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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

Final Report by

IronsideFarrar 111 McDonald Road Edinburgh EH7 4NW 7097 / November 2008


Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

Final Report by

IronsideFarrar 111 McDonald Road Edinburgh EH7 4NW 7097 / November 2008


Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

INTRODUCTION Background Study Objectives Key Project Partners Delivering Change

1 1 1 1 2

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

THE GOWKTHRAPPLE MASTERPLAN Masterplan Objectives Gowkthrapple Housing Garrion Business Park Wider Area & Green Network Ambitions Key Detailed Masterplan & Greenspace Network Issues Placing Sustainability at the Heart of the Masterplan

5 5 5 6 6 10 10

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3

STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE GREEN NETWORK The Vision Stakeholder Consultation Addressing Needs

13 14 14 16

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

DEVELOPING PUBLIC GREENSPACE The Gowkthrapple Green Network Developing the Path Network Developing the Greenspace Hierarchy Sports, Play and Recreation Community Gardens & Allotments Sustainable Urban Drainage Wider Area Linkages Design Associated with Pylons

19 19 21 22 22 22 25 25 27

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

AREA DESIGN BRIEFS Developing a Design Framework Designing Places Policy Guidance Design Components Path Hierarchy Play Provision Community Greenspace & Allotments Private/ Semi Private Outdoor Space Design Associated with Pylons

29 29 29 30 32 38 44 48 54

6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

MANAGEMENT OF THE GOWKTHRAPPLE GREEN NETWORK Introduction Greenspace Management Context Engagement of Communities Securing Appropriate Funding Working with Nature – Cost Effective Landscapes

57 57 57 58 60 67

7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3

FUTURE STAGES & CAPACITY BUILDING Introduction Potential Future Capacity Measures Partnership Working

69 69 70 71

8.0 8.1 8.2

THE GREEN NETWORK ACTION PLAN Action Plan Action Plan Matrix

73 73 82

9.0

RECOMMENDATIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT

85

APPENDICES Appendix 1 Appendix 2

5

Research Notes/ Learning from Innovations in Urban Greenspace Management Consultation Summary

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background In November 2006 the Glasgow and Clyde Valley (GCV) Green Network Partnership Board approved support for a Green Network project at Gowkthrapple, near Wishaw, North Lanarkshire. The project has been proposed by North Lanarkshire Council in response to a brief issued by the Green Network Partnership’s Stronger Communities Group. The brief invited partners to propose projects that would demonstrate a strategic approach to development of the Green Network in urban renewal, community growth or urban expansion areas, as identified in the 2006 GCV Structure Plan. The purpose of the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Network is threefold:

• • • 1.2

to improve the competitive environment of the Metropolitan area as place to work and invest in; to promote the Government’s Environmental Justice agenda, improve access to open space for the local population and tackle issues like health, quality of life and social inclusion; to provide a framework of green corridors and spaces that will enhance and reinforce the biodiversity of the area by creating a network of linked habitats.

Study Objectives The aim of this project is to identify the way in which the Green Network can be developed in and around Gowkthrapple so as to improve the environmental quality of the neighbourhood, enhance quality of life for residents, strengthen biodiversity, and help create new economic opportunities, especially for young people. Green Network opportunities will be identified in the context of the community regeneration objectives for the area as set out in the Gowkthrapple Strategic Masterplan, produced in Spring 2007. The project will look at the provision of greenspace internally within Gowkthrapple and also identify opportunities for creating links to adjacent areas, including Wishaw town centre, Overtown and the wider Green Network. Once completed it is expected that the project will form part of the Green Network demonstration programme with the approach and lessons learnt disseminated through case study material.

1.3

Key Project Partners The key project partners who have been instrumental in the development of this study are as follows: • North Lanarkshire Council Planning & Area Regeneration Departments

managing the development of proposals to guide future planning guidelines in the area and ensure regeneration and cohesion of the community.

Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership

Scottish Government Housing and Regeneration Directorate

Garrion Housing Co-operative

facilitate delivery of the co-ordinated Green Network across the whole region. promote the successful and sustainable transformation of communities by creating the right environment for private and public investment. provide a high quality locally based landlord service consulting with and involving the community in key policy and decisions. 1

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 1.4

Delivering Change Important for the Development Brief & Action Plan for Gowkthrapple is to keep to the fore the importance of delivering change for local communities in terms of clear and achievable outcomes. Significant innovation and support is going to be required to deliver change and advance Gowkthrapple towards the ‘tipping point’ where a properly balanced, stable and sustainable neighbourhood is created meeting the needs of current and future residents. The Development Brief and Action Plan need to address how collectively we secure:

an increased level and more effective engagement with local communities in the planning, delivery and management of green space resources within Gowkthrapple and neighbouring areas;

improved living and working environments promoting a greater sense of community cohesion and ownership supporting more positive attitudes towards the public realm, as measured by reduced litter, vandalism, graffiti and increased public use;

increased community development paralleling other initiatives/ ROA’s/ thematic strategies through the direct engagement of community groups in local Green Network projects both strategic or local;

improved identity and increased pride of place, brought about by encouraging neighbourhoods to work together to tackle local amenity and connectivity issues supporting a stronger respect for place ;

the adoption of more healthy lifestyles, achieved better path networks, better connected greenspace; opportunity for participation in physical exercise, a more active community and improve awareness of lifestyle patterns;

individual and community development, brought about through participation in new education, training, employment and volunteering opportunities, including the development of social enterprises; and

significantly enhanced quality of the urban environment and countryside around settlements offering new opportunities for residents to access and experience the natural world.

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Existing Situation

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2.0 THE GOWKTHRAPPLE MASTERPLAN The Gowkthrapple Strategic Masterplan has been developed to offer the best opportunity for all the varied stakeholders to come together and support a sustainable new vision for the future of the area.

“Gowkthrapple will become a vibrant small community that offers a mix of housing types, tenure and neighbourhoods clustered around a core of community services with good local access to services, schools and on-site convenience shops. Housing will offer a wider mix of housing type and styles with significantly greater numbers of private sector owner-occupied housing but including design neutral affordable housing and social rented/shared equity housing in differing proportions within each of four neighbourhoods. Community facilities will be retained and enhanced developed around a new cluster at the main access junction on Castlehill Road with reinvestment in the Primary School either on site or as part of a new extended Clyde Valley Community School”. 2.1

Masterplan Objectives The strategic masterplan seeks to secure a sustainable, long term future for Gowkthrapple that can better meet the needs of local communities. It highlights the opportunity for new investment to provide a balanced community and rebuild the housing stock to be better suited to meeting variable needs, protecting local jobs and securing a real change in perceptions and the physical qualities of place. The masterplan recommends:

• • • • • 2.2

a clear vision and plan to take Gowkthrapple forward a better balance of housing and employment space that reflects the needs of the community and which is likely to be sustainable addresses the negative site environmental issues that adversely impact on the appeal of Gowkthrapple as a place to live enhances the operation, appeal and sense of community by measures to improve local facilities and by enhancing access and connectivity highlights opportunity to develop the Green Network and enhance the amenity of open space to ensure it is ‘fit for purpose’

Gowkthrapple Housing Gowkthrapple is an estate of some 745 social rented houses, mostly flats, constructed in the mid 1960s. The area suffers from high levels of deprivation and associated social problems, compounded by the electricity pylons that dominate the estate. In advance of the regeneration programme 43% of the flats were vacant. The estate has relatively few facilities, with one shop poorly sited, and a community building. The primary school is a community school with good staffing levels, but suffers from low occupancy. Many of the children in Gowkthrapple attend schools outside the catchment area. The demolition contract for the 246 flats is now complete, allowing redevelopment of the cleared site, along with an adjacent site recently acquired by Garrion People’s Housing Co-op. The provision of new build family housing will considerably enhance the regeneration process: providing accommodation for some families required to relocate through demolition, help to maintain a varied community, help maintain school rolls and protect the existing investment in the Garrion housing stock which could become isolated following demolition of the neighbouring council stock. It is anticipated that the new housing would incorporate a mix of houses for sale and rent, working in partnership with Garrion People’s Housing Co-op and other housing developers. 5

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 2.3

Garrion Business Park Garrion Business Park was originally Pather iron and steel works; thereafter Smiths Clocks used the site until 1978. In the early 1980’s it was converted into the present Industrial Estate and the site, which has had a number of ownerships is currently held by Stewart & McKenna. The National Radiological Protection Board were contracted by Smiths Clocks to decontaminate the site, which involved the disposal of radioactive material off site. The site was the subject of a decontamination scheme that was either inadequate or not up to present day standards. In 1997 an intrusive site investigation (SI) was undertaken on behalf of Classic estates and paid for by LDA. This found that the site still needed remediation. In 2004 NLC commissioned Jacobs Babtie to undertake a desk top review of the site and the previous SI work. JB concluded that an up-to-date and more comprehensive SI was required to allow a remediation strategy and technical specification to be developed. This work (by Jacobs Babtie/ RWE Nukem) was undertaken in parallel to this masterplanning study, the results of which are incorporated into the development of the Masterplan.

2.4

Wider Area & Green Network Ambitions Gowkthrapple sits at the edge of South Wishaw at a key interface between substantially nucleated settlements (Wishaw and its associated housing areas: Pather/ Netherton/ Cambusnethan) and satellite village settlements at Waterloo, Overtown and Newmains to the north. The Green Network potential of this south east corner of the conurbation offers a diverse landscape of significant value with strong valley connections aligned north to south and connecting the Clyde Valley and transport corridors running east to west connecting to Overtown Road and Horsley Brae. The landscape includes a mosaic of quality agricultural land pock-marked with industrial often historic land use activity (industrial / mineral activity/ infrastructure) segregated by river valleys and relic policy woodlands. The latter are frequently incised and unlike other parts of the conurbation have only limited impact on the scenic and amenity value viewed from the local road network. Historically the bings and tips around Morningside including mining and landfill activity at Greenhead Moss have devalued perceptions of the wider landscape. Opportunities across the wider South Wishaw area should seek to address the historic fragmentation of routes and landscape elements and build on the relic historic quality still evident in many of the areas landscape elements. These will include:

• •

reconnecting pedestrian routes and medium/ longer distance paths addressing fragmentation of woodland and connectivity of habitats

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Transport & infrastructure Context 7

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Woodland & Greenbelt Context Ironside Farrar Ltd Final Report November 2008

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Community Resources & Facilities 9

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 2.5

Key Detailed Masterplan & Green Network Issues Good design has value. It is now recognised as a key component of successful places, quality environments, good urban design and architecture. This acceptance goes beyond a simple aesthetic. It recognises the valuable contribution in delivering social, economic and environmental goals and supporting successful and sustainable places. Design plays a large part in determining quality of place. Quality places and the quality of design are important in determining how we use places, spaces and buildings and influence our use of energy, travel choices, local services and the extent to which places economically flourish and become successful. The opportunity exists within this site to build on the special qualities of place and roll back the misuse and neglect and identify a positive future. Important to this will be quality of design and ensuring that a critical mass of development is promoted that can fund the aspirations of the community. Place-making to be successful in addition to the generic points above requires a level of commitment and investment to quality both in the capital works (buildings/ public realm/ greenspace and landscape) but also in the revenue costs of establishment and sustainable management. Specifically we believe there is a need to:

2.6

Engage with the community to establish realistic aspirations through a facilities planning model that ensures all the appropriate community infrastructure needs are addressed (meeting spaces/ multi-purpose space/ cafe/ visitor facilities/ educational and /or training needs) and that these can be delivered effectively.

Ensure partner and stakeholder support exists to meet the community aspiration and that a new sense of quality and place-making are reflected in the scale of investment support which will secure the delivery of both infrastructure and the long term management.

Placing Sustainability at the Heart of the Masterplan Creating more sustainable communities and neighbourhoods is a key area for planning. In the UK Strategy for Sustainable Development four themes reflect both Structure Plan and Local Plan objectives and include: • Maintaining high and stable levels of economic growth and employment. • Social progress recognising the needs of everyone. • Effective protection of the environment, and • Prudent use of natural resources. Features of sustainable places that need active promotion within Gowkthrapple will include:

• • • • • • • •

active, inclusive and safe – fair, tolerant and cohesive with a strong local culture and other shared community activities; well run – with effective and inclusive participation, representation and leadership; environmentally sensitive – providing places for people to live that are considerate of the environment; well designed and built – featuring a quality built and natural environment; well connected – with good transport services and communication linking people to jobs, schools, health and other services; thriving – with a flourishing and diverse local economy; well served – with public, private, community and voluntary services that are appropriate to people’s needs and accessible to all; and fair for everyone – including those in other communities, now and in the future.

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It is important that sustainability is at the forefront of thinking for this site and the project is addressed both as a mechanism to build awareness and to provide a practical demonstration of the way in which direct action and small changes in lifestyle choices can support a more sustainable future. The development of a quality greenspace for Gowkthrapple and, in particular, the creation of an identified Green Network is a key building block around which the community understanding of sustainability and sustainable lifestyles can be built.

• • • • • • • •

Creating safer routes and a clear hierarchy of paths and path networks that support regular use and are well overlooked and address ‘Secured by Design’ principles. Creating a sustainable long term future for greenspace by exploring opportunities for community engagement in aspects of planning, design and management of greenspace and re-connecting people with their public realm and gardens. Adding to biodiversity and the ‘carrying capacity’ of the landscape whist also making the landscape more appealing (birds/ bees/ butterflies) ; more functional (hedgerows/ paths/ shelterbelts/ SUDS features) and more able to be managed (meadows/ garden space/ allotments). Creating safer better quality streetscape through better urban residential street design incorporating shared surfaces and varied road widths acknowledging the benefits of 20’s Plenty and its roots in Homezone design principles. Developing a more connected more cohesive greenspace that positively integrates neighbourhoods, surrounding communities and landscape assets and offers residents a simple legible and functional layout connecting front door to school, bus stops, shops, and community infrastructure. Identification of the appropriate location for the ‘HUB’ which will allow for the re-siting of the shop and also provide office accommodation for local businesses/ community organisations. Challenging the concept of ‘acceptable greenspace’ and developing new and innovative approaches that look to meet community needs across the whole of the Green Network and which are capable of enthusing and securing active participation from the community. Addressing connectivity and pathway linkages to ensure integration of the retained stock with proposed new build housing to help facilitate the creation of mixed tenure neighbourhoods that support sustainable place objectives.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

3.0

STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE GREEN NETWORK Gowkthrapple is an estate that is being re-shaped and regenerated to ensure it can offer a quality housing neighbourhood, capable of meeting the needs of the community and addressing a range of housing needs. The process of regeneration involves change (physical, social, environmental) to create a better quality of place, a stronger and more sustainable community, release new opportunities for enterprise and generally provide better support to meet contemporary community needs. Gowkthrapple is however only a part of a much larger process of regeneration and renewal that is taking place across South Wishaw and Motherwell that will substantially restructure the profile of the area over the next 20 years. The development of Ravenscraig, including the new Retail Centre, Sports Stadia, Motherwell College Campus together with renewal of Motherwell Town Centre and new strategic employment sites at Ravenscraig, Eurocentral, and Clyde Gateway will all impact on Gowkthrapple. The regeneration objectives for Gowkthrapple seek to ensure that the planned housing neighbourhoods participate fully in the wider area regeneration and help to:

work to strengthen existing communities and ensure integration with new neighbourhoods, new housing investment and adjacent housing and settlement areas.

create a quality housing that meets variable need, that is fit for purpose, meets Scottish Quality Housing Standards and offers neighbourhoods suitable for balanced communities.

establish a housing environment that is a place of choice with safe streets and path networks, good community facilities including local schools and greenspace that supports active communities, good amenity and a quality of place.

