide Sixth Grade and Elementary Honor Choruses by any one school be changed from six with no alternates to five with no alternates. The Choral and Elementary Division chairs were asked consult their respective councils about combining the two events during the month of February, beginning in 20152016, possibly using the Classic Center in Athens as a permanent home for the event. They will then need to bring that 12

request to the Executive Committee as early as possible so that facilities and hotel rooms can be secured.   The proposal was passed unanimously.   F. A proposal was brought from the Executive Committee to have the state Band, Choral, and Orchestra Division chairs devise a formal process for dealing with complaints from members concerning the quality and professionalism (or lack thereof ) exhibited by LGPE adjudicators. The plan is to be ready for the Board of Directors to approve in May 2015. The proposal passed by a margin of 24-1.   G. A proposal was brought from the Executive Committee for the Board to address inconsistencies across the state with regard to availability of All-State student lists to students prior to the time when they are released through the Opus system. Frank Folds moved that the proposal be taken off the table and that this problem be addressed by the Executive Committee and Board as part of the larger issue of professional standards and ethics in general. The motion passed unanimously.   H. A proposal was brought from the Band Division to make available to teachers the scores and rankings for all their students who take the final all state band audition. After a lengthy discussion concerning the nature of the all state audition process and the fact that it is not possible to give accurate data to all students concerning their true position relative to other students, the motion was defeated by a vote of 5-16, with 4 abstentions. III. The following informational items were presented.   A. The 2014–2015 statewide calendar was approved as sent out prior to the meeting and posted on the GMEA web site with the following change. The calendar window for LGPE events, all divisions, was increased to include the last two weeks in February. This will be a permanent change starting in 20142015.   B. An interim budget report was presented by Cecil Wilder.   C. An update on advocacy initiatives was presented, including our relationship with the “Vision for Public Education in Georgia” and our promotional DVD project. The DVDs have been delivered and are ready to be submitted to all members of the Georgia legislature, the governor, all members of the Georgia

Board of Education, and the Georgia superintendent of education. A link to the vimeo file housing the DVD content will be available to anyone wishing to access it, especially local school system officials. The package to be mailed to state leaders will also include a brochure on the value of music in the lives and education of children and a brochure explaining the contributions made by GMEA towards music education in the state. This information will be sent this fall prior to the 2015 legislative session. IV. Reports, both written and spoken, were submitted by all members wishing to do so. An mp3 audio copy of the entire meeting is on file in the GMEA office.   The meeting was adjourned shortly after 2:00 p.m. Respectfully submitted, Cecil Wilder, Executive Director




January 29-31, 2015 GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

FINAL TOTAL INCOME AND EXPENSE FY 2014 AND PROPOSED BUDGET FY 2015 INCOME 2014 EXPENSE 2014 SURPLUS/DEFICIT INCOME 2015 EXPENSE 2015 SURPLUS/DEFICIT Membership Dues $ 55,176.53 $ 109.00 $ 55,067.53 $ 55,000.00 $ – $ 55,000.00 Medals and Plaques 96,446.81 55,126.45 41,320.36 96,000.00 55,680.00 40,320.00 Georgia Music News 3,520.00 26,687.28 (23,167.28) 10,000.00 23,000.00 (13,000.00) Non-GMEA Festival Fees 7,134.90 – 7,134.90 5,000.00 – 5,000.00 In Service Conference 305,052.78 268,571.43 36,481.35 309,500.00 253,625.00 55,875.00 Performance Evaluations 456,192.00 291,794.88 164,397.12 455,650.00 310,000.00 145,650.00 All State Events 485,535.21 331,741.38 153,793.83 470,080.00 334,475.00 135,605.00 Royalties 1,939.28 – 1,939.28 2,000.00 – 2,000.00 Interest Income 4,016.10 – 4,016.10 4,000.00 – 4,000.00 Other Income 711.25 – 711.25 – – – Scholarships – 4,000.00 (4,000.00) – 4,000.00 (4,000.00) Board Expense – 4,383.68 (4,383.68) – 5,000.00 (5,000.00) Executive Committee Expense – 10,612.62 (10,612.62) – 10,000.00 (10,000.00) Council Expense – 4,403.50 (4,403.50) – 5,000.00 (5,000.00) CNAfME – – – – – – OfficeExpense – 145,458.41 (145,458.41) – 144,350.00 (144,350.00) Employee Expense – 219,659.84 (219,659.84) – 224,252.76 (224,252.76) Online Application Project – 10,522.52 (10,522.52) – 25,000.00 (25,000.00) Handbok Expense – – – – – – Archives – 620.65 (620.65) – 2,000.00 (2,000.00) ASO/GMEA project – 5,821.20 (5,821.20) – – – Awards – 203.25 (203.25) – 500.00 (500.00) TOTALS $ 1,415,724.86 $ 1,379,716.09 $ 36,008.77 $ 1,407,230.00 $ 1,396,882.76 $ 10,347.24

GMEA CASH POSITION AS OF JUNE 30,2014 June 30, 2013 June 30, 2014 Checking Account Balance $ 13,859.00 $ 2,782.15 Scholarship Money Market Account 3,132.58 2,859.25 Operating Reserve Savings 282,249.86 282,249.86 TOTAL ASSETS $ 299,908.06 $ 287,891.26

EMPLOYEE EXPENSE AND NON-PROGRAM INCOME AND EXPENSE FY 2014 AND PROPOSED FY 2015 ACTUAL PROPOSED ACTUAL BUDGETED 2012 2013 2014 2015 Executive Director $ 59,000.04 $ 59,000.04 $ 61,001.07 $ 61,000.00 Office Manager 45,539.92 46,529.36 49,000.00 50,470.00 Ass’t to the Executve Director 37,839.74 39,408.08 41,999.93 43,259.93 Clerical – – 19,738.55 – Publications Director 32,907.50 34,270.40 37,000.00 38,110.00 Total Salaries 175,287.20 179,207.88 208,739.55 192,839.93 Benefits, Insurance and retirement 12,013.20 11,706.26 15,330.22 16,660.57 FICA, Medicare, and Unemployment Tax 12,736.67 13,089.68 15,328.62 14,752.25 Total Employee expense 200,037.07 204,003.82 239,398.39 224,252.76 Taxes and Licenses 127.54 165.20 213.48 150.00 Accounting and Legal Fees 13,200.00 13,763.61 14,563.90 15,000.00 Bank Charges 16,331.21 18,829.91 19,878.42 20,000.00 Computer and Technology 8,530.00 5,444.28 5,585.31 6,000.00 Donations and contributions 100.00 100.00 200.00 200.00 Dues and Subscriptions 667.00 558.00 515.00 500.00 Executive Travel and Development – 1,695.99 1,086.67 1,500.00 Insurance General 4,590.00 3,525.00 4,872.00 3,500.00 Insurance Workmens’ Comp 774.00 187.25 663.00 600.00 Internet Services 11,672.13 12,103.07 18,268.26 18,000.00 Miscellaneous Expense 511.05 198.98 39.00 100.00 Office Machine Leases 7,819.97 8,257.46 9,274.37 9,200.00 Operating Expense 8,035.11 9,334.58 9,390.54 8,500.00 Outside Services 3,255.00 3,706.50 4,293.95 3,750.00 Printing Expense – 1,042.80 – – Postage 7,078.12 5,627.20 7,807.45 7,800.00 Property Taxes – – – – Rent 38,400.00 35,200.00 41,600.00 41,600.00 Staff Development – 450.10 250.00 250.00 Telephone 5,217.15 6,878.56 2,893.96 3,500.00 Travel 116.76 141.22 138.11 200.00 Repairs and Maintenance – 303.03 – – Leadership Training – – – – Utilities 3,645.84 3,672.45 3,924.99 4,000.00 Total Administrative Expense $ 130,070.88 $ 131,185.19 $ 145,458.41 $ 144,350.00 Total Employee and Administrative Exp. $ 330,107.95 $ 335,189.01 $ 384,856.80 $ 368,602.76 GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014



DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC SCHOOL OF THE ARTS Dr. Kevin Hibbard, Director of Choirs Dr. Dawn Neely, Director of Opera Workshop


AUDITIONS ··············································· Saturday, January 24, 2015 Sunday, February 15, 2015 - Wadsworth Scholarship candidates only Monday, February 16, 2015 - Destination: Music Saturday, March 28, 2015 - Last day for non-major ensemble award consideration Sunday, April 19, 2015

PREVIEW DAYS ········································· Saturday, September 27 – Arts & Humanities students Sunday, November 2 – All students Thursday, February 26 – Arts & Humanities students Sunday, April 12 – All students UWG Department of Music (678) 839-6516 • • An Accredited Institutional Member of the National Association of Schools of Music 14


ORCHESTRA Nicole Thompson, Chair

I am honored to serve my second year as the Orchestra Division chair. The collaboration and teamwork among Georgia orchestra teachers is fantastic. I am constantly reminded of the kindness and generosity of the string teachers when so many step up and volunteer to help and host events to make our division better and enhance education for our students. We are now serving more string students than ever before. It is wonderful to see so many talented students and teachers involved in GMEA programs and performances. This year, the Statewide Honor Orchestra event will be replaced in favor of an expanded number of orchestras at All-State in Athens. After years of growth and the existence of so many high-quality programs across Georgia— and the extra rehearsal space afforded by the move to Athens—we now have the level of talent and the room to allow more student participation. This is an exciting opportunity for our state’s string students, as they now have double the opportunity to make it into an All-State Orchestra. We will have two equally divided high-quality middle school orchestras, one 9/10 full orchestra, one 9/10 string orchestra, one 11/12 full orchestra, and one 11/12 string orchestra. Additionally we, as teachers, have the opportunity to learn more effective rehearsal techniques by observing six top-level conductors working with our students. I love to see teachers take advantage of this great learning opportunity and carry new ideas and techniques back to the students in their own classrooms. I also enjoy seeing the All-State students share their experiences and leadership with their peers in their orchestras at home. GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

The In-Service Conference this year promises to be an exciting event, as this is our last year in Savannah before moving to Athens. We had so many applications for presenters, and the performing group applications were quite numerous and competitive. Make plans now to attend and take advantage of the In-Service Conference professional development opportunity and submit the form to your principal as soon as possible. Athens will be a fantastic venue in 2016, as the facilities are so much better and more centrally located. Dan Rather from CBS News once said,

“Music is exciting. It is thrilling to be sitting in a group of musicians playing (more or less) the same piece of music. You are part of a great, powerful, vibrant entity. And nothing beats the feeling you get when you’ve practiced a difficult section over and over and finally get it right (yes, even on the wood block.) Music is important. It says things your heart can’t say any other way, and in a language everyone speaks. Music crosses borders, turns smiles into frowns, and vice versa. These observations are shared with a hope: that, when schools cut back on music classes, they really think about what they’re doing—and don’t take music for granted.” What is it about music that most excites you? How will you share your excitement with your students this school year? How will you inspire them to find their passion in music? How will you share your passion for music with the teachers in your building? Your community? I wish you all the best of success in the coming year and hope you are able to encourage and inspire your students to achieve their highest level of musicianship and collaboration.

Band Neil Ruby, Chair

I hope everyone had a restful summer and is ready for a great school year! I am honored to be given the opportunity to serve as your state band chair for the next three years. I would like to thank Robin Christian for his friendship, guidance, and training during this transition and for the countless number of hours he has invested in me over the past few months, answering questions and offering advice. GMEA is very fortunate to have

Robin as a member. Under his leadership the Band Division is strong and thriving. I would also like to thank each of the division committees for working extremely hard this summer to ensure that upcoming events are a success for our students and that our jobs as directors are easier. I hope everyone is making plans to attend the last In-Service Conference in Savannah. We will all miss visiting there each January, 15

but I am very excited about the clinics and performing ensembles that have been chosen to present. More information about the band clinics and performances will come in the next publication. Registration for ISC and LGPE is currently open in OPUS. Please be sure to register by the registration deadlines. As we enter a new school year, I would like to encourage all of us to take a moment and think about the incredible challenges and opportunities we have been given to help mold and shape the futures of our students. With diminishing budgets, furlough days, and increased testing demands, our jobs as educators are as tough as ever, but our responsibility remains to provide our students with the training and tools necessary to be successful in our programs and in life. Band directors have the unique opportunity to enhance the world’s future. A price tag or standardized test cannot be placed on that. Most of us probably have that one special teacher from our childhood who made a difference in our lives and was our reason for getting into the profession. We have and will continue to have that same effect on our students, no matter what field of study or work they ultimately choose. The positive impact that student participation in band has on standardized test scores is no secret. Participation in band yields students who exceed in reading and mathematics, show improvement in behavior and attendance, and receive higher admittance rates into college. Students in your band classes are learning self-discipline, dedication, commitment, motivation, time management, and pride in their community and school. We are blessed to teach the brightest students in our schools! Communities across the United States are using the fine arts to shape their physical, social, and economic character. Participation in your band classes is increasing student success, bringing schoolwide benefits for teachers and administration, and building a stronger community. It’s up to us to make sure this message is communicated to parents, administrators, community, and politicians. We have to fight the good fight to make sure the fine arts remain an integral and supported part of our schools. There is no easy fix to the problems facing education today, but if we put our best efforts forward for the common goal of providing our students with the best music education possible, anything can be achieved. By combining passionate teaching and utilizing the help of other educators, parents, and the community, we can reach this ultimate goal. 16

To our veteran teachers, I encourage you to reach out to younger directors and offer your wisdom and assistance in their development as music educators. Being a mentor to a new or young teacher can help pave the way for a positive and successful future. It was Theodore Roosevelt who said, “No one cares how much you know until they know how much you care.” I hope we will all strive to help each other. To our new teachers, I encourage you to reach out to experienced and successful teachers and ask questions. You are not alone in this, and we all need to depend on each other to do what’s best for all our students. Finally, I challenge all of us to become more involved in GMEA. Become involved by being available to judge

auditions, hosting events, attending meetings and conferences, and simply lending a hand when the need arises. The GMEA office exists to serve our members. In return, we can assist in the process by having our registrations submitted correctly and on time. I believe that if better is possible, then good is never enough. My sincere hope and goal is to continue the great success of the Band Division and, with the combined help of us all, strive to make it the best and most educationally rewarding experience for our students and directors. I wish each of you the best in all your endeavors, and if I can ever be of assistance to you or your program, please do not hesitate to contact me.

GUITAR Luther Enloe, Chair

The guitar is alive and thriving in Georgia school systems, and if you teach guitar in Georgia, I hope that you will attend the 2015 GMEA In-Service Conference. This will be the last conference held in Savannah, so please partake in the history, delectable food, collegiality, and exceptional guitar session offerings that Savannah and the GMEA ISC offer! Of special note will be four sessions presented by guest clinician Glen McCarthy. McCarthy served 30 years as the director of the guitar program at Robinson Secondary School in Fairfax, Va. Under his direction, the Robinson Guitar Ensemble consistently earned superior ratings at adjudicated festivals. In 2013 he was a finalist for the Recording Academy and the Grammy Foundation’s Music Educator Award. The award recognizes educators who have made a significant and lasting contribution to the field of music education and who demonstrate a commitment to maintaining music education in the schools. Additionally, McCarthy has served as chair of the NAfME Council for Guitar Education and chair of the ASTA Guitar-in-the-Schools Task Force. He is also a member of the NAfME Guitar Education Team, the driving force behind the popular Teaching Guitar Workshops, and an

adjunct professor of guitar at George Mason University School of Music. McCarthy will present sessions entitled, “Teach Guitar! Everything You Need to Know but Were Afraid to Ask,” “Find Your Inner Rock Star,” “Guitar Ensembles,” and “What Do You Do with the Guitar Player in Your Jazz Band?” Other sessions, presented by Erik Herndon, Michael McCallie, Rob Pethel, and Trey Wright, will discuss teaching contemporary music, warm up exercises for guitar class, Suzuki guitar in the classroom, guitar education research, and jazz improvisation. Luther Enloe will teach a multilevel guitar master class. ISC 2015 will also feature performances by the North Gwinnett Middle School Eighth Grade Guitar Ensemble, under the direction of Caryn Volk; the St. Pius X Catholic High School Advanced Guitar Ensemble, directed by Brion Kennedy; and the Knepp & Miller Duo, a guitar and clarinet duo from Young Harris College. I hope you agree that there will be an impressive array of informative sessions and vibrant performances. Whether you have never before attended an In-Service Conference, are a regular attendee, or have not been for a while, the 2015 In-Service Conference is not to be missed! GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

Choral Jeff Funderburk, Chair

Has a year really gone by? It seems like yesterday I was writing my first article for the Georgia Music News. We have several exciting things in store for us this year. The date of the first All State Chorus audition is later—Saturday, November 15—with a more standardized audition. Students will not have to take any materials with them to the audition, so there will be no more lost CDs or CDs that are not compatible with the CD player that the judge is using. Also, the judges will have the correct key for each voice part, and there will be no longer any question about which solo is acceptable for each grade level. Be sure to check out the GMEA website and refer back to emails that I


have sent with instructions for the audition. All-State Chorus will be held once again at the Classic Center in Athens. We had a wonderful first experience there last year. The facilities, staff, and conductors were superior! Our conductors for All-State Chorus this year are Middle Treble, Robyn Lana; Middle Mixed, Rollo Dilworth; Intermediate 9th/10th Grade Mixed, Timothy Sharp; Senior Women, Lori Hetzel; Senior Men, Ethan Sperry; and Senior 11th/12th Grade Mixed, Timothy Seelig. We are expecting another great All-State Reading Chorus event this year, with Dr. Stanley Roberts from Mercer University conducting the sessions and choir event. I hope you have registered your students for

this rewarding experience, which will be held in Savannah during the annual In-Service Conference. Plans are underway for an outstanding Statewide Sixth Grade Honor Choir. Dawn-Marie Schafer has been hard at work organizing this event, which will take place once again at the UGA Tifton Conference Center. Conductors this year will be Caroline Crocker and Sally K. Albrecht. Let me encourage you to read all emails that I send. They have information that will answer most of your questions about the events. The GMEA website and OPUS also contain vital information for you to have a successful GMEA experience. Your handbook is located in OPUS. Get to know it! Your standing committees and district choral chairs have been diligent representing you this year. They have given great advice and support, and without them it would have made difficult decision making more difficult! Thank you for your support during this first year of my term. It has been great getting to know many new people and put faces to the names that I have seen for years. I’m looking forward to working with you again this year.


this year’s Statewide Elementary Honor Chorus! There are two important changes for this year’s event. First, we are trying out a new location for the event. Statewide Elementary Honor Chorus will be held in Tifton, at the UGA Conference Center, on November 14-15. The conference center in Tifton has housed the Sixth Grade Honor Chorus for the past several years, and has provided excellent facilities. Although this location is much farther south than we are used to, I’m hoping we can all make the adjustment to try it out. For our schools up north, the drive will definitely be farther, so as you are choosing your students, please make sure your parents understand where the event will be held. There are plenty of good accommodations to choose from in Tifton. The second major change is that Statewide Elementary Honor Chorus will be held the

second weekend of November, November 14-15, to avoid conflicting with the National Orff-Schulwerk Conference in Nashville, Tenn., the first weekend of November. Please check the GMEA website for information on hotels, clinician bios, schedules, etc. All the information has been posted there. This year’s clinicians are Dr. Maribeth YoderWhite from Appalachian State University and Joshua Pedde, assistant director of the Indianapolis Children’s Choir. As you make your plans for the 20142015 school year, please also make sure you have the GMEA In-Service Conference in Savannah, January 29-31, in your schedule. This is our last year in Savannah, so you will not want to miss it! Our headliners are Artie Almeda and Chris Judah-Lauder, along with other sessions by Graham Hepburn (Quaver), the Gallinas, Dave Holland, Andy Beck, Myra Wheat and company, Maribeth Yoder-White, Mindy Krejci, Bradley Bonner, Debbie O-Shea, Chelsea Cook, and Laura Stambaugh. We also have two excellent children’s choirs performing for us! Now is the time to request staff development days to attend the conference. Your principal may even be able to cover some of your expenses with the school’s staff development monies. If you volunteer to be a host or presider, you have another reason why you need to attend this conference. Best wishes for a successful new school year in music making!

advice and guidance during my first year. I will continue to rely on their knowledge and expertise during this next year. Members of the council are the past chair, chair-elect, and concerto chair, as well as each district chair. Several districts still need representation: Districts 1, 3, 9, 13, and the new District 14. We do have active members in those districts, so if you would like to serve as a representative, please contact me.

