同工同等 - 性傾向平等工作間及僱主計劃 LGBT+ Workplace Equality Project

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LGBT+ Workplace Equality Project

同工 同等 性 傾 向 平 等 工 作 間 及 僱 主 計 劃



目錄

Content

P.3 P.4 P.5 P.6-7

歧視

P.8-10

非法行為

P.11 P.12 P.13

負責及措施

P.14

沒有公開的重要原因

P.15-22

建立性傾向平等工作間指引

P.23-25 P.26-29

香港同志權益發展

Discrimination

平等機會 Equal Opportunity

平等機會條例 Equal Opportunity Ordinances

條例保護範圍 Scope of Ordinances

Unlawful Acts

Liability and Measures

法律環境 The Legal Context

香港同志僱員面對的挑戰 Challenges for LGBT Employees in Hong Kong

Main Reasons Selected for Not Being Open

Guideline for Setup the Sexual Orientation Equality in Workplace

Development of LGBT+ Rights in Hong Kong

同志詞彙一覽 LGBT+ Terminology


什麼是 歧視立法?

What is Anti-Discrimination Law? 歧視立法目的是要保障弱勢人士不會因為他 們的身份而遭受歧視、騷擾和中傷。 Anti-discrimination laws are enacted to protect people of disadvantaged groups against discrimination, harassment and vilification.

Problems with Discrimination

歧視的 問題

破壞性和不公平性 限制人的個性 影響溝通及人際關係 使到一些社群被邊緣化和弱勢化 給家庭和社會帶來負擔

Destructive and unfair Does not allow for individuality Interferes with communication & interpersonal relationships Marginalized and underprivileged groups Burdens to families and society

03


Equal Opportunity is about…

• 公平、 公義、 機會均等 • 以個人才能為決策基礎 • 平等的競爭環境 • 去除不公平障礙 • 為所有參與人士提供平等機會 • 克服成見和不 容

平等機會 是…

• Fairness, justice, a fair go • Decision based on merit • Level playing field • Removal of unfair barriers • Opportunities for all to participate on equal terms • Overcoming stereotypes and intolerance

為甚麼 我們 需要法律?

Why do we need laws?

對一個社群的負面假設

歧視行為

Negative presumption towards a group of people

Acts of Discrimination

04

立法處理歧視 Legislation to deal with discrimination


平等機會條例 Equal Opportunity Ordinances Equal Opportunity Ordinances

現行 平等機會 條例

• 性別歧視條例 (SDO, Chapter 480, 1996) • 殘疾歧視條例 (DDO, Chapter 487, 1996) • 家庭崗位歧視條例 (FSDO, Chapter 527, 1997) • 種族歧視條例 (RDO, Chapter 602, 2009) • Sex Discrimination Ordinance (SDO, Chapter 480, 1996) • Disability Discrimination Ordinance (DDO, Chapter 487, 1996) • Family Status Discrimination Ordinance (FSDO, Chapter 527, 1997) • Race Discrimination Ordinance (RDO, Chapter 602, 2009)

其他 爭議

Other Grounds 目前並未受立法保護,但平機會建議列入工作場所的政 策 •年齡 •性取向 •宗教 Not currently protected by legislation but recommended by EOC to be included in workplace policies •Age •Sexuality •Religion

05


條例保護範圍 Scope of Ordinances

受條例保障的公共活動範疇包括: • 僱傭(就業) • 貨品、設施及相關服務的提供 • 教育 • 處所使用權 • 大律師及有關服務 • 體育活動 • 參與會社 • 政府服務和相關使用權利 The fields covered by the Ordinances relate to public life: • Employment • Provision of Goods, Services and Facilities • Education • Access to premises • Barristers • Sporting activities • Clubs • Government functions & powers

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僱傭(就業) Employment

求職者

• • •

僱員

• • •

薪酬或待遇的安排 僱用條例 故意不聘用

Applicants • Arrangement of offering • Terms of employment • Deliberately not to employ

• • • • • • • • • •

升職、調職、培訓、福利 僱用條例 解僱或其他不利情況

Employees • Promotion, transfer, training, benefits • Terms of employment • Dismissal or other detriment

餐廳、卡拉OK、酒店 公共交通 銀行服務 保險 醫療服務

貨品、服務及 設施的提供

Provision of Goods, Services and Facilities

Restaurant, Karaoke, Hotel Public transportation Banking Insurance Medical services

教育機構從對待一個人之優劣是非法行為 • 收生的條件 • 拒絕或故意不錄取 • 利益和設施的使用權 • 拒絕接納或使到個人受到其他不利情況

教育

Unlawful for educational institutions to treat a person less favorably: • terms on admission as a student • refusing or deliberately omitting admission • access to benefits and facilities • excluding or subjecting this person to other

Education

07


非法行為 Unlawful Acts

• 直接歧視 • 間接歧視 • 騷擾 • 使人受害的歧視 • 中傷 • 嚴重中傷

• • • • • •

Direct Discrimination Indirect Discrimination Harassment Victimization Vilification Serious Vilification

