THE MAGAZINE FOR THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
issue no. 2 - July 2018
IN THIS ISSUE Exclusive Interview with Nicholas Davis Head of Society and Innovation - World Economic Forum
Cyber Siblings The digital twin in manufacturing
COLLABORATIVE ROBOTS Advances in Robotics
DIGITAL UNDER Â£1K Sameer Savani - ADS
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Industry 4.0 magazine
Thank you for downloading the Industry 4.0 magazine. We are pleased to publish the UK’s, and possibly the world’s first monthly digital magazine and app for all things pertaining to Industry 4.0. Industry 4.0 is about a revolutionary change in how things are made, and with the development of this magazine we aim to revolutionise how you will view news content. Our aim is to provide you with a news source that can be read on your mobile device in under 10 minutes, on the train on your way to work, or before an important meeting. We will keep advertising at a minimum, so you are not bombarded with messages you are not interested in. We have included video content to explain things further. We aim to provide you with insights on how business leaders are addressing digital transformation, latest case studies and the big issues and technologies shaping the 4th industrial revolution. As the organiser of the Industry 4.0 Summit & Expo, the UK’s premier event for digital manufacturing, we know how to build valuable content that educates. We hope you enjoy reading our magazine, and using the app as we build content to make this an invaluable business source for your work. With best regards, Pav Baghla Editor
THE INDUSTRY 4.0 MAGAZINE IS PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY GB MEDIA AND EVENTS - ORGANISERS OF THE INDUSTRY 4.0 SUMMIT PUBLISHER Gary Gilmour EDITOR Pav Baghla TEAM Matthew Pearsall Digital Manager Lyn Illsley Designer All Editorial and advertising Enquiries to Digital@gbmediaevents.com +44 (0) 207 9932300 +44 (0)1642 438225 GB Media & Events, Wilton Centre, Redcar, North Yorkshire, TS10 4RF. GB MEDIA & EVENTS LIMITED GB Media and Events Limited is a company registered in England and Wales with company number 10114934 The content of this magazine does not necessarily express the views of the Editor or publishers. The publishers accept no legal responsibility for the loss arising from information in this publication. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be producted or stored in a retrieval system without the written consent of the publishers.
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Exclusive Interview with Nicholas Davis World Economic Forum
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Spotlight on Servitisation As-a-Service delivery models in manufacturing
Digital under ÂŁ1k! Sameer Savani of ADS shares his expertise at The Industry 4.0 Summit
Cyber Siblings The digital twin in manufacturing
Profile: Janette Kothe, Bosch Rexroth Industry 4.0: a disruptive inspiration
5 Product Design Trends Developments for the future of manufacturing
Collaborative Robots Advances in robotics
Nicholas Davis INSIGHTS INTO INDUSTRY 4.0
What is the Fourth Industrial Revolution?
Nicholas Davis, Head of Society and Innovation, Member of the Executive Committee, World Economic Forum (WEF) reveals the organisation’s attitude towards the 4th Industrial Revolution and the value of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in the UK. The Geneva-based WEF is dedicated to engaging the foremost political, business and other leaders of society to “shape global, regional and industry agendas”. It is best known for its annual meeting in Davos in Switzerland at the end of January, as featured in the world’s media a few weeks’ ago. The expression The Fourth Industrial Revolution comes from a book by Professor Klaus Schwab, founder and executive chairman of the WEF.
Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 How has the concept and implementation of the 4th Industrial Revolution changed since first recognised? “The pace of change has accelerated and more and more leaders across sectors are starting to realize that the fourth industrial revolution is a critical structural shift. It is already affecting corporate strategies and government policy - look for example at how governments from the UK to UAE are developing and adopting new strategies and policies focused on AI, distributed ledgers and biotechnologies.”
In itself, this crossing of specialisation and boundaries is one of the more disruptive aspects of the fourth industrial revolution. But the good news is that it also unlocks a huge amount of new opportunity, as the exchange of ideas generates whole new ways of creating, exchanging and distributing value.”
Are the challenges being overcome and the opportunities realised, and is cooperation and exchange of ideas key? “None of the benefits or challenges can be effectively understood or managed without cooperation across disciplines, countries and stakeholders. This is because the economic, institutional, academic and geographic boundaries that were created during the first and second industrial revolutions are being broken down thanks to the impact of new technologies, as well as the way that they are develop and how they spread. In itself, this crossing of specialisation and boundaries is one of the more disruptive aspects of the fourth industrial revolution. But the good news is that it also unlocks a huge amount of new opportunity, as the exchange of ideas generates whole new ways of creating, exchanging and distributing value.” Please describe the role and work of the WEF in relation to 4IR? “The World Economic Forum is the International Organization for Public Private Partnership. As such, we have developed and conduct a wide range of research and stimulate public dialogue around the concept and impact of the 4IR to help ensure that our economic and social systems are able to take advantage of the opportunities of emerging tech while managing the risks. We also have created the World Economic Forum Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution - and are creating a global network of other Centers - to tackle specific governance challenges and assist the public and private sectors with developing agile approaches around technologies such as autonomous vehicles, drones, AI and precision medicine.”
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 How do you see SMEs implementing 4IR and smart factories?
What are your thoughts on the UK government Smart Industrial Review?
“SMEs are of course critically important in the industrial ecosystem, playing diverse roles as innovators, key suppliers and service specialists throughout value chains. The 4IR as a vision for manufacturing, which includes smart factories, is therefore not something we can think about or develop as confined to a single organization or facility - it means that SMEs must be codesigners of new approaches.”
“It’s great to see the UK continuing to lead in analysing the business case for adopting and extending the impact of new technologies. The benefits of new technologies don’t emerge unless we adopt them - and unless we do so in a way that is responsible to potential risks. “The Made Smarter review suggests that over the next 10 years industrial digitalisation could boost UK manufacturing by £455bn, increase sector growth up to 3% per year, and create a net gain of 175,000 jobs whilst reducing CO2 emissions by 4.5%. The question for everyone should be: how can I help the UK achieve this, and do even better?”
