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Gartcosh Gartloch Green Network Strategy and Management Plan for the Bishop’s Estate

Prepared for Glasgow City Council, North Lanarkshire Council, Communities Scotland, Scottish Natural Heritage, Forestry Commission Scotland, Glasgow East Regeneration Agency and the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership by Land Use Consultants January 2008

37 Otago Street Glasgow G12 8JJ Tel: 0141 334 9595 Fax: 0141 334 7789 glasgow@landuse.co.uk


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CONTENTS

1. Introduction ......................................................................................... 1 The Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor ...................................................................................................2 Structure of the report......................................................................................................................3

2. Baseline and Context .......................................................................... 5 2.1. Historic Context ...................................................................................................................5 2.2. Geology and Geomorphology ............................................................................................6 2.3. Hydrology................................................................................................................................7 2.4. Landcover................................................................................................................................9 2.5. Trees and Woodlands..........................................................................................................9 2.6. Natural Heritage..................................................................................................................13 2.7. Built Heritage .......................................................................................................................16 2.8. Landscape Character and Visual Characteristics .........................................................18 2.9. Transport Infrastructure....................................................................................................22 2.10. Community ...........................................................................................................................25 2.11. Policy Context ....................................................................................................................34 SWOT .................................................................................................................................................36

3. Lessons from Elsewhere ................................................................... 43 Regional Park Models.......................................................................................................................43 Wetland Centre Models..................................................................................................................44 Options for Delivery ........................................................................................................................45

4. Vision and Objectives........................................................................ 49 Vision ...................................................................................................................................................49 Objectives ...........................................................................................................................................49

5. Green Network Strategy.................................................................. 51 Strategic Objective 1: ....................................................................................................................51 Strategic Objective 2:.......................................................................................................................56 Strategic Objective 3:.......................................................................................................................61 Strategic Objective 4.:......................................................................................................................63 Strategic Objective 5:.......................................................................................................................65 Strategic Objective 6:.......................................................................................................................67 Strategic Objective 7:.......................................................................................................................69

6. Implementation Guidance................................................................ 71 Process, Partnership and Co-ordination .....................................................................................71 Partnership and Co-ordination ......................................................................................................71 Raising Awareness ............................................................................................................................72 Developing a Wetlands Centre .....................................................................................................73 Securing Benefits for Local Communities ...................................................................................74

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The Role of the Planning System...................................................................................................78 SUDS and Greenspace.....................................................................................................................83 Funding ................................................................................................................................................84

7. Management Action Plan ................................................................. 93

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Executive Summary Green Network Strategy and Management Plan for the Gartloch/Gartcosh Corridor Prepared for: Glasgow City Council, North Lanarkshire Council, Communities Scotland, Scottish Natural Heritage, Forestry Commission Scotland, Glasgow East Regeneration Agency and the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership By: Land Use Consultants (LUC) This short paper provides an overview of the Green Network Strategy and Management Plan for the Gartloch/Gartcosh Corridor. It describes: • • • • •

Study brief; Context; Vision and Objectives; Implementation Guidance; Management Action Plan.

Study Brief The study brief outlined the requirement for two study outputs: • •

A Green Network Strategy for the Gartloch/Gartcosh corridor; A Management Plan for the Bishop’s Estate and an adjacent area in North Lanarkshire, as identified in the Green Network Strategy.

The Green Network Strategy was required to: •

Provide a framework for the development of the Gartloch/Gartcosh component of the Green Network that can be used by the Green Network Partnership, Glasgow City Council and North Lanarkshire Council to: o Inform preparation and support the implementation of the work of the Green Network Partnership, Local Plans, greenspace strategies and masterplans; and o Develop the most appropriate approaches to land management.

Provide a framework for the development and long term management of the Green Network resource within Easterhouse that helps to deliver the regeneration objectives for the area;

Recommend how to maximise the social, economic and environmental benefits of the Green Network within the Gartloch/Gartcosh corridor, including: o Maximising the value of the Green Network for local communities and promoting active use of the sites;


o Enhancing perceptions of the Greater Easterhouse area as a location for business and housing investment; o Protecting and enhancing the biodiversity value of the Green Network and contributing to the development of effective ecosystems across Glasgow and the Clyde Valley; o Providing guidance for planners and developers on the location and design of Green Network sites; o Building an approach to management of the Network that is sustainable for the long term including, where appropriate, engagement with local residents and providing opportunities for volunteer activity, training and employment. Context Figure 1 shows the study area, comprising the area between the A80 corridor in the north and the M8 corridor in the south and extending east to include Drumpellier Country Park.

© Crown copyright and database right 2012. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence Number 1000332510

The first part of the study focused on developing an understanding of the Gartloch/Gartcosh corridor, covering the following topics: • •

Geological origins – including the creation of a series of lochs and wetlands at the end of the last ice age linked by a complex network of burns and ditches. Historic context – including the pattern of early development which focused on defensible hilltops and avoided wetter, low lying areas; the role of the area as a medieval hunting forest (the Bishop’s Hunting Grounds) linked to Provan Hall; the establishment of Drumpellier estate by monks as early as 1161 and its development as a designed


• • •

• • • •

landscape and more recently a country park; the 19th century development of mining activity which has left a legacy of former mines and bings across the area, linked to a number of industries along the corridor; and the more recent creation of the Bishop’s Estate by Glasgow City Council and the recognition of the area’s significant biodiversity value. Land cover – which comprises a mix of active and abandoned farmland, hedged fields, woodlands, bings, wetlands and formal recreation areas. Woodlands – the most significant of which tend to be associated with the policies of former country houses and their estates (examples include Drumpellier Country Park, Gartloch House, Blairtummock House and Provan Hall). Natural heritage – the area includes important habitats (such as raised bog, swamp, marsh, open water, woodland, acid and neutral grassland, scrub and field boundaries) and important species (such as reed bunting, song thrush, skylark, water vole, otter, brown hare and great crested newt). Built heritage – including ten A or B listed buildings and a range of other traditional farm buildings, estate properties and industrial and transport heritage structures of interest. Landscape – comprising areas of productive and abandoned farmland, policy landscapes, open water and wetland corridors, Gartloch Hospital (landmark architecture and historic policy woodlands) and urban greenspaces. Transport infrastructure including roads, rail lines and stations, bus routes and walking, cycling and riding routes. Surrounding communities – experiencing high levels of unemployment, poor health and socio-economic disadvantage.

This analysis built a picture of an area with significant environmental and historic assets, but where surrounding communities have suffered significant economic and social disadvantage compared to the wider area. A review of national, strategic and local policies confirmed these findings, highlighting the importance of developing solutions which combine improvements in the area’s environment with measures to support investment and regeneration and which will bring lasting benefits for communities across the area. More specifically, the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Structure Plan and the two local plans (Glasgow City Plan 2 and the North Lanarkshire Local Plan) identify the area as the location for a number of Community Growth Areas, with potential to accommodate a significant amount of new housing development over the coming years. This confirms the importance of developing a Green Network strategy which uses conservation and enhancement of the area’s environmental resource as a means of supporting investment and raising the quality of development. Lessons from Elsewhere The research reviewed a number of examples from elsewhere in the UK to explore ways in which development and management of the environmental resource could be linked to economic and community regeneration. Examples included regional parks (e.g. the Lee


Valley Regional Park in London, the proposed Ribble Estuary Regional Park, the Dearne Valley in South Yorkshire and projects such as the Cotswold Water Park). The review explored the most appropriate ‘designation vehicle’ for a Green Network initiative at Gartloch and Gartcosh and concluded that, in the absence of a regional nature reserve designation, the creation of a Wetland Park should be considered, though it is acknowledged that a separate branding exercise is required to create the public face of the initiative. A Wetland Park would provide a mechanism for cross boundary co-ordination. The review also explored the development of Wetland Centres by organisations such as the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust. These centres combine active wetland conservation with visitor facilities, interpretation and education, though within a much more limited area than covered by the Gartloch/Gartcosh Corridor. There is a growing international network of such centres, but none in Scotland. The review highlighted the longer term potential for a Wetlands Centre within the Gartloch/Gartcosh Corridor, but it recognised that this is likely to be a high cost element which would complement rather than underpin a wetlands centre based Green Network initiative across the wider area. Green Network Strategy Vision Vision - The development of the Green Network to create a nationally important wetlands park with a wider network of recreation sites bringing significant environmental, community and economic benefits to the Gartloch/Gartcosh Corridor and Glasgow, North Lanarkshire and the wider Clyde Valley. Green Network Strategy Objectives The following Green Network Strategy Objectives and recommendations underpin the vision: Establish a project partnership to guide development and implementation of the initiative, identify the most appropriate ‘designation vehicle’ for the initiative and define its physical extent • develop a project steering group; • form a Wetland Park; • work with the wider community; • explore the feasibility of a wetland centre. Conserve and significantly enhance the area’s biodiversity interest with a specific emphasis on enhancing its wetland ornithological value • conserve and enhance the ecological value of existing wetland sites; • conserve and enhance the ecological value of other existing habitats where these are compatible with the area’s wider wetland interest; • create additional wetlands where this is compatible with other habitats and land uses; • create additional non-wetland habitats where these are compatible with wetland biodiversity and land management practices; • extend the programme of habitat creation and enhancement across the Wetland Park boundary into existing and new communities in surrounding areas to create a network of habitat corridors and stepping stones.


Secure a wider range of landscape and environmental enhancements • • • • • • • •

conserve and enhance existing and new wetland landscape features across the area; retain and reinforce the area’s existing farmland character on rising ground around the core of the area; identify the need and opportunity for creating landscapes that can mitigate the visual impact of development; restore key landscape features where these have been lost or are in decline, with an emphasis on re-inforcing the rural character of the area; create new landscape features in areas which have been damaged or abandoned; ensure that all new developments contribute to, and reinforce, the area’s rural landscape character; extend landscape enhancements into surrounding communities; reinforce links to the wider Green Network.

Raise awareness of the area’s biodiversity assets, its wider natural and cultural heritage and its range of recreation opportunities • • • • •

further development of the network of waymarked paths and trails across the area; connecting the site with the wider network of longer distance cycle routes and trails; consider development of a Wetlands Centre as a key means of raising awareness at local, regional and national levels; develop effective branding, including the creation of an appropriate identity and associated marketing; programme special events.

Encourage access to the area and understanding and enjoyment of its natural and cultural heritage • develop a co-ordinated network of walking, cycling and horseriding routes; • routes should be integrated with management of the wetlands to maximise opportunities for interpretation but to minimise disturbance and avoid habitat loss; • the network should connect with communities around and within the area, and with key public transport access points; • the network should allow circular walks of known length and difficulty from key access points; • the network should provide a continuous, mainly off-road route extending from Hogganfield Park to Drumpellier Country Park and Johnston Loch; • sections of road through the area should be provided with safe off-road alternatives for walkers, cyclists and horseriders or should be subject to sensitively designed speed management measures, with the aim of re-creating quiet lanes typical of a rural area; • the network should connect with longer distance routes to create longer distance loops and to provide links to other wetland and heritage sites; • the network should employ a system of signage and waymarking which is robust and which provides users with confidence about navigation, distance, features of interest and overall difficulty; • the design and management of the network should be designed to promote personal safety.


Secure benefits for existing communities by encouraging involvement and creating pathways through volunteering, training, social enterprise and local business development t • • • • •

maximise opportunities for community participation in the process of planning and developing the project; use the project as a means of developing the skill base of local communities; support the creation of community enterprises, organisations and co-operatives designed to provide employment linked to the Wetland Park and the training programme; create strong links to education within surrounding communities; develop the potential healthy living benefits of the Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor for the local and wider populations of the area.

Ensure new development in and around the corridor contributes to, and benefits from, the area’s natural and cultural heritage • • • •

engage with current or potential developers to increase awareness and understanding of the area’s environmental qualities and of the objectives of the Wetland Park; the Councils’ expectations for new development should be clearly set out in jointly prepared supplementary planning guidance and masterplanning process for the Wetland Park; the Councils’ Development management processes should reflect the wider objectives for the Wetland Park; the design of any buildings associated with the Wetland Park should be of a very high quality, signalling a step change in expectations for the area, and providing exemplars of sustainable design, construction and operation.

Green Network Strategy Implementation The Green Network Strategy provides implementation guidance under the following headings: • process, partnership and co-ordination; • development of a wetlands centre; • securing benefits for local communities; • the role of the planning system; • SUDS and Greenspace; • funding. Management Action Plan The final section of the strategy sets out a management action plan for the Bishop’s Estate (Glasgow City Council) and the part of the initiative area within North Lanarkshire. The action programme has been developed on a zonal basis and for each zone proposals have been made for the conservation and enhancement of the area and improvements in access and interpretation. These proposals respond to the local characteristics and variations throughout the area. A final group of actions relate to the implementation guidance.


INTRODUCTION

Hogganfield Loch

Image courtesy of Patricia & Angus MacDonald/Aerographica


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INTRODUCTION

1.1.

This document sets out a Strategy for the development of the Green Network in the Gartloch Gartcosh Corridor and Management Action Plan for the Bishop’s Estate.

1.2.

The study was initiated through a partnership between Glasgow City Council, North Lanarkshire Council, Communities Scotland, Scottish Natural Heritage, Forestry Commission Scotland, Glasgow East Regeneration Agency and the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership.

1.3.

The aims of the study as outlined in the project brief were for two key outputs: • •

1.4.

A Green Network Strategy for the Gartloch Gartcosh corridor. A Management Plan for the Bishop’s Estate and an adjacent area in North Lanarkshire, as identified in the Green Network Strategy.

The Green Network Strategy was required to: •

Provide a framework for the development of the Gartloch/Gartcosh component of the Green Network that can be used by the Green Network Partnership, Glasgow City Council and North Lanarkshire Council to: o inform preparation and support the implementation of the work of the Green Network Partnership, Local Plans, greenspace strategies and masterplans; and o develop the most appropriate approaches to land management.

Provide a framework for the development and long term management of the Green Network resource within Easterhouse that helps to deliver the regeneration objectives for the area;

Recommend how to maximise the social, economic and environmental benefits of the Green Network within the Gartloch/Gartcosh corridor, including: o maximising the value of the Green Network for local communities and promoting active use of the sites; o enhancing perceptions of the Greater Easterhouse area as a location for business and housing investment; o protecting and enhancing the biodiversity value of the Green Network and contributing to the development of effective ecosystems across Glasgow and the Clyde Valley; o providing guidance for planners and developers on the location and design of Green Network sites; o building an approach to management of the Network that is sustainable for the long term including, where appropriate, engagement with local residents and providing opportunities for volunteer activity, training and employment.

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The Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor 1.5.

The study area is approximately 2500 hectares and extends across the Glasgow / North Lanarkshire boundary from Hogganfield Park in the west to Drumpellier Country Park and Gartcosh in the east. Although neighboured to the north and south by the communities of Easterhouse and Stepps, the corridor retains an essentially rural character, with an interlinked network of lochs and wetlands creating an important, though largely unknown biodiversity resource. The corridor is subject to considerable change, with the regeneration of Easterhouse, the redevelopment of Gartloch Hospital, the expansion of existing communities and the future development of new Community Growth Areas, together with new or upgraded transport infrastructure.

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Figure 1.1: The study area comprises the open corridor of land between the A80 corridor in the north and the M8 corridor in the south, extending east to include Drumpellier Country Park.

1.6.

It is against this background that the strategy sets out an ambitious and long term vision for the creation of a Wetland Park with a Wetlands Centre at its heart. The initiative will deliver a range of significant benefits including: •

conservation and enhancement of the area’s wetland biodiversity;

creation of a nationally important recreation resource for central Scotland, attracting local people and visitors to the area;

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1.7.

delivery of a range of significant benefits for surrounding communities including training, employment and enterprise development initiatives, and the linked enhancement of greenspaces within communities;

support for residential and commercial investment and regeneration in the area, linked to a significant enhancement in the quality of development across the area.

The vision is backed by a series of more detailed objectives which are supported by guidance on implementation and a more detailed plan, setting out the key actions that are required to realise the ambition over the coming decades.

STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT 1.8.

The remaining sections of the report are as follows: •

Baseline and Context;

SWOT Analysis;

Lessons from Elsewhere;

Vision and Objectives;

Green Network Strategy;

Implementation Guidance;

Management Action Plan.

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BASELINE AND CONTEXT

Gartcosh Hospital Image courtesy of LUC

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2.

BASELINE AND CONTEXT

2.1. HISTORIC CONTEXT 2.1.1. The landscape of the Gartcosh Gartloch area is a postglacial plain dominated by a series of lochs and wetlands formed by ice compression and melting following the last ice age. It is likely that the lochs were the sites of early settlements as evidenced by the crannogs located in Lochend Loch and Bishop Loch. Later, settlements developed on hilltops after woodland clearance. They were defensible and welldrained sites within easy reach of water, wildfowl and fish supplies. The land would have become progressively more cultivated and the woodlands more depleted as populations grew and became less itinerant. 2.1.2. By the medieval period it is known that the wetlands zone directly to the north of Provan Hall was a prime hunting ground for wild birds, especially duck. It became known as the ‘Bishop’s hunting Grounds’ by the 14th/15th century. The local landscape combination of agriculture, woodland and wetland, coupled with its value for hunting determined that Provan Hall, now probably the most important historical building in the area, became the centre of a valuable territory under the Glasgow Bishop’s control. With the Reformation in the 16th century the estate of Provan Hall passed to private landlords. 2.1.3. By 1850 the central part of the study area was significantly affected by mining with a few large pits at Comedie/ Garthamlock/ Ruchazie. Farming and Wetland continued to characterise the area. Tree lines defined the boundaries of most fields and most of the Woodlands shown on the original OS maps still exist today. The Burnt Plantation next to Stepps was lost when James Buchanan & Co., the Glasgow whisky distillers built a blending and bottling complex in 1965 which operated until 1987. 2.1.4. Drumpellier Estate sat between Monkland Canal, Coatbridge and the Caledonian Railway like an island of preserved designed landscape. It dates back to 1161 when the original farming Grange was built by the monks of Newbattle Abbey. With the Reformation it went into private ownership and in the 1920s it was a favourite destination for weekend trips and in 1984 it was designated as a Country Park. 2.1.5. In 1863 Gartcosh Fireclay Works was established and by 1899 Glenboig and Stepps had grown significantly. Coatbridge had transformed from a rural landscape of small hamlets and farmhouses to a crowded industrial town. Woodneuk House, Frankfield House, Garthamlock House, Drumpellier House were still in place although they, along with a number of cottages across the site, have now been lost. 2.1.6. During the nineteenth century the land around Millerston/Hogganfield was divided between farming and industrial use. Hogganfield Farm comprised coal, limestone and fireclay mining, and ice manufacturing. The principal local industry was a bleachwork, situated just across the road from what became the entrance to Hogganfield Park. Local people used to extract ice from the loch until 1866. Two brick buildings, used as ice houses were created to the north-west of the loch. The Victorians and Edwardians made use of the loch for recreational purposes, especially for skating and curling in winter, but much of the shore was in private hands.

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2.1.7. In 1912 a Sub-Committee of Glasgow Corporation was appointed to consider the acquisition of ground at Hogganfield Loch and was able to acquire all the land it needed for the creation of a public park in 1924. Following this the depth of the loch was increased to allow boating and the island was created and path network laid out. The loch and its surrounding woodlands, marsh and grasslands were declared a Local Nature Reserve in 1998. 2.1.8. The historic significance of the area has been recognised through the creation of the Bishop’s Estate by Glasgow City Council. This followed the recognition of the site as a valuable natural and cultural heritage resource through wide ranging archaeological surveys and formal designations of the SSSI site at Bishop Loch.

2.2. GEOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY Solid Geology 2.2.1. The study area is wholly underlain by Westphalian coal measure, sedimentary rocks of the carboniferous period. These rocks extend in a broad band across the Central Belt between Glasgow in the west, Stonehouse in the south and Tillicoultry (the Ochil Fault) in the north. The coal measures have been extensively mined throughout this area since the 18th century. Mining has largely ceased but the legacy of this activity remains in the form of reclaimed colliery sites and spoil mounds e.g. at Cardowan and Gartcosh. 2.2.2. These sedimentary rocks have localised igneous intrusions in the form of basalt, dolerite and camptonite sills and dykes. A number of these have been quarried for hard roadstone, kerbs and setts. It has also been used occasionally for building stone as evidenced at Blackfaulds Farm and in boundary walls like those of Hogganfield Park. 2.2.3. Within the study area there are no active quarries but exposed rock faces can still be seen at the disused sites at Garthamlock and Drumcavel.

Drift Geology 2.2.4. The study area is part of the Midland Valley of Scotland and is generally low lying (mostly below 100m AOD) with gentle relief. The sedimentary rocks underlie a layer of glacial till, sands, gravels and silt. The higher areas are drumlins forming elongated hills and soft ridges with a broadly West-South-West to East-North-East orientation. The valleys and lower areas between the drumlin ridges comprise a mixture of sands, gravels, silt and clay as a result of glaciofluvial, alluvial or lacustrine deposits. 2.2.5. Made ground and reclaimed industrial land is present in a number of locations but the largest sites are to the west of Frankfield Loch; the Cardowan colliery area (south of Garnkirk); Gartcosh Steel Works; the Heatherbell area (south of Garnqueen) and localised area to the north of Baillieston interchange.

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2.3. HYDROLOGY 2.3.1. Watercourses, drainage ditches and lochs occupy these low lying areas. There are also significant areas of peat, the largest of which are at Baillie Moss; Cardowan Moss; Heathfield/Garnkirk; and Drumpellier (south of the Lochend loch). There are consequently extensive wetlands. There are seven sizeable ‘kettlehole’ lochs in the area; Hogganfield, Frankfield, Bishop, Johnston, Woodend, Lochend and Garnqueen lochs. In addition there are numerous unnamed lochans and seasonal water bodies/wetlands. 2.3.2. The drainage pattern is complex and somewhat confusing. River Clyde tributaries include the Luggie Burn, Bishop Burn, Gartsherrie Burn and Molendinar Burn which flow southwards while tributaries of the River Kelvin, Garnkirk Burn, Bothlin Burn and Cult Burn flow northwards from the study area. 2.3.3. The main hydrological flows and resultant wetland corridors are: •

Frankfield loch to Hogganfield loch ( south-west);

Cardowan Moss to ‘Gartloch’ to Bishop Loch to Bothlin Burn (eastwards then north);

Woodend Loch to Bothlin Burn (westwards then north);

Craigendmuir to Heathfield to Bothlin Burn (eastwards then north).