直接歧視

Direct Discrimination

發生 種情況時,當有人: • 在同類情況下比別人得到較不利的對待 • 因為其中一個理由(如性別,種族,殘疾或性傾向) • 在其中一個範疇(如就業) Direct Discrimination This occurs if someone: is treated less favorably than someone else in comparable circumstances because of one the grounds (e.g. sex, race, disability or sexual orientation) in one of the fields (e.g. employment)

• • •

08


當同樣對待每一個人而引起的不公平的待遇 • 強加給每一個人同樣的要求 • 有些社群因不太能夠符合要求,而遭受損害 • 這並不是一個公平和合理的要求

間接歧視

Indirect Discrimination

Indirect Discrimination

• When treating everyone the same can be unfair Imposing the same requirement on everyone • Some groups are less able to comply with the requirement and therefore suffer a detriment • It is not a fair and reasonable requirement

• 騷擾 • 中傷 • 嚴重中傷

騷擾

Harassment

• • • • • • • • • •

• Harassment • Vilification • Serious Vilification

配偶 親屬 同居關係 護工 涉及商業、體育或消閒的關係

有聯繫人士

Spouse Relative Person living together on a genuine domestic basis Carer Person having a business, sporting or recreational

09

Associates


非法行為 Unlawful Acts

使人受害的歧視 • 很多人因害怕失去工作、危及事業前景 或損害與同事之間關係,所以不敢就受到 的歧視、騷擾或中傷作出投訴

Victimization • Many people are afraid to complain about discrimination, harassment or vilification for fear that they may lose their jobs or jeopardize their career prospects or damage their relationships with colleagues.

• 法律承認個人因投訴非法待遇所帶來的

• The law recognizes the risks people run when

風險,所以將因投訴引起的傷害列為違法

they complain about unlawful treatment and so makes it unlawful to victimize someone for bringing a complaint

.

嚴重中傷

Serious Vilification 在公眾場所的活動 一) 對殘疾人士或對住所和財產的威脅性傷害 二) 煽動他人犯在(a)的行為罪行 Activity in Public a) Threatening physical harm to disabled persons or damages towards premises or property, b) Inciting others to commit the act in (a) 刑事罪行;處罰:第6級罰款($50001 - 100,000)及監禁2年 Criminal Offence; Penalty: Fine at level 6 ($50,001 ‒ 100,000) and to Imprisonment for 2 years

性別不友善的工作環境 個別人士或夥同其他人,以有性涵意的方式,構成一個性別不友善或具威嚇性質的工作 環境 Sexually Hostile Work Environment A person alone or together with other persons, engages in conduct of a sexual nature which creates a sexually hostile or intimidating work environment. 10


• • • •

個人 指導/加壓/援助 替代 防禦替代責任

• • • •

Personal Instructing/pressuring/aiding Vicarious Defense to vicarious liability

責任 Liability

這些包括但不限於: • 平等機會條例的制定和實施 • 對投訴作出解決程序的制定 • 在組織中任命一個人執行平等機會條例責任

合理和實際的措施

• 培訓員工了解工作場所不可接受和不合法行為的意識 These include but are not limited to:

Reasonable and Practical Measures

• Development and implementation of an EO policy • Development of a complaint resolution procedure • Appointing a person in the organization to take responsibility for EO

關鍵信息 每個組織工作的人都需要知道他們要為自己的行為負上 責任,而組織本身是有責任要把這個信息傳達到所有員工 Key Message Everyone in the organisation needs to know they are responsible/liable for their behaviours and it is the responsibility of the organisation to communicate this to all employees.

11

關鍵信息 Key Message


法律環境

The Legal Context 同性戀行為在香港是否合法? 是

Is homosexual behavior legal in Hong Kong? Yes

同性戀行為於哪一年在香港非刑事化? 1991年

When was homosexual behavior decriminalized in Hong Kong? 1991

現時男男肛交的法定同意年齡是多少? 16 歲 What is the legal age of make anal sex ? 16

香港有否性傾向歧視法例? 沒有,不過有些歧視的申訴或適用於性別歧視條例。

Does Hong Kong have an Anti-Discrimination Law on the basis of sexual orientation?

香港有否性別認同歧視法例 沒有,不過有些歧視的申訴或適用於殘疾歧視條例。

Does Hong Kong have an Anti-Discrimination Law on the basis of gender identity? No. However, some claims of discrimination may be covered under the Disability Discrimination Ordinance.

香港法例是否承認同性婚姻或公民締結? 否

Are same sex marriages or civil unions recognized by law in Hong Kong? No

香港法例是否承認跨性別人士的性別認同? 否

Is a transgender person s gender identity recognized by law in Hong Kong? No

香港法例是否容許改變身份證上的性別?可以,在完成性別重置手術後。 Does Hong Kong allow changing the sex indicator on ID cards? Yes, but only after sexual reassignment surgery.