What are major issues going to be for society? “The three biggest social issues we see are first, ensuring that the benefits are fairly distributed. This means thinking about who has access to new tech, anticipating labour market shifts and rethinking how we manage our tax systems in a world where smart capital becomes more important. “Second, ensuring that the externalities whether environmental, related to health and safety or bias and discrimination - are minimized and don’t fall on the most vulnerable. All technological systems are political in some way, embodying our values. There are many recent examples of how AI and machine learning systems can be very biased and discriminatory, and this can spell disaster for people with less voice and power. “Third, we have to ensure that we build trust in new technologies as they emerge, and that we appreciate how they change us as human beings. It’s important to make sure that technology strengthens our communities and interpersonal relationships - but we also know that technology can have big impacts on how we view and relate to others.”
What do you see as the importance of events like Industry 4.0 Summit? “Events like this summit are critical to bringing people together from different firms, sectors and parts of the country and the world. The ability to exchange ideas, find new partners and identify trade-offs and risks well in advance is essential to ensuring the 4IR is value enhancing, sustainable and inclusive.”
“The Made Smarter review suggests that over the next 10 years industrial digitalisation could boost UK manufacturing by £455bn, increase sector growth up to 3% per year, and create a net gain of 175,000 jobs whilst reducing CO2 emissions by 4.5%. The question for everyone should be: how can I help the UK achieve this, and do even better?”
WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM 22-25 January 2019 Davos-Klosters, Switzerland
Cyber Siblings the digital twin in manufacturing
The experts offer comments and advice concerning digital twins and their implementation in the manufacturing sector The digital twin is one of the chief components of the smart factory. It replicates a real-world asset virtually, copying a machine or system to monitor, inspecting and maintaining the product while in operation throughout its working life and predicting future intervention requirements. Interactions and data exchange between the product and its twin by means of sensors can maximise performance. Design validation and testing can also be achieved in the virtual environment. Transparency of production is an important step forward in the quest for greater efficiencies and cost savings, whereas ignoring the opportunities of the see-through factory may render those who don’t adopt the technology at a disadvantage competitively.
John Kitchingman, Managing Director for Northern Europe at Dassault Systèmes, describes the digital twin as a concept, which describes the use of data - digital models, simulation, and in-life data, to recreate the planned manufacture and life-cycle of a product. He makes the point that the Internet of Things (IoT) is enabling what can be called the “Internet of Experiences”, where a new class of cross-industry usages and business models go beyond physical products to include software, big data intelligence, networks and content ecosystems: “The use of this data can enable the customisation that so many consumers crave, without sacrificing the mainstream manufacturing benefits.” He predicts that the Factory of the Future and the role of the skilled people within those processes, will continue to evolve over time as more tasks can be safely and efficiently supported:
“There will, in our opinion, always be a role for human skill, experience and knowhow, in the delivery of a highly complex product, which means that true evolution will be a collaborative process. But the exciting benefits that can be derived from reducing the strain on the human during these processes, can’t be underestimated. Speed, consistency, detail, strength, and support in repetitive motions – these are all benefits to be derived.” John Kitchingman, Managing Director for Northern Europe - Dassault Systemes 7
“These digital twins have the potential to improve the cycle times of critical processes in advance manufacturing” Deborah Sherry Senior Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer - GE
For Deborah Sherry, Senior Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer at GE Digital Europe, Russia & CIS, the Digital Twin is a digital replica of physical assets and systems built with artificial intelligence algorithms that allows companies to understand, predict and optimise the performance and service of individual assets. “These digital twins have the potential to improve the cycle times of critical processes in advance manufacturing and will lead to new collaboration opportunities among engineers and data scientists,” she affirms.
The 4th Industrial Revolution has led to unprecedented growth in the adoption of digital platforms across industrial organisations. “For the industrial world, this means trillions of dollars in new growth opportunities,” Sherry continues. “Digital Twins are key to driving this growth and are disrupting how the industry works as the data insights generated from them help transform industrial operations and open up new business models.
This technology sounds futuristic, but GE already has over one million digital twins operating in the field today.” Keith Thornhill, Head of Food & Beverage, Siemens UK & Ireland, comments that the digital enterprise involves the integration of hardware, software and services programmes to record and intelligently leverage the vast quantities of data that processes can create: “Companies can take a further digitalisation step towards linking the virtual and real worlds through the simulation of machines and plants, courtesy of digital twins. The ability, for example, to respond flexibly to individual customer requirements with small batch sizes calls for the use of simulation solutions along the value chain.
Issue no 2 - JULY 2018
How digital twins help brew beer of the highest standard
“This is where the digital twin comes into its own, precisely duplicating and simulating the properties and performance features of a physical product, a product line, a process or a complete plant in the virtual world before a single screw needs to be picked up in the real world. A central data platform and high performance network components are the basis of a digital twin that can be used to map and optimise an entire plant lifecycle.” However, there are a lot of companies that explore AI for AI’s sake, which doesn’t work in an industrial setting, cautions Sherry. “General machine learning has a place, but how do you turn it into something of value? For us, that value is utilizing that technology, as well as simulation and modelling together. We use machine learning, simulation and modelling – or a Digital Twin. Machine learning is utilized to look at this vast volume of data that’s being thrown off machines, and being collected, so we can look for patterns. “Machine learning can tell you a part is going to break – but what do you do? Fix it now, fix it tomorrow, or wait a year to fix it? That question is worth a lot of money to industrial companies. The ability to know when a jet aircraft engine needs maintenance is critical – but the insight to know it can be repaired after normal operations, versus delaying the next flight, is an important consideration.