Piano All-State Auditions Our first event of the fall is the Piano AllState Auditions, held at Mercer University, Macon, in December. I want to make sure you are aware of some very important changes. Please note the following and refer to the GMEA Handbook for more clarification. 1) To distinguish between the auditions and evaluations events, the auditions in December will be called the GMEA Piano Solo or Four/Six Hands All-State Auditions. The spring evaluations will still be referred to as the GMEA Spring Solo or Ensemble Evaluations. 2) The deadline for postmarked entries for auditions is October 7, 2014. 3) The fall auditions will be held at Mercer University in Macon on Saturday, December 6, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. 4) Teachers, you must plan to work the event or secure a GMEA replacement, no exceptions. If you do not show up to work the event, you will receive a

Elementary Karen Leamon, Chair

Another summer has flown by and I, like my colleagues, am preparing for a new school year. I hope the summer gave each of you time to rest, relax, recreate, and recharge! My “battery” is fully charged and ready to go. As you begin this new school year, I encourage you to keep plenty of margins in your life to recharge on a regular basis. We all know that “all work and no play” is a recipe for disaster in your personal and professional life. My goal is to exercise more, read more, get plenty of rest, have time to play, and “not sweat the small stuff,” so that I am at my best to teach effectively—no, I mean to teach in an “exemplary” manner. As musicians and music teachers, we all have the tendency to spend way too many hours on our job and not pay enough attention to our own health and wellbeing. Consider this your charge! As I begin my second year in office, I’m excited to share with you all the details about

PIANO Donna Dasher, Chair

Welcome back, GMEA members! I trust you are rested and ready to get back to teaching. I am honored to serve as GMEA Piano Division chair for another year and have been working this summer to ensure our last year in Savannah is the most exciting and memorable yet! Piano Council I want to thank the Piano Council for their 18


letter of reprimand. Three letters within a five-year period may result in your not being able to enter students in any GMEA event for a period of one year. 5) If your student is chosen to perform in a conference recital in January, note that there is a new procedure for acceptance. You will have to accept in OPUS, as do all the other divisions for All-State. If you do not accept by the deadline, another student will be immediately called to replace your student. 6) Also, if you accept for your student to perform in the January In-Service Conference, and your student does not show, with the exception of death or illness, your student will not be allowed to enter any GMEA event for a period of one year. Please note these important changes. GMEA is one of the most respected and revered music organizations in the state. The purpose is to the serve music teachers, in our case, piano teachers. If you know of schools that offer class piano, group piano, or piano of any type, please contact them to considering joining and participating in the GMEA piano events. We can add more events to accommodate more teachers and schools as needed.

will again be in charge of this event. Piano Adjudicator List We added six new adjudicators to the list this past year. I encourage districts to enroll students in evaluations so that these fine adjudicators’ knowledge and expertise can be utilized to help your students become better musicians. With enough participation, we could hold regional evaluations in the

fall, as well! If you would like to serve as a piano adjudicator,and are not currently on the adjudicator list, please complete the adjudicator application found in OPUS and submit that to the GMEA office. Composition Contest The composition contest last year was a great success. Several of the piano teachers had winners to perform. It was awesome!

The GRU Department of Music is pleased to announce the appointment of

In-Service Conference I’ll save the complete news for the November newsletter, but once you hear the details, you will definitely want to attend this year’s In-Service Conference. I will give you a “sneak peak” so you can begin to make plans. Our headliner is Dr. Gail Berenson. She will present pedagogy sessions—so many to choose from! Also, Dr. Geoff Haydon will present a jazz concert on Thursday night. Remember that the conference begins on Thursday morning with the General Session, so plan to be there. It’s not like in the past, when you only arrived Thursday evening. You will want to be present for the entire conference. So, make your plans and reservations early to arrive Wednesday evening. Piano Concerto Competition The Piano Concerto Competition will be held January 17, 2015, at Georgia State University. The concerto will be the Rachmaninoff Concerto in C Minor, No. 2, which is posted on the GMEA website, at the Piano Division link. The winner will perform with the All-State Orchestra in March. Order your music and mark your calendars if you plan to participate. Some students have already been preparing, and we’re looking for great participation in 2015. Geoff Haydon GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014


Be sure to look into it if you also teach composition, and don’t miss the entry deadline of October 1. Please refer to OPUS for more information.


The zombies are coming! The sky is falling! Oh . . . no . . . wait . . . it’s edTPA! Music teacher educators in Georgia are deeply involved with the transition into pre-service music teachers’ assessment via edTPA. With the interests of our candidates in mind, we proactively strive to understand edTPA and to provide guidance that will ensure successful outcomes for music teacher candidates. As one colleague put it, “we are all up to our necks” in edTPA. EdTPA was a topic of interest among

Piano Solo and Ensemble (4/6 Hands) Performance Evaluations This event is offered in the spring. The goal this year is to have an event offered in

each district where students apply. Teachers and educators know the importance of annual evaluations, so plan to enroll your students in the event.

members in the College Division sessions at GMEA In-Service Conference 2014. It emerges as a topic of even greater concern for our upcoming conference in January 2015. Three sessions will be devoted to the topic of edTPA. John Wayman will present a session entitled “EdTPA—Making Sense of the Growing Beast,” and Laura Stambaugh will present “How to Lead the Way for EdTPA.” Finally, we are delighted to announce that Susan Wharton Conkling (Boston University), current president of the Society for Music Teacher Education (SMTE), will travel to Savannah to present two sessions, including one on edTPA. Dr. Conkling’s session is entitled “The Promises and Perils of Evaluation: How Are We Preparing PreService Music Teachers?” Conkling describes her session in this way: “Value-added measures have been incorporated not only into school district teacher evaluations, but also into pre-service teacher education in the form of the edTPA. How valid are such measures? Do they prepare novice teachers for the profession?” Read the next issue of Georgia Music News for more details about the Music Education College Division sessions scheduled for GMEA In-Service Conference 2015. Until then, watch out for those zombies!

work “The Wraggle Taggle Gypsies” by Irish composer Mary McAuliffe at the National Concert Hall in Dublin. He also recently conducted at the Kennedy Center, the Wang Theater, and Avery Fisher Hall at Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in the United States. Pedde, a former elementary music specialist, is a Level 3 certified Orff Instructor. He received a Bachelor of Music degree in vocal music education and a master’s degree in choral conducting from Butler University, where he was recognized for his outstanding work in elementary music. Maribeth Gail Yoder-White is a freelance educational consultant, clinician, and conductor. A choral and general music education specialist, Yoder-White also serves as adjunct associate professor in the Hayes School of Music at Appalachian State University, and is a frequent consultant, and adjudicator for choral workshops and festivals throughout the country, YoderWhite is editor of the Hinshaw Music choral series “Accent on Young Voices,” and serves as clinician and author for Silver Burdett Making Music and Silver Burdett Interactive Music. She is a certified OrffSchulwerk specialist and frequently presents workshops featuring her compositions and arrangements. Additionally, Yoder-White maintains active participation in music education research and has presented papers and authored articles in international, national, regional, and state arenas. She was a presenter at the Spokane (2010) and Pittsburgh (2011) National American Orff-Schulwerk Association (AOSA) Conferences and has presented workshops to AOSA chapters in Washington, Virginia, Ohio, North Carolina, and Hawaii. She served as keynote presenter at the 2003 and 2005 Hawaii Music Educators Association Conferences in Honolulu and traveled to Thailand and Hong Kong in 2004 to present at the East Asia Regional Council of Overseas Schools Conference. Yoder-White holds a doctorate in music education from the University of North Carolina in Greensburo and is currently president-elect of the Southern Division of NAfME.

Pedde and Yoder-White to Conduct Elementary Honor Chorus The 2014 GMEA Elementary Honor Chorus will meet for an outstanding choral experience on November 14-15 under the direction of Joshua Pedde and Maribeth Yoder-White. The event will be held at the UGA Tifton Campus Conference Center. Joshua N. Pedde is assistant artistic director for the Indianapolis Children’s Choir. An active elementary clinician, he provides music education workshops to public and private 20

schools throughout central Indiana as part of Innovations, an outreach program he developed at the ICC. Pedde has conducted on numerous stages both nationally and internationally, including the premier of the children’s opera, The Trio of Minuet, under the direction of ICC founder Henry Leck. Internationally he has conducted at Canterbury and Westminster Cathedrals in England; the Vatican, San Marco, and the Basilica of Saint John Lateran in Italy; San Francisco el Grande Basilica, Madrid, La Segura Familia, Inglesia Nuestra Senora de Los Angeles, and Santa Maria Del Pi, Barcelona, Spain. In 2003 he premiered the




Music Education Performance - opt. Piano Pedagogy Emphasis - opt. Jazz Studies Emphasis Composition


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MINOR IN MUSIC AUDITIONS ··············································· Saturday, January 24, 2015 Sunday, February 15, 2015 - Wadsworth Scholarship candidates only Monday, February 16, 2015 - Destination: Music Saturday, March 28, 2015 - Last day for non-major ensemble award consideration Sunday, April 19, 2015

PREVIEW DAYS ········································· Saturday, September 27 – Arts & Humanities students Sunday, November 2 – All students Thursday, February 26 – Arts & Humanities students Sunday, April 12 – All students UWG Department of Music (678) 839-6516 • • An Accredited Institutional Member of the National Association of Schools of Music



WHY WON’T BOYS SING? Attributional Beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys Melanie H. Hinton

Statement of the Problem Introduction   The declining number of boys in choral programs has been an issue discussed by music educators for nearly a century (Koza, 1993) and is still a popular topic of research and discussion for music educators (Lucas, 2011; Sweet, 2010; Warnock, 2009). In attempts to solve this unequal representation of gender in choral music, it is important for educators to know about past efforts and which of these efforts has been effective. Some researchers look to external remedies, while others explore the internal differences of student motivation. These varying discussions, while informative, may lead to confusion when implementing solutions. “At least part of the difficulty lies in the very nature of the conversations we have about this problem. We have conversations about various issues we suppose to be the causes. These include boys who don’t like to sing, competition with the allure of sports programs, block scheduling, the scheduling of after-school rehearsals, budget cuts, the influence of popular culture, and so forth. We rarely, if ever, consider the possibility that changes need to take place within our classrooms, within our instruction, and within choral repertoire itself. Something is wrong” (Freer, 2007).

Problem Statement   To encourage more male participation in choir, many authors suggest external changes: “familiar recommendations and remedies such as having separate choirs for boys and girls, encouraging more males to become music teachers, enlisting the support of adult males in the community, and providing teachers with information 22

about the changing adolescent voice. Similar recommendations in our professional journals have addressed choral music’s ‘missing males’ problem for at least eighty years without much success” (Freer, 2007). Other research focuses on intrinsic factors such as gender acceptability, attitudes, ability, self-concept, and attributional beliefs. Of these factors, teachers have the most promising amount of influence over students’ attributional beliefs, the causes to which one attributes his success or failure. Little to no research has been done in comparing students’ attributional beliefs and their enrollment in choir. If a significant correlation exists, teachers may finally have something to focus on that can begin to close the gap between boys and girls enrolling in middle school choir.

Purpose Statement   This project was a first step toward understanding the expected importance of attributional beliefs in music participation and will hopefully lead toward teachers being able use the information to solve the problem of a low number of male choir participants. The purpose of this study was to explore the gender relationships between the attributional beliefs of fifth grade students and their enrollment into middle school choir. Specifically, the project sought to answer the following questions:

1. Are there significant gender

differences with any general attributional beliefs? 2. Are there significant correlations between attributional beliefs and selfconcepts? 3. Do these significant correlations change when gender is isolated? 4. Are any attributional beliefs significant

to predicting enrollment in middle school choir? 5. Of gender, self-concept, and attributional beliefs, what are the best predictors for a student enrolling in choir?

Review of Literature Introduction This review of literature seeks to point out patterns and connections between the conducted research and written articles concerning male participation in music, especially choir. Though the review is not as extensive as it could be, considering the amount of literature available, this summary of information should allow music educators to easily review the trends. Then they may apply those practices which have proved successful and discontinue time-wasting practices which have made no improvement on the situation. This will also give researchers a better starting point to conduct further investigations on the subject.   Four main trends were found in the review of literature: attraction, attitudes, ability, and attributional beliefs. Many authors deal with the idea of attraction when considering whether males have general preferences toward certain musical or non-musical activities compared to females. Musical attitudes of children were evaluated by investigating negative and positive preferences to specific musical activities. Ability was referenced in three ways: difficulties surrounding the voice change, aptitude (perceived potential ability determined by others), and self-concept/ self-esteem (perceived ability determined by one’s self ). Attributional beliefs, which deal GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 3, SPRING/SUMMER 2014

with one’s perception of what causes success and failure, were least referenced by music educators. Since attributions have been shown to largely influence and be influenced by one’s self-concept as well as motivate one’s future decisions, they warrant our attention.   In attempts to solve this unequal representation of gender in choral music, it is important for educators to know about past efforts and which of these efforts has been effective. A review of literature has shown that through the years, the approach to this problem has differed from author to author. These varying discussions, while informative, may lead to confusion when implementing solutions.

Attraction   To attract more boys to join choirs, many authors present or cite quick-fix solutions through the use of “acceptable” male practices. These ideas suggest that teachers compare training the voice to training for sports (Phillips, 1994, 1995), get popular kids to join (Lucas, 2011), choose songs with masculine lyrics (Demorest, 2000), remind boys that most rock stars and pop stars are men (Phillips, 1994), and have a high school male choir perform for younger boys (Phillips, 1995). Many of these ideas have shown to be unimportant or too simple to solve this larger problem.   Numerous studies have shown that while boys enjoy the company of friends in choir (Kennedy, 2002; Sweet, 2010), their enrollment decisions are not dependent on these friends, or even their family (Lucas, 2011; Mizener, 1993). While repertoire was shown to be important to boys, the style was dependent on the individual, not on the gender (Kennedy, 2002). Exposing boys to examples of male singing does seem to be important (Demorest, 2000; Freer, 2007; Simpkins, Vest, Dawes, & Neuman, 2010; Svengalis, 1978). It would be misdirected however, to hope that seeing the high school male choir perform will persuade boys to stay involved in choir, so they might join that ensemble in the future. Elementary students do not think ahead with that type of ambition (Warnock, 2009).   When it comes to socially acceptable male practices within music, there seems to be very little that an upper elementary school teacher can do to influence these ideas, let alone a secondary music teacher. The idea of acceptable male practices within music does not significantly change after third grade, maybe even earlier (Svengalis, 1978). This may be due to the fact that, as early as GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 3, SPRING/SUMMER 2014

first grade, parents are more likely to play sports with their sons while engaging in more music activities with their daughters (Simpkins et al., 2010). While it is true that girls show a stronger attraction to choir than boys, girls also show a stronger attraction to participation in music overall (Warnock, 2009). This finding points to a deeper issue than teachers’ recruitment choices. Since trying to “man-up” one’s school choir program does not seem to be beneficial, perhaps looking to the male attitude will provide some insights.

Attitude   Most authors agree that male attitudes are more negative toward music (Dibben, 2002; Lucas, 2011; Pogonowski, 1985; Svengalis, 1978; Vander Ark, Nolin, & Newman, 1980) and that the attitudes of both males and females decline with age (Mizener, 1993; Svengalis, 1978; Vander Ark et al., 1980). Another interesting finding is that students of middle social-economic status (SES) have more positive attitudes toward music than students of high or low SES (Pogonowski, 1985; Vander Ark et al., 1980). Also, attitudes toward music reading activities are lowest across grade level, gender, and SES (Vander Ark et al., 1980).   Studies that focused on predicting these attitudes uncovered some important data. Firstly, aptitude does not predict attitude (Pogonowski, 1985); just because a student has the skills to be successful at music does not make it more likely that he will enjoy music class. Also, family involvement in music is related to more positive attitudes toward music (Simpkins et al., 2010; Svengalis, 1978). The best predictors, though, are found when combining gender or gender beliefs with one’s self-concept of music (Svengalis, 1978; Vander Ark et al., 1980). This means that boys with low self-concepts and a narrow acceptability of male music practices are very likely to have negative attitudes toward music. Ability and perceptions of ability, then, warrant closer examination.

Ability Ability is referenced directly and indirectly in most articles that deal with male participation in singing. The struggle to sing during the voice change is the most common problem discussed, with many articles dedicated to methods of dealing with this issue. Also discussed is the influence of perceived abilities such as aptitude and

self-concept. Aptitude is others’ (usually a teacher’s) perception of a students’ potential to succeed in music. Self-concept is mentioned by many authors; though they may refer to it as self-esteem or confidence, all of these terms are used to describe the perception of one’s own musical ability.

Voice Change   When it comes to an adolescent male’s changing voice, educating the student and the teacher about its development is considered an important step in the process (Adler, 1999; Demorest, 2000; Freer, 2007). Aside from that, the theories on how to deal with the problem differ from one educator to the next. While some believe that rangeappropriate literature is crucial for boys’ success (Adler, 1999), case studies of positive adolescent male singers have revealed that this complication was not actually a concern for them (Kennedy, 2002; Sweet, 2010). It seems that if the boys are in a supportive environment, they will not consider the voice change as an obstacle. Rather, they see it as an annoyance that they can deflect by dropping to a different part, changing the octave, or letting other boys cover the difficult notes. Educators should learn from this easy-going approach by not falsely labeling parts for boys as bass to “make them feel good”; this practice unintentionally teaches boys that something is wrong with the actual range of their voices. Instead teachers should attempt to separate gender from voice types at this age (Adler, 1999).   Another common solution to the problems surrounding a changing voice is to separate the boys from the girls when rehearsing (Demorest, 2000; Phillips, 1995) to circumvent embarrassment and peerpressure. In a case study that interviewed boys who belonged to both a mixed choral class and an afterschool all-male choral group, however, it was surprisingly revealed that most of the teasing came from the boys in their mixed choir class. Girls, on the other hand, were always mentioned as building up the boys’ confidences and complimenting them. One aspect they enjoyed about the all-male choral group was that each member was dedicated to the ensemble sound its best (Sweet, 2010). Boys’ choirs can be an effective tool for dealing with the voice change if individual assistance is the primary means of correction rather than group interventions (Sweet, 2010). This discovery implies that a teacher’s time may be better spent finding dedicated members for their programs than creating separate ensembles for boys and girls. 23

Aptitude Aptitude was mentioned earlier as not being significant when predicting one’s attitude toward music (Pogonowski, 1985). It has also been found that singing ability is not related to one’s desire to join choir (Mizener, 1993). An interesting study, though, found that this relationship changes if the students and parents are informed of the methods of testing along with the level of aptitude, describing it as the student’s likelihood of success. In this study, 60% of students rated superior enrolled in an instrumental music program, along with 54% of excellent students, 30% of good students, and 18% of fair students; no students with a rating of poor enrolled. This method needs further investigation, but has promising results for the usefulness of aptitude testing.

Self-Concept   Whether it is referred to as confidence, self-esteem, or self-concept, the way a student perceives his musical ability is very influential to many aspects of his choices. Studies are showing that teachers find girls more successful at singing, possibly due to their higher level of confidence (Dibben, 2002). Teachers who praised a boys’ choral workshop for building confidence, further commented that this confidence deepens the boys’ commitment to their school choir where they then take on more responsibility (Demorest, 2000).   Many studies have shown that self-concept in music declines as students get older (Lucas, 2011; Simpkins et al., 2010; Svengalis, 1978), but that family music background may help slow this decline in confidence (Simpkins et al., 2010; Svengalis, 1978). In a study predicting participation, self-concept was the only significant factor able to predict one’s enrollment in music (J. R. Austin, 1990). Because of this relationship and its relationship to attitude, the study of how selfconcept in music evolves in students deserves much attention from music educators.

Attributional Beliefs   The causes to which one attributes his success or failure will determine beliefs about his self-concept and influence his decisions for future tasks (Legette, 2003). Common attributes are labeled as either internal (ability and effort) or external (task difficulty and luck), and as either stable (ability and task difficulty) or unstable (effort and luck) (Asmus, 1986; J. Austin et al., 2006; Chandler, Chiarella, & Auria, 1987; 24

Legette, 2003). Attributional beliefs influence one’s expectation of success, and in return, expectations of success will then influence one’s attributional beliefs (Asmus, 1986). If a boy has repeated difficulty with singing, he will likely have a low self-concept in that area (Svengalis, 1978). If after putting forth effort the boy still experiences failure, he may conclude that singing ability is innate and therefore, not worth applying future effort. “According to attribution theory (Weiner, 1979, 1985), the factors to which individuals attribute their successes and failures affect future self-perceptions, achievement behaviors, academic performance, and affective responses” (J. Austin, Renwick, & McPherson, 2006).   When children are younger, they are more likely to attribute success and failure to effort, but around sixth and seventh grade this belief changes and ability is considered a more likely cause. These results were very different from school to school, however, suggesting that the teacher has much influence on attributional beliefs (Asmus, 1986). While it is obviously important, then, for music teachers to emphasize importance of effort, they should make sure to explain why some efforts may fail (such as poor practice habits), so that students feel control over the process (Legette, 2003). This may explain why rating and reporting a student’s chance of success in an instrumental program delivers strong enrollment rates (Klinedinst, 1988). The student is able to see his current ability as well as the amount of effort required for success, giving the student an honest view of what to expect. This aligns with the implication that music teachers should find at-risk students, help them set realistic goals, and provide opportunities for them to meet these goals (Chandler et al., 1987).   While all studies found that internal attributional beliefs were more prevalent than external attributional beliefs (Asmus, 1986; Chandler et al., 1987; Legette, 2003), there were some significant findings related to external attributes. Low self-concepts are tied to external attributional beliefs; for example, students who attributed success in band to having help from their director also expected to fail at their instrument in the future (Chandler et al., 1987). Also, low SES students were more likely to attribute success to one’s family background (Legette, 2003).   Support from others, while not generally listed as an attribute, can be considered external and stable. A student’s home life, while not consistently listed as influential, has been able to predict participation (Warnock, 2009), attitude (Svengalis, 1978),

and self-concept (Simpkins et al., 2010; Svengalis, 1978). It was also found that choral students have less parental support than band students (Warnock, 2009). Teachers and administrators were found to be more supportive than coaches for musical endeavors (Lucas, 2011). As for peer support, females were more supportive than males to their friends (Lucas, 2011; Sweet, 2010), and peers involved in music were supportive while others were discouraging (Warnock, 2009).

Conclusions   Keeping boys involved in choral programs is of great interest to many music teachers and has been for decades. From the surplus of research, many factors have proved influential to this goal. Some advice pointed toward external changes, “such as having separate choirs for boys and girls, . . . enlisting the support of adult males in the community, and providing teachers with information about the changing adolescent voice” (Freer, 2007). It seems that the reason for successful all-boys choirs, however, is not that they are separate from girls, but because they often receive more individual attention about their voice type. Also, while male singers may be helpful role models for boys, this encounter is not likely to change a boy’s view of acceptable gender practices. Finally, instead of wasting time trying to attract “popular kids,” teachers should find students dedicated to similar musical goals.   Other research focuses on intrinsic factors such as gender acceptability, attitudes, ability, self-concept, and attributional beliefs. Gender acceptability seems to be relatively stable at a young age, and will not likely be influenced once they reach third grade. Ability is not significant in predicting participation, but can be influential if aptitude is communicated in an honest and realistic manner. Attitudes can be influenced by one’s self-concept, and self-concept is influenced by attributional beliefs. Of these factors, teachers have the most promising amount of influence over students’ attributional beliefs. Teachers can unknowingly influence negative attributional beliefs in music when emphasizing talent and skill, but can positively influence them by stressing that the right type of effort can increase ability and therefore success.   More research is needed in this area to understand how to apply the attribution theory in a way to increase male participation in choir. First, the relationship between attributional beliefs and male participation in choir should be explored. Then it is GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 3, SPRING/SUMMER 2014

important to understand the extent to which teachers can influence the attributional beliefs of students. It would also be important to study the fluidity of attributional beliefs over time through a longitudinal study. The findings of this type of research could be very important in answering the question, “Why won’t boys sing?”