Greenspace and green networks are a key part of delivering this objective and securing the outcomes identified in Regeneration Outcome Agreements (ROA’s) and which address the needs of communities.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 3.1

The Vision The Gowkthrapple Green Network has been developed to express the collective aspirations of the varied stakeholders to come together and support a sustainable new vision for the future of greenspace in the area. The vision is that:

A regenerated and transformed Castlehill Park, Smiths Park and Heathfield Park will collectively offer a desirable new residential environment on the edge of South Wishaw overlooking the Clyde Valley. New housing will extend and the community will grow around ‘The Hub’ a design winning community facility that will support sustainable lifestyles and new opportunities. Community woodlands and community gardens will make strong connections via lit and safe Green Network paths to the Business Park, shops, schools, bus stops and to the wider countryside Green Network. These new neighbourhoods can become places of choice for families with good front to back detached, terraced and semi-detached housing offering the choice of semi private and private outdoor space, together with good local play facilities, safe streets and multi functional outdoor greenspaces. New investment in the Business Park and the offices in the Hub have the capability to strengthen local employment as have future developments in Wishaw Town Centre and Netherton. Greenspaces and good quality paths will improve the amenity for residents and will also provide, through the Green Network, better and more inclusive access by foot, cycle or bus to Overtown and Wishaw and can help to create a better quality of environment for both the people and wildlife associated with new community gardens, woodlands, grasslands and along hedgerows. These greatly improved local Gowkthrapple facilities will feed into the wider area and the Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network as a whole. 3.2

Stakeholder Consultation A ‘Design Day’ consultation event was organised by North Lanarkshire Council and Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership to discuss and better understand the local issues, perceptions, needs and aspirations of residents for regeneration of the Gowkthrapple Estate. As core elements of the next phase of regeneration at Gowkthrapple the consultation focused on:

Development of the Green Network to provide a coordinated Design Brief for investment, implementation and management of greenspace assets within new and existing housing areas and their connection to the wider South Wishaw and Clyde Valley areas.

Development of the Community Hub providing for local convenience retail, multi-use community space and ancillary offices and workspaces providing a new facility and centre for the community.

The Exhibition consisted of 14 A2 colour Participatory Boards seeking comment; a Community Hub model; Numerous Air Photos & Plans; and a Questionnaire based on the Boards.

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Specific groups targeted included:

• • •

Residents Exhibition and one-to-one meetings ‘piggy-backing’ on the Gowkthrapple ‘Café Club that meets on a Thursday morning in the community centre and includes a breadth of local residents and residents from Gowkthrapple, Overtown, Pather. This group also included a group of children with special needs and their teachers from Gowkthrapple Primary School using the café facility as part of their learning programme. The Elderly Questionnaire and Exhibition Boards in the foyer of Allershaw Tower sheltered housing inviting comment and responses from elderly residents about the issues that they encounter relating to greenspace in the immediate vicinity. Local Residents / Residents Using Greenspace /Green Network Questionnaire based on the Exhibition Materials inviting comment and responses from people at bus stops; shop (now closed) or using greenspace about their thoughts on greenspace needs School Children and Parents Questionnaire and Exhibition Boards at the Primary School inviting comment and responses from children/parents about their needs and the issues that need to be addressed for greenspace at Gowkthrapple.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study The consultation event was organised to ensure a broad spectrum of local residents could be consulted that would extend the consultation beyond the usual represented groups and active local residents and capture a wider cross-section of interest. A full summary of comments received is contained within Appendix 2.

3.3

Addressing Needs Delivering the Green Network vision needs to understand the basics that create places for people and create attractive and sustainable environments that meet everyday needs and in addition offer something more that ensures we care and feel ownership for our environment. Community consultations have identified the following needs as core building blocks and required outcomes of the Green Network:

• • • • • • • • • • •

good safe paths that connect the places we need to use and access and connect with controlled crossings to bus stops; good lighting supporting public spaces that are overlooked and feel safe; play spaces that address needs of differing age groups and for the younger groups are adjacent to homes; recreation space for older children and young adults, possibly integrated into Community School planning that encourages activity and exercise; walking routes that connect off-site providing the links to places of work, or services (pubs/ shops/ bus stops) or meet social needs or are simply for leisure and encourage activity across the whole community; designing safe spaces that avoid ‘negative space’ by thinking about people’s needs and common-sense ideas about security; providing a place where flat/ high-rise owners can share in gardening with access to community gardens, allotments or just a quiet safe and managed sitting space; reduce un-used and unwanted greenspace that serves little or no purpose to the minimum and raise the quality of maintenance in the rest; minimise impact of pylons and overhead wires through the positive use of the way leave zone combined with elements of tree canopy screening adjacent to road corridors; establishing a landscape structure of longer-term community woodland that can screen the sub-station and help connect the site with Highmainshead Wood and the wider landscape; seek to place the new community at the centre of a wider network of connected paths, woodlands and habitats recognising that strong communities form ‘hubs’ within bigger social, economic and environmental networks;

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study The four strategic priorities of the vision are captured in: Place-making and Design Developing a sustainable future by ensuring the Gowkthrapple re-development is an exemplar of sustainable place and community growth and all built elements (buildings/ external spaces/ public realm) address sustainability through careful integration of design and procurement (BREEAM Very Good Buildings SUDS/ Biodiversity habitats/ social enterprise/ training/ etc) and longer term maintenance and management. Community Engagement in the Planning, Design & Management Ensuring that the local communities and stakeholders have an active role in the planning, design, procurement and management of facilities and opportunities are explored that provide for real innovation through Trusts or other relevant mechanisms – even if these are pilots to test mechanisms or trail new approaches. Development of the Community Hub and Community Enterprise Developing a new Community Hub within at the site that is both a demonstration and a catalyst for communities to become more engaged in ‘our community’ and address ‘sustainable lifestyles’. Opportunity needs to be created to facilitate the participation of the community in Gowkthrapple, both for new and existing community members. This should be actively addresses through allotments, health education, healthy eating and activity programmes making use of an inclusive multi-use community space. Community Enterprise should follow. Encouragement to communities should empower local groups to establish commercial, voluntary, social and civic groups and ensure the basic infrastructure is in place to support activity. (see former Community Hall – Enterprise Workshop space) Development of the Green Network as Safe, Quality & Appealing Space Developing a green space and green network strategy for Gowkthrapple that will provide a safe, managed and coordinated path and greenspace networks for both new and existing housing areas and their connection to the wider South Wishaw and Clyde Valley area. A Green Network to function needs to be used. To be used it needs to be safe. To be safe it needs to be used. Delivering a safe hierarchy of walking routes that offer good lighting good surveillance, and connect the key desire lines is the essentially foundation for both securing a Green Network in Gowkthrapple and securing wider place-making objectives.

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4.0

DEVELOPING THE GREEN NETWORK Developing the Green Network is a strategic goal of the Development Plan and a key infrastructure element in securing area regeneration for Gowkthrapple. The key objectives are:

• •

to facilitate and ‘kick start’ local regeneration for Gowkthrapple building upon the outcomes highlighted in the strategic masterplan; to support and contribute to the overall Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network by delivering a green network (paths/ open space/ habitats/ leisure and recreation opportunity) that helps to connect communities, settlements and wider urban fringe to the surrounding countryside assets.

The new Green Network of open space will connect into the Strategic Network Priority areas designated in the Local Plan enhancing connectivity and greenspace value in terms of amenity, access, biodiversity and sustainable greenspace management. Connectivity of greenspace including the provision of quality path networks and habitats are key outputs required to meet the objectives of sustainable places and will be developed in line with that already established within the Central Scotland Forest. There is scope to link with the Scottish Forestry Strategy 2006 which highlights that ‘well designed, well managed woodlands can transform degraded surroundings and brownfield sites into community assets’. This can then maximise the potential of green networks in the city regions through sustainable development underpinned by sustainable forest management strongly linked with social inclusion. Scotland’s Biodiversity target outcomes by 2030 notes that a key aim is to enrich biodiversity in parks, sports fields, transport corridors, green and brown sites. The knowledge that childhood experiences in particular are a powerful influence to how people react to the environment, so providing opportunities for children, especially those from deprived areas and backgrounds, to interact freely with biodiversity in a safe environment is vital. A fundamental aspect of Green Networks is their ability to offer synergies by value of their scale, critical mass and connected nature, which bring additional value whether for people, ecology, surface water management or regeneration and economic activity. A key feature of green networks and a building block for developing networks are issues relating to movement, connectivity and accessibility. 4.1

The Gowkthrapple Green Network Establishing a new connectivity between local facilities held together by the Gowkthrapple Green Network, a new armature of enhanced public realm and greenspace linking the new community infrastructure, new neighbourhoods and schools with the residents and the wider area resources. The Green Network will facilitate safe movement (important for all the community but especially old, young and carers) and create a legible network through which they can find their way through Gowkthrapple more safely, enjoyably and as the primary network for movement. The design and layout will give the neighbourhood a distinctive feel: spatial hierarchy, materials, colours and style will define the new neighbourhoods. The ‘Gowkthrapple Green Network’ will allow different systems to come into play to create a safe and sustainable means to move through local housing groups, neighbourhoods, and the wider estate. Children can find their way to and from school by walking or cycling along ‘”0’s Plenty Streets’ designed for traffic calming and pedestrian safety. The Green Network supports learning, sports and leisure, and community involvement.

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Neighbourhood Areas Ironside Farrar Ltd Final Report November 2008

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 4.2

Developing the Path Network Site perception and legibility within Gowkthrapple will be radically changed through the creation of a clear hierarchy of paths to allow ease of accessibility and the day to day use of safe less trafficked routes. The newly developed road layout allows the provision of this network of overlooked routes Hierarchy of paths • Paths for Access • Safe Routes to Schools • Recreational Routes • Path Networks • Cycleways • Equestrian Routes

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 4.3

Developing the Greenspace Hierarchy Developing the hierarchy of open space requires a comprehensive understanding of the development proposals for each of the four new neighbourhoods – Castlehill/ Smiths Park/ Heathfield Park and Woodside Park. The series of spaces developed as part of the Gowkthrapple Green Network create a variety in scale and provision which build upon and complement a refurbished Community Greenspace which lies at the new heart of the area. The refurbished community greenspace will be the only unsupervised key open space but will be significantly overlooked by the reworked road network. Other key greenspaces are provided adjacent to community facilities at the ‘Hub’ and the allotments (in the longer term). Small scale greenspaces are provided along secondary footpaths and will both allow for informal play and encourage regular use of the path network which links housing, school, shop and public transport. Frontage areas on Castlehill Road and Community Woodland alongside (and screening) the Substation provide further variety in scale and provision.

4.4

Sports, Play and Recreation A minimum of 3 hectares of informal play space will be provided for within Gowkthrapple on an integrated basis throughout the estate. Most will be incorporated within the housing blocks, for example as small ‘pocket parks’, and others (highlighted on the masterplan) will be within the Green Network at points well-overlooked by housing. These will ensure that all households will, as a minimum, be within 240 metres of a local equipped area for play and within 600 metres of a neighbourhood equipped area for play in line with the guidance provided by the Six Acre Standards. The exact location of play spaces will be determined at the more detailed design stages. Multi Sports Recreation is identified as being incorporated within Key Area School Facilities and as such will benefit from the management this allows. The North Lanarkshire Sports Pitch Strategy (2006) recommends within its Action Plan a number of high priority projects to be completed by 2011 which will establish an appropriate distribution, quantity and quality of outdoor sports facilities. A key objective being to encourage, support and develop partnerships with local schools to gain community access to outdoor sports facilities. The sports pitch assessment report undertaken recommends and identifies as an action the removal of the Gowkthrapple Blaes Surfaced Pitch & Pavilion. The general principle of focusing spend and quality on well distributed key facilities is supported by this study. A further 6 hectares or more of open space will be provided within the housing area in the form of community parks, allotment space, green corridors, semi-natural and garden spaces.

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The Hub Ironside Farrar Ltd Final Report November 2008

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 4.5

Community Gardens and Allotments The New Community Hub on Smith Avenue will provide the initial focus for the regeneration of Gowkthrapple. The building will provide shop facilities, community meeting spaces, flexible activity spaces and a café. Garrion Housing plan to occupy office space within the building which will benefit the overall perception of there being a busy and inviting facility meeting the needs of the local community. The key opportunities that the Hub provides with relation to the Green Network is the scope to enable a supervised and therefore controlled greenspace associated with the building. Current proposals developed by Collective Architecture have a limited external space included. The need to concentrate spend in key areas and ideally avoid expenditure in areas particularly likely to suffer from anti social behaviour suggest that additional external facilities for youth recreation (3G artificial 5-aside pitch), children’s play and planting be focused around the Hub. Allotments which not only cater for Gowkthrapple residents but meet wider demands attracting people from the whole Wishaw area are recommended. Adjacent to and utilising the facilities, car park and storage at the current community centre these maximise the longer term potential for Community Enterprise. Development would benefit from establishing a core group to drive this element of the project forward and from initial assistance from the existing Wishaw Allotments and Gardens Society. Allotments would occupy primarily the space used by the now redundant blaes pitch and extend west to the community centre.

4.6

Sustainable Drainage Sustainable urban drainage systems will be designed to accommodate surface run-off and ideally re-used as part of a grey-water recycling system serving both new and existing housing. A Surface Water Management Plan will be required to be produced, with surface water drainage and treatment addressed in accordance with the SEPA requirements for a SUDS management team. The plan will serve all of Gowkthrapple and will be implemented in phases selected to ensure that new-build development has appropriate facilities in place at the time of construction. Existing proposals for additional housing by the Garrion People’s Housing Co-op at Heathfield incorporates a SUDS attenuation pond to the north of their site.

4.7

Wider Area Linkages The existing transport and infrastructure network around Gowkthrapple highlights the opportunities which can be unlocked by the development of an integrated Green Network. The area sits adjacent to Core Path routes which directly link south to the Clyde Valley Walkway and north to rail links and the main road and pedestrian networks . Bus routes which runs along the southern boundary of the site provide regular links with the main retail and town centre of Wishaw. School provision is directly accessible at Castlehill Primary School within the study area and at a higher level at the adjoining Clyde Valley High School. In the near vicinity a wealth of woodland and greenspace exists. The opportunity to maximise the benefits of the proximity to the Clyde Valley Area of Great Landscape Value which adjoins the site to the south and incorporate specifically Highmainshead Wood, Garrion Burn, Carbarns Wood and the River Clyde SINC’s is highlighted. To the north further resources include Stable Wood, Temple Gill and the community park and woodland of Greenhead Moss part of which is designated as a SINC. Improvements to signage, awareness and provision of increased crossing facilities will facilitate easy access although consultation feedback suggested that the quality of routes outwith the site were suitable and not in need of additional works. 25

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

Strategic Area Wide Linkages

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 4.8

Design Associated with Pylons The proximity to the electricity substation and its associated high voltage power lines has a significant impact on perceptions of and the pedestrian experience in Gowkthrapple. When developing proposals for the Green Network it is essential that design in proximity to pylons is fully considered. This will require an understanding of how to:

• • • •

4.9

Break down the visual linearity of overhead power lines Screen pylons through landscape design Achieve approval for implementing planting near overhead power lines Restrictions to recreation adjacent to overhead power lines

Addressing Design in Existing Areas To ensure the successful creation of a Green Network in Gowkthrapple proposals must address the relationship between both existing and new development. The vision will be severely compromised if the original buildings on Allershaw Road, Birkshaw Place, Birkshaw Brae and Stanhope Place are left as the poor relations of the new development. To ensure a cohesive system of spaces and neighbourhoods a specific design study would benefit from establishing principles for spatial relationships (ie desire lines, quantity of paths routes, safe well lit areas), site furniture (ie simple, robust, colourful), minimal planting to create a strong framework and consideration of management regimes required to ensure upkeep. All footpaths within existing areas should be considered with direct relationship to the new locations of community facilities as the plethora of routes will dilute the site legibility. Large areas of unused and unnecessary hardstanding significantly effect area perceptions and suggest waste land which is of no value. Significant quantities of the site will fall into this category. 27

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

5.0

AREA DESIGN BRIEFS

5.1

Developing a Design Framework

The Green Network seeks to establish a new landscape setting into which new housing development is accommodated and through which a strong relationship with the surrounding area and its associated facilities can be achieved. To achieve the maximum impact from the creation of a Green Network in Gowkthrapple proposals will need to clearly create a simple, consistent and appropriate treatment for greenspace. Key to the success of any works will be gaining community support and establishing a simple approach and palette of materials for future works. The design solutions proposed through this study have developed through an understanding of: The ongoing regeneration works being developed following the completion of the overall Gowkthrapple Strategic Masterplan. The wider network of and linkages to greenspace in the Glasgow & Clyde Valley and Central Scotland Forest. The multiplicity of stakeholders involved (user needs/ security/ safety/ inclusive access/ serviceability). The objectives and needs of prospective developers and funders. The importance of durable quality and sustainable products of value requiring low long term maintenance. Nationally accepted principles for best practice design of play spaces, greenspace, paths, cycleways etc. The need to incorporate design guidance as part of the NLC Planning process.

• • • • • • •

As highlighted in PAN 65 - Planning and Open Space spaces which are well managed and maintained create opportunities for all sections of the community to interact. They can promote a sense of place and a source of community pride and can also offer opportunities for people to play an active part in caring for the local environment.

