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Apeldoorn 2009 Public Spaces and Public Life

A liveable and viable city centre A city centre that capitalises on its wonderful amenities

A city centre that invites people to visit, stay and interact

A city centre with a 21st century traffic system

An even better city for walking


Client:

The following people from the City of Apeldoorn have participated in collecting data for the

City of Apeldoorn

public life survey:

Stadhuis, Marktplein 1 Postbus 9033

Han Goudswaard

7300 ES Apeldoorn

Dordi de Groot

Nederlands

Karsten Orth Gerrit van Oosterom

Project team: Lucienne Berenschot, adviseur strategie , L.Berenschot@apeldoorn.nl Jos van Nuenen, team leader, j.vannuenen@apeldoorn.nl Gerrit van Oosterom, landscape architect, g.vanoosterom@apeldoorn.nl

Data materials was supplied from department of: Mobiliteit Ruimtelijke Informatie Ruimte Economie en Wonen Uit buro / VVV Cultuurhistorie Milieu

CREDITS Consultant: Gehl Architects - Urban Quality Consultants

Project Manager: Henriette Vamberg, Architect MAA, henriette@gehlarchitects.dk

Project Coordinator: Sia KirknĂŚs, Architect MAA, sia@gehlarchitects.dk

Project Team: Katherine Wimble, stud. arch. Sebastian Pauly, stud. arch.

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Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Foreword It is a great pleasure for me to be able to present the report ‘Public Spaces and Public Life in Apeldoorn’. The inner city of Apeldoorn has to improve! This is the statement which the council made by

in the Gehl Advice is in that sense to ‘stretch’ the public life in stead of only intensify it in

the evaluation of it’s own strategic mission in 2008. I wholeheartedly underline this notion.

the core. The report gives lots of recommendations on how to reach this goal. May of these

A beautiful and vibrant city heart is of great significance for the identity and the image of

are challenging ambitious on the one hand but startlingly simple on the other. To give some

our city. To remain attractive for the young for example. But also for other generations,

examples: more green which is so typical for Apeldoorn, provide seating at sunny spots and

commercial enterprises and visiting tourists.

along the Grift, no blind facades in the pedestrian area, a more balanced and strategically planned event policy. All ways to seduce people to linger and be seduced to broaden their

There are two interwoven tracks by which we will accomplish these goals. One of them is the

activities.

recently developed ‘regieplan’ in which the guidelines are laid out for a more multifunctional development of the inner city. More shops, leisure, housing and social and cultural

This report is a source of inspiration that supports the development goals as pointed out in

commodities must insure that the inner city is a place well worth visiting. During the day and

the 'regieplan'. We will work from here. Practical and pragmatic but for all ambitious. We

also during the evening.

cannot stop half ways or just do ‘something’. We realise that this is not the easy way in these economic uncertain times. But with creativity, an unorthodox approach when needed and

The development of our public space forms another key issue for the next years. Public space

above all with other companions I’m sure that already in the next years we will be able to

determines the atmosphere of the inner city. An inviting and well furbished public space

produce the first glances of the Apeldoorn inner city we all dream of.

invites people to linger. In this way public space is able to function as the accelerator of the desired development as mentioned in the 'regieplan'. If you can invite people to stay other new developments will evolve more quickly and in a better way. Gehl Architectcs specialises in this interplay between public life and public space. Together with us they have analysed our inner city and gave us lots of recommendations as a basis for a strategic development of our public space. Many of these recommendations are already implemented in the 'regieplan'. This report gives you an overview of both the underlying analysis as well as the final recommendations. Fokko Spoelstra The report praises the many qualities of our inner city and points to the many potentials of

Project Elderman innercity

our city centre. At the same times it criticises the limited ways in we make use of these

the 7th of May 2010

potentials. There is no lack of visitors in our inner city is one of the remarkable conclusions. Hoofdstraat being the main artery almost suffers a heart attack of the amount of visitors while other parts of the inner city are almost deserted. The main focus

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Content Credits.............................................................................................2

Evening activities between 21.00 - 23.00.................................... 41

Recommendations

Foreword.........................................................................................3

Events...........................................................................................42

Overview of recommendations....................................................83

Content...........................................................................................5

Eventspace: Marktplein................................................................43 Public places for children..............................................................44

Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its wonderful

Introduction

Students in the city centre...........................................................45

amenities

Executive summary........................................................................6

Age and gender - Hoofdstraat......................................................46

Respect and cherish the heritage buildings.................................86

Study area..................................................................................... 12

Age and gender - Marktstraat.......................................................48

Maintain a human scale city.........................................................86

City scale comparison................................................................... 13

Develop strong links between the city centre and the surrounding

A city with public spaces of low quality

landscapes....................................................................................87

Analysis

Potentials and challenges.............................................................50

Create a green ring around the inner city.....................................87

Overview of analysis..................................................................... 15

Stationary activity counts.............................................................52

Develop a network of green boulevards......................................88

Stationary activity counts vs pedestrian traffic in Hoofdstraat....53

Celebrate the parks.......................................................................88

A city with wonderful amenities

Stationary activity.........................................................................54

'Greening the desert'....................................................................88

Potentials and challenges............................................................. 16

Comparison between city centres...............................................55

Integrate the Kanaal with the city.................................................90

Main areas for residents............................................................... 18

Comparison between mainstreets, Saturday..............................56

Celebrate the streams..................................................................92

Where residents live..................................................................... 19

Comparison between parks.........................................................57

'Irrigating the desert'....................................................................92

Important historical sites and heritage.........................................20

Public benches and pedestrian routes.........................................58

Building heights............................................................................21

Outdoor serving areas..................................................................60

Ensure an even better city for walking

Green trees and green spaces.....................................................22

Privatised public space.................................................................62

Expand the city heart....................................................................96

Landmarks and special features...................................................23

Lack of landmark buildings...........................................................63

Celebrate the passages................................................................98

A good city for walking Potentials and challenges.............................................................24

Microclimate: sun.........................................................................64 Microclimate: wind.......................................................................65

Ensure a city centre that is liveable and viable

Quality of ground floor frontages.................................................66

Work towards a multifunctional city centre...............................102

Walking routes and destinations..................................................26

Create a diverse and lively city centre........................................102

Passages.......................................................................................27

People first, cars second

Pedestrian oriented areas.............................................................28

Potentials and challenges.............................................................58

Street sections..............................................................................29

Through traffic..............................................................................70

Ensure an upgraded public space network

Pedestrian traffic..........................................................................30

Traffic noise...................................................................................72

Strengthen the public space network........................................108

Pedestrian traffic in Hoofdstraat..................................................31

Percieved noise.............................................................................73

Develop versatile public spaces.................................................108

Pedestrian traffic, comparison between mainstreets.................32

Parking.......................................................................................... 74

Improve the visual quality........................................................... 112

Pavemant quality..........................................................................33

Parking and traffic volumes..........................................................75

Waiting time at crossings.............................................................34

Dedicated bicycle tracks & main cycling routes...........................76

Ensure a city centre with a 21st century traffic system

Footpath interruptions..................................................................35

Cycling...........................................................................................77

Avoid through traffic in the city centre....................................... 116

Bicycle parking facilities and main cycling routes........................78

Reduce the amount of parking in the city centre....................... 116

Unorganised bicycle parking.........................................................79

Provide a well integrated public transport.................................. 117

Public transport.............................................................................80

Create an even better city for cycling......................................... 117

A monofunctional city Potentials and challenges.............................................................38 Functions in the city centre..........................................................40

Invite all user groups...................................................................102

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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Executive summary - Analysis

Apeldoorn is a fortunate city of a human scale. The general

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1

A city with wonderful amenities

6

A good city for walking

the many people visiting.

The city centre has through the years been traffic calmed

When comparing this pattern with Odense it is evident

heights of the buildings are between 3-5 storeys and the

and consists of a pedestrianised main street, Hoofdstraat,

that Odense enjoys a quite different situation where the

city centre is rather densely built. This provides excellent

and a series of minor side streets which are also

pedestrians cover a larger area and thus puts more central

conditions for enjoying the climate, in terms of sun and

pedestrianised. In supplement are a number of streets with

streets and squares into play.

little wind at street level. The homogenous building

reduced traffic, Hofstraat, Stationsstraat, Nieuwstraat.

mass also dictates some rather simple messages to new

In the majority of the city centre there is a high pedestrian

buildings, regarding heights and massing, that can be easily

priority e.g. concerning waiting times at crossings,

understood.

possibilities for crossing streets safely, signage etc.

Apeldoorn enjoys a wonderful natural setting unlike the

The pedestrian traffic counts were very high during summer

majority of the Dutch cities. In very close proximity of the

Saturdays, where approx. 35.000 pedestrians walked

city centre are vast nature reserves as the river Ijssel and the

along Hoofdstraat between 8am and 12am. The difference

nationalpark De Hoge Veluwe.

between weekdays and Saturdays is distinct with a 130%

The Kanaal and the streams running underneath the city

difference from weekdays to Saturdays.

centre are other valuable elements that add character and

Compared with similar cities, e.g. Odense Denmark, the

value to the city centre.

pedestrian numbers in Apeldoorn are very impressive. The

In respect of the wonderful natural assets Apeldoorn could

level of pedestrian traffic is 81% higher than the equivalent

do much more to capitalize on these elements in order to add

in Odense.

character and identity to the city centre. As such Apeldoorn

Despite the high levels of pedestrian traffic there is an

is at street level not experienced as a specific green or blue

insufficient pedestrian circulation in the city centre. The

city.

majority of all pedestrians walk on Hoofdstraat, while the

In terms of residents and students, Apeldoorn has a

surrounding city is more or less desolate. There appears to

substantial amount of people living in the city centre. Student

be an inadequate invitation for people to look up other offers.

numbers are low, with ROC as the most valuable addition.

The remaining parts of the city do as such not benefit from

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Introduction

Executive summary - Analysis

3

4

A monofunctional city

facilities offered for children in the city centre. Playgrounds

A city with public spaces of low quality

Apeldoorn is primarily a city where people visit to do their

are quite small and facilities of either worndown quality or of

The stationary counts that were done in Apeldoorn during

shopping. This makes the city centre quite monofunctional

a formal format not inviting for play. As such the majority of

summer 2009 points to an extremely low level of stationary

and creates a situation where the city close with its shops.

playgrounds appear deserted most of the time.

activities being made. The stationary counts register the

The majority of all visitors leave between half an hour

people, who choose to spend time in the city for shorter or

before the shops close and half an hour after. This results

longer periods. The stationary counts are closely interlinked

in a massive pressure on the public transport as well as the

with the quality of the individual public spaces. A public

road network, and it results in a deserted city centre in the

space which is well situated in terms of sun, is equipped

evening, where only very few activities take place in confined

with comfortable benches, has easy access to the pedestrian

areas, e.g. Caterplein.

network, enjoys fine views and a high quality paving and

Events are not a common thing in Apeldoorn where only

furniture is generally well functioning and is visited by a

very few events take place in the city centre in a very small

number of people throughout the day, who choose to spend

selection of public spaces. The majority of all events are the

time and enjoy the city and the specific space. A public

markets in Marktplein. These markets take place 3 times

space which does not work for one reason or another does

during the week in different shapes. Although the markets

not attract a similar number of visitors.

are a positive thing they are also part of the problem of

When comparing the very high numbers on pedestrian traffic

Marktplein which is during the remaining 4 days of the week

with the extremely low numbers on stationary activities it is

a vast deserted public space with no /few functions. As such

obvious that there is an alarming misconception between the

Marktplein is a city square with strong restrictions in terms

number of people who actually visit the city and the number

of use and not the obvious place for festivals or important

of people, who find the quality of its public spaces so good,

city events.

that they choose to spend time there.

The age and gender surveys point towards a lack of elderly

The public spaces of Apeldoorn have been studied in greater

and children in the city centre during summer days. These

detail and a number of conditions point in the direction of

groups are generally uninterested in shopping and if the city

a general quite low quality in the public spaces. E.g. the

has only few other things to offer, these groups tend to stay

main street, Hoofdstraat, is poorly equipped with a low

away. Another issue is the lack of space along Hoofdstraat

quality tarmac paving and a worndown, bulky suite of street

and the general lack of resting facilities.

furniture. This important street ought to get a very special

Although there is an existing policy dictating a maximum

treatment that is able to underline the special character and

distance to playgrounds there is a general low quality in the

significance of Hoofdstraat. A number of other public spaces

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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Introduction

Executive summary - Analysis

4

continued

also await improvement, e.g. Nieuwstraat, Caterplein,

of what goes on in the ground floor and what goes on further

Kanaalstraat and Brinkpark.

up in the building.

To be just it needs to be stressed that the later years work

Active ground floor frontages are an essential part of the

of upgrading a couple of selected public spaces, in particular

contact between what goes on indoors and what goes on

Stationsplein and Hofstraat, has been quite successful and

outdoors. Active frontages are as such part of making streets

has given Apeldoorn a breath of fresh air and a positive

and squares appear inviting and tempting. Blank, defensive

boost.

frontages create a perception of unsafety in the evening and

Other conditions that have an impact on public space quality

send a signal that this is not a place worth walking through.

is the general lack of benches, especially in the areas where

In Apeldoorn there are no big problems with inactive

the most pedestrians are. This problem excludes in particular

frontages in the inner city centre around the shopping

the elderly and families with children and it gives an image

streets. The problem is found though in connection to the

of a city environment, where you need to keep on moving.

station, which is quite unfortunate as a number of people are

Another important focus point in this relation is the climate

compelled to walk here, also in the evening

and the prospects of being able to enjoy the sun and the positive aspects of the climate, which are so important in the Northern European countries. When comparing the number of stationary activities in Apeldoorn with the equivalent in Odense, there is a significant difference in levels. Although Odense has far lower numbers on pedestrian traffic, 81% lower than Apeldoorn on a summer Saturday, it still enjoys almost three times more stationary activities than Apeldoorn. Apeldoorn, with a number of other Dutch cities, suffers from severe problems with commercial elements that in certain cases overtake the general impression of the city. Oversized signs, awnings, parasols, sandwich boards etc. are just some of the elements that cause detriment to the general impression of visual quality. Another problem is the ruthless renovation of older buildings, which create a misconception

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Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


People first, cars second

common facilities that either put bicycles underground or

Apeldoorn enjoys a traffic calmed city centre with a number

inside buildings. These initiatives are remarkable and take

of pedestrianised streets. However very close by are some

a high number of parked bicycles of the streets. There are

major routes carrying 15-20.000 cars every day, causing

though still issues concerning illegally parked bicycles that

noise issues and issues concerning maintaining streets as

need to be dealt with. The most apparent problems are at

city streets with high priority for pedestrians and cyclists.

Radhuisplein and at some of the minor side streets leading to

As such some intersections and streets, e.g. Willem

Hoofdstraat.

Alexanderlaan and the intersection by Grote Kerk, appear

The public transport system is quite reliable and fine grained,

to be out of scale with a city centre situation. These are

though a higher level of information could be called for in

complicated traffic solutions in need of some kind of

terms of waiting time until the next bus etc.

simplification and an acceptance that the service levels for vehicular traffic needs to be lowered a bit to cater for a growing cycling and walking population as well as an effective public transport system. Another difficult issue in Apeldoorn is the extreme high level of parking in the city centre. For a city the size of Apeldoorn there is a quite extravagant supply of parking and an aspiration that parking can never come close enough to the city core. It is believed that no parking equals no shops. The modal split in Apeldoorn is an impressive result of years of focused work to create a highly developed cycling system and a cycling culture. As such 50% of everybody coming to the city come on their bike. This is a high figure and it is one that needs careful work to be maintained at that level. The bicycle network is quite large and routes are well integrated. The facilities, in terms of cycle paths, lights etc., are also of a high standard and there is a general high priority for cyclists in the traffic system. Regarding bicycle parking much has been done to build

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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Introduction

Executive summary - Recommendations

1

Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its wonderful amenities

canoe clubs, a city beach etc.

layout in the city centre and a number of them represent

Other “blue� issues deal with the streams that could be

interesting shortcuts to the hinterland or to hidden spots

The general height level of the city centre should be kept at

highlighted, not necessarily by being dug up, but also through

inside blocks. As such selected passages need to be

the current 3-5 storeys to allow for the best possible micro-

art projects or storytelling.

highlighted and freed up from unnecessary elements. Part

climatic conditions at street level. The existing heritage

of a citywide art strategy could be to highlight these informal

buildings that are of high quality need to be treasured and

connections in interesting and surprising ways.

kept. Apeldoorn enjoys a wonderful natural setting unlike the majority of the Dutch cities. In very close proximity of the city centre are vast nature reserves as the Ijssel and the Veluwe. This should be readable in the city, where routes to these areas could be highlighted and a nature centre could be established to inform about the nature parks. To strengthen the city profile of being a green city and to strengthen what is the city centre and what is its surroundings it is proposed to establish a green connected ring of street trees around the city centre in bordering streets or connections. A network of green boulevards from the city centre to the surroundings is recommended as effective walking and cycling corridors to the city centre, but also as part of a identity program aiming at strengthening Apeldoorn’s green profile. The Kanaal needs to be integrated better with the city centre and as such Kanaalstraat is the most important link straight into the heart of the city. This street needs upgrading as well as the promenade along the waters edge. It is recommended to carefully program the spaces along the Kanaal to enable a multitude of activities to take place. Further work needs to be done to activate this area as water /boating festivals,

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Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

2

The heart of the city needs to be expanded in order to

3

provide better condtions for the people visiting Apeldoorn,

approached and a program on how to introduce a more

to provide more diverse experiences and activities and

multifunctional use of the centre should be developed. This

to enable more streets and squares to get into play. An

includes a careful programming of the more multifunctional

expansion of the city heart will give better conditions

use of the various spaces as well as a recognition of festivals

for people to rest and enjoy Apeldoorn as well as better

and events as important parts of city life. These should be

conditions for a continued growth and a more viable city

carefully programmed and staged.

centre.