Methodology Definition of Terms

up for the class as enrolling in choir when answering the research questions.

Procedure   Two surveys were administered to the students by the researcher (the students’ music teacher) in April during their weekly music class. Students who were absent took the surveys in May, also administered by the researcher. The students put an identification code on their paper instead of their name to ensure anonymity while the researcher scored the surveys. This method allowed the researcher to go back to the data and record which student survey data was from students who enrolled in choir. The researcher took special care not to make mental notes of students’ identification numbers to allow the survey results to stay anonymous. The researcher then took the data to the University of Georgia Statistical Counseling Center for help with data analysis.

all and valued at 0 points. Each category therefore had a highest value of 28 and a lowest value of zero. Each student survey was scored so that each attributional category had a ratio value (ex. If a student scored background items at a total value of 16, then a score of 16/28 or 0.571 was recorded as his value of background).   The Svengalis (1978) Self-Concept in Music (SCIM) survey was chosen to determine the students’ beliefs toward their own ability. This survey consisted of 36 yes/ no items, of which 18 dealt with singing. The items assessed one’s reaction to musical comments and one’s estimate of success in hypothetical musical situations. Surveys were scored by ratio of positive responses (example: If a student had 20 positive responses, then a score of 20/36 or 0.556 was recorded as his self-concept in music).

  Attributional beliefs are the causes to which one attributes his success or failure. Common attributes are labeled as internal or external, and as either stable or unstable. Internal attributes are contributions toward a task from one’s self such as ability and effort. External attributes are contributions toward a task from outside of one’s self such as task difficulty and luck. Stable attributes Delimitations are aspects of a task or one’s self that are seemingly unchangeable such as ability Why Won’t Boys Sing?   This study was limited due to the small Measures and task difficulty. Unstable attributes are number Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys of participants, who are from aspects of a task or one’s self that can either   The Asmus (1986) Music Attribution the same school with the same teacher be controlled or do not stay consistent such Orientation Scale (MAOS) was chosen in Georgia. The research will need to be as effort and luck (Asmus, 1986; J. Austin et to determine the students’ attributional replicated in other regions and at a larger al., 2006; Chandler, Chiarella, & Auria, 1987; beliefs toward musical tasks. The MAOS scale to confirm findings. The surveys used Legette, 2003). has 35 items separated into five different were about 30 years old, which may have   Ability then is an internal, stable attribute, categories: effort, background, classroom caused a generational gap in understanding since many view ability as unchangeable. environment, musical ability, and affect some survey items, though students were Effort on the other hand is an internal, for music. The researcher viewed these encouraged to ask questions if they did not unstable attribute since the amount of attributes in the following categories: effort is understand an item. effort one puts forth can change from task internal-unstable; background and classroom to task. Task difficulty is an external, stable environment are external-stable; musical Results attribute since the task will not get any easier ability andthat affect for internalFigure 1 shows ofmusic theare196 students at the school, 54% of girls enr or harder. And luck is an external, unstable stable. Choir Enrollment attribute since it cannot be predicted. There   There were seven questions for each of can be other attributes not listed here, but the five attribution The students the genderdifference of the 196 while only 11% of boyscategories. enrolled in choir.  Figure This1 shows dramatic exem they will classify as choir, either internal or external indicated how important each item was students at the school, with 54% of girls and stable or unstable. for success in music by circling A through enrolled in choir, while only 11% of boys   Self-concept is defined as one’s beliefs E. Itemsenrollment marked ‘A’ were viewed extremely enrolled in face. choir. This dramatic difference veryasproblem that many schools about one’s self, especially it concerns to of male important and valued at 4 point, while items exemplifies the very problem of male one’s ability. In this study focus is placed on marked ‘E’ were viewed not important at enrollment that many schools face. self-concept in music, one’s beliefs about one’s musical ability.


Choir Enrollment


Figure 1

  The subjects were 196 fifth grade students enrolled in general music at a rural public elementary school in Georgia. The sample consisted of 94 girls and 102 boys. All students had the option of joining the middle school choir in sixth grade. Sixty-two students signed up for choir on April 30, 2014 (11 boys and 51 girls). Because of class size limits, not all students will be enrolled in the class, but this study viewed signing25


Figure 1

Why Won’t Boys Sing? Why Won’t Boys Sing? Attributional beliefs andAttributional Choir Enrollment Preadolescent Boys of Preadolescent Boys beliefs of and Choir Enrollment

Self-Concept in Music   The averages shown in Figure 2 demonstrate how boys’ self-concepts are tied to their enrollment in choir. When comparing the SCIM averages of boys and girls, there was an unsurprising significance (p < .0001) between the girls’ higher average of 0.675 and the boys’ average of 0.540. Table 1 shows results from a correlation matrix and highlights the attributional beliefs with significant relationships to SCIM.

Attributional Beliefs   As seen in Figure 3, effort and musical ability were considered the most to important causes of success and Correlation failure SCIM in music by both boys and girls. T-tests Boys performed on this data, as shown in Table 2, found that effort, affect for music, and classroom environment showed significant Girls differences when comparing genders.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Correlation to Effort SCIM Boys 0.39778

Effort Musical Ability 0.39778 0.39000

Musical Affect for Classroom Affect for Classroom Background Ability Music Environment Music Environment 0.39000 0.40039 0.21102 0.40039 0.21102 0.38561

Background 0.38561

<.0001* <.0001*

<.0001* <.0001*

<.0001* 0.0333*

0.0333* <.0001*


0.22156 0.01708

0.01708 0.09752

0.09752 0.05790

0.05790 0.10627


0.0319* 0.0319* 0.8702 All students 0.37719 0.37719 0.28148 Why Won’t Boys Sing?

0.8702 0.3498

0.3498 0.5793

0.5793 0.3080


0.28148 0.32916

0.32916 0.12634

0.12634 0.24959


Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys <.0001* <.0001* <.0001* Why Won’t Boys Sing? <.0001* <.0001* <.0001* 0.0777 Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys *significant difference*significant was found difference (p<.05) was found (p<.05)

0.0777 0.0004*


All students

Averages Compared by Enrollment

Figure 2

<.0001* Girls 0.22156

Averages Compared by Gender

Table 1Averages Compared by Gender

  While Figure 4 shows a consistency Table 1 Table 1 for students enrolled in choir to score all Attributional Beliefs attributes higher than the mean,Attributional a logistical Beliefs regression found that effort and musical ability were the only significant predictors seen in Figure 3, effort musical ability were considered the most As seen in Figure As 3, effort and musical abilityand were considered the most for enrollment in choir other than gender important of success and in music both boys and girls. T-tests and SCIM. The chi square resultsimportant are listedcauses of successcauses and failure in music byfailure both boys andby girls. T-tests in Table 3. on this data as2 shown in Table found for thatmusic, effort, and affect for music, and   Figures 5 through 9 look at each performed on this performed data as shown in Table found that effort,2 affect attribute separately, comparing averages of classroom environment had significant differences when comparing genders. classroom environment had significant differences when comparing genders. boys enrolled in choir, boys not enrolled in choir, all boys, girls enrolled in choir, girls not enrolled in choir, and all girls. With each attribute it is evident that boys who enrolled in choir consistently scored attributes higher than all other subgroups. Though the significance of these 17 17 differences was not calculated, the value of each attribute differed more between boys Figure 3 who enrolled and did not enroll in choir Figure 3 than between girls who enrolled and did not enroll in choir. Girls’ belief in musical T-TEST Musical Figure 3 Classroom ability was the only attribute rated higher results Effort Ability Affect Environment Background T-TEST Musical by the group not enrolled in choir (Figure 0.7735 0.7134 0.6036 Classroom 0.6143 0.4016 Boys’ Mean results Effort Ability Affect Environment Background 6). Girls’Mean Mean Boys’

0.8467 0.7735

0.7644 0.7134

0.6985 0.6036

0.6720 0.6143

0.4175 0.4016

Difference Girls’ Mean

-0.0732 0.8467

-0.0509 0.7644

-0.0949 0.6985

-0.0578 0.6720

-0.0159 0.4175

p value Difference

0.0051* -0.0732

0.0800 -0.0509

0.0034* -0.0949

0.0468* -0.0578

0.6556 -0.0159





*significant found (p<.05) p value difference was0.0051*

Table 2 *significant difference was found (p<.05) 26

Averages Compared by Enrollment


Table 2

Why Won’t Boys Sing? Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys

Why Won’t Boys Sing? Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys

Discussion Purpose and Procedure   The purpose of this study was to explore the gender relationships between the attributional beliefs of fifth grade students and their enrollment into middle school choir. The subjects were 94 girls and 102 boys in the fifth grade enrolled in general music at a rural public elementary school in Georgia. Two surveys were administered to the students by the researcher (the students’ music teacher) in April during their weekly music class: the Asmus (1986) Music Attribution Orientation Scale (MAOS) to determine the students’ attributional beliefs toward musical tasks and the Svengalis (1978) Self-Concept in Music (SCIM) survey to determine the students’ beliefs toward their own ability. The researcher took the data along with enrollment results to the University of Georgia Statistical Counseling Center for help with data analysis. The project sought to answer the following questions: 1. Are there significant gender differences with any general attributional beliefs? 2. Are there significant correlations between attributional beliefs and selfconcepts? 3. Do these significant correlations change when gender is isolated? 4. Are any attributional beliefs significant to predicting enrollment in middle school choir? 5. Of gender, self-concept, and attributional beliefs, what are the best predictors for a student enrolling in choir?

Gender and Attributional Beliefs (Question 1)

Figure 4

Figure 4 Parameter Estimate Wald Chi-Square Why Won’t Boys Sing? Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent FigureBoys 4


-2.0598 25.1458 <.0001* Gender (Boy) not enroll in choir than between girls who enrolled and did not enroll in choir. Girls’ belief in 6.3868 10.6828 0.0011* Effort -2.7843 rated higher by the 4.1738 0.0411* Musical Abilitywas the only attribute musical ability group not enrolled in choir (Figure 6).

Parameter SCIM

Estimate 2.2908

Wald 4.2192 Chi-Square

Pr>ChiSq 0.0400*









-2.0598 Genderdifference (Boy) was found (p<.05) *significant Effort

Table 3 Effort


Musical Ability




Table 3

Figures 5 through 9 look at each attribute separately, comparing averages of boys

enrolled in choir, boys not enrolled in choir, all boys, girls enrolled in choir, girls not enrolled in

*significant difference was found (p<.05)

choir, and all girls. With each attribute it is evident that boys who enrolled in choir consistently Table 3

scored attributes higher than all other subgroups. Though the significance of these differences

Figures 5 through 9 look at each attribute separately, comparing averages of boys

was not calculated, the value of each attribute differed more between boys who enrolled and did

enrolled in choir, boys not enrolled in choir, all boys, girls enrolled in choir, girls not enrolled in choir, and all girls. With each attribute it is evident that boys who enrolled in choir consistently 19

Why Won’t Boys Sing? scored attributes higher than all other subgroups. Though the significance of these differences Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys

was not calculated, value of each attribute differed more between boys who enrolled and did Figures 5 MusicaltheAbility

  Significant differences were found between boys’ and girls’ beliefs in effort, affect for music, and background (Table 2). Affect for music showed the greatest difference between genders; this lower value is likely explained by boys’ more negative attitudes toward music (Dibben, 2002; Lucas, 2011; Pogonowski, 1985; Svengalis, 1978; Vander Ark, Nolin, & Newman, 1980). It seems reasonable to assume that if boys do not enjoy music as much as girls, they will view this enjoyment as less important to success. An explanation might also lie in male and female tendencies toward values of emotion.

Figure 5


Figures 6 27


Figure 6

Why Won’t Boys Sing? Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys

Affect for music

Attributional Beliefs and SelfConcept in Music (Questions 2 and 3)   All attributes showed significant correlations to self-concept in music except for classroom environment (Table 1). Of these, effort and affect for music (both internal) had moderate positive correlations while musical ability and background had weaker positive correlations. This ranking shows that the internal unstable attribute of effort is tied more to self-concept than the others. Also, the internal stable attributes of affect for music and musical ability are shown to be tied more to self-concept than the external stable attribute of background.   When gender was isolated, the significant attributes changed greatly (Table 1). The only significant attribute of girls was effort, and it only had a weak positive correlation to SCIM. This data shows that while girls tend to have higher SCIM, this has no bearing on their beliefs of success. Boys’ attributes on the other hand are definitely tied to their SCIM. All attributes were significantly tied to SCIM at a moderately positive level (except for classroom environment which was weakly positive).

Why Won’t Boys Sing? Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys

Figures 7

Classroom Environment Figure 7

Predictors of Enrollment in Middle School Choir (Questions 4 and 5)

Why Won’t Boys Sing? Attributional beliefs and Choir Enrollment of Preadolescent Boys

Figures 8

Background Figure 8


Figures 9 28 Figure 9

  Of the five attributes studied in this project, effort and musical ability significantly predicted enrollment into middle school choir. Table 3 shows that effort was the best attributional predictor of choir enrollment; high belief values of effort meant that a student was more likely to join choir. Boys’ lower value of effort then is a great explanation of the low choir enrollment numbers.   Musical ability on the other hand had an adverse effect on choir enrollment; high belief values of musical ability meant that a student was less likely to join choir. While this finding may seem strange at first glance, one must remember that musical ability is considered an internal stable attribute. If a student views a stable attribute as important to success at such a young age (when she is still learning these abilities), it is not surprising at all that she would opt out of a performing group.   When all variables are considered, Table 3 shows that while gender was the best predictor of choir enrollment, effort was the next best predictor. It shows that effort was a better predictor than SCIM. This finding is pivotal. Much of the current research has been focused on self-concept GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 4, FALL 2014

and its significant correlation to gender and enrollment (Lucas, 2011; J. R. Austin, 1990; Simpkins et al., 2010; Svengalis, 1978), but more research into effort beliefs could fundamentally change this understanding.

Conclusions and Recommendations   The findings of this project are exciting. Previous research has shown that selfconcept in music (the only predictor of enrollment) declines with age, and that a student’s background was the best way to curb this decline (Lucas, 2011; J. R. Austin, 1990; Simpkins et al., 2010; Svengalis, 1978). For music teachers that forecast was dim; there was little for a music teacher to do to build up her students in order to get them and keep them involved in musical activities. Attributional beliefs could change this discouraging outlook.   This project implies that a teacher who focuses on the importance of effort over ability could see great gains in closing the gender gap in secondary school choirs. Teachers, then, should be mindful of making comments during class that emphasize students’ success as a result of putting in effort and emphasize their failures as a result of either not enough effort or ineffective effort. This should help students understand that ability is not stable, but something that can be changed by effective levels of effort. This approach could also see gains in students’ self-concept in music.   This small first step of research was only the beginning. This study will need to be replicated with a larger sample of fifth grade students from a variety of schools around the country in order to verify the findings. If verified, studies that measure teaching styles and students’ attributional beliefs will need to be conducted to see if there is merit to the hypothesis that teachers can affect students’ attributional beliefs. Qualitative studies should also be carried out to better understand the intricacies of why or why not these approaches affect a student’s attributional beliefs.   The possibilities are countless, but some other informative studies are as follows: studies that look into the attributional beliefs of students who quit a choral program; attributional beliefs in relation to the other trends found in the review of litureature (attraction, attitude, and ability); attributional beliefs and correlation to choosing band versus choir; attributional beliefs and instrument choice; longitudinal studies that follow students from elementary GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 4, FALL 2014

through high school and track attributional beliefs, self-concept, attitudes, grades, and extra-curricular choices. Expanding on this research into other fields could help us better understand what motivates students and hopefully guide music teachers to more efficiently close the gender gap in choir.

References Adler, A. (1999). A survey of teacher practices in working with male singers before and during the voice change. Canadian Music Educator, 40(4), 29-33. Asmus, E. P., Jr. (1986). Student beliefs about the causes of success and failure in music: A study of achievement motivation. Journal of Research in Music Education, 34(4), 262-278. doi: 10.2307/3345260 Austin, J., Renwick, J., & McPherson, G. E. (2006). Developing motivation. In G. E. McPherson (Ed.), The child as musician (pp. 213-238). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. Austin, J. R. (1990). The relationship of music self-esteem to degree of participation in school and out-of-school music activities among upper-elementary students. Contributions to Music Education, 17, 20-31. Chandler, T. A., Chiarella, D., & Auria, C. (1987). Performance expectancy, success, satisfaction, and attributions as variables in band challenges. Journal of Research in Music Education, 35(4), 249-258. doi: 10.2307/3345077 Demorest, S. M. (2000). Encouraging male participation in chorus. Music Educators Journal, 86(4), 38-41. Dibben, N. (2002). Gender identity and music. In D. H. Raymond MacDonald, Dorothy Miell (Ed.), Musical identities (pp. 117-133). New York: Oxford University Press. Freer, P. K. (2007). Between research and practice: How choral music loses boys in the “middle.” Music Educators Journal, 94(2), 28-34. Kennedy, M. A. (2002). “It’s cool because we like to sing”: Junior High School Boys’ Experience of Choral Music as an Elective. Research Studies in Music Education, 18(1), 26. Klinedinst, R. E. (1988). The effect of reporting predicted success in beginning instrumental music on enrollment decisions. Contributions to Music Education, 15, 20-25. Koza, J. E. (1993). The “missing males” and other gender issues in music education: Evidence from the Music Supervisors’

Journal, 1914-1924. Journal of Research in Music Education, 41(3), 212-232. doi: 10.2307/3345326 Legette, R. M. (2003). Music achievement causal attributions as perceived by elementary public school students. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education (155), 44-50. doi: 10.2307/40319423 Lucas, M. (2011). Adolescent male attitudes about singing in choir. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 30(1), 46-53. Mizener, C. P. (1993). Attitudes of children toward singing and choir participation and assessed singing skill. Journal of Research in Music Education, 41(3), 233-245. doi: 10.2307/3345327 Phillips, K. (1994). Recruiting singers for elementary chorus. Teaching Music, 1(6), 24-25. Phillips, K. (1995). Recruiting and retaining males. Teaching Music, 2(6), 28-29. Pogonowski, L. M. (1985). Attitude assessment of upper elementary students in a process-oriented music curriculum. Journal of Research in Music Education, 33(4), 247-257. doi: 10.2307/3345251 Simpkins, S. D., Vest, A. E., Dawes, N. P., & Neuman, K. I. (2010). Dynamic relations between parents’ behaviors and children’s motivational beliefs in sports and music. Parenting: Science & Practice, 10(2), 97. doi: 10.1080/15295190903212638 Svengalis, J. N. (1978). Music attitude and the preadolescent male. Ph.D. diss., University of Iowa. (DAI, vol. 39, pp. 4800). Sweet, B. (2010). Choral, a case study: Middle school boys’ perceptions of singing and participation in choir. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 28(2), 5-12. Vander Ark, S. D., Nolin, W. H., & Newman, I. (1980). Relationships between musical attitudes, self-esteem, social status, and grade level of elementary children. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education(62), 31-41. doi: 10.2307/40317591 Warnock, E. C. (2009). Gender and attraction: Predicting middle school performance ensemble participation. Contributions to Music Education, 36(2), 59-78. Weiner, B. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology(71), 3-25. Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory perspective of achievemen task values: A theoretical analysis. Psychological Review(92), 548-573. 29

Reflections on Method Book Selection Robin Schaps, Robert Whitaker, Robert Turner, Arthur Wright III, Gabriel Woods preferences among teachers, researchers, and Method books have become a necessity although teachers and researchers agree students; and determining “best practice” in the band world. Directors use them that books should address a wide variety of strategies for using methods books. in various ways with various degrees of subject matter, they do not necessarily agree satisfaction, and authors strive to meet on which topics should be included: how directors’ needs with various degrees of to meet the national standards; exercises in Some Current Themes success. Meantime, instructional questions music theory; multicultural and/or historical persist: Is there a clear standard determining information; applications of instructional To determine in-service teachers’ thoughts what makes a “good” method book? Do technology; exercises for promoting student and opinions on method books, a content teachers, researchers, and students agree on engagement, to name a few possibilities. analysis of the Band Director Group on the content of a “good” method book? How Other, equally important, considerations Facebook was conducted. This site has over much difference can a “good book” make? include pacing, sequencing of concepts, and 14,000 members and allows band directors These issues have been considered for years, alignment with the teacher’s educational from across the country to discuss issues and and method books have evolved and changed philosophy. Given these individual respond to questions. From the site’s wealth in response. However, many music educators differences in expectations and priorities, can of posts and discussions about beginning still feel they have not found the book that we all agree on one method book? Should we band methods, some interesting themes meets all their needs. agree? emerged. Directors choose method books they The purpose of this project was to Five method books were discussed most believe will match the needs of their inform these questions by reviewing the often. Figure 1 shows the frequency of programs, each1using a different set of of the  minstructional material common toomany Figure   :  Comment   frequency   ost  discussed   method   books   n  the  Band  Director   roup   negativeGand positive comments posted for priorities to guide selection. Further, method books; investigating “best content” each of the five books, as of June 2014.

