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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network integrated masterplanning of new neighbourhoods final report prepared by erz Limited issued December 2010 client group: Inverclyde Council River Clyde Homes Riverside Inverclyde Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership


contents: executive summary

5

introduction

6

PART A:

PART B:

1.0 baseline analysis

1.0 why it matters (making the case)

48

1.0 wider geographic networks

60

2.0 policy framework

52

2.0 master-plan level decisions

63

3.0 assessing & presenting relevant partner policies

53

3.0 site / space design

69

4.0 methodology for the planning & delivery of successful green space as a part of area renewal

55

next steps / action plan

88

list of consultees

90

references

91

strategic review of existing green space network & recommendations

1.1

physical structure: landscape and urban structure

8

1.2

existing green network: routes and spaces

20

1.3

social and economic: deprivation and health

24

1.4

anticipated change: proposed development

29

PART C:

guidance for the design & planning of successful green space as part of Area Renewal master-plans

make the case & method of working to deliver successful green space as a core part of Area Renewal

2.0 summary of findings

30

3.0 geographic / spatial strategy

32

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

3


executive summary:

PART A: strategic review of existing green space network and recommendations PART B: make the case and method of working to deliver successful green space as a core part of Area Renewal PART C: guidance for the design and planning of successful green space as part of Area Renewal The study offers 3 sets of ‘tools’ to achieve the stated goal of ‘delivering successful green space as a part of Area Renewal’, as follows: -

a geographic / spatial strategy

-

a methodology for working / delivery

-

design and planning guidance

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

The content and detail of these ‘tools for delivery’ are set out in the document.

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The following points outline the key next steps, as identified at the end of the document:

1. inception

The purpose is to:

The methodology in part B of the document sets out the steps for the planning and design of successful green space as a part of area renewal.

- identify where existing intentions can be co-ordinated or 'clustered' to deliver coherent parts of the strategy

The first 4 steps identified are: 1. commit at an organisational level 2. establish strong project champions 3. establish an effective working partnership 4. commit to a joint vision There remains a question of the immediate actions required to achieve these early outcomes. It is suggested that: - a facilitated workshop / presentation of the study is undertaken with senior management / decision makers within each of the partner organisations - it is proposed that these presentations are set up by the representatives of Inverclyde Council, River Clyde Homes and Riverside Inverclyde who have formed the steering group for the study. The overall co-ordination of this process should be overseen by the Glasgow and Clyde Green Network Partnership. - as well as 'organisational commitment' it is anticipated that this process will identify and 'sign up' project champions - the senior decision makers and project champions must then establish the basis for working between the partner organisations and commit appropriate staff resources to the process. A core working group must be established focused on the delivery / implementation of the findings of the study. - it is proposed that a series of workshops / presentations are next undertaken with the wider staff of the partner organisations to disseminate the findings and recommendations of the study. The intention being to bring the study findings and recommendations into common and ongoing use as part of the general activity of the partner organisations.

2. review of planned actions It is proposed that a co-ordinated review of existing planned works/actions is undertaken by the partner organisations in light of the study findings/recommendations.

- test development, demolition or other proposals for intervention against the study findings/recommendations - to ensure the desired outcomes are being delivered Through creative partner working it may be feasible to make early progress on delivery of the strategy on the basis of existing commitments / intentions. One of the outcomes of this exercise would be to identify projects / elements of the strategy for early action. The intention would be to define projects that can be delivered as exemplars of the wider approach. These may be stand alone 'public realm' interventions or associated with proposed development.

3. outline design of projects for early action Commission the feasibility testing and outline design of early action projects. This may include projects identified through the review of planned actions, but should certainly include the main components of the geographic strategy (ie the 3 'strategic green links' between the waterfront and the regional park and the 2 major 'neighbourhood parks'). A detailed feasibility testing and outline design for these main components of the strategy should be undertaken. The outputs of this process should include outline design proposals for both the main public realm works and the associated / adjacent built development.

4. identify and secure additional funding Identify and secure appropriate funding to deliver early action projects.

5. implement early action projects 6. implement steps 5 to 15 of the methodology (set out in part B of the document)

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

The study has included 3 main stages of work and provides 3 distinct, but complementary sets of outputs, as follows:

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introduction: erz Limited were appointed by Inverclyde Council, on behalf of the wider client group, to undertake the study 'area renewal and the Inverclyde green network', in September 2009. The client group is comprised of Inverclyde Council, River Clyde Homes, Riverside Inverclyde and the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership. Work on the study began at the end of September 2009 and the first draft report was issued to the client group in early February 2010. Following on from issue of the draft report, a series of meetings/workshops were undertaken with the client group to discuss the report and to obtain feedback. Final comments on the draft report were provided in early June and the final draft report was accordingly issued in July 2010.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Comments on the final draft report were advised and the Final Report issued in December 2010.

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The study has been informed by:

The Vision for the Green Network in Inverclyde:

- - - -

‘By 2025 the combination of its outstanding environment, high quality development and unrivalled location means that Inverclyde is widely recognised as an attractive place to live, work and spend leisure time.

desk based research and review of existing policies and strategies: locally, regionally and nationally field work: survey and analysis of the whole urban area of Inverclyde and its landscape setting review and analysis of GIS/OS plan information along side aerial satellite images for the study area consultation and dialogue with project partners and relevant agencies active in the area

A broad vision statement for the green network in Inverclyde was defined through the ‘Inverclyde Green Network Study’ previously commissioned by the client group (December 2008).

This is reflected in high levels of investment, a vibrant local economy and a growing population. Communities are actively involved in managing their environment; local people and visitors have a wide range of opportunities to experience and enjoy the area’s natural and cultural heritage. The Green Network has been at the core of the area’s transformation, contributing to the regeneration of the Waterfront and the remodelling of residential areas, and forming key links within and between communities and with Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park. Development of the Green Network has delivered and continues to deliver a broad range of economic, community, health and environmental outcomes.’

Geographic Analysis and Strategy Proposals

1.0 baseline analysis

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

physical structure: landscape and urban structure existing green network: routes and spaces social and economic: deprivation and health anticipated change: proposed development

2.0 summary of findings 3.0 geographic strategy

This ‘Area Renewal and the Inverclyde Green Network Study’ uses the vision statement as a starting point and generates the analytical and conceptual framework and the tools necessary to deliver this vision.

erz Limited 21 James Morrison Street Glasgow G1 5PE Tel: 0141-552 0888 www.erzstudio.co.uk

part

A


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PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

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PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

a. URBAN STRUCTURE AND ELEVATION

b. ELEVATION AND DEVELOPMENT CHRONOLOGY

- - - -

- - - -

core urban areas lie in the flat coastal strip, the bulk of the urban area is below the 80m contour, specific areas sit higher, there is little development above the 135m contour

pre 1900 development is largely below the 15m contour 1900-1950 development - lies largely between the 15m & 80m contours 1950 and later development - extends above the 80m contour there is a clear chronology of later development at higher elevation

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

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PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

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c. SLOPE/ GRADIENT ANALYSIS -

graphic analysis of gradient/steepness of slope

PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

d. GRADIENT AND DEVELOPMENT CHRONOLOGY - - -

pre 1900 development largely avoids steeper slopes later development capitalises on elevated areas of flatter ground areas of housing on steep slopes mainly date from the 20th century

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

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PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

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e. STEEP SLOPES AND DEVELOPMENT -

areas of housing on steep slopes

PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

f.

HYDROLOGY

- -

pattern of north-south orientated watercourses thro’ urban areas associated flooding issues in a number of cases

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PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

g. ORIENTATION AND SHADE (micro) The study area has extensive steep north facing slopes: this has major implications in terms of daylighting of external spaces & dwellings.

PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

h. ORIENTATION AND SHADE (macro) The study area has extensive steep north facing slopes: this has major implications in terms of daylighting of external spaces & dwellings.

A

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

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PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

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i.

DIVISIVE ELEMENTS

The urban structure is divided by 3 main elements: - - -

road & rail routes: running broadly east-west & create barriers to north-south movement steep slopes: disconnect neighbourhoods from the waterfront & urban core watercourses: deep gorges create barriers to east-west movement

PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

j. PHYSICALLY DIVIDED AREAS - -

the study area is sub-divided into a series of ‘isolated’ residential neighbourhoods neighbourhoods are physically separated from each other, the waterfront & core urban areas

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PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

PART A: 1.1 physical structure: landscape and urban structure

A

The analysis of topography and the chronology of development demonstrates that 20th century housing extended to a higher elevation & across steeper slopes than earlier urban development in Inverclyde. This expansion predominantly consists of areas of social housing.

the influence of gradient/slope on accessibility:

strategic aims/objectives:

‘The evidence consistently shows that residents in more “walkable” neighbourhoods undertake more physical activity’ (Handy, Frank, Pikora et al).