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香港 同志僱員 面對的挑戰

Challenges for LGBT Employees in Hong Kong

完全公開自己的身分(涉及文化、社會和家庭議題) Coming out generally (cultural, social and family issues)

在工作上公開自己的身分 Coming out at work

同事缺乏認識

Ignorance of colleagues

擔心影響事業發展 Concern about negative effect on career

同性伴侶欠缺附屬福利

Lack of benefits extended to same-sex partners

害怕被標籤和報復

Fear of name calling and retaliation

法律環境(缺乏保障和簽證問題)

Legal environment (lack of protection and visa issues)

來自保守團體的壓力 Pressure from conservative groups

缺乏反歧視政策 Lack of non-discrimination policies

在工作間內被孤立,以及與其他同志僱員的聯繫 Isolation in the workplace and connection with other LGBT+ employees

13


沒有公開的重要原因 (排名按照受訪者人數) Main Reasons Selected for Not Being Open (Ranked)

缺乏保障 同志僱員 的政策

可能會失去 與同事的 聯系或關係

Lack of policies to protect LGBT employees

Possibility of losing connections or relationships with co-workers employees

因為與 他人無關

可能會令 別人感到 不舒服

Because it s nobody s business

害怕令 家人擔心 Fear of upsetting family

Possibly making people feel uncomfortable

可能會被 標籤 Possibility of being stereotyped

可能不獲考慮 晉升,或喪失 發展機會

May not be considered for advancement or development opportunities

害怕 被解僱

害怕被 家人排斥

Fear of getting fired

Fear of being rejected by family

我自己或我認識 的人, 曾因同志的身分 而被侮辱

「資料來源:公益企業香港同志及同志友善僱 員網上不記名調查 ﹣ 2010年2月/ 3月」 [Source: Community Business Anonymous Online Survey for LGBT+ Employees and Their Workplace Allies in Hong Kong, Feb/March 2010]

I or someone I know has been humiliated at work for being LGBT+ 14


建立性傾向

平等工作間指引 Guideline for Setup the Sexual Orientation Equality in Workplace

1

僱主承諾成為平等機會工作間 Equal Employment Opportunity Charter 簽署同志平等工作間約章,表明公司願意成為同志平等機會僱主 在同志平 等工作間招聘網站,刊登招聘廣告 Employers, are invited to sign the Equal Employment Opportunity Charter, ensuring an inclusive workplace for LGBT+ employees. Opportunity to put free advertisements on LGBT+ s job recruitment websites. 同志平等工作間 招聘網站 Website: www.wchk.org/eo-job

建議公司類型: 1-50人之小型公司; 50-100人之中小企 100人之上之大企業

15

Target corporation size: 1-50 50-100 100 or above


消除性傾向歧視政策 Anti-Discrimination

安排指定人員解決及跟進涉及同志僱員投訴、查詢或意見 在公司現有的平等機會政策中,加入消除性傾向歧視政策。制訂程序,處理與同志 相關的欺凌和騷擾行為,或在工作間內的不滿和投訴。 Ensuring a comprehensive equal opportunity policy that includes issues relating to sexual orientation is a critical starting point for any company looking to create safe and productive working environments for LGBT+ employees. Develop policies and procedures to provide a written declaration that discrimination and harassment on the grounds of sexual orientation are prohibited and will not be tolerated 平等機會政策範例 Sample: XX公司政策闡明為所有人提供平等就業機會,不論其年齡、膚色、國籍、身體或 精神殘疾、種族、宗教、信仰、性別、婚姻狀況、性傾向或任何其他身份。如公 司在新入職員工的合約後有夾附公司政策文件,可考慮加入平等機會政策內容。 Our Company is committed to providing equal employment opportunities in the area of age, color, nationality, disability, religion, gender, family status, sexual orientation etc. If your company used to include Company Policy in the staff employment document or contract, the equal opportunity policy could also be included.

Target corporation size: 建議公司類型: 50-100人之中小企、50-100 100人之上之大企業 100 or above

16

2


多元培訓

Diversity Training

3

為僱員提供培訓活動,認識如何友善對待同志及平等機會概念,營造共融的工 作 間文化。 Education and awareness is the first crucial step in overcoming prejudice and stereotypes and creating a positive workplace culture. This is particularly true when it comes to a subject as sensitive as sexual orientation and gender identity.