! !Figure 1: Negative and positive comment frequency Positive



17 30








20 16



0 i ad Tr n of Ex lle ce nc




(2 1)



9 (1














9 (1










d ar



a St



es cc







! ! !

u So

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es ur



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! Figure 2:    Comment  analysis  of  !""#$%&'(!'#)#$*"   ! ! ! !

In an analysis of negative/ positive comments, more detailed discussion was found on the newer books. Figures 2 and 3 display the variety of comments made about two of the most frequently discussed books, Essential Elements and Measures of Success.

Figure 2: Comment analysis of Essential Elements Figure 3: Comment analysis of Measures of Success

Liked Because Sequencing Liked Because CD Disliked Because Boring

ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS Liked Because Sequencing


Liked Because CD


Liked Because History/Theory


Disliked Because Used Too Long


Disliked Because Boring


Disliked Because Sequencing/ Rhythms




2 3



! ! ! 3:  Comment  analysis  of  Measures  of  Success   Figure   ! ! !! ! ! ! ! MEASURES OF SUCCESS ! ! Liked because creative 2 ! ! because of pacing Liked 8 ! Liked 3 ! because of chapter organization ! ! because of theory, ear Liked 2 ! etc. training, ! ! because of approach to Liked 3 ! break clarinet ! because of tone production 1 Liked !

! ! ! ! ! !

Liked Because History/Theory Disliked Because Used Too Long Disliked Because Sequencing/Rhythms

Liked because of CD


Liked because of key signature exposure


Liked because of layout


Disliked because of pacing of clarinet break


Disliked because of editing mistakes


Disliked because of pacing with scales


Disliked because of approach to rhythms


Disliked because of CD


Disliked because of starting note


Disliked because of ensemble pieces


Disliked because of layout



Liked because creative Liked because of pacing Liked because of chapter organization Liked because of theory, ear training, etc. Liked because of approach to clarinet break Liked because of tone production Liked because of CD Liked because of key signature exposure Liked because of layout Disliked because of pacing of clarinet break Disliked because of editing mistakes Disliked because of pacing with scales Disliked because of approach to rhythms Disliked because of CD Disliked because of starting note Disliked because of ensemble pieces Disliked because of layout




2 8

3 1 1 2

3 4

2 3


1 1



Figure 4:    Most  popular  ideas  for  a  brand  new  method  book! The first theme of note was that teachers seemed to compare the newer books to older and more familiar books, rather than to a defined ideal. These discussions prompted questions: Why do teachers use method books or choose to change method books? Is there is a better way to approach the concept of methods books? Has research been done to inform these issues? A second theme was found in the responses to an open-ended question about what teachers would include in a brand new book if they were to create one. It was noted that the content preferences listed by current directors were significantly different from those in presently published books (See figure 4).   The review revealed a high level of interest in discussing and analyzing method books. Although many of the comments on the older texts were not analytic, discussions on the newer books tended to present pros and cons in detail.

Figure 4: Most popular ideas for a brand new method book

Pedagogical Effectiveness The research literature was reviewed to determine whether there is current research to properly analyze the pedagogical effectiveness of these new method books, in addition to general research on instrumental music learning and sequencing and its manifestation in new method books. There is a substantial number of current research articles on methods books, but the content and focus is somewhat surprising. Most discuss such topics as national standards, multicultural melodies, and historical context of books, or provide a survey of method books’ content. Effectiveness research on the 32


Number,of, “likes”







*Simple,warmJups,involving,the,first,5,notes,J,long,tones,and,lip,slurs,and, technique,like,the,Foundations,book,,but,for,beginners






*Practice,guidance,J,warm,ups,,long,tones,,articulation,exercises,,ways,to,practice, lines,from,the,book








*Different,approach,to,sequencing,other,than,“turn,the,page”,J,different, organizing,where,the,teacher,chooses,how,to,progress,through,the,book


*App,to,go,with,the,book,J,include,professional,examples,,recordings,of,the,“real”, examples,of,melodies,in,book,,extra,songs,,theory,games,,etc.




*Concept,chapters,built,from,beginnerJ12th,grade,J,not,chapters,based,on, generalized,“difficulty”










*Use,the,same,melody,to,teach,all,new,concepts,J,variation,in,presentation,based, on,the,concept,being,taught


Note.,The,,topics,are,listed,in,order,by,amount,of,“likes.” Items,with,an,asterisk,were,original,ideas,and,not,present,in,previous,textbook, discussions.

books is absent, as are findings, discussion, and conclusions suggesting better ways to structure the material. The current research tends to concentrate on meeting standards or proving validity outside of the classroom. It is easy to find information about which books have the most historical anecdotes or the most content from Spanish-speaking countries, or to simply find a detailed list of the contents of major books on the market. It is even easy to find information on the history of method books and how they have evolved to meet the National Standards. However, considering comments on the Band Director Group, this research does not answer the

questions band directors are asking. It does not provide information on the teaching/ learning process. Having concluded that music education research emphasizes theoretical knowledge rather than practical use, we reviewed the research on general education textbooks. This search found some studies exploring pertinent issues that were not exclusive to music: effectiveness of a good textbook, student interaction with textbooks, and reasons for textbook preference. Although general education research does not apply directly to method book choice, it revealed some important points to consider. 1. Students tend to favor texts that are GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 4, FALL 2014

comfortable to read and make it easy to concentrate (Gurung & Landrum, 2012). Their reception of textbooks is better if information is presented in an enjoyable manner. 2. Students often use their texts as little as possible, mostly for practice problems and as a reference to clarify information they have been taught previously (Lee, McNeil, Douglas, Koro-Ljungberg, & Therriault, 2013). In situations that apply to music education, band students use their books to do “practice problems” by playing exercises and to refer to the fingering chart in the book if they do not remember. 3. Classroom teachers prefer textbooks that include supplemental editions supporting teacher needs (Van Steenbrugge, Valcke, & Desoete, 2013). 4. Although “holes” were found in the exercises contained in different science books, students tend to do well as long as most of the content is covered in the text (Sothayapetch, 2013; Gurung & Landrum, 2012). 5. Multiple studies have shown that ultimately the teacher is the driving force behind learning material, which makes the book the secondary item in the equation (Swanson, 2014; Van Steenbrugge et al., 2013).

Conclusions Method books are a great tool for the instrumental music educator. Although there is disagreement in personal preference related to sequencing, concepts, or supplemental content, most can agree that today’s method books provide ample material to assist directors in efficiently and effectively running a classroom rehearsal. After reflecting on discussions of the Band Directors Group on Facebook and reviewing selective research, a few key ideas stand out as worthy of consideration: 1) a method book, although an effective tool, cannot substitute for good instruction; 2) instructional gaps can be easily overcome, given the readily available supplemental materials, cohort groups such as the Band Directors Group, and director creativity; 3) although many directors have ideas and fantasies about creating their own book, very few have taken the initiative—perhaps because time can be better spent in analytic reflection while using the methods book of their choosing to fullest potential. Finally, it appears there is no magic book, no chemical additive, no late night TV cureGEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 4, FALL 2014

all for the instruction of instrumental music students. Simply put, while one method may prove effective one year, or for many, there may come a time where change is necessary. Perhaps change is crucial just to stir the pot and awaken creativeness. After all, that is part of the magic of creating music–sharing one’s own voice and enjoying the rewards that follow. Perhaps the same view can be applied to method books. They are wonderful tools, but the greatest tool available to our students is not the method book; it is the director that stands in front of them. Teach the child via the material, not the material via the child.

References Barbosa, J. (1999). Developing a Brazilian band method book II. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 141, 10-13. Branscome, E. (2005). A historical analysis of textbook development in American music: Education and the impetus for the National Standards for Music Education. Arts Education Policy Review, 107(2), 13-19. Brittin, R., & Sheldon, D. (2004). An analysis of band method books: Implications of culture, composer, and type of music. Bulletin of the Council for Research In Music Education, (161-162), 47-55. Byo, J. L. (1988). Beginning band instruction: A comparative analysis of selected class method books. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 7(1), 19. Gamin, R. M. (2005). Teacher perceptions regarding attrition in beginning instrumental music classes during the first year of study. Contributions to Music Education, 32(2), 43-64. Gu, W. (2010). Were our mathematics textbooks a mile wide and an inch deep? Online Submission, 229. Gurung, R., and Landrum, R. E. L. (2012). Comparing student perceptions of textbooks: Does liking influence learning? International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24(2), 144–150 Hartley, L. (1996). Influence of starting grade and school organization on enrollment and retention in beginning instrumental music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 44(4), 304-318. Heavener, T., & Leesheldon, D. A. C. (1998). Dissertation reviews: An analysis of beginning band methods books for principles of comprehensive

musicianship. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education. 136, 81–85. Lee, C. S., McNeill, N. J., Douglas, E. P., Koro-Ljungberg, M. E., & Therriault, D. J. (2013). Indispensable Resource? A Phenomenological Study of Textbook Use in Engineering Problem Solving. Journal of Engineering Education, 102(2), 269–288. Sampson, U. (1967). An identification of deficiencies in past and current method books for beginning heterogeneous wind-percussion class instrumental music instruction. Sothayapetch, P. (2013). A comparative study of science education at the primary school level in Finland and Thailand. Ph.D. diss., University of Helsinki. Swanson, R. A. (2014). A relationship analysis: A professor, 500 students, and an assigned textbook. History Teacher, 47(2), 289-302. Van Steenbrugge, H. H., Valcke, M. M., & Desoete, A. A. (n.d.). Teachers’ views of mathematics textbook series in Flanders: Does it (not) matter which mathematics textbook series schools choose? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45(3), 322-353. Volk, T. M. (2007) “Charts and other paraphernalia”: Charles H. Congdon (1856-1928) and his music teaching materials. Journal of Research in Music Education, 55, 302-312. Wolters, C., & Taylor, D. (2012). A selfregulated learning perspective on student engagement. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 635-651). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. Woody, W., Daniel, D. B., & Baker, C. A. (2010). E-books or textbooks: Students prefer textbooks. Computers & Education, 55(3), 945-948.

Robin Schaps is band director at North Gwinnett Middle School, Sugar Hill Robert Turner is band director at Greater Atlanta Christian School, Norcross Robert Whitaker is band director at Grovetown Middle School, Augusta Gabriel Woods is band director at Shiloh Middle School, Snellville Arthur Wright is band director at Savannah State University, Savannah. 33

Selecting Secular Music for the Public High School Chorus Linda Rigamer Lirette List the repertoire you have studied with your high school chorus students in the past year. Now divide the selections on your list into two categories: sacred and secular. Are you surprised by what you see? Regardless of whether your list is lopsided in either direction or perfectly balanced, if you are surprised, you may wish to consider the sacred/secular binary when you program future concerts. While choral teachers choose repertoire through varied selection methods, all conscientious choral teachers seek to program quality music—music that will enrich the lives of singers and provide meaningful learning opportunities (Forbes, 2001). Many choral teachers strive to program music representing multiple genres and cultures, but many may not consider the sacred or secular nature of a piece when they make their selections. Teaching religious music is not the same as proselytizing, but teachers should be aware that students who do not belong to the faith tradition espoused may feel out of place. Choral teachers working in public high schools in the United States have a responsibility to create inclusive classrooms, so programming high quality secular music can and should be common practice. If your latest concerts have been lopsided in favor of sacred music, you might benefit from selecting some new secular music for your chorus. If your concerts have included a balance of sacred and secular works or a majority of secular works by happy accident, you might benefit from selecting secular music with intention. There are various reasons why choral teachers may not program much secular music. If choral teachers come from a background rich with experiences singing sacred works and limited in exposure to secular works, they may not know the wealth of music available. They may hold misconceptions regarding the quality of secular choral music or their responsibility to include sacred works in their curricula. While I do not argue for the exclusion of sacred music in public schools, I maintain that educators should remove barriers to student participation. When we program sacred music, we must be sensitive to our students’ diversity. Music is for everyone. Our repertoire choices should reflect that belief. So how do we select repertoire for the 21st century classroom? 34

The Need for Secular Repertoire Selections When we program music without giving thought to the sacred nature of some pieces, we may inadvertently operate from the assumption that our students share a homogenous culture in which these pieces are meaningful in the same way. This assumption is rarely true. A piece that provides a religious experience for one student may simply offer pretty sonorities to another. And it may alienate another student from the rest of the class. As Julia Shaw explains in an article on culturally responsive classrooms, “American music education has historically been based on Eurocentric frameworks, the relevance and efficacy of which have been questioned as society has become increasingly diverse” (p.75). When we choose music, we must consider the message we are sending through our choices. By selecting a piece for study and performance, we are affirming its merit as a pedagogical pursuit. If we program music derived exclusively from some sacred traditions, we imply that other music is not as worthy for study. As Shaw explains, “to reject a person’s music can only feel as if we are rejecting him” (p. 75). By including sacred music from multiple faith traditions and by including secular music, we broaden our students’ cultural horizons and validate students’ backgrounds. Religion is a contentious issue, and even when we try to embrace diverse beliefs, we may make mistakes. Adria Hoffman (2011) discusses how “teachers may unintentionally place school and home values in direct conflict with one another, possibly leading students to disengage from school music programs” (p. 55). For example, Hoffman mentions a teacher who asked her only Jewish student to give a presentation about Hanukkah to help the rest of the class understand more about Judaism and about why he did not sing Christmas songs. Although the teacher may have been trying to include the student, the student was singled out; asked to be a representative expert for his culture, he was set apart by his difference. Shaw (2012) observes that

teachers should “avoid essentializing culture by assuming that all people belonging to a social category are culturally similar,” adding that “[s]electing quality arrangements or performing in a variety of languages might be important first steps, but can fall short of cultural responsiveness when accompanied by assumptions that any single musical tradition is representative of or relevant to all people of a given cultural background” (p. 78). By selecting secular music, teachers are choosing to teach music that is neutral in terms of religion, but it is not necessarily culturally neutral, so teachers should still choose selections with attention to the message a song, or the selection of that song, can send. Choosing music that celebrates diverse cultures, and discussing cultural connections to music during class may be a step in the right direction.

Misconceptions and Reservations Music educators may have concerns about selecting secular choral pieces, either because of misconceptions about the quality of secular choral music available or because of reservations about neglecting important sacred works. The National Association for Music Educators (NAfME) confirms these reservations in its position statement on sacred music in schools, in which it states that “the omission of sacred music from the school curriculum would result in an incomplete music education” (NAfME, 1996). Selecting secular music does not require sacrificing quality. Pop music, show tunes, and other “light” secular works have their place in the choral curriculum, but they are not the only options for non-religious music. This is not news to most educators, but many still lack a familiarity with secular repertoire, and they are hesitant to tread in unknown waters. Other educators bemoan the possible neglect of beautiful and historically important sacred words. What about Handel’s Messiah? What about [insert other religious work here]? I do not suggest we eliminate all sacred music from schools. We have a responsibility to share great GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 4, FALL 2014

music with our students and to introduce them to major works in the Western classical tradition, many of which are sacred. To exclude these works from a music curriculum would be revisionist, a misguided omission. To exclude students from the study of music would be a graver mistake. When performing a piece would compromise a student’s beliefs, educators must present other options. One common option is having the affected student complete an alternate assignment when religious observance or non-observance prompts her to recuse herself. This is sometimes the best course of action. If this is the only option available to students, though, it is inadequate. Another option might be to include great sacred works in a choral curriculum without requiring students to sing them. Depending on students’ faiths, they may be able to study scores or actively listen to recordings of major works, analyzing them and discussing their importance as well as their context. There is limited literature available about these alternatives in practice, so the best route may be for teachers to communicate with students and their families about what is and is not acceptable. Choral teachers can choose concert dates and performance locations with sensitivity to students’ faith traditions and cultural practices. For example, scheduling a concert on a Friday night may conflict with a Jewish student’s observance of the Sabbath. Scheduling rehearsals in the evenings during Ramadan may lead a Muslim student to choose between attending rehearsal or breaking his fast with his family. Booking a school concert in a church might preclude a student from performing if her faith does not permit her to enter another religion’s place of worship. If we are not sensitive to differences when we make these choices, we risk putting students in a situation where they are asked to choose between their value systems and their commitment to chorus (Hoffman, 2011). To avoid that conflict, such students might choose to leave chorus or not to re-enroll in future years. Programming with all students in mind by choosing mostly secular music in your chorus’s repertoire is just another choice choral teachers can make to include students. Provided that the secular music is well chosen, it can only enhance their experience, not detract from it.


Selecting Secular Pieces for the 21st Century Choral Classroom Because of their potential to exclude fewer students, secular choral pieces should be predominant in public high school choral programs, but we must yet determine a dependable selection process. Whether sacred or secular, high-quality music is highquality music. We can choose high-quality secular music using the same selection criteria as we would to select high-quality sacred music. So the question shifts: What is high-quality choral music? Previous music education scholars have recognized quality in choral repertoire through various sets of criteria (Abrahams, 2008; Broeker, 2000; Forbes, 2001; Mayhall, 1994). These sets of criteria provide a solid basis for the choosing of quality secular repertoire. Any selection on a list of quality secular choral music should meet the following criteria: it should help students develop their musicianship, match the needs and goals of the ensemble, and nourish the aesthetic spirit of singers and listeners.

Selecting for Musical Development When choosing music for the choral classroom, most conductors choose pieces in part for their ability to develop students’ musical development. When choral teachers choose octavos for the opportunities they provide to help students develop musical skills, they may be looking for a variety of things. For example, Angela Broeker (2000) asks about the “pedagogical implications” and the “singability” of a piece not only for which musical elements can be taught through the piece, but also for how it will help students develop vocal technique (p. 26). As Guy Forbes (2001) chronicles in a report on the selection practices of high school choral teachers, one of the most common explanations teachers give for limiting popular music selections is that these pieces fail to develop students’ musicianship in an adequate manner. This explanation implies that choral teachers choose pieces based on their potential to give students practice with musical skills. All three of John Richmond’s (1990) criteria—exemplar, form, and percepts models—are organized around pedagogical opportunities; it is just a matter of what choral teachers want students to learn. Choral teachers who follow these models may all teach the same repertoire in slightly

different ways. Those who mostly follow the exemplar model may wish to instill that a work represents something larger. For example, they may have students study Handel’s Messiah as representative of the Baroque period. Like a survey course, these exemplars serve to touch on larger topics like a genre, style or form, or they may be an excellent example of the style of a contemporary or historical culture. Those who follow the forms model laid out by Richmond might emphasize forms from a particular time period. Such choral teachers will select music that follows a specific form, giving students a sense of historical trends as well as explicit application of music theories, so teachers presenting Handel’s Messiah from a form model might focus on the work’s structure, comparing and contrasting it with other oratorios or with the structure of an opera. Similarly, those who follow the percepts model may choose music with specific elements of standards in mind. For example, if a teacher wants students to meet a standard like reading and notating music and designs a unit around improving students’ sight-reading skills, she may choose to have students sing the “Hallelujah Chorus” with solfège. If students sing solfège to the melody of sacred work, such as Handel’s “Hallelujah Chorus” from Messiah, are they performing a sacred or secular piece? Text is what makes the secular/sacred conundrum uniquely choral. (Although band and orchestra certainly contend with this issue, the absence of text makes it a less obvious concern.) Regardless of which particular model a choral teacher follows, the goal is to choose music that helps students develop their musicianship. A song’s tendency to invite pedagogical opportunity for musicianship is an important part of selection criteria for quality music, both sacred and secular, but it cannot stand alone. Frank Abrahams (2005) emphasizes musical validity over pedagogical usefulness, but these are not mutually exclusive attributes. Whether choral teachers choose a piece for pedagogical purposes, the desire to include quality secular music stems from wanting students to know and experience it, to learn it.

Selecting for Ensemble Fit Quality is contextual. When choosing quality music, Bruce Mayhall (1994) emphasizes it must fit a group’s mission. A chorus class at a Catholic university will have different goals than a singing school 35

organized around singing Sacred Harp music, and those will differ still from the goals of a Baptist church choir or a Sufi singing ensemble. Choruses in public high schools should strive to select music that matches their missions. If the mission of public high school chorus in the United States is democratic in nature, then it should entail encouraging as many students as possible to grow as musicians. Mayhall (1994) and Forbes (2001) also believe the difficulty of music selections should match the skill of the chorus. This does not mean that singers should be able to sing all selections with ease. Psychologist Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi (1990) describes “flow” as a state where people become absorbed in and take joy in their work, a zone where a task is just the right balance between difficult and easy. Forbes (2001) also makes match a prime selection criterion, referring not only to musicianship levels but also to considerations like the size of the group and how it is balanced as well as to students’ emotional development and goals. These latter considerations may fit within the framework Kevin Mixon (2009) discusses when writing about educating students with “culturally responsive” musical selections. Mixon explains that we engage students when we choose repertoire that reflects their backgrounds and interests. Match can also encompass audience expectations (Forbes, 2009), but it need not always meet an audience’s expectations. Sometimes finding a good match means subverting or disrupting what the audience has come to expect.

meaninglessness. Even for native Spanish speakers, the lyrics do not make strict sense, but the joy of enunciating paired phrases is evident to anyone with a proper pronunciation guide. The music we select for our choruses should invite singers and listeners to share a meaningful experience. Meaning comes from text, but meaning is also derived from experience. The deeper aspect of “meaning” may be the most elusive because it may be the most subjective, but it is also the most important. What makes a song meaningful? Forbes (2001) says it is musical validity; Carlos Abril (2006) labels it authenticity, or “cultural integrity” (p. 35). For Rebecca Roesler (2014), meaningful musical experiences are the result of authentic and meaningful musical goals, goals which “focus attention on human expression and interpersonal communication” (p. 40). If a piece of music espouses religious beliefs or is deeply rooted in a faith tradition, it may provide profound meaning for some participants, singers and listeners alike. It may just as easily create a barrier between singer or listener and their appreciation of a song. Music can invite participants to become open, impressionable and vulnerable. Participants can experience delight, humor, pathos, and catharsis. As choral teachers, we want our students to feel safe as they open themselves to musical experiences. There are many secular works that provide opportunities for singers and listeners to connect, songs that inspire a common faith in humanity.