Today certain user groups are very low represented in

Focus points in this connection is Marktstraat, which has

Apeldoorns city centre. These are the elderly and the

already been pointed out by the city, but also Nieuwstraat

children. More focused work needs to be installed to invite

could have a more prominent position in the pedestrian

these groups and to offer them functions and activities

network, not necessarily by being pedestrianised but by

they find worthwhile, as well as offering them a pedestrian

having a high pedestrian priority, where pedestrians are not

environment that they can appreciate.

confined to narrow footpaths.

Facilities for children need to be upgraded and in certain

The minor passages are an intriguing element of the street

cases enlarged. The current policy of maximum distances

Ensure an even better city for walking

Ensure a city centre that is liveable and viable The current monofunctional city centre needs to be


Introduction

to playgrounds need to be supplemented or changed into a

installed in especially Hoofdstraat.

immediate ban for building anymore parking structures as

strategy that focuses at quality instead of quantity. As such it

A general toolbox of elements, e.g. benches, lamp posts,

new structures will only attract more traffic to the city centre

would be recommendable with fewer playgrounds of better

bins etc., to be used in the centre can be developed that

and flood the city with even more underused parking. The

quality.

can ensure continuity and high quality in the majority of

present hunt for the most central parking spot need to end

public space. This would create a sense of cohesion. Certain

as well as the constant motion of bringing more parking to

squares can still be special and have their own character, as

the city centre. The thinking needs to be reversed so that

e.g. Stationsplein.

the heart of the city, the city core, is expanded from its

More thought should be given as to where benches are

very concentrated Hoofdstraat and surroundings, to also

installed and the general number needs to be increased to

include other streets, as e.g. Nieuwstraat, Marktstraat,

invite people to spend more time.

Stationsstraat and others. As such the heart of the city will

By programming the public spaces more carefully there

start growing offering more opportunities for a more diverse

Ensure more invitations for enjoying the city

should be an extension of opening hours for certain shops

city centre and better options for linking with the present

A clear network of public spaces interlocked with the

as well as an addition of new functions and more functions

parking structures. It should be felt clearly that once you

pedestrian network should be developed to indicate where

in new areas, e.g. by the Kanaal, that can attract evening

have parked your car, you are in the city. There is no need to

the most important spaces are and where potential retreats

visitors.

walk through no man’s land to get there.

4

can be developed. Through this work a distinct difference

Regarding public transport the information level regarding

between the public spaces can be developed to avoid that

waiting times for buses as well as a simple explanation of the

not all spaces fulfil the same purpose but that some spaces

route network could encourage more people to make use of

are for parties, some for outdoor eating, some for sports,

public transport. Other ideas to lure people into riding public

some for children and others have a bit of everything. A city

transport could be to offer a free ticket every Saturday, which

with a number of versatile public spaces is able to attract

would have a positive effect on the Saturday pressure from vehicular traffic, including the central parking.

diverse groups of visitors who make use of larger parts of the city centre without over-populating a few central squares.

Ensure a city centre with a 21st century traffic system

Apeldoorn is strong on cycling. This focus needs to be

This work should aim at inviting todays rare visitors as well

The current thoroughfares straight through the centre along

maintained and developed to avoid a decline in the cycling

as secure that the many people who actually visit Apeldoorn

Kalverstraat, Molenstraat and Stationsstraat need to be cut

population. More needs to be done in order to spoil

are also given options for spending some time in its public

and that traffic moved to the outer ring road.

cyclists and invite them to make use of the existing and the

spaces.

Parking is an essential issue in Apeldoorn and more needs

expanded cycle network. Technological advices informing

The general quality level of public spaces in Apeldoorn need

to be done in order to study how the current parking

about routes, weather forecasts etc. could be general ideas.

to be raised and spaces should be upgraded and be given

facilities are used /underused and how they can be run more

a distinct design profile. A higher quality level should be

effectively and coordinated citywide. There ought to be an

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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Introduction

Study area

500 m: 6 min.

1 km: 12 min

The illustration pinpoints how easily accessible destinations are by foot within Apeldoorn. The illustration shows that just 10 minutes of walking can bring you to central locations and as such walking is a realistic mode of transportation.

parks primary study area study of context

0

100

200

300

400

500

Definition of the study area • Small study area = focus area • Larger study area = Setting the study area into a broader context

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Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Introduction

City scale comparisons

Apeldoorn

Odense

Study area: 1.200.000 m2

Study area: 870.000 m2

Population 155.300

Population: 186.700

Population: 595,000

Age distribution, Apeldoorn:

Age distribution, Odense:

Age distribution, The Netherlands:

Rotterdam Study area: 1.150.000 m2

0-17: 9 %

0-14: 7%

0-14: 17.4%

18-39: 37 %

15-64: 91%

15-64: 67.7%

40-64: 34 %

65+ :2%

65 years: 14.9%

64 +: 20 % Studies of other cities are used for comparison and act as the

when using the city facilities. Here are shown different cities

frame of reference in this study. By comparing Apeldoorn's

- Odense and Rotterdam - which are used for comparisons

city centre with other city centres we can get an idea of size,

and best practice examples. Rotterdam is a 'new' city

distances and urban grain and insight into the public life in

comparable with Apeldoorn in type of public space. Odense

relation to other cities of comparable size.

is a medieval city comparable with Apeldoorn in scale and architecture.

Most city centres have a size of approximately 1 km2 as one kilometer is considred a reasonable walking distance

All maps on this page are shown in 1:20.000

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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Analysis

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Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Analysis

Overview of analysis

1

A city with wonderful amenities

2

A good city for walking

â‚Ź

3

A monofunctional city

4

A city with public spaces of low quality

People first, cars second

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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1

A city with wonderful amenities

Potentials • Fantastic natural setting (National park, the Kanaal, Oranjepark) • Proximity of National park. • Garden city. • Compact walkable city centre. • Network of carfree streets and squares. • Human-scaled, low, dense built form. • High number of residents in the city centre.

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Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Challenges • Make stronger connections to amenities (National park, the Kanaal, Oranjepark) • Make better physical and psychological links between the city and surrounding natural areas (National park, the Kanaal, Oranjepark) • Celebrate the green profile.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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Analysis A city with wonderful amenities

Main areas for residents Comparison:

Residents in study area 7.400

Odense

7.400

6.460

Apeldoorn city: 155.300 study area: 6.460

Odense city: 186.700 study area: 7.400

• Small study area: Focus area. • Larger study area:Setting the study area into a broader 0

Residents in large study area 6.460 Residents in small study area 1.920 Parks Small study area Main residential areas

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Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

100

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300

400

500

context. • Having residents in the city centre means that people live in and care about the city. Residents contribute to the vitality day and night, going about their daily tasks. Particularly in the evening residents, even if relatively few in numbers, create an image of a city lived in and looked after.


A city with wonderful amenities Analysis

Where residents live Comparison:

Rotterdam Where residents live in the inner city.

Living in the inner city • High number of residents in the inner city area • 30% of the city centre residents (1.900) live in the study area 0 Housing on ground floor Housing on secondary floor

100

200

300

400

500

• Creates a positive effect on the feeling of safety • Positive effect on residents' feeling of "ownership" of the city centre • Larger areas outside the inner core made out of ground floor residences, which don’t have an activiating effect on the streetscape (the Kanaal, Oranjepark, the station precinct)

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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Analysis A city with wonderful amenities

Important historical sites and heritage Example:

Important historical sites and structures Important historical sites and structures source: analysis team 2009 source: analysis team 2009 Apeldoorn Kanaal and its surroundings Apeldoorn Kanaal and its surroundings Grift (former stream, redeveloped parts) Grift (former stream, redeveloped parts) Grift (parts to be redeveloped in the future) Grift (parts to be redeveloped in the future) Historical ‘long lines’: historical routes Historical ‘long lines’: historical routes Historical squares and parks Historical squares and parks Parkenbuurt (listed area) Parkenbuurt (listed area) Apeldoornse ‘huuskes (historical living quarter) Apeldoornse ‘huuskes (historical living quarter) Talens en Nettenfabriek (historical industrial quarter) Talens en Nettenfabriek (historical industrial quarter)

Important historical sites and structures source: analysis team 2009 Apeldoorn Kanaal and its surroundings

0

100

200

300

400

500

Grift (former stream, redeveloped parts) Important historical sites and structures Important historical sites and structures source: analysis team 2009 source: analysis team 2009

Grift (parts to be redeveloped in the future) Historical ‘long lines’: historical routes

Heritage buildings Heritage buildings source: Cultuurhistorische analyse binnenstad / viewer 2009 source: Cultuurhistorische analyse binnenstad / viewer 2009

Apeldoorn Kanaal and its surroundings Apeldoorn Kanaal and its surroundings

Historical squares and parks

Listed buildings (monuments): local and national monuments Listed buildings (monuments): local and national monuments

Grift (former stream, redeveloped parts) Grift (former stream, redeveloped parts)

Parkenbuurt (listed area)

Historically interesting buildings (not listed) Historically interesting buildings (not listed)

Grift (parts to be redeveloped in the future) Grift (parts to be redeveloped in the future)

Apeldoornse ‘huuskes (historical living quarter)

Listed heritage area (Parkenbuurt) Listed heritage area (Parkenbuurt)

Historical ‘long lines’: historical routes Historical ‘long lines’: historical routes

Talens en Nettenfabriek (historical industrial quarter)

Historical squares and parks Historical squares and parks

20

Parkenbuurt (listed area) Parkenbuurt (listed area) Apeldoornse living quarter) 2009 Public Spaces‘huuskes Public(historical Life Apeldoorn Apeldoornse ‘huuskes (historical living quarter) Talens en Nettenfabriek (historical industrial quarter) Talens en Nettenfabriek (historical industrial quarter)

• Heritage buildings are concentrated in the northern part of the city centre.


A city with wonderful amenities Analysis

Buildings heights Example:

0 Building heights source: analysis ruimtelijk plan 2009 1-2 storeys 3-4 storeys 5-6 storeys 6 + storeys (’Apeldoorn high rise’)

100

200

300

400

500

• A human scale city. • Low buildings providing excellent conditions for a good microclimate. • Very few high rise buildings.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

21


Analysis A city with wonderful amenities

Green trees and green spaces Example:

Scots pines on Stationsplein refer to the landscape of the Veluwe.

0 Street trees and green spaces source: observations / data 2009 Solitary trees (or small group) Rows of trees Green parks

22

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

100

200

300

400

500

• A fragmented green network. • The city has a green identity by the gardens of ‘Paleis Het Loo’ and the National Park which is not visible in the city centre.


d icons s projectteam 2009

r nation ections (’it is there’)

y nearby ognizing places ) ale) ctonic identity

A city with wonderful amenities Analysis

Landmarks and special features church tower Loolaan church tower Loolaan

fountain and musictent Oranjepark

folley Beekpark chalet buildings Caterplein statue of deer and hunter

church tower Loolaan church tower Loolaan

folley Deventerstraat brigde

tower Townhall townhall cityterrace Van Kinsbergen floating roof old townhall Raadhuisplein firedepartment building

fountain and musictent Oranjepark

fountain and musictent fountain and musictent Oranjepark Oranjepark folley Beekpark chalet buildings Caterplein statue of deer and hunter

folley Deventerstraat brigde

tower Townhall townhall cityterrace Van Kinsbergen folley Deventerstraat folley Beekpark residential tower ‘het potlood’ (’theBeekpark pencil’) folley Deventerstraat brigde brigde folley Special features in public space chalet buildings Caterplein chalet buildings Caterplein floating roof old townhall source: observations july 2009 freule pedestrian bridge of hunter deer and hunter firedepartment Raadhuisplein statue of statue deer and entrance Oranjerie Contemporary art (sculptures) tower Townhall building tower Townhall residential tower ‘het potlood’ (’the pencil’) Monuments (statues, memorials etc.) Kostersbridge Grift townhall townhall Homeless shelter cityterrace Van Kinsbergen Special buildcityterrace features (historic bridge,Kinsbergen skatebowl, canal deck) Van freule pedestrian bridge historic bridge Apeldoorn Kanaal Waterelements (Grift, fountains, watertable) floating roof old townhall Highrise buiding Kadaster floating roof old townhall entrance Oranjerie Seasonal greenery and flowerbeds Raadhuisplein firedepartment Raadhuisplein firedepartment residential potlood’ (’the pencil’) Kostersbridge Grift‘het(’the building building residential tower ‘hettower potlood’ pencil’) Homeless shelter Landmarks and icons freule pedestrian historic bridge Apeldoorn freule pedestrian bridge bridge source: analysis projectteam 2009 Stationsquare Highrise buiding Kadaster entrance Oranjerie entrance Oranjerie statue ‘the kiss’

City landmark - visible from far - helpfull in orienation and giving directions (’it is there’) Landmarks Landmarks and icons and icons source: analysis projectteam 2009in scale - large source: analysis projectteam 2009 City landmark Local icon City landmark from far - percieved only nearby - visible from- visible far helpfull in orienation - helpfull in recognizing places - helpfull in orienation and giving (’we are here’) and giving directions (’itdirections is there’) (’it is there’) - large in scale - smal(ler) in scale) - large in scale - strong architectonic identity Local icon Local icon - percieved - percieved only nearby only nearby - helpfull in places recognizing places - helpfull in recognizing (’we are here’) (’we are here’) smal(ler) in scale) - smal(ler) in-scale) - strong architectonic identity - strong architectonic identity

Kostersbridge Grift Kostersbridge Grift HomelessHomeless shelter shelter HighriseKadaster buiding Kadaster Highrise buiding

Special features in historic public space historic bridge Apeldoorn bridge Apeldoorn Kanaal Special features in public space source: observations july 2009 source: observations july 2009

Kanaal

Contemporary artStationsquare (sculptures) Contemporary art (sculptures) statue ‘the kiss’ etc.) Monuments (statues, memorials Monuments (statues, memorials etc.) Special build features (historic bridge, skatebowl, canal deck) Special build features (historic bridge, skatebowl, canal deck) Waterelements (Grift, fountains, watertable) Waterelements (Grift, fountains, watertable) Seasonal greenery and flowerbeds Stationsquare Seasonal greenery and flowerbeds Stationsquare

statue statue ‘the kiss’ ‘the kiss’

• Various landmarks spread across the city. • Marking of entry points to the city centre.

• Lack of special features along Hoofdstraat.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

23


2

A good city for walking

Potentials • Compact city with a high level of pedestrian traffic. • Short distances to key destinations. • Low city with a human scale with pedestrian priority. • Good climatic conditions for walking. • A fine-grained network of pedestrian streets & squares. • High pedestrian priority. • No waiting time at crossings. • No footpath interruptions. • Public transport well connected to the pedestrian network.

24

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Challenges • Stretch the city core by a strengthen pedestrian environment in areas outside shopping streets. • Provide public benches along main walking routes • Give people opportunities to sit and stay along Hoofdstraat and the surrounding streets. • Improve walking links to the surrounding city. • Close missing links to the station, Oranjepark and the Kanaal.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

25


Analysis A good city for walking

Walking routes and destinations Comparison:

1

2

3 4

8

5 6

9

7 10

Odense

11

Odense has a widespread and well connected pedestrian network linking to most of the important destinations in the city centre.

Main walking routes Secondary walking routes Supporting walking routes

12

Entry points

Weak entry points

Main walking routes

Main destinations

Secondary walking routes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Supporting walking routes Entry points Weak entry points

Main destinations

26

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

Theatre Orpheus Oranjepark Caterplein Cinema Gigant Library Museum Townhall Market(square) Raadhuisplein Oranjerie Train and busstation ROC (large school 16 +)

1 Theatre Orpheus 2 Oranjepark 3 Caterplein 0 100 200 4 Cinema 5 Gigant 13 6 Library 7 Museum 8 Townhall 9 Market(square) 10 Raadhuisplein 11 Oranjerie 12 Train and busstation 13 ROC (large school 16 +)

• Current walking routes are linked to the present 300

400

500

destinations in the inner city area. • Missing links do occur, e.g. to the station, Oranjepark and Theatre Orpheus. • Concentrated activity zone around Hoofdstraat. • Weak points of entry to the inner city walking network. • The Kanaal is not an integrated part of the walking network.


A good city for walking Analysis

Passages Comparison:

Christchurch, NZ Christchurch has a fine grain network of passages. Some have been redeveloped into attractive routes as part of Small passage from Caterplein to V.Huutstraat

the pedestrian network. • The city centre of Apeldoorn has passages connecting important destinations - many of them are hidden or plugged up with small buildings. • Passages offer very different urban space experiences compared to the primary street network - here you have an opportunity to explore. The passages are very much needed in the city structure as important pedestrian links. • The most important passages connections need to be identified in order that they can be redeveloped into attractive, plausible routes through the city as part of a new pedestrian network. • The passages need to be upgraded in order to invite people to use them and improve the accessibility for pedestrians in the city centre. In many cases the passages

Passage between Hoofdstraat and Marktstraat

have a character of dark, back alleys and are certainly not places one would like to walk through late at night.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

27


Analysis A good city for walking

Pedestrian orientated areas Comparison:

1

65.960

2

m2

3

43.200 4

m2

6

5 7

9

8

Odense 10

Car-free areas.