培訓活動內容建議: 可邀請專業機構,或公司內部培訓導師授課。如:政府政制及內地事務局的 性 別認同及性傾向小組,及非牟利機構社會賢匯等,均有提供有關培訓。課程內 容包括同志友善詞彙、同志面對的處境、平等機會概念、公司推行的同志平等 政策等。公司內各級員工也應接受訓練,包括新入職僱員以至高級管理層 - 培訓 可用不同形式舉行,例如網上培訓、開設講座等。 Suggest Programme: Training can be delivered by trainers from professional training organizations or by in-house personnel. Trainings are available from serveral sources, for example: Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Unit of Hong Kong Government's Constitional and Maninland Affairs Bureau or non-profit organization Community Business. In developing programme of diversity training, companies are advised to incorporate the subject of LGBT+ friendly terminology, the issues involved, concept of equal opportunities, and the policies in place to support. Training is for all employees from new recruits through to senior managers in the company. Companies may choose to deliver such diversity training through a variety of means, be it online or classroom based.

建議公司類型: 1-50人之小型公司; 50-100人之中小企 100人之上之大企業

17

Target corporation size: 1-50 50-100 100 or above


支援

同志員工 的組織架構

Diversity Structure

4

安排指定人員解決及跟進涉及同志僱員投訴、查詢或意見。如公司員工有興趣建立同志僱 員網絡,可提供相應支援協助。如公司有願意公開自己身份的同志僱員,可關注他們在事 業發展的狀況。物色一位領導層,帶領及支援同志平等計劃,表達公司的支持及友善態度。 Ensure there is a person, team or working group with responsibility for addressing LGBT+ issues. Establish and support an LGBT+ employee network. Identify an executive sponsor for LGBT+ issues. If there are LGBT+ employees who are open in the workplace, track their career progress to ensure they are given equal opportunities to develop. 具體運作建議: 指定人員可以是人力資源部門的同事,可在員工守則等文件列出,或透過內 部 備忘等向員工知悉 若有員工有意成立同志僱員網絡,公司可以讓他們使用公司 內的設施、電子 網絡等資源。 Suggestion:

Nominate a specific individual to be responsible for addressing LGBT+ issues to ensure the matters relating to the LGBT+ community are appropriately championed and addressed. Indeed where possible, the individual or team should be responsible not just for dealing with problems related to LGBT+ but also proactive promoting greater LGBT+ diversity within the organization.

Target corporation size: 建議公司類型: 50-100人之中小企、50-100 100人之上之大企業 100 or above

18


多元福利政策 Benefits

5

為僱員的同性伴侶,提供與異性伴侶或配偶同等的福利 Offer same benefits to employees to cover their same-sex partners regardless of the employee s sexual orientation, gender expression or gender identity. 具體運作建議: 同性伴侶並不被香港法律承認,然而好些本港同性伴侶會到海外 冊,公司可 考慮認可此類伴侶, 提供異性配偶同等的福利。 公司可以較 鬆方式為同性伴侶 (不論有否 冊)提供軟性或恩恤的福利, 例如喪假、伴侶臨危休假、邀請伴侶 出席公司週年 宴等 Suggestion:

One of the biggest areas of concern for LGBT+ employees in Hong Kong is that same-sex partnership is not legally recognized in Hong Kong. Some same sex couples register for marriage or civil union overseas. Most companies do not offer same sex partners the same benefits as spouses. Company may consider offering the same benefits to LGBT+ employees whom received legal marriage registration from overseas. Companies may also extend to softer benefits, such as bereavement leave, employee assistance programmes, relocation assistance or company s events.

Target corporation size: 建議公司類型: 50-100人之中小企、50-100 100人之上之大企業 100 or above

19


企業文化

Corporate Culture

6

向僱員傳達公司支持性傾向平等機會的訊息,可透過海報、電郵、員工通訊、內 聯網頁等途徑 Engage with LGBT+ staffs via posters, emails or intranet pages, diversity meeting, etc. To communicate to all employees about how the company supports and values its LGBT+ workforce.

具體運作建議: 可在辦公室內張貼包含同志共融訊息的海報 - 定期透過電郵或員工通訊等渠道,向 所有職員發放同志友善的訊息或與同志 議題相關的資料 。在公司網站的「職位空 缺」版面可加添一個同志友善小標誌、或「本公司是 性傾向平等機會僱主」的字 句。 如公司有出版年報,可包括工作間多元政策的部份 Suggestion: Companies are advised to engage with LGBT+ staffs on regular basis. This might be via posters, emails or intranet pages, or through specific diversity meetings and forums. A LGBT+friendly icon or a line of text such as "We are a LGBT+ equal opportunities employer" can be added on the "Job Vacancies" page of company's website. If you company publish annual report, a section of workplace Diversity policy can be included.

建議公司類型: 1-50人之小型公司; 50-100人之中小企 100人之上之大企業

Target corporation size: 1-50 50-100 100 or above

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同志友善

LGBT+ Friendly

7

在公司或品牌市場推廣計劃中,加入同志友善的部份。 Engage in respectful and appropriate marketing to the LGBT+ community.