Selecting Text for Aesthetic Meaning

In many cases, choosing quality secular repertoire, or choosing any quality repertoire, may still boil down to recognition and intuition. But new choral teachers may not trust their developing instincts, and even experienced choral teachers can find themselves with limited time to listen and search for new music. Conductors need a set of reference criteria for selecting pieces, but they should also have access to places to search for quality pieces. Current, useful resources are essential, and in a book chapter on repertoire selection, Patrick Freer (2009) recommends several types of resources. In addition to listing a few current methods books, he suggests searching the festival and all-state repertoire lists and recordings for ideas. Lists like these can be particularly helpful in scanning for secular selections because other choral teachers in the field have already vetted the choices for quality, and usually they are already sorted

Text is the surface level aspect of meaning. It can still be integral to our ability to appreciate a piece of music, particularly for pieces sung in languages we understand. Although text should be an important consideration for any work, sacred or secular (Abrahams, 2005), it stands out as the one category where selection criteria for choral music is distinct from instrumental music. It is primarily the text that determines whether a choral piece is sacred or secular. While all of the other criteria for quality should apply when selecting any piece of music, this category is key to selecting quality secular music. A text can sing and create meaning without making sense. The onomatopoeia in Stephen Hatfield’s arrangement of “Las Amarillas” is an example of meaningful 36

Secular Selection in Practice

by difficulty. It is possible to rule out most of the sacred pieces based on their titles, freeing more time to listen to unfamiliar songs. Participating in district honor chorus and all state events—good practices anyway—can give choral teachers additional opportunities to discover secular songs that will meet the needs of their choruses. This year alone, I was introduced to Morten Lauridsen’s “Sure on This Shining Night,” Rosephanye Powell’s “To Sit and Dream,” and Yongrub’s “Dörven Dalai” through my students’ participation in these choruses. These choices and the others listed above meet the criteria discussed in this paper. Ultimately, choosing high-quality secular music involves using the same practices as choosing high-quality sacred music. We are choosing music for our students. Choral teachers might not actively consider sacred or secular aspects when programming music, or they might keep perfectly balanced records as proof of their commitment to diversity. Whatever we do, we should do it for the sake of supporting our students in the most inclusive and welcoming way possible—inviting them to sing without presenting obstacles to their cultural practices. I started to consider the sacred and secular nature of my choral selections when I received an email from my student Delia’s mother. She noticed her daughter’s chorus grade was low. She asked if it was because her daughter was only singing half of the songs. This was news to me. Delia’s grade was low because she had not turned in an assignment. Why was she only singing half of the songs? How had I not noticed this? Delia and her family are Jehovah’s Witnesses. They do not sing any religious songs except for those approved by their church. She could not complete the practice assignment because the song I had assigned had a religious text. They had not mentioned this in the welcome survey at the beginning of the year. Delia never spoke to me about it or requested an alternate assignment. Because my repertoire selections included both sacred and secular works, I had unintentionally been excluding a child from full participation in our chorus. She was singing the works in school but not at home, trying to please both family and school. I was surprised. I was troubled. I never wanted Delia to feel conflicted about participating in chorus. Considering students’ beliefs when we select music benefits all students. As Kate Fitzpatrick (2012) discusses in an essay on teachers’ roles in cultural GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 4, FALL 2014

responsiveness, “Although we often discuss issues of culturally relevant pedagogy when discussing…students who belong to nondominant…groups, all students are better served by teaching that takes into account who they are and what they have experienced” (p. 57). I do not want Delia, or any student, to feel alienated. As music teachers, we have a responsibility to welcome each child musically and to embrace the diversity we find in our classrooms. In spite of this desire to include Delia, I had reservations about changing my musical selections for the benefit of one student. I believed, in accordance with NAfME (1996), that I would be remiss to omit sacred music from my curriculum. In examining my position, I began to ask myself those core questions about why we teach what we teach. I realized that by taking such a dogmatic stance about my responsibility to introduce students to choral literature including sacred music, I was overlooking a more important responsibility. Ultimately if there are two responsibilities—exposing students to the rich and broad field of choral music; and fostering an inclusionary learning environment where they come together and

sing—and if these responsibilities contradict each other, it is more important to share music together and to foster the experience of participating in music making. By selecting secular music for our public high school chorus, choral directors honor that second, and primary, responsibility.

References Abrahams, F. (2005). Meeting national standards for music education through choral performance. In H. J. Buchanan & M. W. Mehaffey (Eds.), Teaching music through performance in choir: Vol. 1 (pp. 57-79). Chicago: GIA Publications. Broeker, A. (2000). Developing a children’s choir concert. Music Educators Journal, 87(1), 26. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York, New York: HarperCollins. Fitzpatrick, K. R. (2012). Cultural diversity and the formation of identity: Our role as music teachers. Music Educators Journal, 98(4), 53-59. Forbes, G. W. (2001). The repertoire selection practices of high school choral

directors. Journal of Research in Music Education, 49(2), 102-121. Freer, P. K. (2009). Getting Started in the Middle School Chorus. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Education. Hoffman, A. R. (2011). Rethinking religion in music education. Music Educators Journal, 97(4), 55-59. Mayhall, B. (1994). The quest for highquality repertoire. Choral Journal, 35(2), 9-15. Mixon, K. (2009). Engaging and educating students with culturally responsive performing ensembles. Music Educators Journal, 95(4), 66-73. National Association of Music Educators. (1996). Sacred music in schools. Position Statement. Retrieved from http:// Richmond, J. W. (1990). Selecting choral repertoire as pre-curriculum: Planned serendipity. Choral Journal, 30(10), 23-30. Shaw, J. (2012). The skin that we sing: Culturally responsive choral music education. Music Educators Journal, 98(4), 75-81.

Behavior Management Through Middle School Students’ Eyes Christine E. Pobursky Picture this: a beautiful rehearsal hall, thousands of dollars in equipment, folders full of music, and the band director is ready for a new school year. Then, 75 middle school children, each equipped with their own story and hormones enter the classroom. What’s a teacher to do? Behavior management plays a vital role in music classrooms around the world. Teachers develop their own sense of classroom and behavior management during their student teaching and other experiences. They observe others and borrow or adapt ideas. Books and articles on the topic are abundant. However, rarely is the student’s opinion considered.

Purpose This study focused on behavior management techniques from middle school students’ perspectives. The purpose GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 74, NUMBER 4, FALL 2014

of this study was to determine which commonly used behavior management techniques are most effective and helpful for students and evaluate how aware students are of their own behavior.


3% Asian, and 3% Multi-Racial. The free and reduced lunch rate for the school is 79%. The researcher taught five band classes and one general music class for the school. All subjects were enrolled in either a band or a general music class at the time of the survey.



This study surveyed 276 students in sixth, seventh and eighth grades. The group consisted of 165 males and 111 females. The students attended a public, Title I middle school in Mableton, part of the Cobb County School District. The school’s enrollment fluctuates, with a transiency rate of approximately 60%, but was approximately 850 students at the time of data collection. The student population consisted of approximately 47% AfricanAmericans, 31% Hispanics, 17% Caucasians,

Prior to disseminating the survey, key concepts were discussed to ensure students understood survey questions. Topics discussed included off-task, strong impact, weak impact, and peers. Subjects were allowed 15 minutes to complete the survey. Any questions or requests for clarity were addressed to the full group. Surveys were collected upon completion.

Survey Information The survey contained eight multiple37

choice questions and one short-answer question. The short-answer question asked subjects to elaborate on a “Yes” response to question eight.

Results Table 1, below, displays the data collected for each multiple-choice question found in the survey. The most popular response is in bold. When asked about personal redirection, 88 students preferred a nonverbal look from their teacher. The second most common selection was a verbal reminder to the entire class. This data shows the desire of students not to be called out individually before their peers. Students overwhelmingly voiced their opinion that warnings should come in sets of three: “Three strikes and you’re out,” one student wrote. Questions four through seven addressed strategies with the strongest and weakest impact on behavior of students and their peers. Surprisingly, students provided conflicting answers when asked about their personal preference, compared to their peers. While similarities existed when considering less effective strategies, the students’ opinions differed from their individual response to their view of their peers. 66 students felt detention held the strongest impact on their peers. However, 98 students stated positive parent phone calls had stronger impacts on their personal behavior. Strategies viewed as least effective, both for the student being surveyed and for their peers, was written assignments/time outs When reflecting on their personal behavior, 179 students indicated consistent behavior for different teachers. The remaining 97 students, however, admitted to altering their behavior based on a variety of reasons. Over one-third of behaviorshifting students explain their change in behavior in relation to their teachings being “nice,” “mean,” or “fun.” A total of 17 students indicated they “don’t know” why their behavior changes or gave no response at all. The remaining responses varied from negative comments about the school, specific teachers, or subjects to suggesting peer influence and class time.

Discussion The survey results show a desire for positive teacher-parent communication and clear expectations to be established. When needed, nonverbal redirection is preferred. When verbal redirections occur, students favor an encompassing, full-group statement. Students surveyed indicated verbal redirection to an individual would be less 38

effective. This is not to say that individual redirection is ineffective, but rather the less preferred method. Perhaps the groupcentered behavior management preference reduces the feeling of vulnerability and reflects Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Limitations of this study are found in the group and lack of elaboration in responses. All subjects surveyed attend one school, perhaps limiting their perspective. Expanding the survey group to include additional schools would not only provide more data, but also a more diverse subject group. Subjects were not asked to provide justification for their responses. Such

clarification may have provided insight to the adolescents’ minds and choices. Also, perhaps provided knowledge as to students’ responses or reactions to less preferred methods of behavior management. The outcome of this study revealed a middle school interpretation of behavior management strategies. Preferred strategies do not single out, but rather place emphasis on group focus, motivation, and concentration. Christine Pobursky is director of bands at Holcomb Bridge Middle School in Alpharetta.

Table 1. Student Survey, with Number of Responses

Student Survey, with Number of Responses 1. If you are off-task, which helps you get back on-task best? a. The teacher walking closer to me b. The teacher reminding the class to focus (not you individually) c. The teacher reminding YOU to focus d. The teacher giving you “a look” No response/multiple responses 2. If another student (not you) is off-task, which do you think helps your classmates best? a. The teacher walking closer to the off-task student b. The teacher reminding the class to focus (not an individual) c. The teacher reminding the off-task student to focus d. The teacher giving the off-task student “a look” No response/multiple responses 3. How many warnings should a student receive before a detention is assigned? a. No warnings; immediate detention b. 1 warning c. 2 warnings d. 3 warnings No response/multiple responses 4. For YOU, which has the STRONGEST impact on your behavior in class? a. Clear expectations and consequences at the beginning of the school year (or quarter) b. Parent phone calls about GOOD behavior c. Parent phone calls about POOR behavior d. Student/teacher conference after class e. Detention f. Written assignment/time out No response/multiple responses 5. For YOU, which has the WEAKEST impact on your behavior in class? a. Clear expectations and consequences at the beginning of the school year (or quarter) b. Parent phone calls about GOOD behavior c. Parent phone calls about POOR behavior d. Student/teacher conference after class e. Detention f. Written assignment/time out No response/multiple responses

51 74 55 88 8 58 77 84 56 1 21 56 69 128 2 56 98 29 27 25 27 13 44 45 52 22 41 63 8


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Spotlight on a Cobb County Trend-Setter: Barber Middle School Men’s Chorus In Cobb County, “Real Men” Sing! Keeping boys singing through the vocal change is a well known and much discussed problem— except at Barber Middle, where “singing is the thing.” This year, the Barber Men’s Chorus numbers 84 enthusiastic members drawn from grades seven and eight. Because of the success of the group, singing men are no longer considered “uncool” or “dorky.” After the Barber Men’s Chorus sang at a Cobb County School District leadership meeting, where Melissa Arasi spoke about the “best practice” of teaching genders separately, choral directors at several other Cobb County middle schools showed interest in the concept. Simpson Middle School (Katie Leverett, director) has now begun to adopt a structure similar to Barber’s. Two other schools are considering similar approaches but so far have not been able to work out their schedules. According to Lisa Davidson, choral director, the Barber Men’s Chorus came into being by accident.

The Barber Men’s Chorus changed my life and my complete thought process. It taught me leadership, teamwork, and how to bring happiness to someone, not by speaking—by singing! - Sam Buatu, Barber MS Class of ’14


“As a third year teacher at Barber Middle School in Cobb County, I felt uncomfortable dealing with the changing voice, so I convinced the administration to let me divide the eighth-grade students into two choruses by gender. That fall I learned a lot (probably more than the boys did!). Without the cumbersome mixed rehearsal atmosphere, I was able to improve my skills and give the guys the attention they deserved. When we formed an SAB for LGPE the following spring, the ensemble was much, much better. For the first time we received straight I’s in all areas of the assessment. The next year we also used the “split choir” method in the seventh grade and combined the seventhand eighth-grade men into one class—the Barber Men’s Chorus. “For the first few years, the men’s chorus numbered 35-45. I recruited during the summer, holding one- or two-day camps called “Practice, Play, and Pizza.” We would do a singing clinic first, follow with “open gym,” and finish the day with pizza. Rising seventh- and eighth- grade students were permitted to bring one friend they thought would be a good fit for the group, and usually by the end of the day they would want to be enrolled. The summer recruitment plan allowed me to have my rosters ready for preplanning and ensure that the men’s chorus would be large enough to justify keeping the structure of the program. “Now that the men’s combined group is well established, with over 80 members and in its seventh year of existence, we sing some TB, but mostly TBB and TTBB literature. The students at Barber take a lot of ownership in the program and so, needless to say, the men’s chorus concerts are well attended and the group receives a lot of support. Most recently we were able to commission ‘The Dawn’s Awake!’ by composer Laura Farnell. It was released in January 2014 and we premiered it at LGPE in March of 2014. The guys are very proud of this and have learned the importance of inspiring new choral works.

“Having had this experience, I am convinced that establishing a middle school men’s chorus will keep them singing through the period of vocal change. Of course, a structure such as this is possible only with strong administrative and collegial support. The Barber Men’s Chorus has that with principal Lisa Williams, GMEA’s 2014 Administrator of the Year, and a cooperative, helpful instrumental faculty, band directors Robert Grogran and Michael Cahal and orchestra director Mark Burroughs.

Sousa Junior Honors Band to Meet at Valdosta State All students in Georgia Middle School Band programs are invited to apply as a member of the Sousa Foundation Junior Honors Band, to be held at Valdosta State University on November 20-23. Conductor for the Sousa Foundation is Graham Jones, 41

former director of the Coldstream Guards and senior director of the Household Division, London, England. Jones is highly respected as a conductor and military music director of numerous musical events on the international stage. He will serve as music director for the upcoming Zurich Tattoo in Switzerland and is a featured guest lecture aboard the Queen Mary. Most recently, he was guest conductor for the adult summer band at “Music at the Summit” in Breckenridge, Colorado.

For further information, contact Deborah Bradley, Sousa FoundationSoutheaster Honor Band chair, bradband@ Lt. Col. Graham Jones

Georgia Educators Present at Midwest Music education in Georgia will be well represented at the 2014 Midwest Clinic International Band, Orchestra, and Music Conference by two performing groups and seven clinicians. Performances will be given by the Duluth High School Chamber Orchestra, under the direction of Peter Lemonds and Shawn Morton, and the Dickerson Middle School Percussion ensemble, directed by Scott Brown. Clinicians include Catherine Hudnall, Erin Cole, Travis Downs, Freddie Martin, Chester Phillips, Scott Brown, and Alfred Wyatt. The 68th annual conference will take place December 17-20 at McCormick Place West, Chicago. Events will center on the theme “Affirm—Inspire—Educate: You Make the Difference.”

Duluth High School Chamber Orchestra Peter Lemonds and Shawn Morton, Directors

Duluth High School Chamber Orchestra

Peter Lemonds 42

Shawn Morton

The Duluth High School Orchestra Program currently enrolls 335 string players in six orchestras and employs two directors. The Chamber Orchestra has been honored numerous times for its excellence, including recognition as the top public school orchestra in the country at the 2005 National Orchestra Festival at the American String Teachers Association and placing first in the 2013 National Band and Orchestra Festival at Lincoln Center. The Duluth High School Orchestra Program reflects the rich ethnic diversity of the school, with students representing 62 countries and 40 languages. In addition to studying and performing music of the European classical tradition, students also study and perform music of alternative styles from their native countries and explore the music of America through the idioms of jazz, blues, swing, and traditional American fiddle music. Each year the orchestra marches in the Duluth Fall Festival parade as one of the only marching orchestras in America. Peter Lemonds has enjoyed a varied music career. A winner of the Alpha Delta Kappa International Cello Competition, he has performed numerous concerts as a soloist and chamber musician in the United States and abroad. As an educator, he has directed the orchestra program for the Georgia Governor’s Honors Program, and has taught at the Lovett School, the Paideia School, Wheeler High School, East Cobb Middle School, North Gwinnett High School, and Duluth Middle School. He holds a D.M.A. degree from the Conservatory of Music at the University of Missouri, an M.M. degree from Louisiana State University, and a B.A. from the University of the South, Sewanee. In 2011 Lemonds received the Distinguished Educator Award from the Yale University School of Music, and in 2013 he

was named the Georgia String Educator of the Year by the American String Teachers Association. Shawn Morton graduated summa cum laude from the University of Georgia with a B.M. degree in music education and a minor in viola performance. She has worked as a sectional coach with the Gwinnett County Youth Symphony, and she has served as a clinician for local school orchestras, the Spivey Hall Chamber Orchestra Workshop, the Gwinnett County Violapalooza Festival, the Gwinnett County Sixth Grade Honor Orchestra, the UGA Summer Music Camp, and various other workshops and clinics. She has conducted student orchestras at the 2007 Midwest Clinic, 2009 American String Teachers Association Conference, the 2011 Georgia Music Educators Association Conference, and the 2013 National Band and Orchestra Festival at Lincoln Center. Under her direction, the Duluth High School Orchestras received the 2013 Exemplary Program Award from GMEA.

Dickerson Middle School Percussion Ensemble Scott Brown, Director

Dickerson Middle School Percussion Ensemble

Scott Brown, Director Founded in the spring of 2002, the Dickerson Percussion Ensemble has performed for numerous festivals and conventions including the Georgia Music Educators Association Conference, National Band Association Southern Division Conference, and the 2010 and 2014 Sandy Feldstein National Percussion Festival. Led by Brown, the Dickerson ensemble presented a clinic/performance, “Developing a Successful Middle School Percussion Ensemble,” for GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

the GMEA Conference, PASIC, and the Midwest Clinic. In 2006, 2009, and 2013 the ensemble received commendations from the governor of Georgia. Past guest artists and clinicians for the ensemble include Ralph Hardimon, Nick Angelis, Emil Richards, Lalo Davila, Glen Caruba, Tony McCutchen, and John Parks, among others. Alumni of the Dickerson Percussion Ensemble have continued their percussion studies at Florida State University, University of Michigan, University of Georgia, University of North Texas, and the Eastman School of Music. Scott Brown, director of the ensemble, will also present a session with Chester Phillips titled “Percussion Tips for Conductors: What Percussionists Wish We All Knew.” His biography appears below with the Georgia Midwest clinicians. • Ten Things About Teaching the Cello That You Always Wanted to Know but Were Afraid to Ask Catherine Hudnall, founder of the orchestra program in Pickens County, S.C., has taught in Gwinnett County since 1986. She is a regular conductor and clinician for honor ensembles throughout Atlanta and has conducted All-State orchestras in South Carolina and Mississippi. Her students performed for the GMEA Conference in 1995 and 2008. In 2006 the Norcross High School Philharmonic Orchestra won the National Championship High School String Orchestra at the ASTA conference in Kansas City. In 2007 they were invited to perform at Carnegie Hall. Hudnall co-directed the Gwinnett County Youth Symphony for six years and has served as guest conductor for the Gwinnett Philharmonic and Emory University Youth Symphony. She performs with the Candler String Quartet and has performed with the International Cello Congress Choir, the Maui Symphony, the Charleston Symphony, and the Brevard Music Center Festival Orchestra. • Hiding the Vegetables: Unique and Creative Ways to Teach Young Band Students the Fundamentals They Need on a Daily Basis Erin Cole has been the GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

band director at Tapp Middle School in Cobb County since 1995. Under her leadership, the Tapp band was also selected to perform at the 58th Midwest Clinic. The band was a featured performing group at the UGA Middle School Band Festival three times and the Flute and Percussion Ensemble has performed at the GMEA Conference. Cole has commissioned pieces by Frank Ticheli, Samuel Hazo, Eric Whitacre, and Robert W. Smith. She is a frequent clinician and has served as guest conductor for numerous honor bands. She has written chapters for the popular GIA publication series Teaching Music Through Performance and has been published in The Instrumentalist. Cole is currently a contributing editor for Hal Leonard’s Essential Elements method book and interactive website team. She holds a bachelor’s degree in music education from the University of Georgia. Travis W. Downs graduated from the University of Georgia with a B.M. degree in music education and earned the M.M. degree in percussion performance from Louisiana State University. Before his current appointment at North Gwinnett Middle School in Gwinnett County, he was the director of bands at Valdosta Middle School and an assistant band director at Tapp Middle School. Ensembles under his direction have been invited to play at state and regional conferences on several occasions, including a performance at the 63rd Annual Midwest Band and Orchestra Clinic in 2009. The Valdosta Middle School band program was the recipient of the GMEA Exemplary Performance Award for the 2012-2013 school year. Downs is a Yamaha artist/clinician and has been awarded the National Band Association’s Citation of Excellence on three occasions. Freddy Martin, who is celebrating his 43rd year in education, earned the B.S. degree in music education at Jacksonville State University. He has taught at South Cobb High School, with the famed Spirit of Atlanta Drum Corps, and for the Buford City Schools. He was the brass coordinator for the Drum Corps International Champion Phantom Regiment Drum Corps from Rockford, Ill. In 2014 Martin will be co-coordinator of brass fundamentals for the Cavaliers Drum