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 “With this technology at their fingertips, Industrials are able to determine whether a part will break, well in advance – and everything then becomes normal maintenance, avoiding unplanned downtime. Digital Twins make that possible.” Kitchingman further explains that Digital twins contribute to the safe and swift testing, manufacture and management of products – thus improving the time-to-market, reduce risk, reduce costs, and improve the simulation of expected life-spans. “Most digital simulation now creates a more reliable car, for example, than any number of crash-test-dummies. The data which drives the industrial IOT applies to real-world applications both big and small. At the smaller end, we have our customer at the Innovation Labs of ECCO shoes, based in Amsterdam. ECCO, a worldleading brand of footwear and leather goods, is just about to announce the launch of their pilot footwear customisation project, QUANT-U. For the first time, individual data is combined with in-store additive manufacturing to create customised silicone midsoles, quantified by the wearer. This will be officially launched mid-April. Bio-mechanical data is interpreted to create a custom midsole. A midsole is the functional heart of the shoe, where it plays a key role in the performance and comfort of footwear. The digital configuration is generated using machine learning and structural simulations. The result is an augmented pattern, quantified by the wearer.
“At the larger end you have the ultimate system of systems – the city. Dassault Systèmes has been heavily involved in the Virtual Singapore project – powered by sophisticated analysis of images and data collected from public agencies and real-time sensors, Virtual Singapore is designed to give a whole new meaning to the term “smart city.”
“At the larger end you have the ultimate system of systems – the city. Dassault Systèmes has been heavily involved in the Virtual Singapore project – powered by sophisticated analysis of images and data collected from public agencies and real-time sensors, Virtual Singapore is designed to give a whole new meaning to the term “smart city.”
DASSAULT SYSTEMS CASE STUDY: KREISEL ELECTRIC
Advice for the adoption of digital twins in manufacturing Thornhill comments that the number one priority for the leadership of any business embarking on its digitalisation journey is to first set out a vision for what it believes it can deliver. The next step is to work in collaboration with technology vendors who can help organisations map out how the vision can be achieved. “How the journey unfolds will differ, with some companies perhaps keen to look at pilots that could examine factory layout or product design processes and investigate in a low risk way how to roll out their digital enterprise. “A number of companies are even taking a step back towards Industry3.0 and ensuring that they have full connectivity around their enterprise and possess the ability for various elements of their operations (such as IT and operations) to talk to each other so that the foundations are in place to move forwards towards a fully functional digital future. “As articulated in the recently published Made Smarter Review, the successful and widespread adoption of industrial digital technologies – the way the UK’s manufacturing base can improve productivity, create high value jobs and compete on a global stage – requires real leadership from all stakeholders to ensure the potential of digitalisation is fully realised.”
The key is to choose a supplier, who understands not only the data and the digital technology, but also the industry the manufacturer operates in. “There are many suppliers out there that can deliver a pilot, but only a few can scale those pilots across the entire enterprise. A lot of our customers work with us exactly because of our ability to scale solutions globally. It’s not just about technology – “old fashioned” human expertise is also critical – but now we can take the world’s best engineers and data scientists and offer their expertise to customers anywhere in the world. They understand how these machines operate and their immediate environment, which helps to extract much more value from the data.” Sherry believes that leaders also need to consider the importance of scalability, not just across factories, but across entire value chains, to build The Digital Thread: “The Digital Thread connects machines, analytics and people to help organisations make informed decisions that improve the way they sell, manufacture, design, service and operate. With a feedback loop of useful insights that stretches from the supply chain, to the factory, to the customer, and back again, companies are becoming better at anticipating market demand at the same time as they boost their efficiency and service activities. 11
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 “Again, this sounds futuristic, but it’s already happening,” Sherry continues. “GE’s implementation of Digital Thread programmes resulted in productivity gains of $730 million in 2016, and over $1 billion in 2017. This is a significant result and the opportunities for scaling this further are huge. Companies, industries and entire economies all have much to gain from boosting productivity.”
THE FUTURE “In the future, every machine will have a Digital Twin with the ability to connect a system, or systems of Digital Twins easily, As more digital twins are created and connected to a digital platform, the industrial learning system will be able to feed-back data to the individual digital twins, improving fidelity. We will drive greater and greater productivity gains, our businesses and industrial processes will become both more efficient and more flexible around market requirements and we will see the companies adopting these technologies gaining significant competitive edge in their industries.”
“There is a lot of talk around Industry 4.0,” says Dassault’s Kitchingman. “It’s so much more than a buzzword, and really represents the immediate evolutionary step needed to create urgency in the pace of design and delivery of products. In our view, the sharing of real experiences across multiple industries, in an open expert forum, is always a good place to start. Innovation happens outside of your comfort zone, so we always encourage a view from outside your particular industry. Third-party events can be helpful for that, although there are so many to choose from, it can be overwhelming. It’s also a good idea to talk to independent experts, or consult an industry analyst for their opinion. Finally, there are several digital influencers, who are strong in this field, who bring together thought-leadership in this space.”
Servitisation Adapting the business model for Industry 4.0 The technologies of the Internet of Things and Industry 4.0 are opening up many different Having witnessed the success of IT-as-a-service, new possibilities for businesses in other sectors businesses. As part of this, are beginning to ask whether one key trend is a move the “as a service” model towards “as a service” could work for them too – delivery models and away and there are compelling from traditional cap-ex reasons for doing so. product sales. We consider what potential the servitisation trend has for British business.
Industry 4.0 has the potential to disrupt the way we work in many different ways. First, in terms of changes to the products we sell. Second, in terms of process, organisation and internal operations. Third, in terms of the business model and go to market strategies we employ. Servitisation falls into this third category. Software was one of the first sectors to successfully transition to a service model. Cloud-based software-as-a-service providers gave SMBs access to previously unattainable enterprise-grade software solutions with a low-risk approach of “pay as you go”. As cloud infrastructure-as-a service further embeds itself commercially, businesses are now moving the hardware portion of their IT expenditure from a cap-ex to an op-ex model.