具體運作建議: 在本地同志媒體及溝通平台,刊登專為同志社群而設的廣告。在推廣計劃中, 採用公開同志身份的藝人。持續在同志社群中出現,效果會最好。單一次推廣 項目可能未必有顯著成果。在大眾傳播媒體的廣告中,加入同志友善的元素, 或至少審閱廣告訊息會否 有歧視同志的成份 Suggestion: Advertising on the LGBT+ website or networking platform on regular basis. Companies may consider using LGBT+ artists to help their promotion. Maintain branding consistency. Include LGBT+ friendly elements in advertisements and review messages so as to not alienate target audience.

建議公司類型: 1-50人之小型公司; 50-100人之中小企 100人之上之大企業

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Target corporation size: 1-50 50-100 100 or above


Community 投入社區 and Advocacy

8

支持同志平權活動或服務同志社群的非牟利機構活動 進行招聘或市場推廣時,以同志社群為目標 - 清晰的公司立場,支持同志平權 Supporting LGBT+ advocacy or service activities run by LGBT+ organizations Targeting LGBT+ groups for recruitment and marketing purposes. Demonstrates that the company has an equal and diverse policy that supports LGBT+ rights. 具體運作建議: 投入時間及資源自行策劃,或 推廣或鼓勵員工參與外間機構舉辦的LGBT+活動。 Suggestion: Put resources and time to organize LGBT+ events, or Encourage employees to participate in LGBT+ events.

參考資料: 《為香港同 / 雙性戀和跨性別僱員創造共融工作間僱主資源指南》;社商賢匯出版 Reference: Creating Inclusive Workplaces for LGBT Employees: A Resource Guide for Employers in Hong Kong. Published by Community Business Limited

建議公司類型: 1-50人之小型公司; 50-100人之中小企 100人之上之大企業

22

Target corporation size: 1-50 50-100 100 or above


香港同志 Development of 權益發展 LGBT+ Rights in Hong Kong

19 80 19 86 19 91 19 92 19 94 19 96 19 96 19 91

麥樂倫事件令大批傳媒關注同性戀和法律改革問題。 MacLennan Incident which led to a lot of media attention given to homosexuality and the question of legal reform.

李大為醫生創立香港十分一會,一個非政府同志機構,致力對抗社會偏見、扶 植互相支 持,以及提倡同性戀者的權利。 Foundation of the Te Percent Club in Hong Kong, an LGBT+ NGO set up by Dr. Alan Li, a medical doctor to fight social prejudice, foster mutual support as well as to advocate for gay rights.

同性戀行為於香港非刑事化,以及公民與政治權利國際公約(ICCPR)獲納入為 本地法例, 成為香港人權法案條例。 Decriminalisation of homosexual behavior in Hong Kong and the incorporation of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) into domestic law as the Bill of Rights Ordinance.

香港首個同性戀電話熱線-香港同志輔導熱線 (後更改為“啟同服務社”)成立。 Establishment of Horizons, the first gay telephone hotline.

胡紅玉、陸恭蕙、劉慧卿等立法局議員,聯同其他民主派人士、工會領袖和學者, 成立平 等機會草案工作小組。草案建議規管所有普遍的歧視理由,包括性別、殘疾 、婚姻及家庭狀況、性傾向、年齡、宗教、種族和過往定罪記錄等。

Working Group for Equal Opportunities Bill set up by legislators such as Anna Wu, Christine Loh, Emily Lau and other democrats, union leaders and academics. The bill proposed outlawing discrimination based on all common grounds, including gender, disability, marital and family status, sexual orientation, age, religion, ethnicity and past convictions.

政府推出有關性傾向歧視的諮詢文件。 Government published consultation paper regarding discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation.

民政事務局推出不具法律約束力的消除性傾向歧視僱傭實務守則。

Sex Discrimination Ordinance and Disability Discrimination Ordinance enacted.

性別歧視條例和殘疾歧視條例生效實施。

Introduction of non-binding Code of Practice Against Discrimination in Employment on the Grounds of Sexuality by Home Affairs Bureau.

家庭崗位歧視條例生效實施。 Family Status Discrimination Ordinance enacted.

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2000 2004

20 04 20 05 20 05 20 06 20 08 20 10

立法會民政事務委員會設立小組委員會,研究性傾向歧視問題。其後有一份 報告發出,建議委員會就該項問題繼續進行深入研究。 Home Affairs Panel set up a sub-committee to study the question of discrimination based on sexual orientation. A report was released recommending further studies on the question by the same Panel.

政府設立少數性傾向人士論壇,旨在討論有關少數性傾向人士的議題。 Sexual Minorities Forum set by the government to discuss issues concerning sexual minorities.

性別認同及性傾向小組(GISOU)設立,以強化平等機會。 Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Unit (GISOU) set up to enhance equal opportunities.

政府進行公眾電話調查,評估公眾對同性戀的態度。 Government launched public telephone survey to assess public attitudes towards homosexuality

William Leung 對香港特區政府的案例,挑戰並推翻了不平等的性行為法 定同意年齡(同性戀者為21歲;異性戀者為16歲)。(William Leung案, CACV317/2005) William Leung v HKSAR Case which challenged and overturned the unequal age of consent (21 for homosexuals and 16 for heterosexuals).