11

Apeldoorn versus Odense

12

Odense

14

13

15

1. Oranjepark: 41.800 m2 2. Beekpark: 12.700 m2

0

100

200

Pedestrian streets and squares (43.200 m2) Parks (57.100 m2) Pedestrian priority streets (not car free but more or less pedestrian friendly: 15.200 m2)

300

400

500

1. Oranjepark: 41.800 m2 2. Beekpark: 12.700 m2 3. Caterplein: 1.400 m2 4. Museumpassage: 1.400 m2

9. Kanaalpark: 32.500 m2 10. Main shopping area: 19.400 m2 11. Hofstraat / Kanaalstraat: 5.550 m2

12. Stadskade: 2.150 m2 5. Nieuwstraat / Vosselmanstraat: 9.650 m2 13. Brinkpark: 2.600 m2 6. Marktplein: 9.950 m2 14. Stationsdwarsstraat: 1.000 m2 7. Raadhuisplein: 1.950 m2 15. Stationsquare: 6.100 m2 8. Leienplein: 1.250 m2 10. Main shopping area: 19.400 m2 11. Hofstraat / Kanaalstraat: 5.550 m2 12. Stadskade: 2.150 m2 13. Brinkpark: 2.600 m2

• Extensive network of pedestrian orientated areas linking up large parts of the inner city.

5. Nieuwstraat / Vosselmanstraat: 9.650 m2 • 6. Marktplein: 9.950 m2 8. Leienplein: 1.250 m2

9. Kanaalpark: 32.500 m2

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

3. Caterplein: 1.400 m2 4. Museumpassage: 1.400 m2

7. Raadhuisplein: 1.950 m2

Pedestrian orientated areas source: observations and calculations july 2009

28

Apeldoorn

Car-free streets and squares in total: 43.200m2.

• Pedestrian priority streets (not car free but more or less pedestrian friendly) have been introduced on e.g. Nieuwstraat and Hofstraat. • Parks are in the periphery of the inner city and not part of the walking network.


A good city for walking Analysis

Street sections

10.20 m.

ion 2: Markstraat

9.7 m.

10.20 m

Pedestrian priority street: Nieuwstraat

1.8 m.

Section 3: Hoofdstraat (midden)

3.7 m.

Section 4: Nieuwstraat

10.20 m.

1.8 m.

2: Markstraat

Section 3: Hoofdstraat (midden)

3.7 m.

Section 4: Nieuwstraat

2

9.7 m.

10.20 m 1.8 m.

Section 1: Kapelstraat

Section 2: Markstraat

Section 3: Hoofdstraat (midden)

Section 4: Nieuw

3 4 6

5 7

9

8

10

11

Pedestrian street: Hoofdstraat

12

25.8 m.

9 m.

7.5 m.

12.5 m.

13

Section 6: Hofstraat

25.8 m. 10.20 m.

21.10 m.

14

6.3 m.

6.9 m.

5.5 m.

12.5 m.

7.5 m.

15

Section 1: Kapelstraat

Section 5: Stationsstraat

Section Section2:6:Markstraat Hofstraat

Section

25.8 m. 7.5 m.

12.5 m.

Section 6: Hofstraat

20.8 m. 8.1 m.

4.3 m.

4.3 m.

Section 8: Hoofdstraat zuid

uid

.

9.7 m.

10.20 m

10.20 m.

6.3 m. 1

21.9 m. 9.2 m.

20.8 m. 8.1 m.

Section 7: Hoofdstraat zuid Mixed traffic: Stationsstraat Pedestrian priority street: Hofstraat 20.8 m. 4.3 m.

Section 8: Hoofdstraat zuid

4.3 m.

4.3 m. 21.10 m. 5.5 m.

Section 8: Hoofdstraat zuid 6.9 m.

Section 5: Stationsstraat 4.3 m.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

29


Weekday, daytime

e

0

Weekday, nighttime

Analysis A good city for walking

Pedestrian traffic

34.000 20.000

20.000

20.000

18.000

18.000

18.000

18.000

16.000

16.000

16.000

16.000

14.000

14.000

14.000

12.000

180

10.000

10.000

140

8.000

440

100

7.000

0 220

1.300

1.500

1.500

770

1.000

440 3.860

590

750

750

500

500

250

250

70

500

460

310

0 220

250

250

220

380

290

320

7.000

920

450

4.000

310

460

380

610

2.000

1.750

590

590

890 200

200

1.060

2.400

520

200

3.000

2.500

530

2.000

120 1.500

740

450

0

1.750

640

750

0

500

520

3.050

3.500

1.390

4.000

1.850

1.070

3.000

1.510

3.620 3.630

2.600

310

2.500

3.620

3.290 1.240

1.2402.000

3.630 7.820

7.820 610

5.000

4.990

34.130

3.290

7.000

6.000

4.420 7.310

3.220

1.510

3.920

2.600

8.000

19.550

1.780

4.420

34.130

1.390

0

1.850

2.400

10.000

1.540

0

Pedestrian traffic, evening Saturday 18:00-24:00

7.310

1.640

12.000

0

8.740

4.990

3.220

220

0

3.050

19.550

1.780

14.000

890

100

100

200

1.640

1.790

250

16.000

110

530

120

0

500

8.740

250

310

130

0 610

110 220

750

2.740

3.920

310

130

18.000

1.060 714

4.000

200

1.000

14.570

14.570

920

1.540 0

1.790

100

7.000

5.000

1.640

1.500

270

370

6.000

1.000

1.000

610

640

1.000

270

2.470

1.840

0

3.000

2.500

250

250

740

5.000

70

500

200

8.000

20.000

110

10.000

1.060 714

2.500

2.500

3.500

320

Pedestrian traffic, evening weekday 18:00-24:00

830

2.470

1.640

290

370

6.000

1.000

100

2.740

200

310

8.000

520

110

10.000

170

4.300

1.190

4.300

320

2.500

2.000

2.000

12.000

520

440

100

4.000 3.000

3.000

50

140

8.000

2205.000

2.500

770

170

200

320

4.000

50

6.000

5.000

14.000

12.000

180

7.000

310

6.000

1.300

Weekend, nighttime

Weekend, nighttime

20.000

12.000

800

Weekend, daytime

Weekend, daytime

Weekday, nighttime

1.560

1.500

310

1.560

1.000

750 500

1.070

440

440

250

Pedestrian traffic, weekday •

Limited number of pedestrians.

The general walking pattern shows that the highest concentrations of pedestrians are found in the retail core; Hoofdstraat.

Most of the pedestrian traffic is located in shopping streets and there is a limited spread over the rest of the city centre.

Low level of evening traffic.

Apeldoorn becomes inactive after 18:00 when the shops and offices close. The counts display a remarkable quiet city at night time on a normal weekday.

30

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

Pedestrian traffic 8:00-18:00 Wednesday 9th September 2009 Weather:Sunny, cloudy in the afternoon windy about 20 degrees

Pedestrian traffic, Saturday •

Very high number of pedestrians in the retail core; Hoofdstraat.

Saturday is normally the busiest day in a city´s retail district and that is the picture in Apeldoorn.

Pedestrian traffic 8:00-18:00 Saturday12th September 2009 Weather: Sunny, cloudy in the afternoon windy about 20 degrees

100


A good city for walking Analysis

34660

Pedestrian traffic in Hoofdstraat Weekday

Saturday

Apeldoorn Hoofdstraat midden zuid

Apeldoorn Hoofdstraat midden zuid 6402

6600 6400 6200 6000

9800

+130%

5800 5600 5400 5200 5000 4800 4600 4400 4200 4000 3800 3600 3400 3200

15070

Pedestrians per hour

3800 3860

2800 2600 2400 2514 2200 2214 2000 2304 1980 1800 1600 1668 1578 1400 1200 1242 1000 800 792 600 400 426 200 198 156 0 120 114 30 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18 18-19 19-20 20-21 21-22

Pedestrians per hour

4300

5472

5424 5046

3840

3732

3000 2800 2514 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 876 744 800 600 400 150 156 72 144 200 84 0 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18 18-19 19-20 20-21 21-22

• Weekday pedestrian counts on Hoofdstraat • 93% of all activities are between 10:00 and 18:00 • 3% of all activities are after 18:00

• 96% of all activities are between 10:00 and 18:00 • 1,5% of all activities are after 18:00

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

31


Analysis A good city for walking

Pedestrian traffic comparison between mainstreets

34.660

+81% weekday Odense Vestergade midt

Ap Ho eldo ofd orn str aa t O Ve de ste ns rga e de

Pedestrians per hour

15.100

Saturday Odense Vestergade midt

3600 3456 3400 3294 3200 2988 3006 2946 3000 2800 2600 2484 2400 2256 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1014 984 1000 800 600 492 400 372 276 228 200 84 0 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-1212-1313-1414-1515-1616-1717-1818-1919-2020-2121-22

3540 3600 3400 3246 3200 2928 3000 2800 2628 2600 2400 2200 2052 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 786 762 800 618 528 540 630 570 600 400 200 180 72 0 8-9 9-10 10-1111-1212-1313-1414-1515-16 16-17 17-1818-19 19-20 20-21 21-22

In Odense 9% of all

activities take place after

activities take place after

18:00, 3X as much as Hoofdstraat, Apeldoorn

Hoofdstraat has a reasonable amount of pedestrians on

In Odense 12% of all 18:00, 7X as much as

Apeldoorn Hoofdstraat midden zuid

Apeldoorn Hoofdstraat midden zuid

Hoofdstraat, Apeldoorn

Saturdays are when everybody and his uncle are coming

a normal summer weekday, but nothing like Odense's

to Apeldoorn. Numbers are more than 200% of a normal

impressive numbers, where a substantial amount of

weekday. Compared to Odense Apeldoorn explodes

people use the city also during the week.

during Saturdays and has a remarkable difference between the ordinary weekday and Saturdays.

32

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

19.100

Ap Ho eldo ofd orn str aa t Ve Ode ste ns rga e de

+58%

Pedestrians per hour

23.900


A good city for walking Analysis

Pavement quality Example:

High quality tile paving on Stationsstraat

ecial

ndard

Low quality tarmac paving on Hoofdstraat

es

y

• High paving quality covers somewhat half of the city

ues

centre Pavement quality source: observations july 2009 high - good look and feel: something special Pavement quality in design - specially detailled source: - clean, observations no damages july 2009 high regular -- good plain look and feel: something special standard -- specially detailled in design no specific detailing -- clean, clean, no no damages or minor maintance issues regular low -- plain look and and feel: feel: outdated something bad look or standard grey -- no no specific detailingdetailing -- clean, no or(serious) minor maintance not clean, maintanceissues issues low Hoofdstraat - bad look and feel: outdated or grey - no detailing - not clean, (serious) maintance issues Hoofdstraat

• Hoofdstraat stands out as the most used, most 0

100

200

300

400

500

important street in Apeldoorn. The tarmac paving here has transformed into a dirty grey colour and neither the quality of the material or the visual appearance correlates with Hoofdstraat's significant position in the pedestrian network. • The map to the left reflects streets where a quality upgrade in paving ought to happen.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

33


Analysis A good city for walking

Waiting time at crossings Comparison:

Sydney

6,3 %

Testwalks:

17 %

Percentage of walking time

Restaurant Wilde Pieters

Waiting time

spent on waiting at traffic lights

14,3 %

Apeldoorn Canal

Townhall

Example: Park Street

9,3 %

(from Sussex Street to College Street)

30 %

Walking time:

Waiting time

8 min 44 sec.

38 %

Waiting time:

Apeldoorn Canal

9 min 20 sec

13,2 %

Total trip time:

Waiting time

52 %

Waiting time

18 min 4 sec

spent

009

Wilhelmina Druckerstraat

6,3 %

3.

33 %

Waiting time

Restaurant Wilde Pieters

es (6,3 %) Brinkpark

4.

6,3 %

Restaurant Wilde Pieters

1.

2.

13,2 %)

Public Spaces Public Life

Apeldoorn Canal

Townhall

Restaurant Wilde Pieters

Percentage of walkingtime spent on waiting for stoplights source: observations july 2009 Stationsplein

s 9,3 %)

14,3 %

6,3 %

(14,3 %)

34

Waiting time: 52%

9,3 % 19 %

14,3 %Apeldoorn

14,3 %

Townhall

Townhall Wilhelmina

0 100 Druckerstraat 200 1. total time: 16:43 minutes walkingtime: 15.39 minutes waitingtime: 1.04 minutes (6,3 %) Percentage of walkingtime spent Percentage of walkingtime spentfor stoplights 2. total time: 10.25 minutes on waiting on waiting for stoplights 8.38 minutes source: observations julywalkingtime: 2009 Wilhelmina source: observations july 2009 waitingtime: 1.47 minutes (14,33. %) Wilhelmina Druckerstraat 3. 1. total time: 16:43 minutes Druckerstraat 1. total time: 16:43 minutes 3. total time: 14.06 minutes walkingtime: 15.39 minutes walkingtime: 15.39 minutes walkingtime: waitingtime: 1.04 minutes (6,3 %) 12.35 minutes waitingtime: 1.04 minutes (6,3 %) waitingtime: 1.31 minutes (9,3 %) Brinkpark 2. total time: 10.25 minutes Brinkpark 2. total time: 10.25 minutes 4. 4. total time: 8.12 minutes walkingtime: 8.38 minutes walkingtime: 8.38 minutes walkingtime: waitingtime: 1.47 minutes (14,3 %) 7.05 minutes waitingtime: 1.47 minutes (14,3 %) waitingtime: 1.07 minutes (13,2 %) 3. total time: 14.06 minutes 3. total time: 14.06 minutes walkingtime: 12.35 minutes walkingtime: 12.35 minutes waitingtime: 1.31 minutes (9,3 %) Apeldoornwaitingtime: 2009 1.31 minutes (9,3 %) 4. total time: 8.12 minutes 4. total time: 8.12 minutes walkingtime: 7.05 minutes walkingtime: 7.05 minutes waitingtime: 1.07 minutes (13,2 %) waitingtime: 1.07 minutes (13,2 %)

3.

300

400

Canal

500 Apeldoorn Canal

Brinkpark

Waiting time

Apeldoorn Canal

9,3 %

Apeldoorn

Canal 13,2 %

Apeldoorn

9,3Canal %

13,2 %

0

100 200 300 400 500 m

13,2 %

4.

1. 2. • Low level of waiting time at crossings on the test walks Stationsplein

performed.

4.

1.

2.

Stationsplein

1.

2.

Stationsplein


A good city for walking Analysis

Footpath interruptions Comparison:

Adelaide Unnecessary footpath interruptions: Dots showing 330 unnecessary interruptions.

009

h

0

h Footpath interruptions source: observations july 2009

100

200

300

400

500

• Very few physical interruptions of the footpaths. • A substantial number of vehicle entrances which do not

physically interrupted footpath by vehicle entrances or side roads

effect the footpath layout, but which might have an effect

vehicle entrances without lowering or changing footpath level

question. (Nieuwstraat + Stationsstraat).

on walking quality + number of accidents in the streets in

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

35


Analysis A good city for walking

Footpath interruptions Beekpark is an excellent example of a street that has

• Parked cars (numerous, on the footpath)

gradually been turned into a rubbish dump of various things.

• Poorly placed signs

As a key link between Beekpark and Caterplein /the

• 12 month outdoor serving areas (unused in winter)

Hoogstraat network, this fine little street should be

• Bulky bins

wonderful, peaceful walking link with ample space for

• Commercial signs

pedestrians, also pedestrians with kids, prams or goods.

• Bollards

At present there is only scarce room for people as the

• Poorly placed bicycle racks

footpaths has been filled by a multitude of things, such as:

• Unorganised bicycle parking

Beekpark.

36

Beekpark.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

Beekpark.


A good city for walking Analysis

Footpath interruptions A general problem in Apeldoorn, and a number of other Dutch cities, e.g. Rotterdam, appears to be the amount and character of various commercial elements. There is a tendency of wanting to speak louder than your neighbour, resulting in an inferno of coulourful elements, having a negative effect on the buildings they are placed on and a substantial impact on the street, where footpaths are turned into slalom courses.

Pedestrians flock in the middle - for obvious reasons, Hoogstraat.

Outdoor serving area - unused. December in Deventerstraat.

Bulky goods display. Deventerstraat.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

37


3

A monofunctional city

Potentials • Many visitors to the city centre • Activity during working /shopping hours • Frequent outdoor markets (70% of all events are the outdoor markets) • Many bars /restaurants are open in the evening • Options for families with children, policy regarding distance to playgrounds

38

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Challenges • Increase types and total number of activities after 6 pm. • Stretch the actively used areas and mix activities. • Increase diversity in user groups. • Integrate cultural facilities in the public space network. • Improve quality of children's playgrounds. • Promote diverse types and total number of events

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

39


Analysis A monofunctional city €

Functions in the city centre Comparison:

Culture / Rekreation Retail Food and Daily groceries Restaurant / Café

Odense Functions in the inner city

• Monofunctional city centre (shopping)

Functions in the city centre source: data bestemmingsplan dienst RO Entertainment (restaurants, cafes, bars, laser game, bowling, etc.)

0

100

Culture (museum, library, cinema, arts centre, etc.) Functions in the city centre source: data bestemmingsplan dienst RO

Shopping (clothes, shoes, groceries, bakeries, florist etc.)

Entertainment (restaurants, cafes, bars, laser game, bowling, etc.)

Services (towhall, banks, postoffices, insurance agencies)

Culture (museum, library, cinema, arts centre, etc.)

Industrial sites (factory, buildingcompanies, DIY center)

Shopping (clothes, shoes, groceries, bakeries, florist etc.) Services (towhall, banks, postoffices, insurance agencies) Industrial sites (factory, buildingcompanies, DIY center)

40

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

200

300

400

500

• Shopping spaces deserted at night and during other nonshopping hours. • Areas dominated by offices are lively only in the morning, during lunchtime, and again during evening rush hour. Outside these peaks the areas appear isolated and deserted and do not act as pleasant destinations for visitors.