5.2

Designing Places: Policy Guidance PAN 68 – Design Statements, 2003 Developing a Design Framework Designing Places highlights that the design of places plays an integral role in shaping our understandings, experience and relationship with the urban environment. Quality of design helps to build a clear sense of place identity, linking civic, community and neighbourhood vales with important functions which improve issues for daily life eg access, mobility, personal security and the promotion of inclusive and active lifestyles. Key qualities identified as vital for the success and sustainability of development are: • Distinctive Places • Connected and Pedestrian Friendly Environments • Welcoming • Safe and Appealing • Adaptable and Flexible • Environmentally Sustainable/ Resource Efficient The Gowkthrapple Green Network requires that all of these aspects are incorporated in some form and that design briefs highlight the need for simple, robust elements which are easy to maintain and will retain an identifiable visual quality. 29 Ironside Farrar Ltd Final Report November 2008


Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.3

Design Components A new Development Brief framework for strengthening the greenspace and creating the Gowkthrapple Green Network will be established through the use of different landscape components. For the most part these components cross-cut the different areas of Gowkthrapple and will be implemented by a variety of public/ private bodies at different stages over the next 5-15 years. Area Design Briefs are an essential part of the Green Network’s development to ensure awareness by all parties of key design principles and quality standards at the earliest stage possible of a development. The Green Network components comprise of: • Path Hierarchy – major routes/ secondary routes/ access routes and areas generally considered to be amenity greenspace. • Sports Areas, Playspace and Recreation Facilities – NEAP’s/ LEAP’s/ LAP’s/ multi sports pitches • Community Greenspace and Allotments - community gardens/ woodlands/ allotments. • Private/ Shared Gardens – semi private front/ private rear gardens. • Wider Area Linkages/ Green Corridors – footpath/ cycleway/ road networks/ greenspace provision. Design Guidance is given for each of these components in the following section. Key objectives for each component are listed to establish and demonstrate their fit within the wider project. Design principles are established through illustration and description of typical sections. Nominal dimensions are given for guidance only, it is envisaged that design development at subsequent stages will be required to verify all details. North Lanarkshire Council are currently undertaking an Open Space Audit which will form a significant part of developing an Open Space Strategy. At this time the information is not available to feed into this study and there are not scores or standards which can be referred to. Cross sections shown within the report have not been based on detailed topographic survey information. All proposals associated with SUDS will be subject to technical verification at later stages. Path Hierarchy The Gowkthrapple Strategic Masterplan ‘Place Making’ report strongly recommends that a road hierarchy is developed for Gowkthrapple which will in part address the current security issues with cul de sac and closed structures for vehicular & pedestrian access. Establishing a clear hierarchy of paths will maximise area legibility and when combined with traffic calming in some areas will create a safer more overlooked network of pedestrian space in line with the recommended Secure by Design approach. Additional benefits of limiting the overall quantity of routes provided and subsequently prioritising them will allow spend to be targeted on key areas and therefore real benefits in initial provision and long term maintenance to be demonstrated. Establishing clearly signposted routes will enable the Gowkthrapple Green Network to link with the wider area path infrastructure and will establish clear day to day routes to and from community facilities. A combination of newly established Path Hierarchy elements which tie into the wider existing footpath and cycleway network of Core Paths and Recreational Routes will establish the framework for a Green Network for Gowkthrapple. Green Network Path Hierarchy

Level 1 - Major Paths & Cycleways Level 2 – Secondary Combined Footpath and Cycleways Level 3 –Minor Access Path Routes

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Sports, Play and Recreation Facilities The Gowkthrapple Strategic Masterplan ‘Place Making’ report strongly recommends that adequate play and recreation facilities are provided and designed to appeal to a broad range of children including teenagers. Guidance from the Six Acre Standard suggests that as a minimum 2.4 hectares or 6 acres should be provided for 1000 people, this is divided into 1.6 hectares for outdoor sports and 0.8 hectares for children’s play areas. The 0.8 hectares for childrens play areas is divided further into Local Area for Play, Local Equipped Area for Play and Neighbourhood Equipped Area for Play or LAPs, LEAPs and NEAPs. Multi Sports Recreation and pitches are identified as being provided within the key area school facilities in line with the North Lanarkshire Sports Pitch Strategy. A combination of new Play & Recreation facilities which will tie into the wider existing network and provision in Gowkthrapple are as follows: Green Network Play Provision

Level 1 – NEAP’s Level 2 – LEAP’s Level 3 – LAP’s Level 4 - Supervised 3G 5-aside artificial pitch provision

Community Greenspace and Allotments The need for increased community greenspace in Gowkthrapple is acknowledged by previous studies and further supported through the recent consultations undertaken. The mechanisms for both implementation and future management have largely affected the proposals made. Green Network Greenspaces & Allotments

Level 1 – Community Gardens Level 2 – Community Woodlands Level 3 – Allotments

Private/ Shared Outdoor Space It is recommended that in the development of the Gowkthrapple Green Network proposals and guidance be extended to a domestic scale by incorporating small semi private front and private back gardens for each dwelling. The privacy of each dwelling is established by defining the area between the property and the public footpath with a boundary whilst also allowing for natural surveillance to and from the road and therefore creating a safer environment for Gowkthrapple. Long term management and avoidance of maintenance headaches often associated with planting is essential. Crucial to the integration of old and new housing stock is the treatment of areas around the retained tower blocks and buildings. Addressing the potential to create shared garden space which directly relates to these properties and provides residents with a new space to take ownership of through minor rerouting of paths or fence implementation. Green Network Private/ Shared Outdoor Space

Level 1 – Semi Private Front Gardens Level 2 – Private Rear Gardens Level 3 – Shared Garden Space

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.4

PATH HIERARCHY

5.4.1

MAJOR PATH & CYCLEWAY Provided along the roadside these form the primary path layer and establish a clear line of movement through Gowkthrapple with high levels of natural surveillance. Accommodating all the needs of Safe Routes to Schools and providing where necessary safe crossing points on major road links. Considerable pedestrian movement exists around the bus stops on Castlehill Road and appropriate links with these are essential. Objectives: Encourage movement on foot/ cycle around Gowkthrapple. Provide safe routes to schools. Establish clear and direct access to the new community hub. Improve the consistency of landscape quality along key corridors. Use of well designed greenspace to help improve community safety. Promote integration and connection between areas. Allow higher maintenance regimes to target key areas. Improve pedestrian safety through see and be seen principles.

• • • • • • • •

Principles: • Create safe and appropriate major footpath and cycleway links to achieve best practice. • Provide defined cycleways within the road carriageway on key traffic routes. • Establish clear visibility for users and remove or avoid areas with dense planting. • Provide low maintenance hard wearing path surfaces which are fit for purpose. • Create clarity of route at key Green Network junctions to aid legibility. • Provide suitable and safe crossing points in key locations to link with local facilities, public transport hubs and tie in with wider Green Network. • Provide street lighting to ensure key routes are usable at all times. • Visually delineate route by using semi mature tree planting (clear stem to 2.5m) where possible. • Provide guardrails where necessary. • Ensure accessibility of routes through care to meet DDA standards and provision of dropped kerbs, tactile slabs, rest points etc. • Design requirement to meet nationally regarded design standards. Mechanism: • Private sector partnership. • Public sector. • Developer contributions used to secure significant developer investment. • Ensure required Roads Department acceptance and combine with overall design ethos established through the Masterplan document.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.4.2

SECONDARY COMBINED FOOTPATH & CYCLEWAY ROUTES Combined use footpath/ cycle routes which provide well lit corridors for segregated off road travel. These paths will drain to SUDS swales and combine with green corridors for wildlife and in some areas may incorporate informal play. Objectives: • Encourage movement on foot and bicycle around Gowkthrapple. • Provide safe routes to schools. • Improve the consistency of landscape quality along key corridors. • Promote integration between areas. • Allow higher maintenance regimes to target key areas. • Establish clear and direct access to the new community hub. Principles: • Create appropriate and safe combined footpath and cycleway routes to comply with best practice design requirements. • Clearly define separate path usage through surfacing colour variation combined with signage to avoid cycle and pedestrian conflict. • Establish clear visibility for users. • Fence areas of planting to maximise perceptions of path user safety. • Provide low maintenance hard wearing path surfaces which are fit for purpose. • Ensure accessibility of routes through care to meet DDA standards. • Provide suitable safe crossing points in key locations to link with local facilities and tie in with wider community networks. • Establish a suitable palette of associated planting and materials elements. • Design requirement to meet nationally regarded design standards. Mechanism: • Private sector partnership. • Public sector. • Developer contributions used to secure significant private investment. • Ensure required Roads Department acceptance and combine with overall design ethos established through the Masterplan document.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.4.3

MINOR ACCESS PATH ROUTES Creation of appropriately surfaced and proportioned small scale access routes which provide the link between the main and secondary path routes to residential properties. In some cases these will border existing areas of housing and may need to relate more strongly to existing planting and management. Objectives: • Use of open space and greenspace to improve the image and landscape quality of the area. • Use of well designed greenspace to help improve community safety. • Allow higher maintenance regimes to target key areas. • Establish clear and direct access to the new community hub. Principles: • Create safe minor access routes to link major and secondary paths with residential properties. • Establish clear visibility for users. • Establish a suitable palette of associated surface and fencing materials. • Maximise defensible space for property tenants/ owners. • Fence areas adjacent to existing planting to maximise perceptions of path user safety. • Establish offset from property boundaries to avoid anti social behaviour issues. • Provide low maintenance hard wearing path surfaces which are fit for purpose. • Ensure accessibility of routes through care to meet DDA standards. Mechanism: • Private and Public sector.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.5

PLAY PROVISION

5.5.1

NEAP’s In line with the Six Acre Standard Neighbourhood Equipped Areas for Play comprising a minimum area of 1000m2 and aimed at older children and teenagers. The play area should be within 15 minutes walk from home and have a catchment area of a 600m radius. To allow these areas to be suitably managed in Gowkthrapple they are proposed as being enhanced play and recreation facilities provided within each of the school facilities (Castlehill Primary & Clyde Valley Community High School). Local people were concerned with the lack of recreation facilities for older children and this is seen as an essential part of the required provision in the area. Management and vandalism issues previously encountered with play spaces in the area suggest a need to link these with manned resources. The schools are well located within the path and road network and allow all areas of Gowkthrapple to be within easy reach of facilities. Objectives: • Providing adequate playspace in the neighbourhood. • Establish clear and direct access to the new community hub. • Encourage movement on foot/ cycle around Gowkthrapple. • Provide areas for older children and adults to enjoy formal sports grounds and play. • Allow higher maintenance regimes to target key areas. Principles: • Contains a minimum of 8 pieces of play equipment of which one should stimulate and develop rocking, touch and social play. 2 items that facilitate sliding, swinging or climbing and at least 5 other pieces that encourage more adventurous climbing, swinging, balancing, rotating or gliding. • The play area should be surrounded by a fence at least 1 metre high with two outward opening self closing gates reducing the scope for bullying and preventing dogs entering the space. The space should also contain seating for parents and carers with bins nearby. • Where possible a proportion of the seating provided should be sheltered. • Entrances and exits should have a barrier to limit the speed at which children can enter and leave the space. • The play area should be located alongside a well used footpath and be overlooked by houses allowing for natural surveillance. • There should be a minimum buffer zone 30m deep between the play area and the nearest dwelling, this zone should include planting to introduce children to natural forms, colours and scents. • A NEAP is to contain a minimum of 465m2 (five a side football pitch) hard surfaced games areas, this could be a more traditional sports pitch catering for well known team games, a multi use games area (MUGA) or something more contemporary like a BMX track or Skate park. • A NEAP should also have provision for securely parking bicycles. • Design requirement to meet nationally regarded design standards. Mechanism: • Private sector partnership. • Public sector. • Developer contributions used to secure significant developer investment.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study NEAP Diagram

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.5.2

PLAY PROVISION LEAP’s Local Equipped Areas for Play with a minimum area of 400m2 and aimed at children between 4 and 8 years old would be more accessed and ideally located within 5 minutes walk from home. These play areas should generally have a catchment area of 240m radius and to accord with the Six Acre Standard Gowkthrapple will have three facilities. LEAP’s generally form quite traditional play facilities and often suffer badly from vandalism. The revised road layouts in Gowkthrapple will enable the previously established play space at the Community Garden to be refurbished to form one of them with subsequent provision at the Community Hub building within a managed area and one further area located under the route of the overhead lines and adjacent to the allotment facilities. In this play facility provision will encourage more natural play with grassed mounding, logs for bug hunting and the use of only very simple equipment to encourage imaginative play. A supervised 3G 5-aside artificial pitch provision is recommended in association with the Hub building to ensure that it also forms a core facility and focus for older children. Objectives: Providing adequate playspace in the neighbourhood. Establish clear and direct access to the new community hub. Encourage movement on foot/ cycle around Gowkthrapple. Provide areas for older children and adults to enjoy formal sports grounds and play. Improve consistency of landscape planting and treatments. Use of well designed greenspace to help improve community safety.

• • • • • •

Principles: Contains a minimum of 5 pieces of play equipment including one multi climber and play equipment should stimulate and develop the following: Balancing, Rocking, Climbing, Sliding as well as Social Play. • The play area should be surrounded by a fence at least 1m high with two self closing gates reducing the scope for bullying as well as preventing dogs entering the space. • Provision of seating for parents and carers with bins nearby and ideally under cover. • The entrances should have a barrier to limit the speeds at which children enter and leave the space. • The play area should be located alongside a well used footpath and be overlooked by houses allowing for natural surveillance. • There should be a minimum buffer zone 10m deep from the play area to the nearest dwelling and a distance of 20m from the play area to the nearest habitable room in a dwelling. • The buffer zone should include planting to introduce children to natural forms, colour and scents.

Mechanism: Private sector partnership. Public sector. Developer contributions used to secure significant developer investment.

• • •

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study LEAP Diagram

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.5.3

PLAY PROVISION LAP’s The Local Area for Play has a minimum area of 100m2 and is aimed at children up to 6 years old. These greenspaces would primarily comprise of informal play elements located along the secondary path routes and would encourage both play and walking in support of healthy lifestyles. In some cases the simple use of earth mounding, mown paths or standard trees can be all that is needed to stimulate simple play. Interaction with plants flowers and wildlife should also form a level of engagement that encourages interest, imagination and play. Variety in type of landscape between mown grass and wildflowers in some areas will provide diversity whilst requiring less long term maintenance and minimising the potential for vandalism. Objectives: • Providing adequate playspace in the neighbourhoods. • Encourage movement on foot/ cycle around Gowkthrapple. • Improve consistency of landscape planting and treatments. • Use of well designed greenspace to help improve community safety. Principles: Contains a minimum of 3 items or features that mean it can be identified by children as a play space. The play area should be within 1 minutes walk from home and the play area has a catchment area of a 60m radius. The play area should be surrounded by a fence at least 600mm high with a self closing gate preventing dogs entering the space and should contain seating for parents and carers as well as a bin. • The entrance should have a barrier to restrict the speeds at which children enter and leave the space. • The play area should be located alongside a well used footpath and be overlooked by houses allowing for natural surveillance. • There should be a minimum buffer zone 5m deep from the fence to the nearest dwellings. • The buffer zone should include planting to introduce children to natural forms, colours and scents.

• • •

Mechanism: • Private sector partnership. • Public sector. • Developer contributions used to secure significant developer investment.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study LAP Diagram

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.6

COMMUNITY GREENSPACE & ALLOTMENTS

5.6.1

COMMUNITY GARDENS Community Gardens will supplement the network of greenspace through focused activity and defined boundaries. Located adjacent to the new Hub facility, at the existing community garden and additionally associated with Allershaw Tower these would provide the community with a focus for developing gardening knowledge. Differing types of community garden can incorporate elements of public art and varied planting types to encourage wildlife and increase biodiversity. Objectives: • Use of open space and greenspace to improve the image and landscape quality of the area. • Use of well designed greenspace to help improve community safety. • Allow higher maintenance regimes to target key areas. • Establish clear and direct access to the new community hub. • Links with opportunities for community wellbeing/ health /community cohesiveness/ events. • Incorporate public art elements and clearly establish ownership. • Establishes facilities around existing buildings. • Key link with the Hub and provide initial training for local people who want to learn techniques. Principles: Create a safe and manageable Community Garden linked to and with access through the new Hub Facility. Develop a garden space whose scale allows for use by all age groups and members of the Community. Involve local school children and utilise gardens as an educational resource. Establish a suitable palette of associated surface and fencing materials. Create seating relating to café facilities and ensure south east facing orientation. Fenced garden associated with the staffed facility avoids previously encountered anti social behaviour issues. Community support of facility through use of available rooms/ café/ terrace. Provide garden space for elderly in close proximity to main residential area at Allershaw Tower to ensure use. Ensure accessibility of routes through care to meet DDA standards.