Corps. He is the founding director of the Spirit of Atlanta Drum and Bugle Corps and continues to serve as director emeritus. Martin is a member of the Drum Corps International Hall of Fame and Phi Beta Mu. He is in his 13th year as band director and brass specialist at the Westminster Schools. • Percussion Tips for Conductors: What Percussionists Wish We All Knew Chester B. Phillips is associate director of bands and director of athletic bands at Georgia State University. His primary responsibilities include conducting the GSU Wind Orchestra, directing the University Marching Band, and teaching conducting. In 2013 Phillips was presented the Dean’s Early Career Award by the College of Arts and Sciences for his outstanding work in teaching, service, and professional development. Under his leadership the GSU Marching Band has received an invitation to the 2014 Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade, participated in the 57th Presidential Inaugural Parade, been awarded a top-10 honor by the 2013 College Band Directors National Association, and received a top-five honor from the 2012 Southern Division of CBDNA. Prior to his appointment at GSU, Phillips taught seven years at Harrison High School in Kennesaw and two years in the Gwinnett County public schools at the middle and high school levels. Scott Brown is percussion director at Walton High School and assistant band director at Dickerson Middle School. Previously, he spent 14 years with the 1998 and 2002 Bands of America Grand National Champion Lassiter High School Band and served for four years as percussion arranger and consultant for Beatrix Drum and Bugle Corps from the Netherlands. Brown is co-author of Field Level: The Ultimate Band Director’s Guide to Fielding the Ultimate Marching Percussion Section and composer of “Kumi-daiko,” both published by Row-Loff Productions. Scott has presented clinics for the Midwest Clinic, PASIC, MEA conventions in Georgia, Texas, and Ontario, and served as adjudicator and clinician in the Netherlands, Belgium, Colombia, Brazil, Thailand, Malaysia, and Germany. The Dickerson Percussion Ensemble has presented performances and 43

clinics at conferences including GMEA, NBA Southern Division, Music for All National Percussion Festival, PASIC, and the Midwest Clinic. • The “Non-Negotiables” of Superior Rehearsals Alfred Watkins is the recently retired director of bands at Lassiter High School, completing a 37-year career. Ensembles under his direction have performed numerous times at the Midwest Band Clinic, the BOA National Concert

DISTRICT NEWS BRIEFS The Richmond Hill Middle School Band is proud to announce that they have commissioned a composition for middle school band by David Gillingham for spring 2015. The composer will join the band for a residency in May. David Gillingham, professor of music at Michigan State University, has an international reputation for the works he has written for band and percussion, many of which are now considered standards in the repertoire. His numerous awards include the 1981 DeMoulin Award for Concerto for Bass Trombone and Wind Ensemble and the 1990 International Barlow Competition (Brigham Young University) for Heroes, Lost and Fallen. Gillingham’s works have been recorded by Klavier, Sony, Mark, White Pine, Naxos, Summit, and Centaur and are regularly performed by nationally recognized ensembles and soloists. He is a member of ASCAP and has been receiving the ASCAP Standard Award for Composers of Concert Music since 1996. Gillingham earned the bachelor’s and master’s degrees in instrumental music education from the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh and the Ph.D. in music theory/composition from Michigan State University. The Savannah Children’s Choir, a community children’s choir with students from over 29 schools throughout the low country, is excited to announce the addition of assistant director Michael Ray, chorus teacher at Savannah Country 44

Band Festival, and the GMEA In-Service Conference. The ensembles have also appeared at PASIC and won two WGI World Championships, two BOA Grand National Marching Champions, and nine BOA Regionals. Under his leadership bands have earned the Sudler Flag of Honor, Sudler Shield, and Sudler Silver Scroll. Watkins was selected as a member of the Florida A & M Gallery of Distinguished Alumni, the BOA Hall of Fame, the ABA, the Georgia Bandmasters Hall of Fame, Phi Beta Mu Educator of the Year, and recently received the GMEA Distinguished Career Award. He has received 15 certificates of excellence from the NBA and the Sudler Order of Merit.

Day, and accompanist Timothy Hall, Christ Church Savannah organist/choirmaster, to meet the needs of the growing organization, which now consists of three choirs and 100 students. Southwest Elementary School, announces partnership with Savannah Music Festival’s Musical Explorers, a new arts education program for grades K-2 in partnership with Carnegie Hall’s Weill Music Institute. Musical Explorers builds basic music skills in the classroom as children learn songs from different cultures, reflect on their own communities, and develop listening and singing skills. During the 2014-2015 season, students in grades K-2 explore various music styles including blues, classical, AfricanAmerican spirituals, jazz, Slave Shouts, and bluegrass, embarking on a musical journey through the cultures found in and around Savannah. Students meet and interact with the professional musicians featured in the program during culminating concerts each semester. Musical Explorers is open to any K-2 teacher. Program features include: • Two interactive concerts (fall and spring) per year in downtown Savannah featuring multicultural vocalists. Fall concerts: December 8-12 (Lucas Theatre). Spring concerts: May 11-15 (Armstrong State University Fine Arts Auditorium). • Two professional development workshops for participating teachers (fall and spring). • A 100+ page printed Teacher Guide, geared toward both music and general classroom teacher, with accompanying CD. • Online, printable student activities.

THE CHANGING GEORGIA SCENE Elementary Schools In the Cherokee County School District, Ann Burgess has been appointed chorus director at Creekland Middle School. Most recently Burgess was a Cobb County School District substitute teacher and has also served as chorus director for Etowah High School. In the Cobb County School System, the following elementary music specialists are new: Michele Champion, Acworth Intermediate; Megan Burton, Austell Elementary; Blake Wuestefeld, HarmonyLeland Elementary; Holly Maldonado, Mableton Elementary; Amanda Esposito, Riverside Primary; and Bess Yunek, Tritt Elementary School. South Dodge Elementary School welcomes Selena Woodard, music specialist. Woodard brings more than 20 years teaching experience in the Dodge County system to the new assignment. Gwinnett County announces the appointment of six new elementary general music teachers. They are as follows: Collett Harris, Centerville Elementary; Cheryenne Hinton, Brookwood Elementary; Lydia Lee, Magill Elementary; Christy Lueke, Patrick Elementary; Courtney Spencer, Nesbit Elementary; and Rachel Strain, Ivy Creek Elementary. Aimée O’Rork, former choir director for the Spalding County schools, has been assigned music teacher and choir director at the Unity Gove and Locust Grove Elementary Schools in the Henry County system. Also in Henry County, Annelise Millwood is teaching at Walnut Creek and Red Oak Elementary Schools and Jacqueline Iden is the new specialist at Hickory Flat Charter Elementary. Orion Palmer is new to Dearing Elementary School in McDuffie County, and in Monroe County Stephen Braswell is associate band director for elementary schools and assists with the marching band at Mary Persons High. George “Alex” McCurdy, a first-year teacher, has been named music specialist at Unity Elementary School in Meriweather County. Rockdale County welcomes five new music specialists: Thomas Russell, C. J. Hicks Elementary; Claudia Bradford, Honey Creek Elementary; Kristin Trammel, Pine Street Elementary, Kylee Ervin, Shoal Creek Elementary; and Gincy Moon, Barksdale Elementary. Moon GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

formerly taught at Pine Street Elementary, also in Rockdale County. Catherine Pickren is the new music instructor at Blackshear Elementary School, located in Pierce County. This is a new music position at Blackshear Elementary. Pickren brings 21 years of teaching experience in Georgia and Florida to the assignment. In the Thomaston-Upson County system, Nicole Katterjohn is the new music specialist for grades four and five at Upson Lee North Elementary, and Laura Kilby is the new specialist for kindergarten through grade three at Upson-Lee South Elementary. Katterjohn is a recent graduate of Georgia Regents University, formerly Augusta State, and Kilby comes to the system from Pike County Elementary School. Houston County announces the appointment of music specialist Shaun Parsons to Hilltop Elementary. Sheila Clopton, also of Houston, has transferred from Perry Primary School to Langston Road Elementary.  

Middle Schools

Bibb County announces the appointments of Brittany Loftin and Lauren Harbor. Loftin is director of bands at Miller Middle School and Harbor is the new chorus teacher at Howard Middle School. Justin Stowe is the new music teacher/band director at Calhoun County Middle/High School. In Gwinnett County, Sarah Pando, Shiloh Middle School, Matt Thomas, North Gwinnett Middle School, and Katherine Garrett, Duluth Middle School, are new to the orchestra faculty, and Zac Cogdill has been appointed director of bands at Five Forks Middle School. Cogdill comes to Gwinnett from Cobb County. Six new choral directors have also joined the Gwinnett system: John Wright, Creekland Middle; Jonathan Fallis, Duluth Middle; Brett Bellamy, Jones Middle; Sabrina Robertson, Crews Middle; Shannon Green, Radloff Middle; and Mikai Tecie, Grace Snell Middle. Robertson comes to Gwinnett from the Marietta City School System. New middle school personnel in Cobb County include: Kimberly Piper, previously of Onslow County, N.C., schools, director of orchestras at Campbell Middle School; Jana Cummiskey, former director of orchestras at Osborne High School in Cobb, director of orchestras at Daniell Middle; Austin Baxley, assistant director of bands at Daniell Middle; Jacob Bitinas, new assistant director of orchestras at Dickerson Middle; Amanda Jones, assistant choral director at Dickerson GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

Middle; Ryan Maddox, new choral director at Dickerson Middle; Corie Benton, previously in the Clayton system, assistant director of orchestras at Dodgen Middle; Matt Segars, assistant director of band at Durham Middle; Sarah Rutledge, choral director and instructor of guitar at Durham Middle; Nivek Anderson, previously of Fulton County schools, director of orchestras at East Cobb Middle; Lawton Willingham, director of orchestras at Floyd Middle; Darlisia Lyles, formerly of the Huntsville, Ala., system, director of orchestras at Garret Middle; Michael Tompkins, previously at Campbell Middle in Cobb County, director of orchestras at Hightower Middle; Paul O’Keefe, formerly at Daniell Middle in Cobb County, assistant director of orchestras at High Tower; Amy Newcomb, choral director at Hightower Middle; Cedrick Hayward, choral director at Lindley Middle School; Shelley Ferrell, assistant director of bands at Lovinggood Middle; Amy Armbruster, former assistant director of bands at Pine Mountain Middle in Cobb County, director of bands at Pine Mountain; Andrew Paller, assistant director of bands at Pine Mountain; Valerie Page, former music specialist at Simpson Middle School, director of bands at Simpson; and James Smart, previously at Lindley Sixth-Grade Academy in Cobb, assistant director of bands and orchestras at Simpson Middle School. In the Henry County system, Josh Brandon is band director at Union Grove Middle School. Brandon’s former experience includes Tattnall Square Academy and the University of Georgia, where he served as a graduate assistant. Also new to Henry County: Kelley Gaither, formerly at Mundy’s Mill Middle School, band director at Austin Road Middle School; Isaac Guffey, orchestra director at Eagle’s Landing Middle School; Marcus P. Budner, director of bands at Hampton Middle School; and Jeffrey McBurnett, chorus director at Hampton Middle School. Budner comes to Henry County from Rockmart Middle School in Polk County and McBurnett formerly taught at Oak Hill Middle School in Baldwin County. Melissa Pettinger has joined the Monroe County School System as associate band director for middle schools, and also assists with the marching band at Mary Persons High School. Pettinger comes to the Monroe system from Bibb County. Susan Juker is the new band director at ThomsonMcDuffie Middle School. Juker comes to the McDuffie system from Burke County Middle School.

Muscogee County welcomes Anthony Claiborne as band director at Baker Middle and Eddy Middle Schools, and Kathryn Foor is now director of bands at Arnold Middle School. Foor was formerly magnet coordinator at Richards Middle School. Jon Reid, a first-year teacher, is director of choral music at both Midland and Veterans Middle Schools, and Laszlo Stan has joined Richards Middle and Baker Middle Schools as orchestra director. Stan comes to Muscogee from the Albany School System. Richard Johnson has moved to Tattnall County to direct the bands at Glennville Middle School and Chantell Scriven is new to Callaway Middle School in Troup County. Anna Mertz has joined the Walker County choral faculty, where she is teaching general/choral music at Saddle Ridge K-8, and directing the choirs at LaFayette Middle and High Schools. Sam Wolaver is director of bands at Valdosta Middle School in the Valdosta City School System, and Darenda Milam is teaching general music and band at Westside Middle School in the Whitfield County system.

High Schools

Atkinson County High School welcomes Bill Steltenpohl, director of bands, and Ben Hill County welcomes choral director Jonie Davis to Fitzgerald High School. Davis comes to the new position from Tift High School, where she also served as choral director. Thomas Trinh has accepted the position of orchestra director at Vineville Academy in Bibb County. Charlton County School System announces the appointment of Dylan Sloan as assistant director of bands at Chariton County High School. Sloan is a recent graduate of Valdosta State University. In Cherokee County, Christin Lawhorne, a recent graduate of Reinhardt University, is the new orchestra director at Woodstock High School. Cobb County announces the following new appointments: Jeremy DeWinter, previously at Odessa Permian High School in Texas, director of bands at Campbell High School; John Bratton, assistant director of bands at Campbell High School; Mark Pulley, previously at Woodstock High School in Cherokee County, director of orchestras at Campbell High; Jack Walker, choral director at Harrison High; Kelly Thomas, previously director of chorus at Kell High in Cobb, director of orchestras at Kell; Katie Miranda, choral director at Kell High; Jeff Harper, previously at McEachern 45

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High in Cobb, associate director of bands at Lassiter High; Bo Sodders, previously at Woodland High in Henry County, director of bands at McEachern High; Holly Botella, choral director at North Cobb High; Jolien Roodenburg, previously at Floyd Middle School in Cobb, director of orchestras at Osborne High; Changa Miller, choral director at Osborne High; and James Wilson, assistant director of bands at South Cobb High. Chris Ryals, former assistant band director for the Houston County School System, is the new director of bands at Dodge County High School. New personnel in the Henry County system includes: Mindy L. Martin, formerly director of choral activities at Ruston, La. High School, new choral director at Ola High School; Christopher Dowell, formerly band director at Charles Drew High School in Clayton County, new director of bands at Stockbridge High; Justin Xavier Carteret, former choral director at New Hanover High School and voice and choral instructor at Southeastern Community College, N.C.,


choral director and department chair of fine and performing arts at Hampton High School; Reed M. Lukat, former director of bands at Spalding High School, new band and chorus director at Henry County High School; and Russell Thompson, former assistant director of bands and instructor of music at Campbellsville University, Ky., band director at Woodland High School. Sean Workman has joined the Houston County System as assistant director of bands at Warner Robins High School, and William “Trent” Henderson has moved from Thomson-McDuffie Middle School to Manchester Middle and High Schools in Houston County, where he is director of bands. West Laurens High School welcomes Robert Smith, assistant band director, to the Laurens County schools faculty. Eric Thompson is beginning his second year as band director at Mary Persons High School in the Monroe County system. Thompson formerly taught in the Treutlen County schools. In the Muscogee system, Steven “Drew” Mabry, a first-year teacher, has joined the faculty of Hardaway High

School as band director. Lee Jones is new to Oglethorpe County High School as director of bands, and Jeffrey Hunter and Vincent Sneed are new band directors in Rockdale County. Hunter is teaching at Salem High School and Sneed is at Heritage High School. The Social Circle City School System welcomes Kyle Bickwit, director of middle school and high school bands. Bickwit is a recent music education graduate from the University of Georgia. Paul Johns has been appointed assistant band director at Thomas County Central High School, replacing Tyler Lipsey. Michial Mayhall remains as band director. Clint Baughman is now teaching chorus at White County High School, and in Whitfield County Ben Milam has moved from Westside Middle School to Northwest High School to direct the band program. The following systems report no new music teachers: Bleckley County, Chickamauga City, Dade County, Dougherty County, McIntosh County, Miller County, Pelham County, Pickens County, Pulaski County, Seminole County, Wilkes County.





Lee University is a Christ-centered liberal arts university in southeast Tennessee. The School of Music has the faculty, curriculum, facilities, and opportunities to prepare you for your goals as tomorrow’s musician.

Purpose Undergraduate Degrees

Graduate Degrees

8 Bachelor of Arts in Music

8 Master of Church Music

8 Bachelor of Music Education

8 Master of Music – Conducting

8 Bachelor of Music in Performance

8 Master of Music – Music Education

8 Bachelor of Music in Church Music

8 Master of Music – Performance

8 Bachelor of Science in Music Business phone: 423-614-8240 fax: 423-614-8242 48


New Faculty Announced Agnes Scott College

Berry College

  Jens Korndörfer, artist affiliate in organ and harpsichord, has given more than 200 concerts at major venues around the world, including Westminster Abbey in London, Notre Dame Cathedral and St. Sulpice in Paris, Chapel Royal in Versailles, Moscow Cathedral, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche in Berlin, and the Münster in Ulm, among others. He is a graduate of the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique in Paris, the Oberlin Conservatory, the Musikhochschule in Bayreuth, and McGill University in Montreal. Korndörfer is a triple prizewinner of the Canadian International Organ Competition, held in Montréal in 2008 and 2011. His talent has also been recognized with numerous scholarship awards from organizations such as the German Academic Exchange Service, the BACH-woche Ansbach, the Festival du Comminges, the Oberlin Conservatory, McGill-University, and the Government of Quebec. He has published numerous articles in American, Belgian, British, French, German, Russian, and Swiss music journals. Jeana Melilli, artist affiliate in flute, currently plays principal flute for the Savannah Philharmonic, piccolo and third flute for the South Carolina Philharmonic, Columbus Symphony Orchestra, and Greenville Symphony Orchestra, as well as second flute and piccolo for the Augusta Symphony Orchestra. As a chamber musician, she is a founding member of the Five Points Quintet and the Hamsa Trio. She has appeared on the recording Sounds of HIV with the Sequence Ensemble, and Music From Paris with the Atlanta Chamber Winds. This is her third year as flute teacher at the Woodward Academy, and she has taught in the Atlanta area since 2003. Previous flute students have won positions in the GMEA District Honor Band and All-State Band. She holds a baccalaureate degree in flute performance from the Catholic University of America and a master’s degree from Northwestern University.

Nathan Lambert is director of orchestral activities and assistant professor of violin and viola at Berry, and the associate conductor of the Rome Symphony Orchestra. Previously, he has served as assistant conductor and concertmaster for the San Juan Symphony in Durango, Colo. and violinist for the Red Shoe Trio. Other previous posts include assistant conductor for the University of Southern Mississippi, Northern Arizona University, and University of Memphis Symphony Orchestras and music director for the Durango Youth Symphony and the Northern Arizona University Academy Orchestra. Lambert has taught at Conservatory Music in the Mountains and the Interlochen Summer Arts Camp and has performed with such renowned artists as Itzhak Perlman, Renee Fleming, Brenda Lee, and Vasti Jackson. He is also an accomplished jazz and commercial violinist, and has spent countless hours in Nashville recording studios as a violin-fiddle player, arranger, and producer.


Clayton State University Michael Fuchs is director of choral activities at Clayton State University, where he also teaches conducting, choral methods, and music history. Fuchs is a recent graduate of the University of Cincinnati’s CollegeConservatory of Music doctoral program in choral conducting. While in Cincinnati, he was the director of the University of Cincinnati Women’s Chorus, co-director of the CCM Collegium Vocale, and artistic director for Musica, the premier chamber choir of Dayton, Ohio. Previous positions include founder and artistic director of the Westminster Bach Consort and graduate assistant conductor for the Westminster Choir. He has prepared choruses for performances with Joe Miller, Annunziata Tomaro, Mark Gibson, and Joseph Flummerfelt. His research interests include incorporating Bel Canto vocal pedagogy into the choral rehearsal, as well as early music

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performance practice. Fuchs has held public school teaching positions in Fairfax County, Va. and church music positions in Ohio, North Dakota, Virginia, and New Jersey. He holds additional degrees from Westminster Choir College in Princeton, N.J. and Concordia College in Moorhead, Minn.

Columbus State University

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Keith Matthews joins the Schwob School of Music at Columbus State University as assistant professor of music education. Matthews comes to Columbus from Florida State University, where he recently completed the Ph.D. in music education with a minor in instrumental conducting. Formerly a band director in Forsyth and Gwinnett Counties, he possesses a wealth of music teaching and performance experience. In addition to coordinating the music education program, Matthews will assist in the band program and in the development of a summer band camp at CSU.  Bradley Olesen is visiting assistant professor of choral music education at Columbus State University’s Schwob School of Music. Prior to accepting this position, he was assistant professor of choral music education at West Chester University, visiting assistant professor at Louisiana State University, as well as a high school choral director and fine arts administrator in Texas and Ohio. He received the bachelor’s and master’s degrees in piano and choral conducting from Texas Tech University, and earned a Ph.D. in music education with a choral conducting cognate at the University of Miami. He has served as soloist, adjudicator, honor choir clinician, and guest conductor throughout North America and Europe. Jacqueline Pickett, double bassist, brings to Columbus State a 20-year career teaching graduate, undergraduate, and high school students in music performance. She has developed teaching methods based on her performance experiences as a classical and jazz musician and her research on bass pedagogy, physiology, history, instrument construction, and educational techniques. Pickett is an internationally recognized performer with a professional career spanning several decades as chamber musician, orchestra member, principal bassist, and founder and member of various chamber ensembles throughout the United States. She has given many public performances in residence, on tour, and on recordings. She is currently principal bassist for the Columbus Symphony Orchestra.