The analysis of the landscape and physical structure of the study area generates the following aims and objectives for intervention:

The analysis of the landscape and urban structure demonstrates that residential neighbourhoods are disconnected and isolated by:

“highly walkable” neighbourhoods are characterised by: -

high population density

-

elevation & steep slopes

-

good mix of land use

-

east - west rail and road links

-

high connectivity

more specifically this highlights the need to:

-

deep gorges associated with burns

-

good pedestrian & cycling facilities

-

create better physical links between neighbourhoods

-

lack of legibility / connectivity in the urban structure

-

good accessibility

-

create better links to core urban areas & the waterfront

‘Accessibility (or ease of access) to a range of neighbourhood resources & facilities is strongly associated with physical activity’

-

link the green network into residential areas

‘The absence of such facilities or barriers to facilities (such as steep hills, busy roads to cross) or the perception that such facilities are inadequate have negative associations with physical activity’.

other influential physical issues include :

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

The implications of the physical landscape & urban structure of the study area include:

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k. LEGIBILITY / CONNECTIVITY - - - -

analysis of the urban structure highlights the division / isolation of neighbourhoods there are a lack of legible routes thro’ or between neighbourhoods there is a lack of connectivity between neighbourhoods: ‘space syntax analysis’ there is a recognised link between connectivity & levels of activity: low connectivity is a determinant of low levels of activity

-

the creation of isolated neighbourhoods with isolated streets and spaces

-

a lack of thro’ movement & ‘policing by presence’

-

the creation of conditions for anti-social behaviour

-

core urban areas and facilities are hard to access on foot

-

the creation of social isolation & territorialism

source: 'Health & the Physical Characteristics of Urban Neighbourhoods': Glasgow Centre for Population Health The study: ‘walking, bicycling and urban landscapes: evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area’: Cervero & Duncan 2003 suggests that ‘slope’ is the largest factor impacting on walking choice: -

slope has more than double the influence on the decision to walk or not than distance

-

the impact of slope on the decision to cycle or not is much greater

-

to break down physical divisions & reduce social isolation & territorialism

-

to break down physical barriers to access & physical activity

-

the impact of slope on layouts

-

the impact of shade / orientation on layouts

-

the impact of watercourses / flooding

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

PHYSICAL ANALYSIS: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

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PART A: 1.2 existing green network: routes and spaces

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PART A: 1.2 existing green network: routes and spaces

a. EXISTING 'GREEN NETWORK' - ROUTES

b. EXISTING 'GREEN NETWORK' SPACES - 1

- - -

-

there is a strong existing / future waterfront route there is a strong network of routes thro’ the Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park & the National Cycle Route at the upper extent of the urban area, links thro’ the urban area are however weak: routes are mainly on street & illegible

the plan overlays the developed green space & ‘semi- natural’ / ‘undefined amenity’ space with the outline / extent of neighbourhoods as identified in the analysis of the urban structure

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

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PART A: 1.2 existing green network: routes and spaces

PART A: 1.2 existing green network: routes and spaces

A

EXISTING 'GREEN NETWORK' - SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The analysis of the existing green network highlights issues that can be considered at a strategic 'network' level and at a neighbourhood level.

strategic ‘network’ issues: The major environmental assets of the waterfront & the Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park are not accessible from much of the urban area. The strong waterfront route & regional park path network are ‘disconnected’ by poor on street links thro’ the urban area. The lack of legible, accessible high quality links between the waterfront & regional park mean that: -

these environmental assets are not fully ‘perceived’

-

they are not accessible to visitors/tourists

-

they are not accessible to local residents

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There is virtually no provision of developed public open space in the most isolated neighbourhoods.

overview:

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c. EXISTING 'GREEN NETWORK' - SPACES - 2 -

this analysis identifies that there is virtually no provision of developed public open space in the most isolated neighbourhoods

The analysis of existing routes highlights that 'the network' simply doesn't link up and does not function at a strategic level. Furthermore, the analysis of existing developed public open space highlights that there is in many neighbourhoods a total lack of provision.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

neighbourhood level issues:

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PART A: 1.3 social and economic: deprivation and health

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PART A: 1.3 social and economic: deprivation and health

a. HEALTH AND DEPRIVATION

b. CRIME - 1

Neighbourhoods within the study area demonstrate some of the:

The plan identifies crime incidence (for all crime types) across the study area.

- -

lowest life expectancy in Scotland

This highlights:

most deprived communities in Scotland

-

hotspots in core urban areas

-

hotspots thro' many of the residential neighbourhoods

source: Scottish Government, SIMD interactive mapping [online]

source: Strathclyde Police

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

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PART A: 1.3 social and economic: deprivation and health

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c. CRIME - 2 The plan identifies crime incidence (excluding house breakings & car crime). This highlights: -

hotspots in core urban areas

-

hotspots in many - but not all residential neighbourhoods

source: Strathclyde Police

PART A: 1.3 social and economic: deprivation and health

d. CRIME AND UNDEFINED AMENTY SPACE The plan overlays crime incidence (excluding house breakings & car crime) and undefined green space: -

there is an apparent correlation between crime & ‘left over spaces’

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

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A

PART A: 1.3 social and economic: deprivation and health

PART A: 1.4 anticipated change: proposed development This map is reproduced from Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office Š Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Glasgow & the Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership 100032510 2012.

A

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS health & deprivation:

overview:

Inverclyde is ranked No. 30 of 32 council areas in Scotland in terms of male life expectancy.

The analysis of the current position with regard to health, deprivation and crime highlights that there are significant existing issues to be overcome.

The area includes some of the most deprived communities in Scotland. There is clearly an imperative for action to address health & deprivation issues.

crime: There is a high incidence of crime/antisocial behaviour in many of the residential neighbourhoods. There is an apparent correlation between crime / antisocial behaviour and housing layout / the presence of left over spaces without a function.

Whilst the physical environment is not suggested as the singular and isolated cause of these issues, the following points are clear: - the 20th century social housing areas were built in more elevated locations, frequently on steep slopes and are separated from the waterfront and core urban areas by rail and road links, steep slopes and a lack of connectivity in the urban structure - the existing green network fails to link these neighbourhoods to wider opportunities and there is an almost total lack of provision of developed public open space within neighbourhoods - there is a distinct correlation between the areas of low life expectancy and deprivation and the 'isolated neighbourhoods'

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- the characteristics of the built and unbuilt environment in the areas demonstrating the worst health, deprivation and crime data are broadly the opposite of the qualities widely recognised as defining 'accessible' or 'walkable' neighbourhoods Whether it is the core cause or not, the current urban and landscape structure in these areas is at the very least reinforcing significant issues of poor health, deprivation and crime.

1.4 ANTICIPATED CHANGE The anticipated change through the study area associated with the redevelopment of residential neighbourhoods and the waterfront area is significant.

overview: Given the analysis of the physical structure, existing green network and social and economic factors in the preceding sections of the report, it is clear that there are substantial issues to be addressed. Given the proposed scale of redevelopment, this current period is seen as a unique opportunity to reshape the form of the built and un-built environment in the main urban areas of Inverclyde.

As highlighted in the previous section, the current urban and landscape structure in many areas is a core cause or is at least reinforcing significant issues of poor health, deprivation and crime. The regeneration activities planned must be informed by a full understanding of the issues and focused on designing out the existing problems. A successful green network can be delivered as part of Area Renewal or alternatively the regeneration activities have the potential to perpetuate existing problems of poor health, deprivation and crime.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

- there is a further apparent correlation between the presence of left over spaces and incidence of crime/anti-social behaviour

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A

A

PART A: 2.0 summary of findings SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The residential neighbourhoods are disconnected & isolated by: -

elevation & steep slopes

-

east-west rail / road links

-

deep gorges associated with burns

-

lack of legibility / connectivity in urban structure

These isolated neighbourhoods demonstrate some of the:

-

most deprived communities in Scotland

- - -

these environmental assets are not fully ‘perceived’ they are not accessible to visitors/tourists they are not accessible to local residents

neighbourhood level issues: -

steep gradients and a lack of an accessible ‘green network’ discourage movement by foot or bike

-

there is virtually no provision of developed public open space in the most isolated & deprived neighbourhoods

-

there is an apparent correlation between crime / antisocial behaviour and the presence of left over ‘amenity’ spaces with no function

The existing urban and landscape structure and shortfalls in the green network are contributing to / reinforcing these issues. The scale of change anticipated thro’ area renewal offers a great opportunity to impact on many of these long standing problems.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

lowest life expectancies in Scotland

The lack of legible, accessible, high quality links between the waterfront and regional park mean that:

There is an imperative for action to address health, crime & deprivation issues.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

-

strategic ‘network’ issues:

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PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy

Greenock

Greenock West & Gourock

Port Glasgow

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Greenock East and Port Glasgow West

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A

PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy

Port Glasgow East

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a. AREA OF 3 PARTS

b. STRATEGIC GREEN LINKS - 1

The study area can be considered in 3 broad parts in response to landscape/ urban structure.

-

create strategic legible links between the waterfront & the regional park.

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

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PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy

Greenock

Greenock

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Port Glasgow

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A

PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy

Port Glasgow

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c. STRATEGIC GREEN LINKS - 2

d. STRATEGIC GREEN LINKS - 3

-

The links tie into:

create major green public routes thro’ the urban area: coherent links that tie together the area’s major ‘environmental assets’ legible & accessible for both residents & visitors

- - - - - - -

the main urban centres rail stations existing public open space vacant/derelict sites potential development sites watercourses the National Cycle Route

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

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A

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PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy

public waterfront

Greenock town centre

steep section / alternate route past train station

Well Park

Greenock central station

vacant sites proposed route along ‘puggy line’ proposed link to Greenock Cut

Hole Burn potential development site

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Overton Reservior

Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park

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e. GREENOCK CENTRAL LINK

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

steep section: step / path works required

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A

A

PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy public waterfront

Carts Burn day-lighted

Whinhill Rail Station proposed route along ‘puggy line’ link to reservior

vacant site re-routed National Cycle Route existing public open space potential development site

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Whinhill Reservior Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park This map is reproduced from Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office © Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Glasgow & the Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership 100032510 2012.

f.

CARTS BURN LINK

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

steep section: step / path works required

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A

A

PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy

public waterfront

Port Glasgow town centre

Coronation Park

Birkmyre Park Port Glasgow rail station steep section: step / pathworks required

National Cycle Route

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Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park

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g. PORT GLASGOW LINK

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Glen Huntly Burn

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A

A

PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy In both of the locations identified, the combination of existing public open space and associated derelict, vacant and underused space offers a great potential to: -

integrate new built development to overlook / connect with the public space

-

create a coherent/connected neighbourhood park of a high quality

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h. NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS -

create coherent & connected neighbourhood public open space

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provide facilities where there is a current lack of provision

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break down barriers between isolated pockets of housing

PORT GLASGOW EAST NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

STRONE NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK

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PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy

PART A: 3.0 geographic strategy

This map is reproduced from Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office © Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Glasgow & the Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership 100032510 2012.

i.

PROPOSED STRATEGY

j.

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create strategic legible green links between the waterfront & the regional park

The plan shows the proposed strategy overlaid with the 'outline' of the defined neighbourhoods.

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create an accessible & usable network of open space thro’ residential neighbourhoods

This highlights that the proposed interventions link thro’ all of the isolated neighbourhoods

PROPOSED STRATEGY:

This map is reproduced from Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office © Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings Glasgow & the Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership 100032510 2012.