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Direction of water flow

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2.4. LANDCOVER 2.4.1. The Soil Survey of Scotland defines the farmland of the study area in three main categories of land capability: 3-2: Land capable of producing a moderate range of crops; 4-2: Land capable of producing a narrow range of crops; 5-2: Land capable of use as improved grassland. In reality the study area comprises productive and abandoned farmland, extensive wetland and moss areas, and a network of woodlands of different ages and composition. 2.4.2. The productive farmland comprises arable rotations, improved grassland and rough grazing with both sheep and cattle. There are significant areas where it appears that farming has been discontinued and fields left fallow to develop as grassland but without grazing or cropping for hay. Some of these areas have become overgrown with Willow herb. 2.4.3. Field boundaries, where they remain, are predominantly Hawthorn hedges and some boundaries are also defined by tree lines (mostly Ash but also Sycamore, Oak and Wych Elm), or woodland belts. 2.4.4. As described above there are reclaimed landscapes on the sites of former collieries and they are notable for the unnatural topography of the spoil mounds and their cover of young woodland. 2.4.5. The major parkland areas are at Hogganfield, Auchinlea and Blairtummock and at Drumpellier/Coatbridge where golf courses, sports pitches and amenity areas are present.

2.5. TREES AND WOODLANDS 2.5.1. The history of the study area determines that the older woodlands primarily relate to the policies of former country houses and their estates. The most significant of these are at: •

Drumpellier Country Park (former Drumpellier House);

Gartloch Hospital ( former Gartloch House);

Bedlay Castle;

Blairtummock House;

Provan Hall;

Crow Wood Golf Club;

Cardowan (former Cardowan House).

These are mature mixed woodlands which comprise both native and exotic trees, typically: Sycamore; Lime; Horse Chestnut; Beech; Oak; Ash; Wych Elm; Scots Pine; Larch; Firs; Birch; Rowan; and Willow. They form irregular belts of trees which

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enclose fields and frame developments. These are important visual boundaries in this relatively low and level landscape. 2.5.2. More recent woodlands relate to reclaimed areas of the urban fringe and to some of the wetter areas. Along the northern edges of the Glasgow conurbation (Easterhouse and Garthamlock) are mixed woodland blocks and belts. The largest of these is to the north of Garthamlock. Scrub woodland has colonised a number of the wetter moss areas. These are significant at Frankfield Loch, Heathfield Moss/Garnkirk to the north of Commonhead Road and south Robroyston. These woodlands are dominated by Birch and Willow. 2.5.3. Small tree groups, clumps and tree lines are also important features of the landscape which are under threat. Tree lines are principally of Ash but there are local variations including Lime, Oak, Wych Elm and Sycamore. Some distinctive groups of Oak (e.g. south of Gartloch Road) are also locally important (see Figures 2.2 and 2.3).

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2.6. NATURAL HERITAGE 2.6.1. The Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor is very rich in terms of its biodiversity and habitat value. The area contains two SSSIs at Bishop Loch and Woodend Loch. There are four Local Nature Reserves (LNRs) in the locality and another two proposed sites. Large portions of the area are designated as Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation (SINCs) either in the Glasgow or North Lanarkshire areas (see Figure 2.4). 2.6.2. The area supports a wide range of important habitats including, some of which have had habitat action plans developed at UKBAP level such as reed beds; fens; lowland raised bog; and wet woodlands. Others have had habitat plans developed through the Glasgow and North Lanarkshire LBAPS. These include: • • • • • • • • •

swamp; marsh; standing open water; broad-leaved and mixed woodland; dwarf scrub heath; acid grassland; neutral grassland; rivers and streams; traditional boundary features (hedgerows, ditches, walls and tree shelter belts).

2.6.3. The wide range of important habitats identified above support a variety of species, including birds, mammals, amphibians and invertebrates. Species which have action plans at UKBAP level include: • • • • • • • • •

reed bunting; song thrush; skylark; bullfinch; water vole; otter; brown hare; small pearl-bordered fritillary; great crested newt.

2.6.4. Other locally important species which have had action plans developed through the Glasgow and North Lanarkshire LBAPs include: • • • • • • • • •

palmate newt; common toad; common frog; dragonflies and damselflies collectively. bluebell; bog rosemary; tufted loosestrife; bog-mosses collectively; sheep’s bit.

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2.7. BUILT HERITAGE 2.7.1. The study area features a number of historic listed buildings. These include the following (see Figure 2.5): A grade listed buildings: a. Provan Hall, ca. 15th century; b. Blochairn House, remodeled in 1760; c. Bedlay Castle, eastern section 16th century, west end 17th century; d. Blairtummock House ca. 1721; e. Gartloch Hospital, ca. 1890 by Thomson & Sandiland, Victorian architectural masterpiece. B grade listed buildings: a. Bargeddie Parish Church 1876, Manse Road, Baillieston; b. Gartloch Cottages; c. Hogganfield Ice House; d. Easterhouse Colliery; e. Swinton. 2.7.2. In addition to the above, there are a number of traditional farm buildings and estate properties of character and visual prominence including: • • • • • •

Blackfaulds Farm: basalt and sandstone farmstead; cottages associated with Gartloch Hospital estate: West; Mid; Gartloch and Lochview Cottages: distinctive red sandstone cottages; Lochwood Farm and cottages; Heatheryknowe and Commonhead; Glaudhall Farm; Heathfield Farm.

2.7.3. Associated with the designed landscapes are the stone boundary walls and gateways. These are particularly prominent at Drumpellier adjacent to the A89, at Hogganfield along the B765 and A80 boundaries and at the historic gateways to Gartloch Hospital on the B806. Distinctive metal estate fencing is also present at Gartloch. 2.7.4. There are also a number of industrial and transport heritage structures of interest. These include: • • • •

the remaining section of the Monkland Canal and associated bridges, ramps and towpath; railway structures including the remains of disused mineral lines; reservoir structures in Hogganfield Park; the modern motorway structures in particular the Baillieston Interchange.

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2.8. LANDSCAPE CHARACTER AND VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS 2.8.1. Most of the area is today designated under the greenbelt policies of Glasgow and North Lanarkshire Councils. It has an undulating topography associated with fluvioglacial action which has created drumlins and eskers. The landscape is, therefore, comprised of rounded ridges and shallow basins. The latter are characterised by shallow lochs and wetlands which add reflective qualities and provide a range of wildlife habitats. In places, mature woodlands and tree belts form strong horizon features and create local spatial enclosure wherein the influence of urban areas is reduced. 2.8.2. The area retains its agricultural character despite the legacy of coal mining and associated industrial activities which have left areas of land reclamation. Farmland is mostly pastoral and in some areas it retains a strong structure of Hawthorn hedges and trees. Significant areas have, however, been abandoned or are under utilised, leaving them vulnerable to fly tipping, fires and anti-social behaviour. In such areas there has been a loss of hedgerows, fences and tree lines. In most parts of the study area the visual influence of the urban edge and of transport infrastructure is strong. 2.8.3. The ‘Glasgow and Clyde Valley Landscape Assessment’ (1998) classified this area as the ‘Fragmented Farmland’ landscape type and identified the following key issues: •

“the fragmentation and loss of former character leading to an incohesive landscape with little clear identity;

the role of these areas in providing a gateway to the Glasgow conurbation from the east;

a few surviving pockets of farmland which are under threat from surrounding land uses or which may no longer be viable and therefore lack effective landscape management;

continued and sustained development pressure on Greenfield and Greenbelt land with the risk of further urban coalescence and the potential loss of visual separation of settlements;

the decline of traditional forms of landscape management and a consequent deterioration and loss of tree cover;

both the need and in some significant cases the opportunity to bring about the enhancement or reclamation of derelict industrial sites;

the visual effects of past industrial activities and the importance of striking a balance between reclamation, enhancement and the conservation of features of greatest cultural heritage, landscape and ecological importance.”

2.8.4. Most of the above issues are still relevant today, although reclamation work and development have addressed some of the former sites of industrial dereliction. 2.8.5. In broad terms it is possible to define the study area as the following landscapes: •

productive farmland areas including:

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-

Glaudhall, Heathfield and Woodhead Farm, areas to the north;

-

Blackfaulds Farm area adjacent to Gartloch Road;

-

Lochwood Farm area, south east of Bishop Loch;

-

Gartcosh pLNR;

-

Commonhead/Netherhouse area south east of Easterhouse;

parklands/policy landscapes with recreational facilities and designed landscape: -

Drumpellier Country Park and adjacent playing fields;

-

Auchinlea Park;

-

Hogganfield;

-

Blairtummock;

unproductive and abandoned farmland and reclaimed land: -

north and west of Gartloch (former) Hospital;

-

former Cardowan Colliery area south of Garnkirk;

-

east of Gartcosh Station (development area);

open water and wetland corridors including: -

Gartloch to Bishop Loch to Bothlin Burn corridor;

-

Gartloch Pools;

-

Heathfield Moss and Johnston Loch to Bothlin Burn;

-

Woodend Loch to Bothlin Burn;

-

Lochend Loch/Drumpellier to Commonhead;

-

Frankfield Moss and Loch to Hogganfield Loch;

Gartloch Hospital: a singular type of landscape combining landmark architecture within an historic policy woodland framework;

urban greenspaces: mostly dispersed and of small to medium scale but key greenspace corridors at: -

Craigend;

-

Easterhouse to West Maryston;

-

Provan Hall/Auchinlea Park;

-

Monkland Canal corridor from Drumpellier to Coatbridge centre;

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-

Luggie Burn corridor from Drumpellier and Langloan to Bargeddie.

2.8.6. The above framework is utilised as the basis for developing management actions in Chapter 5. 2.8.7. Key views into the study area can be gained from the elevated urban areas which occupy drumlin ridges to the north and south. These urban vantage points include parts of Easterhouse, Garthamlock, Stepps, Craigendmuir, Muirhead, Mount Ellen and the western extension of Gartcosh. At the eastern end of the study area the high ground of Coatbridge also allows views over Drumpellier Country Park (e.g. from Townhead and Blairhill). 2.8.8. Parts of the M73, the M80 (Stepps bypass) and the Stepps to Coatbridge railway line also provide elevated views over the area from main transport routes. The minor roads at Drumcavel, Lochwood, Muirhead and the western section of Gartloch Road run along drumlin ridges and these provide particularly fine panoramas. 2.8.9. The drumlin ridges form the main visual boundaries but horizons are also defined or reinforced by woodlands. Particularly strong woodland horizons are at Baillie Moss Wood, the woodlands of Gartloch Hospital, the linear woodlands to the north of Gartloch Hospital, the woodlands of Drumpellier, Hogganfield, Bedlay, south of Drumcavel Quarry and Crow Wood Golf Club. 2.8.10. Intervisibility has generally increased with the loss of hedgerows and trees in the farmland. The restoration of such features would create more enclosure and intimacy in the landscape. Conversely, the continued loss of trees and woodland would reduce the visual interest and create greater exposure.

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2.9. TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE Road Network 2.9.1. The M73, M8 and M80/A80 form a triangular road network which encloses a large part of the Gartloch Gartcosh area. These roads provide excellent road access to the area generally but they also form significant barriers to access across the area. In particular the M8 and M73 isolate the community of Easterhouse from north eastern Glasgow and Drumpellier Country Park. 2.9.2. The B806 Gartloch Road is the main east/west route through the area, providing access to the new housing developments at the Gartcosh Hospital site. This road will be realigned to improve sightlines and improve the flow of traffic to and from the new homes. The redevelopment of the road will include the installation of an off road cycle route along its length. 2.9.3.

The other major road development which will have significant impact on the area is the Easterhouse Regeneration Route. This new road will create a north/south route between Easterhouse and Cardowan. This has potentially significant implications both for the flow of traffic through the area and for pedestrian access.

Rail Network 2.9.4. The wider area around the Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor is well served by the rail network, particularly to the south of the area. There are only three railway stations within the site, at Stepps, Gartcosh and Easterhouse. The stations at Blairhill and Kirkwood (Coatbridge) provide the closest link to Drumpellier Country Park 2.9.5. The majority of the stations located on the line to the south of the site are close geographically to the area, but are disconnected by the barrier created by the M8 motorway. 2.9.6. The area may in the future benefit from the planned development of a new rail station at Millerston.

Bus Network 2.9.7. The main settlements in and around the area are well connected by the bus network, as are Glasgow Fort, Easterhouse Town Centre and Gartcosh Station. Generally the bus services focus on providing access into the centre of Glasgow, but they do provide public transport links between different parts of the Gartcosh Gartloch corridor.

Access 2.9.8. The accessibility around the Gartcosh Gartloch corridor and the Bishop’s Estate for non-motorised access varies significantly. Some areas have formalised access networks (Hogganfield, Drumpellier, Gartcosh Nature Reserve) whilst others have less formal but equally important access networks (around Frankfield Loch). There are important access networks located in Cardowan Wood, Todds Well and Craigend Wood, each located close to the urban fringe and significant populations.

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2.9.9. Various audits and studies have been conducted to look at the access network in the area including the Kelvin Clyde Greenspace audit of the Greater Easterhouse Area (2007) and the North Lanarkshire Core Path Network Consultation (2007). A wide range of other information relating to the access network in the area is available from other sources such as the Forestry Commission Scotland and Glasgow City Council. This information has been compiled to build a picture of the current access network in the area. 2.9.10. In general the access network serves the locations close to the built up areas, forming locally important routes and loops. There are relatively few access routes which cross the corridor in either north/south or east/west directions. However, the realignment of the Gartloch Road will provide a new walking/cycle route through the centre of the area. The cycle route from Glenboig to Gartcosh railway station will grow in importance as the CGA develops and the population of the area increases.

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2.10. COMMUNITY 2.10.1. The following series of maps provide information on the demographic and social context of the Gartcosh Gartloch corridor. The information displayed is taken from the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) 2006. 2.10.2. The SIMD was published by the Office of the Chief Statistician in 2006. It divides Scotland up into 6,505 small geographical areas (called 'data zones'), with a median population size of 769. These are ranked from 1 (most deprived) to 6505 (least deprived) using 37 indicators of deprivation across seven categories or domains: current income, employment, health, education, geographic access to services, housing and crime.

Population Distribution 2.10.3. Figure 2.8 shows the distribution of population in the Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor. Unsurprisingly the highest concentrations of population are located in the settlements and urban areas across the corridor. The population data is based on 2004 figures (the most up to date currently available) so it does not fully reflect the new populations that are present in locations such as Gartcosh Hospital.

Employment 2.10.4. Figure 2.9 shows the Employment Domain ranking component of the SIMD. The darker shaded areas are those which have higher proportions of population that are unemployed. It shows that there are considerable populations with high unemployment across the area, particularly in locations such as Easterhouse.

Health 2.10.5. The SIMD health indicators for the area show that there is high proportion of the population with poor health. Figure 2.10 shows a similar pattern to Figure 2.9 (Employment) with darker, and therefore lower ranked, areas located around the urban fringes of Glasgow.

Transportation 2.10.6. In general, the Greater Glasgow area scores poorly on each of the SIMD indicators. However, it scores well on the Transport element of the index because the majority of the population live within close distances of services and are well served by a large public transport service. Figure 2.11 shows that the lighter coloured urban areas are generally ranked better than the darker rural areas within the corridor. However, there is a relatively low level of car ownership in the area which increases both the dependence on and importance of public transport and safe pedestrian access links.

SIMD 2.10.7. The combined SIMD for the area shows that there is a generally high proportion of the population who are at risk from social deprivation. The areas shown as darker show where the populations most at risk are located. As would be expected, this has a close correlation with the Figures showing the employment and health data. The combined SIMD map is shown in Figure 2.12.

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Social Context 2.10.8.

The SIMD demonstrates that there are a range of communities with socioeconomic disadvantages in the Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor. Work recently conducted by Glasgow City Council provides information on the social makeup of the communities that suffer these disadvantages.

2.10.9.

The Easterhouse area has a high demand from single adult households with single person and lone parent households being the dominant type in the social rented sector. A study conducted in 2006 showed that 44% of households in Easterhouse are let to households with children compared to an average of 17% across Glasgow1. It is not a favoured area by new applicants and 41% of GHA applicants resident in Easterhouse want to move out.

2.10.10. This study demonstrates the difficulties currently faced by GHA and its partners in developing a cohesive community in the Easterhouse area, and the potential for developments such as the Gartcosh Gartloch Green Network to contribute to place making and a sustainable community. Local Communities 2.10.11. Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor contains, and is bordered by a wide range of communities. These range from the 1960s and 1970s ‘schemes’ which contain relatively socially excluded populations in Easterhouse and Townhead to the small communities at Gartcosh and Glenboig to the modern and affluent population at Gartloch Hospital. On the northern edge of the site, the settlements of Stepps and Muirhead both score better on the SIMD ranking than most of the other communities in the area. 2.10.12. The way in which these communities interact with their local Green Network is difficult to quantify. However it is possible to make some qualitative judgements about current use from work carried out in the area and the consultation undertaken as part of this project. 2.10.13. The more formal elements of the Green Network, including Hogganfield, Auchinlea, Blairtummock and Drumpellier Country Park are well used and are considered valuable resources by local communities. The woodland areas managed by FCS bordering settlements are popular and tend to be used by populations directly connected with them. This territoriality may be one of the reasons why they do not tend to suffer from vandalism to any great extent. 2.10.14. A range of desire lines cross various parts of the corridor away from the built up areas. These are important links/resources but are generally less well used than the more formalised elements of the Green Network closer to the population centres.

1

https://www.glasgow.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/E9FAF2C6-BDAC-4FF2-8900199841FBB9AD/0/LMSCommitteeReportJan07.pdf

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Local Initiatives 2.10.15. There is a wide range of organisations working towards reducing social exclusion and improving quality of life for residents in the Gartcosh Gartloch area. Significant investment in the infrastructure in and around Easterhouse continues to be made by both the public and private sectors. This has had a significant impact on reducing the levels of unemployment in the area, particularly since the opening of the Glasgow Fort. The full effect of this investment is likely to take a number of years to materialise but it should help to stabilise populations and reduce levels of social exclusion. 2.10.16. There are however some more structural issues relating to the population which are being tackled by organisations such as the Glasgow East Regeneration Agency (GERA), and which have particular relevance to the development and management of the Green Network. 2.10.17. GERA runs a range of projects which are designed to help reduce the impact of long term unemployment in the area whist at the same time promoting social enterprise and the sustainable, local development of the area. One of the keys to this approach has been the establishment of an Environmental Contracts Team which provides training and employment opportunities for local people. The team are employed through tendering for local maintenance contracts, and include the Glasgow Fort grounds maintenance contract in their portfolio. The project also acts to clean up local spaces, a scheme which has so far been highly successful because of the ‘local ownership’ over projects which locals provide. The development of the Gartcosh Gartloch Green Network will provide particular opportunities for the Environment Team to build on their existing work and develop future schemes and initiatives that can benefit the local environment and communities. 2.10.18. The second strand of GERA’s work which is of relevance to the Green Network is the organisation’s Environment Team. The Environment Team has an educational focus and has developed strong connections with local schools and youth groups. One of the focuses of the project is to promote environmental education and work with local children on school/local environment improvement projects. The success of the project is closely linked to the ownership of sites which young people have taken, in most cases this has shown improvements being maintained once undertaken.

2.11.

POLICY CONTEXT

2.11.1.

The development of the Green Network Strategy for the Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor is strongly supported at national, regional and local levels of the Scottish Policy framework.

2.11.2.

At the National level, SPP11: Physical Activity and Open Space identifies the importance of greenspace for community and individual health. A wide range of other national policies support the principals behind the Green Network including health, sustainable transport and enterprise development.

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2.11.3.

At the regional level, the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Structure Plan sets the goal of creating a ‘Green Network’ as one of its key objectives. As a result of setting this goal, the GCV Green Network Partnership was formed to bring together each local authority in the Structure Plan area and a wide range of other partners to help deliver the vision.

2.11.4.

At the local level, both Glasgow City Council and North Lanarkshire Council local plans identify the importance of the Green Network, greenspace and the greenbelt as important elements of their areas that can provide a better quality of life for local people and attract visitors, investment and natural heritage benefits. These documents are well supported by a wide range of other plans, policies and strategies for both local authorities.

2.11.5.

Full analysis of the National, Regional and Local Policy context for the area can be found in Appendix 1.

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SWOT 2.11.6. This section draws together information from Section 2 to provide a distillation of the area’s key strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. GEOLOGY, GEOMORPHOLOGY & HYDROLOGY Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

Carboniferous geology supported coal industry; post glacial landscape of moraines and wetlands supports interesting mix of productive agricultural and wetland habitats.

Gentle post glacial landscape lacks distinction and drama. Coal mining reclamation schemes are unsympathetic.

To interpret the local geology and geomorphology as part of an holistic interpretation of the area within the Wetland Centre. Development potential.

Development which fails to accommodate and relate to the gently undulating terrain, e.g. severance of land form to create development platforms. Potential for pollution of watercourses from expanding urban areas and agriculture.

AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

Integrity of agriculture across a large proportion of the study area and proximity of productive agricultural landscapes to urban fringe.

Abandoned and under-used farmland leading to environmental degradation. Evident loss of characteristic features such as tree lines, hedgerows compromising integrity of the landscapes.

Several opportunities to conserve and restore elements of the farm landscapes including hedgerows, tree lines, estate fences, farm woodlands and wetlands.

Continued neglect leading to vandalism, fly tipping and burning. Incremental loss of farmland through development.

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Development over spilling into currently un-urbanised landscape units.


TREES & WOODLANDS Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

Diversity of age and species mix of woodlands within the study areas providing biodiversity and visual interest. Spatial definition/ shelter and screening effects of established woodlands.

Woodlands are fragmented and many lack positive management. Tree lines are now incomplete. Dutch Elm Disease has been responsible for many gaps.

Opportunities to improve condition and extend longevity of woodlands through positive management. Local opportunities to extend and link woodlands and tree belts for nature conservation, visual and spatial definition, including screening of unsympathetic new developments.

Damage or loss of woodlands from vandalism (fire raising), lack of maintenance or from development clearance, continued losses from Dutch Elm Disease.

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

Interconnected range of wetland and woodland habitats including open water, reed beds, wet grasslands, mosses and wet woodlands. SSSIs, Local Nature Reserves and extensive areas designated as Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation.

Lack of integrated management and protection; lack of awareness, promotion, or education provision due in part to limited accessibility. Man-made alterations to the drainage patterns of the area.

Major opportunities for creation of a regional Wetland Park incorporating access, education and recreation provision and providing mechanisms for integrated land management across the ‘Park’ and beyond. With immediate access from urban communities in (east) Glasgow and North Lanarkshire there are significant opportunities for education, training and health. Re-naturalisation of the drainage system.

Land ownership patterns may be a constraint to achieving connections and achieving integrated management. New developments and/or agricultural practices may affect drainage patterns or water quality with negative impacts on wetland habitats. Vandalism and antisocial behaviour may damage future Wetland Centre/Park developments or deter visitors to the area.

NATURE CONSERVATION

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ACCESS Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

Proximity to communities in Glasgow and North Lanarkshire places the Wetland Park within easy reach by private and public transport, by cycle and by foot. The area already has an extensive network of tracks and footpaths through the agricultural and former coal mining areas.

The pedestrian access network is fragmented with relatively few through routes (north-south or east-west). The wetland areas are generally not suitable for public access and access through farmland may have impacts on farming operations/security, etc. The M73 creates severance between Drumpellier Country Park and the remainder of the study area (Bishop’s Estate). The railway line creates severance in the north of the study area.