Having witnessed the success of IT-as-a-service, businesses in other sectors are beginning to ask whether the “as a service” model could work for them too – and there are compelling reasons for doing so. Neil Lewin, who guides organisations through Industry 4.0 discovery days at Festo, makes the point that servitisation enables a business to charge for the service they provide at a rate that brings more value back into the business than the one-time sale of a piece of equipment – and gives the business a continued revenue stream. 13
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 This is a point developed by Jon Hill, Sales Director at IoT solution provider InVMA, who explained some of the drivers to servitisation when we spoke to him at this year’s Industry 4.0 Exhibition. “The subscription model does more than create recurring revenue,” Hill says. “A service contract with a switching cost is considered more ‘sticky’ than a one-off project-based sale – so the profitability from that revenue is worth more. The valuation of your business increases if you have that sort of revenue.” The servitisation model also offers the possibility of harvesting the one of lowest hanging Industry 4.0 fruit, says Lynne McGregor, Innovation Lead for High-Value Manufacturing at Innovate UK.
“There is huge untapped value in putting sensors into machines for analysis and better maintenance,” McGregor says. “I don’t know why more people don’t do it.” She pointed us to one of the projects that won funding in Innovate’s second wave of awards of the Industrial Strategy Fund: a consortium led by Machine Tools Technologies (MTT), and including researchers from the University of Huddersfield, the University of Sheffield’s Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) and Cranfield University, that is investigating the practicality of “manufacturing machine as a service” and the implications for machine through-life technology and improved asset management.
Lynne McGregor Speaking at The Industry 4.0 Summit
Stephen McVey is the project lead from MTT. He explains that the project has three main elements: Business model how is it going to be billed to the customer in a way that is advantageous to both parties?
Technology what is the minimum configuration of sensors and devices required to deliver the usage and condition monitoring data required?
Software performing the diagnostics and commercial modelling to allow asset optimisation and accurate billing.
“There is huge untapped value in putting sensors into machines for analysis and better maintenance, I don’t know why more people don’t do it.”
“Huddersfield and AMRC are looking at how we might use artificial intelligence and deep learning to monitor that data and provide information back on machine condition,” McVey explains. It is hoped the project will solve a common challenge for manufacturing businesses: the perceived tension between scheduling maintenance effectively and the desire of production to maximise throughput. “One of the conditions of the contract would be a certain amount of uptime,” McVey says. “To enable us to provide that, we have to get round the constant barrier we have as a service company between maintenance and production. Quite often, we’ll get called to a machine that is limping along and production will be saying ‘you can’t fix it; we need it’. Eventually, it breaks and they say ‘we need it here now’.” One of the challenges MTT faces is in finding good engineers and avoiding this conflict and optimising maintenance activity would enable it to better manage the scares resource of engineers’ time.
“Typically, what happens now is they’ll turn up for a diagnostic visit and have to go away again, get the parts, go again,” explains McVey. “Potentially we could cut all that out – so it’s cheaper for the customer and it enables the engineer to be somewhere else doing something more useful.” As well as halving the maintenance effort, and avoiding the punishing costs of unexpected downtime for the manufacturer, advance notification of planned maintenance downtime will facilitate improved production scheduling, says McVey. The project is due to conclude in April 2019. While the consortium is still working on the complex practicalities of calculating an effective pricing model for machine manufacturers to charge for discrete manufacturing as a service, there are other industries where the move to a service model has fewer moving parts. Jon Hill from InVMA is already working with a number of organisations in the energy sector operating to an “as a service” model.
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 “We’ve worked on one interesting use case where the manufacturer has gone from selling their gas turbines – and maybe a service contract – to, for some of their customers, selling power by the hour,” Hill says. The drivers from the end customer’s point of view are to move to off-balance-sheet financing and to shift liability for operation and maintenance to the provider. For the provider, the post-sale visibility of performance in operation offers possibilities for optimised, preventative maintenance and reduced maintenance costs – a saving that can be shared with the customer; plus greater certainty about cashflow; and improved capacity to plan, build and reinvest. Improved maintenance is also key in this example, Hill explains: “Gas turbines will run very happily all day at 50% power, but as soon as you start running them at 80% or 90% power for sustained periods, they get highly stressed and will break. Our client was turning up to maintenance jobs and finding if the client had run it correctly they wouldn’t have had the problem.”
But what is the incentive for the end user to reduce output if the maintenance is covered by the provider? Moving to a “power by the hour” contract enables the supplier to price in a way that penalises the end user if they are running the turbine in a way that will damage it, explains Hill. When power generation goes over the agreed limit, the cost goes up significantly. This changes people’s behaviour, reduces stress on the equipment and keeps the gas turbine running smoothly. This solves a major problem of the previous business model: where the needs of the service contract holder and the equipment provider were working against each other. In this way, servitisation removes the conflict between asset-sweating versus optimal operation for machine life and maintenance. And, if the enduser does need more power over time, it is in the company’s interest to put in another gas turbine for them.
“Seeing the opportunity could be one of the greatest challenges of Industry 4.0: have we got the creative mindset to capitalise on it and make the most of it?” Neil Lewin - Learning & Development Consultant Festo Ltd
InVMA at The Industry 4.0 Summit
Hill explains that, in this way, servitisation has the potential to solve another problem. If there is a tendency to want to maximise profit from an existing customer, this can lead to the fulfilment of maintenance contracts being skimped on. In today’s world of improving the customer experience, organisations can no longer afford to treat existing customers as a profitable entity from which they want to make more margin. The recurring revenue model lessens this tendency as well as making preventative maintenance in everyone’s best interest. InVMA are already working with a variety of businesses that are dabbling with service-based models; Hill says the servitisation is particularly well suited for businesses selling large capital assets. To enable the business model switch for its gas turbine client, InVMA built an app that allows the client to monitor the status of
“We’ve worked on one interesting use case where the manufacturer has gone from selling their gas turbines – and maybe a service contract – to, for some of their customers, selling power by the hour” Jon Hill - Sales Director INVMA
multiple parameters for all turbines – enabling preventative maintenance and the capacity to bill for the service on a per-usage basis – as well as a dashboard and app for maintenance staff. Hill argues the technology is no longer an issue; it is the ability to see and grasp the opportunity that is the decisive differentiator today. Festo, too, reports it is beginning to see “epiphany moments” with organisations coming through its training programmes. Neil Lewin cites a compressor manufacturer beginning to make the journey towards “compressed air as a service”. Lewin makes a similar point about delivering on the Industry 4.0 promise to Hill; arguing it is really a leadership issue as much as a technology issue: “Seeing the opportunity could be one of the greatest challenges of Industry 4.0: have we got the creative mindset to capitalise on it and make the most of it?”. 17
Janette Kothe Industry 4.0: a disruptive inspiration
Janette Kothe is an IIOT Solution Architect for Bosch Rexroth, driving the initiative to unlock connectivity-driven solution business. She says Industry 4.0 represents an exciting time for the sector.