A

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

A

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A

PART A: 3.0 summary of findings SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The geographic strategy is focused on addressing the key issues highlighted in the analysis.

Make the Case & Method of Working to Deliver Successful Green Space as a Core Part of Area Renewal

It aims to: -

create strategic legible green links through the urban area between the waterfront & the regional park - making them accessible for both residents and visitors

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create an accessible & usable network of open space through residential neighbourhoods - providing facilities where there is a current lack of provision and breaking down barriers between isolated pockets of housing

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

The selection of the routes / spaces to make up the proposed network is informed by consideration of:

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- - - -

1.0 why it matters (making the case) 2.0 policy framework 3.0 assessing & presenting relevant partner policies 4.0 methodology for the planning & delivery of successful green space as a part of area renewal

opportunity: where is there potential to create links / spaces? 'fit' (function): do the routes / spaces make necessary links or serve isolated neighbourhoods? 'fit' (urban form): do the routes / spaces sit legibly and coherently within the existing urban structure? topography: does the route offer the opportunity of a relatively gentle gradient?

The selection of the 3 strategic links between the waterfront and the regional park, given their role to encourage use by both visitors and residents, is further informed by the need to link into major points of arrival and activity: ie the main urban centres, rail stations, the National Cycle Route etc. The 3 links proposed have been selected over other possible routes as they are strategically best placed and stitch together some of the area's major environmental assets. They are seen as becoming 'icons' for the area, treated in a physically distinctive way and actively promoted to visitors.

part

B


PART B: 1.0 why it matters (making the case)

PART B: 1.0 why it matters (making the case)

why is the green network important?:

why is the green network important in Inverclyde?:

To frame the discussion of investment in and planning of the green network, a number of areas of research into the role and value of public space are outlined below:

encouraging 'public life': Since 1965 Jan Gehl of the University of Copenhagen has conducted research on the contribution of public spaces to civic life in Copenhagen. The research has consistently shown that wherever public spaces of good quality are provided an increase in public life also takes place. As a result, despite the climatic differences, the level of public outdoor activity on a summer's day in Copenhagen equals that of Rome. the amount of car traffic in the city has remained unchanged for the last 25 years while bicycle use has increased by 65%. Source CABE: the value of good design.

financial value:

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

An Urban Land Institute study of over 10,000 housing transactions in four pairs of housing developments in the United States revealed an average sales premium of 11% on schemes upholding basic urban design principles similar to those set out in recent UK planning guidance 'Better Places to Live'.

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crime prevention:

physical and mental health:

A research project in Kitchener Canada compared the before and after effects of turning a large under-developed plot of land in a crime-ridden neighbourhood into a community garden. As a result, crime incidents in the surrounding buildings dropped by 30% immediately, and by 49% and 56% in the two subsequent years.

There is growing concern about the health of the nation and particularly that of our children and young people. A variety of research has identified that: 20 per cent of four year olds are overweight, and 8.5 per cent of six year olds and 15 per cent of 15 year olds are obese.

A study published in Urban Design International looked at the spatial distribution of crime reports provided by the police in three towns with a wide range of social classes, spatial patterns and housing types, found that: - property crimes tended to cluster in locally segregated areas, particularly in cul-de-sacs, footpaths and rear dead-end alleys. - positive features that made spaces safer included integrated through roads with front entrances on both sides, more passers by on the streets, good visual relations to the public realm rather than seclusion, more linear integrated spaces and visual continuity between spaces. Source: CABE: the value of good design

The increase in obesity is linked to ever more sedentary lifestyles and a reduction in outdoor activity. Evidence shows that adult patterns of exercise are set early in life. Inactivity breeds inactivity, so a lack of exercise when young can in turn create problems in adulthood such as diabetes and heart disease. Access to good-quality, well maintained public spaces can help to improve our physical and mental health by encouraging us to walk more, to play sport or simply to enjoy a green and natural environment. In other words, our open spaces are a powerful weapon in the fight against obesity & ill-health. Walking as an aid to patients' health has been proven to reduce the risk of a heart attack by 50% and diabetes by 50%.

the existing situation:

the opportunity of regeneration:

The analysis in part A, highlights the key challenges and issues within the study area.

As described in part A, the landscape and urban structure of the study area are generators of, or at least reinforce social, health and crime issues.

As described, the landscape and urban structure gives rise to a series of disconnected, physically and socially isolated neighbourhoods. There is a lack of provision of public open space within the neighbourhoods themselves and there is a lack of a coherent 'green network' through the urban area to link the neighbourhoods to wider community facilities. These communities are amongst the most deprived and demonstrate some of the lowest life expectancies in Scotland. There are high levels of crime/anti-social behaviour in many of the neighbourhoods. These findings highlight that there are underlying 'structural' problems in the organisation of the urban environment, associated with profound health and social issues.

Source: CABE: the value of public space. As outlined in the previous section, adherence to good urban design principles and the integration of good public space can have a major impact on the social and health characteristics of an area.

Source CABE: the value of good design.

perception: The Popular Housing Forum used over 800 interviews and discussion groups across the UK to explore public attitudes to the appearance and layout of new housing. Appearance of the neighbourhood was considered a more important factor than the design of the home itself. Source CABE: the value of good design.

The existing green network is clearly inadequate at present and is not fulfilling its potential role.

The scale of intervention / regeneration proposed through the actions of Riverside Inverclyde, River Clyde Homes, Inverclyde Council and other partners is unparalleled in Inverclyde since the last major developments of social housing in the mid twentieth century. The redevelopment of significant parts of the urban area offers a unique opportunity to resolve or mitigate many of the underlying problems within the study area. Interventions are required that will establish an effective green network through the urban area and help to redefine existing neighbourhoods. The master-planning of new neighbourhoods must ensure that best practice is demonstrated and the new urban areas do not replicate existing problems. In these terms, the role of the green network is to help address existing acute social and health issues and to ensure that these problems are not further reinforced/perpetuated. Inverclyde also has a broader issue in terms of its public image and its perceived desirability as a location to live, work, play or invest. In these terms, the green network also has a core role to play, redefining the character of the urban area and physically and perceptually tying the urban area to its remarkable wider landscape setting. The intentions outlined in the geographic strategy (part A) and the design and planning guidance (part C) can be realised in a number of ways: - -

through development activity: the strategy and design guidance influencing the form of new development through the co-ordination of other activities undertaken by the partner organisations - to refocus investment to deliver elements of the strategy. A notable component of this may be River Clyde Homes' demolitions strategy. If reviewed in light of the strategy, this could assist in delivering certain desired strategic outcomes.

B why the green network must be considered as an integral part of new neighbourhoods: The green network cannot be considered as separate from the wider urban or 'built' environment. Indeed, this separation in thinking is arguably one of the generators of many of the dysfunctional public open spaces that exist in Inverclyde (and elsewhere). Public open space can take many different forms and perform different roles. Public open space or green space when it is of a scale and level of interest can become a 'destination' in its own terms outwith the urban area. However, within an urban area, much green space will exist at a smaller and more incidental level, whereby its success will depend upon its association or relationship with other components of the urban environment. Public open space within urban areas must succeed socially. Spaces that are unpeopled and secluded feel unsafe and will tend to act as a locus for anti-social behaviour. One of the core goals of designing public open space is to ensure adequate levels of human presence, activity and casual surveillance. Human presence tends to be self reinforcing, to quote a Danish proverb, 'people come where people are'. Activity in spaces can be generated by: - through movement: ie the space forms part of a wider route network - buildings/uses surrounding the space: ie the space has a close relationship with surrounding built form to draw activity into the space - the activities/facilities within the space To realise successful public or common spaces, they have to become one of the key drivers of the master-planning process. The pedestrian and vehicular circulation network, relationship of buildings and spaces, approach to topography etc. have to be carefully considered to generate the right conditions for the spaces to succeed socially. This is in absolute contrast to the all too common process of a pragmatic numbers and roads circulation driven approach to housing layouts, whereby the public spaces are the incidental and peripheral left overs. The relevant considerations at a master-plan and site design level are outlined in part C of this document.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

B

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B

PART B: 1.0 why it matters (making the case)

B

PART B: 1.0 why it matters (making the case)

what are the costs of not delivering a successful green network?:

- encouraging 'public life': can be regarded as a broader social / common good. It will have impacts on health, well being and ultimately in economic terms - but this is difficult to assess in 'financial terms'. - perception: in terms of residential development - this can be wrapped up with findings on the impact of basic urban design principles on sales values, noted in the example quoted by CABE as an 11% sales premium. - crime prevention and health - are perhaps most easily assessed on the basis of the reduced costs to the public services of improved health and reduced crime and anti-social behaviour.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

On the above basis, we would suggest the following as an indication of the financial value of a successful green network:

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health impact:

crime impact:

perception/sales premium:

overview:

In terms of the total NHS spend in Scotland, the figure for 2010/11 is £11,521,600,000 (for a total population of 5,201,829) - which equates to £2,214.91 per capita. (Figures: Scottish Government)

Strathclyde Police has a budget of circa £638.96 million (2006 figure), for a total population of around 2.2 million. This equates to a 'per capita' spend of £290.43 within the Strathclyde area.

River Clyde Homes' budget for 2010/11 has £21 million allocated to build 850 new homes. If as a result of an improved approach to master-planning and the creation of a successful green network an improved perception of the area is achieved, on this investment alone (based on the 11% uplift quoted by CABE) this would represent ultimately a £2.31 million increase in value.

Considered together, the reduced costs to public services and the increased value of built development arising from a well planned urban environment incorporating a successful green network could comfortably represent £10 million or more per year.