There are many opportunities (and needs) to improve public access linkages through the area and to create circuits from the main urban areas. The presence of railway stations at Stepps and Gartcosh provides specific opportunities for access to the public transport network and providing cyclist shuttles. The B806 provides a convenient road link through the heart of the study area which could serve any new Wetland Centre development.

Road improvements to the B806 could result in the loss of characteristic features along the roadside (e.g. hedgerows, tree lines, gates and walls) thereby compromising its rural character. The development of a more extensive public access network may have negative impacts on wildlife and sensitive habitats unless carefully planned to mitigate such impacts. New build development may reduce the area of countryside available and increase its distance from many existing populations.

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GREENSPACE Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

The study area is framed by two major greenspace areas: Hogganfield Park in the west and Drumpellier Country Park in the east. These provide a range of recreational facilities in addition to nature conservation and education provision. Auchinlea Park including Provan Hall is also part of the area.

Within the urban areas a large proportion of the greenspace is maintained for visual amenity and has limited value for recreation or nature conservation. There are relatively few greenspace links within the rural areas of the Greenbelt. The golf courses have imposed high amenity, artificial layouts into historic parklands.

There are opportunities to improve access recreation provision and biodiversity in a number of greenspaces, especially those which are larger and unfragmented, e.g. at Craigend and Easterhouse. The Golf Course landscapes could be more sensitively designed to fit within the historic parklands. This could include biodiversity enhancements. Opportunities also exist for extending wildlife corridors into the urban areas.

Development may limit opportunities to create greenspace linkages or may reduce the scale of greenspaces thereby limiting their uses. New build development may reduce the area of countryside available and increase its distance from many existing populations.

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HISTORIC CONTEXT Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

Legacy of original estates and farms still legible, mining history/industrial heritage worthy of interpretation.

Relatively little interest in local history.

To protect/ conservation of remaining historical artefacts/landscape features, interpret and promote the area’s history positively.

Incremental loss of historic landscape features through development or lack of maintenance.

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

The study area contains some distinctive architecture, particularly the former Gartloch Hospital, Bedlay Castle and Provan Hall, Blairtummock House, but also a number of farm buildings and estate cottages built of local stone and imported red sandstone. In addition, there are built elements of estate landscapes such as stone gateways, state fencing and industrial structures of heritage interest. The former mining communities also have social heritage interest despite their lack of architectural high merit.

The architectural quality of much of the urban fringe housing is mediocre or poor and relates badly to the rural landscape against which it abuts. Some recent housing developments have imported standardised suburban styles to the area and also relate poorly to the landscape in terms of layout, spatial qualities, scale, materials and colours.

Future redevelopments and refurbishment programmes for existing housing areas may be able to improve the quality of the housing stock and address its relationship to the countryside and greenspace network. New developments could be significantly improved if design briefs are used to determine how they should relate to the local landscape and built heritage characteristics.

The potential abandonment of farms may lead to the ruin of historic farmsteadings. Conversely, unsympathetic alterations to traditional buildings could negatively affect landscape character. Progressive development of urban fringe sites could negatively impact on the integrity and visual quality of the countryside including wetlands.

Proximity to Provan Hall. BUILT HERITAGE

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LANDSCAPE CHARACTER & VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

The countryside landscape of the study area retains the integrity of its rural character and contains areas of gentle scenic quality wherein the undulations of the drumlins, field patterns, farm woodlands and wetlands combine in a harmonious manner. Drumlin ridges and mature woodlands create visual boundaries and subdivide the area into discreet basins.

Degraded areas of farmland have lost characteristic features such as hedgerows and tree lines which has reduced spatial enclosure and visual interest. Abandoned fields have in places become colonised by invasive plants and project a negative image. Certain urban fringe developments are obtrusive and unsympathetic to their rural context.

There are compatible opportunities for landscape character conservation in productive farmland areas and the creation of new landscape characteristics in degraded/abandoned areas. The latter could serve to achieve biodiversity, access, recreation and educational objectives whilst improving the visual character and spatial integrity of the landscape.

The continued loss of field hedgerows, tree lines and woodlands through lack of management would be detrimental to the character of the area. The loss of these features would also increase intervisibility and the influence of urban developments on the countryside. New development on the urban fringe could also negatively impact on scenic qualities unless well integrated and designed appropriately for their rural interface.

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

Well defined local communities. Creation of new neighbourhoods and Community Growth Areas helping to diversify local area. Wide range of community regeneration projects, including volunteering, training and community enterprise initiatives. Proximity to open countryside and wetland sites.

Within existing communities high levels of multiple deprivation with long term unemployment, low skills, low incomes and poor health.

Opportunity to use environmental projects including the potential for a regional wetlands resource to broaden existing social regeneration projects, with an emphasis on creating paths to employment.

Failure to realise the social opportunities associated with environmental projects. Growing contrast between existing communities and residents of new developments.

COMMUNITY

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LESSONS FROM ELSEWHERE

Hogganfield Loch Image courtesy of LUC

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3.

LESSONS FROM ELSEWHERE

3.1.

The close proximity to an urban area and significant natural heritage of the Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor make it a unique resource in Scotland. This section of the report examines where lessons can be learned from other areas with similar wetland resources across the UK and Europe.

3.2.

A short literature review confirmed that there are a number of examples of wetland based regional parks and wetland centres across the UK. Many projects have a clear emphasis on conservation and education, and a number of the more recent projects are linked to environmental or economic regeneration. Few, however, are linked to social initiatives such as training, enterprise development and community regeneration.

Regional Park Models 3.3.

Wetland based regional parks, where nature conservation and interpretation are combined with informal and formal recreation provision, have proved to be successful in a number of sites across England. One of the best examples is the Lee Valley Regional Park created in the mid 1960s and stretching some 40km along the River Lee in Hertfordshire, Essex and Greater London. The Park Authority was established to regenerate the valley to create a ‘green wedge’ extending from the open countryside into the inner parts of east London. It is an independent statutory authority established by an Act of Parliament and funded through council taxes. Its 10,000 acres comprise farmland, greenspaces, heritage sites, country parks, nature reserves, lake and riverside trails, sports and recreation centres. There is an extensive education programme focused on neighbouring communities.

3.4.

Other, wetland based regional parks include the Colne Valley to the west of London. New wetland regional park initiatives include the Weaver Valley Regional Park in Cheshire and the River Nene Regional Park in Northamptonshire.

3.5.

There have been discussions regarding the creation of a Ribble Estuary Regional Park in Lancashire linking wetland ornithological sites with environmental and economic regeneration as a joint venture involving RSPB, the Environment Agency and English Nature (now Natural England), with the involvement of the North West Regional Development Agency and the county and district councils. The project has the been the subject of a feasibility study and is being taken forward by two working groups – the Ribble Estuary Regional Park Steering Group and the Ribble Estuary Regional Park Marketing Group comprising a mixture of public sector organisations and NGOs.

3.6.

The Cotswold Water Park in Wiltshire and Gloucestershire and Kingsbury Water Park in Warwickshire provide examples of another type of park, created where decades of gravel extraction have resulted in the creation of many lakes and where nature conservation is combined with ‘country park’ and more active forms of recreation. Cotswold Water Park comprises 140 lakes, totalling 40 square miles and including 10 SSSIs, 74 fishing lakes and 150 km of paths and trails.

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Wetland Centre Models 3.7.

Recent decades have seen the development of a network of wetland centres across the world. The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust have been in the forefront of the initiative, following on from the creation of the first centre at Slimbridge by Sir Peter Scott. Sites vary in size from around 25 hectares (Arundel) to 325 hectares (Slimbridge) and typically include: • • • • • • • • • •

areas of open water of different sizes; reedbeds; meadows and wet woodlands; trails and boardwalks; hides and other viewing facilities including observation towers; visitor centres (often including interpretative facilities, catering, retailing, administrative and educational provision); play and picnic areas; wildfowl enclosures; examples of sustainable buildings and sustainable land management; events such as guided walks, electric boat visits, educational programmes.

3.8.

Several of the WWT wetland centres include areas designated as SSSI, SPA or Ramsar sites (Slimbridge, Martin Mere, London). Detailed information on project costs is not available, though it is known that the London Wetlands Centre (located on the site of a former reservoir) cost £12million in total, was developed in partnership with Thames Water and was part funded by residential development in part of the site.

3.9.

RSPB also has a number of reserves focusing on wetlands, though these tend to place a greater emphasis on wildlife watching and provide less extensive visitor and interpretation facilities. Examples include Old Moor which is one of the RSPB’s reserves in the Dearne Valley near Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham and Sheffield in South Yorkshire. The reserve comprises open water, marsh, reedbeds and grassland. Facilities include a play area, explorer packs for children, shop and café. Events included guided walks, pond dipping and bug hunts. RSPB wetland sites in central Scotland include Baron’s Haugh in the Clyde Valley near Motherwell (limited facilities comprising hides and trails) and Lochwinnoch in the Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park (visitor centre, observation tower, shop, trails and education programme). Vane Farm, on the shores of Loch Leven has a similar range of facilities.

3.10.

Wetland Link International has produced an ‘introductory manual’ for the creation of wetland centres. It sets out the principles and objectives of wetland projects and outlines the key steps in project inception, feasibility testing, masterplanning, development and operation.

3.11.

Further analysis of international Wetland Centre sites is provided in Appendix 2.

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OPTIONS FOR DELIVERY 3.12.

The successful management and enhancement of large, cross boundary sites requires partnership working and co-operation between a wide range of stakeholders, both in the public and private sectors.

3.13.

This section of the report examines the potential options for designating the Gartcosh Gartloch area in a more formal way. The choice of designation is likely to influence the extent of the area covered by the initiative and may affect the way in which it is managed and funded. Options may include: • • • • • •

3.14.

Local Nature Reserve; Regional Nature Reserve; National Nature Reserve; Country Park; Regional Park; and Wetlands Centre.

Each of these options is considered in turn below: •

Local Nature Reserves can be established under the terms of the National Park and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 which defined their purpose as providing opportunities for studying flora and fauna and/or their conservation. With the development of the system of SSSIs, the emphasis has shifted towards LNRs’ educational and community roles and away from the previous emphasis on protection. It is not unprecedented for LNRs to encompass or overlap SSSIs (as would be the case in the Gartloch/Gartcosh area). This option would extend the LNR designation across an extensive area and would incorporate a number of existing or proposed sites. Most Scottish LNRs are relatively small in size (75% being less than 70 ha). Larger LNRs tend to be made up of intertidal zones. A large LNR, potentially extending across council boundaries, could create particular challenges in terms of effective community involvement (one of the objectives of LNR designation) and would be unlikely to help raise the profile of the area at a regional or national scale. It is therefore suggested that due to the size of the area in question, and the profile of the designation, LNR status may not provide the most effective vehicle for carrying the project forward.

Regional Nature Reserves do not exist in the UK though the designation is used elsewhere in Europe including France and Italy. Without the necessary legislation, this designation would be titular in nature and would carry no weight in terms of management powers or funding. It is therefore suggested that RNR would not provide a viable vehicle for the project.

National Nature Reserves provide protection for the best of Scotland’s wildlife. SNH’s policy requires that NNRs should achieve at least one of three key purposes: o to provide opportunities for everyone to visit and enjoy the best of Scotland’s nature; o to allow specialised management for wildlife which depends on it;

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o to offer opportunities for long-term research into management for nature and demonstrate good practice to others. This suggests that there is potential for the area to meet the requirements for designation given appropriate management, public access and interpretation, though it is unlikely that the entirety of the area (including more intensively managed recreation areas) would qualify. The whole area is unlikely to qualify for designation at present because: 1. Only the two SSSIs are recognised as being of national importance for nature conservation. 2. The area does not have complete security of tenure. 3. The area does not have full primacy of nature conservation in land management (outwith the SSSIs). It is therefore suggested that NNR status should be considered as a medium term aspiration for a significant part of the area, but it is unlikely to provide the most effective vehicle to carry the initiative forward in its early stages. •

Country Parks are defined by SNH as attractive venues for informal outdoor recreation, most of which lie close to Scotland’s larger towns and cities. These Parks are very diverse in character. Country Parks have been established in a range of settings including historic estates, farms, woodland, lochs or coastal areas. Country Parks are of particular importance in providing welcoming provision for people of varying levels of ability. Through their ranger services, they also offer environmental education initiatives which cater for a wide range of interests. There are 36 Country Parks in Scotland. Drumpellier has already been designated a Country Park. It is suggested that Country Park status would be inappropriate as the principal vehicle for this initiative since the main focus for the area should be wetland biodiversity, and it is likely that some parts of the area will remain in agricultural use rather than being made available for recreation. Additionally, it is unlikely that Country Park status on its own would be sufficient to raise the profile of the project.

Regional Parks are defined by SNH as large areas of attractive countryside which lie close to Scotland’s larger towns and cities, and which are therefore popular for outdoor recreation. By their nature, these Parks often include landscapes which are considered to be of regional importance, and can also provide important havens for wildlife. Regional Parks are designated and managed by local authorities, with support from SNH. The Parks have been created in order to provide co-coordinated management for recreation alongside other land uses such as farming and forestry. There are currently three Regional Parks in Scotland and two of these extend into more than one council area. It is suggested that the Regional Park model could provide a means of promoting integrated management of the area, though on its own would not necessarily provide the focus or profile required to raise the profile of the project.

Wetland Centres have been created across the UK and elsewhere in the world (see boxed text). While not a designation, the centres combine positive wetland conservation and enhancement with active programmes of formal and informal education and interpretation. Wetland centres form part of an international

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network and achieve a relatively high visitor profile. In the UK some of the best known sites include Slimbridge, Martin Mere and the London Wetland Centre. Most wetland centres are of comparatively modest size when compared to the existing Bishop’s Estate, or the wider area considered by this study (in the UK they range in size from 26 to 325 hectares) and are under the control of a single organisation (such as WWT or RSPB). It is therefore suggested that the Wetland Centre model could provide a means of managing and promoting the wetland core of the area, but would not provide an appropriate vehicle for the initiative as a whole.

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VISION AND OBJECTIVES

Gartcosh and Bishop’s Loch

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Image courtesy of Patricia & Angus MacDonald/Aerographica


4.

VISION AND OBJECTIVES

4.1.

This section sets out a strategic vision for the Gartloch Gartcosh Green Network and a series of more detailed objectives. These provide the structure for the strategy which is described in Section 5.

VISION The development of the Gartcosh Gartloch Green Network to create a nationally important wetlands park with a wider network of recreation sites bringing significant environmental, community and economic benefits to the Gartloch Gartcosh corridor, Glasgow, North Lanarkshire and the wider Clyde Valley. OBJECTIVES 1. Establish a project partnership to guide development and implementation of the initiative. 2. Conserve and significantly enhance the area’s biodiversity interest with a specific emphasis on enhancing its wetland ornithological value. 3. Secure a wider range of landscape and environmental enhancements. 4. Raise awareness of the area’s biodiversity assets, its wider natural and cultural heritage and its range of recreation opportunities. 5. Encourage access to the area and understanding and enjoyment of its natural and cultural heritage. 6. Secure benefits for existing communities by encouraging involvement and creating pathways through volunteering, training, social enterprise and local business development. 7. Ensure the new development in and around the corridor contributes to, and benefits from, the area’s natural and cultural heritage.

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GREEN NETWORK STRATEGY

Lethamhill Golf Course Image courtesy of LUC

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5.

GREEN NETWORK STRATEGY

5.1.

This part of the document sets out the detail of the Green Network Strategy for the Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor, structured in terms of the objectives defined under the overall vision set out in Section 4.

Strategic Objective 1: Establish a project partnership to guide development and implementation of the initiative, identify the most appropriate ‘designation vehicle’ for the initiative and define its physical extent.

Partnership 5.2.

Achieving the Green Network Vision for the Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor will be an organisational challenge and will require a strong partnership between councils, public agencies, non-governmental organisations, communities and private interests. Create a Project Steering Group

5.3.

It is recommended that a project steering group is formalised at an early stage and that specific sub-groups are established to plan and deliver key components of the project. The partnership should include representatives of: •

Glasgow City Council and North Lanarkshire Council;

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership;

Communities Scotland, Forestry Commission Scotland, Scottish Natural Heritage, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Enterprise Glasgow and Scottish Enterprise Lanarkshire and Glasgow East Regeneration Agency;

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Scottish Wildlife Trust, British Trust for Conservation Volunteers, Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust;

Community Councils;

Land managers and development interests.

Create the Wetland Park 5.4.

The review of best practice and potential designation vehicles showed that in the absence of a regional tier in the hierarchy of nature reserves, the most appropriate ‘designation’ model for the initiative may be a new Wetland Regional Park. This would help achieve integrated management for biodiversity, recreation, land management, training and economic development across a wide area, whilst providing a specific focus for education and interpretation in a way that would help place the area on the national map. The Regional Park model would allow the establishment of a management board. It is suggested that the area’s title would not necessarily need to include the term Regional Park, but could perhaps use a term such as Wetland Park. It is anticipated that the Wetland Park would be established in the short to medium term.

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5.5.

The key factors that have been used to identify the potential extent of a Wetland Park include: •

the extent of wetland nature conservation designations;

the presence of associated informal or semi-formal recreation areas;

the presence of abandoned or underused agricultural land;

the need for the project area to be contiguous and to avoid significant fragmentation by settlements or major development areas, partly reflecting the importance of creating an identifiable and recognisable area;

the value of providing a buffer around the most sensitive wetland areas;

the importance of avoiding areas with little ecological or recreational interest or potential, particularly where designation could act as a further burden on land managers.

5.6.

On this basis, it is possible to identify a core area for designation as a Wetland Park. It runs from Drumpellier Country Park in the east to Hogganfield Park in the west. Its southern edge is defined by the edge of Easterhouse, the M8 and the Monklands Canal. Its northern and north eastern edge would extend the Park northwards to the A80 corridor between Muirhead and Mollinsburn and east as far as the edges of Marnoch, Glenboig and Gartsherrie. This would have the benefit of including the proposed LNR at Gartcosh and Garnqueen Loch, but would also include the Gartcosh Business Interchange site, a number of former mineral sites and railway land. It would offer the opportunity to influence the quality of development in the major development that is likely to be brought forward in the Gartcosh / Glenboig area. The early stage of planning of this Community Growth Area does present some difficulties in defining the eastward extent of the project area.

5.7.

While the area may not currently meet requirements for the designation of a Ramsar site under the terms of the Convention of Wetlands of International Importance held in Iran in 1971, there may be considerable merit in adopting the mission of the convention, which is ‘the convention and wise use of wetlands by national action and international cooperation as a means to achieving sustainable development throughout the world’.

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Project area

5.8.

The former option would be well defined by the formal recreation areas at east and west ends, and by the physical and contiguous extent of wetland habitats. The latter option would include areas which do not currently have such a strong wetland ecology (though some areas have potential for habitat creation) and includes areas of more active agricultural management. Creation of a more extensive Wetland Park could, however, contribute to the environmental regeneration of areas to the east of the A752 north of Woodend Loch, and could support the future development at Glenboig. Work with the Wider Community

5.9.

In contrast to some of the other wetland projects reviewed during the course of the research, the Gartloch/Gartcosh project has an explicit community and local economic agenda. It is therefore essential that the initiative does not stop at the boundary of the Wetland Park, but extends into surrounding communities. Key priorities within this wider area include: • • •

facilitating and encouraging use, appreciation and ‘ownership’ of the Wetland Park; creating and supporting new and expanded training, employment and local enterprise development projects to bring real economic benefits for existing communities neighbouring the area; improving greenspaces within communities, replacing existing areas of amenity grassland with ecological corridors, community gardens and recreation areas, with the aim of blurring the distinction between urban and rural areas;

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ensuring that new developments contribute to the wider initiative by the creation of high quality and appropriate greenspaces within developments and the coordinated development of SUDS which contribute to wetlands within the Wetland Park.

Develop a Wetland Centre 5.10.

In the long term, there may be scope to develop a ‘Wetland Centre’ at the heart of the Wetland Park. The Wetland Centre may not have any single building as its focal point but could be a more intensively managed area dedicated to improving natural heritage value.

5.11.

Any proposals for a new built centre would require feasibility studies and comprehensive business planning to evaluate its viability. The desire for the development of any new facility would require strong community and user support and should grow from the increased use and exposure which the designation of the area as a Wetland Park and Wetland Centre would bring.

5.12.

It is proposed that a Wetlands Centre area would provide a visitor, interpretative and educational focus within the wider Wetland Park. Options for this element of the project include:

5.13.

expansion or remodelling of an existing visitor centre at Hogganfield, Drumpellier or Provanhall;

creation of a number of smaller centres across the Wetland Park;

development of a new purpose built centre.

A review of other wetland centres across the UK and more widely indicate that wetland centres favour the development of a principal visitor centre linked to a series of other interpretative, educational and recreational facilities within a relatively well defined area. However, the review of international Wetland Centres has shown that there are potentially options for a more dispersed pattern of development in the style of an outdoor ‘eco-museum’. Wetlands Centre – based on existing centres

À

À

À

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Wetlands Centre – Dispersed centres

À

À À

À À

À

5.14.

Existing centres should act as a focus for interpretation in the short to medium term, and, if local demand/use justifies it, the ultimate objective should be to establish a Wetlands Centre within a significantly smaller area within the Wetland Park. Examples from elsewhere in the UK range in size from around 25 to 325 hectares.

5.15.

An ideal location for such a centre would include:

5.16.

central location relative to the network of wetland sites;

minimal landscape impact on the area but able to provide good views;

no impact on the ecological value of the area but within close proximity to the wetland area;

proximity to at least one of the more important wetland sites to provide direct access and a close association with the wetland resource;

scope for some habitat creation to create opportunities for managed access and interpretation;

good access via walking, cycling, public transport and roads;

sufficient space for the development of visitor, educational and administrative facilities, parking and other infrastructure.

The wetlands centre should be co-ordinated with a network of satellite wetlands via the access network and an integrated interpretative strategy. It is suggested that the recreational emphasis of Hogganfield Park and Drumpellier Country Park, and their location at the western and eastern extremities of the Wetland Park, makes them less suitable as potential locations for the Wetlands Centre. They are also some distance from the more natural wetland landscapes at the heart of the area.

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Strategic Objective 2 Conserve and significantly enhance the area’s biodiversity interest with a specific emphasis on enhancing its wetland ornithological value. 5.17.

A key priority is conservation and enhancement of the area’s biodiversity interest, since this underpins proposals to create a Wetland Park and to establish a Wetland Centre linked to a network of wetland sites.

5.18.

This priority can be broken down into a series of more detailed recommendations.

5.19.