Culture / Rekreation Retail Food and Daily groceries Restaurant / Café


laan: veh. 8 4.43 veh. 838 t: 4.

A monofunctional city Analysis €

Evening activity between 21.00-23.00

a, casino etc.

Comparison:

eg: h. 138

Dev ente in: r 8.84 straat: out: 9 11.6 veh. 93 v eh.

84

Odense n aaApeldoorn Total evening activity. rustl apen 03 veh. . W Apeldoorn versus Odense8.5 h 8 ve in: 0.40 1 : t ou

aat . veh . h e 8v

• One-sided evening life is dominated by restaurants and

Evening activities between 21.00 - 23.00 on a summer weekday source: observations july 2009 Restaurants and bars Supermarket

Restaurants and bars

Sport and wellness

Supermarket

fitness, suntanning etc.

Culture and leisure

Bus- and trainstation

bowling, arthouse, lasergame,

Koning Stadhouderlaa in: 10.132 veh. out: 10.317 veh.

n: h. laa 5 ve h. A e 7 PW 4.1 42 v in: : 3.9 t ou

Culture and leisure Evening activities between 21.00 - 23.00 on abowling, summerarthouse, weekdaylasergame, source: observations july 2009 cinema, casino etc.

cinema, casino etc. Sport and wellness

0

100

Odense

200

300

400

500

bars. • High concentration of activities around Caterplein, Raadhuisplein, Leienplein, V. Kinsbergenstraat. • City tends to be monofunctional, mainly bars and restaurants. • No evening activity along the middle section of Hoofdstraat, the Kanaal, or Oranjepark.

fitness, suntanning etc. Bus- and trainstation

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

41


Analysis A monofunctional city €

Events Comparison: Vinterjazz

Musikhøst Folk Festival

Vinterjazz Folk Festival

Stig Rossen Julekoncert

Torsdagskoncert Sommerjazz

Musikhøst Carl Nielsen Violin Konkurrence

Musikhøst

Torvedage H.C. Andersens Julemarked

Børneteater

Oranjepark Musikhøst

Sommerjazz

Vinterjazz

Antikmarked

Skøjtebane

Legetøjsmarked Odense Internationale Høstfest Bluesdage Juletræet tændes Rådhusrundvisning Studiestartfest Torsdagskoncert Folk Festival Vinterjazz Folk Festival Bach uge Odense Filmfestival Sommerjazz Farmers market Robotfestival

Caterplein 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 j

25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 m a 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

f

10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 j

42

f

25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

Marketplein

Å sejllads Jazz på Odense Å

Raadhuisplein Leijenplein

62 events

62 events

144 markets

144 markets

62 events Total innercity

m j j j f a ms ao mn j d j

10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 j 01f

Sommerdans

a s o

n

d

30 events

m a m j

j

a s o a s o

n

144 markets

j

f

10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

m a m j jj f a ms ao mn

j

10 09 0 100 08 07 Raadhuisplein Major eventspaces and number of events in 2009 06 Major eventspaces and number of events in 2009 source: data Apeldoorns uitburo, 2009 uitburo, 2009 source: data Apeldoorns 05 Total (market and events) Total number of activities (market and events) in study 04in study Eventnumber space of activities site per year: 285site per year: 285 30 events 03 - Marktplein: 174 (61 %) - Marktplein: 17402 (61 %) - Raadhuisplein: - Raadhuisplein: 30 (11 %) 30 (11 %) Total innercity- Caterplein/Leijenplein: 59 (20 %) - Caterplein/Leijenplein: 5901 (20 %)

Raadhuisplein

m a m j jj f a ms ao mn j d j

Total innercity

10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

20 19 18 17 16 The 15 14 13 12 Caterplein, 11 Caterplein, Beekstraat, Beekstraat, 10 Kapelstraat and Kapelstraat and 09 Leienplein Leienplein 08 07 06 11 events 11 events 05 48 weekly markets 48 weekly markets 04 03 02 01 jd j a s o n d

n

d

d

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

- various locations ( 8 %) - various22 locations

22 ( 8 %) j

f

m a m j

j

f

Marktplein Marktplein 48 % of the time48 occupied % of the time occupied with an event or with market) an event or market)

20 19 18 17 16 Kanaal 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

30 events

m a m j jj f a ms ao mn j d j

a s o

Caterplein, Beekstraat, and 300 Kapelstraat 400 500 Leienplein

200

11 events 48 weekly markets

a s o

n

d

30 events

Odense

Marktplein

144 weekly markets 144 weekly markets

n

d

Odense has many summer and winter 48 events, spread % of the time occupied 20 with an or market) out19 across many parts of the public spaces in event the city 18 centre. The events are versatile and for all user groups 17 e.g.16summer and winter jazz festival, theatre for children, movie 15 festival, summer dance etc. 14 30 events 13 12 144 weekly markets 11 10 09 • Total number of activities per year: 285. 08 • Most 07 events take place in the summer months. 06 events in Apeldoorn is markets (61%) • Main 05 • Only few places are activated by events. 04 • 30% 03 of events take place outside Marktplein. 02many events along the Kanaal. • Not 01 j

f

m a m j

j

a s o

n

d


A monofunctional city Analysis €

Eventspace: Marktplein Variety of events A broader variety of events in the city centre would invite different user and age groups with different interests. For example; skating festival, a sing-along festival, fashion week, Apeldoorn by night (lighting festival in public spaces), flea markets, historic walks in the city centre, art festival for children etc. The positive aspect of events is that they gather a lot of people, which adds life and bustle to the whole area in which they take place. For example, once you are in the city centre for an event, you might also go for a coffee, lunch or shopping.

d

kets arkets

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07

20 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 09 09 08 08 07 07 06 06 05 05 04 04 03 03 02 02 01 01 j

Marktplein Marktplein 48 % of the time occupied 48 % of the time occupied with an event or market) with an event or market)

• Marktplein is an iconic space with a strong identity and a fine location where a lot of different events can take place 30 events 30 events 144 weekly markets 144 weekly markets

all year round. • Marktplein is the largest square in Apeldoorn (9.950 m2) • The event calender shows that Marktplein is the most used public space in the city centre. (61% of all events in the city centre take place on Marktplein)

Marktplein 48 % of the time occupied with an event or market)

• Marktplein is mostly used for markets - every Monday, Wednesday and Saturday (all year round) • Marktplein is a formal public space and has fantastic potential as the heart of the city. But because of the heavy use for markets it does not function as a communal city

j

f

f

m a m j j a s o n d m a m j j a s o n d

square - it is more used as a private outdoor supermarket.

30 events 144 weekly markets

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

43


Analysis A monofunctional city €

Public places for children Example:

Small playground in central city area, Leienplein with very few possibilities for creative playing

july 2009

f 400 meter

ebowl)

policy

skate bowl

aygrounds e) Places for children source: observations and data july 2009

0

100

Playgrounds children 0 - 12 jr. with theoretical users radius of 400 meter Places for for children children Places source: observations observations and and data data july july 2009 2009 source:

Playground children 12 + (skatebowl)

Playgrounds children children 00 -- 12 12 jr. jr. Playgrounds with theoretical theoretical users users radius radius of of 400 400 meter meter with

Reference norm used in play policy municipality of Apeldoorn maxium distance to nearest playgrounds (based on norm NUSO-institute) 0-6 jr: max 100 meter 6-12 jr. max 300/400 meter 12+ > 1000 meter

Playground children children 12 12 ++ (skatebowl) (skatebowl) Playground Reference norm norm used used in in play play policy policy Reference municipality of of Apeldoorn Apeldoorn municipality maxium distance distance to to nearest nearest playgrounds playgrounds maxium (based on on norm norm NUSO-institute) NUSO-institute) (based 0-6 jr: jr: max max 100 100 meter meter 0-6 6-12 jr. jr. max max 300/400 300/400 meter meter 6-12 12+ >> 1000 1000 meter meter 12+

44

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

200

300

400

500

• Many playgrounds very close to the core of the city. Within 10 minutes walking distance.

skate bowl

• The majority of these playgrounds are quite small, with very few play elements and few options for creative play. • bowl Rather have fewer playgrounds of better quality. skate bowl skate


A monofunctional city Analysis

Tietgen Business College

Den Sociale Højskole

2.100

500

Students in the city centre Anne Frank school: 165

VUC

Fyns Musikkonservatorium

187

Comparison:

Koninklijke scholengemeenschap: 1.445

144

Odense Katedral Skole 650

Koningin Wilhelminaschool: 521

VUC VUC

419 18

University College Lillebælt 1.028

Det Fynske Kunstakademi 60 VUC

Anne Frank school: 165

326

Koninklijke scholengemeenschap: 1.445

TietgenSkolen Teknisk Skole

21.538 Syddansk Universitet ca. 4 km.

877

600

Koningin Wilhelminaschool: 521

Odense Odense has more educational institutions placed in the city centre and a large number of students on a daily basis.

e city centre

Fotovakschool (in 2010): 350

s (6-12 jr)

ools (12-18 jr)

ducation (>16 jr)

ROC: 8.244

0

100

200

300

400

500

Schools in the city centre

• Congregation of350 public Fotovakschool (in 2010):

Primary schools (6-12 jr)

schools north of the city centre,

close to Oranjepark.

Secondary schools (12-18 jr)

• Youth education south of the station.

Professional education (>16 jr)

ROC: 8.244

• No university faculties.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

45


Analysis A monofunctional city â‚Ź

Age and gender - Hoofdstraat Hoofdstraat 11.00

Hoofdstraat 15.00

69%

Hoofdstraat 11.00

29

Hoofdstraat 13.00 Hoofdstraat 13.00

men

Hoofdstraat 15.00 53% 22

48%

men

men

18

40

women

36%

35% men

14

16 31

women

21

7-14

20

8

women

15-30

women

11% 2% 31-64

65+

5%

7% 1%

0-6

7-14

15-30

31-64

Percent

men

Percent

Percent

5%

5

men

women

30

13%

12%

0-6

women

65+

5% 1% 0-6

7-14

Age

Age

15-30

31-64

65+

Age

Hoofdstraat 17.00 Hoofdstraat 19.00

Hoofdstraat 21.00

Hoofdstraat 17.00

Hoofdstraat 19.00

Hoofdstraat 21.00

59% 22

64% 28

men

36

women

men

51% 30

men

48% 36

men

36% 37

women

30%

5%

6% 0%

7-14

15-30

17

women

women

12 women

0-6

31-64

Age

46

21

women

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

65+

Percent

Percent

19

men

men

0%

0%

0-6

7-14

women

0% 15-30 Age

31-64

65+

Percent

11

19

0%

0%

0-6

7-14

0% 15-30 Age

31-64

65+


A monofunctional city Analysis €

Age and gender - Hoofdstraat

Age and gender surveys were performed on Hoofdstraat and Marktstraat in the inner city to determine how the public realm is used by males and females and different age groups. A representative segment of pedestrians have been recorded at 11.00, 13.00, 15.00, 19.00 and 21.00. The average of all people recorded on Hoofdstraat on a summer weekday: Children ( 0-14 years):

9%

Young people (15-30 years):

45%

Middle aged (31-64 years):

45%

Elderly (65+ years):

1%

• The young people (15-30 years) and the middle aged (31-64 years) account for the most of the pedestrians throughout the whole day. These groups also cover the largest age span and represent the most commercial

66% men

56% 52% 48%

women

• The group of children are biggest in the morning and in

women

47%

women

women

active part of the population. 53%

women

50%

men

from the street life after 17.00.

36%

34%

men

men

the afternoon. The children (0-14 years) have disappeared

34% men

33%

33% men

• The elderly above 65 years are present on the streets in

women

the morning. The elderly above 65 years have disappeared from the street life after 15.00. • Women are strongly represented in the daytime, where they account for 52%. Generally speaking it has been observed that the supply and demand on Hoofdstraat 11:00

13:00

15:00

17:00

19:00

21:00

especially appeal towards the group of commercial active women.

Hoofdstraat - Men and women

Gender distribution on Hoofdstraat (15-64 years) between 11.00 - 21.00

• However when the shops are closed men are the highest representative on Hoofdstraat with 57%.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

47


Analysis A monofunctional city â‚Ź

Age and gender - Marktstraat

Marktstraat 13.00

Marktstraat 15.00 Marktstraat 11.00

Marktstraat 11.00

Marktstraat 13.00

Marktstraat 15.00

62% 27

57%

men

men

25

43% 19

35

32%

women

13

men

19

women

32

women

6% 2%

0-6

7-14

15-30

31-64

10%

8% 4% 0% 0-6

65+

7-14

15-30

men

20

women

31-64

women

8% 1%

0-6

65+

7-14

Age

Age

18

Percent

Percent

24

men

Percent

14

7%

38%

women

24% 10

men

15-30

31-64

65+

Age

Marktstraat 21.00

Marktstraat 19.00

Marktstraat 17.00

78%

Marktstraat 17.00

Marktstraat 19.00

55% 32

Marktstraat 21.00

78

men

men

52% 43

men

47% 43

33

women

men

30% 12

men

18

women

0% 0-6

0% 7-14

15-30

31-64

Age

48

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

65+

9

0%

0%

0-6

7-14

women

4 15-30 Age

31-64

women

0% 65+

Percent

5%

Percent

Percent

22%

0%

0%

0-6

7-14

11

men

11

women

0 15-30 Age

women

31-64

0% 65+


A monofunctional city Analysis €

Age and gender - Marktstraat

Age and gender surveys were performed on Hoofdstraat and Marktstraat in the inner city to determine how the public realm is used by males and females and different age groups. A representative segment of pedestrians have been recorded at 11.00, 13.00, 15.00, 19.00 and 21.00. 89%

86%

men

men

The average of all people recorded on Marktstraat on a summer weekday: Children ( 0-14 years):

51%

51%

49%

women

women

men

men

44% women

38%

37%

women

44%

40%

Middle aged (31-64 years):

52%

Elderly (65+ years):

men

37%

8%

Young people (15-30 years):

1%

men

• There are no significant changes in the different age groups represented in Marktstraat compared with 13% women

Hoofdstraat in the morning.

11% women

• Women are represented by 49% in Marktstraat when the shops are open (52% on Hoofdstraat)

11:00

13:00

15:00

17:00

19:00

Marktstraat - Men and women

21:00

• However the picture is totally different after the shops are closed - where men are very strongly represented. After 19.00 87,5% of the pedestrians account for men (57% on

Gender distribution on Marktstraat (15-64 years) between 11.00 - 21.00

Hoofdstraat)

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

49


4

A city with public spaces of low quality

Potentials • A green identity. • Fine-grained urban structure, fine walking streets, human scaled places. • Low and dense city offering a wonderful microclimate. • High amount of pedestrian orientated areas. • Recently upgraded Stationsplein. • Many active ground floor frontages in the city core. • High level of outdoor serving areas. • High number of café seats.

50

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Challenges • Close missing links in the public space network. • Make each public space have a distinct character. • Improve the physical appearance of public space. • Alleviate wind problems at the canal. • Improve capacity for walking and stationary activity in Nieuwstraat. • Connect fragmented green network. • Increase level of stationary activities. • Create a more diverse activity pattern. • Provide more and improve quality of public benches. • Link benches in the pedestrian network. • Spread outdoor serving areas to rest of city. • Address problems with privatization of public space. • Activate ground floor frontages in the cultural precinct, Nieuwstraat, Station precinct, Marketplein. Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

51


Analysis A city with public spaces of low quality

Stationary activity counts

413 On Marktplein 75% of the stationary activities between 12pm and 4pm are made up of commercial activities (people selling goods in market stands and thus not people choosing to spend time due to the quality of space).

Oranjepark

Oranjepark

385

Kapelstraat Vosselmanstraat

Kanaalpark

Marktplein Hofstraat Kanaalstraat

Raadhuisplein

Hoofdstraat

114

4

• Very low level of activity. Raadhuisplein is the most popular public space. Data collected: Wednesday 9th September 2009 Weather:Sunny, cloudy in the afternoon windy about 20 degrees

5 Stationsplein

57

Hoofdstraat zuid

19

Stationsdwarsstraat

4

between 12:00 and 16:00 on a summer weekday.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

53

Stationsplein

9

• Average number of stationary activities found in the period

52

92

Leijenplein

4

57

33

58

Stationsdwarsstraat

39

Hoofdstraat zuid

Hofstraat Kanaalstraat

53

9

4

Caterplein

Beekpark Kanaalpark

22

Raadhuisplein

11 Leijenplein

Marktplein

118

Hoofdstraat

14

Kapelstraat Vosselmanstraat

4

Caterplein

Beekpark

14

24

• Average number of stationary activities found in the period between 12:00 and 16:00 on a summer Saturday. • The activity level is 250% higher than weekdays, but still extremely low. Data collected: Saturday 12th September 2009 Weather:Sunny, cloudy in the afternoon windy about 20 degrees


33.550

A city with public spaces of low quality Analysis

Stationary activity vs. pedestrian traffic in Hoofdstraat Physically active Culturally active Commercially active Children playing

Hoofdstraat tussen Hofstraat en Paslaan

Lying down 400

Secondary seating Café chairs Benches

300

Stationary activity counts - Weekday

Number of persons

14.500

Standing

Hoofdstraat tussen Hofstraat en Paslaan total 198 Waiting for transport

Number of persons

200

14.500

Hoofdstraat

100 62 50

47 34

1

4

16

18

20

Time

Time

Physically active Fysiske aktiviteter

Number of persons

200

Weekday

100

Stationary activity

139

Pedestrian traffic

158 134

Siddende Secondarysekundær seating

Venter på transport transport Waiting for

Beregning af søjler displayed here.= The graphs to the left display 200 enhedder (gående/aktiviteter) 0,9 mm 100 enheder = 0,45 a substantial number of pedestrians come to 1 enhed = 0,0045

Saturday

Stationary activity

200

Liggende Lying down

Stående Standing

Pedestrian traffic

Children playing Legende børn

Siddende Benches bænk

• The most important story to tell about Apeldoorn is

480

Hoofdstraat tussen Hofstraat en Paslaan total 480

Kommercielle aktiviteter Commercially active

Siddende café Café chairs

200

Weekday

Stationary activity counts - Saturday

Kulturelle aktiviteter Culturally active

Stationary activity

14

Pedestrian traffic

12

Pedestrian traffic

10

Stationary activity

0

480

Saturday

that although Hoofdstraat

on a summer Saturday (33.550) very few of them choose to spend time there. Very few people engage in stationary activities or go visit other parts of the city centre. Beregning af søjler • enhedder There(gående/aktiviteter) is an enormous potential in working out 200 = 0,9 mm 100 enheder = 0,45 people 1 enhed = 0,0045can be invited to spend more time and

how more engage

in different activities while they are in the city. No new Weekday and Saturday stationary activity counts

visitors are needed. People are already there, they just

3

versus pedestrian traffic,

need the proper invitations for them to start doing other

20

Hoofdstraat between 10:00 - 21:00

things than just walking up and down Hoofdstraat.