Resource allocation for each CHCP area is informed by an assessment of deprivation and health factors within the area. The allocation is calculated on a per capita basis for the population, with an uplift to take account of other factors, on the basis of an assumed 'additional' population. For Inverclyde, the actual population is 80,637 which is factored up to a notional population of 86,952 to take account of these other factors (8% more resources than the Scottish average). (Figures from NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde). So, if as a starting point for consideration, the health of Inverclyde's population were brought up to the Scottish average, the saving made would equate to the allocation for the notional 'additional' population of 6,315 people: ie £13,987,156, basically £14 million pounds per year. Assessing the health impact of a successful green network is difficult. What is clear however is that there will be an impact. Given the nature and scale of the issues associated with the built and un-built environment in urban Inverclyde (as described in part A) the impact may be significant. If the difference between Inverclyde's current health position and the Scottish average were reduced by 25% or 50% ultimately the impact on spending would be a saving of £3.5 or £7.0 million per year.

Based on Inverclyde's population of 80,637, the police budget for the area would be expected to be in the order of £23.4 million. The budgets publicly available are not broken down in this way - hence this approach to generating the figures.

As a further point of reference, literature and research reviews by CABE/UCL/DETR in 2001 identified the costs of bad design as follows: -

undermining amenities delivered through planning gain, in the worst case turning them into liabilities rather than public benefits

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failure to deliver connected, well integrated environments imposing costs that later have to be borne by public and private shareholders

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limiting investment opportunities at the larger spatial scale

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reducing the extent to which and the speed at which the regenerative impacts of development ripple through local economies

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exclusionary and disconnected environments not being valued by any stakeholders

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physical disconnection disproportionately impacting on the opportunities available to the less mobile

If one were to assume that this resulted in a 10% reduction in policing costs (which seems modest), this would represent a saving of around £2.34 million per year.

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disconnection from public transport networks and established urban areas causing staff recruitment and retention problems

Fire raising in the 'isolated neighbourhoods' occurs at elevated levels. There will also therefore be a reduction in terms of costs to the fire service. This has not been calculated as the relevant budget figures could not be ascertained.

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social value diminished by poorly designed public space

There is a geat differential in terms of incidents of crime in different parts of Inverclyde. Compared to the figures published for Inverclyde west, other parts of the urban area which broadly correspond with the 'isolated neighbourhoods' experience somewhere between 2 and 4 times the number of crime incidents (based on Strathclyde Police statistics for a 3 month period in 2010 and the average of the same period for the previous 5 years). Given the correlation of elevated crime figures with the areas identified as having significant issues in terms of the form / layout of the built and un-built environment, it does not seem unreasonable to suggest that if these physical issues are significantly addressed through area renewal that there will be a positive impact on crime and anti-social behaviour.

In addition the Community Planning Partnership for Inverclyde have identified that an annual budget of £1.6 million is spent on community safety. This includes: community safety staff costs, social protection staff costs (ASB investigation, community wardens, youth intervention workers etc.) and revenue costs. It would be anticipated that these costs could be reduced as a result of the changes to the built and un-built environment in urban Inverclyde.

This does not take account of any further benefits such as: increased visitor numbers and spending, increased investment and population growth or of wider social, cultural and environmental benefit. By contrast a failure to deliver a well planned urban environment incorporating a successful green network continues the current pattern of: deprivation, high levels of crime, poor health and population decline. 'Bad design' is arguably directly costing 'urban Inverclyde' £10 million per year.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Using the topic headings set out previously (in 'why the green network is important') as a starting point, it is clear that different impacts of the green network need to be assessed in different ways:

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PART B: 2.0 policy framework

PART B: 3.0 assessing & presenting relevant partner policies

Scottish Government relevant policies/guidance:

Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership - relevant studies:

River Clyde Homes:

Inverclyde Council:

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Polnoon - master-plan idea to design; 2009

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Inverclyde Green Network Study: 2009

River Clyde Homes is the main provider of social housing within the Inverclyde area. River Clyde Homes was established in 2007.

Inverclyde Council is the local authority for the area, formed in 1996. The Inverclyde Local Plan, adopted in 2006, was the main source for reference in this research.

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Equal communities in a fairer Scotland - A joint statement by the Scottish Government & COSLA; 2009

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GCV Integrated Habitat Networks: 2008

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PAN 83 - Masterplanning; 2008

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PAN 65 - Planning & open space; 2008

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Scottish Sustainable Communities Initiative; 2008

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PAN 77 - Designing Safer Places; 2006

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PAN 78 - Inclusive Design; 2006

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Research - Minimum standards for open space; 2005

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SPP 3 - Planning for Homes; 2005

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PAN 76 - New Residential Streets: 2005

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PAN 74 - Affordable Housing; 2005

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PAN 67 - Housing Quality; 2003

Riverside Inverclyde Urban Regeneration Company was created in 2006. The URC’s mission is to enhance the long term economic growth and prosperity of the area, largely by means of securing development of the ‘outstanding riverside locations’.

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PAN 59 - Improving Town Centres; 1999

The approach outlined on the URC's website is as follows:

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SPP11: open space & physical activity

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Built Environment - Regeneration (statement)

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Policy Statement - Designing Places

‘Riverside Inverclyde’s initial focus of work will be on changing perceptions of the area and physical, place making redevelopment along the waterfront. We aim to create an environment where economic growth can be stimulated, and where resident and business communities at and beyond the waterfront will begin to reap the benefits of the area’s economic rejuvenation.’

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Greenspace Quality Guide: 2008

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Planning Guidance Parts 1&2: 2008

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Auchenback Health & Open Spaces: 2008

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Social Enterprises & Training for Work: 2008

Through the research for this study, no published strategy for River Clyde Homes' activities has been found. However, it is understood that the long standing Joint Partnership Area Renewal Strategy, Inverclyde Council, River Clyde Homes, local RSL's and the Scottish Government have been working in line with the recommendations of the study: 'Area Renewal - A New Inverclyde: The First Steps', which was approved by the council in February 2003 and endorsed by partners at that time. River Clyde Homes' vision as outlined on the organisation's website is: to create ‘an Inverclyde with exceptional housing and vibrant communities’. The stated mission is: ‘to enhance quality of life through high quality housing and services’.

Riverside Inverclyde Urban Regeneration Company:

‘At Riverside Inverclyde, we recognise that the social and economic regeneration of the waterfront is as equally important as the physical regeneration. We will ensure the delivery of a range of activities based on the themes of maximising community benefit…’ ‘The project will result in a complete revival of the whole of the Inverclyde area…’. River Clyde Homes and Riverside Inverclyde are presently the major 'delivery vehicles' for the regeneration of the study area.

The Local Plan highlights the population decline in Inverclyde (that was instigated by the decline of the shipbuilding and marine engineering industries). It notes that the council has been ‘working to arrest this decline over the past 15 years’. It states that, ‘the council is committed to making the area one of the best performing local economies in the UK as well as continuing in partnership with major schemes of urban renewal and neighbourhood regeneration to make Inverclyde an area in which people would wish to live, work and invest.’ The principal objectives of the planning and development framework include: - to assist in the economic regeneration of Inverclyde and its continued economic competitiveness - to assist in securing housing and community regeneration in areas requiring renewal, the SIP areas and the ‘new neighbourhoods’. - to assist in promoting a new image and perception of Inverclyde, recognised by existing and potential residents, investors and visitors alike as ‘a place of choice’

B

Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership: The Glasgow and Clyde Valley (GCV) Green Network Partnership is a catalyst for the creation of a transformational, high quality Green Network across the Glasgow metropolitan area. The role of the Partnership is to act strategically to stimulate and facilitate the planning, delivery and sustainable long term management of the Green Network. The aim is to create a step change in the scale and quality of the Green Network to improve the region’s competitiveness for investment, enhance quality of life, promote biodiversity and more sustainable use of natural resources, and encourage healthy lifestyles. The GCV Green Network Partnership brings together the eight local authorities that comprise the Glasgow metropolitan region with five major government agencies that promote and deliver on the environmental, social, health and economic agendas throughout the GCV area, namely the Scottish Government, Scottish Enterprise, Glasgow Centre for Population Health, Forestry Commission Scotland and Scottish Natural Heritage. Four themes provide the framework for project development: stronger communities; enterprise development; health improvement; and biodiversity and the environment.

To achieve the all-embracing corporate objective, of: ‘ First arresting and then, reversing population decline and stabilising the communities of Inverclyde on a long term sustainable basis.’ Statements relevant to housing and community regeneration highlight the.... 'need to outline a longer-term view and plan on a larger, more comprehensive scale for the ‘New Neighbourhoods’, and secure improvements in both the quality of urban design and better public transport and accessibility’. ‘The aim of the Green Network is to create high quality environmental corridors and resources, open spaces and recreational assets to assist in the social and economic regeneration and the physical improvement of the external image of the area. Initiatives will be implemented through joint action programmes with key public sector agencies.’ The Inverclyde Local Plan sets out comprehensive policies to tackle the broad range of challenges within the council area.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

B

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PART B: 3.0 assessing & presenting relevant partner policies the overlapping roles of all 3 agencies in Inverclyde: All 3 agencies have overlapping and complementary missions / visions that include: -

enhancing the quality of life in Inverclyde

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delivering social and economic regeneration in Inverclyde

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ensuring that these improvements impact on as many communities as possible

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fundamentally changing the perception of Inverclyde

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through all of this arresting and reversing population decline in Inverclyde

It is clear that none of the 3 agencies can achieve their mission or deliver their vision without addressing the issues outlined in part A of this document.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

There must be a common focus to deliver a coherent and effective green network by all 3 agencies if the core and overlapping agendas are to be achieved.

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This common focus must also extend to the activities of the private sector and their role in the regeneration of Inverclyde. The regeneration process is not just a public sector activity, but the public sector must establish the parameters and framework for this wider partnership.