首次舉辦正式的香港同志遊行 Hong Kong’s first official Hong Kong Pride Parade.

正式將同性同居者及前同性同居者納入《家庭暴力條例》的保障範圍 Same-sex cohabitation relationship was put under the scope of protection of the Domestic and Cohabitation Relationships Violence Ordinance

24


香港同志 Development of 權益發展 LGBT+ Rights in Hong Kong

20 14 20 14 20 17 20 18 20 18 20 19 20 21 20 21

首次舉辦正式的香港一點粉紅 Hong Kong’s first Pink Dot HK

男男肛交的年齡限制正式改為16歲 The legal age of committing buggery change to 16.

允許男男性接觸者(MSM)進行捐血 MSMs allowed to donate blood

東華三院推出一條24小時專為性小眾而設的服務熱線 - 同一線 TWGH launched a 24-hour Hotline ‒ Pride Line, for LGBT+ community and their families

終審法院裁定海外合法同性伴侶可申請受養人簽證來港 (QT案,FACV1/2018) The Court of Final Appeal ruled overseas same-sex couple can apply for dependants visa. (QT, FACV1/2018)

終審法院裁定公務員同性配偶可以享有已婚公務員福利和合併報稅 (梁鎮罡案, FACV 8/2018) Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal urged the government to pay same-sex civil servants benefits and Joint Assessment. (Angus Leung Case, FACV 8/2018)

法庭給予同性伴侶小孩監護權,成首例同性家庭 (AA及BB案, HCMP 2342/2020) The Court of First Instance grants guardianship and joint custody to same-sex, non-biological parent, as the first case of same-sex family. (AA and BB, HCMP 2342/2020)

政府澄清身後事處理程序對同性伴侶沒有差異,同性伴侶處理伴侶後事的權利比照異性 伴侶 (李亦豪案, HCAL295/2021) The government clarified there is no differences in arranging post-death arrangement, between same-sex and different-sex partners. (Li, HCAL295/2021)

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一般詞彙

性別 – 傳統將人類分為男性或女性的分類法。 初生嬰兒會根據一系列身體特徵,包括染色體 、荷爾蒙、內生殖器管和生殖器,而指定為一 種性別。除了男、女兩種性別之外,尚有其他 多元性別-請參照「間性」。 Sex – The traditional classification of people as male or female. At birth, infants are assigned a sex based on a combination of bodily characteristics including: chromosomes, hormones, internal reproductive organs, and genitals. There is also more variety than the duality of male/female suggests – see Intersex.

GENERAL TERMINOLOGY 性傾向 – 形容個人持續在肉體、愛意、情感及/ 或靈性上,受到同性及/或異性吸引。性傾向包 括女同性戀、男 同性戀、雙性戀、異性戀,或不 受男性或女性吸引 的無性戀。應避免使用「性取 向」這個具冒犯性的詞語,因為這個詞語暗示成 為同性戀是一個選擇,因此「可以醫治」。性別 認同和性傾向是兩個不同的概念。跨性別人士可 以是異性戀、女同性戀、男同性 戀、雙性戀或無 性戀。舉例,一個已變為女性的男性,而又受到 其他女性吸引,可視為女同性戀。

Sexual Orientation – Describes an individual’s enduring physical, romantic, emotional and/or spiritual attraction to members of the same and/or opposite sex including lesbian, gay, bisexual, heterosexual and asexual orientations or neither, asexual. Avoid the offensive term ‘sexual preference’, which is used to suggest that being gay or lesbian is a choice and therefore ‘curable’. Gender identity and sexual orientation are not the same. Transgender people may be heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual or asexual. For example, a man who becomes a woman and is attracted to other women would be identified as a lesbian.

性別認同 – 個人對於自己是男性或女性 (或是男孩或女孩)的內在、個人意識。 跨性別人士出生時指定的性別,與他們 自己內在意識到的性別認同並不相符。

Gender Identity - One’s internal, personal sense of being a man or a woman (or a boy or girl.) For transgender people, their birth-assigned sex and their own internal sense of gender identity do not match.

性別氣質 – 個人對自己性別認同的外在表現 ,通常會透過「男性化」、「女性化」的形 象,以及切合性別的行為、衣 著、髮型、 聲音或身體特徵,予以表達出來。一般來說 ,跨性別人士會力求將性別表達,配合自己 的性別認同,而非他們出生時指定的性別。

Gender Expression – External manifestation of one’s gender identity, usually expressed through ‘masculine’,‘feminine’or gender variant behavior, clothing, haircut, voice or body characteristics. Typically, transgender people seek to make their gender expression match their gender identity, rather than their birth-assigned sex.