45

5 0 10

12

14

Time

16

18

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

53


Analysis A city with public spaces of low quality

Public space quality The quality of public space is an overriding factor for the success of the public life that can take place in a city. A city consisting of high quality public spaces with wonderful conditions for enjoying the climate, with a multitude of events and activities that people can choose to participate in and with strong links to the pedestrian network and the amenities is generally a successful city with a flourishing and diverse public life.

Stationsplein is a very successful upgrade.

Caterplein is in need of an upgrade and a re-think.

In Apeldoorn the overall message is that something is lacking. People are not spending a long time in the city centre and their activities while in the city tend to be somewhat the same every time they visit, with shopping as a predominant activity. This relates to a number of reasons of which one factor has to do with the current quality level of the public spaces. Some public spaces are worn down and in need of a brush over, including a new thinking regarding the general layout of the space, the design profile and the future use e.g. Caterplein. Others are unfortunately rather new and are the result of a misconception of what public space is and should Unfortunate and unused recently upgraded public space.

54

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

Kanaal promenade is a waiting potential.

be.


A city with public spaces of low quality Analysis

428

Comparison between city centres On Marktplein 75% of the stationary activities between 12pm and 4pm are made up of commercial activities (people selling goods in market stands and thus not people choosing to spend time due to the quality of space).

407

95

Lotzes Have

36

40

Overgade

18

HC Andersen Haven

26

82

Fisketorvet

99

Vestergade Ø/Stålstræde/Asylgade/L. Gråbrd. Str.

Vintapperstræde/Gråbrd. Str.

67

Klingenberg/Skt. Knuds Plads Flakhaen

Lying down

Vestergade M/Gråbrødre Plads/Ove Sprogøes Plads

4

Café chairs

68

Benches

6

Stationsplein

20

Children playing

Secondary seating Stationsdwarsstraat

Hoofdstraat zuid

61

Commercially active

129

135

Vestergade V/Mageløs

Culturally active Kanaalpark

149

Hofstraat Kanaalstraat

Marktplein

Physically active

Hoofdstraat

11

Raadhuisplein

67

Kongensgade/Brandts Torv/Slotsgade

Brandts Klædefabrik/Brandts Passage

Oranjepark

Kapelstraat Vosselmanstraat

29

23

153

Leijenplein

5

Caterplein

Beekpark

45

Sortebrødre Torv/Claus Bergs Gade

Comparison: Kongens Have

377

Standing

27

Waiting for transport

Odense Stationary activities •

Average number of stationary activities found in the period between 12:00 and 14:00 on a summer Saturday.

Stationary activities - Average number of stationary activities found in the period between 12:00 and 14:00 on a summer Saturday.

Compared to Odense the stationary activity level is 60% lower in the city centre of Apeldoorn. (The people selling goods on Marktplein have been withdrawn in the calculation).

Compared to Odense the activities cover a larger geographical area and thus puts more of the city into play.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

55


Analysis A city with public spaces of low quality

Comparison between mainstreets, Saturday 33.550

33.550

+75% 450

450

total

480 400

total

438

1.340

400 375

350

350 19.100

19.100

200

200

158

150 134

150 133

139 1.340

45

4

3

0 Time 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00

Apeldoorn

• 1,5% of all activities take place after 18:00 • 63% of all people are standing

number of persons

50

1.340

105

100

Pe de s -o tria Sta n a Sn tra Odense Vestergade tio atu ffic na rda -on r y y a Sactiv atu ity rda y

480

number of persons

Pe de s -o tria Sta n a Sn tra tio atu ffic Apeldoorn Hoofdstraat na rda -on r y y a Sactiv atu ity rda y

100

148

142

50

0 Time 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00

Odense

• 19% of all activities take place after 18:00 (13X more than Apeldoorn Hoofdstraat) • 72% of all people are sitting on café chairs

Pedestrian traffic on a Saturday

480

Odense Vestergade

250

Apeldoorn Hoofdstraat

250

Odense Vestergade

300

Apeldoorn Hoofdstraat

300

+180%

Stationary activity on a Saturday

Apeldoorn vs. Odense • Although Apeldoorn enjoys many more visitors to the main street, very few of them choose to stay for a while and linger or engage in other activities than walking.

56

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


19

7 0

10

18

11 14

12

16

18

0

20

Time

14

12

10

16

18

2 20

Time

A city with public spaces of low quality Analysis 400 365

Comparison between parks 300

Kanaalpark total 22

10

12

Oranjepark total 143 4 7 14

Number of persons

200

16

3

4

18

20

100 300

55

7 0

10

12

16

18

0

20

0

10

Time

18

20

quite under-utilized.

0

12

10

7

2

0 14

4

12

Time

16

14

11 18

4 16

3 20

18

4

18

20

20

4. Kanaalpark total 22

H 200

100

31 9

• Lotzes Have has 360% more act. 0

200

than Oranjepark.

200

100

0

Time

20

Time

H.C. Andersen Have total 362

25

26

19

2

Lotzes Have total 659

Number of persons

Number of persons

Number of persons 10

• 10 Very low numbers of people 14 16 12

3

Number of persons

Number of persons 0

4

Especially Kanaalpark is

55

18

16

Odense

7

using the public parks. Time

100

14

12

10

300

2

12

10

36

100

0

0

65

365

Apeldoorn

20

100

400

0 200

18

173

0

Kanaalpark total 22

Oranjepark Kanaalpark total 143 total 22

7

16

Time

200

100

14

18

Time

200

12

25 16

100

28

11

14

12

10

200

55 26

173

9

100

19

31

11

14

104 85

25

26

19

105

100

Number of persons

365

Time

7

Lotzes Have total 659

Number of persons

2

400

Number of persons

0

0

Number of persons

100

200

200

200

Number of persons

Number of persons

200

H.C. Andersen Have total 362

Oranjepark total 143

173

12

• HC Andersens Have has 1550% more act. than Kanaalpark. 105

100

104 85

65 36

31 0

12

10

14

12

28

18

9 10

10

16

Time

14

18

2 16

20

18

20

Time

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

H.C. Andersen Have total 362

57


Analysis A city with public spaces of low quality

Public benches and pedestrian routes Comparison: 15 40 120

60 26

60

80

1016

180 30

25

20

100

20 30

330

136

10

60

64

120

30

15

50

40

128

75

10

20

60

320

110

120

120

190

160

265

40 10

190

30

1520 seats 30

53 96 337 15

85

131

16

110 35

335 128

100

Rotterdam Extensive public seating in 750 seats

the city centre

378 seats

Public benches source: observations july 2009

Total number of seats: Apeldoorn

15+ seats 10-14 seats

0

100

200

300

400

Odense

Rotterdam

500

5-9 seats 1-4 seats Public benches source: observations july 2009 15+ seats

main walking routes

10-14 seats

secondary walking routes

5-9 seats

supporting walking routes

1-4 seats

main walking routes secondary walking routes supporting walking routes

58

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

• No direct link between the main pedestrian routes and the supply of public benches. • Very few options for resting along pedestrian routes.


A city with public spaces of low quality Analysis

Public benches and pedestrian routes Public seats When inviting people to walk and enjoy the public realm it is important that different opportunities for pausing and resting are provided. Apart from the number of public seats, other factors are important in order to provide good quality seating. Experience shows that the most popular seating is of good quality, has a nice view, sufficient sun/shade and shelter, and most importantly is located close to important pedestrian routes and destinations. Good comfortable seating in the right location provides visitors with rest and an opportunity to stay longer,

Uncomfortable seating options, Hofstraat.

which contributes to a more lively city. This is one of the keys to encouraging people to walk, enjoy and Over-crowded seating arrangement in Hoofdstraat.

spend time in the streets.

There is a substantial lack of public benches and other seating arrangements in the city centre of Apeldoorn. Seating possibilities are few and are often placed far apart. As such the most central locations where the most people come are without any seating whatsoever. Hoofdstraat which should be a welcoming main street offer approximately 10 benches for its 34.550 walking visitors during Saturdays. The general lack of benches and of proper seating environments tell people to keep Especially the elderly need a rest, Hoofdstraat.

Secondary seating options are popular in a city without benches.

walking and it discourages the elderly and families with children from visiting at all.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

59


Analysis A city with public spaces of low quality

Outdoor serving areas Comparison: 44

28

10

5 26

10

32

24 15 40

73 60

8

168 16 26

40

24 8

16

80

80

10 10

20 170

12

16

30

10

80

6.300 seats

15

20

9

4 75 3

24 30

75

30

8

Rotterdam Extensive café seating in the city centre

2.180 seats

0

200

300

400

500

Apeldoorn Odense Rotterdam

120 + seats

Number of outdoor serving areas in study

80-119 seats

site during shop hours

• High number of café seats

40-79 seats

120 + seats

source: observations july 2009

80-119 seats

Total number of terrace seats: 2.182

• Concentration of outdoor serving areas in Caterplein, in

20-39 seats

40-79 seats 1- 19 seats 20-39 seats 1- 19 seats

Number of outdoor serving areas in study site during shop hours

source: observations july 2009

(excl. standing tables Caterplein)

Total number of terrace seats: 2.182

Total number of seating in studysite 3.036 (excl. standing tables Caterplein) Terrace seats: 2.182 (72 %)

Total number of378 seating in studysite 3.036 Primary seating (12 %) Terrace seats: Secondary seating:

60

100

2.040 seats

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

2.182 476 (16 %) (72 %)

Primary seating

378 (12 %)

Secondary seating:

476 (16 %)

Leienplein and in Raadhuisplein • No outdoor serving areas along the Kanaal, in Oranjepark, in Asselselaan or in the Stationsplein.


A city with public spaces of low quality Analysis

Outdoor serving areas Recreational city life The culture of outdoor cafe life has developed rapidly in many countries around the world. This has significantly changed the usage patterns of city centres. Today summer activities are of a much more recreational nature. Drinking coffee is an uncomplicated way of combining several attractions; being outdoors, enjoying pleasant views and the ever present entertainment of watching people pass by.

Light array of moveable chairs and tables.

Cafe chairs on Asselsestraat in December. Outdoor serving furniture are of a wide range and quality. Part of this variety adds to the flavour and colourfulness of the city, where each cafe gets to express their specific character. Unfortunately this also opens for a different interpretion of what quality is. As such a number of bulky elements have been introduced, that might be secured for vandalism, but which do little good for the quality of the public realm. A different aspect is the tendency of leaving the furniture outside during all four seasons, well aware that winter is not really an option for outdoor dining. These forgotten piles of seating arrangements do little good for the city during winter and detracts from the overall experience of a nice city, as squares and streets Oversized commercial parasols of poor quality in Caterplein.

Poor quality furniture in front of Stadhuis.

are turned into meer storage facilities.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

61


Analysis A city with public spaces of low quality

Privatised public space

Unfortunate addition to a beautiful building in Caterplein.

• Not surprisingly, the privatisation of public space is most evident in the areas with the highest activity levels (bars, restaurants) mainly found in Caterplein, Raadhuisplein and in Leienplein. 0 Privatised public space source: observations july 2009 Informal terrace seating in public space Fenced off terrace seating in public space Major terrace squares (almost totally privatised !)

100

200

300

400

500

• The congregation of these privatised areas represent severe obstacles in the pedestrian landscape. • The privatised areas often contribute to a visual pollution, given that there are no common rules for visual appearance and that shop owners are reluctant to put much money into something they might be asked to remove again.

62

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


A city with public spaces of low quality Analysis

Lack of landmark buildings along Hoofdstraat Hoofdstraat is THE most important street in Apeldoorn in terms of number of visitors, both during the week but especially during the weekend. As such Hoofdstraat holds a quite significant position and should reflect this in the general layout, the furniture, the paving and the buildings along. Of special significance are the buildings that form gateways in and out of Hoofdstraat as well as the buildings that communicate the starting point (Caterplein) and the point where Hoofdstraat curves. These buildings are landmarks and can be seen from afar. As such these buildings should be of the same scale as the surrounding city, but hold a special high quality in their design.

Rather insignificant building at Caterplein. Starting point of Hoofdstraat. Where Hoofdstraat curves, this rather unfortunate building can be found. The scale is wrong and nothing positive can be said for the design.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

63


Analysis A city with public spaces of low quality

Microclimate: Sun

A sunny corner on Stationdwarsstraat.

innercity, afdeling RI

round 0 analysis)

• Many sunlit places in the city centre, due to the low 0 Microclimate: Sun source: shadow analysis 3D model innercity, afdeling RI Public space that has sun all year around (based on shortest day 21/12 14.00 analysis)

100

200

300

400

500

buildings. • No sun along Hoofdstraat. Sunlit places along the main street. • No direct links between the sunlit places and the placement of benches. • Sunny spots are not celebrated with extra attention or facilities such as public benches.

64

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


A city with public spaces of low quality Analysis

Microclimate: Wind Conflicts with public life One of the problems with high buildings is the microclimatic conditions created at the base. When strong winds meet a tall free-standing building turbulence and fast down winds will sweep the nearby streets in unpredictable ways. Fast winds lower the temperature of streets and public spaces, minimising the comfort for people walking or staying nearby and effectively preventing public life. Additionally, high-rise casts long shadows limiting the recreational values of city streets and squares. However grand it may appear as both skyline and from within its apartments or offices, poorly placed and designed high-rise buildings can render public space useless as a place for public life activities. The inevitable result is public space with an absence of public life.

nd

• Three buildings are causing disadvantage to surrounding public space. • One of the problems with high buildings is the micro-

ngs

climatic conditions created at the base. • When strong winds meet a tall free-standing building 0 Climate factors public space: wind source: observations july 2009 Fast high wind areas circular winds from highrise buildings that makes adjecent public place uncomfortable to be in

100

200

300

400

500

turbulence and fast down winds will sweep the nearby streets in unpredictable ways. • Fast winds lower the temperature of streets and public spaces, minimising the comfort for people walking or staying nearby and effectively preventing public life. • Additionally, high-rise casts long shadows limiting the recreational values of city streets and squares.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

65


Analysis A city with public spaces of low quality

Quality of ground floor frontages A ACTIVE • Small units, many doors. (15-20 units per 100 m) • Diversity of functions. • No closed or passive units. • Interesting relief in frontages. • Quality materials and refined details. B PLEASANT • Relatively small units. (10-14 units per 100 m) • Some diversity of functions. • Only a few closed or passive units. • Some relief in the frontages. • Relatively good detailing. C 'SOMEWHERE IN-BETWEEN' • Mixture of small and larger units. (6-10 units per 100 m) • Some diversity of functions. • Only a few closed or passive units. • Uninteresting design of frontages. • Somewhat poor detailing. D DULL • Larger units with few doors. (2-5 units per 100 m) • Little diversity of functions. • Many closed units. • Predominantly unattractive frontages. • Few or no details. E INACTIVE • Large units with few or no doors. • No visible variation of function. • Closed and passive frontages. • Monotonous frontages. • No details, nothing interesting to look at.

66

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


A city with public spaces of low quality Analysis

Quality of ground floor frontages

Dull - larger units with few doors - little diversity of functions - many closed units - predominantly unattractive frontages - dew or no details Dull - larger units with few doors - little diversity of functions - many closed units - predominantly unattractive frontages - dew or no details

Inactive - large units with few or no doors - no visible variation of function - closed and passive frontages - monotonous frontages - no details, nothing interesting to look at

Inactive - large units with few or no doors - no visible variation of function - closed and passive frontages - monotonous frontages - no details, nothing interesting to look at

Active - small units, many doors - diversity of functions - no closed or passive units - interesting relief in frontages - quality materials and refined details Active - small units, many doors - diversity of functions - no closed or passive units - interesting relief in frontages - quality materials and refined details

Pleasant - relatively small units - some diversity in functions - only a few closed or passive units - some relief in the frontages - relatively good detailling

Pleasant - relatively small units - some diversity in functions

Inactive Ground Floor Frontages

Active Ground Floor Frontages - only a few closed or passive units

• The culture/entertainment area has closed ground floor frontages.

- relatively good detailling • Active frontages are primarily found in the retail heart on Hoofdstraat (and side

• Most of Marktplein has closed frontages .