PART B: 4.0 methodology for the planning & delivery of successful green space as a part of area renewal

B

overview:

The planning and delivery of successful green space as part of area renewal must be a core and common goal of all 3 agencies in Inverclyde – supported by the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership. The challenge of delivering successful green space as part of area renewal must be fully recognised, however. CABE have observed that ‘…good design is the exception’. (from: the cost of bad design, 2006). The document also emphasises 'the need to realise what bad design decisions are costing us' (discussed in part B: 1.0). The culture of driving down costs at the point of delivery to maximise the number of units that can be produced is recognised as a core issue. The Office of Government Commerce, working with CABE, has developed the 'achieving excellence in construction programme'. CABE (in the cost of bad design) observe the following: 'The common minimum standards adopted in 2005 for the whole of central government emphasise the importance of good design and the critical need to take whole-life costs into account when designing projects. Ministers have made the policy objective clear: good design is the required norm. Meanwhile, the National Audit Office has reinforced the value of good design when public money is being spent, and has emphasised the need to consider the improvement in whole-life costs that it delivers'. The challenge of delivering successful green space as a part of area renewal has at least 2 clear components, as follows:

a. organsiational / institutional structure & working practices:

b. the scale and nature of the challenges in Inverclyde:

In the Scottish context the question must be asked as to why there are so few examples of good development and demonstrations of good practice in urban and spatial design?

As noted in the Local Plan, Inverclyde has a long standing problem of population decline. To turn this around is clearly a core goal and a major challenge.

Arguably, many frameworks for delivering urban regeneration have not had the consideration of urban and spatial design issues embedded in their decision making processes. As discussed and further exemplified in part C, to deliver successful green space as part of area renewal –these issues must be at the heart of the decision making process. It is absolutely not achievable if considered as an adjunct to the ‘main business’ of delivering development.

As outlined in part A of the document there are major issues in terms of the landscape and urban structure that generate and reinforce acute social and health problems.

The challenge is recognised by the Scottish Government, as stated in the Polnoon master-plan document of 2009: ‘examples of good place making in Scotland have tended to be the exception rather than the rule’. The Polnoon master-plan was a Scottish Government led project created to champion good design. The master-planning process was taken forward with a team comprising: the Scottish Government, the local authority, the ‘house builder’ and their design team and separately appointed urban design / landscape architecture consultants. To deliver successful green space as part of area renewal, there must be an open-ness to challenge existing working practices and institutional biases. The appropriate method of working needs to be established as a core part of the ‘business’ of all 3 agencies if the desired outcomes and broader missions of each agency in turn are to be realised.

Beyond addressing underlying problems that impact on the lives and lifestyles of existing residents, interventions are required that will change the perception of the area, inspire and give confidence to people to chose to move to, invest in or visit Inverclyde. The delivery of run of the mill social or private housing or car based retail development will neither overcome the challenges of the existing landscape and urban structure – nor will it change the fundamental perception of the area or offer inspiration to potential investors, residents or visitors. The green network has the potential to play a significant role in overcoming existing social and health issues and in redefining the perception of the area. To achieve this however, it needs to be considered in a strategic and co-ordinated manner. The green network also needs to be delivered as an integral part of the master-planning and design of new neighbourhoods. The success or failure of an area socially can significantly depend upon relationships between buildings, routes and spaces: a core focus of good current urban design practice. Crucially, getting these relationships right does not necessarily cost significantly more. The implications and associated costs of ‘bad design’ do not necessarily become apparent immediately, but in the longer term the failure to plan and design neighbourhoods effectively with a successfully integrated ‘green network’ will rise to the surface. This is acutely demonstrated in the failed social housing schemes from the mid twentieth century currently being removed in Inverclyde and the associated social and health issues in these areas that are amongst the absolute worst in Scotland and the UK.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

B

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B

PART B: 4.0 methodology for the planning & delivery of successful green space as a part of area renewal key steps:

PART B: 4.0 methodology for the planning & delivery of successful green space as a part of area renewal

B

key steps:

To overcome these issues, the following key steps are recommended:

There must be a commitment at a senior / organisational level for River Clyde Homes, Riverside Inverclyde and Inverclyde Council to deliver successful green space as a core part of area renewal. It must be recognised that this is a core determinant in each organsiation’s ability to achieve its wider stated mission/vision.

2. establish strong project champions:

To ensure that the goal (of delivering successful green space as part of area renewal) is realised – strong project champions are needed. Project champions will be needed at a political and senior officer level and potentially from external/independent sources.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

3. establish an effective working partnership:

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An effective and committed working partnership around this topic must be established. Develop strong partnership skills and demand nothing less from all of your partners. This process has the potential to fundamentally transform Inverclyde. This level of significance needs to be recognised in the organisational structure and staff resources committed to this area of work.

4. commit to a joint vision:

Adopt the findings of this study: part A: geographic strategy, part B: method of working and part C: design & planning guidance as a joint vision and as tools to progress to deliver successful green space as a core part of area renewal.

5. formalise this document as supplementary guidance:

The findings and recommendations of this study must be formalised within the statutory planning process to influence in an enforceable manner the development control process.

6. assess & reinforce client group skills:

The joint team for this area of work will need to take on a number of key roles through the process. These include: briefing and commissioning consultants, managing the design and planning process and making judgements about the quality or effectiveness of the design outcomes. The professional skills of the core client team should be assessed and where necessary reinforced with training or by securing supplementary external advice/support.

7. develop project briefs that set out the core considerations: Develop briefs for master-planning / design of new neighbourhoods that establish the core considerations of the project in relation to delivery of an integrated green network. Append parts A and C of this document to inform the process – in terms of geographic strategy and design/planning guidance.

8. establish an appropriate budget:

The agenda for area renewal is broader than simply delivering a number of dwellings. The projects need to be transformative and deliver wider change. Such ambitious outcomes are potentially not deliverable say within standard Scottish Government funding routes for social housing. Potential routes to secure an appropriate level of funding may be through joint working between the 3 main agencies and reallocation or focusing of existing budgets. It would also seem advisable to present a case at Scottish Government level or to other strategic agencies to support a very necessary set of interventions.

9. commission an appropriately skilled multi-disciplinary design team:

The shortlisting and selection of design teams must ensure that the necessary range of skills and expertise are represented. It must be recognised that very few architecture practices have expertise in master-planning / urban design – yet the default position is to appoint such practices as lead consultant in these projects. The appointment of an architect as lead consultant will frequently result in an under representation of other professional expertise even if present in the wider team. A balanced and appropriately skilled team should be appointed. It is recommended that the team is either led by an appropriately skilled master-planning / urban design / landscape architecture practice or that the project lead is split between such a consultant and the architect – under separate commissions.

10. develop a rigorous design review/ audit process:

Instigate a procedure for design reviews at intervals through the process that cross examine the proposals in terms of the project aims and the guidance set out in part C of this document. It may be appropriate to appoint an appropriately skilled external design consultant to input and help audit this process. Designs will be appraised in a structured fashion through this process involving the design team and client group. This process must also engage relevant stakeholders and the public at appropriate stages. There is also the appraisal through the formal consents procedure.

11. undertake consultation & stakeholder dialogue to inform the process: On the firm foundation of a working structure between key project partners and with necessary political support, the process must engage with other relevant organisations and be informed by the local communities.

The process of community engagement / dialogue demands a significant level of skill and subtlety. This process requires adequate time and resource to be committed to be meaningful and successful. It is an ambitious vision for the individual neighbourhoods and of Inverclyde as a whole that is being progressed. The focus is on community benefit. These strong and positive messages must be communicated effectively.

12.

monitor and audit the implementation of the works – ensure a high standard at all stages of delivery:

As a project progresses from strategy and master-planning to detailed design and implementation – there needs to be a continuity of management and monitoring of the process. The focus must shift at each stage – to ensure that detailed matters are discussed at the appropriate stage – however there must be a consistent understanding of the core goal and underlying concepts. It is commonly demonstrated that even a good scheme at a master-planning scale can be substantially compromised through a series of unconnected decisions in the detailed design and implementation process. These may include: isolated decisions through the consents process (eg Roads Construction Consent), isolated decisions on specific elements driven by individual partner’s considerations, ill informed decisions on value engineering / cost savings etc. To deliver a successful and high quality scheme, there must be attention to and careful management of all stages of the process through to completion.

13. ensure maintenance and management is secured

The arrangements for the maintenance and management of all elements of the external environment must be in place. Whether this is delivered through the housing association, local authority or community, stable and funded long term arrangements must be in place.

14. project appraisal and post project audit – learn the lessons: A project appraisal is recommended – to make the case and to offer a clear basis for managing the project. A project appraisal also helps in forming a consistent basis for dialogue with the press, public etc. A post project audit is crucial to understand and to be able to demonstrate what has been achieved. The approach to the audit needs to be embedded into the project from the start – for example to measure and set out the baseline of key parameters that will be re-assessed / remeasured once the project has been completed. Thought needs to be given at the start of the process as to what are the key parameters to assess / measure the success of the project. The audit offers the potential to make the case for future projects and to also analyse and understand where the approach could be improved. Constant improvement must be the goal.

15. embed good practice:

The approach and expertise developed should not be lost and should not become an isolated event. If the desired outcomes are delivered, River Clyde Homes, Riverside Inverclyde and Inverclyde Council will have a powerful basis to deliver much more and will be able to demonstrate best practice within Scotland.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

1. commit at an organisational level:

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Guidance for the Design & Planning of Successful Green Space as Part of Area Renewal Master-plans

1.0 wider geographic network level decisions

2.0 master-plan level decisions

2.1 interconnectivity - create continuous / legible links 2.2 assemble activity 2.3 create a hierarchy / range of spaces 2.4 design out lost space

3.0 site / space design

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3.1 consider the relationship of buildings & spaces 3.2 assemble all types of activity into spaces 3.3 generate the conditions for human comfort in outdoor spaces 3.4 create a sense of place/identity 3.5 generate ownership/involvement 3.6 manage the relationship between cars/pedestrians 3.7 Inverclyde specific issues: steep slopes & orientation

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PART C: 1.0 wider geographic network level decisions

PART C: 1.0 wider geographic network level decisions

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the role of the wider strategy: The strategy provides a geographic / spatial framework for delivering the green network in Inverclyde. The strategy 'overlaps' with aspects of the existing regeneration / redevelopment intentions and as noted, the approach to the master-planning of certain indivdual sites could either rule out the possibility of positive change or deliver components of the wider network. The strategy must therefore become a formalised and widely understood basis for decision making.

Although it has not been a core generator of the overall structure of the network proposed through this study, the detailed form of the network should be reviewed with respect to delivering an appropriately 'integrated habitat network'. A review of the mapping for the study area produced by SNH / GCVGNP through use of the 'BEETLE' Integrated Habitat Network modelling tool demonstrates a good fit between the links proposed through this study and potential 'habitat' links.

