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FACADE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGIES REPORT (K14FCT) GAURAV GOEL (4186119) M.Arch Technology 2013-14 (4186119)


TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 • • • • • •

INTRODUCTION AND SITE CONTEXT SITE LOCATION CLIMATE OF SITE SOLAR ANALYSIS OF SITE AND PAVILION FACADE REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SOLAR ANALYSIS ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF PROPOSED UK PAVILION

2 INITIAL RESEARCH AND BIOLOGICAL INSPIRATION FOR BIOMIMETICS ……………………………………………………….. 11 • • •

UNDERSTANDING BASIC STRUCTURE OF PINE CONE BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENONS IN PINE CONE LEARNINGS FROM PINECONE FOR FAÇADE SYSTEM

3 CASE STUDIES OF FAÇADE SYSTEMS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14 • •

CASE STUDY 1- FAÇADE SYSTEM OF AL-BAHAR TOWERS DUBAI CASE STUDY 2- FAÇADE OF ALLIANZ ARENA MUNICH

4 CONCEPT AND DESIGN FOR FAÇADE FOR UK PAVILION ....…………………………………………………………………………… 20 • • • • • • • • •

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMIMETIC FAÇADE SYSTEM INITIAL GROUP TEST MODELS FAÇADE MODULE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS SHADOW ANALYSIS OF FACADE GROUP FAÇADE ASSEMBLY DIGITAL MODEL GROUP FAÇADE ASSEMBLY PHYSICAL MODELS INDIVIDUAL FAÇADE ROOF COMPONENT DESIGN DETAILS OF INDIVIDUAL FAÇADE COMPONENT 3D PRINTED MODEL OF MOVABLE NODE DESIGNED INDIVIDUALY

5 SUMMARY AND LIMITATIONS …..………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40

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INRODUCTION TO PROJECT

BUIDLING LIMITS 91.50 X 15 = 1322.50 SQ.M BUILT AREA ALLOWED 80 X 12 = 960 SQ.M

This studio project of faรงade module asked us to design a faรงade system for UK pavilion, which is to be designed for Milan Expo 2015. This pavilion would be held from May to October 2015, and different pavilions would be put up from participating countries. UK wanted a unique pavilion which would spread an impactful message for food within the visitors. This report would talk about our faรงade development process for this pavilion and it would culminate with details and tectonics of the developed faรงade.

UK PAVILLION SITE

SITE AREA 95 X 20 = 1910 SQ.M

BUILDABLE AREA INCLUDING MARGINS AND LIMITS

70% OF BUILDABLE AREA IS TO BE BUILT 80 X 12 = 960 SQ.M

FIG 2 SITE CONSTRAINTS

Whole site is divided by two axis deccamus and cardo. Our site for UK pavilion is near plaza where these two axis intersect. Site measures 95.5M x 20 M. Though site have area of 1910 SQM. But due to setback constraints only 960 SQM. can be constructed with height restriction of 17 m.

SITE CONTEXT Site is surrounded by Hungarian pavilion on left, If we enter from main central axis. And at the back and left side are future food pavilion and services building respectively. FIG 3 SITE CONTEXT

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1.3 SITE LOCATION - MILAN , ITALY The Expo Site is placed in north-west of Milan and it is located near municipalites of Baranzate, Bollate, Pero and Rho. The Site lies at junction of A8/A9 Como-Varese-Milan and A4 Turin-Milan-Venice motorways and it is connected by Line 1 of metro of Milan, the Passante railway at local, regional and high-speed rail infrastructure; we can reach site in an hour from the Milanese airports of Linate and Malpensa, and it takes one hour from the Orio al Serio airport in Bergamo. (Expo 2015 S.p.A.) FIG 4 SITE LOCATION ON MAP

FIG 5 SITE LOCATION AND ACCESS

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FIG 6 SUN PATH DIAGRAM FOR MILAN