Searching for the Industry 4.0 Cooking Recipe: Bosch Rexrothâ€™s practical experiences
How to co-create with some of the best IoT experts
Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 When Janette Kothe was seventeen, she spent a day using only those things she could explain. “It was quite a dark day,” she laughs, “because it started in the morning when I wanted to switch a lightbulb on!” The experience was a salutary one; highlighting the seemingly inconsequential but life-changing contributions science and engineering makes to our everyday lives. Inspired to pursue a career in Engineering, Janette says: “I had the idea that engineers might lack the self-marketing, but they are the ones that get things going… and that was what motivated me.” Shortly after joining Bosch Rexroth, its CEO challenged every developer in the company to answer the question “what does IoT mean for my product?” – another inspirational challenge that Janette credits with guiding her through her professional life. “It’s an exciting time in Industry at the moment – and a very good time to take a technical job,” Janette says. “Industry 4.0 is really a major change in the way we work and innovate.”
Second, there’s the external impact – not just the technological impact, in terms of what the next generation of product looks like, but also the impact on business models and the way we work with our partners around us. While these changes have the potential to be very disruptive, Janette recognises that the term Industry 4.0 is still quite fuzzy. Hence the attempt to fashion some kind of “Recipe for Industry 4.0”. “The idea of a recipe for Industry 4.0 goes back to a whitepaper a colleague and I wrote last year,” explains Janette. “We felt that, although the term has been around quite a while, it is still kind of fuzzy. Everybody wants to get a handle on it; to make it more concrete – to know where to start. We had the feeling that what is needed is a cooking recipe – this is what everybody is asking for. So we took the metaphor and tried to identify the success factors and patterns we saw and pull all these ideas together into a whitepaper.”
So what does Industry 4.0 mean to her? “Industry 4.0 is about taking the ideas and concepts of the Internet – technology, but also ways of working and collaborating – and taking those concepts to the industrial domain. The term Industry 4.0 tries to address the fact that it has a disruptive power.” The disruptive power of Industry 4.0 is twofold, Janette explains. First, there’s the change inside organisations: the increase in crossdomain negotiation and innovation and the new approach to collaboration and exploration that is breaking down the old barriers between mechanical, electrical, software.
“Industry 4.0 is about taking the ideas and concepts of the Internet – technology, but also ways of working and collaborating – and taking those concepts to the industrial domain. The term Industry 4.0 tries to address the fact that it has a disruptive power.”
“I had the idea that engineers might lack the selfmarketing, but they are the ones that get things going… and that was what motivated me.”
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 The recipe also formed the basis of Janette’s presentation on the first day of this year’s Industry 4.0 Summit in Manchester. Like all recipes, it began with the ingredients – the search fields for innovation. There were also insights into the tools to use and how to prepare your “kitchen”, or partner ecosystem. However, Janette recognises there isn’t a one-fits-all solution. “I am definitely convinced there is not a recipe in a concrete sense of ‘just follow these simple steps and then you’re done’. Industry 4.0 is a broad set of technological potential. You have to identify those technologies that have potential for your business,” she says. To achieve the potential of Industry 4.0 is going to require a new approach to skills acquisition, knowledge management, collaboration and supply chain interaction, as well as practical initiatives like the Hackathon events Bosch Rexroth have organised with their supply chain partners “In my experience, providing participants with technology and seeing what they come up with is a very nice innovation format,” enthuses Janette.
Hear from Janette at the Industry 4.0 Summit
“Roles aren’t that clear any more. It is no longer ‘we are supplier, they are customer’. The customer becomes a partner and part of the innovation project. In a hackathon format, we don’t only sit together in the first phase of requirement clarification, but also during implementation and testing.” With the customer is approaching suppliers with new expectations in terms of training and enablement, suppliers need to reassess the way skills and innovation are managed within the business. This is something Bosch Rexroth is tackling through the development of Guilds. “We are appending our conventional training with Guilds and building up communities of Bosch experts around the world to communicate with each other,” explains Janette.
To achieve the potential of Industry 4.0 is going to require a new approach to skills acquisition, knowledge management, collaboration and supply chain interaction, as well as practical initiatives like the Hackathon events Bosch Rexroth have organised with their supply chain partners.
“If you are looking for a profession that gives you a chance to have some impact, to drive change in society, then don’t forget about engineering jobs – because those are the ones that are making things possible and, on a very operational level, designing the way we live and work with each other and experience our daily lives.”
It’s a faster, more interactive approach to knowledge sharing, whereby knowledge is no longer managed centrally and pushed out to users but shared collaboratively to spread best practice. Its just one of the new working models that Janette thinks manufacturing and engineering industries can learn from Internet tech leaders. “We used to have a narrow scope in terms of what we thought of as ‘product innovation’,” she says, “We always thought of technical enhancement, but now we are opening a broader field of innovation: of business processes and taking a holistic view of how a technological product fits in a whole business model and offer. It doesn’t only have to be the most sophisticated technical solution. In many cases it is also about innovating on how you sell it to the customer, how you structure the sales, how you regard innovation.” This wide scope of potential disruption that Industry 4.0 is bringing to the sector is what makes it such as exciting time to be an engineer, says Janette. And while she is clear that she is no i4.0 hero, she does want to encourage young men and women into the profession. “If you are looking for a profession that gives you a chance to have some impact, to drive change in society, then don’t forget about engineering jobs – because those are the ones that are making things possible and, on a very operational level, designing the way we live and work with each other and experience our daily lives.”