The strategy can act to influence the approach to individual sites as part of the decision making and development control processes. However, it is recommended that in addition to this role for the strategy, that it is more pro-actively adopted and promoted. To deliver evidence of change and coherent areas of regeneration, rather than the strategy being delivered in a piecemeal fashion (with sections delivered incrementally where the strategy overlaps with other development intentions) - it is proposed that a 'clustering' of activity to deliver coherent portions of the strategy is a more effective way forward.

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The refocusing of development intentions led by Riverside Inverclyde and River Clyde Homes relating for example to one of the 'strategic links' could deliver a coherent exemplar of regeneration of a distinct portion of the urban area.

This map is reproduced from Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office Š Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Glasgow & the Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership 100032510 2012.

PROPOSED STRATEGY

The proposed geographic strategy for the 'green network' - as described in part A of the document should form the basis of strategic decision making. It is clear that the form of redevelopment of certain sites and neighbourhoods is key to being able to deliver the wider network. In various cases, the redevelopment could either rule out the possibility of delivering a coherent green network or it could positively deliver a piece of this 'bigger picture'.

Aside from 'development' led change, the approach/timing of proposed demolitions by River Clyde Homes also needs to be reviewed in light of the strategy. If handled in a coherent fashion strategic demolition could assist in delivering parts of the green network. This co-ordination of action could potentially realise the major parts of the strategy in a phased manner. Each phase demonstrating real and co-ordinated change of a portion of the urban area of Inverclyde. The strategy therefore becomes a tool to co-ordinate activity by all 3 agencies - to deliver a successful green network as part of area renewal.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Many elements of the geographic strategy can be delivered through the co-ordinated action of River Clyde Homes, Riverside Inverclyde and Inverclyde Council.

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C section 2 - master-plan level decisions: introduction: The following section is focused on 'master-plan level' decisions. Decisions at this scale can either enable or rule out the possibility of delivering successful green space. The 4 topics identified here are considered to be the core factors (at the master-plan level) impacting on whether successful green space will be delivered or not. These topics are unfortunately commonly absent from the decision making / design process at this level. The topics discussed are:

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interconnectivity - create continuous / legible links assemble activity create a hierarchy / range of spaces design out lost space

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2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

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create links between adjacent neighbourhoods:

via the green network create links to: core urban areas

2.1 INTERCONNECTIVITY:

2.1 INTERCONNECTIVITY:

create links:

make links continuous & legible:

One of the findings of the analysis of the existing urban structure is the lack of connection between different neighbourhoods and through the area generally.

For the links to function in their role as major arteries of movement through the area, linking neighbourhoods to community facilities and the main hubs of activity - they need to meet certain basic parameters.

This issue requires to be addressed through the area renewal process - and must be a key consideration at the master-plan level. Links must be formed locally between adjacent neighbourhoods.

via the green network create links to: the waterfront and regional park

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PART C: 2.0 master-plan level decisions

Wider links to core urban areas, community facilities and to the waterfront and regional park should be realised through the green network. The wider geographic strategy describes a network of 'core' routes into which all new master-plan areas should connect.

Crown Street route: continuous & legible:

The routes need to function without the aid of mapping or signage, they must be clearly read as parts of the urban environment. This 'legibility' essentially means that anyone - resident or visitor - without prior knowledge will be able to recognise the significance of the route and have confidence to use it. The typical default position is for pedestrian or 'green' routes to be secondary, seen as a separate leisure network, isolated from the main urban structure, isolated and incoherent. Continuation of this approach will further reinforce the existing problems. The routes must be considered as the core structuring device of the master-plan and link in a clear and coherent fashion between 'streets' and 'green' spaces. Examples of this stitching together of 'built' and 'unbuilt' spaces can be seen in examples such as: the Crown Street development and the Victoria Road / Queen's Park route in central Glasgow.

via the green network create links to: community facilities

It must be emphasised that the links do not need to be 'axial' albeit this is the clearest way to exemplify the point. Essentially where not axial, at each 'decision point' (where a route changes direction for example), there must be clarity of how to move forward (without relying on signage).

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

create links to the wider strategic green network:

A further consideration, particularly in Inverclyde, is how such links relate to topography - to ensure that they are accessible and fully usable.

Queen’s Park / Victoria Road: 64

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PART C: 2.0 master-plan level decisions 2.2 ASSEMBLE ACTIVITY:

2.3 HIERARCHY/RANGE OF SPACES:

Assemble rather than disperse activity: integrate different types of activity and modes of movement into the same system of routes / spaces.

Across the master-plan provide a range of spaces of different role, scale and type – to make provision for all users: different ages / abilities etc.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

The success of public and communal spaces within housing areas is largely contingent on the level of use that they experience. The presence of people in a space tends to encourage other activity. Casual surveillance and a general sense of personal safety arise from an active and peopled space.

Public open space can take on a wide range of different roles. Spaces can realise active or passive use, can provide a focus for activity for young and old and a wide variety of different interest groups.

Housing areas can only generate a certain level of activity or footfall. Such environments do not benefit from the throughflow of people that exists in a core urban area.

The diversity of potential and demand for different kinds of spaces must be recognised in the master-planning process. Clearly, not all needs within a community are met by the generic provision of open grassed space and the occasional play area.

As a result, akin to not spreading jam too thinly, the activity within a residential area should not be dispersed. New towns driven by modernist planning strategies with separate pedestrian and vehicular networks demonstrate this point. There is simply not enough activity to make parallel but separate pedestrian/ vehicular spaces successful.

In conjunction with the 'diversity' of the public open space within a master-plan area - consideration must be given to achieving the right 'fit' of a specific use or kind of space and its relationship to dwellings. An example of this in terms of good practice in play provision can be seen in the National Playing Fields Association recommendations, as follows:

Therefore, it is proposed as a core master-planning principle that activity is 'assembled' into multifunctional spaces, integrating all modes of movement. Therefore, public open space, play etc. should be integrated into overlooked spaces surrounded by dwellings. Such spaces may typically incorporate shared surface areas for pedestrain and vehicular movement and that also incorporate all servicing facilities for the dwellings.

- Local Area for Play: 1 minute walk from home (for younger kids) - Local Equipped Areas for Play: 5 mins from home - Neighbourhood Equipped Areas for Play: 15 mins from home

The goal of this assembling of activity is to create animated, safe, social spaces that by their nature discourage anti-social behaviour. Example of ‘assembled’ activity: Kildrum housing, Cumbernauld

The parameters for play here are driven by accessibility and necessary levels of parental supervision. For each 'type' of use there will be similar relevant criteria to inform decisions about siting/layout. Diagram: hierarchy/location of play spaces toddlers play local play area

neighbourhood play area

bins front doors

parking & servicing toddlers play

pedestrian routes

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Illustrative layout demonstrating ‘assembled’ activity: combined vehicle & pedestrian circulation etc. 66

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PART C: 2.0 master-plan level decisions 2.4 DESIGN OUT LOST SPACE: Left over spaces without a role/function are not just a missed opportunity - they actively generate problems. As demonstrated through the wider analysis work, there is a geographic correlation between housing areas with poor layouts that generate substantial 'lost space' and incidences of antisocial behaviour. A core goal of the master-planning process must be to design out such spaces. Inverclyde demonstrates particular issues in terms of the steepness of slopes and there is extensive evidence of slopes essentially becoming 'lost space' within housing areas. Although a more demanding exercise, the layout must be developed to design them out.

The following section is focused on decisions at a site or space level. The topics identified relate to the more detailed relationships of buildings, routes and spaces and the detailed design considerations for these elements. The topics identified here are considered to be the core factors (at the site / space level) impacting on whether successful green space will be delivered or not. These topics are again unfortunately commonly absent from the decision making / design process. The topics discussed are: consider the relationships of buildings & spaces assemble all types of activity into spaces generate the conditions for human comfort in outdoor spaces create a sense of place / identity generate ownership / involvement manage the relationship between cars / pedestrians Inverclyde specific issues: steep slopes & orientation

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3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

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Images: examples of lost space in the study area.

section 3 - site / space design: introduction:

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Accordia housing scheme - Cambridge

3.1 RELATIONSHIP OF BUILDINGS & SPACES:

3.1 RELATIONSHIP OF BUILDINGS & SPACES:

Create overlooking / casual surveillance of spaces from dwellings.

Generate a sense of ownership / territory.

The success of public open space in residential areas is strongly determined by its relationship to surrounding dwellings.

The diagram below, (developed from Oscar Newman, Defensible Space), shows a hierarchical organisation of spaces within a housing area.

The default position frequently demonstrated is for public open space to be 'bolted on' as the last in the series of layout decisions. This results in underused public open space that becomes a locus for anti-social behaviour.

The territory steps down from fully 'public', to 'semi-public' to a series of 'semi-private' spaces around which housing is organised.

Public open space must be integrated into the core of residential areas, overlooked by dwellings. The casual surveillance of a space is critical in generating a sense of personal safety and discouraging anti-social behaviour.

This arrangement of small groups of housing around the 'semiprivate' spaces, improves the possibility of a sense of ownership and engagement and the potential for group decisions to resolve common problems.

Overlooking should be as extensive as possible, layouts that deliver overlooking along only 1 edge of a space or at a distance from the space should be avoided.

Kildrum housing - Cumbernauld

Illustrative layout with a small group of housing clustered around a semi-public / semi-private outdoor space

semi private

Angell Town housing scheme - London 70

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PART C: 3.0 site / space design

semi-public semi private

public

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PART C: 3.0 site / space design 3.1 RELATIONSHIP OF BUILDINGS & SPACES:

3.1 RELATIONSHIP OF BUILDINGS & SPACES:

Animate spaces through activity / footfall generated by dwellings.

Create transitional edges between dwellings & spaces that offer an invitation.