Georgia Southern University Steven A. Harper has been appointed chair of the department of music at Georgia Southern University. Harper previously was on faculty at the University of Texas at Austin, Angelo State University, and Georgia State University, where he also served as director of graduate studies and as interim director of the School of Music. He holds a B.M. degree from the University of Louisville, a M.M. from Northwestern University, and a Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin. Harper’s research interests are in music theory and analysis. He has published essays on the music of Anton Webern, Jean Sibelius, and Åke Hermanson. His work can be found in Indiana Theory Review, College Music Symposium, Sibelius Forum, and STM-Online, the online journal of the Swedish Society for Musicology. Tim Kintzinger is the assistant director of bands and associate director of athletic bands at Georgia Southern University, where he assists with all aspects of the athletic band program and teaches courses in jazz and theory. For the past two years, he has served as the director of bands at Portal Middle School and High School. Prior to moving to Statesboro, he served as the director of bands and jazz studies at Presbyterian College in Clinton, S.C., where he administered all aspects of the instrumental music program and taught applied trumpet. Before his appointment at Presbyterian College, he held positions at Claflin University in Orangeburg, S.C., Limestone University in Gaffney, S.C., and Andrew College in Cuthbert, Ga. Kintzinger received a D.M.A. degree in trumpet performance with a cognate in jazz studies from the University of MissouriKansas City Conservatory of Music, where he studied trumpet with Keith Benjamin and served as a teaching assistant in jazz studies. He received a M.M. in trumpet performance from Binghamton University in Binghamton, N.Y. and a B.S. in mechanical engineering, also from Binghamton University. Kintzinger has done post-doctoral study at the University of South Carolina in wind literature and conducting. David W. Langley is assistant professor of music at Georgia Southern University. His duties include supervising student teachers and teaching courses in music education, as well as directing the University Singers. Prior to his appointment at Georgia Southern, Langley was the director of choral activities at Collins Hill High School in Suwanee, Ga. During his 11 years of teaching high school, he guided a choral program of over GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

300 students, with individual students consistently being selected for the Georgia All-State Chorus and the Governors Honors Program in both voice and piano. He also previously taught at Georgia Perimeter College and Crabapple Crossing Elementary School in Milton, Ga. Langley holds both a bachelors and master’s degree from the University of Georgia. He recently completed the Ph.D. in teaching and learning, music education, from Georgia State University, studying under Patrick K. Freer. Langley has been published in such journals as American Music Teacher and was recently selected to serve on the advisory committee for the Music Educators Journal. His research interests include incorporating creativity within the choral classroom as well as the effectiveness of music teacher mentoring programs.

Georgia State University Raffi Besalyan, assistant professor of piano, has toured North and South America, Europe, Russia, and Asia as a recitalist and orchestral soloist. Critics have praised his performances for their virility, poetry, and extraordinary technical command. In 2012 Besalyan established himself as an award-winning recording artist, receiving international accolades for his album “Dance, Drama, Decadence” (IMC Music, Japan). He also recorded for Koch International Classics, and recently signed with GRAMMY® awardwinning record label Sono Luminus. His first recording for the label will be released in early 2015. A former piano faculty member at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point and Rowan University in New Jersey, he has also served on the faculties of Festival Musica in Laguna in Venice, Italy and the International Summer Music Festival at Rowan. A native Armenian, Besalyan holds a doctorate from the Yerevan State Conservatory in Armenia, as well as degrees from Rowan University and the Manhattan School of Music in New York. Robert Dickson, visiting instructor in jazz studies, holds a Bachelor of Music degree in classical double bass performance from the University of Alabama and a Master of Music degree in jazz studies from the University of New Orleans. He has worked with many jazz greats including Victor Atkins, Scotty Barnhart, Terri Lynne Carrington, Evan Christopher, Jerry Coker, Dizzy Gillespie, Bill Goodwin, Danny Gottlieb, Matt Lemmler, Mundell Lowe, Lou Marini, Jason Marsalis, and Steve Masakowski, among others. Before coming to Georgia State, Dickson was adjunct instructor of bass at the New Orleans GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

Baptist Theological Seminary from 20042005. Since 2006, he has been an instructor with the Rialto Jazz for Kids program in Atlanta, and has directed jazz combos with the Rialto Youth Jazz Orchestra since 2011. Dickson is in his ninth year in Atlanta teaching jazz bass, jazz history, and jazz combos. Steve Jones, instructor of music management, teaches music business courses focusing on marketing, promotion, sales, and distribution, and directs independent studies. Jones is a music lifer. Two years of radio preceded a 26-year run with Atlantic Records, where he worked with The Rolling Stones, AC/DC, Chic, U2, INXS, Bette Midler, Genesis, Foreigner, The Spinners, Yes, Laura Branigan, Debbie Gibson, and more. He then moved to the marketing/sales side of Atlantic and aided in the development of the careers of Hootie & The Blowfish, Edwin McCain, Matchbox Twenty, Collective Soul and Tori Amos, among others. In 2004, WMG downsized, and he saw this as an opportunity to join Brash Music. As CEO of Brash, Jones has nurtured the careers of Anthony David, Aaron Shust, and Gungor. He recently served a four-year term on the board of governors for the Atlanta Chapter of the Recording Academy. Scott Keniley, part-time instructor of music management, is senior partner at Keniley-Kumar Law Firm. During his 22-year legal career, he has served as a judge and general counsel to a publicly traded record company; taught music business, copyright and entertainment law, and entrepreneurship at SAE Institute; and led courses on artist representation and legal aspects of the music industry at Georgia State University. He is a frequent lecturer at law school, conferences, and has delivered keynote addresses at college graduations. Professional associations include, but are not limited to, the North American Entertainment, Sports, and IP Law Summit as educational chairman, the Recording Academy Board of Governors, Entertainment & Sports Law Section, and Intellectual Property sections of the Georgia Bar. In his private practice Scott has been engaged in transactional, corporate, and litigation matters for clients, including platinum and Grammy-winning artists and producers, visual artists, authors, film companies, and music and new media companies. Hollie Lifshey, part-time instructor of trumpet, is second trumpet with the Atlanta Opera Orchestra and principal trumpet with the South Carolina Philharmonic and Macon Symphony. She was formerly

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principal trumpet of the Savannah Philharmonic and has also performed with the Atlanta Symphony, Atlanta Ballet Orchestra, Chattanooga Symphony, and other orchestras in the Southeast. Prior to starting her professional career in the United States, Lifshey spent two summers playing in Europe with the Opera Theater of Lucca Festival Orchestra in Lucca, Italy, and was a guest performer with the Gulbenkian Orchestra in Lisbon, Portugal. She has performed with notable artists such as Sarah McLachlan, Kristin Chenoweth and the Dallas Brass. She holds a master’s degree in trumpet performance from the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. L. Michelle Mercier DeShon is a visiting lecturer of general music education at the Georgia State University School of Music. A doctoral graduate of Georgia State University, she is an expert in the field of psychological development and well known for her groundbreaking dissertation entitled Music is Waiting For You: The Lived Experience of Children’s Musical Identity. Ariel Merivil joins the Georgia State University School of Music as conductor of the Choral Union. Merivil is currently the director of music, worship, and administration at the Atlanta First United Methodist Church, where he has served for ten years. A graduate of the Georgia State University School of Music, Ariel earned a dual concentration Master of Music degree in choral conducting and organ performance. Merivil is also the accompanist for the 100-voice Greater Atlanta Adventist Academy Concert Choir and has most recently collaborated with the Georgia Boy Choir and the Wendell P. Whalum Community Chorus, as well as with other solo artists throughout the Southeast. Active in the Atlanta music community, Merivil currently serves as the repertoire and standards chair for music and worship for the Georgia chapter of the American Choral Directors Association and is on the executive committee of the Atlanta Chapter of the American Guild of Organists. Charles Settle, part-time instructor of percussion at Georgia State University, joined the percussion section of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra in 2004 and holds the endowed William A. Schwartz Chair. During the 2008-2009 season, Settle took a one-year leave of absence from the Atlanta Symphony and joined the New York Philharmonic as a percussionist and assistant timpanist, where he toured, participated in recording projects, and performed a complete Mahler cycle with the Berlin Staatskapelle Orchestra

during their residency at Carnegie Hall. He also performs as a member of the Sun Valley Summer Symphony Orchestra in Sun Valley, Idaho, and has performed with the Detroit Symphony. Prior to accepting the position in Atlanta, he was a member of the New World Symphony in Miami Beach, Florida, and performed with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Settle graduated from Interlochen Arts Academy and received a Bachelor of Music degree from the Curtis Institute of Music, where he studied with Michael Bookspan and Don Liuzzi. Daniel Welborn is assistant professor in instrumental music education at Georgia State University. He holds a Ph.D. in music education from the University of Southern Mississippi, a Master of Education in educational leadership and administration from Georgia State University and a Bachelor of Music Education from the University of Southern Mississippi. Welborn has been involved with music education at the collegiate, secondary and elementary levels for over 20 years. Thirteen of these years involved teaching and helping develop the band program at Mabry Middle School in Marietta, Ga., a feeder program for the Lassiter High School Band program. Prior to his initial appointment as a visiting lecturer at Georgia State University in 2011, he spent two years as a doctoral conducting assistant with the University of Southern Mississippi Wind Ensemble, where he studied with Thomas Fraschillo. Welborn’s research interests include instrumental music pedagogy, music psychology, and adult musicians as lifelong learners.

Kennesaw State University

Debra Traficante has joined the faculty of Kennesaw State University as associate director of bands and director of athletic bands. She holds a B.M. degree in music education, cum laude, from the University of Florida, a M.M. in wind band conducting from the University of Florida, and a D.M.A. in wind band conducting from the University of Oklahoma on an earned Fellowship. Traficante began her service as assistant director of university bands at the University of Oklahoma in 2009 and served as interim director of The Pride of Oklahoma Marching Band in the spring of 2013. In Florida, she was director of bands for five years at New Smyrna Beach High School, and assistant director of bands for two years at Buchholz High School. James Barket, newly appointed artist-inresidence in double bass, earned a D.M.A. GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, a M.M. from Yale University, a B.M. from the University of Hartford, a Fulbright Fellowship to Vienna Austria (1992-93), and K-12 music certification from Georgia State University. He is orchestra director at Webb Bridge Middle School in Alpharetta, Ga. Under his leadership, WBMS was invited to perform for the GMEA In-Service Conference in 2008, the ASTA National Orchestra Competition in 2006, and most recently in 2011, the WBMS Advanced Violin Ensemble was requested by Governor Nathan Deal to perform at the Governor’s Mansion for Valedictorian Day. Barket has worked with the South Georgia String Project in Valdosta, taught class strings at Parker Mathis Elementary and Lowndes Middle Schools, and has been active with the Valdosta Symphony Youth Orchestra. Julie Coucheron, artist-in-residence in piano, was born in Oslo, Norway, where she began to study piano at the age of four. She earned the bachelor’s and master’s degrees with honors from the Royal Academy of Music in London, while also gaining her LRAM teaching diploma. Coucheron has established an international career, winning prizes in Italy, Germany, and in the United States. She has worked with Lazar Berman, Claude Frank, Emanuel Ax, Vladimir Feltsman, John O’Connor, and Chistopher O’Riley, playing in respected venues such as Verizon Hall, Wigmore Hall, the Kennedy Center, and Carnegie Hall. Together with concertmaster of the ASO, David Coucheron, and principal cellist Chris Rex, Coucheron performs regularly around the world. Jessica Jones, artist-in-residence in voice, earned the B.M. and M.M. degrees from the Curtis Institute of Music.  Her operatic training was with the Houston Grand Opera Studio.  Under the baton of Lorin Maazel, Jones appeared with the New York Philharmonic and the Chicago Symphony. She has worked with such notable conductors as Christoph Eschenbach, Gerard Schwarz, Yan-Pascal Tortelier, Emmanuel Krivine, and Nicholas McGegan. She has appeared with the San Francisco Symphony, the Baltimore Symphony, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra, the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, the San Diego Symphony, the Atlanta Symphony, the Detroit Symphony, the Seattle Symphony, and the Pittsburgh Symphony. Kayleen Justus, ethnomusicologist, earned her doctorate in musicology from Florida State University after completing two years of interdisciplinary field research with the Alzheimer’s Project, Inc. of GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

Tallahassee, where she served as a volunteer respite care provider and musician for the non-profit organization. At Florida State University, Justus was a lecturer for various undergraduate music courses, including Modern Popular Music and American Roots Music, and was the director of the FSU steel band, Mas N’ Steel, from 2007 until 2011. She maintains an active performance schedule, both as a world music percussionist and as the director of two community steel drum ensembles in Tallahassee. Michael Tiscione, artist-in-residence in trumpet, holds a B.M. degree from Indiana University and earned the M.M. degree from Northwestern University. A native of Monroe, NY, Tiscione joined the trumpet section of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra during the 2002-2003 season, left the ASO to join the San Francisco Symphony as second trumpet for the 2010-2011 season, and has since returned to the ASO to perform as second trumpet and acting associate principal trumpet. He previously served as an adjunct faculty member at the University of Georgia and Georgia State University. 

LaGrange College Beth Everett is associate professor of music and director of choral ensembles at LaGrange College where she conducts the LaGrange Chamber Singers and teaches courses in conducting and vocal music. She holds a D.M.A. from the University of Southern Mississippi, a master’s degree in choral conducting from Southern Methodist University, and a Bachelor of Church Music from Palm Beach Atlantic University. Choirs under her direction have performed across the United States as well as internationally. The Bethel University Singers participated in the American International Choral Festival in St. Louis and received a Gold Diploma in adjudication. Everett remains active as a singer. She is a member of Voices, a professional choir based out of the Eastman School of Music, and has performed the mezzo soprano solos for such major choral works as Handel’s Messiah, Vivaldi’s Gloria, Mozart’s Requiem, and Mendelssohn’s Elijah.

Mercer University Kathryn White, assistant professor of music history, joined the faculty at the Townsend School of Music in Fall 2013. She has taught at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke and the Jacobs School of Music at Indiana University, where she completed the Ph.D. degree in musicology.

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She earned the M.A. from Indiana University and the B.M.A. from the University of Michigan. In her first year at Mercer University, she received the Townsend School of Music Outstanding Teacher Award. She has presented at the annual meetings of the Society for American Music and the College Music Society. An active violist, White directed the middle school strings program at the O’Neal School in Southern Pines, N.C., and maintained a private studio where she taught violin, viola, cello, and piano. She has performed with the Green Bay Symphony, Fox Valley Symphony, Fayetteville Symphony Orchestra, and Long Bay Symphony. She has developed online courses in music theory and music appreciation for the North Carolina Virtual Public Schools. Currently, she is the program notes annotator for the International Chamber Artists in Chicago. Emily Andrews, instructor of church music, is a Ph.D. candidate in Christian Worship at Fuller Theological Seminary.  She earned the M.M. from Baylor University, M.Div. from Truett Theological Seminary, and B.M. from Samford University.  Prior to joining Mercer, she taught courses in music and worship at Azusa Pacific University.  An ordained minister, Andrews is deeply committed to the corporate worship life of the church and has maintained an active role in various music ministries, serving congregations in Alabama, Texas, and California.  Her research interests include studies of Baptist and evangelical worship, sacramental theology, and the interlacing of music and theology.  Having published resources and articles on music and worship, Andrews maintains involvement in the North American Academy of Liturgy. 

Piedmont College

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Jonathan Pilkington has joined the Piedmont faculty as assistant professor of music, where he teaches voice, opera workshop, and introduction to music. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Shorter College, a master’s degree form Westminster Choir College, and a doctorate from University of Georgia. Pilkington has been a featured soloist for oratorio performances, and has presented recitals and performed as a professional chorister throughout the United States and Europe. 

University of Georgia Cynthia Johnston Turner, newly appointed director of bands, is past director of Cornell University’s wind ensemble and

serves as faculty with the Performing Arts Institute at the Pennsylvania Wyoming Seminary, Syracuse Society of New Music, Austrian Festival Orchestra, and Salzburg’s Paris Lodron Ensemble. Recent engagements include the National Youth Wind Ensemble of Great Britain, Syracuse Symphony, National Youth Band of Canada, and the Latin American Honor Band. She has contributed to numerous music education and wind band publications, and has recorded CDs with the Innova and Albany labels. Edward Asmus, professor of music education, is former associate dean of graduate studies and professor of music education at the University of Miami Frost School of Music. Asmus has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Research The Columbus Symphony Youth Orchestra in Music Education, The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, and multiple other publications. He is a past advisor to Psychomusicology and Psychology of Music and a past editor of the Journal of Music Teacher Education. He is also creator of The Music Education Search System, the Music Researcher’s E-Mail Directory, the Music Research Web Site, and the Music Assessment Web Site. Emily Frey, assistant professor, holds a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, where her last year of study was supported by an Alvin H. Johnson-AMS 50 Dissertation Fellowship. Her research focuses on opera and literature in nineteenthcentury Russia, and her article “Nowhere Man: Evgeny Onegin and the Politics of Reflection in Nineteenth-Century Russia” appeared in Berkeley’s 19th-Century Music. She is currently writing a book, entitled Russian Opera in the Age of Psychological Prose, on the relationship between opera and psychological literature between 1866 and 1881. Robert Akridge has joined the Hodgson faculty as assistant director of bands and aband festivals. A retired music educator with 27 years of experience throughout the state of Georgia, his most recent position was at North Oconee High School. During his tenure at North Oconee, both concert and marching bands consistently received superior ratings. The marching band received numerous class, division, and grand champion awards. A former Redcoat Band member, he received his bachelors and master’s degrees in music education from the University of Georgia. He was a Star Teacher state finalist in 1998. Akridge is an active drill writer, consultant, and adjudicator. Brett Bawcum is assistant director GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

of bands, associate director of athletic bands, and director of band festivals at the University of Georgia. He shares responsibility for design, instruction, and administration of the Redcoat Marching Band and serves as its primary drill-writer. He also consults and advises on other athletic band matters, having served as basketball band director for ten years. He has served as conductor of the UGA Concert Band and Symphonic Band and guest conductor of the UGA Wind Symphony and Wind Ensemble. He administers the UGA Middle School Band Festival and January High School Band Festival. He created the UGA Summer Marching Band Camp and continues to serve as its associate director. Bawcum also co-created the modern UGA Summer Music Camp and shared direction of the camp from 2002 to 2011.

University of North Georgia Gabe Fankhauser was recently appointed assistant professor of music theory at the University of North Georgia. He joins UNG from Appalachian State University in Boone, NC, where he coordinated and taught music theory for 14 years. His publications and conference presentations have included research in hypermeter and phrase rhythm, extended tonality, Schenkerian analysis, popular music, and music theory pedagogy.

University of West Georgia Beverly Noell holds a Master of Arts degree in music performance from California State University. Her background includes teaching flute and strings, and many years teaching music to elementary school students.  She established the first elementary strings program in Carroll County.  She was honored with the Mr. Holland’s Opus Award for Teaching Excellence in 2005 in New York City. Noell will teach String Techniques and Materials at the University of West Georgia. Tom Gibson is one of the most active brass performers and teachers in the country. He has performed solo recitals, concerts, master classes, and clinics around the world. He enjoys a triple career as trombonist, conductor, and teacher/coach. Gibson is an Eastman Corporation Performing Artist and proudly performs on his Shires Trombone. He holds a B.M. degree from the University of Michigan, a M.M. from the University of Northern Colorado and a D.M.A. from the Catholic University of America. Gibson will be instructor of trombone at the University of West Georgia. GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

Philip Barnard holds a M.M. degree in orchestral conducting from Georgia State University. He has taught instrumental music at several schools throughout the country, and is currently the orchestra director at Dunwoody High School in Atlanta. Barnard brings a wealth of experience in orchestral conducting to West Georgia, in addition to his expertise in woodwind instruments. He will be instructor of oboe at the University of West Georgia. Tim Fitzgerald holds a M.M. degree in clarinet performance from Southern Illinois University. He has been instructor of clarinet at several secondary schools, and currently is instructor of woodwinds at Emory University. Fitzgerald is a member of the GremlinsDuo, currently touring the Southeast. A highly successful performer as well as instructor, he brings his talents as instructor of clarinet to the University of West Georgia.

Valdosta State University Kristin Pfeifer Yu is lecturer of violin at Valdosta State University, where she also serves as principal second violin for the Valdosta Symphony Orchestra, and second violinist for the Azalea String Quartet. She received the baccalaureate and master’s degrees from the University of Kentucky, where she was a member of the Verdi String Quartet, one of the fellowship string quartets in residence. As an active chamber musician, Pfeifer has had the opportunity to work with St. Martin in the Fields, the Ying Quartet, members of the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, and Trio Solis. She has attended numerous summer festivals such as the Brevard Music Center, Chautauqua Music Festival, Le Domaine Forget, Indiana University String Academy, and Colorado College Summer Music Festival, among others. Pfeifer holds a D.M.A. from Florida State University where she studied with and served as graduate teaching assistant to Eliot Chapo, former concertmaster of the New York Philharmonic As a Suzuki-registered teacher, she took the initiative to help start the Character Center String Academy, an afterschool enrichment program for grade school students in Tallahassee, as well as an outreach chamber music program for the Okaloosa and Walton County Schools. Her published doctoral treatise is entitled Augusta Read Thomas’s “Sun Threads” for String Quartet: A Study and Performer’s Guide. She continues to explore contemporary compositions for solo violin as well as repertoire for mixed instrumentation with the traditional string quartet.