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Industry 4.0 Summit insights:
Get digital for less than £1k
We came away with actionable takeaways and new insights from every speech delivered at this year’s Industry 4.0 Summit 2018. To share these insights, we’ll be featuring some of the highlights from our guest speakers in this and subsequent issues of the magazine. In a thought-provoking session at the beginning of Day Two, Samir Savani, Technology Advisor at ADS, proposed that making a start with digitalisation doesn’t have to require huge investment. He made the case for ‘Digital for less than £1K’ at Industry 4.0, drawing on the experience ADS has working with SMEs. Samir started by saying that the conference has outlined the big transformative measures taking place as part of Industry 4.0.
Samir Savani addresses the Industry 4.0 Summit
However, as a partner of SMEs through his work at ADS, Samir made the case that it is also important to consider low-cost digital strategies. Many SMEs visualise Industry 4.0 as a factory with gleaming robots working seamlessly, said Samir. However, while this may be the case for the big OEMs at the top of the supply chain, the reality is completely different for others. About ADS ADS is the Premier Trade Organisation for companies in the UK Aerospace, Defence, Security and Space Sectors. Membership is made up of over 1000 UK registered businesses.
Issue no 2 - JULY 2018
“The Made Smarter review has picked out Aerospace as a sector which has the biggest potential for improvement in terms of Industrial Digitization” Samir also raised the question of why Industry 4.0 and the digitisation of manufacturing is attracting so much attention at the present moment. He argued that it is the reduced cost of technology that is opening new opportunities and enabling SMEs to join the Industry 4.0 party. The downward trend in the cost of computing power, data storage and data transfer – particularly with cloud technology and hybrid architectures –is opening new, cost-effective possibilities for SMEs. However, Samir emphasized the need for SMEs to take a strategic view about the adoption of technology. Technology is maturing at different paces and it is important for companies to judge how they want to apply it to their businesses. Supply chain companies need to ask: what are we trying to achieve? Do we have the skills and processes in place? Is technology really the answer for this?
Samir went on to outline the barriers to the adoption of Industry 4.0 by SMEs: •
lack of knowledge and awareness
lack of impartial advice
“The Made Smarter review has picked out Aerospace as a sector which has the biggest potential for improvement in terms of Industrial Digitization”
isleading advice from firms claiming m to offer Industry 4.0 “in a box” c onfusion over how to implement Industry 4.0 it without disrupting the customer experience and manufacturing processes availability and attractiveness of talent
“The key challenge at the moment is how to attract young talent and remain attractive and relevant to the workforce. According to statistics 50% of skilled engineers will retire in the next decade.”
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 “The key challenge at the moment is how to attract young talent and remain attractive and relevant to the workforce. According to statistics 50% of skilled engineers will retire in the next decade.” Innovation is a contact sport, said Samir. It is all about who will benefit and who will be disrupted. To understand whether a technology is appropriate for their business, companies have to look at the whole picture. What is the starting point? What are you trying to improve? What are the business drivers and value drivers? For example, is productivity the main objective – if so, how will the technology aid that? “Rolls Royce generates half a terabyte of manufacturing data on a single fan blade. They manufacture 6000 fan blades in a year, which equates to 3 petabytes of data – off one component.” For Samir, the emphasis should be on business improvement. Having a coherent roadmap is vital. Many companies chase technology – but that is the wrong approach. Samir advocated first testing a single process to attain a proof of concept before scaling up.
Technology cannot work without certain crucial building blocks. While the obvious building blocks may be systems and networks, the other building blocks are equally important. These include: business, strategy, skills and competencies and a digital mindset and culture. This can make it hard for small companies to adopt to Industry 4.0, Samir recognised. To help overcome these multi-faceted challenges, he recommended that SMEs explore the help on offer; notably, Digital Catapult organizes visits for firms to see real-life examples of Digital Manufacturing. To conclude, Samir discussed some of the current research and case studies in the UK around the adoption of digital technology. He emphasised the need for collaboration and encouraged all SMEs – wherever they are in their own digital journey – to engage with Digital Catapult, incubators and industry bodies.
“Rolls Royce generates half a terabyte of manufacturing data on a single fan blade. They manufacture 6000 fan blades in a year, which equates to 3 petabytes of data – off one component.”
4.0. FEATURED CASE STUDIES OF LOW-COST DIGITAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR SMEs ADS member AVPE Engineering is using sensors which have resulted in overall equipment effectiveness. The sensors cost less than £1k per machine and over a period of 3-4 months have resulted in a business case for the company to scale them up across multiple machines.
AMRC has demonstrated that there is no need for high capital expenditure to adopt the use of sensors. The IMG has an internally funded project where they are utilising low-cost sensors to monitor in detail any factor that directly affects a process, such as temperature, power consumption, harmonics, humidity and process KPIs. This project is being used to demonstrate the use of data in a shop-floor environment to improve production efficiency.
The National Physics Laboratory is in the process of setting up regional demonstrators under the Digitally Enabled Supply Chain (DESC) programme. These will provide the catalyst to enable data confidence throughout supply chains and establish a world-leading position for the UK. The DESC programme has been designed to address data challenges through a focus on data collection, data validation, data uncertainty and trust of data as it passes through process and systems, and between organisations.
5 Product Design Trends
in Industry 4.0 Looking towards the future
The way that manufacturers manage information throughout the product lifecycle has changed significantly in the past few years. The Internet of Things (IoT) has helped accelerate innovation in the design process, making it possible for manufacturers to receive information from products in the field that can be leveraged to improve new or future iterations of products. In order to succeed, organizations are going to need to embrace new technologies and capabilities available through enterprise system vendors.
David Grammer, PTC UKâ€™s senior vice-president, looks towards the future and 5 product trends to keep an eye out for. Here are 5 trends in product design that engineers are going to be seeing and leveraging in the coming year: 1. Augmented Reality (AR) in Design Review As teams become more globally distributed, it can sometimes be difficult to get everyone involved to review a product design in a timely manner, collect all the information needed for the review, and capture feedback for future action. Using augmented reality (AR), team members are able to visualize, interact with, and provide feedback on product designs from anywhere in the world. AR makes it possible for stakeholders to interact with a 3D model of the product, such as walking around it and viewing different states of the model â€“ including going inside the model itself. AR also enables users to get a third-party perspective from other teammates. This particularly comes in handy when deciphering notes from a colleague as it brings you to the point of view of the model they had when they made the comment.