FIG 7 MILAN WEATHER CHARTS

1.4 CLIMATE OF SITE Milan have four seasons in a year. Summer (June to September) has tempratures upto 28°C whereas autumn (September to November) is cold and wet with temperatures between 11°C to 18°C. Season of winter (December to February) is upto 5°C but it can be freezing too. But spring time (March to May) is always wet and has average temperatures of 13°C. Milan has a humid subtropical climate. It has hot and humid summers whereas winters are cold and wet. (http://www.worldweatheronline.com) FIG 8 CHART SHOWING SOLAR ELEVATIONS IN MILAN

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N

SITE BOUNDARY

FIG 9 SITE CONTEXT WITH SUMMER AND WINTER SUN PATH

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S

N

S

FIG 10 SITE ORIENTATION AXIS

N

FIG 11 SITE’S SHADOW ANALYSIS AT MORNING AFTERNOON AND EVENING 7


FIG 12 UK PAVILION SHADOW ANALYSIS AT MORNING AFTERNOON AND EVENING

FAÇADE REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SOLAR ANAYLYSIS OF SITE AND PAVILION

FIG 13 UK PAVILION FAÇADE EXPOSED TO SUN

W

After Solar analysis of site and building with building and its surroundings a basic requirement for façade was understood. Due to orientation of building on north south axis, east and west façade will receive sunlight during mornings and late afternoon respectively.

E

Since morning sun is less intense than the west sun, it was understood that a common façade could be developed which could be closed or opened on western side based on sun angle. Therefore to develop a responsive skin it was interesting to look at a biological process which responds to climate in same manner. This process could be studied and then applied to façade system.

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PROPOSED DESIGN FOR UK PAVILION

GROUND FLOOR PLAN 1 ENTRANCE FOYER 2 LOBBY FOR VIP LOUNGE AND OFFICES 3 PROJECTION ROOM 4 FOOD CAPSULE COLLECTION

5 CENTRAL OPEN AREA FOR INSTALLING FOOD CAPSULES 6 LOBBY FOR VIP LOUNGE AND OFFICES 7 ACCESS TO RESTRAUNT AND TOILETS 8 CONFERNCE AREA 9 EXIT TO FUTURE FOOD DISTRICT

FIRST FLOOR PLAN 1 VIP LOUNGE 2 PANTRY AND WASHROOMS 3 OFFICE AREA 4 RESTAURANT

5 TOILETS FOR VISITORS 6 STORAGE AREA

FIG 14 ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLANS OF PAVILION DESIGN

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SECTION 1-1’

1

1’

TOP VIEW

3D SECTIONAL VIEW

SIDE ELEVATION VIEW FIG 15 ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS OF PAVILION

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INITIAL RESEARCH AND BIOLOGICAL INSPIRATION FOR BIOMIMETICS

BIOMIMETIC INSPIRATION FOR FAร‡ADE DESIGN DEVELOPMENT This Section explains the biomimetic inspiration which was investigated before designing a faรงade concept for UK pavilion design. Our research for biomimicry started with investigating a pinecone. A pine cone has a potential of being studied biologically for its own functioning and process to acquire air and water from atmosphere. This study can be used to design a concept for our faรงade component by applying the biological processes working within a pine cone.

UNDERSTANDING BASIC STRUCTURE OF PINE CONE The Female Pine cones have a central stem attached to branch of tree. This stem runs throughout the central part of pinecone. Through this central stem external scales are attached which are arranged in helical fashion.