26


女同性戀、 男同性戀和雙性戀特定詞彙 衣櫃中的 異性戀男士/女士

LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL SPECIFIC TERMINOLOGY

衣櫃中的

持續在肉體、愛意、情感及/或靈性上,受到 異性吸引的人士。

形容沒有公開其性傾向的人士。

Heterosexual Man / Woman ‒ A person whose enduring physical, romantic, emotional and/or spiritual attraction is to people of the opposite sex.

Closeted ‒ Describes a person who is not open about his or her sexual orientation.

出櫃/現身/站出來

同性戀/同志 形容持續在肉體、 愛意、 情感及/或靈性上, 受到同性吸引的人士,可以分為男同性戀者 和女同性戀者,在香港、中國大陸及台灣,女 /男雙/同性戀者或自稱作同志。

一項畢生去接納自己的過程。一個人會首先 發現自己是女同性戀、男同性戀、雙性戀或跨 性別,然後可能會向別人透露。

Homosexual Gay ‒ The adjective used to describe people whose enduring physical, romantic, emotional and/or spiritual attractions are to people of the same sex (e.g., gay man, gay people). Lesbian is usually the preferred term for women. Rather than use the term homosexuals , it is better to use gay men and lesbians .

Coming Out (of the Closet) ‒ The act of disclosure of one's sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Coming out can happen at different levels or all levels (i.e. to oneself, to families, to friends, to colleagues or to the public).

雙性戀 在肉體、愛意、情感及/或靈性上,受到男性 及女性吸引的人士。雙性戀者毋須於男性及 女性方面擁有同等的性經驗。事實上,他們毋 須任何性經驗,亦可確認自己為雙性戀者。 Bisexual ‒ An individual who is physically, romantically, emotionally and/or spiritually attracted to men and women. Bisexuals need not have had equal sexual experience with both men and women; in fact, they need not have had any sexual experience at all to identify as bisexual. 27


異性戀主義

同性戀恐懼症

視異性戀為唯一正當性傾向的態度,經常以漠視女 同性戀者、男同性戀者和雙性戀者的形式出現。

對同性戀者的恐懼或憎惡。 Homophobia ‒ Fear or hatred of lesbians and gay men.

Heterosexism ‒ The attitude that heterosexuality is the only valid sexual orientation. Often takes the form of ignoring lesbians, gay men and bisexuals.

女同性戀者 持續在肉體、愛意、情感及/或靈性上,受到其他女 性吸引的女士。 Lesbian ‒ A woman whose enduring physical, romantic, emotional and/or spiritual attraction is to other women.

LGBT+ 女同性戀、男同性戀、雙性戀和跨性別的統稱, 融合了上 述多元群體。(Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) LGBT+ ‒ Acronyms for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and more . LGBT+ are often used because they are more inclusive of the diversity of the community

男男性接觸者(MSM) 形容男性與其他男性發生性行為的中性用詞, 但不確認自己為同/雙性戀或同志的身分。

公開同志

Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) ‒ A term used to describe in neutral terms men who have sex with other men but do not identify as gay or bisexual.

形容已公開及/或在工作上確認自己為同志的人士, 亦有公開雙性戀者和公開跨性別人士。 Openly Gay ‒ Describes people who self-identify as lesbian or gay in their public and/or professional lives. Also openly lesbian, openly bisexual, openly transgender.

酷兒/怪胎(Queer) 原本對同性戀者具冒犯性的詞語,學術界現 用於形容性別多元,同志運動工作者重塑其 意義為同志。酷兒論現為研究性/別多元的 學術領域。

Queer ‒ An originally abusive epithet for a gay man, now often used by academics to refer to anything sexually or gender diverse or by gay activists who have reclaimed the word and use it instead of gay . Queer Studies are the academic field which investigates all aspects of the sexually or gender diverse.

形容異性戀者的口語用詞。 Straight ‒ A colloquial term used to describe heterosexuals.

女同性戀、 男同性戀和 雙性戀特定詞彙

同志 本意指志同道合的人, 但自20世紀開始, 因 應不同的語境而出現了不同的含意, 現時成 為年輕一代用作代表女同性戀、 男同性戀、 雙 性戀和跨性別人士的統稱。

LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL SPECIFIC TERMINOLOGY

Tongzhi ‒ The term which literally means same will or same purpose in Chinese. Idiomatically, it means comrade . It has taken on various meanings in various contexts since the 20th century, and now its use among the younger generation is slang for the LGBT+ community. 28


跨性別 特定詞彙 TERMINOLOGY

TRANSGENDER SPECIFIC

易服

有時穿著傳統上與另一性別人士相關的服裝。易服者通常就其出生時指定的性 別感到自在,並不希望改變。「易服者」一詞不能用於形容已於每日所有時間 轉換為另一性別生活的人士,或未來有意這樣做的人士。易服是一種性別表達 ,不一定與色情行為相關。易服並不代表一種性傾向。

Cross-Dressing ‒ To occasionally wear clothes traditionally associated with people of the other sex. Cross-dressers are usually comfortable with the sex they were assigned at birth and do not wish to change it. Cross-dresser should NOT be used to describe someone who has transitioned to live full-time as the other sex, or who intends to do so in the future. Cross-dressing is a form of gender expression and is not necessarily tied to erotic activity. Cross-dressing is not indicative of sexual orientation.