Mixed Reality: on the road to industry 4.0 25
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 2. IoT Products Transforming Design Practices The market is clamoring for smart, connected products: whether itâ€™s an Amazon Echo, a Nest Thermostat, or a Fitbit. In order to sufficiently meet the expectations of customers, manufacturers need to transform their product development process to understand and leverage data from products in the field. Noting product information on a CAD drawing is no longer going to cut it as products become more complex. Manufacturers will need to become more organized with their product development process. Having a comprehensive PLM system provides a strong foundation to taking full advantage of IoT capabilities. By consolidating all product information into a single-view digital product definition, organizations can ensure that stakeholders are all accessing the most accurate, up-to-date product information. With a PLM system, all information is streamlined into a single easy-to-read Bill of Materials (BOM) list format.
3. Digitalization Product data is an organizationâ€™s most valuable asset. With products gathering data from the field, this data is becoming more valuable every day. However, many organizations continue to keep it locked away with engineering and manufacturing. Product data can be leveraged throughout the enterprise: whether it is how the marketing team promotes the product or how the sales team sells it. By digitizing the product development process, stakeholders throughout the organization will be able to easily access product information. For example, if a manufacturer just merged with or acquired another company, digitizing the product development process and making product information accessible to all stakeholders ensures that thereâ€™s no infrastructure disparity between organizations. Digitalization also ensures compliance of industry standards throughout the product lifecycle. This is especially key for highly regulated industries such as the medical device or automotive field. Being able to pinpoint the root cause of issues and track changes throughout the lifecycle ensures that manufacturers are able to successfully meet industry standards.
Issue no 2 - JULY 2018
4. PLM and Digital Twin Having a window into how each twin or asset in the field is operating is key to improving profitability, decision making, and ensuring security, legal, and regulatory compliance. With a digital twin, the digital definition is combined with the specific physical experience of the asset, for example environmental conditions and performance data from an operating asset. This purpose built digital representation allows manufacturers to analyze assets for future sales, recalls, or update opportunities. Real-world usage can be leveraged to improve future products or future iterations of the products.
5. P LM in the Cloud for Rapid Transformation In order to stay competitive, it is imperative that manufacturers rapidly transform their product development process. Enabling this is the ability to host their PLM and other enterprise systems in the cloud. Cloud based PLM removes the burden of setting up and maintaining the system on-premise while also reducing the cost of owning the system. Forget managing your enterprise systems on the cloud. More and more manufacturers are relinquishing the burden of setting up and maintaining their PLM system on-premise. PLM in the Cloud makes it possible for manufacturers to rapidly deploy their PLM solution and begin to see results sooner. Deploying in the cloud also reduces the burden of hosting the server. Alternatively, many companies are looking to host their PLM solution as SaaS. SaaS offers many the same benefits as the cloud with the added bonus of the PLM vendor handling all upgrades, updates, and software migrations for the customer. Whether your organization is evaluating whether to deploy a PLM system in the cloud, itâ€™s ready for a partcentric approach, is looking to digitize, or is ready to incorporate augmented reality or build a digital twin, 2018 will be an exciting year for those on the product design team. 27
Collaborative Robots ADVANCES IN ROBOTICS
Cobots were invented in 1996 by professors J. Edward Colgate and Michael Peshkin at Northwestern University in the USA, whose research was supported by an initiative by General Motors which was keen to develop robots to work alongside people safely. These devices were designed to assist human ergonomics in the workplace safely as well as accurately. The word, collaboration, is key. This is technology to assist, not replace. Much with which we associate the word robot, stems from fears and social expectations, such as depicted in science fiction and optimistic predictions of the future, conceived in the modernist era of the early 20th century. Robotics originated in science fiction and life imitated art in an attempt to fulfil an old dream, or avoid an old nightmare. The word was first applied in a 1920 science fiction play by the anti-Nazi and antiCommunist Czech writer, Karel ÄŒapek. The play, R.U.R., brought the word ROBOT (meaning serf or forced labourer) to the world. In the play, the robots rebel against their human masters. In 2018 we are less concerned with robot rebellion than we are with their perceived threats to our human workforce and the possible negative effects of disruptive technology on our own business whether it is adopted or not. The factory of the future will not be an automated wasteland denuded of human beings or humanity. Robots can be our liberators, not our oppressors. This is especially true about cobots.
The word, collaboration, is key. This is technology to assist, not replace. Much with which we associate the word robot, stems from fears and social expectations, such as depicted in science fiction and optimistic predictions of the future, conceived in the modernist era of the early 20th century.
“ABB believes that jobs are created and protected when businesses are efficient and flexible to adapt to change. Cobots are designed to work with people and complement their unique skills, not to fully automate jobs which are done by people.” Mike Wilson, Business Development Manager, ABB Robotics
Mike Wilson, business development manager at ABB Robotics, agrees: “We believe that robotic automation should be about creating jobs, not taking them away. Achieving a smart factory is about using the latest technologies to help make sure that human workers are as productive and creative as they can be. Today’s new generation of workers grew up in a digital world and want rewarding mental challenges, not strenuous or repetitive physical ones.