The first recommendation under this objective will be to conserve and enhance the ecological value of existing wetland sites, particularly the UKBAP and LBAP habitats/species. There are a range of tasks which would help to fulfil this recommendation: •

in order to develop a baseline from which to work, undertake Comprehensive survey covering any land that proposals could disturb: o Phase 1 habitat survey (where not yet done, or done but out of date); o survey of habitat suitability for presence of otter, water vole, amphibians, badger (where no recent surveys have been conducted or have been conducted without analysis of habitat suitability);

use existing management plans for SSSIs, LNRs and parks as a mechanism to positively enhance the natural heritage resource;

encourage positive management of all wetland sites whether in public or private ownership;

discourage land management operations which would affect the wetland sites directly or indirectly;

prevent developments that would affect wetland sites directly or indirectly. Management of existing wetlands sites

À À À À

À

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À

À À


5.20.

The second recommendation under this objective is to conserve and enhance the ecological value of other existing habitats where these are compatible with the area’s wider wetland interest: •

identification of other existing habitats including woodlands, meadows, bat and owl roosts;

encourage positive management of these habitats whether in public or private ownership;

discourage land management operations which would affect these habitats directly or indirectly;

prevent developments that would affect other important habitats directly or indirectly;

explore opportunities to increase the biodiversity value of recreation areas which are currently more intensively managed, whilst retaining their current use. Examples may include golf courses and the recreation areas at Hogganfield Park and Drumpellier Country Park. Management of other existing biodiversity sites

À

À À

5.21.

À À

À

À

The third recommendation is to create additional wetlands where this is compatible with other habitats and land uses: •

reInforce the wetland corridor extending west-east from Hogganfield Loch and Frankfield Loch via Gartloch Pool and Bishop Loch to Woodend Loch in the east and Johnston Loch in the north east;

creation of new wetlands to provide SUDS for new development, linking via a system of ponds to the existing wetland network;

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•

creation of new wetland features associated with the development of a Wetlands Centre. This would focus on the creation of a range of wetland habitats and increasing opportunities for visitor involvement and interpretation. This could either comprise modification or extension of existing wetland opportunities, or the creation of entirely new features. This would be guided by the Wetlands Centre Masterplan. Priority areas for wetland habitat creation

5.22.

The fourth recommendation under this objective is the creation of additional nonwetland habitats where these are compatible with wetland biodiversity and land management practices: •

create positive habitats in areas which are currently abandoned or underused and where wetland habitat creation is not appropriate. Key priorities within the heart of the area are likely to focus on establishing ecologically rich meadows and pastures on former farmland. In more peripheral areas there may be some opportunities for new native woodlands, subject to compatibility with ornithological issues and the need to enhance perceptions of people using paths and trails;

•

habitat creation and enhancement should aim to reinforce or restore the rural landscape character of the area, for example by working within the structure of hedges and shelterbelts.

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Enhancement of non-wetland habitats – farmland, woodland, recreation areas

5.23.

The fifth recommendation under this objective is to extend the programme of habitat creation and enhancement across the Wetland Park boundary into existing and new communities in surrounding areas to create a network of habitat corridors and stepping stones. This should be achieved by: •

working with communities, community organisations and schools to identify key opportunities for habitat enhancement on existing greenspaces;

involvement of organisations such as Kelvin Clyde Greenspace, BTCV, Central Scotland Forest Trust and the two councils to bring forward a programme of habitat creation and enhancement;

designation of additional Local Nature Reserves with management committees representing local communities, strong educational and training links, and management plans with potential to draw on a range of funding sources;

signage, information and interpretation to reinforce the link with the wetlands centre and Wetland Park.

Delivery Mechanisms 5.24. Appropriate mechanisms for the delivery of these objectives include: •

further designation of LNRs, SINCs, SSSIs etc.;

identify prioritised actions in relevant HAPs and SAPs for UKBAP and LBAP habitats and species;

transfer of additional sites to public or NGO management or ownership, through land transfers or purchases;

use of Rural Development Contracts and / or conservation grants to support positive wetland management and their catchments;

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preparation, implementation and monitoring of management plans for key wetland sites;

land use planning policies and development management processes to ensure that new development does not adversely affect wetland sites (directly, indirectly or cumulatively – for example by changing hydrology patterns, or water quality) and where opportunities arise, surface water treatment is co-ordinated through SUDS schemes to reinforce and buffer existing wetlands;

medium to long term consideration of national level designations for part or all of the area;

land use planning policies and development management to encourage the development of co-ordinated SUDS schemes linked into the wetland network;

linking to an initiative such as the proposal to relocate Glasgow City Council’s herd of Highland cattle to the area.

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Strategic Objective 3 Secure a wider range of landscape and environmental enhancements. 5.25. While the emphasis of environmental management should be on conserving and enhancing wetland habitats and using this as a basis for communication, education and interpretation, there is a complementary need to manage the wider landscape of the area. In particular, the aim should be to reinforce and where necessary restore the area’s rural character. This objective should be achieved by developing and implementing a ‘landscape character’ based approach which recognises that the landscape of the project area varies in existing character and quality, and that changes may be required in order to meet the wider vision for the area. Some landscapes should be conserved, others will be restored, while in some areas, the emphasis will be on creating new landscapes or landscape features. Key recommendations are as follows: • conservation and enhancement of existing and new wetland landscape features across the area, with a habitat-led approach to landscape management that avoids features (e.g. new or reinforced woodland or field boundaries) that would make the area less attractive to key species. This approach will be most relevant in the network of wetland corridors that will run through the heart of the area. There may be opportunities to conserve or enhance wet woodlands around the fringes of the area where this is compatible with the wider biodiversity priorities; • on rising ground around the core of the area, the emphasis should be on retaining and reinforcing the area’s existing farmland character. This is likely to involve a combination of two approaches. In areas where it remains viable, the emphasis should be on retaining active agricultural management, with land management and woodland grants used to ensure that the structure of the landscape is maintained and restored. A key emphasis should be on maintaining field boundaries and agricultural buildings. There may be potential to further integrate land management with the area’s wetland management, for example by encouraging the use of crops or harvesting techniques which favour priority species. In areas where farming is no longer viable due to land fragmentation, alternative strategies will be required. Public sector ownership or leasing could be used to introduce management measures which meet the dual aims of habitat and landscape enhancement (for example through the creation of wild flower meadows within a framework of hedges), or which create new visitor interest (for example by providing prominent or accessible areas for grazing stock, or accommodating appropriately managed equestrian activity); • identify the need and opportunity for creating landscapes that can mitigate the visual impact of development. Particularly where appropriate screening and structural planting of trees could have a landscape benefit without impacting on the inherent ‘wetland’ nature of the site; • across the area there should be an emphasis on the restoration of key landscape features where these have been lost or are in decline, with an emphasis on reinforcing the rural character of the area. There should be a particular emphasis on areas along the urban edge (linking to the enhancement of urban greenspaces) and in areas subject to flytipping or vandalism. There is a particular need to address the visual impact of some recent residential developments, particularly

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where there is no integration with the surrounding countryside. New woodland planting may provide the most effective means of reducing such impacts. It is critical that the relationship between housing and its rural context is improved significantly in the future; there may be a limited number of opportunities to create new landscape features in areas which have been damaged or abandoned, for example as a result of past mineral working. This could be used to accommodate key recreation activities (horse riding or mountain biking) or linked to habitat creation or visitor management associated with the Wetlands Centre; the planning system should be used to ensure that all new developments contribute to, and reinforce, the area’s rural landscape character. Central to this will be the preparation of supplementary planning guidance relating to new residential development to ensure that its layout, scale, materials and boundary treatments are sympathetic to rural context. New or upgraded road infrastructure should balance the traffic and safety benefits of highly engineered solutions with the value of retaining characteristics common to rural roads (including hedges, the absence of kerbing, appropriate signage and road markings and the consideration of design speeds compatible with the area’s recreational emphasis); the programme of landscape enhancements should be extended into surrounding communities, particularly where this can be combined with projects to increase the biodiversity and social value of existing greenspaces; the importance of the area as part of the wider Green Network should be developed. The potential links with the other GCV Flagship Green Network projects at Clyde Waterfront, Clyde Gateway and Ravenscraig should be developed. These linkages could take a variety of forms: physical links to and from the area would benefit a range of users but in some cases may be difficult to achieve; continuity of landscape and greenspace would also help to develop these links through creating a sense of place for the area.

Habitat creation and enhancement within communities

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Strategic Objective 4: Raise awareness of the area’s biodiversity assets, its wider natural and cultural heritage and its range of recreation opportunities. 5.26. Currently, relatively few people in Glasgow and North Lanarkshire are fully aware of the natural and cultural heritage value of the Gartloch and Gartcosh, nor the range of recreation opportunities that already exist (though there is likely to be awareness of some components, most notably Drumpellier and Hogganfield). Consultation carried out during the preparation of this strategy indicated that even local people are unaware of the opportunities available (though the new access provision developed within the Bishop’s Estate and the promotion which has taken place represents an important improvement). A key element of this strategy, therefore, will focus on raising awareness of the Wetland Park and Wetlands Centre at national, regional and local levels. The aim should be to ensure that the area:

5.27.

is recognised as a key recreation resource by people living in and around the Gartloch and Gartcosh Corridor;

is recognised as a potential day trip destination by people living within central Scotland, with an emphasis on wildlife watching and interpretation, associated recreation provision and opportunities for walking, cycling and horseriding;

attracts visitors from further afield as a consequence of its biodiversity interest.

Ways through which the objective can be achieved include: •

the further development of the network of waymarked paths and trails across the area, linking into communities in and around the corridor and linked to effective and robust signposting and locally produced and published leaflets. There should be a programme of ranger led walks for local people, including children, with an emphasis on increasing confidence to use the path network and awareness of the area’s natural and cultural heritage. This should be linked into measures to provide opportunities for volunteering and training, together with initiatives such as Forest Schools and Eco-schools. Information on these routes should be available at local levels, on the web and in key locations for visitors from the rest of central Scotland and beyond;

connecting the site with the wider network of longer distance cycle routes and trails, including NCR75 Glasgow to Edinburgh Cycle Route which runs to the south of the corridor, the Glasgow to Cumbernauld cycle route and, at greater distance, the Forth and Clyde Canal and potential Antonine Wall routes to the north and Clyde corridor to the south. There is also potential to link rail stations across the area. These measures would help realise the potential to create circular routes through the area. These routes should be developed and publicised by the two councils (with potential for inclusion within the network of Core Paths) and in partnership with organisations such as Sustrans;

development of a Wetlands Centre will in itself play a key role in raising awareness at local, regional and national levels, particularly if it is implemented and operated in partnership with a key NGO such as RSPB or WWT. Such a centre would sit within a growing international network of wetland sites (none

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currently in Scotland). While founded on the area’s current and potential ornithological interest, the centre will need to have a sufficient range of facilities to attract families and non-specialists. Wetlands Centres elsewhere in the UK typically include visitor centres, cafes, shops, enclosures, nature trails and play areas, with an increasing emphasis on the demonstration of sustainable approaches to building, land management and gardening. Given the importance of transforming perceptions of the area, it is concluded that the development of a sustainable, landmark building, complementing facilities elsewhere in the Wetland Park, will be key priority. This should be allied to a range of facilities in the immediate Wetland Centre area, as well as the wider network of wetland sites in the Wetland Park. Consideration should be given to a design competition to select innovative and sustainable designs for the visitor centre building and for other structures such as hides. Local communities and schools, together with national ‘wildlife’ experts (e.g. Bill Oddie or David Attenborough) should be included in the judging panels; •

a central element of the strategy to raise awareness of the area will be effective branding, including the creation of an appropriate identity and associated marketing. Currently there is a confusing mix of identities based on existing parks and country parks (including Drumpellier and Hogganfield), the Glasgow City Council Bishop’s Estate initiative, and associations with communities such as Easterhouse, Coatbridge and Gartcosh. A strong brand identity which encompasses these individual components and which reflects the wetland and recreational focus of the area will underpin wider marketing of the area across central Scotland and in terms of visitors. Again, local communities and schools should be involved in the branding exercise. Marketing should highlight the potential of the area as a day visit destination, with a range of environmentally based facilities and attractions;

special events will also play a role in raising awareness. These might range from co-ordination with Spring Watch or Autumn Watch programmes or the development of environmentally based events (learn to lay a hedge or create a wildflower meadow) or festivals;

develop an interpretation strategy for the area to ensure all new interpretive and educational developments are consistent in style and message. This would help to maximise the potential benefits of any new interpretive installations/products and help to coordinate any new developments between Glasgow and North Lanarkshire.

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Strategic Objective 5: Encourage access to the area and understanding and enjoyment of its natural and cultural heritage. 5.28.

Earlier sections have highlighted the importance of the access network in terms of introducing people to the area and as a recreational resource in its own right. Provision is currently uneven, with publicly managed parks at Hogganfield and Drumpellier Country Park, promoted access routes in parts of Glasgow City Council’s Bishop’s Estate (several developed in partnership with the Forestry Commission Scotland) but large areas where there is no managed access. Key priorities are as follows: Future ‘Trunk’ access network, recreation areas and rail access points

the trunk access network needs to link to rail access networks, bus routes and routes outwith park;

development of a coordinated network of walking, cycling and horse riding routes, building on the Core Path Networks for each Council area;

routes will be integrated with management of the wetlands in order to maximise opportunities for interpretation but to minimise disturbance and avoid habitat loss;

the network will connect with communities around and within the area, and with key public transport access points;

events such as guided walks will be held to encourage local people and visitors to explore and enjoy the area;

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the network will be designed to allow circular walks of known length and difficulty from key access points;

the network will connect communities on the north, south and eastern sides of the Wetland Park;

the network will connect to provide a continuous, mainly off-road route extending from Hogganfield Park to Drumpellier Country Park and Johnston Loch in the east;

sections of road through the area should be provided with safe off-road alternatives for walkers, cyclists and horseriders and / or should be subject to sensitively designed speed management measures, with the aim of re-creating quiet lanes typical of a rural area. Upgrades to the Gartloch Road should include a separate walking and cycle path. Other key roads, including Lochend Road, Townhead Road and Commonhead Road should be traffic calmed. In the medium term there is a need to create a safe south-north route from Drumpellier Country Park, through Gartcosh and Johnston Loch to Muirhead. This route could connect with the east west routes and with longer distance routes outwith the Wetland Park;

the network will connect with longer distance routes in the area around the Wetland Park to create longer distance loops and to provide links to other wetland and heritage sites;

the network will employ a system of signage and waymarking which is robust and which provides users with confidence about navigation, distance, features of interest and overall difficulty. There is potential for local communities and schools to become involved in the waymarking process, for example in the design of waymarkers, logos or trail names;

design and management of the network should be designed to promote personal safety by avoiding areas where low levels of use combine with a lack of natural surveillance and the obscuring of sight lines.

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Strategic Objective 6: Secure benefits for existing communities by encouraging involvement and creating pathways through volunteering, training, social enterprise and local business development 5.29.

Development of the Wetland Park and Wetlands Centre will create a significant new environmental and recreation asset in east Glasgow and North Lanarkshire. There is a unique opportunity to use the initiative as a means of securing significant benefits for existing communities. Key elements of the approach are as follows: •

to maximise opportunities for community participation in the process of planning and developing the project. Consultation workshops carried out during the preparation of this study confirmed that there is a significant amount of local interest in the area (though this is sometimes hindered by a lack of information). Earlier sections have noted opportunities for involvement in developing the access network, improving the Green Network within settlements and contributing to the development of a name for the initiative as a whole. There is a particular need to target school children and young people in order to provide them with some sense of ownership over their local environment. Regular events, competitions, news bulletins will all help stimulate involvement. Local Nature Reserves, community nature reserves and elements of the access network may provide a more local focus for people to become involved in the planning and management of their immediate environment through management committees etc.;

•

a parallel process should aim to use the project as a means of developing the skill base of local communities. Partnerships with organisations such as the Glasgow East Regeneration Agency (GERA), BTCV, the Wise Group or SWT, together with the work of countryside rangers should be used as a means of building a volunteering and training infrastructure based on the development of the access network, habitat management, land management and wider visitor management. It is likely that, initially at least, there will be a need to train a number of trainers who will then be equipped to work with other local people to develop skills and increase employability. The GERA has particular experience of using Intermediate Labour Market projects as a means of helping people enter the labour market. There may be potential to establish a specific environmental and sustainability skills and training programme which delivers specific benefits for the Wetland Park project and builds a skills and knowledge base that can be deployed elsewhere in the region;

•

the project should also directly support the creation of community enterprises, organisations and co-operatives designed to provide employment linked to the Wetland Park and the training programme. As the scheme progresses, there may be scope for community businesses providing landscape and habitat management, visitor management, information and interpretation, transport and cycle hire, etc. Again, this would build on the ongoing work of GERA. There is also scope to support new private businesses within the local community by providing start up and incubator services, finance and accommodation;

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•

there is equally significant potential to create strong links to education within surrounding communities. The creation of the Wetlands Centre in particular provides a major opportunity to provide environmental based education for local schools. The Eco-Schools initiative could help tie schools into the wetlands initiative, with knowledge gained in the Wetlands Centre transferred to habitat creation or management projects within or close to local schools. As the training and skills infrastructure develops, there may also be opportunities to provide direct links from schools, either in the form of volunteering or paid employment. While the main emphasis of the Wetland Park is on wetlands, the range of woodlands within the area means there is also potential to link into the Forest School initiative. Forest School programmes are designed to encourage an appreciation of the natural world whilst building self esteem, confidence and personal skills. They involve groups of up to 12 people (children or adults) visiting a local woodland on a weekly or fortnightly basis throughout the course of the year. Activities such as building shelters provide opportunities to learn individual skills or master specific tasks;

•

there is scope to develop the potential healthy living benefits of the Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor for the local and wider populations of the area. The development of the wetlands resource provides the opportunity to create an attraction which caters for both physical and mental well being. Key aims of the Green Network are to promote active lifestyles, mental well being, clean greenspaces, clean air and healthy food. The Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor can contribute to these aims by linking with school education programmes, developing links with GP referral schemes and developing links with organisations such as GERA to promote the benefits of exercise and outdoor activity.

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Strategic Objective 7: Ensure the new development in and around the corridor contributes to, and benefits from, the area’s natural and cultural heritage. 5.30.

The area’s location on the eastern side of the Glasgow conurbation means that there is continuous pressure for housing development. Redevelopment and regeneration at Easterhouse, the continued redevelopment of Gartloch Hospital and the creation of Community Growth Areas at Gartcosh & Glenboig and Easterhouse/Gartloch mean that further residential development is likely in the future. Business development is also important in the area; large sites such as the Gartcosh Business Interchange will provide employment opportunities for the new populations likely to move into the area over the next 20 years.

5.31.

The design of some recent developments has achieved very poor integration with the surrounding rural landscape. Designs and layouts, both of which tend to be particularly suburban in nature, do not reflect the rural character of their setting, or their proximity to important wetland sites. There is an urgent need to raise the quality of development in this area and it is suggested this could best be achieved by raising developers’ awareness of the area’s environmental assets, and their potential role in increasing the marketability of new homes. Equally, there is a need to provide clear guidance on the quality standards that should be achieved in new development, with such guidance being applied through the development control process. Key components of this part of the strategy therefore include: •

engagement with current or potential developers to increase awareness and understanding of the area’s environmental qualities and of the objectives of the Wetland Park and Wetlands Park initiatives. It is suggested that such interests should be represented within the project partnership and that there should be a programme of learning visits to comparable initiatives elsewhere in UK or Europe, and the sharing of information about the economic benefits of environmental improvements. The branding and marketing element of the strategy will be a key element in helping to build investor confidence;

the Councils’ expectations for new development should be clearly set out in jointly prepared supplementary planning guidance and masterplanning process for the Wetland Park. This should include guidance on the following: o layout and integration with the surrounding landscape; o building design and materials; o boundary treatment and planting; o integration with walking and cycling routes; o creation of new greenspace and/or contribution to the wider Green Network; o SUDS and the wider network of wetlands. Specific development briefs and masterplans should be produced for larger developments, or where development has the potential to affect the character of the wider Wetland Park or Wetlands Centre;

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it will be important that the Councils’ Development management processes reflect the wider objectives for the Wetland Park and Wetlands Centre as expressed through the supplementary planning guidance, such as that being developed by the NLC Built Heritage and Design Team. There is potential to use developer contributions to help fund some elements of the Wetland Centre or the wider access network. There is also potential to co-ordinate the surface water drainage requirements of new and existing developments in the form of larger SUDS projects which themselves can form part of the wetlands infrastructure;

it is likely that development of the Wetlands Centre will require the construction of a number of buildings (e.g. visitor centre, education centre, hides, etc.). The design of such buildings should be of a very high quality, signalling a step change in expectations for the area, and providing exemplars of sustainable design, construction and operation. As noted elsewhere, design competitions may provide a valuable way of raising the area’s profile, the quality of design and providing one of a number of ways of involving local people.

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IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE

Provan Hall Image courtesy of GERA

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6.

IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE

6.1.

This section provides more detailed guidance on implementing the Green Network Strategy for the Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor. The following sections provide guidance on: •

process, partnership and co-ordination;

developing a Wetlands Centre;

securing benefits for local communities;

the role of the planning system;

SUDS and Greenspace;

funding.

PROCESS, PARTNERSHIP AND CO-ORDINATION 6.2.

Preparation of the Strategy and the Action Plan represents the first step towards the creation of a nationally important wetlands centre in the Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor. A series of ongoing actions should help ensure that development of the Green Network becomes a priority for all those organisations involved in planning and managing the area. This requires partnership working, measures to raise awareness, monitoring the strategy’s implementation and the benefits flowing from it and the involvement of existing and new communities.

Partnership and Co-ordination 6.3.

It is critical that the Strategy gains the support of the Glasgow City Council, North Lanarkshire Council, Scottish Enterprise National, Scottish Enterprise Glasgow and Scottish Enterprise Lanarkshire, Scottish Natural Heritage, the Forestry Commission Scotland and Communities Scotland. Support at political and board level will help maintain momentum and ensure co-ordination across organisational and spatial boundaries. The Wetland Park model, if adopted, allows for the formalisation of partnerships through a management board.

6.4.

It is equally important that the aims of the Strategy are communicated within each of the partner organisations. This is particularly important where a number of different departments are responsible for the way that the area is managed and planned. Development of the Green Network crosses many policy agendas so the success of the Strategy will depend on co-ordinated action between and within partner organisations.

6.5.

There is also a need to include other potential delivery organisations into the partnership. These will include environmental NGOs that may play a role in developing, managing and publicising the Wetlands Centre. It should also include training, enterprise and volunteering organisations that can help ensure that the project generates the anticipated social and local economic benefits.

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6.6.

Consideration should also be given to the most effective way of involving private sector interests, including land owners, managers and developers, in the process since it is vital that they sign up to the vision proposed for the area.

6.7.

Finally, it will be important that existing and new communities are fully represented within the partnership with an involvement in planning, prioritising and implementing the project, and helping to ensure that the social and economic benefits are tailored to the needs of the area.

6.8.

The range of interest groups outlined above suggests the need for a clear structure for the partnership, possibly based on a core steering group, a wider forum and a series of topic or area based sub-groups.

6.9.

There is likely to be a need for a dedicated project officer who can co-ordinate action between policy areas and partner organisations as well as helping to secure funding for greenspace creation and maintenance. This project officer should coordinate implementation across council boundaries.