性別認同障礙(GID)在《精神疾病診斷與統計手冊》(DSM-5)2013年被重新分 類為性別不安。一些跨性別和研究人員支持性別認同障礙的重新分類,因為他們 說診斷會使非常規性別病理化,強調性別二元論的模型,並可能導致跨性別者的 污名化。 Gender Dysphoria ‒ Gender Identity Disorder (GID) was used by the DSM until it was renamed gender dysphoria in 2013 with the release of the DSM-5. The diagnosis was renamed to remove the stigma associated with the term disorder. 形容一個人的生理性別模糊。有不少基因、荷爾蒙或人體結構的變化因素, 會導致一個人的性別模糊,例如柯林菲特氏症(Klinefelter Syndrome)和 腎上腺增生(Adrenal Hyperplasia)。父母和醫療專家通常會為間性的初 間性 生嬰兒指定一種性別,然後進行手術,使嬰兒的身體符合指定的性別。這種 做法日益具爭議性,因為間性者成人後表示反對,控訴醫療人員毀損性器官 Intersex ‒ Describing a person whose biological sex is ambiguous. There are many genetic, hormonal or anatomical variations which make a person’s sex ambiguous (i.e., Klinefelter Syndrome, Adrenal Hyperplasia). Parents and medical professionals usually assign intersex infants a sex and perform surgical operations to conform the infant’s body to that assignment. This practice has become increasingly controversial as intersex adults are speaking out against the practice, accusing doctors of genital mutilation. 指以手術改變性別,只是性別轉換(定義請參照下文)的一小部分,是較 「變性手術」更為理想的用詞。並非所有跨性別人士均會選擇或可負擔此類 性別肯定/確認手術 手術。 Gender Affirmation / Confirmation Surgery ‒ Refers to surgical alteration, and is only one small part of transition. Preferred term to ‘sex change operation’, ‘sex reassignment surgery’. Not all transgender people choose to or can afford to have SRS.

性別不安

性別認同及/或性別表達有別於其出生時指定性別人士的統稱。這個用詞可 包括但不限於其他多元性別人士。跨性別人士可確認為女性跨越成為男性者 跨性別 (female-to-male, FTM)或男性跨越成為女性者(male-to-female, MTF ),可因應有關人士的取向而使用。跨性別人士未必會以荷爾蒙及/或手術 改變他們的身體。 Transgender ‒ An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. The term may include but is not limited to: transsexuals, cross-dressers, and other gender-variant people. Transgender people may identify as female-to-male (FTM) or male-to- female (MTF). Use the descriptive term (transgender, transsexual, cross-dresser, FTM or MTF) preferred by the individual. Transgender people may or may not choose to alter their bodies hormonally and/or surgically.

跨性別恐懼/跨性別歧視

變性人

對跨性別人士的恐懼或憎惡。 Transphobia/Transprejudice ‒ Fear or hatred of transgender individuals. 雖然這個詞語的準確用法仍有爭辯,但一般用於形容已開始透過荷爾蒙療程 及/或手術,開始性別轉換的人士。

Transsexual (also Transexual) ‒ Whilst there is some debate about the accurate use of this term, generally it is used to describe those who have actually begun transition through hormone treatment and/or 轉換一個人出生時的性別並不可以一步完成,而是一項複雜的過程,須要長時 間進行。性別轉換包括下列部分或全部文化、法律和醫學上的調整:告訴自己的 家人、朋友及/或同事、改變自己在法律文件上的姓名及/或性別、荷爾蒙療程 , 以及可能有 (但並非一定) 一些形式的手術上改變。 Transition ‒ Altering one’s birth sex is not a one-step procedure; it is a complex process that occurs over a long period of time. Transition includes some or all of the following cultural, legal and medical adjustments: telling one’s family, friends, and/or co-workers; changing one’s name and/or sex on legal documents; hormone therapy; and possibly (though not always) some form of surgical alteration.

性別轉換

29

資料來源 Source:社商賢匯 Community Business



同志平等工作間的意識

The Awareness of an Equal-Opportunity Workplace for LGBT People 不同性傾向及性別認同人仕同樣具有才能, 應該互相尊重、接納、支持及共融!

歧視,是無知及不智的行為; 多一份理解,多一點關注,才是應有的態度! People with different sexual orientations and gender identification possess the same abilities, and should be treated equally with acceptance and support. Discrimination is an ignorant and unwise act. It is the proper attitude for us to better understand others and to treat the considerately.

主辦 Organized By

鳴謝 Special Thanks

平等機會(性傾向)資助計劃資助。此刊物/活動內容,並不代表香港特別行政區政府的立場


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