ABB YuMi CoBot
“ABB believes that jobs are created and protected when businesses are efficient and flexible to adapt to change. Cobots are designed to work with people and complement their unique skills, not to fully automate jobs which are done by people.” He says that the company has long believed that the best results occur when the consistency, accuracy, speed and dexterity of robots are combined with the innate intelligence, creativity and adaptability of human workers: “We see ourselves at the start of the age of collaborative automation, which is already seeing entirely new solutions being developed that enable people and robots to work together,” he asserts. “Collaborative automation means different things to different people. It can include everything from sharing the same workspace without planned interaction, to shared cooperation of the same task. One aspect of collaborative automation is ‘cobots’. Specifically, ‘cobots’ are robots that are designed to work safely with people through a variety of safety measures including force sensors and power and speed limits, often with no need for safety fencing or barriers. 29
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018 “Collaborative automation helps increase flexibility to manufacture products of greater diversity in smaller lots; because of their lightweight design, they can easily be redeployed in the production space to wherever they are needed. This ease of deployment allows companies to get more from their human workers by enabling them to contribute their unique problem solving and improvisation skills, further increasing flexibility. Furthermore, whilst traditional industrial robots are often programmed with complex software, cobots can be programmed by anyone, without specialized training.
“Cobots are able to operate alongside humans in a safe manner and will be part of the solution,” he explains. “Challenges around the type of task for which cobots are suitable remain, for example processes where high accuracy or speed is required. Different industrial sectors will deploy cobot solutions according to need, with some more suitable than others. However, this technology will continue to evolve and Siemens will continue to collaborate with specialist robotic manufacturers in order to generate tailor-made controls solutions that optimise the efficiencies that cobots offer.”
“A major attraction of cobots is that they are non-disruptive,” says Wilson. “They’re simple to integrate into an assembly line without disruption because they’re mostly quite small, lightweight and easy to move across the shop floor. They can work with high precision and never get sleepy or distracted. They can also be equipped with 2D and 3D vision systems to better understand changes in their workspace that might require intervention. This technology allows the robots to recognise the parts individually, so that when different parts are introduced, it can quickly assemble them in the correct order. The vision technology also enables collaborative robots to perform testing and packaging processes.”
Matthew Potts, project sales engineer at HMK Automation and Drives explains that at HMK, they have acquired an understanding of how the cobot fits into the factories of the future and how they can be utilised to bring best value. “From the various applications in which we have been involved, we can see that there is a massive opportunity to bring the UK forwards. We can adapt our experience for various applications enabling our customers to be sure the cobots are implemented correctly.
John Kitchingman, managing director for Northern Europe at Dassault Systèmes, is optimistic about the future: “There will, in our opinion, always be a role for the human skill, the experience and the know-how, in the delivery of a highly complex product, which means that true evolution will be a collaborative process. But the exciting benefits that can be derived from reducing the strain on the human during these processes, can’t be underestimated. Speed, consistency, detail, strength, and support in repetitive motions – these are all benefits to be derived.” Keith Thornhill, Head of Food & Beverage, Siemens UK & Ireland believes that challenges in the food sector, such as potential labour shortages post Brexit, as well as pressures around seasonal labour, mean that automation is playing an increasing role in solving such issues, especially concerning low-skilled manual tasks:
“As manufacturing processes become more complex and dispersed, conventional automation solutions can no longer provide the flexibility needed to keep up. Trends such as the drive towards personalised products and the expectation of fast delivery of high quality products are demanding new production methods that can keep pace.”
“There will, in our opinion, always be a role for the human skill, the experience and the knowhow, in the delivery of a highly complex product, which means that true evolution will be a collaborative process. But the exciting benefits that can be derived from reducing the strain on the human during these processes, can’t be underestimated. Speed, consistency, detail, strength, and support in repetitive motions – these are all benefits to be derived.” John Kitchingman, Managing Director - Northern Europe, Dassault Systemes
Issue no 2 - JULY 2018
Advice Wilson has some advice for manufacturers contemplating additional automation given that, according to ABI Research, the market for collaborative robots was expected to jump from 3,000 units in 2015 to over 40,000 units by 2020 – a substantial 67% CAGR. “Although you might not think you need a robot now, it is highly probable that at least one of your competitors is either using robotic technology now or is likely to do so soon,” he says. “It therefore pays to at least start contemplating a switch to robots if you want your organisation to stay competitive. Collaborative robots, particularly at the ‘cobot’ end of the scale, essentially provide the freedom to experiment and to start off small without impacting on the factory floor. For this reason, they can help to remove a key entry barrier to many new users, particularly small and medium businesses. Because collaborative robots are often easier to install, program and use, they have already achieved a faster adoption rate than traditional industrial robots.
“Many ABB customers are interested in the potential of collaborative automation to increase flexibility as new assembly applications emerge. Several customers have bought a YuMi robot without a specific application in mind just to explore its possibilities. The experience of such users shows that the best advice is to tackle the easiest tasks first, which will help to provide the experience and expertise needed to tackle more complex tasks further down the line.” Potts points to productivity, quality and reliability as benefits of the introduction of cobots. He is sure that they will become safer in time, due to the incorporation of sensor technology linked to harmonised robot safety standards. First though, the scepticism of end-users must be overcome, “…bringing them on the journey of how cobots can benefit them and preparing them for a factory of the future.” He advises those about to embrace the technology, to engage experts in their field, who can assist in guiding them in the application of cobots and to start with simple, easy to implement tasks. “This will enable people to get used to the cobot colleagues without large disruption,” he says.
Industry 4.0: HMK explain Cobots in future manufacturing
industry 4.0 Issue no 2 - JULY 2018
Wilson says that the real evolution of the technology will be driven as users become more reassured by these developments and start to deploy collaborative robots more widely. “Since we launched YuMi, for example, we have been constantly surprised by the new and amazing ways that people have found to use it,” he concludes.
The collaborative robot should be thought of as more, not less, than full-scale stand-alone robotics. It is a targeted digitally controlled instrument that fits and integrates into the smart factory supporting people and systems seamlessly. Its future is assured.
“According to ABI Research, the market for collaborative robots was expected to jump from 3,000 units in 2015 to over 40,000 units by 2020 – a substantial 67% CAGR. “Although you might not think you need a robot now, it is highly probable that at least one of your competitors is either using robotic technology now or is likely to do so soon,”
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Industry 4.0 magazine is a monthly publication looking at the digital technologies to make manufacturing smarter in this the age of the 4th...
Published on Jun 20, 2018
Industry 4.0 magazine is a monthly publication looking at the digital technologies to make manufacturing smarter in this the age of the 4th...