6.10.

It will be essential to establish links with other plans and strategies to ensure that these reflect the ambitious proposals for the corridor. Partnership working can help ensure that future reviews or revisions to such documents reflect fully the objectives of the Green Network Strategy. Key policy links will include: •

Local Development Plans and Supplementary Planning Guidance;

Access Strategies and Core Path Plans;

Open Space Strategies;

Local Biodiversity Action Plans;

Local Transport Strategies; and

Environment Strategies.

Raising Awareness 6.11. The success of the Strategy depends on all those involved in the development and regeneration process being aware of the opportunities and potential benefits associated with the creation of a regional wetlands resource. It is critical that this is seen as more than an environmental project (important as that is) and is recognised as a key driver in changing perceptions of the area, raising the quality of new development and, perhaps most importantly, bringing lasting benefits for surrounding communities. It is vital that these messages are communicated to key interests within partner organisations, development interests and the wider community. This could be achieved in a variety of ways including: •

a glossy summary of the Green Network Strategy articulating the vision for the creation of a nationally important wetlands centre set within a Wetland Park, and the project’s potential role in supporting place-making, investment, vibrant communities, healthy lifestyles, sustainable urban drainage, education, training, enterprise development and biodiversity;

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events such as CPD seminars, workshops and conferences, focusing specifically on those organisations involved in the planning and management of the Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor, organisations with experience of developing and running wetlands centres, and organisations with experience of using environmental initiatives as a catalyst for community regeneration, training and employment projects;

working closely with developers to raise the quality of development in and around the corridor. This will involve demonstrating the commercial benefits of more environmentally sensitive patterns of development on the one hand, and, though the planning system, stating clearly the quality and design standards that are required for new development in the area. There may be potential for joint learning visits involving council, developer and community representatives;

a key action designed to raise wider awareness amongst potential visitors to the area will be the process of branding and marketing. This reflects the low profile of the area at present, and the overlapping current identities for the area and surrounding communities. It is recommended that suitably qualified consultants facilitate the process of identifying a title for the Wetland Park and Wetlands Centre. It is suggested that this title would not need to incorporate the term Wetland Park but could reflect more fully the emphasis on wetlands and birds. The process should also identify other elements of a strong brand (logo, graphic design, website, marketing strategy, etc.). This process should be undertaken with the involvement of key stakeholders, including local people, implementing organisations and the wider partnership.

DEVELOPING A WETLANDS CENTRE 6.12.

There is a growing body of experience from around the world on the development of Wetlands Centres. While the emphasis of the current project may be different in the inclusion of a strong community regeneration and training link, many of the project design and implementation steps will be the same as elsewhere. In Britain, the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust has been in the forefront of Wetland Centre development and, with funding from Defra and HSBC has produced a guide to ‘Developing a Wetland Centre’ on behalf of the Wetland Link International (WLI) organisation (http://www.wwt.org.uk/downloads/400/publications.html ).

6.13.

The WWT guidance includes the following elements: •

WLI’s approach to communications, education and public awareness (CEPA);

the need to define a vision and mission for the Wetlands Centre project;

the process of developing a masterplan for the development of the Wetlands Centre, based on components such as audience plans, interpretation plans, financial feasibility, development of a business plan and a series of strategies relating to operations, revenue, partnership co-ordination and stakeholder involvement;

the focus for interpretation comprising core messages, corporate messages and site specific messages;

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6.14.

the physical components of the Wetlands Centre, including the wetlands themselves, visitor and interpretation centres, hides, trails and boardwalks, public art, exhibitions, graphics and signage, play areas, demonstration wetlands and gardens and printed material;

human resources and events; and

operations.

It is anticipated that this kind of Wetlands Centre represents a medium to long term element of the wider Wetland Park project. It is, however, valuable to consider the process of planning and developing such a centre from the outset, and to consider potential project partners and funding sources.

SECURING BENEFITS FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES 6.15.

The previous section noted that key objectives associated with the Wetland Park and Wetlands Centre relate to the contribution to community regeneration in surrounding areas. Key components of this include: •

volunteering, training, Social Enterprise and Local Business Development;

education and lifelong learning;

community involvement.

Volunteering, Training, Social Enterprise and Local Business Development 6.16.

Communities around the proposed Wetland Park have suffered from many years of social exclusion, high levels of multiple deprivation, poor health and low levels of environmental justice. Creation of the Wetland Park and Wetlands Centre should be harnessed as an important opportunity to create new routes to employment, by encouraging volunteering, developing training programmes and supporting the creation of community enterprises focused on delivering services to the Wetland Park initiative whilst building the local skills base and preparing people for employment.

6.17.

Implementation of this Strategy will create a wide range of opportunities for training and employment, including:

6.18.

land management operations, including creation and management of wetlands, woodlands, hedges, etc. and the creation of meadows;

development of the network of paths and trails, including signage, interpretation and publicity;

construction and subsequent management of key elements of the Wetlands Centre including buildings, hides, recreation areas, parking, etc.;

visitor management including guiding, interpretation, catering and hospitality

It is recommended that a raft of complementary measures is put in place to ensure that these opportunities are realised. This should cover:

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6.19.

6.20.

initiatives to encourage and support people willing to volunteer on projects across the area, as a first step towards the development of skills;

a range of targeted training programmes to allow people to develop marketable skills. It is likely that the capacity of the existing training infrastructure may be limited, and it is recommended that the first priority should be on identifying local people who can be trained as trainers. Organisations such as the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers, Scottish Wildlife Trust and other environmental NGOs may be able to play a role in facilitating this process. There may also be scope to make use of local educational organisations such as the John Wheatley College to provide more targeted training where this fits with the wider curriculum. This might include use of media related courses to assist in the development of websites, video or other promotional material;

support for the establishment of community enterprises able to provide staff or services associated with the Wetland Park. These non-profit making organisations will play a role in training workers and developing the skills necessary for the creation of small businesses or entry into the wider employment market. There may be opportunities for the Wetland Park organisation to undertake ‘community contracting’ in key areas served by these enterprises;

support, via the small business gateway, for the creation of new businesses based on activities associated with the Wetland Park, but with scope to serve the wider market.

There is already an existing network of initiatives designed to develop skills and support people’s entry into the labour market, much of it focused in and around Easterhouse. Examples of initiatives include: •

Glasgow East Regeneration Agency;

Greater Easterhouse Adult Guidance Network;

Garthamlock Community Enterprise Centre;

Neighbourhood Volunteer Recruitment Project;

Training Initiatives Generating Results Scotland (TIGERS);

Working Links.

The Wetland Park initiative provides an opportunity to build on this infrastructure, diversifying it to reflect the range of opportunities associated with the project.

Education and Lifelong Learning 6.21.

The development of the Wetland Park and the Wetlands Centre in particular offers a significant opportunity to provide educational and lifelong learning benefits. Educational involvement in the area also provides an important means of increasing understanding, appreciation and ownership of the area amongst local children and young people.

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6.22.

6.23.

Wetlands centres have an explicit educational remit and often include dedicated facilities and programmes for schools. It is recommended that this approach is taken further, with local schools developing an active programme which includes: •

active involvement in the process of planning and developing the wetlands centre and wider Wetland Park, for example in the design of hides, path networks, play areas, logos and names;

regular visits into the Wetlands Centre where this can help support the Scottish Curriculum;

practical involvement in habitat management and recording where appropriate;

creation of complementary wildlife habitats in or adjacent to school grounds.

There is also potential to implement environmentally based educational initiatives including: •

Forest Schools which are designed to encourage an appreciation of the natural world and build self-esteem and confidence. This is achieved through regular visits to special woodland sites. Individuals can master tasks of increasing complexity and learn the associated social skills. Typical forest school programmes involve: -

the Forest School leader talking to the parents/carers, about the programme;

-

finding and ensuring the safety of an appropriate local woodland site;

-

the Forest School leaders get to know the participants and gain their confidence before taking them to the woodland;

-

the group (typically up to 12) visit the same local woodland site on a regular basis (once a week or fortnightly) ideally throughout the year, except in extreme conditions;

-

tasks such as building a shelter are broken down into smaller sessions such as learning how to tie knots or collecting suitable material for example. Since the sessions are learner led they go at the pace of the learners so that everyone is included and no one is left to fail.

The Forest School model is suited to people of all ages. •

Eco Schools which are an international initiative to encourage ‘whole school’ action for the environment. It is a recognised award scheme that accredits schools who make a commitment to continuously improve their environmental performance. It is also a learning resource that raises awareness of environmental and sustainable development issues throughout activities linked to curricular subjects and areas. The Eco Schools programme can help schools to: -

improve the school's environment;

-

reduce litter and waste;

-

reduce energy and water use;

-

devise efficient ways of travelling to and from school;

-

promote healthy lifestyles;

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6.24.

-

encourage active citizenship;

-

build strong partnerships with a variety of community groups;

-

develop international and global links.

The development of the Wetlands Centre, and the wider range of habitats within the wider Wetland Park, will offer opportunities for mature people to learn about aspects of the environment and for them to contribute their knowledge and expertise too.

Involving the Wider Community 6.25.

Preparation of this strategy has highlighted the importance of securing community involvement throughout the implementation of the Strategy. This will help ensure that the Wetland Park and the wider Green Network are designed and managed to reflect local needs and priorities, as well as building local ‘ownership’ of the area. Sites that are developed and monitored by local communities are less likely to be subject to vandalism and are generally more sustainable.

6.26.

Communities Scotland has produced a set of National Standards for Community Engagement which should be used to develop any consultation programmes.

6.27.

Greenspace Scotland provides links to a range of toolkits covering community involvement, prepared by Communities Scotland and the Scottish Centre for Regeneration. In addition organisations such as Kelvin Clyde Greenspace have many years experience working in the area and could provide useful advice. There are also a range of community and training initiative across the area which may provide experience and advice on effective community involvement.

6.28.

Key opportunities for community involvement include: •

agreeing a name for the project and developing the brand;

planning access routes, developing information and interpretative material, leading walks;

participating in design competitions and other forms of evaluation to ensure that key components of the project have community as well and agency ownership;

the development of strong links with schools in and around the area, including through the Eco Schools and Forest Schools initiatives;

the development of strong training and life long learning links with the area, with the creation of community training infrastructure linked with volunteering, employment and support for the development of community enterprises;

the creation or enhancement of greenspaces, including community nature reserves and gardens within surrounding communities, linking to the wider initiative.

6.29. The section of this chapter dealing with funding outlines a range of funding sources that are open to community organisations.

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THE ROLE OF THE PLANNING SYSTEM 6.30.

Past patterns of development in and around the Gartloch and Gartcosh Corridor are often of a low quality, with poor integration with the surrounding countryside. There is an urgent need to raise the quality of development to reflect the wider aspirations for the corridor. In part this will be achieved by bringing developers into the process and encouraging them to recognise the area’s environmental qualities as a positive asset and a potential marketing strength. There are signs that this is already starting to happen, but that it requires support from within the wider partnership. It is also likely that the planning system will play a key role within the corridor. It can help ensure that development is guided to the most appropriate locations, ensure that standards of design are high (particularly in the way that the development is integrated into the wider landscape) and ensure that it contributes to the provision of greenspace and the creation and management of wetland and other habitats across the area.

6.31.

This section covers the following aspects of the planning system: •

Development Plan Policies;

Supplementary Planning Guidance;

Development Control / Management.

Development Plan Policies 6.32.

The Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor is covered by the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan (2006), Glasgow City Plan Finalised Draft (2007) and the North Lanarkshire Local Plan Consultation Draft (2007). Glasgow and Clyde Valley Structure Plan

6.33.

The 2006 Structure Plan has split the Gartloch/Gartcosh corridor between two Community Growth Areas. The first is focused on Easterhouse / Gartloch and the second on Gartloch / Glenboig. The area is also identified as a priority for future Green Network projects supporting the planned areas of urban expansion. From the strategic perspective, therefore, there is a clear expectation of major development within the wider area allied to significant Green Network enhancements. The local planning context, together with the operation of the development planning management will therefore play a key role in securing new and regenerated communities within the context of a high quality physical environment. The Glasgow City Plan Finalised Draft

6.34.

The Glasgow City Plan Finalised Draft (2007) (the so called City Plan 2) highlights the role of the Green Network. The Plan’s Development Strategy sees the Green Network as contributing to social renewal through improvements in quality of life, promoting sustainability and the protection and enhancement of biodiversity, greenspaces and the development SUDS and contributing positively to improved physical and mental health. It draws a key link to the priorities defined in the Local Biodiversity Action Plan. The Plan identifies the Easterhouse/Gartloch Bishop’s

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Estate Project as a Green Network priority. Policies Dev11 and Dev 12 set out the City Council’s priorities in relation to Greenspace and the Green Belt. 6.35.

6.36.

Section 7 of the plan addresses key regeneration areas, including the M8 East corridor which includes the Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor and the Easterhouse/Gartloch Community Growth Area and Garthamlock New Neighbourhood. The plan proposes 2500 new homes. The plan states that the City Council will: •

prepare development and marketing briefs to ensure appropriate, well-designed and good quality development takes place on sites in the Housing Land Supply in the M8 East Corridor area;

work closely with the GHA to ensure that an overall strategic approach to housing renewal and new-build is progressed within the context of the Local Housing Strategy; and

work with landowners and developers to prepare a masterplan(s) for the Easterhouse/Gartloch Community Growth Area.

Importantly, the Comprehensive Planning Study carried out since City Plan 1 concluded that large parts of the greenbelt in the Easterhouse and Gartloch area should be retained as countryside. The plan states that the City Council will: •

continue to promote the Bishop’s Estate Project;

prepare management plans for the proposed Local Nature Reserves at Bishop Loch (extension), Frankfield Loch and the possible extension of Cardowan Moss LNR;

ensure that the masterplan(s) for the Community Growth Area helps define and consolidate the greenbelt boundary around Easterhouse, and enhances biodiversity, the green network and other environmentally sensitive locations.

6.37.

The plan also outlines access improvements, including walking and cycling networks within Easterhouse and the surrounding countryside, the upgrading of Gartloch Road as an access to the M73 and the Strategic Development Site at Gartcosh, and a possible link road between Easterhouse and Cardowan (the Easterhouse Regeneration Route).

6.38.

Other key policies include: •

ENV4 which requires development proposals to make satisfactory provision for Sustainable Drainage Systems;

ENV5 which outlines the requirement for development to avoid or reduce the risk of flooding;

ENV6 which requires new development to be compatible with the Glasgow Local Biodiversity Action Plan, particularly in terms of avoiding habitat fragmentation and adverse impacts on biodiversity;

ENV 7 which provides protection for regional and local environmental designations including SSSIs, LNRs and SINCs;

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ENV8 which protects trees, woodlands and hedgerows from inappropriate development;

ENV10 which supports the development of access routes and the core path network.

North Lanarkshire Local Plan Consultation Draft 6.39.

The North Lanarkshire Draft Local Plan identifies Gartcosh and Glenboig as one of three Community Growth Areas (with potential for up to 3,000 new homes) and North and West Coatbridge as one of three Local Expansion Areas. Gartcosh Business Interchange is highlighted as a regionally important ‘High Amenity Location’ for business and industrial development. All three areas lie on the eastern fringes of the proposed Wetland Park.

6.40.

Section 4 of the plan sets out key policies for the environment, including: •

ENV1 which protects sites of importance for the natural environment and biodiversity (listed in Schedule Env 1C);

ENV3 which promotes improvements to the natural environment and biodiversity and is linked to the Green Network Initiative, development of Country Parks for tourism and countryside recreation, and the development of the access network including Core Paths, linking to the Green Network.

Overview 6.41.

The policy framework lends strong, though not always explicit support for the creation of a Wetland Park and wetlands centre in an area stretching from Hogganfield Park east to Drumpellier Country Park and Johnston Loch. There is clear commitment to the development of the Green Network in the area, and to the protection and enhancement of existing biodiversity sites. Equally, the structure and local plans outline ambitious plans for community growth areas and new neighbourhoods or local expansion areas.

6.42.

While there might be an apparent tension between these two aspirations for the Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor and surrounding communities, there is potential for significant synergy, with environmental projects (including branding) increasing the attractiveness of the area for residential and business investment, helping to raise the standard of design in new development and providing a mechanism to help secure onsite and off-site environmental enhancements. The planning system has a key role to play in setting the standards for new development, ensuring it complements rather than detracts from the Wetland Park development and that it can contribute positively to the initiative’s implementation through the way that on-site elements of the Green Network and access network are developed, through the co-ordination of mitigating measures such as SUDS or habitat creation, and through the co-ordination of developer contributions to help fund key elements of the project.

6.43.

Although the existing planning policy framework provides an excellent starting point, it will be important to reflect the following:

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as proposals for the Wetland Park and Wetlands Centre are confirmed, ensure that these are reflected within the two local plans, including the proposals maps and diagrams for regeneration areas;

in the case of North Lanarkshire Council and Glasgow City Council, Community Growth Area proposals are at a relatively early stage so it will be important to consider the potential relationship (spatially and in terms of the requirements for the new development) with the Wetland Park initiative as plans progress. This may have a bearing on the extent of the Wetland Park;

the need to prepare more detailed Supplementary Planning Guidance outlining aspirations for the Wetland Park, and setting out design briefs for key development sites in and adjacent to the Wetland Park. Consideration should be given to the preparation of joint or co-ordinated SPG where this will help deliver a common standard of development across the corridor.

Supplementary Planning Guidance 6.44.

6.45.

Supplementary planning guidance can be prepared by councils to complement Local Plan policies. It can be useful where: •

there is a need for an urgent policy response to an emerging issue; or

a greater level of detail is required than would be appropriate within the local plan.

It can be used to good effect in areas where additional planning guidance is required for larger development projects, or schemes in sensitive locations. They can be particularly effective where the scale and complexity of development requires a detailed framework to co-ordinate action and investment. It is recommended that Glasgow City Council and North Lanarkshire Council prepare co-ordinated SPG setting out the design parameters for major new residential developments within the Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor. This will provide a framework within which developers will be expected to operate, and a material consideration that will help inform the development control process. The SPG should cover the following: •

creation of new Green Network resources within and adjacent to developments, including the conservation, enhancement or creation of habitats;

the principles guiding the creation of off-site elements of greenspace, including the potential for developers to make contributions to larger projects;

the requirement to integrate the development with the wider access network including walking, cycling and horse-riding trails;

design parameters for the relationship between residential developments and the surrounding landscape, including building design, orientation and materials and the use of planting and other forms of landscaping to integrate the developments into the wider countryside;

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the requirement for an integrated and co-ordinated approach to SUDS, linked to the creation of new wetland resources or enhanced wetland sites where this fits with the wider strategy for the corridor.

6.46.

Supplementary guidance carries less weight than development plan policies but will be a material consideration in planning decisions. Guidance can comprise specific policy statements, masterplans or development briefs.

6.47.

Policy Statements can set out a more detailed framework of policies relating to a particular area or type of development. It is recommended that Glasgow City Council and North Lanarkshire Council prepare joint or co-ordinated policy statements addressing the creation of the Wetland Park and Wetland Centre and the consequent implications for future development. This should cover the following: •

greenspace standards covering playspace, amenity (local and neighbourhood) greenspace, sports provision and natural greenspace for residential development. Given the location of development and its association with the Wetland Park, there is likely to be a strong case for translating the application of standards into off-site contributions to the development of the Green Network;

the qualitative standards that new or enhanced greenspace should meet (drawing on work being completed for the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership);

a common approach to the fulfillment of greenspace standards on-site, in adjacent areas or via developer contributions to wider development of green infrastructure.

6.48.

The Masterplanning process associated with the Community Growth Areas will provide a key opportunity to integrate the new developments being proposed with the Green Network. The process should be undertaken in a strategic way to ensure that Green Network, ecological and landscape sensitivities are taken into account both locally and cumulatively.

6.49.

Development briefs can be effective means of influencing the development of specific sites, specifying the type or quality of development (including associated open space) that the council expects in a given location. It is recommended that Glasgow City Council and North Lanarkshire Council prepare SPG addressing specific components of the Wetland Park. This should include: •

Community Growth Areas at Easterhouse/Gartloch and Gartcosh/Glenboig;

new neighbourhoods and local expansion areas at Garthamlock and North and West Coatbridge;

further development at Craigendmuir;

proposals for the Easterhouse Regeneration Route;

Wetlands Centre – visitor centre and associated infrastructure.

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Development Management 6.50.

Development management, or development control as it is also known, is the process by which applications for planning consent are considered by planning authorities. Applications are judged against the policies (including any relevant criteria) contained in strategic and local plans. The extent to which they reflect any supplementary planning guidance will also be taken into account, so it will be advantageous if the SPG described above is put in place.

6.51.

Most planning approvals are granted subject to conditions. These are enforceable requirements placed on developers and can be used to ensure that key aspects of a development, such as the provision and subsequent maintenance of greenspace, are provided to an agreed timetable and standard. Conditions can be used to specify: •

the type of greenspace to be provided;

the amount of greenspace to be provided;

the provision of facilities such as paths or play equipment;

the provision of landscaping and planting, including any specific habitat conservation or creation measures;

the provision of connections with surrounding paths networks;

the requirement to ensure appropriate maintenance for an agreed period.

6.52.

Development management officers draft conditions to reflect these and other requirements.

6.53.

Planning agreements (often termed S.75 agreements) can also be used. They are legal agreements which pass with ownership of the land and are often used in relation to more positive measures, such as the creation of new greenspace as a form of planning gain.

6.54.

Glasgow City Council also makes use of S.69 agreements under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 as a means of securing developer contributions for the provision or management of off-site greenspaces. This approach may be particularly relevant within the Gartloch / Gartcosh corridor where the emphasis should be on creating and managing off-site biodiversity sites, and contributing to the wider access network, rather than on the provision of ‘standard’ forms of greenspace within developments (though there will be some requirement for this, for example in relation to wildlife corridors or children’s play space).

SUDS AND GREENSPACE 6.55.

Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUDS) is a key aspect of any new development. The East End of Glasgow in particular has had major drainage problems in recent years that have necessitated a major re-evaluation of the approach to drainage issues. Earlier sections have described the requirement for new development schemes to include proposals for SUDS and flood prevention measures. The wetlands focus of the Wetland Park means there is considerable potential to develop a co-ordinated

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approach to SUDS, using it as means of creating and enhancing wetlands throughout the area. 6.56.

There are three key elements to SUDS known as the ‘Management Train’. These are Source Control, Site Control and Regional Control. A co-ordinated approach would avoid the incremental provision of SUDS on a site by site basis, but would develop the ‘regional control’ level to create a network of new ponds and filter beds, serving a number of developments and linked to existing watercourses and waterbodies. These features would reinforce the wetlands character of the area and contribute to range and extent of wetland habitats.

6.57.