Gabe Fankhauser Beverly Noell Tom Gibson Philip Barnard Tim Fitzgerald Kristin Pfeifer Yu 55

CSU Wind Ensemble Performs at CBDNA The CSU Wind Ensemble has been selected to perform at the 2015 National Conference of the College Band Directors National Association.  This will mark the second time the ensemble has performed at this biennial event. The concert performance will be on Thursday, March 26, at 1:30 p.m. at the Schermerhorn Symphony Center, home of the Nashville Symphony, in Nashville. The area of wind ensemble activities at Columbus State University is directed by Jamie L. Nix and includes the CSU Wind Ensemble, Wind Orchestra, Chamber Winds, and the Graduate Wind Band Conducting program. The Wind Ensemble performs repertoire spanning almost 500 years, from the Renaissance period to today’s modern, cutting-edge works. One of the guiding principles of the ensemble is the connection to leading musical minds. Through commissioning and performing new works by highly regarded composers to collaborations with world-class performing artists, the CSU Wind Ensemble has distinguished itself as a leader among university ensembles. Through CSU’s annual

Conductors Workshop, the ensembles have hosted many well-known guest conductors. The 2014 guests are Eugene Migliaro Corporon and Kevin Sedatole. Guest soloists and ensembles are also a vital part of the regular curriculum and have included many faculty soloists as well as nationally recognized performers such as Charlie Vernon, Mikhail Yanovitsky, Marimba Yajalon, Andrew Harnsberger, Jonathan Keeble, Peter Kurau, Jens Lindemann, and others. The wind ensemble area has been active in several commissions and consortia including Robert Beaser’s song cycle The End of Knowing, Paul Dooley’s Point Blank, Carter Pann’s Symphony for Winds, Mason Bates’s Sea Blue Circuitry, John Mackey’s new fanfare for brass (due in 2015), Shafer Mahoney’s Symphony in E-flat for Wind Orchestra (on the Summit recording Wind Legacy), Dorothy Chang’s Sunan Dances (on the Summit recording Journey), J. M. David’s Sinfonietta No. 1 (on the Summit recording Electric Dawn), and I Wander in a Dream of My Own Making by Christopher Theofanidis (on the Summit recording Visions).

CSU Wind Ensemble

Columbus State Hosts International Saxophone Symposium On October 23-26 Columbus State University’s Schwob School of Music and saxophone professor Amy Griffiths will host the Second International Saxophone Symposium and Competition (ISSAC). ISSAC is an international solo saxophone competition where many of the most gifted young saxophonists in the world perform in three live competition rounds.  In 56

addition to the competition, ISSAC will feature a large exhibit hall, a recital and masterclass by virtuoso French soloist Vincent David, and a separate masterclass by internationally acclaimed saxophonist Kenneth Tse, saxophone professor at the University of Iowa. Preceding ISSAC 2014, a concert featuring Branford Marsalis with the Philadelphia Chamber Orchestra will

take place in the RiverCenter’s Legacy Hall on the evening of Wednesday, October 22. ISSAC was created in 2012 as an opportunity for exceptional saxophonists to perform in an international competition setting in North America and also to celebrate saxophone playing of the highest calibre. ISSAC draws saxophonists and saxophone enthusiasts from every corner of the globe. All of the advanced rounds of the competition are live and open to the public. A $50 fee includes attendance at all ISSAC events: observation of all live rounds of the competition, observation of all masterclasses, entry to Vincent David’s recital, and access to the exhibit hall. Tickets to the Branford Marsalis concert are a separate $50. Please visit for more information.

Georgia Southern Hosts Horn Workshop On Saturday, November 1, Georgia Southern University will host the 2014 Southeastern Georgia Horn Workshop from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Directed by Stephanie Furry, GSU professor of horn, the workshop is dedicated to promoting educational and performance opportunities to students and teachers of all ages, backgrounds, and levels of interest. The schedule includes guest recitals, ensemble performances, exhibits with the latest instrument models from Conn-Selmer, horn-related equipment from Pladd Dot Music, and educational clinic sessions of interest and benefit to all who play or teach horn. Featured artists presented in recital include Stephanie Furry, assistant professor of horn at GSU, Nancy S. Bennett, instructor of horn at Armstrong State University, Michael Daly, principal horn with the Savannah Symphony, and Ashia Miller, horn teacher for S.O.N.A.T.A. (Supporters of New and Talented Artists), a private lesson scholarship foundation in Savannah. Workshop attendees will have an opportunity to participate in horn choir rehearsals throughout the day that culminate in a closing horn choir performance. Session topics include, but are not limited to: Performance Masterclasses, Horn Care and Maintenance, Horn Performance Techniques, How to Select and Test a Horn, Tools to Overcome Audition/Performance Anxiety, GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

Q & A on Horn Related Topics for Educators, and Audition Preparation. For full information on guest artists, schedule, and registration fees, visit ce/programs/professionaldevelopment/ hornworkshop/.

New Degree Programs Announced Georgia State University The Georgia State University School of Music, through the university’s College of Education, now offers a three-year Ed.D. in curriculum and instruction (music education concentration). The degree is expressly intended for those who will remain working in Georgia’s public schools. Admission is highly competitive. Students must begin the program in the summer term and will take courses while continuing their teaching


jobs. Coursework leads directly to the dissertation. Ed.D. students in music education are eligible for generous graduate assistantships.

Mercer University

The Townsend School of Music, Mercer University Macon, announces availability of a Bachelor of Music degree with elective studies in an outside field. The new program will offer a performance degree, with the additional opportunity to include 18 hours of study in an elective area. The degree replaces Townsend’s Bachelor of Musical Arts.

University of Georgia

The University of Georgia Hugh Hodgson School of Music is pleased to announce a new online Master of Music Education degree program. The program, geared toward providing post-graduate professional development to in-service music educators, will begin taking applicants in the spring, with coursework beginning in the summer semester. “The creation of this degree represents another

step toward giving educators as many options as possible,” said Dale Monson, director of the Hodgson School. “Offering this online degree program reaffirms the university’s commitment to teaching, research, and service.” The Master of Music Education degree is designed to enhance both practitioner and research skills, preparing certified teachers to assume professional leadership roles in such activities as curriculum design, methodology, mentorship, and teacher research. Coursework for the program consists of a minimum of 33 semester hours. Prerequisite is a baccalaureate degree in music education from an accredited institution. Completion of the degree leads to Georgia Teacher Certification in music at the T-5 level. “Offering an online degree will open the doors of opportunity to those otherwise unable to complete their postgraduate studies,” said Monson. “We’re proud to continue UGA’s strong tradition of producing superior educators for future generations.” More information about the degree, the application process, and financial aid is available at


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Valdosta State to Host Jazz Event On December 5-6 Valdosta State University will host the state high school jazz clinic and the Georgia All-State Jazz Ensemble auditions, a yearly event sponsored by the Georgia Association of Jazz Educators (GAJE) and the Georgia Association of Music Educators (GMEA). Students will be placed in five honor jazz ensembles that will rehearse and present a concert Saturday afternoon at 4:00 p.m. The VSU Jazz Ensemble will present a concert on Friday evening at 7:30 p.m. in the Whitehead Auditorium featuring Don Braden, guest artist and clinician. Saxophonist Braden has performed with such greats as Betty Carter, Wynton Marsalis, Freddie Hubbard, Tom Harrell, Tony Williams, and many others. He has recorded 18 CDs as a leader and was the co-music supervisor/composer for Bill Cosby’s CBS sitcom “Cosby.” A Getzen 3508Y Custom Jazz Tenor trombone will be awarded as a prize to the top-scoring trombonist participating in the

clinic. Interested directors can contact GAJE Clinic Coordinator John Abert <> for more information.

Freer Appointed Interim Director Patrick K. Freer, professor of music education, has been appointed interim director of the Georgia State University School of Music. Freer holds degrees from Westminster Choir College and Teachers College, Columbia University. He has published over 90 articles in most of the field’s leading national and international journals, and is currently serving as academic editor and chair of the editorial committees for Music Educators Journal. Active as a guest conductor of honor choirs throughout the nation, Freer’s research focuses on the sociology of adolescent boys during and following the voice change.


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November 4. Concert. Jade String Trio. Presser Hall, Maclean Auditorium. 7:30 p.m. Admission free. November 20. Concert. Collegiate Chorale & Sotto Voce, Elise Eskew Sparks, conductor, David D’Ambrosio, accompanist. Presser Hall, Maclean Auditorium. 6:00 p.m. Admission free.


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Clayton State University November 20. Concert. Clayton State University Orchestra, Richard Bell, conductor. Spivey Hall. 7:30 p.m. Admission free. December 7. Concert. Clayton State University Chorale, Michael Fuchs, conductor. Spivey Hall. 3:00 p.m. Admission free.

Georgia Southern University November 14. East Meets West International Festival Recital. Professor 58

Fu-Chien Cho, piano, and Professor ChiaoLing Sun, violin, National Taiwan University of the Arts, with the Elaris Duo, Larisa Elisha, violin, and Steven Elisha, cello. Carol A. Carter Recital Hall. 7:30 p.m. Admission free. December 7. Concert. Southern Chorale and University Singers. First United Methodist Church of Statesboro. 3:00 p.m. Admission free.

Georgia State University November 7, 8, & 9. Opera. Rossini’s Il barbiere di Siviglia. University Opera Theater. Florence Kopleff Recital Hall. 8:00 p.m. (November 7 & 8); 3:00 p.m. & 8:00 p.m. (November 9). Admission $10 general, $5 with student ID. Tickets available at the door, cash or check only. December 6 & 7. Annual Gala Holiday Concert. 200 student musicians in a range of School of Music ensembles, including the University Symphony Orchestra, Brass Ensemble, Jazz Combo, Saxophone Ensemble, and combined choruses, GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

performing seasonal favorites. Rialto Center for the Arts. Admission: $22, $32, and $48; GSU students, faculty, and staff half-price with ID.

Carols. Mercer Singers, Stanley L. Roberts, conductor. St. Joseph Catholic Church, Macon. 7:30 p.m. Admission free.

Kennesaw State University November 4. School of Music Concerto Competition. KSU Music Students. Bailey Center for the Performing Arts. 8:00 p.m. Admission $9-$12. November 14 & 15. Opera. Pasatieri’s Hotel Casablanca. KSU Opera Theater. Bailey Center for the Performing Arts. 8:00 p.m. Admission $11-$15.

November 18. Concert. Piedmont College Wind Ensemble, Vicki Pinson, conductor. Piedmont College Chapel. 7:30 p.m. Admission free. December 5 & 6. Annual Service of Lessons and Carols. Piedmont Chorale, Lauren Ringwall, conductor, Joy Hayner, organ, Piedmont Brass Ensemble. Piedmont College Chapel. 7:30 p.m. Admission free.

LaGrange College

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December 7. Concert. Lessons and Carols. Callaway Auditorium. 7:30 p.m. Admission free.

November 5, 6, & 7. Opera. Humperdinck’s Hansel & Gretel. UGA Opera Theatre, Symphony Orchestra, and Georgia Children’s Chorus. UGA Performing Arts Center. 7:30 p.m. Admission $18; $5 with UGA student ID. December 4 & 5. University of Georgia Holiday Concert. UGA Symphony Orchestra and combined choirs. Athens Classic Center Theatre. 7:30 p.m. Admission $18; $5 with

Mercer University October 10. Concert. Mercer University Orchestra, Ward Stare, conductor. Fickling Hall, McCorkle Music Building. 7:30 p.m. Admission free. December 6. A Festival of Lessons and

Piedmont College

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University of North Georgia October 23. Concert. UNG Wind Ensemble. Hoag Auditorium, Dahlonega Campus. 8:00 p.m. Admission free December 2. Concert. University Chorale. Ed Cabell Theater, Gainesville campus. 7:30 p.m. Admission free.

University of West Georgia November 14. Concert. UWG Jazz Ensemble, Daniel Bakos, director. Townsend Center for the Performing Arts. 7:30 p.m. Admission free. November 18. Concert. UWG Concert Choir and Chamber Singers, Kevin Hibbard, conductor. Townsend Center for the Performing Arts. 8:15 p.m. Admission free.

Valdosta State University November 15. Beethoven Concert. Valdosta Symphony Orchestra with Awadagin Pratt, guest pianist. Whitehead Auditorium. 8:00 p.m. Admission $27.


17TH ANNUAL CONDUCTORS WORKSHOP November 21 & 22, 2014 Begins Friday afternoon and continues through Saturday evening Eugene Corporon

Kevin Sedatole

Large and Chamber Ensemble Conducting Sessions Lectures and Panel Discussions Conductor ($225) | Auditor ($75) | SDU (add $10) Click “2014 Conductors Workshop” at Workshop details, downloadable brochure, and on-line registration available For questions, email Fletcher Peacock at or call 706-649-7252

Jamie L. Nix



The Seventh Event

Georgia All-State Marching Band: 1960-1965 William E. Fry In a recent e-mail to GMEA Orchestra members, Nicole Thompson, GMEA orchestra chair, reported that the growth in the quality of Georgia orchestra programs, combined with additional rehearsal space for future All-State events at the University of Georgia, would allow for the expansion of All-State participation. Beginning in 2015, orchestra students will now have the opportunity of participating in six All-State Ensembles, double the number of ensembles offered in the past. This increase in All-State ensembles is just the latest round of replications and expansions that began with a doubling of the Senior High All-State Band in 1975. Since that time, All-State ensembles have increased in all three of the major GMEA performance divisions. Additionally, new All-State groups, such as the All-College Band and All-State Jazz Band were added to GMEA’s All-State offerings in the late 1970s. With all this growth in All-State activity, it is difficult to believe that one GMEA All-State Ensemble, the Georgia All-State Marching Band, failed to survive. This All-State Marching Band existed from 1960 to 1965. George Corradino of Columbus, GMEA’s instrumental chair, led a group that organized the first All-State Marching Band in 1960. The event began with joint sponsorship of the Atlanta Journal and the Georgia High School Association (GHSA) and involved a one-week marching experience at the University of Georgia, culminating with a half-time performance of the annual GHSA North-South All-Star Game at Georgia Tech’s Grant Field. Corradino’s first official statement concerning the All-State Marching 60

Band occurred in the Georgia Music News, where he stated two goals: “to bring ideas and inspiration to directors and members of Georgia school bands and bring some sorely needed favorable publicity to our school music program” (Corradino, May 1960, p. 4). The ensemble consisted of about 108 members: 96 instrumentalists, 11 majorettes, and one drum major. From the beginning, the selection of the membership was based on band director recommendation. One majorette and alternate was appointed by each of the 11 GMEA districts, a process that most districts accomplished during solo/ensemble festivals in the spring. The only statewide head-to-head competition occurred with the selection of drum majors, who met for try-outs in Dublin. This format, along with the aforementioned organizational details provided above, changed very little during the group’s six-year history.

1960 All-State Marching Band The 1960 All-State Marching Band, representing 34 schools, headed to Athens on the afternoon of Sunday, July 31, and rehearsed there until Thursday afternoon, August 4. Mr. William Swor, then director of DuPont High School in Jacksonville, Fla., served as guest conductor. During the week Frank Arsenault, percussion clinician, and Roger Dancz, band director at the University of Georgia, held clinics for band directors. Reaction to the inaugural All-State halftime performance was positive. In comments to Corradino, Sam Burke, GHSA executive secretary, stated, “The band did a fine job. . . . I have heard a lot of fine comments in regard to the performance. This is one of the finest things you have done for music in the state” (Corradino, Sept. 1960, p. 13).

1961 All-State Marching Band

George Corradino

Writing in the March 1961 issue of Georgia Music News, Corradino announced the forthcoming information and application sheets for the 1961 All-State Marching Band. Two months later, in his last Georgia Music News communication to the membership before his term expired in the summer of 1961, Corradino confirmed the selection of Frank Piersol from Iowa State as the 1961 AllState Marching Band director and clinician (Corradino, May 1961, p. 14). This All-State event was held at the University of Georgia from Sunday, July 30, through noon on Thursday, August GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

3, at which time the band departed for an evening performance at the GHSA All-Star game at Georgia Tech’s Grant Field. The 1961 All-State Marching Band was comprised of 100 students; an alternate band, directed by Roger Dancz and Steve Pyron, contained 50 students. In an increase over the previous year, 52 schools were represented and about 50 directors attended clinics and All-State Marching Band rehearsals. Reaction to the 1961 All-State Band was favorable. In an account of the GHSA All-Star football game, an Atlanta Journal reporter stated, “The All-State Marching Band, studded with bandsmen from all over Georgia, climaxed the show with a baton dance performed by 12 All-State majorettes to Dixie” (South 21, p. 14). In his final report, Lloyd Tarpley, GMEA state instrumental chair, wrote:   “The All-State Marching Band presented an exceptionally fine and well received halftime show. It is the general consensus that the 2nd Annual All-Star Marching Band was very successful. Much hard work went into it, but the students and directors benefitted and the results were most gratifying” (Tarpley, n.d., p. 2).

1962 All-State Band Information for the 1962 All-State Marching Band was contained within Lloyd Tarpley’s Georgia Music News column in March 1962. He announced the hiring of Don Marcoullier of Drake University as the 1962 All-State Marching Band Director. The four-day AllState marching event was held from Sunday, July 29, through Thursday, August 2, at the same practice sites and performance venue as that of the past two years. The 1962 All-State Band contained 96 instrumentalists and 11 majorettes from a total of 56 schools. Randall Richards of Murray County High School served as drum major. In his recap of the GHSA All-Star football game, Furman Bisher, sports editor for the Atlanta Journal, wrote, “An All-Star Band of high school players romped onto the field at half-time and stole their part of the show, and their performance, with four days of rehearsal, was remarkable” (Bisher, p. 17).

1963 All-State Band The 1963 All-State Marching Band met at the University of Georgia on Sunday, August 4, and rehearsed for four days before performing at the GHSA All-Star game on Thursday, August 8. The 108-member band was composed of students from 70 high schools. William “Rip” Reagan of Emma Sampson GEORGIA MUSIC NEWS, VOL. 75, NUMBER 1, FALL 2014

High School in Gadsden, Ala., served as guest director and clinician, while Phyllis Dancz choreographed the majorette routines. In his first article as GMEA instrumental chair, Sanford B. Campbell wrote:   “The Fourth Annual All-State Marching Band presented a spectacular half-time show at the All-Star Football Game in Atlanta. The band, under the direction of Billy “Rip” Reagan, was certainly a tribute to the fine work being done by the directors throughout the state” (Campbell, Sept. 1963, p. 18). In a letter of information concerning the 1964 All-State Marching Band, Huey G. Kent, chair of the 1964 All-State Band, gave his assessment of the 1963 All-State Marching Band: “Last year’s All-State Marching Band was a spectacular success. The members returned to their bands with renewed inspiration and enthusiasm. The performance of our high school musicians thrilled the 35,000 fans at Grant Field” (Kent, n.d.).

accurate description of the 1965 All-State Marching Band. This band is a credit to the state instrumental directors as it received many rounds of applause from the crowd at Grant Field in Atlanta, while presenting pre-game and half-time shows at the Georgia High School All-Star Game” (1965 All-State, p. 11). By 1965 the All-State Band had established itself as a performance and public relations success; however, the operation had run a deficit since 1963. Additionally, an increasing number of directors began to question the educational value of such an All-State group. To assist in planning for the future, the Instrumental Division sought band directors’ advice and input statewide, the results of which were overwhelmingly negative (King, Feb. 1966, p. 19). A motion was made and accepted to discontinue the All-State Marching Band, thus ending a part of GMEA All-State history.

1964 All-State Band


In the February 1964 issue of Georgia Music News, Sanford Campbell announced the selection of Jack Lee of the University of Arizona as the 1964 All-State Marching Band director and clinician. All-State Marching week was held at the University of Georgia August 2-6, with the half-time show performance at Grant Field in Atlanta on the evening of August 6. Phyllis Dancz organized the majorette routines. In follow-up comments written in his Georgia Music News instrumental music column, Campbell remarked, “Our 1964 All-State Marching Band was certainly a big success. . . . the band was a real tribute to the fine work being done by directors throughout the state” (Campbell, Sept. 1964, p. 10).

1965 All-State Marching Band. (1965, September). Georgia Music News. Bisher, F. “South 7 – North 6.” Atlanta Journal, 3 August 1962, p. 17. Campbell, S. B. (1963, September). Instrumental Division column. Georgia Music News. Campbell, S.B. I(1964, September). Instrumental Division column. Georgia Music News. Corradino, G. (1960, May). All State Marching Band. Georgia Music News. Corradino, G. (1960, September). Instrumental Division column. Georgia Music News. Corradino, G. (1961, May.) Instrumental Division column. Georgia Music News. Kent, H. G. (n.d.). “Georgia All-State Band.” TM, Georgia College and State University Library, Milledgeville. King, M. W. (1966, February). Instrumental Division column. Georgia Music News. South 21 – North 6. Atlanta Journal, 4 August 1961, p. 14. Tarpley, L. (n.d.). “1961 All-State Marching Band Report,” p. 2. TMs, Georgia College and State University Library, Milledgeville.

1965 All-State Band The 1965 edition of the All-State Marching Band, chaired by Huey Kent, was held at the traditional rehearsal and performance locations from Sunday, August 1, to Thursday, August 5. William H. Basden, director of the award-winning Camden High School (S.C.) Marching Band, directed the band and presented several clinics. Prior to the start of the GHSA All-Star game, Boyd McKeown, president of GMEA, directed the All-State Marching Band in the National Anthem. In a review of the 1965 All-State Marching Band, a Georgia Music News writer recapped with the following:   “A band characterized by fine precision maneuvers and a ‘big’ sound would be an

William E. Fry retired as a band and orchestra director in 2011 after 36 years of teaching. Currently, he is director of the Columbus Community Orchestra and teaches Music Appreciation at Columbus Technical College. 61

Music at Georgia State University. Create. Produce. Perform. Inspire. Fall COnCert hIGhlIGhtS

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Rossiniâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s The Barber of Seville Georgia State University Opera Theater November 7-9, 2014 Kopleff Recital Hall

Composition Jazz Studies Music Education

Friday, November 14, 2014 Monday, February 16, 2015 Friday, March 6, 2015 (instrumental) Saturday, March 7 ,2015 (voice)

17th Annual Gala Holiday Concert December 6 & 7, 2014 Rialto Center for the Arts

Music Management Music Technology Performance

GradUate deGreeS/PrOGraMS Master of Music Artist Certificate in Music Doctor of Philosophy Doctor of Education

Visit for more information on the Georgia State University School of Music and a complete listing of upcoming concerts and events.


2014-2015 GMN Fall Issue