• • • • • • • • •

Mechanism: • Private and Public sector. • Developer contributions.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.6.2

COMMUNITY WOODLANDS To establish a strong landscape framework areas of woodland planting in an area the scale of Gowkthrapple are essential. Planting of areas of Community Woodland to establish structure planting and maximise the variety of landscape infrastructure for the Community are recommended. Whilst not strongly supported through the consultation due to safety concerns these areas will provide essential wildlife corridors and if planned carefully will have the scope to maximise biodiversity without creating areas for antisocial behaviour. The Integrated Habitat Network being led by the Biodiversity & Environment Group of the Glasgow and Clyde Valley (GCV) Green Network Partnership supports the need for three key habitat types to establish a functioning habitat networks across the whole of the Glasgow and Clyde Valley area these focus on unimproved grassland, floodplain management wetlands and woodland habitats. Objectives: Use of greenspace to improve the landscape quality of the area. Improvement of the biodiversity value of greenspace within the neighbourhood. Contribute to development of effective ecosystems. Provides relatively low maintenance areas of community space. Incorporate tree planting into areas alongside commercial development to improve the overall business setting.

• • • • •

Principles: • Utilise native species throughout to ensure that appropriate cover is achieved and is manageable and appropriate for the long term. • Native ground cover planting and wildflowers will ensure that maintenance impacts are minimised along marginal boundaries and open sightlines are generally achieved. • Create interest through combination of standard and multi stemmed trees within the whip planting. • Ensure densely planted areas are remote from footpaths and incorporate a native species shrub layer to maximise biodiversity value. • Provide variety in landscape experience and promote exploration. • Develop community initiatives for bird boxes and bulb planting within the Community Woodland spaces. Mechanism: • Private and Public sector.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.6.3

ALLOTMENTS The recommended scale for allotments is generally considered to be 250m2 . The success or scope of this facility will depend on establishing a link to the South Wishaw Allotments & Gardens Society. Potential for a social enterprise business to develop in the longer term at the existing community centre facility is highlighted. The development of this building once a full level of interest is established will allow the servicing of allotments to take place with existing car parking facilities further supporting this as being a resource which will draw people from the wider area. Initial pilot allotment trials and support network would be facilitated through the Hub. Connections with healthy eating/ fruit and vegetable supply and availability will all be maximised through this initiative. Links with Clyde Valley Garden Centres and the potential to develop ‘Best’ allotment/ vegetables/ flowers competitions to stimulate local interest and pride in end product. Objectives: • Use of open space and greenspace to improve the image and landscape quality of the area. • Establish clear and direct access to the new community hub. • Improvement of the biodiversity value of greenspace within the neighbourhood. • Contribute to development of effective ecosystems. • Provides relatively low maintenance areas of community space. Principles: • Provide approximately 250m2 area of land per allotment for private use. • Establish an appropriate treatment for the external allotment boundary of a quality appearance, secure height and requiring low maintenance. • Establish support system for allotment users to assist with horticultural issues. • Locate support and education systems at the Hub building to allow interaction with schools and wide cross section of local community. • Provide facility building to allow water supply and potentially storage of equipment. • Establish offset from boundaries to avoid anti social behaviour issues. • Provide low maintenance hard wearing path surfaces which are fit for purpose and create the divisions between the allotments. • Establish principle of no physical internal boundaries to maximise social interaction. • Ensure accessibility of routes through care to meet DDA standards. • Develop links with Health Strategy Shop provision. Mechanism: • Private and Public sector.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.7

PRIVATE & SEMI PRIVATE OUTDOOR SPACE

5.7.1 SEMI PRIVATE FRONT GARDENS Objectives: • Use of open space and greenspace to improve the image and landscape quality of the area. • Use of well designed greenspace to help improve community safety. • Allow higher maintenance regimes to target key areas. • Establish an appropriate landscape quality along key routes. Principles: • Create safe minor access routes to link residential properties with secondary routes. • Provide off street car parking for users. • Establish clear visibility for users. • Establish a suitable palette of associated surface and fencing materials. • Maximise defensible space for property tenants/ owners. • Fence areas of planting to maximise perceptions of path user safety. • Establish offset from property boundaries to avoid anti social behaviour issues. • Provide low maintenance hard wearing path surfaces which are fit for purpose. • Ensure accessibility of routes through care to meet DDA standards. • Establish a layered hierarchy of public / private space from the public footpath alongside roads to the semi private strip incorporating planting areas and parking in front of each dwelling and a small private front garden. • Create an ‘image’ for the street scene with the semi private strip incorporating tree and low growing shrub species to create a tree lined avenue effect along routes. • Establish a pallet of appropriate low growing shrub species and specimen tree species suitable for the semi private strip and private small front gardens. Mechanism: • Private and Public sector.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.7.2

PRIVATE REAR GARDENS Objectives: • Use of open space and greenspace to improve the image and landscape quality of the area. • Use of well designed greenspace to help improve community safety. • Extend the greenspace network to a private domestic space. Principles: Establish a suitable palette of associated surface and fencing materials. Maximise defensible space for property tenants/ owners. Establish offset from property boundaries to avoid anti social behaviour issues. Provide low maintenance hard wearing path surfaces which are fit for purpose. Create patio areas with provision of low maintenance hard landscaping. Ensure accessibility of routes through care to meet DDA standards. Provide rear boundaries which combine fencing with an external hedge that is maintained as part of the wider network as opposed to by private individuals. Establish a planting pallet of tree species suitable in scale for private back gardens which could create a ‘green spine’. Provide support services for establishing gardens. Provide owners/ tenants with their own piece of the Gowkthrapple Green Network to create and maintain.

• • • • • • • • • •

Mechanism: • Private and Public sector.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.7.3

NEIGHBOURHOOD/ SHARED GARDEN SPACE Objectives: • Use of open space and greenspace to improve the image and landscape quality of the area. • Use of well designed greenspace to help improve community safety. • Allow higher maintenance regimes to target key areas. • Establish an appropriate landscape quality along key routes. Principles: • Maximise defensible space for property tenants/ owners. • Create a fenced area which limits access for general public and allows ownership to be accepted of areas. • To allow residents to adopt areas of land within an established boundary for seating or planting. • Establish a suitable palette of associated surface and fencing materials. • Fence areas of planting to maximise perceptions of path user safety. • Establish offset from property boundaries to avoid anti social behaviour issues. • Provide low maintenance hard wearing path surfaces which are fit for purpose. • Ensure accessibility of routes through care to meet DDA standards. • Establish a layered hierarchy of public/ private space for those living within the larger existing housing blocks on Allershaw Place, Birkshaw Place etc. • Establish a palette of appropriate low growing shrub species and specimen tree species suitable for the semi private areas. • Establish clear visibility is retained for all path users. • Essential to have in place a back up for future maintenance to avoid planting getting out of hand. Mechanism: • Private and Public sector.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 5.8

DESIGN ASSOCIATED WITH PYLONS Objectives: Use of open space and greenspace under pylons and cables to improve the image and landscape quality of the area. Maximise usage to avoid creation of dead space. Minimise impact through careful design of new housing layouts.

• • •

Principles: Breaking down linearity of Overhead Power lines through design • Place higher densities of development closer to overhead Power lines as this will screen views and reduce the visual impact of cables and pylons. • Align streets and paths so no direct views of pylons or cables are created they will then become ‘part of the view’ and not ‘the view’. • Street alignment, align streets and development blocks to minimise views of pylons or cables, ensure individual homes do not have direct view of pylons. • Varying the development distance of and orientation to overhead power lines. • Breaking down the transmission route into cells using roads, main routes and planting. • Creating spaces with a variety of views, such as gardens, squares, parks, nature conservation areas, allotments, sports pitches, play areas. • Create meandering paths and varied planting in open spaces so there are less direct views of pylons and cables. • Areas can be utilised for SUDS, drainage, waterbodies, attenuation ponds if you provide high levels of visual interest on the ground and reduce visual impact of cables and pylons. • Create a movement corridor, ensuring natural surveillance is maintained. Screening by Landscape Design Planting layers of screening can enhance quality and intimacy of the immediate setting. Narrow avenues of street trees can create enclosed spaces reducing the visual impact of pylons and cables. Effectiveness of screening depends on distance of the viewer from pylons/ cables and the screening.

• • •

Planting near Overhead Power lines Safety distances stop flashover/ death/ power cuts/ or failures in power supply. Extent of exclusion zone depends on the design of the overhead lines & pylons/ operating voltage/ spacing between pylons/ the local topography/ proposals to alter ground levels

• •

Recreation and Overhead Power lines From a safety point of view kite flying & fishing are problematic in spaces around overhead power lines Supervised and fenced sports areas which are not open to general public are not a problem near overhead power lines. Unsupervised sports areas which are open to the general public as parks require ‘Danger of Death’ signs to warn people of potential hazards. A buffer zone of 30m (measured from the outer conductors) is recommended where it should be made difficult to walk through by ground modelling and potentially the creation of shallow water areas. • Supervised sports pitches can be placed directly under overhead power lines as long as the cables and pylons are high enough however this is strongly discouraged. • Although space is planned for a specific use it is highly likely children will use the space for other purposes and activities that adults never envisaged therefore it is good to locate focal points for children that incorporate a 30m exclusion zone from the cables to the activity as described above.

• • •

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6.0 MANAGEMENT OF THE GOWKTHRAPPLE GREEN NETWORK 6.1

Introduction North Lanarkshire Council is committed to securing best value and the continuous improvement of greenspace to ensure it delivers its strategic priorities through Community Planning, the Development plan and Operational Service Plans working with communities, stakeholders and other partners. North Lanarkshire Council invests substantial sums on greenspace management and it is important that investment can demonstrate clear outcomes and value for money. Over recent years shifting priorities and budgets have threatened investment with greenspace investment offering suffering in the allocation of resources because of its limited ability to demonstrate measurable achievements and a commitment to improvement. This position is changing. The increasing awareness of the value of greenspace, its contribution to community health and well-being, place-making, biodiversity and economic growth are now recognised and the Development Plan and Community Plan place significant emphasis on the need to both improve greenspace provision and manage greenspace to ensure its remains fit-for-purpose and delivers broadly based, multi-user and sustainable benefits.

6.2

Greenspace Management Context Management of greenspace is a critical area in terms of ensuring greenspace is fit-for-purpose and sustainable. Management and maintenance however is the ‘cinderella’ of greenspace planning and all too frequently is not addressed at the concept stage; design stage or project handover stage with any clarity. The majority of green space enhancement projects management and maintenance issues are generally dealt with through one or other or a combination of three models:

new or improved green spaces are incorporated within local authority maintenance or management frameworks;

new or improved green spaces are ‘factored’ transferring maintenance responsibility to a third party contractor funded by an annual charge on residents;

improvement projects are designed and delivered to enable local community members to share some of the maintenance or management responsibilities.

These models have been widely used with perhaps the most widely considered ‘innovation’ associated with community engagement still relatively new and unproven for the long term. One-off innovations must have a capacity for wider application and it is has been clear for some time that the models above are, on their own, unlikely to offer a long term solution. New thinking is required to identify and develop alternative models and mechanisms which provide more reliable or more permanent solutions. As Central and Local Government and partner agencies develop the strategic planning for Sustainable Communities we will be seeing major changes to land use patterns in areas of housing market renewal and in housing growth areas. The argument about the importance of greenspace infrastructure to these developments has largely been won. However, unless long-term management solutions are found this greenspace estate may ultimately become part of a new problem in future years.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Quality Greenspace – Management Requirements Organisations such as the Groundwork Trust together with CABE, Greenspace Scotland, Institute of Parks and Greenspace and others have all sought to encourage a debate and identify solutions that can advance and better integrate the management dimension into greenspace planning. Developing a 4 dimensional greenspace model (with time as the fourth dimension) isn’t new but is critical to the successful delivery of sustainable greenspace. The management of the majority of greenspace across all the main types of greenspace (see PAN 65) requires management that can secure the following three critical requirements to be sustainable:

• • • 6.3

Engagement of communities Securing appropriate funding Designs that work with nature

Engagement of Communities Community engagement and the active participation of users and those who live near green spaces in the planning, design, delivery and management of greenspace is accepted as a fundamental part of promoting more sustainable communities and sustainable places. The direct engagement of residents in decision-making processes and implementation on the ground brings considerable benefits for site management, for individuals through development of new skills and training and through supporting community development. Across Britain there are more than 4,000 community groups actively involved in green space projects bringing significant community and regeneration benefits, a stronger sense of community ownership, especially through the engagement of young people with measurable decreases in anti-social behaviour and an increase in the level of self-policing. The mechanisms for engagement are varied ranging from input to greenspace planning and design through to informal but organised contribution of volunteers and site users through to formally constituted groups that are directly responsible for the stewardship of a site, through to direct ownership of the land. Typical arrangements include:

Local authority management through the support of local groups and volunteers Voluntary groups and societies that act to coordinate residents to help maintain local greenspace, parks, allotments and other areas greenspace with or without budget, contract or management responsibilities. A similar system has been undertaken locally since 2001 at Greenhead Moss with the input of North Lanarkshire Council/ Central Scotland Forest and the Community Trust. The standard of physical links and route connections with the surrounding area will be strengthened through upgrades along Core Paths.

Friends and User groups Locally established and formally constituted groups such as ‘Friends of the Park’ or ‘Conservation Groups’ that have a particular interest in a space or activity want to be involved in site management to ensure the provision of their facilities. The legal status of a Friends group may enable it to hold the lease for a site, or even take on ownership, control budgets and apply for future funding.

Community Trusts A Community Trust is a not for profit organisation owning or leasing land and property in trust for the community. Activities by CTs include developing affordable housing for rent, affordable workspace and retail units, providing and maintaining community facilities as well as managing green spaces. CTs can use legal structures such as Companies Limited by Guarantee and Industrial and Provident Societies or utilise an existing organisation such as housing associations, development trusts, heritage trusts.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Greenhead Moss has successfully run with the established Community Trust in place since 2001, interested parties can establish interest initially through the website and then become gradually further involved. Local staffing has the potential to add value to the overall project and has succeeded in both long term project initiatives and for consultation workshop events.

School Children Engaging with local children at a young age and introducing them to plants, wildlife and the concepts of gardening has the opportunity to encourage parents, discourage misuse of public spaces which they have been involved in and would hopefully `plant seeds` for the future.

Engagement in Community Gardens and Private Outdoor Space Many authorities have identified a need to build capacity in the community before any significant responsibility can be shared or transferred to communities. The provision of gardens, community gardens including allotments all offer opportunity to strengthen the capacity (awareness/ understanding / skills / confidence) offer ‘routes to engagement’ and these could form important elements in the provision of greenspace within Gowkthrapple.

Implications for the Gowkthrapple Green Network

North Lanarkshire Council are in the process of developing a Greenspace Strategy which may lead to new opportunities to pilot new approaches to greenspace management.

Physical masterplanning of the estate should create opportunity for a broad typology of private/ semi-private/semi-public space that offers opportunity for individual and community management.

Friends groups whilst effective in terms of community involvement in the management of a need ongoing support if they are themselves to be sustained and allowed to develop. Groups need practical help to establish and organise themselves and then to work with local authorities or other public agencies involving training and from practical gardening and conservation tasks to coordination with other stakeholders, events and fundraising

Maintaining a clear purpose and strong links to other community organisations and structures is very important. Community groups exist for specific reasons and can simply run out of energy when the initial momentum or immediate issues have been addressed. Also membership of groups will fluctuate over time as residents come and go. Young people in particular soon grow up and each new generation of youth needs to be engaged.