Planning authorities have the responsibility of giving consent for new developments (including designs for drainage) so are in a position to co-ordinate the development of SUDS schemes. This links closely to the above recommendations on partnership and co-ordination. The Wetland Park represents a significant opportunity to develop a system of SUDS schemes that manage the surface water run-off from new developments whilst contributing to the biodiversity resource and associated recreation and enjoyment of the area.

6.58.

There may be practical issues relating to the location of areas proposed for development, the areas best suited to the creation of regional scale SUDS infrastructure and patterns of land ownership. Planning authorities, working in partnership with development interests and potential management organisations, have a key role to play in facilitating off-site schemes, land assembly or exchanges where this will meet the wider objectives for the area and the aspirations of the developer in question.

6.59.

There will also be a need to consider future management of wetlands based SUDS infrastructure which would normally fall to the local authority (since it is above ground). In the short term it is likely that developers will be required to provide funding for management, in the longer term habitat enhancement, creation of new Local Nature Reserves, or inclusion within the management framework of the Wetlands Centre, could provide solutions for such areas’ management.

FUNDING 6.60.

There are a wide range of potential sources of funding available for greenspace development and projects. This reflects the increasing profile which greenspace has in Scotland. The range of policy agendas which greenspace links into is reflected in the range of different funders who will sponsor greenspace projects in a variety of guises. These range from simple greenspace improvement to recycling schemes to biomass production.

6.61.

The following paragraphs outline some of the key sources of funding available to improve and develop greenspaces. Some of these funding sources will be available only through local authorities whilst others will only be accessible to community groups. It is likely that a combination of the different funding streams will be used in the longer term to develop the Wetland Park and Wetlands Centre. Some of the funding sources identified below would be useful for improving existing provision or

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developing new resources), while other types could be used on an ongoing basis for service delivery. 6.62.

Funding sources available to local authorities may include: •

greenspace provision as an integral part of new development;

developer contributions to creation of ‘off-site’ Green Network resources;

Glasgow City Council and North Lanarkshire Council capital and revenue budgets;

Strathclyde Partnership for Transport (Regional Transport Partnership).

6.63. Given the scale of costs likely to be associated with the creation of a nationally significant Wetlands Centre, allied to the quantum of residential development planned across the wider area, it is likely that securing developer contributions could be critical to the success of the project. Ideally, developer contributions from developments in the relevant parts of both council areas would be combined into a single development fund and this is an area where the creation of a strong partnership would be critical. 6.64.

Government and agency administered funding sources may include:

LOTTERY FUNDING Big Lottery Fund 6.65.

Awards for All is a small grants scheme, run jointly by the Big Lottery Fund, the Heritage Lottery Fund, the Scottish Arts Council and sportscotland. It gives grants of between £500 and £10,000 for a wide range of community, arts, sports, heritage, health, education and environmental projects.

6.66.

Big Lottery – Investing in Communities. The Big Lottery Fund in Scotland has £275 million to spend between 2006 and 2009. Grants of between £10,000 and £1,000,000 are available for projects which encourage the development and improvement of communities.

Heritage Lottery Fund 6.67.

The HLF runs a range of grant schemes which could be utilised to develop the Wetland Park, Wetlands Centre and greenspace enhancements in surrounding communities.

6.68.

Your Heritage is a grants programme which supports projects which ‘conserve and enhance heritage’ and ‘encourage communities to identify, look after and celebrate their heritage’. Awards range from £5,000 to £50,000.

6.69.

Heritage Grants are awards of over £50,000 that are granted for projects which aim to ‘conserve and enhance our diverse heritage’ and ‘encourage more people to be involved with their heritage’. There is potential for this to contribute to creation of the Wetlands Centre

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6.70.

Parks for People is a programme which helps with the restoration and regeneration of public parks and gardens, including squares, walks and promenades. Grants of between ÂŁ250,000 and ÂŁ5 million are available through the scheme. This is most applicable to the enhancement of existing greenspaces within surrounding communities.

Coalfield Regeneration Trust 6.71.

The Supporting Communities element of the Coalfield Regeneration Trust grant scheme is designed to provide funding for projects which play an active part in regeneration including improving accessibility and promoting healthier lifestyles. The Learning Communities element of the grant scheme supports projects which aid personal development amongst people of all ages. The Supporting People into Work theme aims to complement government employment initiatives through support for innovative and locally designed approaches to supporting people into the world of work. The Enterprising Communities theme aims to increase the range and diversity of the social economy through initiatives to kick-start social enterprise and support organisations in pursuing income generation strategies.

SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT 6.72.

The Sustainable Action Fund (SAF) provides funding for research projects, demonstration projects and other relevant activities in support of sustainable development in Scotland. Money is given in the form of core funding or project funding.

6.73. Core funding is given, with the approval of Ministers, to organisations whose activities support Ministerial priorities. 6.74.

Grant funding is allocated to a wide range of projects that demonstrate sustainable development in practice. Grants are given to projects that are innovative, easily replicable, promote good ideas and practice and encourage people to behave sustainably.

Communities Scotland 6.75.

Fairer Scotland Fund (which will replace the Community Regeneration Fund from the 31st of March 2008). This will be administered through the Community Planning Partnerships and will have a budget of ÂŁ145m per annum for three years (at a national level). The fund will enable Community Planning Partnerships to work together to tackle area based and individual poverty; and to help more people access and sustain employment opportunities.

6.76.

Grants to Improve the Physical and Social Environment (GPSE). These are available to registered social landlords (RSLs), developers and others to improve the environment around housing and to provide other amenities to complement housing investment. RSLs are also able to access Wider Role grants. In Glasgow these are administered through GCC whilst in North Lanarkshire the responsibility remains with Communities Scotland.

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6.77.

Scottish Centre for Regeneration. The New Ideas Fund and Seeing is Believing Fund are programmes designed to support and develop improvements in regeneration by helping regeneration practitioners, community groups and the voluntary sector.

Forward Scotland 6.78.

Community Environmental Renewal Scheme. The Community Environmental Renewal Scheme has some £1.75 million available for communities and is being managed by Forward Scotland on behalf of the Scottish Government, and will run for one year to the end of March 2008. The Community Environmental Renewal Scheme will award grants of up to £100,000 to support projects within communities that can demonstrate that they have been affected by local aggregates extraction activities, and which will improve the local environment for and with communities.

6.79.

Landfill Communities Fund. The Landfill Communities Fund (formerly the Landfill Tax Credit Scheme) allows landfill operators to support the maintenance and development of community assets. In any given project, 90% of the funding can come from the Landfill Communities Fund but the last 10% must come from another source, known as a Contributing Third Party (CTP).

6.80.

SGRPID (Scottish Government Rural Payment and Inspections Directorate) operates a number of land management schemes which could be used to help support measures to conserve and enhance the agricultural landscape of the corridor outwith key wetland areas. The Land Management Contract scheme (forming Tier 2 of the Rural Development Contracts introduced under the Scottish Rural Development Programme) provides a menu of funding measures including: • training;

6.81.

farm and woodland visits;

habitat creation in buffer areas;

management of linear features such as hedges and ditches;

development of the access network;

woodland creation and management;

management to favour wild birds.

The third tier of Rural Development Contracts will encourage measures delivering specific high value benefits.

Scottish Forestry Grant Scheme 6.82.

The Scottish Forestry Grant Scheme closed in 2006 and is to be replaced by a new grant system which will be integrated with the Rural Development Contracts described above. Woodlands In and Around Towns (WIAT) grant funding is included within this review, with new arrangements to be introduced in the near future.

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Scottish Natural Heritage 6.83.

The Attractive Places to Live Grant provides up to half funding for a wide range of greenspace projects. Types of greenspace projects which will be supported include: ƒ

using green space for community learning and development;

ƒ

setting up and developing partnerships to get communities involved in creating and improving green space;

ƒ

audits and strategies for green space;

ƒ

community consultations to support better planning, design and management of green space;

ƒ

transforming underused and undervalued land (including vacant and derelict land) to help people and wildlife; and

ƒ

developing community green spaces which promote communities taking part in nature conservation.

6.84.

The priorities for funding will be given to projects which are in and around towns and cities of more than 3000 people, to projects that target disadvantaged communities and groups and areas where the quality of the environment is poor and to projects that support the development of the Greenspace for Communities Initiative.

6.85.

Funding is available to community groups; voluntary-sector organisations; local authorities and people who are able to contribute to the aims of the scheme

6.86.

Involving People provides grants for projects that encourage people to get involved in the natural heritage. These grants will cover up to half of the total eligible cost of the projects. Types of projects that will be supported include: •

projects that raise awareness and understanding of the natural heritage , and how it adds to quality of life;

projects that increase opportunities for children and adults to actively learn and care about the natural heritage through first-hand experience;

projects that encourage more communities, individuals and professional groups to get involved in looking after the natural heritage.

6.87.

Funding is available to community and voluntary groups; schools and educational groups; local authorities; land managers; site managers and groups representing countryside professionals. Applications from businesses will also be considered if they can show clear benefits to the public.

6.88.

Supporting Biodiversity provides grants for projects that contribute towards improving biodiversity. These grants will cover up to half of the total eligible cost of the projects. Projects should help towards improving, protecting and managing native species and habitats, restoring habitats that have been lost, and helping all people to care about biodiversity. This scheme will support: •

actions set out in the Strategy Implementation Plans supporting the Scottish Biodiversity Strategy and Local Biodiversity Action Plans (LBAPs);

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actions which help the ‘habitats and species of principal importance’ on the Scottish list, and those on the United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan (UKBAP) list of priority habitats and species;

managing and controlling non-native species, especially invasive species (those which threaten native species); and

biological recording and sharing biodiversity data (information).

6.89.

Funding is available to community groups, individuals, organisations and other people who are able to contribute to the aims of the scheme. Applications from businesses will also be considered if they can show clear benefits to the public.

6.90.

Paths and Routes provides grants for paths and routes that help provide opportunities for people to enjoy the natural heritage. These grants will cover up to half of the total eligible cost of the projects, and up to 75% for projects that reflect SNH priorities. Grants are available to make sure that paths and routes are suitable for all ages and abilities. Types of projects which will be supported include: •

building and improving paths, particularly close to where people live;

providing signposts, waymarkers, gates, bridges and other structures which help to make access to land and water easier;

good management of long-distance routes;

path work to protect and restore the landscape;

advice, guidance and training on technical design and management;

monitoring through equipment, focus groups, questionnaires and other surveys.

6.91.

Funding is available to community groups, land managers, recreation groups and local authorities. Applications from businesses will also be considered if they can show clear benefits to the public.

6.92.

Funding will not be considered if the project could be financed through the Land Management Contract or Forestry Grant schemes.

6.93.

Waters for Life provides grants for using and managing fresh waters, coasts and seas in a sustainable way. Projects which will be supported should help to promote sustainable approaches to managing fresh waters, coasts and seas or develop new techniques and approaches to tackle issues affecting their long-term health and use. Types of projects in relation to fresh waters which will be supported include: •

restoring damaged fresh waters and wetlands;

maintaining the natural state of rivers, lochs and wetlands;

restoring depleted populations of native fish species and improving their habitats as part of the programmes to conserve species;

developing ways of using natural processes to manage flood risk, such as restoring wetlands;

improving information on the ability of fresh waters to support different kinds of recreation.

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6.94.

Funding is available to community groups, voluntary sector organisations, local authorities and other people who are able to contribute to the aims of the scheme.

Voluntary Action Fund 6.95.

GO4 Volunteering provides funding to help small voluntary organisations and community groups that rely on volunteers to be more effective and confident in involving volunteers. Grants of up to ÂŁ2000 are available for small organisation (income under ÂŁ50,000 per annum). Grants are targeted at supporting the involvement of volunteers in volunteer driven organisations and may include support for training of volunteers, development of volunteers in running the organisation, information materials for new volunteers, etc.

European Funding 6.96.

The European Structural Funds are designed to assist areas of the European Union that compare unfavourably with the Union's average levels of prosperity. European Regional Development Fund (Objective 2)

6.97.

Objective 2 is the second highest level of funding available from the EU and aims to support the economic and social conversion of areas facing structural difficulties. This includes urban and rural areas where traditional industries are in decline and new sources of employment must be found.

6.98.

The European Regional Development Fund is used to provide help in the form of grants towards project costs. These grants are set at the minimum level required to allow the project to go ahead. As a general rule, however, the European Union contributes no more than 50 per cent of the eligible cost. The rest of the funding, known as 'match funding', comes from other sources such as regional development agencies, local authorities, government schemes including the Single Regeneration Budget, other public bodies and the private sector. European Social Fund (Objective 3)

6.99.

European social funding helps disadvantaged groups in the community who, for a variety of reasons, are excluded both economically and socially. The project aims to develop skills and labour markets so that firms, workers and people who are facing exclusion improve their skills, adapt to new working conditions, and compete more effectively in global labour markets.

6.100. European social funding pays for a proportion (usually 45 per cent) of a project's costs. The remaining amount (usually 55 per cent) is known as match funding. Monies from both public and private sources can create the required match funding but at least 10 per cent must be provided by a public authority.

Charitable trusts and other private grant giving bodies 6.101. One example is the Esmee Fairburn Foundation, which aims to improve quality of life for communities. Provides grants for environmental programmes that contribute

90


towards national and local biodiversity objectives and projects that help reduce carbon emissions.

Corporate Sponsorship 6.102. Another potential source of funding for projects is corporate sponsorship, approaching major private sector interests in the wider area to seek support for elements of the project.�

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MANAGEMENT ACTION PLAN

Woodend and Lochend Lochs Image courtesy of GERA

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7.

MANAGEMENT ACTION PLAN

7.1.

This chapter translates the strategic objectives into an action programme for the study area with emphasis on the area within the proposed ‘Wetland Park’. This action programme has been developed on a zonal basis and for each zone proposals have been made for the conservation and enhancement of the area and improvements in access and interpretation. These proposals respond to the local characteristics and variations throughout the area. A final group of actions relate to the implementation guidance set out in Section 6.

7.2.

The zonal framework illustrated in Figure 7.1 has seven types of strategic action within the proposed Wetland Park area. These strategic actions can be summarised as follows: •

Zone Type A: development and enhancement of intensive recreational and visitor facilities with heritage interpretation, and education associated with the lochs, wetlands and designed landscapes: Zone A1: Hogganfield. Zone A2: Drumpellier Country Park. Zone A3: Blairtummock Park.

Zone Type B: conservation, management and interpretation of wet woodlands and mosses: Zone B1: Cardowan Woodlands. Zone B2: Commonhead Woodland.

Zone Type C: conservation, management and interpretation of open water and wetland corridors: Zone C1: Frankfield Loch. Zone C2: Craigendmuir. Zone C3: Heathfield and Johnston Loch. Zone C4: Bishop and Woodend Lochs. Zone C5: Bothlin Burn.

Zone Type D: Open water, habitat creation, visitor centre and education facilities with associated infrastructure: Zone D: Gartloch.

Zone Type E: conservation of agricultural landscape and landuses with rural recreation developments: Zone E1: Blackfaulds. Zone E2: Gartloch North. Zone E3: Lochwood. Zone E4: Heathfield.

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Zone E5: Woodhead. Zone E6: Mount Ellen. Zone E7: Netherhouse. •

Zone Type F: integrated development and conservation of Gartloch Hospital site including management of designed landscape features: Zone F1: Gartloch Hospital.

Zone Type G: integrated development of the Gartcosh Business Interchange site including habitat management, access improvements and development of LNR Zone G1: Gartcosh Business Interchange.

Scale of Costs 7.3.

The following table outlines scales of cost as follows: A- up to £50,000; B- £50-000 to £250,000 C- above £250,000.

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Š Crown copyright and database right 2012. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence Number 1000332510

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Zone

A1: Hogganfield

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Bring Hogganfield woodlands into positive management; remove dead Elms.

3, 6

GCC; FCS; SNH; (BTCV)

M

S

A

Introduce greater biodiversity to Lethamhill Golf Course in conjunction with design modifications to reduce linearity of fairways with better fit to topography and historic landuse.

3, 4

GCC; Scottish Golf Environment Group: Lethamhill Golf Club; (BTCV)

M

S

A

Local repairs to boundary walls and historic gateways to match original quality and detailing.

3, 6

GCC; HS; (BTCV)

M

M

A

Improve visitor facilities as western gateway to the area. Introduce strategic interpretation for the proposed Wetland Park and Wetland Centre – indicating the scope and significance of wetland habitats, access linkages/trail routes and facility provision at other sites.

1, 4, 5, 7

GCC; SNH; RSPB; WWT

H

M

B

Utilise ‘Bird Day’ and potentially develop new events to help promote and interpret the Wetland Park/Wetland habitats.

1, 4, 6

GCC; SNH; RSPB; WWT

H

S

A

4, 6

GCC; SNH

H

M

A

Develop pedestrian/cyclist access links from Hogganfield to Frankfield and beyond.

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Zone

A2: Drumpellier Country Park

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Improvements to Hogganfield Loch wetland habitats and wildfowl protection measures.

1, 2

GCC; SNH; RSPB; WWT; (BTCV)

M

M

A

Prepare detailed conservation-management plan for the Drumpellier Country Park designed landscape.

1, 3

NLC; Historic Scotland

H

M

A

Preserve and reinforce historic spatial patterns of the Drumpellier designed landscape: avoiding fragmentations/severance of woodlands, introduce positive woodland management which reflects the local differences in woodland groups.

3, 6

NLC; FCS; CSFT; Historic Scotland; (BTCV)

H

M/L

B

Examine the potential to reintroduce livestock to former pastoral enclosures (or introduce equestrian activities) to reinforce the estate character and history of Drumpellier.

3

NLC; SNH; SGRPID

M

M

A

Improve visitor facilities at the eastern ‘gateway’ to the Wetland Park including interpretation of the Wetland Park, its wetlands and associated access network (starting from Drumpellier).

1, 4, 5

NLC; Historic Scotland; RSPB; WWT

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B


Zone

A3: Blairtummock Park B1: Cardowan Woodlands

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Promote and improve access links westwards into the Regional Park and south-eastwards into Coatbridge via the Monkland Canal corridor: potentially linking to Summerlee Industrial Heritage Park.

4, 5

NLC; SNH; Historic Scotland; British Waterways

H

M/L

B

Implement the findings of the Blairtummock Park Regeneration Study.

3, 5, 6, 7

GCC

M

M

B

2, 3, 4, 5, 6

GCC; CSFT; SNH

M

M

B

Develop and enhance historic road as public access route into the Wetland Park from the west (Hogganfield). Incorporate way markers.

4, 5

GCC; SNH

H

S-M

A

Restore/repair old walls which line the above road.

3, 5

GCC

M

M

A/B

Create informal access circuits through woodland linking to Craigend and Garthamlock. Incorporate way markers.

4, 5

GCC; FCS; SNH

M

M

A

Introduce positive management of scrub woodlands and reclamation plantations with potential to serve as community woodland for Craigend/Garthamlock. Maintain and develop informal open spaces, meadow and moss areas within the woodland.

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Zone

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

3, 6

GCC; NLC; FCS; SNH

H

S

A

2, 3, 6

GCC; FCS; SNH; (BTCV)

M

M

A

Develop pedestrian access links through woodland from Commonhead Road/M73 overbridge to Bishop Loch and Lochwood area of Easterhouse.

4, 5

GCC; SNH; (BTCV)

M

M

A

Prepare wetland habitat management plans for the Wetland Zones C1 – C5. These should provide a detailed baseline from which proposals for habitat creation or enhancement can be developed. This would include targets for plant species, birds, mammals, amphibians, fish and invertebrates. Site management measures would vary from one zone to another in response to local conditions and opportunities.

1, 2, 4

GCC; NLC; SNH; RSPB; WWT; SEPA

H

S

A

Management planning for environmental assets. B2: Commonhead Woodland

C: Frankfield Loch, Craigendmuir, Heathfield and Johnston Loch, Bothlin Burn, Bishop and Woodend Lochs

Introduce positive management to Commonhead wet woodland to control invasive species and introduce glades/informal open spaces for biodiversity.

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Zone

Actions

Implement wetland habitat enhancement/creation measures stemming from habitat management plans. Typical measures may include: •

creation of additional areas of open water through changes in drainage management (e.g. blocking ditches) or excavation and impoundment associated with SUDS schemes;

reed planting or cutting to achieve optimal colonisation of open water areas;

management planning for the SSSI to address the unfavourable status of the marginal vegetation at Bishop Loch;

rush cutting to maintain heterogeneity of marshy grassland for nesting and feeding wildfowl, waders and crakes;

provision of nesting islands for gulls, wildfowl and waders;

mink trapping to protect water vole population;

provision of fishing perches for kingfisher;

reintroduction of livestock to maintain areas of floodplain grazing marsh;

100

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

1, 2, 4

GCC; NLC; SNH; RSPB; WWT; SEPA

M-H

M-L

B


Zone

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Introduce new access routes including boardwalks to allow appreciation and study of the wetland habitats without disturbance.

1, 4, 5

GCC; NLC; SNH

M

M

B-C

Introduce strategic interpretation stations, hides and way markers.

1, 4, 5

GCC; NLC; SNH; RSPB; WWT

M

M

B

•

monitoring and control of drainage discharges to ensure water quality;

•

increase uncultivated margins to lochs where agriculture is in close proximity.

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Zone

D: Gartloch

Actions

Implement wetland habitat enhancement/creation measures stemming from habitat management plans. Typical measures may include: •

creation of additional areas of open water through changes in drainage management (e.g. blocking ditches) or excavation and impoundment associated with SUDS schemes;

reed planting or cutting to achieve optimal colonisation of open water areas;

rush cutting to maintain heterogeneity of marshy grassland for nesting and feeding wildfowl, waders and crakes;

provision of nesting islands for gulls, wildfowl and waders;

mink trapping to protect water vole population;

provision of fishing perches for kingfisher;

reintroduction of livestock to maintain areas of floodplain grazing marsh;

monitoring and control of drainage discharges to ensure water quality.

102

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

1, 2, 4

GCC; NLC; SNH; RSPB; WWT; SEPA

M-H

M-L

B-C


Zone

E1: Blackfaulds

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Commission design and feasibility study for a ‘Wetland Centre’ which reviews candidates sites (maximum 3 no.) including the preferred site to the west of Bishop Loch/Gartloch Hospital.

1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7

GCC/NLC Partnership; RSPB; SNH; WWT

H

S

A

Develop a feasibility study/business plan to determine the appropriate location for purposebuilt Wetland Centre as the focus for visitor activity and education incorporating a new sustainable design visitor centre; new wetland habitats; access infrastructure for all abilities; educational facilities; recreation facilities; car parking and linkages to other parts of the Wetland Park. This could potentially involve redevelopment of the abandoned farmland to the west of Gartloch Hospital utilising the existing watercourses/ditches as the basis for water supply.

1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7

GCC/NLC Partnership; RSPB; SNH; WWT

H

M/L

D+

Restore gaps in Hawthorn hedgerows and bring overgrown hedges back into management.

3

GCC; SNH; SGRPID

M

M-L

A

Restore tree lines to hedgerows using Ash 70%, Oak 20% and Sycamore 10%. Remove diseased Elms.