PINECONE CONNECTION TO BRANCH OF TREE

CENTRAL AXIS

SCALE/ SPOROPHYLLS - LEAFLIKE STRUCTURES

FIG 16 PINECONE WITH ITS SCALES CLOSED AND OPENED

FIG 17 STRUCTURE OF PINECONE

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BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENONS IN PINE CONE THAT COULD BE USED FOR DEVELOPING RESPONSIVE FAÇADE SYSTEM

FIG 18 OPENING OF PINECONE SCALES FOR GRBBING MALE POLEN

“The air current created around a female pine cone is very important in pollination. First the wind is turned to the middle of the cone a)After blowing around the centre it passes over the surface of the scales b) The air suddenly and irregularly starts to circulate by the opening to the egg on each scale and pollen gathers in that region c) The pollens are then sent downwards and towards the scales parallel to the wind.” (Yahya, 2001)

“The scales of seed-bearing pine cones move in response to changes in relative humidity. The scales gape open when it is dry, releasing the cone's seeds. When it is damp, the scales close up. The cells in a mature cone are dead, so the mechanism is passive: the structure of the scale and the walls of the cells composing the scale respond to changing relative humidity.” (Dawson et al., 1997)

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UNDERSTANDING GEOMETRICAL GRID OF SCALES ON PINECONE

LEARNINGS FROM PINECONE FOR FAÇADE SYSTEM OF UK PAVILION IN MILAN EXPO 2015

FIG 19 UNDERSTANDING EXTERNAL GRID OF SCALE ARRANGEMENT ON PINECONE

After studying pinecone’s biological processes it was worthwhile to look into how these biological principles can be applied to a façade system. We now know how scales of pine cone open and closes based on its need for getting pollens or altering its moisture content. It would be interesting to apply same principle into façade system to make a responsive skin which responds to climate or alters its openings based on sunlight. This formed our concept for façade system , which would be discussed in detail in concept section of this report.

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CASE STUDY 1- FAÇADE SYSTEM OF AL-BAHAR TOWERS DUBAI

FIG 20 SKETCH OF FAÇADE SYSTEM

Al Bahar towers are located in hot climate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. It’s façade is inspired from wooden screen pattern present in Islamic architecture. The façade is an automated shading system composed of umbrella like modules, which closes and open in accordance with solar path of sun. Two towers in Al-Bahar Project have 1000 of these intelligent panels which are controlled by Management system of building. (Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, 2013)

FIG 21 SOLAR RESPONSIVE FAÇADE SYSTEM

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FIG 22 SHADOW ANALYSIS OF FAÇADE MODULE

FIG 23 LAYERS OF FAÇADE SYSTEM

FIG 25 SECTION SHOWING FAÇADE MODULE CONNECTED TO MAIN STRUCTURE

These figures explain the design of these intelligent panels for façade system. Fig(22) shows shadows of a conceptual façade module. Then fig (23) shows layers of façade along with figure(24) illustrating different degree of openings based on solar path to reduce heat entering building. Fig(25) shows how this façade system is connected to main structure. ADVANTAGES OF THIS SYSTEM

FIG 24 SOLAR RESPONSIVE FAÇADE SKIN

• Reduced Glare outside • Improved daylight inside building • Reduction of heat gain of building by 50% (Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, 2013)

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LEARNING FROM CASE EXAMPLE AND RELEVANCE TO OUR FACADE

FIG 26 DETAIL DIAGRAM OF INDIVIDUAL SHADING DEVICE

DETAIL OF COMPONENT Fig(1-4) shows details of façade component. All components are made of PTFE, which is stretched on steel frames. These modules are opened and closed with help of linear actuators, which are controlled by program based on sun’s solar path. These panels restricts solar gain to 400 watts per linear meters. (CTBUH, 2013)

This case study gave me an understanding of a solar responsive façade system. Through this case study it could be learned how a façade component could be designed and applied to a façade system. It also helped me to understand details of a component and it intelligent components works with actuators. This project is relevant to our studio project of UK pavilion for Milan Expo 2015. Due to Milan’s hot climate it would be interesting to design these type of intelligent shading systems which reduces solar gains of the building. Moreover this façade also relates to our biological model of pine cone which opens and closes based on its moisture content. Now a same phenomenon could be applied to our façade skin of pavilion.