Garrion Peoples Housing Co-operative have both an existing investment in the area and an aspiration to see the long term regeneration of Gowkthrapple. Involvement and guidance from within the Hub Facility will help the delivery of the Green Network Vision.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 6.4

Securing Appropriate Funding

6.4.1

Local Authority Revenue Funding Funding the long-term and ongoing management and development of green spaces is often more problematic than funding the capital works by reason that capital funding allows for deliverable change and new facilities for which credit can be taken whereas a commitment to long-term revenue offers few short term gains and limits future options for those in control of budgets. Revenue funding for most green space projects is generally sought from a combination of four main sources: local authority budgets, grant funding, financial assets or endowments or income generation strategies. Local government modernisation and the introduction of Best Value have also led to changed priorities in terms of the management and maintenance of green space. In housing areas a wide range of contracting and partnering arrangements have been utilised often with specialist private sector companies Scottish Greenbelt Company/ Estate Factors/ Specialist Maintenance Contractors) and in some cases with voluntary sector bodies. The intent is often to seek to remove and capitalise a revenue cost and secure value for money but it may also involve a weakening of control, a loss of expertise and local knowledge and introduce issues around contractual continuity. These arrangements may also weaken the link between the day-to-day maintenance of green spaces and strategic planning decisions, which in turn jeopardises long-term thinking and investment. Implications for Gowkthrapple Green Network

North Lanarkshire Council are in the process of developing a Greenspace Strategy which may lead to changes in the organisation and responsibility for maintenance functions and the development of strategic management plans for whole green space networks.

North Lanarkshire Council’s revenue budgets for greenspace are set centrally and whilst short term prioritisation of ‘key area initiatives’ may be possible to enhance quality standards the long term revenue support is only likely to meet essential need.

Cost of maintenance is a balance between extent (size of area to be maintained) and intensity (level of intervention required) both should be seen as flexible. Understanding the balance of public space, semi-public space and private space (introduction of gardens) can significantly alter the extent of publicly maintained greenspace and working with nature can reduce the requirement for operations and intervention.

The Gowkthrapple Green Network Strategy provides a framework that identifies a number of core objectives and a range of projects to support the regeneration of Gowkthrapple. The strategy is intended to support North Lanarkshire Council and its partners and other stakeholders ensure that Gowkthrapple develops a quality of greenspace and green networks that offers an exemplar of good and best practice in residential neighbourhood planning and management. North Lanarkshire Partnership (Community Planning Partnership) has developed the new Single Outcome Agreement based on a new common concordat between the Scottish Government and local authorities. The final version of the Council's Single Outcome Agreement was submitted to the Scottish Government and agreement concluded on 30 June 2008. The development of the Outcome Agreement has been fully supported by all community planning partners and is informed by the outcomes of our review of the Council’s Corporate Plan and the NLP Community Plan for period 2004-2008 and development of our new Corporate and Community Plans 2008-2012.

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The Gowkthrapple Green Network Strategy offers key mechanisms to deliver the SOA targets and deliver on the SOA Indicators. The SOA should facilitate funding support to projects that can in a specific and measurable way deliver the SOA targets. The most obvious SOA and Green Network Strategy connections are as follows:

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study SOA - Theme 1 Regeneration Our local regeneration outcomes focus on improving the support to the business and social enterprise sectors in North Lanarkshire (see outcome 1 & 2). Our focus on developing strong and sustainable communities incorporates many of our priorities for Fairer Scotland Fund programme in terms of regenerating our most disadvantaged communities and as such connects with National Outcomes 7 and 10. Local Outcome

National Outcome 7, 10

Strong sustainable communities and more attractive places to live

SOA - Theme 3 Community Safety Our priority is to tackle disorder, antisocial behaviour, violence and abuse within our communities and also to ensure we reduce accidents through a variety of means as we seek to ensure that our residents are safe and can enjoy living and working in North Lanarkshire to the full. Our local outcomes for our Community Safety theme are both aligned with National Outcome 9 – We live our lives safe from crime, disorder and danger. Local Outcome

National Outcome

Impact upon disorder, antisocial behaviour, violence and abuse within our communities Enhanced community safety and wellbeing within our local communities

9, 7 9

SOA - Theme 4 Environment Our Environment outcomes recognise the need to protect, care for and enhance our natural and built environment and also to reduce the environmental impact of our consumption and production. These outcomes connect with National Outcomes 10, 12 and 14. Local Outcome Improved quality of our built and managed landscapes through measures including environmental design guidance

National Outcome 10, 12

The extent and quality of environmentally designated sites is maintained

10, 12

Improved air quality across North Lanarkshire

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study SOA - Theme 5 Health and Wellbeing Our priorities for health improvement in North Lanarkshire all fit neatly within National Outcome 6. However, it should be noted that in order to tackle the significant health inequalities regarding our most deprived communities our health improvement outcomes also contribute to National Outcome 7, and incorporate the priorities of the Fairer Scotland Fund programme. Our Health & Wellbeing Theme also incorporates our priorities for care and support services which fit with National Outcome 6 and 11. Our commitment to improve housing conditions, and the housing choices available to North Lanarkshire residents connect with National Outcomes 10 and 12. Local Outcome Increased proportion of people needing care or support who are able to sustain an independent quality of life as part of the community, through effective joint working Improved care and support through better quality of services Improved care and support through faster access to services Increased number of people able to make healthier choices for their diet and nutrition Increased number of people enjoying the benefits of a physically active life Reduced impact of alcohol and substance use Reduced impact of smoking Improved emotional wellbeing of North Lanarkshire residents Improved range of housing and support options for those with particular needs Improved housing conditions and progress toward achieving the Scottish Housing Quality Standard in our own stock Improved housing choices in the size and types that people want in the areas they want to live and that they can afford Improved services to prevent homelessness and help all households who are homeless to secure suitable accommodation

National Outcome 6, 11 6, 8, 11 6, 8 5, 6, 7 6, 7 6, 7 6, 7 6, 7, 8 10, 12 10, 12 10, 12 7, 8

SOA - Cross-cutting theme Sustainable Transport We have identified Sustainable Transport as a key cross-cutting theme and impacts on our commitments to community safety, sustainability and regeneration. Our local outcome therefore impacts upon several national outcomes as detailed below. Local Outcome Improved the safety, effectiveness, sustainability and accessibility of our transport systems across North Lanarkshire

National Outcome 1, 2, 9, 10, 14

North Lanarkshire Council’s local outcomes are detailed separately (see Section 7) of the Single Outcome Agreement and include supporting indicators. Fairer Scotland Fund The Outcome Agreement incorporates our commitments made via the Fairer Scotland Fund in respect of regenerating the most disadvantaged communities, improving the life chances of individuals and groups experiencing poverty and disadvantage, tackling health inequalities and improving employability, particularly for young people and other hard to reach groups. The key partner agreed action is clearly relevant with many of these elements delivered through the Public Realm Design Guide and projects arising from the framework. The specific SOA Indicators should be cited within submissions for funding and outcome indicators incorporated into funding application submissions and project monitoring and evaluation. The SOA has committed to securing the regeneration of areas such as Gowkthrapple and it will be important in developing projects and in making submissions for funding to stress the links to the SOA targets and indicators. 61

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 6.4.2

Private Sector (Section 75) Funding Agreements Private sector funding secured through Section 75 Developer Agreements and planning gain are anticipated to provide a significant source of funding for the Green Network with the respective housing developers contributing to the provision of the infrastructure needed to support quality development within Gowkthrapple. These are likely to be: 1. 2. 3.

A one-off financial contribution by developers to the costs incurred for the ‘primary common infrastructure elements’ as set out in the SPG ‘s / NLC Local Plan or Planning Statements – i.e. those that require an equitable contribution from the developers such as roads infrastructure. Standard Charges covering contributions towards the provision of specific elements of infrastructure, such as contribution to education facilities (e.g. primary and secondary school provision). Individual arrangements covering the supporting community infrastructure needed to support specific residential sites such as greenspace and play provision.

Section 75 Agreements form the established mechanism with which to secure agreement on developer contributions (under Section 75 of the Town & Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997). Such an Agreement can be entered into before the granting of planning permission or the issuing of a planning permission can be suspensive until an Agreement has been entered into. The relevant national policy providing guidance on planning agreements is contained within Circular 12/1996 on ‘Planning Agreements’. Where a Planning Agreement is required, the circular sets out four tests that the planning authorities should consider when negotiating planning agreements. The four tests are as follows

• • • •

Planning purpose – Planning agreements require to have a planning purpose. Relationship to the proposed development – the agreement must relate to the proposed development. Scale and kind – any developer contributions should be proportional and not excessive and related in scale and kind to the proposed development. Reasonableness – the agreement must meet the test of reasonableness.

The Scottish Government have indicated that Circular 12/1996 is under review and it is likely that a consultation on the proposed changes to the Circular will be undertaken towards the end of 2008.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study It could be anticipated that the developers within Gowkthrapple should in addition to the provision of open space and play provision within housing areas in accord with the Local Plan should be making a contribution to the wider Green Network and place making qualities of the site (Safe Routes to Schools / Path Connections to Off-site Routes / Sports Provision within Hub / etc on a housing acreage or number of units basis. Cost provision clearly needs to reflect market values and the scale of abnormal and special needs within the area but clearly given that greenspace is a critical component of the success of Gowkthrapple and its new neighbourhoods all developers should contribute alongside the strategic partners. Agreements under Section 75 of the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997 are made between the local planning authority, the developer and landowners as a condition to granting planning consent, usually involving mitigation measures and/or restoration of the development site after use. Applications for a Section 75 agreement are usually made to the local planning authority towards the latter stages of the Section 36 application process. The regeneration of Gowkthrapple will see the introduction of significant new housing much of it delivered by the private sector or through joint-ventures with RSL’s. Greenspace provision (Green Networks/ Amenity Greenspace/ NEAPs/ LEAPS etc) and greenspace management of the new housing areas will be addressed through the development planning process. North Lanarkshire Council has not made extensive use of Section 75 Agreements to support greenspace provision or established a ‘tariff’ system for housing applications as exists or is in the process of being implemented in other local authority areas (Stirlingshire, Aberdeenshire and West Lothian). Section 75 Agreements can help to fund the upkeep of green spaces through an annuity or ‘commuted payment’ levied on new-build development, which is used to support the revenue requirements of a space within the development over a period of years. Funds can be invested and the interest used to support ongoing revenue funding, although interest rates may be too low to produce sufficient amounts. Section 75 Agreements linked to a Greenspace Audit and Strategy can also be used for local area improvements (e.g. improving quality of existing facilities / addressing off-site deficiencies) which, although capital works, can be put towards improvements normally included under a revenue budget. Funds could also be diverted to support maintenance in other areas or used as match-funding for grant applications. Unilateral agreements offered by applicants could give rise to problems. If a Local Authority considers the terms of the agreement unacceptable then a planning refusal could follow. A better way forward would be to retain the present voluntary Section 75 agreements but to give greater guidance on how they should be framed, what they should cover and how the agreement can be discharged. Section 75 Agreements in respect of the development process the planning system and its access to Section 75 powers has made it a uniquely attractive delivery mechanism. There is a defined relationship between the amount, which can realistically be obtained by a planning contribution, and land values. Contributions are normally deducted from the price paid by a developer for land and are therefore effectively paid for by the landowner. Consequently, developers normally try to pay a price for land, which is equivalent to its market value less the cost of complying with planning conditions or terms of planning agreements. Heads of agreement should be clearly set out and justified in the planning officer's report to Committee in sufficient detail so that the applicant, Members, consultees, objectors can have confidence in the proposed boundaries of the agreement negotiations. There should have been prior discussions explaining and justifying the heads of agreement and an indication that there was every reason to believe that an agreement was capable of being concluded on the broad terms specified. It has become the practice of some Council’s not to agree to ring fence monetary contributions. In general an applicant/ developer has every reason to expect a monetary contribution sought for a specific purpose to be applied to the delivery of that purpose, within an agreed timescale

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Implications for the Gowkthrapple Green Network

North Lanarkshire Council are in the process of reviewing their approach to Section 75 Agreements and housing tariffs which together with the Greenspace Strategy may lead to changes in the mechanism for funding the management and maintenance of green space.

The Masterplan for Gowkthrapple assumes the development of approximately 580 new houses the majority developed semi-detached and terraced properties with front and rear garden space. Section 75 Agreements could provide for ‘developer contributions’ for both the standard maintenance of greenspace (verges/ public realm space/ play and recreational areas) together with wider contributions to ‘The Hub’ greenspace/ community gardens, community woodlands and existing provision.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 6.4.3

Grant Aid & Funding Submission to Third Parties Funding Revenue investment is recognised as a key element of sustainable places but few grant aid bodies are structured to provide long term revenue support. Securing grant support and spending on revenue related funding do form eligible items (Structural Funds / Lottery Funding / Communities Scotland) the reality is that unless this is part of a large capital funding bid securing funding for the long-term management of green spaces is likely to be an unreliable, high risk and restricted option which consumes disproportionate management time and is unlikely to provide a long term answer. Implications for Gowkthrapple Green Network

6.5

Gowkthrapple is a priority regeneration project which has secured Housing Estate Regeneration Fund (HERF). Managed by Communities Scotland, the Scottish Government’s housing and regeneration agency, the fund supports local authorities’ housing strategies and local regeneration needs.

HERF funding and other Community Scotland funding support (CRF/HAG) can support greenspace as part of formal Regeneration Outcome Agreements (ROA) or housing regeneration programmes.

Working with Nature – Cost Effective Landscapes Working with nature and adopting an ecological approach to greenspace planning and management, can help to ensure all green spaces are multi-functional and deliver benefits for biodiversity alongside meeting user needs and offering cost-effective long-term management solutions. Multi-functional design and managed sites can be cheaper to maintain than large areas of maintained mown grass and are often more attractive. For example, traditional low value, low skill, low risk grassland management maintained by 10 cuts using gang mowers, is significantly more expensive than developing an ecologically sustainable wild flower meadows or woodland. Ecological approaches together with agricultural and forestry based management can be particularly effective when dealing with large numbers of fragmented sites in low demand areas. Learning from Nature – Cost Effective Landscapes (Scottish Government publication) sets out the principles for working with nature and understanding that the more we seek to manipulate natural and ecological forces the greater the costs in maintenance and management. Implications for Gowkthrapple Green Network

• • • •

The Green Network for Gowkthrapple and South Wishaw needs to consider how it can ensure sustainable management by developing cost effective landscapes that require only modest interventions to secure their ‘fitness for purpose’. Agricultural /forestry approaches to landscape management may offer better value interventions based on a clearer understanding of the management objective of discrete land management units. Planting and management of plant assemblages should promote natural regeneration and where planting is proposed use native plants and allow natural colonisation of ground storeys and ruderal vegetation by colonisation on low nutrient sub-soils. Need to recognise that high intensity use areas and areas of high amenity require a minimum level of management to ensure sites are fit for purpose. This level needs agreement between land managers and the community. 65

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7.0 FUTURE STAGES & CAPACITY BUILDING 7.1

Introduction The Glasgow and Clyde Valley (GCV) Green Network is addressing four core themes with the creation of a high quality Green Network across the Glasgow metropolitan region that include Health Improvement; Stronger Communities; Biodiversity & Environment and Enterprise Development. The Glasgow and Clyde Valley (GCV) Green Network are progressing innovative new projects as geographical projects, thematic projects and process projects with Gowkthrapple Green Network offering an exemplar project in reconnecting and regenerating disadvantaged and excluded communities. The initial assessment of this project proposes: • A new community structure based on balanced neighbourhoods introducing new investment and better choice of housing stock and tenure within mixed tenure neighbourhoods. • A new environmental and landscape quality developed to offer a more functional connected landscape that meets the needs of residents and connects communities, places and landscape assets. • A new opportunity for communities to more directly participate in their landscape through leisure and access to high amenity spaces but also by creating productive landscapes and facilitating local engagement in the management of greenspace. • A new management and maintenance strategy of the greenspace asset that promotes best value, biodiversity and helps to secure a wider sense of ownership in its quality and sustainability.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 7.2

Potential Future Capacity Measures

The Glasgow and Clyde Valley (GCV) Green Network and Scottish Government Housing & Regeneration Directorate have promoted the importance of building alongside physical environmental infrastructure opportunities for participation, learning and enterprise. Many of these ‘softer measures’ will necessarily in areas such as Gowkthrapple involve advance ‘capacity building measures’ to build awareness, provide training, and secure the participation of communities. Key areas relative to the emerging Green Network Strategy for Gowkthrapple are; • Developing an Allotment Group perhaps as a ‘partner’ group with Wishaw Allotments and Garden Society (or other Allotment associations) to build awareness and involve the community in the earliest stages of planning and design for allotments at Gowkthrapple. • Appointing a group such as the Scottish Allotments and Garden Society (or similar) to organise and facilitate an Allotments Forum (such as the successfully established Cambuslang Group) to work through and develop the initial membership for a Gowkthrapple Group. • Developing a Gowkthrapple Communities Health & Well Being Group perhaps linked with Overtown, Pather and Wishaw to develop GP referral pedestrian walks and a ‘Walking –to Health’ group that could provide the resource to assist older/ less confident/single persons on health walks and produce leaflets etc. • The provision of new and safe networks will make the existing community park physically link with the wider area however it is essential that the schools and/ or community groups become involved in its management and start using it for events, education, recreation and play. Local people need to re-engage with it and therefore it needs to be a focus of the initial regeneration. • Facilitate involvement with the elderly through creation of a morning coffee shop design and discussion group to bridge the generation gap. Potentially this could be led by the Gowkthrapple Regeneration Group and held at Allershaw Tower to ensure that existing residents are encompassed in moving the project forward. • Develop a Young People’s Design Group working with a skilled licensed facilitator working with the Castlehill Primary School and Clyde Valley High School to develop a involvement in the Hub external garden space, play and recreation facilities. There is a key need in Gowkthrapple to build a stronger community based not on narrow interests but reaching out to special interest groups and engaging a wider cross-section of the community in direct participation (health / allotments/ management). The Glasgow and Clyde Valley (GCV) Green Network and NLC Housing/ Scottish Government Housing & Regeneration Directorate could facilitate this through parallel programmes to the Green Network.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 7.3

Partnership Working Partnerships rather than projects deliver and support successful regeneration and community regeneration without strong and active partnership mechanisms are unlikely to be sustained. It is very important that the Gowkthrapple Green Network is seen as a process rather than simply a schedule of projects or project ideas. Critical to advancing the network across South Wishaw and connections to the Clyde Valley will be the following issues:

Extending Partnerships - Securing Widest possible Support and Consensus North Lanarkshire Council acting with partners within the Community Planning Partnership including Scottish Government; Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership; Scottish Natural Heritage; Local Community and Residents Groups will extend and build on partnerships to connect mainline services (SOA / planning / policing / cleansing / training / grounds maintenance etc) with local initiatives (marketing / training / projects / management) that support Gowkthrapple’s community regeneration.