3

GCC; SNH; SGRPID

M

M-L

A

Support reintroduction of agriculture in abandoned/underutilised areas.

3

GCC; SNH; SGRPID

H

M-L

-

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Zone

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

2, 3

GCC; SNH; SGRPID

M

M-L

A-B

3

GCC; FCS

H

M

A

Examine the potential for countryside recreation, e.g. equestrian or cycling in abandoned fields or reclaimed areas.

3, 5

GCC; SNH

M

M-L

A

Develop strategic viewpoint on reclaimed mound.

4, 5

GCC; SNH

L

M-L

A

Develop access routes between Gartloch and Craigendmuir with way markers.

4, 5

GCC; SNH

H

M

B

Reinstate agriculture to recently abandoned fields. Potential site for GCC Highland Cattle Herd.

3

GCC; SNH; SGRPID

M

M-L

A-B

Introduce positive management to mature Baillie Moss Wood and to tree belts south of farm.

3

GCC; FCS

M

M-L

A

Introduce pedestrian access routes and way marking through the farmland allowing connections to Bishop Loch from Lochend Road and from Commonhead Road.

4, 5

GCC; SNH

H

M-L

A-B

Agri-environmental improvements potentially using Land Management Grants for meadow creation, small wetlands, uncultivated field margins. E2: Gartloch North

E3: Lochwood

Introduce positive management to mature woodland belts and reclamation plantations.

104


Zone

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

2, 3

GCC; SNH; RSPB; WWT

H

M

A

Restore Hawthorn hedgerows and initiate tree line replacements.

3

GCC, FCS, SNH

H

M-L

A

Management planning for environmental assets.

3, 6

GCC; NLC; FCS; SNH

H

S

A

Introduce positive management of woodland belts.

3

GCC; FCS

M

M-L

A

Consider the extension of woodland belts to create wildlife corridors and to achieve spatial enclosure/screening.

3

GCC; FCS

M

M-L

A

Encourage/support or require a conservationmanagement plan and heritage impact assessment for the Gartloch designed landscape and policy woodlands. This should address the protection of site features, mitigation of new development impacts on the heritage of Gartloch, and make proposals for the long term maintenance of historic infrastructure such as drives, gateways, walls and estate fences.

3, 7

GCC; SNH; HS; FCS

H

S

A

Management planning for environmental assets.

3, 6

GCC; NLC; FCS; SNH

H

S

A

Enhance and manage the Bishop Loch margin for biodiversity.

E4: Heathfield

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Zone

E5: Woodhead

E6: Mount Ellen

E7: Netherhouse

F: Gartloch Hospital

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Introduce positive management of woodland belts.

3

NLC; FCS

M

M-L

A

Examine the potential for countryside recreation, e.g. equestrian or cycling.

3, 5

NLC; SNH

M

M-L

A

3

GCC; FCS

H

M

A

Examine the potential for countryside recreation, e.g. equestrian or cycling.

3, 5

NLC; SNH

M

M-L

A

Improve the biodiversity value of Mount Ellen golf course.

3, 4

NLC; SNH: Mount Ellen Golf Club; (BTCV)

M

S

A

3

GCC; FCS

H

M

A

Improvements of the connections between the area and Drumpellier Country Park, particularly for cyclists.

3, 5

GCC; NLC,

M

M

A

Integration of the areas existing Green Network with any urban expansion of Easterhouse.

3, 6

GCC; FCS; SNH

H

S

A

3, 4, 5

GCC; SNH

M

M

A-B

Introduce positive management to mature woodland belts and reclamation plantations.

Introduce positive management to mature woodland belts and reclamation plantations.

Promote and develop public access routes through Gartloch to allow appreciation of Bishop Loch and the hospital architecture.

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Zone

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Implement measures proposed by conservationmanagement plan.

3, 7

GCC; SNH; HS; FCS; Site Developer

H

M-L

B

These should ideally allow restoration of historic access routes.

3, 4, 5

GCC. NLC, SNH

M

M-L

B

Develop a strategic access network through the Wetland Park with primary routes running:

1, 4, 5, 6

GCC; NLC

H

M-L

B-C

3, 6

GCC; NLC; FCS; SNH

H

S

A

East-West: between Hogganfield and Drumpellier Country Park, and between Garthamlock and Gartcosh (parallel to Gartcosh Road);

North-South: between Easterhouse and Craigendmuir (via Gartloch Hospital). Secondary routes should create local circuits and designated routes for equestrians, mountain bikes.

Management planning for environmental assets.

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Zone

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

2,4,5,6

NLC; SNH; SEL

H

S-M

A/B

Develop and promote the Gartcosh LNR to provide recreational and educational resources for local people and employees.

2,4,5,6

NLC; SNH; SEL

H

S-M

A/B

Ensure the biodiversity value of the surrounding areas is not compromised during development or operation of the site.

2,4,5,6

NLC; SNH; SEL

H

S-M

A/B

Encourage SUDS schemes to be developed at a site level rather than on an individual basis to maximise the potential for improving biodiversity value.

2,4,5,6

NLC; SEL

H

S-M

A/B

Biodiversity

Habitat survey of the whole corridor and linkage of findings to the Integrated Habitat Network findings to inform future developments.

3,4

GCC, NLC, SNH

H

S

A

Biodiversity

Combine all existing species records for the area into a single datasource.

3,4

GCC, NLC, SNH

H

S

A

Biodiversity

Management planning for environmental assets for all zones, except E4, E5, E6, E7 and G1

3,4

GCC, NLC, SNH

H

S

A

G1: Gartcosh Develop high quality pedestrian and cycle links to Business Interchange the site to connect the new communities planned at the CGAs.

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Zone

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Access

Undertake baseline survey analysis on visitor numbers, both from counters and surveys.

1,3,5

GCC; NLC

H

S-M

A

1, 4, 5, 6

GCC; NLC

M

M

A

Establish partnership and partnership organisation.

1,2,3,4,5,6,7

GCC, NLC, GCVGNP lead with involvement of all

High

Short

A

Implementation

Appoint project officer.

1,2,3,4,5,6,7

Partnership

High

Short

A

Implementation

Establish key policy links.

1,2,3,4,5,6,7

Project Officer

High

Short

A

Implementation

Summary of the Strategy.

1,2,3,4,5,6,7

Partnership

High

Short

A

Implementation

CPD, seminars and workshops.

1,2,3,4,5,6,7

Project officer

High

Short

A

Implementation

Liaison with development interests.

1,7

Partnership

High

Short

A

Implementation

Branding and marketing.

4,5

Project officer with involvement of community and other partners

High

Shortmedium

B

Promote minor roads for cycling, e.g. at Netherhouse.

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Zone

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Implementation

Develop skills and training strategy.

6

Project officer with key training and development enterprises, and environmental implementation organisations

High

Short

B

Implementation

Develop volunteering initiatives.

6

Project officer with key training and development enterprises, and environmental implementation organisations

High

Shortmedium ongoing

B

Implementation

Develop training initiatives.

6

Project officer with key training and development enterprises, and environmental implementation organisations

High

Shortmedium ongoing

B

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Zone

Actions

Objectives

Lead Organisations

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

Implementation

Develop community enterprise support.

6

Project officer with key training and development enterprises, and environmental implementation organisations

High

Shortmedium ongoing

B

Implementation

Develop support for new businesses.

6

Project officer with Scottish Enterprise and other partners

High

Shortmedium ongoing

B

Implementation

Establish educational links.

6

Project officer with GCC and NLC Education

High

Short

A

Implementation

Forest Schools.

6

Project officer with GCC, NLC and FCS

High

Shortmedium ongoing

A

Implementation

Eco Schools.

6

Project officer with GCC and NLC Education

High

Shortmedium ongoing

A

Implementation

Incorporate Wetland Park and Wetland Centre proposals into Local Plans.

7

GCC and NLC

High

Medium

A

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Zone

Actions

Objectives

Implementation

Develop joint or co-ordinated supplementary planning guidance setting out aspirations for the area and masterplans and design briefs for key components of the area.

7

Implementation

Priority

Timescale

Scale of Costs

GCC and NLC

High

Short

A

Use development management processes to 7 secure high quality development and significant offsite benefits.

GCC and NLC

High

Short ongoing

A

Implementation

Develop SUDS as an integrated element of the wetlands environment.

2, 7

GCC, NLC and SEPA, with development interests

High

Shortmedium

B

Implementation

Monitor funding sources to identify opportunities relating to the Wetland Park and Wetlands Centre.

1

Project officer

High

Ongoing

A

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Lead Organisations


T:\41\4147 GCC GartlochGartcosh Corridor GNS\Docs\Report\Final Report 11th Jan\G-G Final Report 23rd Jan.doc

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APPENDIX 1 Policy Analysis


National Level Planning Policy SPP1: The Planning System sets the overall framework for planning policy in Scotland, and places emphasis on protecting and enhancing the quality of the environment as an overall part of sustainable development. It also emphasises the importance of the condition of our surroundings in contributing to quality of life. The role of regeneration, restoration and opportunities for access to open spaces are noted as important aspects of proactive planning. In addition, NPPG14 Natural Heritage (1998) highlights the importance of the natural heritage in contributing to social and economic well being. It also states that local communities should be involved in maintaining and enhancing the environment. Policies specific to open space include the Consultative Draft SPP11: Physical Activity and Open Space which will shortly supersede NPPG 11: Sport Recreation and Open Space (1996). SPP11 seeks to protect and enhance open space for sport and other types of physical activity by requiring local authorities to undertake an open space audit and prepare a strategy for their area which will inform the development plan. ‘This SPP encourages good urban design and networks of high quality open spaces. These should be safe, welcoming, appealing, distinctive, well connected environments. Within settlements this should include spaces that can be used by everyone, regardless of age, gender or disability’. SPP11: Physical Activity and Open Space PAN65: Open Space (2003) gives advice on the role of the planning system in protecting and enhancing existing open spaces and providing high quality new spaces. In particular it outlines the need to ensure that the desires of the local community are taken into account when considering local open space. It emphasises that community involvement in the design, management and maintenance of open spaces can build a sense of shared ownership of the public realm, reducing vandalism and anti-social behaviour and increasing safety. It provides further guidance for local authorities on auditing and developing policies for open space. It also provides the starting point for a typology of open space, which has been developed further by the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Structure Plan Team in partnership with SNH. Overall national planning policy focuses on the enhancement of urban environments for economic, social and environmental benefit. The role of open space, with greenspace as a component of this, can be as part of regeneration or restoration or created in its own right with resulting benefits for both communities and biodiversity. Better Communities in Scotland: Closing the Gap (2002) is the Scottish Executive’s statement on community regeneration which seeks to narrow inequalities and opportunity gaps across Scotland. The statement highlights the importance of physical improvement projects within social regeneration programmes. It also emphasises the use of neighbourhood-management approaches in delivering environmental improvement work related to problems such as litter and graffiti. Paragraph 13 states that ‘research has also shown that disadvantaged communities often


have real concerns about this type of low-level environmental issue in their local community, and tackling them can be an effective way to start to build the confidence of communities and to start to make changes’. ‘Let’s Make Scotland More Active’ (2003) is Scotland’s strategy for physical activity. The Strategy notes that currently the health of two-thirds of the Scottish population is at risk due to physical inactivity which makes it the most common risk factor for coronary heart disease. Strategic Objective 1 is ‘to develop and maintain long-lasting, high-quality physical environments to support inactive people to become active’. The Strategy notes that many of the barriers to physical activity are environmental including safety concerns, traffic fumes and a lack of paths and open spaces. As such it notes that environmental improvement policies are essential to help people become active in their everyday lives, including development that helps people walk and cycle. In 2005 the Scottish Executive published Going Green for Growth: a green jobs strategy for Scotland (2005). The strategy builds on the 2004 documents Framework for Economic Growth in Scotland2 and A Smart Successful Scotland: Strategic direction to the Enterprise Network3. It provides guidance on how ‘green’ jobs can provide economic benefits across a broad range of sectors. These include the development of opportunities in biofuels; construction and sustainable design; and ecotourism and outdoor recreation. Scotland’s Biodiversity: it’s in your hands (2004) sets out the framework for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland. It reinforces the role that all partners can play in increasing biodiversity and makes the links between nature conservation, access, learning and healthy living. The ‘agenda for action’ includes enhancing ‘biodiversity in all transport corridors, and public and private greenspace through public and private sector initiatives’ (page 41). The potential for linking urban greenspace and transport corridors to rural habitats is also highlighted as an exciting possibility for the future. Scottish Natural Heritage’s Natural Heritage Futures documents set out a framework for the future management of the natural heritage towards 2025. The Natural Heritage Futures priorities for the River Clyde are set out within the West Central Belt Prospectus. These priorities can be used to inform local level strategies such as Biodiversity Action Plans, they can also provide a framework for development and community plans. The West Central Belt Prospectus sets out nine objectives for the natural heritage. This includes Objective 1, which aims to ‘ensure that developments complement and enhance local landscapes and wildlife and use open space to create environments of value to the natural heritage’. Within this objective actions include ‘making use of high quality greenspace management, attractive town environments and opportunities for access to the countryside, as a means of attracting new business development’. Objective 2 focuses on the ‘sustainable reuse of vacant and derelict land’ and Objective 3 seeks to ‘maintain and enhance urban greenspace’. Key actions within Objective 3 include: 2 3

http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/09/19828/41869 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/11/20246/46555

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provide urban greenspace networks through strategic projects;

• •

encourage the use of greenspaces for physical exercise; ensure that all sectors of the community are able to use greenspace and the countryside; manage and promote the existing LNR network; create new Community Woodlands; and Involve local communities in the design and management of their local greenspace.

• • •

Regional Policy Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network The Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor is encompassed by the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan 2006 and the local administrative areas of Glasgow City Council and South Lanarkshire Council. A key theme of the Joint Structure plan is the creation of ‘A Green Network’, to be created through linkage and improved management of greenspace. The plan anticipates that the network will comprise current environmental assets as well as the reclamation of derelict land and measures to exploit the potential of underused land. The key aims of the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network are identified in the Business Plan of the Green Network Partnership. The plan states that a Green Network Programme would aim to improve the competitiveness of Glasgow’s metropolitan by enhancing the area as a place to work, live and invest. This would be achieved by encouraging social inclusion and improvements in community life quality, reinforcing and enhancing the biodiversity value of greenspace across the Glasgow metropolitan area and developing more sustainable infrastructure and lifestyles. The Structure Plan Technical Report on Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Green Network (2006) emphasises the importance of including Green Network priorities within the current Masterplans for the Waterfront and Clyde Gateway areas. A number of strategic actions are also detailed within the Technical Report including the following for the Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor: “Major landscape restructuring to create the showpiece landscape of the “Clyde Valley Community Forest” involving significant woodland planting and management, wetland habitat restoration and creation of an extensive access network with restructured farms.” The GCV Green Network Partnership is a partnership that has been created to facilitate and add value to the work of organisations that are already working on greenspace improvement. The partnership aims to achieve this through being a catalyst and facilitator, building further partnerships, securing alignment resources, identifying and demonstrating


good practises, track and assessing emerging needs and opportunities and disseminating information4 The GCV Green Network Plan the Network Partnership has two explicit aims: •

to promote a strategic, partnership approach to the development, planning and delivery of the GCV Green Network Programme; and

to secure the full and timely delivery of the GCV Green Network Programme to high quality standards that achieves the aims and objectives of the Programme.

COMMUNITY GROWTH AREAS Community Growth Areas (CGAs) are a concept identified in the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Structure Plan (still awaiting approval from Ministers) to provide for the current shortfalls in housing land. The areas identified as CGAs relevant to this study are the Easterhouse/Gartloch CGA and the Gartcosh & Glenboig CGA. The Easterhouse/Gartloch and Gartcosh & Glenboig CGAs have proposed housing allocations of 1400 and 3000 respectively. These developments will have a significant impact on the character of the area through changes in landuse. They will therefore be subject to extensive masterplanning processes to determine development sites and infrastructure requirements. The CGAs will form the new settlement boundaries in Gartcosh Gartloch on the Glasgow and North Lanarkshire sides of the border. At present, this report uses existing settlement boundaries for any proposals. These will be amended through the development of the masterplans for the areas.

Local Policy Glasgow City Plan Glasgow’s City Plan 2 is currently at the Finalised Draft Stage and has not yet been formally adopted. Much of the Gartcosh Gartloch Corridor is designated as Greenbelt in the Glasgow City Plan 2. Policy ENV3 states that: In accordance with policy DEV 12: Green Belt, there is a presumption against development that would adversely affect the function and integrity of the Green Belt. Development within the Green Belt, which complies with one or more of the following criteria, will be considered where the proposal: • •

supports the Plan’s Development Strategy and is promoted through the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Joint Structure Plan; is directly associated with, and required for, agriculture, horticulture or forestry;

4

GLASGOW & CLYDE VALLEY GREEN NETWORK Business Plan 2007-10. Appendix 1- Memorandum of Understanding

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• •

is for leisure or recreational developments, of a scale and form appropriate to a countryside location, or other development previously accepted as and consistent with a green belt location, such as dog or cat kennels; is for a dwelling house to replace an occupied or recently vacated building; and is directly associated with telecommunications and/or required for existing approved uses (see policy IB 8: Telecommunications).

Development, acceptable in principle, will also require to meet all of the following criteria: •

• • •

The development should not adversely affect any area covered by an Environmental Designation (see Environmental Policy Designations Maps and policy ENV 7: Regional and Local Environmental Designations); The development should integrate with the landscape and be finished in materials appropriate to the location, without detriment to the visual amenity of the area; The completed conversion or redevelopment should be contained substantially within the shell of original structure(s); It should have no adverse impact on the residential amenity of neighbours, landscape character, local distinctiveness, visual amenity or the enjoyment and recreational use of the countryside; and It should not have a negative impact on water courses, water supply, traffic and access requirements nor increase the risk of pollution.

The importance of furthering the Greenspace Network is reiterated within the Glasgow City Finalised Draft Plan (May 2007). The Plan adopts a system of Development Policy Principles to guide new development. Development Policy DEV11 relates to Greenspace and states that: “The areas designated ‘GREEN SPACE’ generally represent the larger permanent green/open spaces serving the City and its resident population and visitors. These, and the numerous smaller open spaces that can be found within other Development Policy Principle Designations, particularly DEV 2: Residential and Supporting Uses, make up the City’s green network and contribute to biodiversity. All green/open space areas (regardless of their size or purpose) are functionally important elements of Glasgow’s green infrastructure (see Environmental Designations Maps and the Council’s PAN 65 Map (see Definition)). There is a strong presumption in favour of the retention of all public and private green/open space (see policy ENV 1: Open Space Protection)” The aim of the Policy ENV1 – Open Space Protection is “To ensure that areas of formal and informal open space are protected from inappropriate development, in order to maintain or enhance the quality of life, health, well being and amenity of the communities they serve and also promote sustainability and biodiversity.” The policy goes on to state that: “In accordance with policy DEV 11: Green Space, there is a strong presumption in favour of the retention of all public and private green/open space, except where they are included in the effective land supply for housing, industry and business and other uses (see also policy DEV 2: Residential and Supporting Uses).


Protection is accorded to the following categories of open space as identified on the Council’s PAN 65 Open Space Map (see Definition). 1. Public parks and gardens 2. Communal private gardens (see Definition) 3. Amenity space 4. Playspace for children and teenagers 5. Sports areas 6. Allotments 7. Green corridors 8. Natural/Semi-natural greenspace 9. Other functional greenspaces 10. Civic space Where exception is made for development on open space within categories 1 to 6, the development should: • either be directly related to the current use(s) of the open space or better serve local community needs by the provision, in the local area, of an area of equivalent, or higher quality open space, to directly replace the type of open space that would be lost (this will require the developer to consult with the local community using consultation methods agreed with the Council); • comply with the requirements of policy ENV 2: Civic and Open Space Provision; • provide for appropriate habitat creation, landscape treatment and subsequent maintenance of the retained or newly created open space; and • not have a negative impact on the distribution of open space within the surrounding area or prejudice any site covered by an Environmental Designation (see policy ENV 7: Regional and Local Environmental Designations). Categories 7 to 10 (above) generally relate to open spaces that are covered by an Environmental Policy Designation (see Environmental Policy Designations Maps and policy ENV 7: Regional and Local Environmental Designations). AREAS OF CHANGE In areas of the City which are, or could be, subject to change, for example, redevelopment in the Key Regeneration Areas, New Neighbourhoods, GHA priority redevelopment areas, etc., some flexibility may be required to permit the re-arrangement of land uses in the interests of designing sustainable neighbourhoods and places. Local development strategies, masterplans, etc. for such areas, prepared in consultation with the local community and approved by the Council, will ensure that appropriate open space provision is provided within the redeveloped areas. Any changes to open space provision will be recorded on the Council’s PAN 65 Open Space Map and the new spaces will be accorded the protection set out in this policy. DEVELOPMENT IN PARKS The potential for the development of commercial facilities (e.g. cafes and restaurants) in parks may be considered where such uses will contribute to improved customer services and increased park usage. Such proposals, where appropriate, should be set within the context of a Park Management Plan.”

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Policy ENV2 provides the guidance on Civic and Open Space Provision states that: “New development (including conversions, changes of use and refurbishments)…that results in the creation of new or replacement additional floorspace, or new housing, is required to provide good quality recreational open space. This includes provision for children’s play areas, amenity open space, outdoor sport facilities, allotments and community gardens and civic space (which includes the public realm) Open and civic space should be provided on-site, wherever possible, as an integral element of the development scheme. In some instances, the Council will expect the entire requirement to be met on site. The degree to which any part of the requirement can be met off-site will depend upon the opportunities that exist within the local area to improve the quality and distribution of open and civic spaces. Off-site solutions may also be appropriate in relation to the conversion of existing buildings, and proposals in the City Centre, where the opportunity to provide open space within the development site may be limited. Any proposed off-site solution must not conflict with other City Plan policies and will be subject to agreement with the Council. New or enhanced civic and open spaces created in association with new development will be incorporated into the Council’s PAN 65 Open Space Map (see Definition) and will be protected by policy ENV 1: Open Space Protection.” City Plan 2 provides detailed guidance on the appropriate quantities of open space that will be expected as part of the construction of a range of different developments. The proposed standards are set out in Appendix 1 of this report. Another important element of the policy framework outlined in City Plan 2 is the Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) Policy. Policy ENV4 aims to “To ensure satisfactory sustainable measures are provided for the management and safe disposal of surface water run-off.” It states that: “All development proposals are required to make satisfactory provision for Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS - see Definition). The only exceptions to this requirement are: • a proposal for a single dwelling; and • proposals for a change of use, which will not result in an increase in surface water run-off from the site. SUDS will be required in association with any open space requirements for a development (see policy ENV 2: Civic and Open Space Provision). The Council expects that the SUDS infrastructure will most likely be integrated into a development’s open space requirement. SUDS proposals should: • incorporate, or connect to, an acceptable overland flood-routing or design exceedance solution (see Definition) agreed by the Council; • be designed to accommodate a 1 in 30 year rainstorm event with the ability to deal with a 1 in 200 year event by safe flood routing; • use agreed methods of surface water run-off collection, treatment, decontamination and disposal;


• not be detrimental to the effectiveness of existing SUDS schemes; • incorporate a design appropriate to the site, particularly where contamination is present, (expert advice should be sought at an early stage); and • incorporate natural and semi-natural elements to enhance environmental amenity and biodiversity. These polices have a strong presumption in favour of protecting existing greenspaces and developing an urban environment which incorporates a ‘Green Network’. This Green Network Strategy builds on these guidelines to help develop a fuller picture of how they should be implemented. North Lanarkshire Local Plan Consultation Draft The North Lanarkshire Draft Local Plan identifies Gartcosh and Glenboig as one of three Community Growth Areas (with potential for up to 3,000 new homes) and North and West Coatbridge as one of three Local Expansion Areas. Gartcosh Business Interchange is highlighted as a regionally important ‘High Amenity Location’ for business and industrial development. All three areas lie on the eastern fringes of the proposed Wetland Park. Section 4 of the plan sets out key policies for the environment, including: •

ENV1 which protects sites of importance for the natural environment and biodiversity (listed in Schedule Env 1C)

ENV3 which promotes improvements to the natural environment and biodiversity and is linked to the Green Network Initiative, development of Country Parks for tourism and countryside recreation, and the development of the access network including Core Paths, linking to the Green Network

ENV6 provides the policy relating to Assessing Development in the Green Belt.