- some relief in the frontages

streets) and on Asselsestraat.

• The station quarter and the south portion of Nieuwstraat have many closed and passive frontages that make those areas feel unsafe. • Buildings in these areas are often large scale with over-sized, closed and passive ground floor frontages that make it impossible for people to interact at street level.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

67


People first, cars second

Potentials • Traffic calmed inner city core. • Parking structures are situated in the periphery of the inner city. • A good public transport network. • Close links between the public transport network and the pedestrian network. • A compact city with a high level of cycling traffic. • Short distances to key destinations. • Low city with a human scale. • Good climatic conditions for cycling. • A fine network of cycle routes linking the city centre with the surrounding areas. • A whole range of bike parking facilities placed close to main cycling routes.

68

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009


Challenges • Close missing links in the overall traffic structure. • Mitigate very wide traffic streets with oversized junctions outside the inner city core. • Address noise problems along heavy trafficked streets. • Address problems caused by the centrally located parking structures that create extra traffic in the areas adjacent to the inner city core. • Improve bicycle parking at "hot spots" for unorganized parking.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

69


Analysis People first, cars second

Through traffic an: Loola 38 veh. .4 . in: 4 .838 veh 4 out:

P 00

. 10

50

Sp in: reng ou 3.9 enwe t: 8 5.4 2 ve g: 09 h. ve h.

5.00

20-2

Deve nters in: traat 8 : out: .849 veh . 11.69 3 ve h.

0

P

P

• Heavily trafficked roads are surrounding the city centre,

P

especially to the west and the south.

P

• These traffic corridors are either borders that need need to

at stra . eh else Ass 2568 v eh. v in: 028 : 2 out

5-10.0

0.0

2 155.0

2 20-

00

softer transport modes, cyclists and pedestrians, need to travel along. • In the city ring road is a number of major intersections Kerk is such an example, where the intersection is even

00

more complicated by the addition of a couple of minor side Through traffic in city centre ( in 24 hr) source: mobility model, afdeling mobiliteit 2008 < 1000 motorvehicles

1000 - 5000 motorvehicles < 1000 motorvehicles

15.000 - 20.000 motorvehicles

- 10.000 motorvehicles 1000 - 5000 5000 motorvehicles

20.000 - 25.000 motorvehicles

10.000 - 15.000 motorvehicles 5000 - 10.000 motorvehicles

25.000 - 30.000 motorvehicles

15.000 - 20.000 motorvehicles 10.000 - 15.000 motorvehicles

> 30.000 motoverhicles

25.000 - 30.000 motorvehicles 20.000 - 25.000 motorvehicles > 30.000 motoverhicles 25.000 - 30.000 motorvehicles

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009 > 30.000 motoverhicles

: Kayersdijk h. 4 ve in: 9.80 1 veh. out: 6.97

Koning Stadhouderlaan: in: 10.132 veh. out: 10.317 veh.

1000 - 5000 motorvehicles Through traffic in city centre ( in 24 hr) 5000 - 10.000 source: mobility model, afdeling mobiliteit 2008motorvehicles Through traffic in city centre ( in 24 hr) 10.000 - 15.000 motorvehicles < 1000 motorvehicles source: mobility model, afdeling mobiliteit 2008

20.000 - 25.000 motorvehicles 15.000 - 20.000 motorvehicles

70

be crossed to reach the city centre or passages that also

where main traffic arteries meet. The intersection at Grote

rt poo eh. ten v Ma 7.692 eh. 3v .18 in: : 8 out

: . aan eh A l 5 v h. PW 4.17 42 ve in: : 3.9 t ou

00

n stlaa . enru Wap .503 veh h. e 8 08 v in: 10.4 out:

streets that are allowed direct access to the intersection. • There are a number of roads and intersections that appear over-scaled in relation to the actual amount of traffic they carry, e.g. Prins Willem Alexanderlaan. This relates to the demand for a high service level for all transport modes and the unwillingness to restrict and simplify vehicular traffic also in the inner city periphery.


People first, cars second Analysis

Major traffic intersection in front of Grote Kerk having a substantial deteriorating effect on the surroundings and especially the church.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

71


Analysis People first, cars second

Traffic noise

53

Climate: traffic noise source: statistics Kadaster en dienst RI 2008 Railway line: 53 dB(a) contour 58 dB(a) contour 63 dB(a) contour 68 dB(a) contour

72

Climate: traffic noise source: statistics Kadaster en dienst RI 2008 Railway line: 53 dB(a) contour traffic noise 58Climate: dB(a) contour statistics Kadaster en dienst RI 2008 63source: dB(a) contour line: Climate: traffic noise 68Railway dB(a) contour 53 dB(a) contour source: statistics Kadaster en dienst RI 2008 58traffic: dB(a) contour Railway line: Car 63 dB(a) contour 53 dB(a) contour less than 48 dB(a): 68 dB(a) contour 58 dB(a) contour areas behind buildings or away from traffic 63 dB(a) contour where traffic noise is not present Car traffic: 68 dB(a) contour 48 dB(a): 48less - 63than dB(a): or away from traffic Car traffic: a areas normalbehind urban buildings environment where traffic where traffic noise is not present factor less than 48 dB(a): noise is present but not a disturbing areas behind buildings or away from traffic 63 dB(a): where traffic noise is not present6348+ -dB(a): normaltraffic urbandominated environment where traffic a astessful environment noisetraffic is present not a disturbing factor 48 - 63 dB(a): where noisebut becomes a disturbing a normal urban environment where traffic factor 63 + dB(a): noise is present but not a disturbing factor a stessful traffic dominated environment where traffic noise becomes a disturbing 63 + dB(a): factor a stessful traffic dominated environment where traffic noise becomes a disturbing

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

Car traffic: less than 48 dB(a): areas behind buildings or away from traffic where traffic noise is not present 48 - 63 dB(a): a normal urban environment where traffic noise is present but not a disturbing factor 63 + dB(a): a stessful traffic dominated environment where traffic noise becomes a disturbing factor

58

dB

(a)

dB

(a) 63 dB 68 (a) dB (a)

â&#x20AC;˘ Severe noise problems for residents, pedestrians and cyclists along: Wilhemina Drucker Straat / Vosselmanstraat. â&#x20AC;˘ Also noise problems along Deventerstraat, straight past the town hall.


People first, cars second Analysis

Grass curves Beekpark Landscaped grass curves work as soundbarriers and position the trafffic noise mentally outside the park

Percieved noise Fountain Oranjepark works as major noisebarrier for traffic noise and replaces it with a pleasant sound which make even the edges of the park ‘traffic noise free’

Grass curves Beekpark Landscaped grass curves work as soundbarriers and position the trafffic noise mentally outside the park

Example:

Fountain Marktplein Fountain sound ‘fills’ part of the space. The sound of water adds a postive Fountain Oranjepark audial works as major noisebarrier for traffic experience in this noise andspace. replaces it with a pleasant sound which make even the edges of the park ‘traffic noise free’

'present' but without being negative.

Fountain Marktplein Fountain sound ‘fills’ part of the space. The sound of water adds a postive audial experience in this space.

e and nd st 2009

affic inating’

affic ent’ but

Hofstraat is a street where traffic noise is perceived as

0 Sound: percieved positive and negative influence of sound source: observations august 2009 Streets and spots where traffic noise is percieved as ‘dominating’ and negative. Streets and spots where traffic noise is percieved as ‘present’ but without being negative.

100

200

300

400

500

• Several installations have been made to downscale the impact of traffic noise • No installations along the heavily trafficked roads like Deventerstraat, Stationsstraat and Kalverstraat / Molenstraat

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

73


Analysis People first, cars second

Parking Comparison: Total parking 9.000

P

4.455 3.750 2.700

P

P

Apeldoorn Odense Copenhagen Rotterdam

P P

â&#x20AC;˘ A total of 4.455 parking spaces, which is a high number for a city this size!

bus

â&#x20AC;˘ 2.450 in parking structures and 2.005 on streets and on

Total number of (marked) parking places: 4.455 in parking garages: 0 along streets: in public squares: in innercourts: Total number of (marked) parking places: 4.455 Total number of (marked) parking places: 4.455 P

P

74

2.450 100(55 %) 200 718 (16 %) 434 (10 %) 853 (19 %)

300

in P garages:

parking in parking 2.450garages: (55 %) along streets: along streets: 718 (16 %) in public squares: in public squares: 434 (10 %) in innercourts: in innercourts: 853 (19 %)

2.450 (55sites %) of private outdoor parking spaces 718 (16(not %) free use for public) 434 (10 %) 853 (19sites %) of non marked parking in streets (within residential zoning): minor numbers: not counted sites of privatespaces outdoor parking spaces sites of private outdoor parking (not free use for public) sites of temporary (illegal?) parking (not free use for public) on derelict terrains sites of non sites of non marked parking in marked streets parking in streets (within residential zoning): (within residential zoning): minor numbers: not counted minor numbers: not counted

of temporary Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009 sites of temporarysites (illegal?) parking (illegal?) parking Parking in relation to traffic flows and volumes on derelict terrainson derelict terrains

400

500

squares â&#x20AC;˘ Streets along the Kanaal and around Oranjepark are used for parking. Probably the most misplaced parking in all of the city centre where the on street parking spaces seriously downgrade the general experiences of walking along and enjoying the beautiful green and blue amenities of Apeldoorn.


People first, cars second Analysis

Parking and traffic volumes an: Loola 38 veh. .4 . in: 4 .838 veh 4 out:

Comparison: P

P

P

P

P

P

00

. 10

50

P P P

Sp in: reng ou 3.9 enwe t: 8 5.4 2 ve g: 09 h. ve h.

P

P

P P

5.00

20-2

Deve nters in: traat 8 : out: .849 veh . 11.69 3 ve h.

0

P

P

P

Rotterdam Parking structures in the inner city.

P Total number P of (marked) parking places: 4.455

at stra . eh else Ass 2568 v eh. v in: 028 : 2 out

P

in parking garages: along streets: in public squares: in innercourts:

2.450 (55 %) 718 (16 %) 434 (10 %) 853 (19 %)

00 5-10.0

sites of private outdoor parking spaces (not free use for public)

000

25.

20-

0

â&#x20AC;˘ Apeldoorn has a very high number of parking

sites of temporary (illegal?) parking on derelict terrains

: Kayersdijk h. 4 ve in: 9.80 1 veh. out: 6.97

Koning Stadhouderlaan: in: 10.132 veh. out: 10.317 veh.

Parking in relation to traffic flows and volumes

spaces in the city centre offering good rt poo eh. ten v Ma 7.692 eh. 3v .18 in: : 8 out

: . aan eh A l 75 v veh. W 1 . P 4 942 in: : 3. t ou

00 sites of non marked parking in streets 20. (within residential zoning): 15minor numbers: not counted

n stlaa . enru Wap .503 veh h. e 8 08 v in: 10.4 out:

conditions for cars but also increasing the problem of traffic in the city centre. â&#x20AC;˘ Parking structures are placed at the periphery and inside the inner city core. Especially the parking structures in the shopping mall 'Oranjerie' attracts a high level of traffic.

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

75


Analysis People first, cars second

Dedicated bicycle tracks & Main cycling routes

Main cycling routes source: bicycle counts 2008 1000 - 2500 bicycles / 24 hr 2500 - 5000 bicycles / 24 hr 5000 -- 7000 bicycles / 24 hr 7000 - 10.000 bicycles / 24 hr > 10.000 bicyles / 24 hr Main cycling routes source: bicycle counts 2008

Dedicated bicyle tracks source: observations july 2009

1000 - 2500 bicycles / 24 hr

Track: Raised / separated Bicycle

2500 - 5000 bicycles / 24 hr

Lane: (colour)marked lane combined with cars.

5000 -- 7000 bicycles / 24 hr

Signposted cycling routes within the pedestrian area (no special tracks)

7000 - 10.000 bicycles / 24 hr > 10.000 bicyles / 24 hr

Cycle traffic

Dedicated bicyle tracks source: observations july 2009

• Cycling is a desirable transport mode.

Cycle network

• Relatively heavily cycling traffic going in/out centre Signposted cycling routesthe within city the pedestrian area (nofrom the south and

• Well developed cycle network.

Track: Raised / separated Bicycle Lane: (colour)marked lane combined with cars.

the east.

76

special tracks)

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

• Quality issues with some routes.


People first, cars second Analysis

Cycling Comparison: Model split 26%

5%

19%

19%

47 %

48 %

(includes pedestrians)

36%

Apeldoorn

Rotterdam

22% 29% 5%

4%

26%

19% 28% 31%

47 %

19%

37%

Zwolseweg

19% 48 %

(includes pedestrians)

Odense

31%

36%

Apeldoorn

Copenhagen

Rotterdam

22% 4%

29%

â&#x20AC;˘ Apeldoorn has an impressive modal 31% split with

28% 37%

a very high level of bicyclists. Compared to 19% Rotterdam Apeldoorn has doubled its cycling

population.

Odense

â&#x20AC;˘ Many initiatives have been made to maintain and

31%

Copenhagen

even expand this number. These initiatives need to be supported as the large cycling population in Apeldoorn form the basis for a traffic calmed city Stationsplein south

centre, with ample space for people activities.

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Analysis People first, cars second

Bicycle parking facilities and main cycling routes Example:

800

1800

180 Bicycle parking on Kanaalstraat

500

700

Main cycling routes / volumes (source: bicycle counts 2008) 1000 - 2500 bicycles / 24 hr 2500 - 5000 bicycles / 24 hr 5000 -- 7000 bicycles / 24 hr 7000 - 10.000 bicycles / 24 hr > 10.000 bicyles / 24 hr

100

200

Main cycling routes / volumes (source: bicycle counts 2008)

Bicycle parking facilities source: observations july 2009

1000 - 2500 bicycles / 24 hr 2500 - 5000 bicycles / 24 hr

indoor parkingfacility (free): 3980 (74%) For the indoor facilities, 600.000 bikes parked per year (source: analyse bezetting Felua 2008)

5000 -- 7000 bicycles / 24 hr

bike standards in public space: 1388 (26%)

7000 - 10.000 bicycles / 24 hr > 10.000 bicyles / 24 hr

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0

1- 9 bikes 10-19 bikes 20 + bikes

Bicycle parking facilities source: observations july 2009

Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

indoor parkingfacility (free): 3980 (74%) For the indoor facilities, 600.000 bikes parked per year (source: analyse bezetting Felua 2008)

300

400

500

• Substantial supply of bicycle parking facilities • Several with indoor bicycle parking facilities • Strong links between the cycle network and the placement of parking facilities


People first, cars second Analysis

Unorganised bicycle parking Example:

Unorganised bicycle parking on Deventerstraat.

olumes 008) hr hr 0

4 hr

24 hr

100

Main cycling routes / volumes (source: bicycle counts 2008)

Unorganised bicycle parking during daytime source: observations july 2009

1000 - 2500 bicycles / 24 hr

1-10 bikes

2500 - 5000 bicycles / 24 hr

more than 10 bikes

5000 -- 7000 bicycles / 24 hr 7000 - 10.000 bicycles / 24 hr

200

300

400

500

â&#x20AC;˘ Although a substantial number of parking facilities have been put in place there are still problems with unorganised parking. â&#x20AC;˘ Hot spots are mainly located close to Raadhuisplein and in the southern part of Hoofdstraat, where the most people access the pedestrian network.

> 10.000 bicyles / 24 hr

Bicycle parking facilities source: observations july 2009 indoor parkingfacility (free): 3980 (74%) For the indoor facilities, 600.000 bikes parked per year (source: analyse bezetting Felua 2008)

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Analysis People first, cars second

Public transport Example:

The star shaped network. Public transport bus routes

â&#x20AC;˘ Close links between public transport and the pedestrian

bus stops main bus- / trainstation

network â&#x20AC;˘ Public transport has been developed to form a star shaped 0

Public transport bus routes bus stops main bus- / trainstation

Main pedestrian routes source: observations and interpretation team 2009 main walking routes secondary walking routes supporting walking routes

100

200

300

400

500

network of closely interlinked timetables. This secures that the possibilities for interchange are good and that the city is free of buses the majority of the time. â&#x20AC;˘ When the bus interchange do happen, streets tend to be heavily congested and to be relieved after a short time span.

Main pedestrian routes source: observations and interpretation team 2009

80

main walking routes

secondary walking routes Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009 supporting walking routes


People first, cars second Analysis

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Overview of recommendations

1

Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its wonderful amenities

2

Ensure an even better city for walking

â&#x201A;Ź

3

Ensure a city centre that is liveable and viable

4

Ensure an upgraded public space network

Ensure a city centre with a 21st century traffic system

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1

Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its wonderful amenities Make the most out of Apeldoorn´s unique setting by improving the connections to the amenities. Respect and cherish the heritage buildings Maintain a human scale city Develop strong links between the city centre and the surrounding landscapes Create a green ring around the inner city Develop a network of green boulevards Celebrate the parks 'Greening the desert' Integrate the Kanaal with the city Celebrate the streams 'Irrigating the desert'

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Recommendations Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities

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Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities Built character Respect and cherish the heritage buildings Protection of the city centre's few historical buildings and features is an essential priority. This contributes substantially to the city's special character and provides a characteristic context for new developments. The heritage buildings represent valuable assets not only as historic reminders and beautiful landmarks, but also as potential buildings for attracting alternative business to the city. Further the historic buildings make out the unique urban fabric of Apeldoorn, that should be maintained.