Securing new Funding Resources The establishment of Gowkthrapple as a Neighbourhood Green Network Project provides a new mechanism to lever new funding from public and private sector sources. North Lanarkshire Council has agreed to match all external raised funds and are seeking to secure new funding from the Community Planning Partnership; Developer Contributions and Planning Gain Support or from specialist funding bodies (National Lottery Good Causes / Awards for All Programmes) should also be sought.

Promoting Innovative Community Based Projects Bringing forward a range of community initiatives within a programme of works whilst also taking opportunity to capture and/or redirect windfall opportunities by encouraging other parties (residential developers / community groups / voluntary sector / etc) to adopt and support the Gowkthrapple Green Network. Specific opportunities have been identified for some Advance Capacity Building programmes working with specialist groups (Young People / Older Residents / Active Sports Interests) and/or developing skills and local networks focussed on specific elements of the programme eg. Supporting an Allotment Society

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

8.0 THE GREEN NETWORK ACTION PLAN 8.1

The Action Plan The Green Network Strategy seeks to balance aspiration and pragmatism and retain a clear project based strategy that will enhance the quality, functionality, appeal and value of greenspace. This is important both within the new Gowkthrapple Neighbourhoods (Smiths Park / Castlehill Park etc) but also within retained housing and the wider connections to South Wishaw, Overtown Greenhead Moss and Clyde Valley. Importantly the projects need to allow flexibility that facilitates and encourages various groups and interests to champion individual projects and allows their participation in design, planning, implementation and management. The Green Network Strategy deliberately seeks to avoid an over-aspirational shopping list of projects. Too often the ambition ‘to be innovative’ drives the project offering initiatives that are created to be new, different and challenging. Gowkthrapple needs a balanced approach that addresses need and shows a respect for community interests. Design innovation is always possible and we would like this to be channelled through new routes to engagement supporting community participation in design and management at all stages. The development of a prioritised Action Plan provides a new framework for establishing policy, funding and management mechanisms which meet the needs and aspirations for local communities, businesses and stakeholders. The Action Plan sets out short, medium and long term objectives and tasks, which work towards achieving the vision and aims of the Gowkthrapple Green Network. Annual Action Plans will need to be prepared and implemented according to the current priorities and available resources and as such this must be seen as a live document which aims to generate partnership buy in and understanding of key roles and funding commitments. Gowkthrapple needs a focussed Action Plan with defined targets that are clearly cross-referenced to the partnership goals and the Regeneration Strategy for Gowkthrapple. The Action Plan Projects are highlighted on the diagram below. Project clusters exist primarily around the key community facilities at the Hub, at entrances and along the Castlehill road corridor frontage. Within the overarching Green Network heading the project lists have been broken down into five broad project types as follows:

Enabling Projects Project that support the overall goals and ambitions and are intended to build the capacity within communities and support active community participation within project delivery mechanisms

Core Projects Projects that involve implementation of a programme or physical package of works that supports the strategy

Monitoring & Project Evaluation Procedures to provide for continuous monitoring and evaluation of the Green Network and Action Plan to ensure it is delivering outputs and outcomes and being amended to take advantage of changing opportunity

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Responsibility for Delivery & Commitment to Quality The overall plan is intended to ensure that there is continued cross agency consideration of the Green Network within Gowkthrapple & the wider North Lanarkshire Area and to coordinate stakeholder involvement within the council area to ensure that all improvements work is geared towards achieving the overall vision for greenspace. The Gowkthrapple Green Network recognises that to secure meaningful change things need to be done differently. Quality needs to be an ever present commitment in everything that is done such that all schemes and parts of the Green Network are seen as contributing to place regeneration. Every project, every investment however large or small should be capable of demonstrating how delivers meaningful improvement to local communities. A commitment to quality will raise expectations, raise the quality and value of greenspace and create the recognition that second-best in planning, design, or management in Gowkthrapple is not acceptable. The study is ambitious in its aspirations and will take years to achieve some parts of the vision. For this reason, priorities have been established through early deliverable tasks which relate directly to the key themes of the Green Network: • Health Improvement • Stronger Communities • Biodiversity & Environment • Enterprise Development

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Castlehill Primary School

The Hub

Ca stl eh

ill

Ro ad

Clyde Valley High School

Action Plan 73

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 8.1.1 Enabling Projects Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: reprovisioning Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Ironside Farrar Ltd Final Report November 2008

Routes to Health Promote circular walking and cycling routes which link with the wider area and longer distance opportunities ie. The Clyde Valley Walkway, Greenhead Moss. GP Health Community Planning Partnership £10,000 School Gardens Project Involve local school children in the design and maintenance of a garden area. Theme of the garden being to maximise biodiversity and insect activity. North Lanarkshire Council Scope to involve private business (incl. Clyde Valley Garden Centres) in the area and schools links. Also school developers as part of £20,000 Establish a Community Trust A legally established charitable body responsible for the sustainable development and management of the Gowkthrapple Green Network plus the activities of site staff and volunteers. Learning from local experience at Greenhead Moss. North Lanarkshire Council Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network/ non financial support from Garrion Peoples Housing Co-op £10,000 Allershaw Tower Garden Design with the Elderly Engage with older people through developing a secure garden which directly relates to their needs. Potentially focusing on raised beds, enclosure and sensory planting. North Lanarkshire Council Allershaw Tower Residents £100,000 Allotments Forum Develop links with South Wishaw Allotments & Gardens Society and to gain support from the Scottish Allotments group. Explore issues and scope for further developing the training aspects of allotments and means of feeding back into the community. Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Non financial community support £5,000

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Design Your Greenspace / Design Competition Establish with Gowkthrapple Regeneration, tenants associations and other local representative groups including schools the opportunity to become directly involved in the design of elements or areas of greenspace. e.g playspaces / the Hub greenspace / allotment entrances. Best garden prize Gowkthrapple Regeneration Group Garrion Peoples Housing Co-op (Scope for Scottish Government Wider Role Funding to be explored) £2,000

8.1.2 Core Projects Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

New Road Infrastructure Creation of new road links which allow the newly developing community to avoid severance by major road network. Clear creation of safe and overlooked neighbourhood areas and removal of cul-de-sac and parking courts. North Lanarkshire Council Developer / Developer Contributions £4,000,000 New Path Networks (on site) Develop appropriate surfacing and path widths in line with best practice and DDA guidance. Ensure paths are overlooked and follow key desire lines to link with local facilities. North Lanarkshire Council Developer £1,000,000 Upgrading of Car Park Courts Audit all existing car parking courts to establish a clear relationship between need and provision. Establish basic quality standards and a palette of materials, treatments for edges, paths, lighting and servicing. Remove unnecessary and undefined areas of hardstanding and return to grass. Establish budget costs and implement works as part of a phased programme. North Lanarkshire Council Developer / Developer Contributions £600,000 Garage Demolitions Audit of all existing garage provision and establish use and ownership. Clarify need/ desire for garage space exists through consultation with the local community. Develop a strategy for demolition and provision if required. North Lanarkshire Council Developer / Developer Contributions £175,000

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Upgrading Existing Path Networks (on-site) Develop appropriate surfacing and path widths in line with best practice and DDA guidance. Ensure paths have no physical barriers to movement and remove steps wherever possible. Review all paths and ensure links to new facilities are strengthened whilst redundant routes are removed. North Lanarkshire Council Developer £350,000 Primary Paths Tree Planting / Lighting Establish a clear visual hierarchy through avenue tree planting and street lighting on primary path routes. Natural surveillance benefits maximised through clear stem to 2.5m trees. Quality routes will encourage regular use. North Lanarkshire Council Developer contributions £650,000

Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Secondary Paths Tree Planting / Lighting Establish a visual hierarchy through tree planting and street lighting on secondary path routes. Drainage to swales providing SUDs solutions and rich habitat opportunities. Core path routes will be maintained through a system being developed as part of the Core paths plan. North Lanarkshire Council Developer contributions £400,000

Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Safe Routes to Schools Traffic calming works and upgraded crossing points to maximise the healthy living benefits of children (& parents) walking to schools. North Lanarkshire Council Developer contributions £100,000

Project: Description:

Works to Existing Community Garden Remove fences and gates to enable free access to community garden. New location within the road network allows the benefits of natural surveillance to be maximised. Play equipment to be refurbished to upgrade to LEAP standard. Consideration to be given to having a hit squad in place to target any initial issues with anti social behaviour. North Lanarkshire Council Developer £300,000

Project: Description:

Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Commission. Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Hub Playspace, Orchard & 3G Pitch Develop new secure play space directly adjacent to the Hub café to allow regular use and consolidation of facilities in one location. In line with Clyde Valley traditions mixed orchard tree planting will also maximise accessibility to fruit. Garrion People’s Housing Co-op North Lanarkshire Council / Garrion Peoples Housing Co-op (Scope for Scottish Government Wider Role Funding to be explored) £300,000 Establish Allotments Establish Allotments by providing a secure and appropriate boundary & the basic required facilities (water/ vehicle access/ storage). Proposal is that they be associated with the current Community Centre building. Space shown would facilitate approx 50 plots. Allotments will draw people from the wider South Wishaw area to Gowkthrapple Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Potential to link with 3rd Sector ‘Health Initiative Org’ possible Scottish Gov 3rd sector funding, lottery etc or via an established allotment committee access to lottery etc. £450,000 New Community Play Facility Proposed as adjacent to the Allotments this facility would provide a LEAP standard facility to the north of the site within the Pylon wayleave. Natural surveillance provided by the proximity to the road. Potential to incorporate more natural play elements to vary from provision elsewhere. North Lanarkshire Council Developer £100,000 Community Woodland Structure Planting Strengthen linkages with the wider landscape framework through structure planting with native mixed species. Scope to build and incorporate bird and bat boxes within areas of adjoining mature woodland. Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network North Lanarkshire Council / Developers/ Garrion Peoples Housing Co-op (depending on future fund priorities) potentially Forestry £200,000 Shared Neighbourhood, Private / Semi-private Outdoor Space Establish design guide principles of simple maintainable garden space which will provide defensible space and engender a sense of ownership. Rear areas of existing housing blocks may benefit from communal shared private space which should be considered holistically within this study. Garrion People’s Housing Co-op Developer £N/A

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description:

Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost: Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Ironside Farrar Ltd Final Report November 2008

Landscape enhancement associated with Existing Buildings Option testing of potential works associated with landscape or infill opportunities around existing buildings. Aims to link all works together and reflect similar design principles hierarchy and treatment of scale across the area. North Lanarkshire Council Developer £450,000 SUDs Design a sustainable urban drainage solution to accommodate surface run-off and re-use (where possible) run off as part of a grey-water recycling system serving both new and existing housing. Scope to utilise SUDs features within key areas along the Castlehill Road frontage and at the Hub to define usage areas and to enhance the design. North Lanarkshire Council Developer £ N/A Upgrading Existing Path Networks (off-site) Ensure path widths along key routes outwith the site are in line with best practice and DDA guidance. Ensure paths have no physical barriers to movement and establish signage links to facilitate ease of use. North Lanarkshire Council Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network/ Paths for All £100,000 Entrance & Frontage Works Improve the overall perception of the area through upgrades at arrival points from the wider road network and a quality frontage treatment. Scope for this to incorporate SUDs treatment and marginal planting west of Allershaw Tower. Incorporate bulb planting to develop seasonal interest. Additional biodiversity targets can be achieved through variable grass cutting regimes being in place. Clear definition of edge between heavily managed areas and reduced regime areas (eg one cut/ annum) will ensure awareness of agreed approach. North Lanarkshire Council Developer £150,000 Public Art / Signage Projects Linking the opportunities for public art to signage and route furniture. Interpretive elements to link experience with the Clyde Valley Walkway and the areas mining heritage. Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Garrion People’s Housing Co-op potentially with Scottish Government wider role fund (depending on its future priorities) £100,000

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Management for Biodiversity Promote through the Community Trust inputs to the ongoing management of the area to best facilitate improved Biodiversity. This role would ensure that as project momentum develops this key theme is not lost and opportunities are not missed for wider benefit. NLC Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network £50,000

8.1.3 Monitoring & Review Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Establish a Project Steering Group Develop a project steering group or Forum with key stakeholders to drive decision making on the project for wider benefit. NLC Community £N/A

Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Agree Action Plan Priorities Agree action plan priorities, confirm funding and define programme for works and deliverables each year. Project Steering Group Community £N/A

Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Commit to 2009/ 2010 Programme Commit to 2009/ 2010 programme and establish method of monitoring project performance. Project Steering Group Community £N/A

Project: Description: Lead Agency: Funding Partners: Cost:

Maintain ‘Lessons Learnt’ Log Develop and maintain a lessons learnt log and audit ongoing performance. Develop an ongoing awareness of project risks in deliverables. Project Steering Group Community £N/A

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study 8.2

Project Ref.

The Action Plan Matrix

Project / Action

Lead or Project Champion

Other stakeholder

Cost

Priority High

Med

Action Low

2008 / 09 2009/10

Comments 2010 +

Enabling Projects

Routes to Health

NLC / NLP / GP Health

Community

£10K

Needs to link with improved path routes

2.

School Gardens Project

NLC

Primary School / Community

£20 K

Potential for early involvement

3.

Establish a Community Trust

NLC

NLC / GCVGNP/ Community

£10K

Consider the value and opportunity for a CT. Follows on from capacity building

4.

Allershaw Tower Garden Design with the NLC Elderly

Allershaw Tower Residents

£100K

Early involvement will ease future consultation

5.

Allotments Forum

NLC /SAGS / GCVGN

Community

£5K

Follows on from capacity building

6.

Design Your Greenspace/ Design Competition

GRegenG

Community / Schools

£2 K

1.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Project Project / Action Ref. Core Projects

Lead or Project Champion

Other stakeholder

7.

New Road Infrastructure

NLC

Developer

£4 M

8.

New Path Networks (on-site)

NLC

Developer

£1M

NLC

Developer/ Community Developer/ Community Developer/ Community Developer/ Community Developer/ Community Developer/ Community Developer/ Community Developer/ Community Community/ SAGS

£600 K

Early action but requiring consultation (see below)

£175 K

Early action but requiring audit /need assessment & consultation

£350 K

Immediate review and consideration possible

£650 K

Upgrading and simplification of routes. Essential to establish clear hierarchy

£400 K

Development of key routes and improvement to amenity

£100 K

Phased to accord with road infrastructure & school programme

£300 K

Essential to provide immediate community and schools involvement

£300 K

Works to be developed alongside building programme

£450 K

Need to confirm location. SI works. Detailed assessment of need. Phased development. Requires significant capacity building first.