The day-to-day activity related to dwellings is an important component of the animation of spaces. As discussed earlier, the dispersal of this activity - for example through separate vehicular and pedestrian circulation leads to underused outdoor spaces that can act as a focus for anti-social behaviour. The day to day activities of: bin collection, posting & delivery of letters present an opportunity to populate the common areas and ensure that they are 'policed by presence'. The movement / footfall generated by residents coming and going from their dwellings is also crucial.

The treatment of the 'built edge' where dwellings meet the common or public areas, should encourage people to inhabit this edge. This transition should encourage residents to spend time here and encourage social interaction with neighbours, casual surveillance of the common areas etc. Whilst a simple idea, this may seem like a distant reality in some of the housing areas in Inverclyde. Where the layout and design of housing is creating lost space, a lack of surveillance and encouraging anti-social behaviour - rather than a transition to the street, residents naturally create barriers and enclosure. The transitional edge treatment can be considered perhaps to be a component of a layout that succeeds more generally also.

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public / semi-public space

semi-private / transition

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Inverclyde: existing example - no transition

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PART C: 3.0 site / space design 3.2 ASSEMBLE ALL TYPES OF ACTIVITY INTO SPACES

3.2 ASSEMBLE ALL TYPES OF ACTIVITY INTO SPACES

Integrate day to day activities / servicing into spaces.

Create conditions for all types of activity to take place ‘necessary / optional / social’.

Give people reasons to be in public / common spaces. As discussed earlier, integrating all servicing and day to day activities into common / public spaces is an important way to animate the spaces.

Jan Gehl in his book 'Life Between Buildings' distinguishes between 3 different types of outdoor activities. This is an extremeley useful conceptual framework for discussing and designing outdoor spaces in housing areas. Gehl describes: 'necessary, optional and social' activity.

In addition to necessary servicing functions - spaces should integrate activities that will cause people to be in them by choice. For example, growing spaces are ideal in social/surveillance terms as they require regular activity/presence from participants.

Necessary activities are those that have to happen. Going to work or school, shopping, errands, posting mail. These are things that people will have to do regardless of the quality of the external environment.

optional activity

necessary activity

Optional activities are those that people chose to do: walking, sitting outdoors etc. Whether these occur or not is significantly influenced by the quality of the outdoor environment.

social activity

Essentially the goal is to encourage all 3 kinds of activity to take place in the common and public spaces.

Chapel housing scheme - Southampton: with enhanced streetscape

As discussed, incorporating necessary activity is achieved through a series of master-plan and layout decisions. Optional activity can be encouraged through the creation of a good quality external environment. Social activity is the result and the outcome of a well considered and well designed physical environment.

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Social activity (or resultant activity) basically occurs because people are in the spaces together. Conversations, communal activity and so on - that can only take place if people are out in the external environment.

illustrative layout - showing simple elements to enable necessary & optional activity 74

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PART C: 3.0 site / space design 3.3 GENERATE CONDITIONS FOR HUMAN COMFORT IN OUTDOOR SPACES:

3.3 GENERATE CONDITIONS FOR HUMAN COMFORT IN OUTDOOR SPACES:

Microclimate

Spatial definition

To encourage people to populate the external spaces, the layout must deliver a favourable micro-climate. Given the climate enjoyed in the study area, micro-climate can have a huge impact on the usability and comfort of a space.

For a street or space to feel comfortable and have an appropriate sense of scale, there are broadly recognised paramaters for the relationship of the height of enclosing buildings (or other space defining elements) and the width of the space. For example, the 'Urban Design Compendium' published by English partnerships and the Housing Corporation suggests a maximum 3:1 width:height ratio for a street space.

Sheltered, south facing outdoor spaces will encourage a higher and more sustained level of use.

The sections illustrate such a 3:1 proportioned street space, with edges defined by 2 storey housing. The following sections then highlight that this street section is not deliverable within current common planning and roads design criteria. This essentially demontsrates the consistent need for street tree planting and boundary treatments to create spatial definition and reduce the overall scale of spaces.

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section 1:

suggested maximum 3:1 width:height ratio of space

sections 2 & 3:

applying standard roads/planning criteria to street width/layout demonstrates that for 2 storey housing the height:width ratio of the street will be outwith the 3:1 recommended

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Environmental psychology research and empirical study demonstrate that humans have a particular response to different scales of space. Introducing a 'human scale' through the overall layout of streets and spaces and through the introduction of tree planting and other landscape elements encourages people to use and populate the outdoor environment.

built edge may not be continuous: boundary treatments and street tree planting become key space defining elements.

section 4: public open space in housing area: Inverclyde: large space - lacking human scale

Accordia housing scheme - Cambridge: overall space defined by buildings is smaller & within this human scale is realised thro’ tree planting & constructed external structures

eg: single sided street in Inverclyde: lack of spatial definition

given the above - the scale of most streets will be such that tree planting and boundary treatments are key components to generate spatial definition.

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Human scale

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PART C: 3.0 site / space design 3.3 GENERATE CONDITIONS FOR HUMAN COMFORT IN OUTDOOR SPACES:

3.4 SENSE OF PLACE / IDENTITY:

Legibility / spatial sequence

This should not be reduced down to token add on of features, signage etc. - but rather should be embedded within the design process.

The design approach to buildings and spaces must seek to establish a clear identity for each neighbourhood.

The topic of legibility is discussed earlier in the document - as a consideration at the 'master-plan' scale. The overall organsiation of buildings, routes and spaces must be clearly conceived at this scale.

The scheme should be evolved with a clear concept that is articulated in decisions on layout, materials and form as the design process progresses.

However, in addition, the more detailed design and organisation of spaces must consider how legible routes and spaces are delivered. As discussed, the goal is to achieve a physical environment where one is drawn from one space to another and there is clarity of how to move through the sequence of spaces that does not depend upon signage or prior knowledge. The visual example of Royal Exchange Square in central Glasgow, although a different context, demonstrates a successful sequence of spaces and visual clues that draw you from one space to the next.

The Hidden Gardens project in Glasgow demonstrates how reference to site history and local culture can be embedded in a design in an understated and sophisticated manner.

the Hidden Gardens - Glasgow

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Environmental psychology research and empirical study demonstrate that there is what can be described as an 'edge effect', whereby people tend to be more comfortable inhabiting the edges of spaces. The ability to sit, with your back protected and look out across the space tends to be a comfortable and preferable position for most people. This and other patterns of human use must inform the approach to the organisation and design of outdoor spaces.

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Inhabitable edges

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PART C: 3.0 site / space design 3.5 GENERATE OWNERSHIP / INVOLVEMENT: Ownership and involvement can be encouraged in a number of different ways. The different approaches are mutually supportive.

consultation/engagement: involving communities in the regeneration process A process of dialogue should be entered into at the outset to establish a clear understanding of community need and aspiration. This process should be sustained through the development and delivery of the project.

incorporate elements/areas of the public realm that people can shape/control The direct 'hands on' involvement of a community in areas of the scheme can assist greatly in a sense of ownership and stewardship.

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Striven Pleasure Gardens - Glasgow

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As discussed the layout must consider the 'hierarchy of space' to generate 'semi-private' spaces with the right relationship to surrounding dwellings. Within this framework spaces that can be shaped/defined by the community may be successfully integrated. The expectation of the community involvement must not assume an unrealistic burden on individuals. Striven Pleasure Gardens in Glasgow offers a positive example of local residents reclaiming a derelict communal garden and sustaining this as a positive communal space.

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3.6 MANAGE / BALANCE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CARS/ PEDESTRIANS: The creation of a multi-function and multi-modal space surrounded by dwellings has certain detailed design implications that need to be fully understood at the outset of a project. The creation of a 'shared surface' or 'home-zone' type space can incorporate pedestrian and vehicular circulation, servicing, play and other public open space functions. However to do so, such spaces have to be treated differently and must read as distinct from the wider vehicular circulation network. From experience across a number of schemes in west central Scotland, there appear to be 2 recurring barriers to delivering such spaces:

1. application of standard roads department criteria: the use of out of date (frequently 1980's Strathclyde Regional Council) roads design criteria results in either a non adoption of such spaces or their modulation into a form that is essentially indistinguishable from a standard road design. Policy is in place on a UK and Scottish Government level to support the creation of such spaces, there is however institutional lag in many roads departments that lies some decades behind more widely recognised good contemporary practice. This situation must be directly challenged and overcome.

Houndwood housing scheme - shared surface / homezone area - Somerset, England

2. application of standard Scottish Government funding criteria for housing schemes: funding for projects is calculated on a per unit figure for dwellings and a minimal allocation for roads infra-structure and wider treatment of external spaces. The budgets available make it virtually impossible to deliver an external environment within housing areas that meets contemporary baseline standards. It is an inescapable fact that shared surface areas alongside other external works are more costly than a standard bitmac road, footway and lawn. Given that much of the public social housing that was built in the mid/late 20th century in west central scotland has fundamentally failed on a social basis and has associated with it such a poor external environment and associated high levels of poor health - there is an inescapable case for a recalibration of budgets for the treatment of external spaces within new housing areas.

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PART C: 3.0 site / space design 3.7 INVERCLYDE SPECIFIC ISSUES: 1: STEEP SLOPES

3.7 INVERCLYDE SPECIFIC ISSUES: 1: STEEP SLOPES

In addition to more generally applicable principles of layout and design of housing, there are specific to the urban area of Inverclyde a number of particularly influential issues, specifically: that much of the urban area lies on a steep north facing slope.

steep slopes: issue 2:

steep slopes: issue 1:

A widely occurring housing layout within the study area is of one sided streets with a grade separation between the inhabited ground floor of the dwelling and the street space. This level difference between inhabited internal space and the street is comprised variously of: retaining walls to the street edge, grassed slopes and dead/void underbuildings to the dwelling.

barrier to accessibility & movement As highlighted in the analysis of the landscape and urban structure of the study area, many residential neighbourhoods are separated by steep slopes from community facilities, core urban areas and wider recreational opportunities. This situation presents a significant issue in terms of accessibility, discouraging healthy and active lifestyles amongst local populations which presently demonstrate some of the worst health data in Scotland. As demonstrated by Serpentine Road in Rothesay a direct route up and down a steep slope is difficult to resolve. In this case or with the similarly iconic serpentine Lomboard Street in San Francisco, the circuitous nature of the route has made them tourist destinations.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Direct routes with steps clearly prevent access / movement by wheelchair users, parents with prams and cyclists. Long runs of steps will also actively discourage use and pedestrian movement by the wider community. To overcome this issue, the impact of steep slopes on pedestrian movement / accessibility needs to be recognised and factored into decision making on site layout and design. As described in the adjacent diagrams, a simple strategy of locating destinations so that routes can follow or gradually cut across the contours needs to be followed. This consideration has informed the proposed wider geographic route network described in part A of the study. Within masterplan / housing areas a similar recognition needs to be made in decisions on siting of routes and facilities to take account of slope.