The Glasgow Community Plan 2005-2010 sets out five priority themes for the City, these are: • • • • •

A Working Glasgow A Learning Glasgow A Vibrant Glasgow A Healthy Glasgow A Safe Glasgow

Within each theme there are a number of objectives including for ‘A Vibrant Glasgow’ – ‘a transformed and vibrant Glasgow where people choose to live, where the River Clyde is brought back to life and where Glaswegians are fully involved in the life of the whole city.’ This theme includes ensuring appropriate physical regeneration and environmental improvements ‘to provide a safe, clean sustainable city including adequate provision of community facilities within local areas and a range of recreational, sporting and cultural activities.’ Of particular relevance to greenspace is the ‘Healthy Glasgow’ theme which includes supporting Glaswegians to lead healthy, active lives. In addition, one of the key objectives of ‘A Safe Glasgow’ is to improve safety in public places.

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The North Lanarkshire Culture Strategy 2006-2010 identifies four key cultural themes for the North Lanarkshire area. These are: •

Increase Quality, Accessibility, Participation and Learning;

Celebrate Cultural Diversity & Value Cultural Heritage;

Encourage and Promote Regeneration; and

Celebrate Achievement.

Theme 1 includes relevant key actions, including: “Promote Greenspace Partnerships with CSFT, GGCV Structure Plan partnership, SEL, SNH, Greenhead Moss Community Trust”, while Priority 2 of “Celebrate Cultural Diversity & Value Cultural Heritage” details the need for cultural plans to be included in all local plans. This section then sets out many relevant key actions, and includes a commitment to: “Represent access and biodiversity issues in the development of the local planning process”. Theme 3 -“Encourage and Promote Regeneration” – specifies the need for continued redevelopment of both urban and rural sites, with particular reference to relevant projects such as Summerlee Heritage Park. The North Lanarkshire Community Plan 2004-2008 identifies five key themes for the North Lanarkshire area. These are: •

Jobs, Business and the Economy;

Learning through Life;

Health, Wellbeing and Care;

Housing and the Environment; and

Community Safety.

A separate section, designated as: “Our Vision: North Lanarkshire in 2015”, sets out the ambitions for the area, including: “A place people want to live because of …. the quality and accessibility of the natural environment, and the quality of amenities and services in the area.” “A place where people live well because the health, well-being, and life chances of its people are as good as those elsewhere in Scotland.” “A place where children and young people are safe, nurtured, healthy, achieving, active, respected, responsible and included.” Within each theme, there are specific environmental objectives, priorities, targets and aims; with particular reference in the “Health, Wellbeing and Care” and “Housing and the Environment” key themes. Health, Wellbeing and Care includes many relevant aims, including: “Working with local communities and the voluntary sector, create and sustain safe, well-used


greenspaces”; while placing emphasis on both community regeneration and empowering individuals to lead a healthy lifestyle, with a priority to “Increase participation in physical exercise”. Housing and the Environment is of particular relevance to the Green Network, with many of the introductory focus points leading to Key Objective 2: “developing a good quality, biodiverse and easily accessible environment”. A target regarding the completion of major investment in areas including: Open Space, Cycle and Walkway improvements and The Central Scotland Forest has also been set. The NL Community Plan 2004-2008 also address relevant areas of Community Safety and states the importance of Community Regeneration projects, as a way of improving the physical environment of the area and empowering communities to maximize their use of Open and Public Spaces. Local Biodiversity Action Plans Both Glasgow City Council and North Lanarkshire Council have Local Biodiversity Action Plans which contain the Species and Habitat Action Plans for area. These LBAP Species and Habitat plans are important tools in implementing the UK Biodiversity Action Plan at the local level. Priority Habitats identified in the Glasgow LBAP include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Broadleaf and mixed woodland; Wet woodland; Neutral grassland; Acid grassland; Dwarf shrub heath; Fens; Marsh; Swamp; Reedbeds; Raised bog; Standing open water; Rivers and streams; Boundary features; Built up areas; and Gardens.

The priority habitats are split into four broad categories in the North Lanarkshrie LBAP. These contain a number of other Habitat Plans under the headings of: • • • •

Woodland; Mosses; Floodplain grazing marsh; Rivers and burns.

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These Habitat Plans are accompanied and supported by a wide range of Species Plans for Plants; Insects; Fish; Amphibians; Birds; and Mammals. The improvement of the Gartcosh Gartloch corridor for biodiversity could help contribute to the aims of the LBAPs by improving both habitats in themselves and as areas for the important species to thrive. Glasgow Parks and Open Spaces Strategic Best Value Review and Implementation Plan The Best Value Review carried out in 2005 identifies eight recommendations for the parks of Glasgow. These are: 1. To deliver a clear commitment to encourage greater use of parks; 2. To introduce a range of measures that will deliver service improvements in line with the Council’s Key Objectives and customer expectations; 3. To develop and enhance the range of facilities and amenities within parks through partnership working and other approaches; 4. To reconfigure the service to deliver quality and best value; 5. To deliver a comprehensive parks service through education and conservation initiatives, preservation of traditional parkland, promotion of horticultural excellence and defining service standards; 6. To create a better understanding and awareness of the parks service through improved marketing and promotion; 7. To communicate effectively with staff, external agencies, communities and other Council Services; 8. To develop a corporate approach to the planning and delivery of services by implementing the cross-cutting proposals identified during the review. Although these recommendations relate directly to parks, they are each relevant to the development of the Green Network as a whole. Glasgow: the People, the Place, the Potential (2006) is Glasgow’s Cultural Strategy. It is based on the following themes: •

Theme 1: Encourage Cultural and Sporting Participation;

Theme 2: Encourage Learning, Training, Volunteering and Pathways to Employment through Culture and Sport;

Theme 3: Enhance Glasgow’s Cultural Infrastructure and Events Programme to Support the City in Competing in the Global Economy;

Theme 4: Develop a Vibrant and Distinctive City which is Attractive to Citizens and Visitors Alike.

Each of these has potential relevance in the development of a high quality Green Network.


Easterhouse Town Centre Action Plan The Easterhouse Town Centre Action Plan was developed in 2007 to provide Glasgow City Council and its partners with a plan to renew and redevelop the Easterhouse Town Centre. The development of the Fort Shopping Centre has created the need to better integrate the community of Easterhouse with the new centre. The ‘Vision’ for the area outlined in the plan states that: ‘The vision for Easterhouse Town Centre is for an attractive, vibrant and welcoming centre, with modern facilities and services. This would aim to provide a centre appropriate to a popular, successful, and mixed-tenure suburb of Glasgow.’ The Action Plan states that one of its aims is to “Improve the environment and image of Easterhouse Centre”. The Green Network Strategy will support this aim alongside the other key themes identified. Forestry Strategy The Scottish Forestry Strategy of 2006 was the culmination of the Forestry Strategy review of 2005-2006 and the resultant document replaced the 2000 Forestry Strategy review. The overarching vision is for people to be actively engaged, owning and looking after forests by the second half of the twenty first century. Below this there are four core principals: sustainable development, social inclusion, forestry for and with the people and providing services people need now and will need in the future. To achieve the vision it is stated that a number of factors will have to be contended including reducing impacts of climate change, strengthening forests through business development, supporting community development, improving access and restoring/maintaining biodiversity. The delivery of these factors will come through principals of sustainability, long-term planning, integration and local policies. Methods for delivery will be improving information and guidance, regulation, incentives, public sector service and state intervention. The relevant key themes of the document are Business Development which will involve rural diversification and sustaining fragile rural communities, adding value to tourism and positive benefits to woodland owners and communities. The second is Community Development essentially improving quality of life, promoting education/life long learning, engagement with communities and community ownership/management on national forest estate land. The third is access and health here aims are easier access for all sectors of society, using access to improve physical and mental health and a larger range of enjoyment methods. The key themes are to be delivered through sustainable forest management (SFM), long-term planning, siviculture and ‘joining-up’. At a national level relevant health improvement policy is provided by the Health Scotland Policy Evaluation Appraisal Strategy 2005-2008 (HS PEAS)5. The report states that overall there are two health aims for Scotland. One is to improve 5

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population health generally and the other is to reduce inequalities in health. The report also mentions the 1999 Towards a Healthier Scotland (TAHS) report which has three levels of action, two of which are relevant. One is to address the wider socioeconomic determinants of health and the other is to tackle lifestyle choices (for example by encouraging more exercise)6 The economic strategy for Glasgow, ‘Glasgow’s Continuing Prosperity- A Joint Economic Strategy for Glasgow 2003-2005’ states in the executive summary that economic growth for the city is to be above the national average for Scotland over the next three years7. This comes with the forewarning that economic growth should include more of the people and communities of Glasgow and that more derelict and vacant land must be transformed for development. The strategy continues to assert that economic inclusion is one of the main goals, alongside maximising linkages between health/social projects and training and employment programmes. Another worthwhile statement to add is that the Clyde is seen to be the city’s main ‘territorial asset’ (according to the OECD8). The strategy asserts that continued prosperity will be secured through sustainable economic growth and social inclusion. The ‘Changing Gear Towards 2010- An Economic Strategy for Lanarkshire’ delivers the areas proposals9. In recent years the area has transformed itself from heavy industry through new and existing business developments. However Lanarkshire remains in economic transition. Success has been found in regenerating derelict land (the Derelict Land Strategy originated in the previous economic strategy). This means that from 1996 the total derelict land has fallen from 32% to 20% in 2002 (of Scotland’s total derelict land). The strategy states that an attractive local environment is a key part of future prosperity. The strategy also points to the area’s rural land being an ‘opportunity’ due to it being ‘attractive’. It is pointed to that more work could be done to shed the areas image of heavy industrial usage something that persists despite the regeneration and natural beauty in Lanarkshire. In the action plan it is stated that Objective 2 is regenerating land and providing a quality environment achieved through reclaiming derelict land, supporting the creation of the central forest and reviving rural areas.

Tourism development Other Relevant Strategies There are a wide range of other local plans and strategies which are important documents when considering the development of the Green Network. The following paragraphs outline the key documents considered in the development of the Green Network Strategy: •

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Both Glasgow’s and North Lanarkshire’s Access Strategies promote walking and cycling as part of a healthy lifestyle and as a key method of developing a more

http://www.healthscotland.com/uploads/documents/PEAStrategy20052008.pdf p2 http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/85658FF8-F557-4809-A3B79067F97B033D/0/joint_economic_strategy_2003.pdf 8 OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 9 http://www.local-economic-forum.com/lanarkshire/discussion/Changing%20Gear%20towards%202010%20%20An%20Economic%20Strategy%20for%20Lanarkshire.pdf 7


sustainable transport network. These, in conjunction with the proposed Core Path Plans for the areas will provide the basis for the development of the access network around the areas in the future. •

The emerging Open Space Audits and Strategies for both local authorities provide information on the current condition, development and management of open spaces within the area.

Historic Glasgow is the City Council’s Local History and Archaeology Strategy which provides guidance on how the many aspects of Glasgow’s cultural heritage should be developed and interpreted.

Other strategies such as Public Art, Lighting, Public Realm and Design each play an important role in ensuring the development of the Green Network is done to a consistently high standard.

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APPENDIX 2 International Wetland Sites


WETLAND SITES It is proposed that the Gartloch/Gartcosh (G/G) Wetland Park would have a Wetlands centre or attraction based around the wetlands. To develop this plan an assessment of existing and potential wetlands attractions was carried out. The assessment looked at Wetlands sites in the United Kingdom and in Europe. Examined sites within the United Kingdom were generally found to be run as visitor attractions with developed facilities such as visitor centres. The table below summarises the sites that were assessed and their relevant details. There is then analysis of the sites and comparisons to G/G. There are six sites listed in the table. Four are run by the Wildlife & Wetlands Trust (WWT) and two in a public/private venture. Wollaston/Earls Barton is part of the River Nene Regional Park (RNRP), which is run as an Independent Community Interest Company. The company has an executive board, a steering group and green infrastructure delivery groups. These are made up by representatives of local authorities, government, private sector, landowners and other bodies. The wetlands are one initiative forming part of a wider green infrastructure network extending from Daventry to Peterborough. The Cotswold Water Park (CWP) is run through a partnership between the Cotswold Water Park Society, Cotswold Water Park Joint Committee, local residents and parishes, mineral companies and other bodies. Biodiversity and conservation projects are funded through statutory agencies such as the Countryside Agency and Natural England. The Water Park has a mix of recreational and nature attractions marketed together. The four WWT sites are dedicated wetlands attractions that have varying levels of development. Three of the WWT sites have dedicated visitor centres. The other site at Castle Espie does have a number of facilities and initiatives but no visitor centre. Sites of a similar land area size to what is envisaged at G/G are Arundel and London. Arundel is situated in ancient woodlands in the South Downs, whereas London is an urban setting. G/G is likely to be a site in the middle ground of these sites. Arundel and London have large surrounding populations but London has more facilities and has more visitors per year. G/G would be closer to Arundel in terms of regional population based on the fact that the Greater Glasgow area has a population of 1.1million people. The wetland sites at Wollaston/ Earls Barton and CWP differ from the WWT sites in that they are part of a larger varied attraction. Resultantly they fit with a distributed visitor attraction, also proposed at G/G. Being part of a wider attraction means the sites operate alongside recreation activities. At CWP there is canoeing, camping, angling and other activities available. Wollaston/Earls Barton is a planned site that would operate alone but be part of the RNRP. In the RNRP there are treetop trails, an outdoor theatre and adventure playgrounds. The RNRP does have a stronger ecological focus than the CWP. The two sites have similar regional populations and these are comparable to G/G.


Sites abroad Having looked at sites in Europe it appears likely that a wetland site will form part of a larger ‘nature attraction’ rather than be a stand alone attraction (such as WWT sites in the UK). In some wetlands development is deliberately kept to a minimum with restricted access at normal times and no access at all during specific periods (such as breeding). These sites concentrate on conservation and tourism is not actively encouraged. There might be viewing platforms or row-boat trips but nothing on the scale of the UK. Other wetland sites adopt an ‘eco-museum’ approach based around the Scandinavian/Bergslagen model10. An eco-museum is essentially a method to link dispersed nature and heritage sites of a given area or region. Eco-museums therefore represent the cultural and natural biography of the area. The eco-museum is not a centralised building but a series of museums and linked attractions which combine to be part of the landscape11. Eco-museums examined are typically run by a partnership or coalition of numerous bodies. Examples of such bodies are councils, existing attractions, community bodies and other professional bodies (lottery commissions). Funding comes from council and government bodies and control rests with a secretariat or local governing bodies (similar to partnerships in the UK). An aim of eco-museums is to ensure sustainable usage of the wetland and other natural areas, as well as to ensure the participation of local communities and the wider public (for example schools). Other sites looked at have a centralised municipal or national management, evident in Spain and Germany. Overall aims are similar to eco-museums, conservation and sustainability for example. Partnerships are also involved in running the sites but the community and stand-alone attractions are not mentioned in decision-making processes. A key element in European wetland bodies studied is a link with human use of the landscape. In the majority of wetlands and surrounding areas looked at, there has been lasting environmental impacts from human usage and changes are being made to ensure conservation and sustainability of wetlands. Sweden The main Wetland attraction in Sweden is Kristianstad Wetlands. It is a semi-urban area of high biological and cultural historical value, located in south eastern Sweden. The area’s international importance was designated as having international importance by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands in 1974. It is currently being evaluated by UNESCO as part of the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) programme. The area is 1,100km² and contains the largest area of flooded meadow in Sweden. The area also depends on socio-ecological functions provided by hay making and grazing. The city of Kristianstad has a population of 28,600 with a direct link to the 10

Named after the first eco-museum which opened in Sweden in the eighties

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site. The wider municipal population is 75,000. The facilities of the site include an eco-museum, described as a stretch of countryside dotted with visitor sites, numerous other visitor sites, raised bird-walks and bird-watching towers. The site has over 150,000 visitors per year. Holland There are many examples of wetland attitudes in Holland. One examined was the Vechtplassen a Holocene era lowland river system with the Vecht its river. Traditionally the river has been used for transportation and cultivation (agriculture and peat cutting/drying) as result there have been lasting environmental impacts. The Vechtplassen incorporates an eco-museum which is described as having “no walls”. The aim of the museum is to tell the same story over dispersed sites, help develop and maintain a sustainable economy and cultural tourism base and become part of the landscape. The Wetlands are a significant part of the eco-museum’s vision. The eco-museum is run on a ‘platform’ which “stimulates and co-ordinates collaboration between local public authorities and private initiatives of relevance for the natural and cultural heritage of the area in relation to special planning and sustainable development”12. The bodies involved in managing the site are the two councils of Utrecht and Noord Holland, 9 communities and the water board. The total size of the area is 250km² and it is located on the edge of a significant ‘metro’ area which has a population of 150,000. The wider population (within a 30 min drive) is 1.5-2 million people. Visitor figures cannot be found. Denmark The Danish Lake District Eco-museum is located in the Skandenborg area to the West of Central Jutland. The area is characterised by physical features including woodlands, waterways and heaths. There has been a series of impacts on the landscape by humans historically (Vikings, Monastic) and on-going13. The lake region is one of 5 EU habitat areas within the eco-museum. The eco-museum aim is ‘explanation and presentation of cultural traces in the landscape in their original context’. This is undertaken through an informal connection of existing attractions and institutions, such as the Skandenborg Museum, Monastic Museum of Denmark and Ry Advisory Unit. These bodies co-operate through a steering group and secretariat. The steering group liaises with government bodies, implements the plan of action and runs strategies. The main duties of the secretariat are the coordination, project management and administrative work necessary between the steering committee's meetings14. The Lake District area size is 1,719 km² but the Freshwater Museum is based around one smaller lake with 40 ‘nature sites’ spread over the lake area which are likely to 12

http://www.interactions-online.com/page_news.php?id_news=183 http://www.ecomuseum.dk/english/020gb_outline_of_the_nature.htm 14 http://www.ecomuseum.dk/english/042gb_organization.htm 13


vary in size. The local population is 22,128 (Skandenborg town) and the regional population is 1.2million (Central Jutland) The venture is a relatively new idea and as such there is no available visitor data. Spain Lago Banyoles (Estany De Banyoles) in Catalonia, Spain is another example of how development at wetlands sites is approached. The area comprises a lake and smaller marshes; providing an example of Karst catchments. The lake was the site for the 1992 Olympic rowing and has ongoing work to regenerate rowing facilities and restore reed beds. There is therefore a compromise between recreation and nature conservation at the site. The lake is subject to various local and regional plans and initiatives. The lake has been an area of outstanding landscape since 1953 and there was a measure introduced to protect the landscape in 1963. A management plan was introduced by the Provincial Commission of Urban Planning and Architecture in 1967. It is a National Area of Special Protection. Ownership of the land surrounding the lake is in private hands, mainly local farmers. The lake itself is municipally owned and there is scientific and conservation work carried out on a regular basis. The lake also provides water for nearby towns and for irrigation. The site is 142ha and the marshes comprise 32ha of this total. The local population of nearby Girona is 86,205 (2005) and the regional population is 7.1million (Catalonia: 2006). There are 15 million tourists per year in the Catalonia region. Germany Germany has a developed system of nature attractions which are split depending on the type of landform. Of the attractions looked at there is a centralised management structure with less community participation. There are 15 national parks, 14 biosphere reserves and over 90 nature parks. Wetlands appear in national parks and in biosphere reserves as two following examples show. The Biosphärenreservat Rhön is located in the centre of Germany, covering land in the Bavaria, Thuringen and Hessen Landë. The site was given a UNESCO certificate under the MAB programme. The aims of the site are to conserve cultural landscapes through sustainable use, conserve and enjoy nature, foster tourism and promote and develop sustainable industry. The reserve is supported by the surrounding administrative districts (or Landë), 40 municipalities and four members of officially recognised nature conservation associations. Partner members have the role of complying with environmentally friendly aims, maintaining and developing attractive landscapes for recreation and developing joint initiatives, running them independently. The reserve has a board consisting of administrative governors (mayors from surrounding municipalities) and there is a secretariat which promotes and develops initiatives and helps to administer the reserve. The Rhon reserve covers 185,000 ha; wetlands are classified under “other” in terms of land-type, “other” covers 3% of the reserve. Around 170,000 (2002) people reside

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in the municipalities of the reserve but the population of the three Landë combined is 22 million people. Visitor figures can not be found. A national park example is the Mueritz in north east Germany between Berlin and Rostock. The park was formed in 1990 and is based around the Muritz which is the second largest lake in Germany. The area has a sandy landscape, a result of glacial melt water. The aim of the national park is stated to be ‘to step back and take up the role of observer’ The national park is run by the National Park Service and there is an overarching body, known as Europarc Deutschland set-up in 1991 which runs conservation initiatives on a national basis. The national park is 318km² of which lakes, marsh and meadows/heath make up 26%. The nearby towns of Hohenzieritz and Mirow have a combined population of 4,200 and the Landë population is 1,694,000 (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). There are 600,000 visitors per year (2006). Overall There are similarities between the approach of Gartloch/Gartcosh and the ecomuseum approach. The possibility of distributing the ‘visitor centres’ or attractions across the site rather than having one focal point allows different themes to be put across but kept to the same overarching idea. Distribution of ‘visitor centres’ could also be extended across the regional park rather than just in the Wetlands area, allowing the composite culture, heritage and biological value to be expressed. The eco-museum approach also raises questions of whether a visitor centre would need to be built, this has been the preferred option in the UK wetlands sites examined (also across other types of attractions) but the European examples suggest a different approach which is still community/sustainable led.



Gartloch Gartcosh - Green Network Strategy