Developer/ Community NLC / Community NLC Community

£100 K

Follows on from implementation of allotments

£200 K

Phased woodland planting. Allows structure to be in place for future works. See also (26)

N/A

Establishes principles and allows residential developers to deliver.

£450 K

Upgrades will engender support from existing community (see also (19) & (26)

N/A

Create in line with programme of new development

9. 10. 11.

Upgrading of Car Park Courts Garage Demolitions

NLC

12.

Upgrading Existing Path Networks (on-site) Primary Paths Tree Planting / Lighting

NLC NLC

13.

Secondary Paths Tree Planting / Lighting

NLC

14.

Safe Routes to Schools

NLC

15.

Works to Existing Community Garden

NLC

16.

Hub Playspace, Orchard & 3G Pitch

NLC

17.

NLC

18.

Establish Allotments (assumes use of Community Hall as part of facility) Allotments (continued) Create New Community Play Facility

NLC

19.

Community Woodland Structure planting

GCVGN

20.

Shared Neighbourhood/ Private / Semi Private Outdoor Spaces

GPHC / S&M/ NLC/others

21.

NLC

22.

Landscape enhancement associated with Existing Buildings/ General Major Maintenance Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUDS)

23.

Path Networks (Off Site)

GPHC / S&M/ NLC/others NLC

Developer/ GCVGNP/ Community Developer

Cost High

Entrance & Frontage Works

NLC

24. 25.

Public Art/ Signage Projects

GCVGN

G&CVGNP/ £100 K Paths for All/ Developer/ £150 K Community Community £100K

26.

Management for Biodiversity

NLC

GCVGN

Priority Med Low

Action 2008 / 09 2009/10

Comments 2010 +

Road strategy agreed NLC & developers.

Upgrading. Limited enhancement. Tie in to Core Path Plans

Developing new management regimes. Integrating biodiversity with planting/SUDs etc. Ongoing awareness is essential

Establish site presence. See also below – Public Arts Develop interpretive links and relate to site character

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Project Ref.

Project / Action

Lead or Project Champion

Other stakeholder

Cost

Establish a Project Steering Group or Forum with key stakeholders

NLC

Community

N/A

28.

Agree from Action Plan the priorities; programme and deliverables per annum

PSG

Community

N/A

29.

Commit 2009/ 2010 programme and monitor performance

PSG

Community

N/A

30.

Maintain ‘Lessons Learnt’ log and audit performance

PSG

Community

N/A

Priority High

Monitoring & Project Evaluation 27.

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Med

Action Low

2008 / 09 2009/10

Comments 2010 +


Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT This study has developed a framework for the delivery of the Gowkthrapple Green Network. The key challenges established at the inception of the project were the need to guide and input to area wide strategic initiatives whilst providing clear, realistic and achievable design guidance for physically taking forward projects in the shorter term. The recommended next steps are as follows: • Development of a Detailed Masterplan for Gowkthrapple. • A full audit of all existing car park courts and negative space with the aim being to designate these areas as vacant and derelict land to unlock potential funding. • Establish a design group to move forward with detailed design solutions for the areas around the retained buildings at Birkshaw Brae and Allershaw Place. • Establish a single management agreement between North Lanarkshire Council and all Developers to ensure a common maintenance and management approach is defined. • If Hub is approved for detailed funding a need to develop the external space to more directly relate to the supervised recreation needs identified within this study. (ie 3G artificial 5 a-side pitch) • Develop a forum for the elderly to guide development of a Community Garden around Allershaw Tower. • Establish strong links with local schools to involve young people in refurbishment and design of new works in the existing Community Garden. • Create a framework for training contracts to maximise jobs and input by local people in taking the physical works forward. • Create a core residents group to ensure that the existing community are involved in and kept informed of the ongoing project development. Key to the success of the Gowkthrapple Green Network Vision will be: The creation of simple principles and design to enable ease of implementation. The use of minimal planting and the recommendation of robust materials to limit future maintenance requirements. Ensuring long term sustainability through established agreements and management of the area.

• • •

In progressing the Green Network Study it was apparent that a new approach to the design of road infrastructure in the area was essential. A system of greenspace and path routes which depend on ‘see and be seen’ principles and aim to link rather than sever communities need to follow a road system which is seeking to deliver the same overarching objectives. Early initial engagement with Council Road Engineers during future Green Network Studies would avoid some of the programme impacts that this study encountered.

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APPENDICES

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

APPENDIX 1 Research Notes/ Learning from Innovations in Urban Greenspace Management

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

Country

Commentary

Not a plan led system; often not specific; therefore much discretion in dc system; on appeal (available also to third parties) Board not bound by development plan; development can be refused if it materially contravenes the development plan but a procedure allows for a contravention where it is willing to facilitate development (advertisement/.public participation; .2/3 majority of Council resolution) Planning conditions can be applied requiring developer contributions or applications can be refused due to lack of infrastructure or capacity in networks. Therefore classic negotiating scenario; no active land management by public sector. System reactive and discretionary Under LG, P & Devt. Act 1963 LPAs could impose conditions requiring contributions; under new Plg. & Devt. Act 2000, Councils must finalise contributions schemes by 10 March 2004 after which the 1963 powers lapse. New regime allows 3 categories of charges :

• • Republic of Ireland

General , towards council infrastructure and charges (DCs) ie. Total costs of providing services in a given area divided by the amount of land allocated for development to give a price per acre or floorspace ie. Reflective of the cost of servicing all development land irrespective of land use. Special charges specific to allow a particular development to go ahead (SCs) Supplementary development contributions for infrastructure provided through PPPs (SDCs)eg Dublin light rail system

Power to impose remains discretionary. LAs often chose to apply "offsets where a full contribution is not imposed taking into account the works to be actually undertaken by the developer. Where the developer is providing more than can be reasonably attributed to his particular development this can be offset against the applicable DC .rate in an individual case. DCs & SDCs not refundable; Unspent SCs refundable if unspent after 5/7 years. Construction Industry Federation has failed in its High Court challenge of Dublin City Council's scheme on the grounds of lack of specificity. Draft schemes must be subject of public consultation and Minister who can issue guidelines to the Council. But has no power to control levels set by Councils. Appeals are not permitted against conditions on pps requiring contributions in accordance with scheme levels but can where it is considered that the terms of the scheme have not been properly applied. Contributions can relate to public infrastructure or facilities in the area that benefit development in the area irrespective of the source of that funding

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

Country

Commentary

Historically land acquired by the municipality, serviced with infrastructure (financed by loans), added in costs relating to off site infrastructure, borrowing costs, plan making &supervisory costs. Income from sale of land for public and commercial services eg schools, doctors surgeries, shops. Remaining costs recouped from sale of land for private and social housing ; on and off site public facilities costs would be passed on to the users ie the purchasers of the housing vie land pricing. Any deficit incurred in the land disposal process would be covered by local or central government subsidy. Recently however commercial developers have bypassed this process and bought unserviced land intended for development direct, often at many times real value . Municipalities unable to use original mechanism to recoup costs of providing public facilities. Local land use planning binding (bestemmingsplan) and provides no legal mechanism for negotiating contributions. A financial statement accompanies all land use plans but not explicitly required by legislation. However research into the financial feasibility of the plan must be attached as guidance notes but these are not legally binding. Used by central government in consideration of subsidies. Target is to set out a balance sheet of income and expenditure to show a "balanced budget".

Netherlands

The situation now appears to be that market mechanisms take over and the costs of providing public infrastructure is argued out between the various "actors" in the market and reflected in surplus profits above normal profits and ultimately the cost of the original unserviced land. Therefore if a municipality wishes to acquire a slice of the surplus profits accruing to any of the actors at various stages in the development process it has to get in early to negotiate this because it cannot impose mandatory contributions at a later stage. What are the possible remedies

• • •

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Create legal powers so that it is clear that one or more of the actors will have to contribute to the public facilities viz. intro. of obligatory impact fees with amounts to be paid known and shared at the outset; Not to make the land use plan legally binding before agreements with all parties have been signed; Convince all actors in the early stages that it is in their interests to work closely and openly with the municipality with objectives of increasing the quality of the development whilst keeping infrastructure costs to a minimum.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

Country

Commentary In a centralised policy making system TCPA 1967> 2 tier system : Structure Plan and Local Zoning Plan (Plan d'Occupation des Sol) POS is strictly legally binding; therefore automatic impact on land values. Therefore preference for preset fiscal devices instead of negotiated fees. Local development tax ( TLE) introduced in 1967. Lump some paid by developer to the municipality equivalent to 1% of a lump sum value of the building(s) to be built. Known from the outset. This applied till late 70's/80's.local government decentralised; deregulation> more flexibility in zoning regulations >joint negotiations and planning gain.; municipality can change the detail of a POS quickly; state found it difficult to control local practices. Sometimes corruption at the local level occurred. New legislation in 1993 intended to limit the scope of impact fees by requiring that the authority could not require the developer to pay more for infrastructure costs over and above the cost related to the benefit to be derived from the users of the building(s). i.e.rational nexus principle 4 different ways for infrastructure to be funded under the above arrangements : 1.Simple Building Permit : Local development tax (Tax Locale d'Equipement or TLE)payable by a developer for the provision of local infrastructure whenever a permit de construire is granted. Prescribed formula (for 9 building types) relates to new floor area; scales reassessed every year by national government in relation to index of national construction costs; 1% minimum national rate can be varied upwards to 5% by municipality; rate in any one municipality must remain unchanged for 3 years; funds gathered used to provide public facilities and not necessarily ones connected to the development concerned. Revenue however will only cover about 10-20% of actual required expenditure on public facilities. Consequently municipality required to pay proportionately more for facilities in rural areas.

France

Land Development Act 1985 introduce power to pass on to developers the real infrastructure costs needed by a development in a predetermined area as an alternative to the TLE. Costs levied cannot exceed 100% of real costs overall. Therefore municipality must calculate the nature of public facilities required in the designated area . Public's and developers' shares are calculated the latter related to the various building types. These exactions ( Programmes d'amanagement d'ensemble or PAE) can be in kind or monetary. If monetary and the authority does not carry out the works on schedule claims for reimbursement can be made. Time schedule for building facilities decided when PAE is approved. Therefore authorities forced to think ahead . This system most suited to major cities with a predictable rate of development pressure. Dependant on adoption of a comprehensive development planning arrangement and implemented within a reasonable timescale. TLE more appropriate for mall developments with a more limited impact or in rural areas. 2. Subdivision ( Lotissement) : Subdivision of land into parcels by developer, provides infrastructure, sells lots to purchasers who then obtain their building permits. The developer makes an advance payment to the municipality an amount equivalent to the TLE and recoups from sale to purchasers of the lots. Therefore no element of negotiation except where the POS requires modification as a result of the subdivision proposals which require approval. 3. Reallotment and Development Associations of Landowners or AFU (Associations Foncieres Urbanes): Development of an entire area is initiated, planned, zoned, funded, managed and developed by the landowners themselves as an ad hoc body acting as a public agency. Usually happens where there are reluctant landowners with the association having powers of expropriation; costs apportioned among members; land when serviced can be developed by the landowners themselves or sold on to other developers; limited application because of problems with reluctant landowners and the reticence of the authorities to accepting "private planning arrangements" in areas where a local plan may not exist. 4. Zone d'Amenagement Concerte ( ZAC) : Comprehensive development scheme for major projects; mixed land uses; features of the development are negotiated between the developer and the public authority at the same time as the sharing of infrastructure costs is negotiated ; typically result from a 7

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study According to the Baugesetzbuch physical development of building land is the responsibility of the municipality. Individual developments cannot be begun until infrastructure has been provided. Mostly this has to happen in accordance with a secured Bebauungsplan (statutory local plan). Planning law generally removes from a development area that proportion given over to public spaces including streets. The proportion of payments for infrastructure is calculated on the basis of "appropriateness" and local circumstances. Maximum payment for infrastructure (Erschliessungsbeitrag or local fee for infrastructure development) payable is calculated on the basis of "appropriateness and local circumstances. Normally a municipality will cover a minimum of 10%. The municipality can vary the % level of fees. Municipality determines which of 3 methods of calculation should apply : a) b) c)

Germany

by intensity of land use size of plot breadth of plot along the street

Payment is normally made after development complete but can happen once construction has started. Viewed as a kind of betterment levy or exaction. The recent amendment in the law has focussed attention on "town planning contracts" relating to public/private development partnerships. Based on this investors may agree to pay 100% of infrastructure costs and needed public facilities in accordance with the development. The calculation of the costs are made on the basis of "appropriateness" and local circumstances.

Development Impact Fees

• • •

USA (Illinois)

• • • •

local authority draws up schedule of fees that developers must pay prior to getting zoning approval or building permits. (unit or floorspace based) developer has option of undertaking works or paying the fee principle accepted in Courts as reasonable extension of planning control Rational nexus test operates in USA Courts need to be satisfied that there is a clear relationship between the facility and the development but degree varies from state to state eg Illinois "specifically and uniquely attributable" or California "reasonable relationship". There must be a proper development plan in place LA must have a definitive capital works plan to which contributions can relate There must be published standards of infrastructure provision. Must be applied rationally, reasonably and consistently

It enables the developer to work out likely financial impacts at earliest possible stage viz. land price paid/house price asked for. Delafons argues that UK system will have to move in the direction of the American system to become less arbitrary and more effective. American system also allows for a) b)

negotiated agreements to a variance of a zoning map amendment developers offering higher levels of contribution in exchange for permissions!

This has led to accusations of maladministration and to innovative thinking on issues of public scrutiny etc. Ironside Farrar Ltd Final Report November 2008

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study System of land use planning well established in Australia after the War; hybrid of UK and American systems. In NSW the Environmental Planning Assessment Act `1979 has been influential. Prescribed developer charges for minor infrastructure works. Developer charges in NSW grew out of the pressure to release land from the Sydney Greenbelt in the 1960s when public demanded that developers pay for infrastructure costs. Now

• • • • • •

all on site works are designed, constructed and financed by developers amplification of physical infrastructure to the site is financed and often constructed by developers on site neighbourhood and social infrastructure (eg community facilities) are provided for or constructed by developers Developers make contributions to offsite facilities eg. Libraries water, habitat etc. issues addressed during construction affordable housing is included

In Aus. few states employ negotiated zoning or tradable development rights to obtain contributions. A betterment levy was introduced during property boom of 70's but later removed. EPA Act enabled local government to impose developer charges especially for affordable housing as powers already in place for obtaining contributions to off site roads upgrades. A nexus had to be established between the development and the charges imposed. Act specifically allowed for charges to be obtained for community facilities and open spaces. Charges can range from 35-55,000 Aus D. per residential plot ranging in size from 300-700 sq. metres. Australia (NSW) Charges were often levied in advance and held "in trust" by the authority for later use. But councils often slow to use it > criticism. Interest on the banked charges could "leak out". Councils often did not impose high enough charges to offset anticipated outlays…because a) actual nos. of plots smaller than originally anticipated; b) infrastructure requirements could change over time; c) infrastructure etc. costs could rise over time Led to the Simpson Inquiry 1989. The Simpson Report

• • • •

confirmed the nexus principle argued against caps to charges suggested that other agencies could levy S.94 ( EPAA) social housing provision could be linked to density criterion

Consequently, legislation required Councils prepare plans for new release areas and for others that set a works programme for infrastructure for which Sec. 94 charges were applicable; Councils therefore had to estimate the rate of development in a subject area, the level of services required, the cost and timing of the delivery of services and from this develop a schedule of Sec. 94 income. Difficulties occurred with skills and the obtaining of accurate information. The nexus principle reinforced the prescriptive element of the developer charges. Court cases confirmed the principle that a Sec 94 charge could not be levied unless the service it was meant to fund was a direct outcome of the development and were not an unreasonable imposition on private property rights. 9

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New Zealand

N.Z. local authorities are required to promote the sustainable development of their communities in a fiscally prudent and accountable manner. Justification for funding decisions is required on the basis of outcomes achieved and an appropriate distribution of costs and benefits. Developer contributions provisions contained in the Resource Management Act 1991 to supplement the provision of local infrastructure historically provided for by local rates. However rights of appeal (2) have limited effectiveness; Local Government Act 2002 provides local government's operational framework and provisions for contributions. Developer contributions can be obtained where the consequential effect of a development is to require capital expenditure for reserves, network or community infrastructure; can only be applied where there is a development contributions policy in a Long Term Council Community Plan; the policy and the schedules must contain sufficient information to identify the purpose, the amounts payable and an explanation/justification of the methodology used and the assumptions made in the calculations; the Act prescribes the maximum amounts which can be contributed; contributions cannot be used for maintenance; the community planning process imposes obligations on Councils for preparing an annual plan, funding impact statement and an annual obligations report; provisions are included relating to public participation, openness, accountability and transparency. In parallel similar provisions are contained in the Resource management Act 1991, enabling legislation allowing Councils to obtain financial contributions from individual developments as a form of compensation payable to the community concerned so as to avoid, remedy, mitigate, and/or offset the environmental effects of a proposed activity (ie an extension of the polluter pays principle.) Subject to certain tests contributions are covered by conditions on Resource Consents.