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separation of dwellings from street: lack of surveillance

Common single sided street & limited surveillance: ground floor void

This arrangement generates a significant disconnection between the 'indoor' inhabited dwelling and the street space. This has associated with it problems of accessibility and a dead uninhabited street frontage, however in this particular context the consequent lack of surveillance of the street/common space is a prime consideration. One sided streets by their nature reduce the level of surveillance by 50%. Furthermore the level separation of indoor and outdoor space reduces effective surveillance and creates substantial 'blind spots'. Such streets/spaces have been demonstrated in Inverclyde to act as a focus for anti-social behaviour, with car crime an obvious and easy target. Housing layouts must be focused on creating '2 sided' streets and spaces and having as far as possible a level relationship between the street/common spaces and the dwelling. The level change can be addressed within the built form itself and between back to back gardens for example. This approach is effectively demonstrated in earlier development within the study area, for example the Victorian terraced housing along Lilybank Road. Here, the dwellings address the street space broadly at the same level, the slope is accommodated within a stepped internal plan and to the rear of gardens. The creation of public/common spaces that are overlooked and accessible from surrounding dwellings must be a core consideration in developing layouts. The positive social outcomes of this set of relationships and the effective 'designing out' of spaces that encourage anti-social behaviour must be a core goal.

2 sided street and maximised surveillance of the public space / street

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Serpentine Road - Rothesay, Isle of Bute 82

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PART C: 3.0 site / space design 3.7 INVERCLYDE SPECIFIC ISSUES: 1: STEEP SLOPES steep slopes: issue 3: slopes become lost space

absorb slopes into private (back to back) space

As discussed, 'lost space' is a significant issue in many neighbourhoods within the study area and there is a broad correlation between its presence and the incidence of anti-social behaviour. Clearly new housing areas must avoid creating new 'lost space'. It is notable that a number of recent housing developments in the area are recreating the problem.

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3.7 INVERCLYDE SPECIFIC ISSUES: 1: STEEP SLOPES steep slopes: issue 3: slopes become lost space Give slopes in public areas a function eg: terraced growing / children's natural / eco play. The notional layout shown suggests how slopes could be incorporated within public areas, overlooked from both sides and incorporating a range of suitable uses: growing space, play etc.

Slopes present a particular challenge in layouts - however they cannot remain unaddressed as leftover, undefined spaces. 2 main responses to slopes in housing areas are suggested:

give slopes in public areas a function: for example as terraced growing spaces or children’s ‘natural / eco-play’ areas

1.

absorb slopes into private (back to back) space

2.

give slopes in public areas a function eg: terraced growing

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area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Either strategy effectively removes slopes as unused space from common/public areas.

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PART C: 3.0 site / space design

winter solstice

existing building types with void understorey: seasonal shade variance spring/autumn equinox summer solstice

3.7 INVERCLYDE SPECIFIC ISSUES: 2: ORIENTATION

3.7 INVERCLYDE SPECIFIC ISSUES: 2: ORIENTATION

orientation issues:

orientation issues:

As discussed earlier, much of the study area is located on north facing slopes. Given the typical level of cloud cover and northerly latitude, daylighting of both internal space within dwellings and outdoor spaces is a key consideration.

key design parameter for building: capitalise on sunlight / orientation to bring light into the dwelling

Many existing housing layouts generate circumstances where for substantial portions of the winter months there will be no direct sunlight / daylighting of internal spaces or external spaces surrounding dwellings.

Daylighting / orientation must become a key design parameter in the development of housing layouts. A number of design responses are suggested:

consider / manage building height: Existing housing in the study area incorporates a void/ underbuilding which essentially increases the relative building height. The strategy of incorporating the 'lower ground floor' of the building into the slope essentially helps to reduce the relative height of the building.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

housing/street section incorporating level change: seasonal shade variance

create south facing indoor/outdoor living spaces: The overall layout, street / building section and the internal floor plan of the dwelling need to be considered together to deliver usable indoor and outdoor living spaces that benefit from a southerly orientation. This will essentially mean (on a north facing slope) a flipping of the inhabitable garden space and the associated common living spaces within the dwelling to either the front or back of the dwelling - as indicated in the section. This will demand the careful treatment of the boundary of units to the street to achieve a semi-private level of enclosure where the outdoor living space addresses the street. In broad terms the implication of this is the avoidance of standard housing types that do not take account of orientation and a considered and integrated approach to site layout.

C

As demonstrated in the sections on the previous page, during the winter months, direct sunlight reaching internal spaces within the dwelling may be limited. In response to this it is propsoed that this becomes a key design parameter for the building - to capitalise on sunlight to bring light into the dwelling. There are many ways to bring light down into the core of a building, from roof lights or windows on the upper floor. This is particularly important given the potential for single aspect spaces where dwellings are built into the slope. The diagrammatic building sections suggest a range of strategies to capitalise on sunlight and bring light into the dwelling. Again, given the setting of dwellings on a north facing slope this emphasises the requirement for a thoughtful approach to the built form, avoiding standard house types and delivering liveable homes.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

C

housing/street section incorporating level change: orientation of indoor & outdoor living spaces 86

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next steps / action plan:

next steps / action plan:

1. inception

2. review of planned actions

3. outline design of projects for early action

4. identify and secure additional funding

The methodology in part B of the document sets out the steps for the planning and design of successful green space as a part of area renewal.

It is proposed that a co-ordinated review of existing planned works/actions is undertaken by the partner organisations in light of the study findings/recommendations.

Commission the feasibility testing and outline design of early action projects.

Identify and secure appropriate funding to deliver early action projects.

This may include projects identified through the review of planned actions, but should certainly include the main components of the geographic strategy (ie the 3 'strategic green links' between the waterfront and the regional park and the 2 major 'neighbourhood parks').

5. implement early action projects

A detailed feasibility testing and outline design for these main components of the strategy should be undertaken.

6. implement steps 5 to 15 of the methodology (set out in part B of the document)

The first 4 steps identified are: 1. commit at an organisational level 2. establish strong project champions 3. establish an effective working partnership 4. commit to a joint vision

The purpose is to: - identify where existing intentions can be co-ordinated or 'clustered' to deliver coherent parts of the strategy

There remains a question of the immediate actions required to achieve these early outcomes. It is suggested that:

- test development, demolition or other proposals for intervention against the study findings/recommendations - to ensure the desired outcomes are being delivered

- a facilitated workshop / presentation of the study is undertaken with senior management / decision makers within each of the partner organisations

Through creative partner working it may be feasible to make early progress on delivery of the strategy on the basis of existing commitments / intentions.

- it is proposed that these presentations are set up by the representatives of Inverclyde Council, River Clyde Homes and Riverside Inverclyde who have formed the steering group for the study. The overall co-ordination of this process should be overseen by the Glasgow and Clyde Green Network Partnership.

One of the outcomes of this exercise would be to identify projects / elements of the strategy for early action. The intention would be to define projects that can be delivered as exemplars of the wider approach. These may be stand alone 'public realm' interventions or associated with proposed development.

The outputs of this process should include outline design proposals for both the main public realm works and the associated / adjacent built development.

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- the senior decision makers and project champions must then establish the basis for working between the partner organisations and commit appropriate staff resources to the process. A core working group must be established focused on the delivery / implementation of the findings of the study. - it is proposed that a series of workshops / presentations are next undertaken with the wider staff of the partner organisations to disseminate the findings and recommendations of the study. The intention being to bring the study findings and recommendations into common and ongoing use as part of the general activity of the partner organisations.

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

- as well as 'organisational commitment' it is anticipated that this process will identify and 'sign up' project champions

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list of consultees: Inverclyde Council

River Clyde Homes

references: Charlie Cairns Fergus MacLeod Karen Barclay Rachel Shipley Drew Hall

- Area Manager Lower Clyde Greenspace - Planning Policy and Housing Manager - Green Charter Unit Co-ordinator - Access Officer - Community Safety and Wellbeing Officer

Barbara Birrell Angela Spence Russell Smith

- Head of Investment - Head of Regeneration - Projects Manager

Riverside Inverclyde

Geoff Gregory

- Implementation Manager

Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership

James Kerr

- Development Consultant

- Inverclyde Chief Inspector

NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde

Andrew Daly

- Head of Financial Planning & Allocation

Scottish Natural Heritage

Fiona Stewart

- Glasgow Clyde Valley Integrated Habitat Network Officer

Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park

Charles Woodward

- Regional Park Manager

- Inverclyde Council & partners (2002) - Inverclyde Council (2005) - Inverclyde Council (2005) - Inverclyde Council - Lower Clyde Project (2006) - Lower Clyde Greenspace (2007) - Inverclyde Council & partners (2008)

Urban Design Compendium The Value of Good Design The Value of Public Space The Cost of Bad Design

- English Partnerships (2000) - CABE (2002) - CABE (2003) - CABE (2006)

Life Between Buildings Finding Lost Space

- Jan Gehl (1971) - Roger Trancik (1986)

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Grant Manders

Routes to Regeneration - Inverclyde Access Strategy Towards a Strategic Core Path Network for Inverclyde Inverclyde Local Plan Inverclyde Draft Core Paths plan Inverclyde Open Spaces Audit & Action Plan A New Agenda for Greenspace in Inverclyde 2007-2017 Inverclyde Green Network Study

area renewal & the Inverclyde green network

Strathclyde Police

key documents referred to:

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Inverclyde Integrated Masterplanning of New Neighbourhoods Study