Older buildings often have a more comfortable human scale that invite relaxed and sociable uses. New Road, Brighton

• Maintain the historical, low rise city, and make sure that new areas obtain similar qualities. Protect, develop and refine the qualities which already exist. • Emphasise the historical and architectural heritage. Study and publish what is the essence of the Apeldoorn city plan, the city quarters, the streets and squares, and the buildings. Communicate the uniqueness of Apeldoorn to the wider public. • Develop guidelines for successful integration between new developments and heritage buildings. • Ensure that the heritage buildings individual qualities are reflected in ground floors and that there is a clear architecturally designed link between the ground floor and the building above. • Develop a sign policy for commercial buildings to avoid low quality commercial signage causing detriment to the building and the surrounding streetscape.

A low rise city offers excellent opportunities for enjoying the positive aspects of the climate, even in early spring. Copenhagen

• Investigate how e.g. post industrial heritage buildings can offer low cost opportunities for creative businesses and act as drivers in new developments.

Maintain a human scale city • Ensure that new public spaces are created in a human scale and are integrating with the existing network of streets and squares. • Control building heights and protect the micro-climatic conditions in streets and squares. Identify areas where high rise is acceptable outside the city centre and introduce a height limit for buildings in the city centre, to avoid conflicts with the micro-climate in central public spaces and to preserve the urban form. • Develop planning controls for the inner city area to maintain the present average building height of maximum 5 storeys with a general height of 3 or 4 storeys. • Identify areas outside the inner city area where high rise can be built without causing detriment to public space at ground floor level.

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Increase density and ensure that there are no /few "missing teeth". Develop a collected plan for the city centre identifying blank spots /determined or potential development sites. Develop a framework that future buildings and spaces should fit into. (Building heights, materials, functions etc.) Use events as the triënnale to add focus to these future development sites and to enable a public discussion of future uses.


Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities Recommendations

Green character Develop strong links between the city centre and the surrounding landscapes • Make the most of the unique location of Apeldoorn close to vast landscapes, which is something special in a Dutch context. • Develop a network of clearly identifiable, recreational cycling and walking routes that link the city centre with the river IJssel and the Nationalpark De Hoge Veluwe. • Ensure that these routes link straight into the city centre and are followed by recognisable elements, that may be interactive or offer various treats. The routes need to raise awareness

Recreational cycling and walking routes. Prags Boulevard, Copenhagen

of the closeness to the natural reserves and invite people to make use of them. • Create a nature centre in the city centre, linked to the recreational routes, which cater for tours to the landscapes and tell the story of the landscapes, the plants and the wildlife to visitors through exhibitions, a bookstore, interactive medias and educational services to schools and groups. The concept could be broadened to enclose landscape and cultural history as well.

Create a green ring around the inner city • Identify the extent of the inner city area by identifying "border-streets" or connections (southern edge) between the inner city centre and its surroundings. • Develop a clearly defined green ring around the city centre to identify where the city centre ends and begins by distinguished street tree planting. Preferably the same type of trees. Existing, significant trees should be kept. At certain points the green ring may overlap the

Establish green routes connecting the city centre with surrounding nature. Austria

A connected green network needs a signage program which ensures easy wayfinding. Odense

existing ring road. • Ensure that the green ring clearly marks the entry points to the city centre, possibly by being supplemented by other planting, paving, lighting, artwork or other. Often entry points would be traffic intersections. • The traffic layout along the green ring, should include a high quality environment for pedestrians and cyclists, as well as including public transport and vehicular traffic. The street layout and the intersections along should clearly indicate city streets and not urban highway. • Areas inside this green ring need to reflect an inner city character and public space, in terms of streets, squares and parks, would need special attention to be recognised as city streets etc. • The green ring indicates that attention is needed in terms of densification and investment in public space primarily inside the ring. The ring also indicates to what degree the inner city heart should be expanded.

Create a green ring around the city centre. This is to be understood primarily as a visual border and not a functional border or a ring road. Marking the border between the centre and the surrounding areas with a continued line of street trees.

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Recommendations Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities

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Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities Develop a network of green boulevards • Identify key streets that lead to the city centre and the green ring, e.g. Loolaan. • Develop a boulevard strategy for turning these key streets into clearly identifiable boulevards offering good conditions for walking and cycling as well as including public transport and vehicular traffic. (see map on opposite page for selection of streets). • Introduce street trees and preferably a green median on the boulevards. • Ensure good condtions for crossing the boulevards on foot and on bicycle.

Trees in the boulevard frame the pedestrian zone. Frederiksberg Allé, Copenhagen

Celebrate the parks • Create clearly visible walking and cycling links to the city parks - Beekpark, Brinkpark, and Oranjepark. But also links to Wilheminapark and Marialust. • Ensure that the parks are part of the city's event program. • Create distinctive parks clearly different from each other, offering multiple choices for use. (see more in recommendations, chapter 4).

'Greening the desert' • Supplement the general street tree strategy by a flexible planting strategy, introducing temporary greenery in selected spots, e.g. Leienplein.

Moveable tree planters designed for specific seasonal locations. ACEC HOF, Apeldoorn

Green bicycle parking. BBC White City, London

• Use different types and species to create individual identities for different streets and areas. • Use temporary greenery to support festivals or other public life programs. • Combine the temporary greenery with artwork and let 'green artists' play with the various elements. • Introduce 'green streets' in selected spots. Green streets deal with storm water treatment as in e.g. Portland, USA.

Movable greenery can also be used as Movable flower exhibitions add elements to define the use of the street. sensory experiences. Place de la Bourse, Lyon Herald Square, Sydney

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Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities Recommendations o Lo laa n

'Green Streets', recycling and filtrating water in the city Rain water from roofs and storm water from streets and passages can either be cleaned before discharging into the Kanaal, or be reused in the city. Structures for collecting water add interest to the streetscape and allow people to notice how much

terstr

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water falls, where it goes, and how clean it is. Other

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benefits of water recycling include habitat and water quality improvements in the Kanaal, and reductions in water treatment and supply costs.

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Street-side filtration cells are a simple and unobtrusive way to add green to the streets. SW 12th Street in Portland, Oregon Photo by Kevin Robert Perry

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Strengthen the green identity of Apeldoorn by introducing a green ring that clearly communicates the extent of the city centre, and a network of green boulevards that lead into the surrounding parts of Apeldoorn. Green ring

Filtering storm water. Simple approaches to slowing or delaying storm water run off make pockets of green in the streets, and have multiple benefits for water quality and municipal water infrastructure. Siskyou Street, Portland, Oregon

Green city boulevards Green route Parks Greening the dessert (Suggested points) Nature centre (suggested function and location)

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Recommendations Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities

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Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities Blue character Integrate the Kanaal with the city • Create a strong physical and mental link between the city and the Kanaal by extending the renewed Hofstraat street layout to include Kanaalstraat (east-west running part). (see ideacollage on the opposite page) • Ensure that new developments along the Kanaal are well integrated in the general urban fabric and do not offer solely a front side to the Kanaal, but also adresses the hinterland. • Set up a walking and cycling promenade /path along the Kanaal to link with surrounding

Create squares and direct access to the water and give people opportunity to touch the water. Århus

landscapes. Ensure public access along the Kanaal. • Ensure interesting experiences and public functions along the waterfront for all user groups, visitors and locals. Intensify this where Hofstraat /Kanaalstraat runs to the Kanaal. Activities and functions along the waterfront should be a supplement to the already existing offers in Apeldoorn. • Improve links between the city and the water physically and visually by identifying the streets that lead to the Kanaal. Create interesting end points for these streets at the water, like bridges, artwork, cafés or recreational facilities. • Identify the most central section of the Kanaal, between Deventerstraat and Kanaalstraat and intensify the use of this strip: • a. by programming ground floors with shops, cafés, restaurants, canoe hire etc. • b. by adding pavillons where needed to add extra floor space for public functions

Activities on the water. Havneparken, Copenhagen

• c. by developing programs for the promenade along the water; Programs like recreation, art walks, sculpture walks, art work / lighting, water zoo, playgrounds, fitness, dog training, city beach etc. • The Kanaal and its immediate surroundings should have something to offer on various times of the day and year. • Introduce activities on the water: city beach, sailing with canoes / kayaks and model ships, fishing from pontons in the water, events on the water etc. • Develop a unique design profile for the Kanaal to strengthen the character and to make the Kanaal environments stand out as something special and something recognisable. This design profile can cover the paving, the landscaping, the furniture, the lighting, the artwork and the signage program.

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Model ships in Tuillerie Gardens. Paris


Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities Recommendations

Vision Kanaalstraat

Before

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Recommendations Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities

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Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities Celebrate the Streams • Install the Hofstraat /Beurtwaartstraat scheme in its full length as a wonderful addition to the city. • Support the existing stream strategy to ensure that the collected system of old and historic streams in Apeldoorn are reflected visually in streets and squares. • Develop new ways of signalising the old streams through artwork, lighting, artificial streams, fountains etc.

Playfull, tranquil and sensuous water elements. Water elements integrated in the pavement. Varde Torv

• Use 'green streets', filtering storm water, as ways of signalising where the streams used to be.

'Irrigating the desert' • Celebrate the water through the integration of water features in the public realm in selected streets, squares and parks. • Create a 'Blue Plan' pointing out key locations and connections to be celebrated. • Introduce artistic water elements (water acupuncture) in the city, stressing the city centre as a canal district. • Utilise water from the Kanaal and the Streams when possible. • Celebrate views to and from the Kanaal. • Offer playful water elements that kids can engage with.

Water jets offering fun for everybody. Place de Terreaux, Lyon

• Introduce humerous water elements that engage with the wider public. • Introduce larger water installations where traffic noise should be muffled, e.g. Prins WillemAlexanderlaan /Brinkpark, where the Kanaal meets larger traffic roads /Deventerstraat / Centrum /Molenstraat and in Vosselmanstraat /Beekpark. • Use water in its various shapes - mist, fog, ponds, stream, waterfall, frozen state (at wintertime) etc.

A simple water feature creates a quiet retreat. Thorvaldsens Plads, Copenhagen

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Ensure a city centre that capitalises on its amenities Recommendations

Celebrate the Streams -also without digging them up! Re g

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Art installation in the pavement telling the story of a historic stream. Sydney

Devente

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Let the paving tell stories. New York

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Mist from the many jets of water sparks the imagination, especially for children. Solbjerg Plads, Copenhagen

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Create a strong physical and mental link between the city and the Kanaal by integrating the Kanaal with the city and by celebrating the Streams Interpretational elements, "the stream" Kanaal walk

Imitation and memory of water; paving stones with light. Holmbladsgade, Copenhagen

Irrigating the desert Important links to the water Main activity point for Kanaal promenade Active edges along the Kanaal promenade

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2

Ensure an even better city for walking

Invite more people to walk in the city centre by offering an interesting, safe and comfortable pedestrian environment Expand the city heart Celebrate the laneways

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Recommendations Ensure an even better city for walking

2

Ensure an even better city for walking Expand the city heart • Expand the central city area to include more than Hoofdstraat and nearby side streets. • Include Marktstraat as an important part of the pedestrian circuit system. • Include Nieuwstraat as a new spine for pedestrian movement offering off-load for pedestrian traffic along Hoofdstraat and supporting Hoofdstraat with cafés, restaurants, public functions and cultural institutions. • Investigate the possibility of making Nieuwstraat a pedestrian priority street for slow

Pedestrian streets are distinct gathering points for a number of people, both locals and visitors. Strøget, Copenhagen

moving errand vehicular traffic, cyclists, pedestrians and the two present bus lines. Avoid the possibility of vehicular traffic being able to drive straight from north to south (or vice versa) along Nieuwstraat. • Develop a versatile pedestrian network in the inner city offering a variety of street types, pedestrian streets, pedestrian priority streets and city streets. • Develop a pedestrian network of high quality and attractive walking links, (visually and functionally) - Roll out the red carpet! Ensure that people are aware when they reach streets in the inner city. Make the difference apparent by raising the quality level and by using a significant palette of materials, e.g. Stationstraat or Hofstraat. • Ensure attractive walking links to public transport and major parking facilities. • Create direct and attractive walking links to the surrounding city along green city boulevards. Link these straight into the city pedestrian network. • Downscale major trafic structures, roads and intersections, to accomodate for the

The one levelled pavement on the pedestrian priority street is divided into patterns defining the different zones for movement and for recreational purposes. Strædet, Copenhagen

pedestrian scale. Introduce measures to muffle traffic noise and to lower emissions, where most needed in connection with the pedestrian network. • Ensure that there are seating options and possibilities for pauses along main walking routes. Ensure that benches are placed in attractive environment with good views and best possible options to enjoy the climate. • Ensure that the main walking routes are sufficiently lit at night. • Develop a policy for ground floor frontages, indicating that the attractivity of ground floor frontages should follow the pedestrian network. • Ensure that ground floors of new buildings are carefully designed to a human scale environment and add quality to the pedestrian landscape in terms of interesting, active frontages with small units. • Develop annual competitions with price for best commercial ground floor frontages renovation according to guidelines.

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A homogeneous paving unifies the street and indicates a high level of shared space. New Road, Brighton


Ensure an even better city for walking Recommendations

Theatre Orpheus

Oranjepark

Beekpark Caterplein

Attractive retail units - many units, many doors, high level of transparency etc. Melbourne

Cinema Gigant Library Museum

Townhall Marktplein Kanaal

Raadhuisplein

Brinkpark

Active and well lit frontages - also at night. Copenhagen

Stationsplein

Let the activities indoors activate the street life outdoors. London

Train and bus station

The future pedestrian network should include the main streets and squares and connect the most important destinations Primary walking links (The expanded heart) Primary walking links to surrounding city Passages

Ensure that all streets present themselves as city streets by a defined street layout. Urban highways are unacceptable in the city centre. Reduce street widths and add pedestrian /cyclist amenities in terms of proper footpaths /cycle paths, lighting, benches, planting etc. Ensure active and friendly frontages along especially main routes leading to areas outside the centre.

Recreative walking links Main destinations

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Recommendations Ensure an even better city for walking

2

Ensure an even better city for walking Celebrate the passages â&#x20AC;˘ Identify all passages in the inner city area. Create a set of quality criterias for evaluating these passages looking at connectivity, placement in pedestrian network in terms of hierarchy, experiences on the way (hidden courtyards or other surprises), beautiful buildings on the sides, dimensions related to human scale. â&#x20AC;˘ Create a passage strategy looking at different types of passages and how these can be treated differently. Part of the strategy should also indicate some kind of hierarchy in implementation.

A lively passage with shops, bars and restaurants. Melbourne

Passage with playful lighting. Brighton

'Hidden' courtyard provides recreative surprises in the pedestrian network. Brandts Passage, Odense

Experiences in the pedestrian network. A passage with a small hidden courtyard with shops and restaurants. Christchurch

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Vision Nieuwstraat

Before

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â&#x201A;Ź

3

Ensure a city centre that is liveable and viable Make the public life more vibrant and the city more diverse by offering a wider range of activities and destinations for all user groups. Work towards a multifunctional city centre Create a diverse and lively city centre Invite all user groups

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Recommendations Ensure a city centre that is liveable and viable

3

Ensure a city centre that is liveable and viable Work towards a multifunctional city centre • Ensure a wide mix of functions in the enlarged city heart. • Encourage a better distribution of functions in the city. Break up mono-functional areas by encouraging mixed use. Strive for a mixture of functions within the block and within a particular area. Identify a zone, consisting of certain key streets, where multi-functionality

is especially important. • Develop a policy for minimum requirements regarding mixed use. • Make use of derelict buildings for alternative, creative uses at low rents. • Create an extrovert cultural district where the functions inside buildings spill out into the

Encourage ground floor uses with long opening hours along main links. Malmoe

public realm. Invite the various cultural institutions to make use of squares, parks and streets for displaying the work that they are doing, e.g. outdoor library in Beekpark, artwalk along the Kanaal. • Use festivals, as the Triënnale, to test ideas before making them permanent.

Create a diverse and lively city centre • Create a 24 hour city where activities overlap through the day, week and year, inviting many different user groups to enjoy the city centre. • Provide public transport that supports a 24 hour city by increased peak hours in the evening and by extended weekend services. • Encourage the use of Hoofdstraat, Stationsplein, Raadhuisplein, Oranjepark, Brinkpark, Beekpark and the Kanaal all year round. • Reconquer Marktplein as a city square. Define a certain area towards Stationstraat that can

Create more activities and dedicated spaces for families and children in the city centre. Provide more playful city elements. Bryant Park, New York

be used by the market and free up some space for other uses towards the Stadhuis. Ensure a constant high quality of the market. • Develop special winter squares; place the city´s outdoor iceskate rink and new year celebrations on Marktplein and let the city´s christmas tree and christmas market occupy Raadhuisplein.

Invite all user groups • Create invitations for all user groups. • Improve conditions for children. Select a few, centrally located, play environments across the city centre, enlarge and upgrade them. • Develop more invitations for the elderly. Invite coffée clubs, petanque courts, knitting clubs, stamp collectors club, club for the physical active elderly to locate at ground floors in central streets where they are visible.