The New Zealand provisions are quite complex and deserve further consideration than has been possible here.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENTS PLANNING AGREEMENTS –DISCUSSION AROUND OPTIONS FOR CHANGE (extracted from Planning Review) The Planning System provides mechanisms for ‘Developers Contributions’ to support the requirement to address planning gains/ deficits arising from development. The mechanisms for payment and eligibility of various items is much discussed and there exists a lack of clarity about the use of S75 powers. Alternative systems have been applied in England and by ‘default’ in Scotland including tariff approaches, infrastructure trusts etc. Money payments Proposal: The Scottish planning system would benefit from clarification that obligations can require the payment of a sum or sums of money to the planning authority. Should we follow the English model which contains an explicit power to require money payments? The power in Scotland is expressed to be incidental or consequential. Present position: Section 75 of the 1997 Act provides that a planning agreement may contain such incidental and consequential provisions (including financial ones) as appear to the planning authority to be necessary or expedient for the purposes of the agreement. Implementation: Section 75 would require amendment. Discussion: • it is not clear that such clarification is required. Section 75 permits agreements to contain financial provisions which are incidental to or consequential on the restriction or regulation of the development or use of land. Providing the overall purpose of an agreement can be shown to be restrictive or regulatory of the development or use of land, its sole obligation could be financial. The need for an explicit provision in England seems to stem partly from the common law background which does not permit positive obligations (such as a requirement to pay money) to run with the land so as to bind successors in title, and partly from a tendency by the English courts at that time to read limitations into the language used by Parliament in defining the scope of agreements. No such difficulties have arisen in Scotland and the flexibility of the present wording has its attractions.

developers expressed concern about the divergence between law and policy over the permissible scope of financial provisions in agreements and felt that the advice in Circular 12/1996 should be given statutory expression. Particular problems arise in areas where there are major infrastructure deficits.

an alternative and more transparent way forward might be to amend s.41 of the 1997 Act to make it clear that the power to impose conditions includes a power to impose conditions which contain financial provisions that are incidental to or consequential on the grant of planning permission for the development. At present, it is thought that the power to impose conditions does not include such a power except indirectly by means of a suspensive condition, although it clearly includes a power to require the carrying out of works and from the applicant's viewpoint this can amount to the same thing. The established tests for conditions would ensure that any such financial provisions were reasonably related to and proportionate to the application. Such a condition could be used, for example, to require a bond to cover reinstatement work.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Tariffs Proposal: To replace site by site negotiation of planning gain with a system of standardised tariffs. Present position: Obligations are negotiated ad hoc on a site by site basis, although increasingly these obligations reflect planning gain policies contained in local plans. The proposal in more detail: The proposal in the English consultation paper was that local planning authorities would set standardised tariffs for different types of development. Implementation: In view of the open-ended terms of s.106 of the English Planning Act, it is possible that a system of tariffs could be introduced there without further legislation. In Scotland, the financial provisions of an agreement are stated to be incidental or consequential on the restriction or regulation of the development or use of land. In other words, there must be a linkage between the financial provision and the development or use of the land. Section 75 would not allow the introduction of an arbitrary tariff and primary legislation would be required. The imposition of a tariff has been characterised as a form of taxation (although it is by no means clear that the tariff is intended to reflect the uplift in development value arising from the grant of planning permission). In so far as this characterisation is correct, it should be noted that fiscal matters are reserved to the Westminster Parliament under the terms of the Scotland Act 1998, Schedule 5, Part II, A1 (although the reservation does not extend to local taxes to fund local authority expenditure). Legislation from the Westminster Parliament would seem to be required. However, much will depend on the calculation of the tariff. If, for example, it were to be derived from an assessment of the aggregate infrastructure requirement for an area, it would, arguably, not be a form of taxation and, indeed, as a genuine pre-estimate of cost, could form the basis for s.75 agreements under the law as it stands at the moment. Discussion: • the proposal to introduce tariffs in England attracted a lot of criticism - notably from the Transport, Local Government and the Regions Select Committee. The Committee thought the proposal too complex; others objected to the introduction of a tax on development value. The proposal was surprisingly thin on the quantum of the tariff. The intention was that the tariff would be set by local planning authorities having regard to Government guidance. This could have been open to criticism on grounds of arbitrariness and selectivity contrary to Article 1 of the First Protocol of the Convention on Human Rights. Because of the outcry, the Government decided not to proceed with the proposals for a tariff in the English Planning Bill (see "Sustainable Communities - Delivering Through Planning", ODPM, 18th July 2002). A further consultation paper is promised. • developers see merit in a standardised approach to the imposition of obligations in place of the inconsistent and opportunistic approach that sometimes operates today. It could also be faster and more transparent than case by case negotiation. • a system of standardised tariffs should get round the criticism that planning policy is sometimes traded for planning gain. • consideration would have to be given to the method of setting the tariff, perhaps by reference to an area's aggregate needs. The Government consultation paper rejected the impact fee model adopted in the US, although this tends to be the basis on which obligations are negotiated in Scotland at present. • a tariff would be set during the processing of a planning application. At present, the terms of any planning agreement must have at least a tenuous relationship with the subject matter of the related planning application, otherwise the planning decision could be open to challenge. It would be necessary to square any tariff provision with s.37 (2) of the 1997 Act which requires planning authorities, when determining planning applications, to have regard to the development plan and to any other material consideration. If the tariff is unrelated to the impacts of the development, it would not be a material consideration. • consideration would have to be given to the means of enforcing the payment of the tariff, although this would not be necessary if the tariff had to be paid before planning permission is issued. This would not be appropriate where a development is to be phased. • consideration could be given to paying the tariff into a trust fund to secure the provision of infrastructure with repayment in default. • a tariff system would benefit areas where there are strong development pressures and prejudice those of economic decline. Some equalisation system might be required. Ironside Farrar Ltd Final Report November 2008

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Unilateral undertakings Proposal: The ability for an applicant to execute a unilateral obligation would overcome any difficulty that might arise if a planning authority refuses to enter into a s.75 agreement. Present position: At present reporters tend to issue a 'minded to approve subject to an agreement' letter with a time limit for completion of the agreement. If a planning authority prove intransigent, the reporter may grant consent in the absence of an agreement. It is arguable that unilateral undertakings can be given at the present time, could be taken into account and would be enforceable as a personal obligation by the planning authority. However, such undertakings could not be enforced by the authority against successors in title and would have to be renewed on each sale of the land. The proposal in more detail: The idea of the unilateral undertaking, as introduced in England and Wales, was to overcome the log jam that sometimes occurred in planning appeals where an inspector concluded that planning permission could only be granted if some requirement was met that could not be imposed by planning condition. The requirement would have to be contained in an agreement but the inspector had no power to impose the terms of an agreement. That was a matter for negotiation between the parties and, although the applicant might be willing to accept the requirement, the applicant might be unable to reach agreement with the local planning authority. The solution was to extend s.106 so as to allow for unilateral undertakings as an alternative to agreements. Like agreements, undertakings bind the land and are enforceable by the local planning authority against successors in title. Unlike agreements, they cannot be challenged as ultra vires by the authority. Implementation: Primary legislation would be required and could follow the English model. Discussion: It is unclear how far this is an issue in Scotland.

Infrastructure trusts Proposal: Provision should be made for the setting up of infrastructure trusts to accumulate and disperse contributions from developers towards meeting the infrastructure requirements for an area. Present position: Planning agreements quite often impose no obligation on the planning authority to apply a planning gain to the purposes for which it has been obtained. Developers are generally content to provide the gain and then get on with their development. The proposal in more detail: There will, however, be cases where greater security about the application of the gain will be important for the developer. An example would be where the first developer into a new housing area makes a contribution towards the provision of a school and other infrastructure to be provided by the local authority during a later phase in the development of the area once other developers have also contributed. While the local authority can simply hold the money on account until the appropriate time, early developers may prefer greater security about the eventual provision of the infrastructure because it could affect the value and the marketability of their development. This can be achieved by the setting up of a trust, the purpose of which would be to accumulate and disperse the contributions, and with the developers and the local authority acting as trustees. Implementation: This could be non-statutory. There is nothing to prevent the setting up of such trusts at the present time. Householders sometimes set up similar trusts to manage communal open space. There might, however, be some benefit in being able to insist on participation by developers in such a trust - there would be little incentive for a developer to join such an arrangement unless there was an assurance that all other developers would join - and this would require primary legislation. 13

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Discussion: • one of the most intractable problems in land development has been securing the orderly provision of infrastructure in a development area that is coming forward for development in several phases and involving a number of different developers. The problem is alleviated where there is one master developer for an area who sets up the consents, makes provision for the infrastructure and parcels out the development amongst the other developers having recovered a proportion of the infrastructure costs. In the absence of a master developer, the risk is that there will be a 'free for all'. Some mechanism is required to bring the developers together, to secure the appropriate contributions towards infrastructure costs and to ensure the necessary provision. An infrastructure trust could provide an orderly way forward, but, in the absence of some form of compulsion, it requires the agreement of the developers.

this arrangement could work for money payments but could become more complicated where a developer is required to contribute land for infrastructure.

Such a mechanism might also operate on a wider basis where infrastructure, such as transportation measures, is required across a local authority area. The incentive for developers to involve themselves in such a trust, rather than just paying their contribution, is unclear.

Review of agreements Proposal: All agreements should include a review clause with a right of appeal to Ministers against a refusal by a planning authority to vary an agreement following a review. Present position: The parties to an agreement may agree to its review whether or not provision is made for this. Most well-drawn agreements, having a continuing life, will contain a provision for review in defined circumstances. There is no statutory provision for an appeal to Ministers against a refusal to vary the terms of an agreement. Nor does the Lands Tribunal for Scotland have jurisdiction to deal with the matter. Implementation: The introduction of a right of appeal to Ministers would require primary legislation. The legislation could follow the English model and provide for an application to the planning authority to modify or discharge the terms of an agreement followed by an appeal to Ministers in the event of an adverse response. Discussion: • the proposed right of appeal to Ministers against a refusal to modify or discharge obligations in an agreement is similar to that exercised by the Lands Tribunal for Scotland over land obligations. It is for consideration whether the right of appeal should be to Ministers or to the Lands Tribunal.

there would need to be a time limit (in England it is 2 years) before the request for a review and the right of appeal could be exercised - otherwise a review might be initiated by a developer immediately after planning permission has been granted.

it would be convenient to provide for a statutory right to invoke a review to cover the situation where an agreement has failed to provide for a review, either at all or only in limited circumstances. Consideration would need to be given to promoting consistency between such a provision and a clause in an existing agreement providing for review.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study

APPENDIX 2 Consultation Summary

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study Summary of Responses Received at Public Consultations held on 21st February 2008 SPORTS, PLAY & RECREATION

• -

What facilities are required? play equipment kick-about area

-

What improvements should be made? seating picnic areas close to house

-

Are there any particular recreational issues or needs in Gowkthrapple? No place for kids.

• Notes:

• • • • • •

Shrubs and trees close to path are a safety issue – feels overgrown and unsafe. Floodlighting and cost issues. Areas for children that are safe to play. Could community centre be used more by youth groups? Need spaces for kids near houses – informal play. Path from Gowkthrapple to Wishaw, section alongside sub-station a problem, few lamps are working and path poorly lit.

GARDENS AND ALLOTMENTS Would you like to see more opportunities for community gardens or allotments in Gowkthrapple? Notes:

• • • • • • • •

Encourage better use of community garden, a group to maintain it perhaps Community gardens –good idea but who maintains them? Community garden, community should maintain it. Private courtyards area a good idea but should be maintained by others. Security issues for play areas, currently feels unsafe – don’t know who will be there or arrive. Play areas should not be too central – noise issues but close enough to houses so it can be overlooked A good path network – well used, large play area Better facilities

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study SECURITY & SAFETY Yes

No

Are there particular dark or unsafe areas you avoid?

4

1

Do you think the new development should include CCTV?

2

0

Do you feel concerned about parking your car on-street overnight

2

0

Are you concerned for safety next to streams or ponds?

0

3

Notes:

• • • • • • • • • •

Garrion Business Park – Broken glass, dangerous area for teenagers and children. Dedicated play spaces for all ages of community – play for young kids and separate play areas for teenagers. Planting, picnic area, drying area, more lighting, spaces to sit outside houses, want to feel safe. Better lighting on cycleways and paths. CCTV cameras should move/ rotate. Purpose of landscaping? Retention of lock-ups. Landscaping – mounding and planting is of no use. Castlehill Road – no crossing sites at bus stops. Green spaces need function. Play equipment for kids. Security of play area. Problems with drinking. Paths to Pather – underpass tunnel under railway line, feels very unsafe – not lit.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study GREEN SPACE AROUND HOUSES Yes

No

Would you like to have a small fenced private back garden?

3

2

Would you be able to look after a front and back garden yourself?

3

0

Would you store your bin in the garden space?

3

0

Would you like to be able to park your car on a private space?

3

0

1 person said they would prefer a garage.

GREENSPACE ISSUES IN GOWKTHRAPPLE What issues are important for greenspace in Gowkthrapple?

Developing a stronger sense of place around the new community hub?

6

0

Connecting new housing with existing safe pedestrian routes?

10

0

Developing better facilities such as play spaces, seating, community gardens?

10

0

Making sure all paths are well lit and overlooked?

7

0

Providing safe routes to other footpaths/ bus stops?

3

0

Providing better facilities for active sports?

5

0

Providing private or shared garden space?

2

0

Notes: No seating Community allotment

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study MANAGEMENT OF GREENSPACE AND GARDENS Do you want to be involved in managing Gowkthrapple greenspaces? Yes

No

Directly by assisting day to day?

As part of local advisory group?

2

0

By being kept informed of proposals?

2

0

Is the current maintenance of the greenspace resource sufficient?

0

4

Should front gardens be maintained by residents?

2

2

Are you interested in learning new skills in gardens?

1

0

Could you help others learn about gardening or maintenance?

No reply

No reply

ANY OTHER IDEAS BOARD • Crossing point on Castlehill Road. Security issues along road. • New and better CCTV. • Chemist in hub. • Cash point needed, possibly in hub.

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study PARKS AND GREENSPACE Yes

No

Do you use the greenspace regularly?

4

1

Are there issues with safety/ security?

4

3

Which facilities are missing?

Play spaces for all ages

Kick-about space for younger people?

4

Recreational space?

3

Seating?

2

Floral displays/ attractive planting?

4

Other – a skate park?

1

No reply

Notes: • Not seating – could encourage antisocial behaviour. • Better connections between facilities, parks and schools. • Issues with safety in park. • Make smaller play areas – numerous play areas appealing to wide range of age groups. • Better connections. 21

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Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study PATH NETWORK Yes

No

4

Do you use the paths regularly?

1 said not at night. 1 said not alone.

Are the paths adequate?

Are there particular needs for disabled, carers, pedestrians, cyclists?

0

Comments: Path surface problems/ issues –poor quality surfaces. Need adequate lighting along paths. Notes:

• • •

Residents and Council should work together to maintain front gardens. It should be a joint effort! Maintenance of gardens is very dependent on tenants attitudes. Path quality issues – old surfacing.

ANY OTHER IDEAS BOARD • Big trees in gardens are a problem for views. • Lighting • Trees cut back. • Bad surfacing on footpath, needs to be improved. • Footpaths – feel unsafe. • Flooding on footpath. • Crossings on Castlehill Road are needed. • Footpath from Gowkthrapple to Wishaw or substation feels unsafe and could be better. • Should be a bus route into Gowkthrapple.

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5


Gowkthrapple Regeneration Greenspace & Green Network Study ANY OTHER IDEAS BOARD – SPECIAL NEEDS KIDS FROM CASTLEHILL PRIMARY • Football pitches – both smaller and larger ones. • Swings • Slides • Gardens • Swing park • An airport

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