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Playgrounds may have high sculptural value and thereby add quality to the city as well as providing play space. Sappora


Ensure an even better city for walking Recommendations

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Create invitations for all user groups. Invitations to play petanque on the local square. Islands Brygge Havnepark, Copenhagen

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Encourage activities for elderly in the city. Provide resting places along main routes and in major public spaces. Sardinia

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Stationsplein

Areas where a more multifunctional use should be encouraged Activities at the weekends can invite people that typically do not visit the city centre. An active city centre during weekends will increase the feeling of safety. Assens

Primary multifunctional spaces Secondary multifunctional spaces

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Recommendations Ensure a city centre that is liveable and viable

3

Ensure a city centre that is liveable and viable

Fixed - necessary activities

Introduce a public space hierarchy With an introduction of a public space hierarchy in Apeldoorn the character of each public space will be strengthened. A wider variety of attractions and events can be provided thus a broader group of residents and visitors can be invited to the city. It is possible to develop more targeted opportunities for use, a broader range of uses and user groups, and a higher degree of variation in layout and design by introducing a public space hierarchy. (see page 109) Celebrate the many small and large spaces in the city centre and clarify the use of the various spaces by giving

The daily coming and going: to work and school, shopping, picking up children etc. The daily necessary activities become pleasant in beautiful public spaces. Public spaces that ensure accessibility for all. Strøget, Copenhagen

... the daily activities often take place on bicycles and a good cycle network will invite more users to choose this form of transport. Nørrebrogade, Copenhagen

The daily waiting for public transport becomes stimulating if the surroundings are comfortable. Swanston Street, Melbourne

Flexible - optional activities

them a clear function supported by a unique design profile. Introduce different kinds of public spaces to accommodate various activities, some fixed in their use, some flexible and others more fleeting. Ensure that Apeldoorn has a variety of spaces which present the best of urban design in all its different aspects and which have different qualities attracting different user groups.

Use festivals, as the Triënnale, to test ideas before making them permanent. Develop ideas for temporary use of the Kanaalfront area to bring the city and the Kanaal together.

Urban recreation: sitting on a bench or take a stroll through the city where the surroundings, the other people, the weather and the window displays etc. can be enjoyed. Strædet, Copenhagen

Social activities: talking to people you meet, spending time together with people you know and enjoying others company. Santiago de Compostella

Physical active recreation: sports, playing, walking your dog etc. Islands Brygge, Copenhagen

Plan for events: bigger events that may only occur once. A big concert or festival. Events that encourage many people to participate. Nyhavn, Copenhagen

Plan for activities - for example demonstrations and parades in the public spaces. Nørrebrogade, Copenhagen

Fleeting - planned activities

Create temporary public spaces with cheap materials and playful eye-catching designs, invite small businesses on short-term contracts, introduce a Kanaal festival. Create a temporary city beach, give concerts by the water and provide new seating opportunities, possibly outside the traditional notion of a bench, encouraging stopping, resting and social interaction. Involve local citizens in initiatives. Plan for recurrent activities: dancing lessons, market days, sports competitions etc. Activities that are repeated every week, month, year. Strøget, Copenhagen

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Vision Raadhuisplein

Before

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4

Ensure an upgraded public space network Intensify the work for inviting people to the city, not only to shop and work but also to have fun; and enjoy the city and fellow citizens. Help people to use the city in new and different ways. Strengthen the public space network Develop versatile public spaces Improve the visual quality

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Recommendations Ensure an upgraded public space network

4

Ensure an upgraded public space network Strengthen the public space network • Introduce a public space hierarchy of streets, squares and parks, which is connected and clearly legible. Identify a hierarchy in-between the spaces indicating the importance they hold in the overall network. • Upgrade each public space and strengthen their individual character, following a gradual improvement plan. • Ensure that the public space network supports the walking network and is part of the

Encourage more and better opportunities for resting and relaxing in the public space network Bryant Park, New York

overall expansion of the city heart. • Cater for public spaces that offer a broad range of activities and opportunities to stay longer than planned. • Develop the existing parking courtyards (Hof Marktstraat, Hof Hoofdstraat and Grifthof) as part of the public space hierarchy.

Develop versatile public spaces • Clarify the use of the various spaces by giving them a clear function supported by a unique design profile. • Introduce different kinds of public space to accommodate various activities, some fixed in their use and others more flexible. • Ensure that Apeldoorn´s individual public spaces offer many types of activities and invite a wide range of user groups at the same time. Ensure different functions in adjacent buildings

Streets and public spaces can act as an extension of the city’s museums, galleries, theatres and scenes. Copenhagen

as well as a varied programming of each space. • Make better use of Apeldoorn´s public spaces in the evening. Encourage evening use in areas where people are compelled to go because of parking facilities or public transport, e.g. Stationsplein and Hoofdstraat, or in areas with functions that could cater for an evening audience, as e.g. Museum passage and Kanaalstraat. • Improve the building edges of spaces so they contribute to making the spaces active and attractive, especially at the Stationsplein, Stations passage, Museum passage and the Kanaalstraat. • Create a good balance between commercial staying activities and public seating possibilities and encourage more and better opportunities for resting and relaxing in the public space network by providing more public benches for formal seating and places to rest in squares and along streets at reasonable intervals.

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Evening events can be coordinated with new lighting or temporary light art installations to focus on the city after dark. Glasgow


Ensure an upgraded public space network Recommendations

Oranjepark

Beekpark Caterplein

Invite for more and different activities for everybody in the city centre. Christchurch

Museum passage Marktplein

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is there, but opportunities for a range of activities need

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Apeldoorn can be summarized as - the physical structure

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vivacious city. The analysis of the public space and life in

Leidenplein

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Apeldoorn has a good base for becoming an active and

Hof Marktstraat

Raadhuisplein

Create characteristic and welcoming public spaces

strengthening. The public spaces have an opportunity to

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offer a wider range of activities than they do today. The lay-out of the public spaces should activate and encourage a wider range of users. It is important when planning public spaces that the network

Brinkpark

Stationsdwarsstraat

of the different users interact with each other and connect. This will increase the integration â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and because activity

Stationsplein

attracts more activity the city will become livelier. That means the possibility of sitting and enjoying a cup of coffee is combined with a space where children can play, sports activities with many young people can be coordinated with activities for physically active elderly people, recreational opportunities exist along with daily comings and goings. The public spaces of Apeldoorn are in general tired in their layout and design. There is a need for a breath of fresh air in terms of an upgraded design profile and some more characteristic and strong design visions. Stationsplein is an

Upgrade the public spaces in the city centre and strengthen the individual character by introducing a public space hierarchy Primary public spaces

excellent example of a successful turn-around of a public

Secondary public spaces

space, Hofstraat is another example.

Tertiary public spaces Green public spaces Main pedestrian links

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Recommendations Ensure an upgraded public space network

Vision for Beekpark The city's art and event space An attractive, dynamic and inviting park. An active meeting space for the cultural visitors. This park could link into the activities in the nearby CODA as well as the plays in the Theatre Orpheus. The park should - all year round - be able to cater for different flexible activities. The City Library could have an 'outdoor reading room'. The things people choose to do, because the park is inviting as well as the activities people deliberately plan in the public spaces. A space able to adapt to changing outdoor art exhibition, choral singing and music, recurrent concerts, theatre and events etc.

Vision for Stationsdwarsstraat The city's 'coffee room' An oasis of water and green in the urban city. An intimate space for small breaks; a coffee and contemplation. Lots of active shop frontages for snacks, cafes and takeaways. Water jets create a sensuous atmosphere. The small square should link the city centre with the station area.

Vision for Kanaalstraat The city's 'nature room' The pedestrian priority street should function as a strong visual and pedestrian friendly link between the Kanaal and the city centre. A space with active edges linked to the rest of the city. A new Nature Centre should be an important element of the new building. The Nature Centre should cater for tours and tell the story of the landscapes, the plants and the wildlife to visitors through exhibitions, a bookstore, interactive medias, educational service to schools or to relax and meet friends over a coffee in stimulating environments.Facing the street the new building will become an important player, alloving small units on the ground floor for sushi, coffee, sandwich etc.

Vision for Brinkpark The outdoor â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;living roomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; A dignified garden with strong focus on qualities for central city residents. The garden should be a resting space for stationary and recreational activities for all ages - with playing facilities for children and comfortable staying opportunities. The water from the Stream should be sensed in the garden. There should be a prime space for staying activities with shelter and sun in the afternoon that is furnished with movable chairs so people can 'occupy the space'. The garden should also invite picnicing on the grass, grandparents on the benches, outdoor evening courses in dancing, cards, wine tasting etc.

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The City of Apeldoorn has supplemented with further visions for the city centre by fine

Ensure an upgraded public space network Recommendations

descriptions and illustrations of future public spaces.

Vision for Hof between Hoofdstraat and Marktstraat The cities green oasis: a hidden treasure A green, silent oases in the midst of the buzzing network of streets. An enclosed and intimate space where the old trees are the main focus point supported by new elements that provide shade, seating and nature experience. Residential units provide eyes on the street and claim the courtyard as their outdoor living room. The scale should be intimate, silent and private but welcoming.

Vision for Stat Hoofdstraat – Kanaalstraat The entrance hall of the city (shopping) centre The former car street is transformed in a relaxed pedestrian street where only the city busses pass. The Grift and trees are elaborated and gives character to this street. Lots of shop frontages from both large stores and small shops creates a busy atmosphere. The broadness of the street makes it stand out as a major entrance hall which shows all the city centre has to offer.

Vision for ACEC HOF The creative courtyard of the cultural quarter This courtyard breaths the cultural identity of its surrounding. Indoors and outdoors floats. Sometimes the courtyard is used as outdoor cinema, sometimes as sculpture garden for the ACEC building and sometimes as stage for concerts. The public space should be flexible, informal and can differ from the more classical parts of the city centre.

Vison for Markstraat – hoek (corner) Beekstraat The best shopping street Not ‘just’ a shopping street but with so much more to give. Former historical buildings are redeveloped as gems in this strongly transformed street. Shops and other functions such as horeca, residential and leisure functions make this street interesting to be in 24 h / day and not just during shop hours. The public space itself provides additional attractions such as play elements, seating under big Apeldoorn trees, water play along the Grift. The atmosphere is typically Apeldoorn: small human scale, green, safe and diverse. Public Spaces Public Life Apeldoorn 2009

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Recommendations Ensure an upgraded public space network

4

Ensure an upgraded public space network Improve the visual quality • Develop a paving strategy and toolbox for paving solutions, emphasizing quality paving in public spaces. • Develop a catalogue of city designed street furniture and outdoor serving equipment to generally raise the quality. • Develop a catalogue of quality urban elements: tables, chairs, umbrellas, sandwich boards etc. that can be rented or bought from the municipality. • Introduce limits for the use of commercial elements such as signs, goods on display,

Good detailing is necessary for more people to choose to spend time in spaces. Establish a coherent design manual for furniture and elements. Copenhagen

elements on footpaths, advertising boards etc. • Ensure that kiosks and pavilions are well placed and adds to the visual quality of the public realm. • Develop a lighting strategy, extending the quality lighting to the rest of the pedestrian network and introducing limitations to commercial lighting. • Develop lighting schemes to emphasize heritage buildings and landmarks. • Develop a city art programme that investigates use of public spaces in non-commercial ways. • Develop an art strategy that marks and interprets the entries to the city centre.

It is comfortable to sit in the sun on a bench with some protection behind such as a green edge or a wall. Public seating is a simple and convenient way to make streets more sociable. Organise some of the street furniture as ‘talkscapes’ consisting of either benches or chairs. Union Square, New York & Martin Place Sydney

Introduce a city design profile and develop a design manual for the equipment of streets, squares and parks. This should include a set of standard recommendations for high quality street furniture, paving, signage and planting. Part of the design profile should be an art strategy with an overall strategic focus, looking at inserting art as part of a major collected thinking instead of as random individual pieces.

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Ensure an upgraded public space network Recommendations

Lighting spilling out from entrances to buildings and ground floors gives a sense of activity while reducing dark corners and niches. Jemtelandsgade, Copenhagen

The public realm, streets and spaces should be well lit. Lighting should be directed at pedestrians and of human scale. Solbjerg Plads, Copenhagen

Artistic lighting provide unique experiences and can be reasons for people to visit the city and its spaces at night. Copenhagen

At intervals the walking experience can be enrichened by artwork, beautiful urban spaces and squares or upgraded passages which add extra quality to the walking experience. Art installation, London

Temporary art in streets and passages creating experiences Barcelona

Develop a lighting strategy

Extraordinary experiences

Develop an art program

Develop a lighting strategy to ensure that pedestrian

Let the city centre have that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;little extraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Formulate dynamic

Develop a dynamic program for art interventions to create

routes and main public spaces are not only well lit, but

strategies for introducing extraordinary experiences and

surprises and exciting experiences in the city environments.

also interestingly lit. Include principles for transparent and

public art in the city spaces. These experiences may be

Invite different artists to create site specific installations,

lit street frontages and lighting of entrances to buildings.

permanent or temporary. They may change with the seasons

permanent or temporary, to put focus to certain streets,

Develop strategies for artistic lighting to stage individual

and create a different atmosphere during the day and night.

spaces or areas and engage passers-by. Create a good

spaces, buildings and areas and to contribute to making the

They may tell stories in a subtle way. There are many ways

balance of permanent and temporary city art. Encourage

city centre an exciting and intriguing night time destination.

to do this; the sky is the limit! Invite different artists to create

playful and interactive elements and introduce artistic lighting

Invite artists to create light installations that can change the

site specific installations, permanent or temporary, to put

for creating new experiences at night.

spaces at night in a playful manner. Work with lighting points

focus to certain streets, spaces or areas eg. in the passages,

in the pavement or other directional means to indicate key

the Kanaal etc. and engage passers-by.

pedestrian routes or links to nearby destinations.

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Ensure a city centre with a 21st century traffic system Aim for a traffic calmed city centre and thereby give higher priority to pedestrians and cyclists. Avoid through traffic in the city centre Reduce the amount of parking in the city centre Provide a well integrated public transport Create an even better city for cycling

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Recommendations Ensure a city centre with a 21st century traffic system

Ensure a city centre with a 21st century traffic system Vehicular traffic Avoid through traffic in the city centre • Cut thoroughfares in the city that invite for driving through the city without having any errands there, e.g. Kalverstraat, Molenstraat and Stationsstraat. • Downscale urban highways as e.g. Prins Willem Alexanderlaan and Koning Stadhouderlaan. These need to be turned into city streets and communicate a relation to the adjacent buildings and the context they are coming through. • Simplify the Grote Kerk intersection by closing of some of the minor side streets, leaving

Surface in one level with indication of different traffic zones. Church square, Grenå

only Loolaan and Kerklaan open for access to the Grote Kerk intersection, which could then be turned into a quiet roundabout offering much better conditions for a space in front of the church. This type of problem with the complicated large intersections is part of a citywide problem. • Introduce a general speed restriction of 40 km/h within the city centre. Lowered speed limits and general traffic calming schemes will reinforce the perception of streets being city streets and not thoroughfares.

Reduce the amount of parking in the city centre • Avoid raising the parking capacity in the heart of the city centre any further. The amount of parking in any city is tightly linked with the amount of traffic coming to the city. The

P

more parking - the more traffic. Apeldoorn already has a very high level of parking facilities

P

compared to similar cities.

Footpaths, lanes and car free streets as aesthetic pleasures, indicating high priority for pedestrians and upgrading `the walking brand´. Bilbao

• Work on a strategy where the city is coming to the parking facilities instead of the reverse P

where parking facilities are placed in dense urban areas causing many conflicts with busy streets and busy pedestrian and cycling areas. This relates to the expansion of the city heart

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and a careful treatment of routes leading to and from major parking facilities. • On- street parking along the Kanaal, in Brinkpark and on the corner of Asselsestraat and Wilhelmina Druckerstraat needs to be removed to open for new possibilities of upgrading these spaces. • Consider a parking zone in the city centre that only offers a limited amount of short-term onstreet parking and review pricing of on street parking. • Conduct a parking survey of the existing use of parking facilities in the city centre. Improve accessibility to underused facilities and work with a differentiated pricing system - the more central, the more expensive. • Work on the info system to inform drivers where they can park and what their alternatives to driving are.

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Not just parking. Cars are allowed to park short time on this host of ‘stars’. When there are no cars the pavement becomes a beautiful part of the space. Solbjerg Plads, Copenhagen


Ensure a city centre with a 21st century traffic system Recommendations

Public transport and Bicycles Provide a well integrated public transport • Advocate for public transport as a sustainable transport mode offering an alternative to private vehicular traffic. • Inform the general public of the public transport system. How it works, where it runs, how to buy tickets, how to get information on routes, any discount packages etc. • Convey a free circle line bus for inner city traffic. This could be a smaller bus type relieving some pressure of e.g. Nieuwstraat.

Copenhagen Circle Line bus. A smaller bus type dealing with the inner city traffic. Copenhagen

• Introduce dedicated 24 hr bus lanes, ensuring a frequent running 24 hr public transport system with a high evening and weekend coverage to support public life activities outside peak periods. • Expand the use of information pillars that show bus routes, scheldules as well as how many minutes to the next bus - as a general feature in the city centre. • Combine public transport seating with general public seating. • Ensure that waiting areas for public transport, e.g. Stationsstraat, are perceived safe and attractive - also in the evening.

Create an even better city for cycling • Gradually expand the cycle network to include more routes and even better facilities. • Establish recreational cycle routes connecting the city centre with surrounding neighbourhoods and to recreational areas. To the east the IJssel and to the west the

When is the next bus arriving? Expand the use of information pillars that show bus routes, schedules as well as how many minutes to the next bus - as a general feature in the city centre. Copenhagen

Oderbos, Van Der Huchtbos and the Nationalpark De Hoge Veluwe. • Continue to develop safe and accessible bicycle parking facilities in the city centre. Ensure convenient locations for parking facilities. • Investigate the scale of hot spot illegal parking locations and what can be done to avoid these. • Convey whether to take out one, centrally located on street car parking spot and turning it into a parking spot for 10 bikes instead. • Investigate the possibilities of integrating public transport with the cycle network.

Convert on street parking into bicycle parking facilties. One parking spot equals 10 parked bicycles.Copenhagen

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Apeldoorn - Public Spaces & Public Life