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CASE STUDY 2 – FAÇADE OF ALLIANZ ARENA MUNICH

Allianz Arena is a Football stadium situated in Munich, Germany. The façade of this building was conceived to be lighted in two colors of two home teams. ETFE Foil cushions being lightweight were chosen to be lighted at night and at the same time they allowed to build large scale panels which matched the architectural scale of the stadium. This façade was transparent and gave impressive light to interiors of the stadium.

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The skin is composed of Diamond-shaped cushions made of ETFE foil.

Primary Structure is steel lattice Girders

Secondary structure for roof and vertical Facades. Primary Frame is a Rhomboid Grid.

FIG 27 FACADE STRUCTURE BUILT FOR ALLIANZ ARENA

ADVANTAGES OF USING EFTE The façade of Arena is made of 2,874 Panels of ETFE foil air panels. The foil used for cushions have a thickness of 0.2 MM.. These cushions are inflated by dry air to maintain a pressure of 3.5 Pa. These cushions are attached to aluminum profiles, that connects main structure to façade. There are twelve Air pumps to keep these panels inflated at required pressures according to weather conditions.

• Lightweight material • Allowed to penetrate sunlight while providing shade • It could be lighted at night • self cleansing façade system • low surface energy to avoid condensation.

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FIG 28 SECTION OF ALLIANZ ARENA

LEARNING FROM CASE EXAMPLE AND RELEVANCE TO OUR FACADE This case study gave me an understanding of a Lightweight fabric material. Through this example basics of using ETFE and it connections to main structure could be understood through studying details of this project.

FIG 27 FAร‡ADE DETAIL SECTION WITH ETFE PANELS

This case study is very relevant for designing our faรงade system for UK pavilion. Our project employs a form in which faรงade system is continued over roof. Therefore our faรงade panels have to protect our pavilion from rain and snow on roof levels. ETFE panels could be one of the possible solutions as they are lightweight, transparent and moreover protect from heat and rain. These ETFE panels are rapidly installed which would also be advantageous for Pavilion, as it needs to be constructed in less time.

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CONCEPT AND DESIGN FOR FAÇADE FOR UK PAVILION

FIG 30 CONCEPTUAL MODEL BASED ON CONCEPTUAL SKETCH

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMIMETIC FAÇADE SYSTEM After studying case examples and biological processes of pinecone, our strategy for façade system started developing. Considering climate of Milan and design requirements, a façade system was tried to develop which mimics pinecone in terms of opening and closing based on daylight and moisture.

FIG 29 CONCEPTUAL SKETCH FOR FAÇADE SYSTEM MIMICING PINECONE

Fig(29) shows the sketch in which central axis of pinecone is thought of as external skin of pavilion, whereas fabric panels are thought of as scale of pine cone. When these fabric panels move forward lighting and shading can be altered. Tensile fabric was chosen to achieve a lightweight structure. Fig(30) shows computer model derived from sketch to start designing façade. This figure shows how opening and closing of tensile fabric can be altered by moving the steel pipes on which fabric will be stretched.

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+

FIG 31 COMPONENTS OF CONCEPTUAL FAÇADE MODULE

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INITIAL GROUP TEST MODELS 22


FAÇADE MODULE DEVELOPMENT AND PROCESS OF APPLYING FAÇADE MODULE ON ARCHITECTURAL FORM THROUGH GRASSHOPPER 3D

1

3

2

4

1

POLYGONAL PIPED LATTICE MODULE DEVELOPED BASED ON FAÇADE PATTERN

2

SIMULATING POLYGONAL MESH THROUGH KANGROO PUGIN TO OBTAIN GEOMETRY FOR TENSILE FABRIC

3

GRASSHOPPER 3D SCRIPT WITH KANGROO PLUGIN, USED TO GENERATE GEOMETRY OF FABRIC

4

LATTICE IN FIG 1 AND FABRIC IN FIG 2 COMBINED AND MORPHED USING BOX MORPHING TO OBTAIN FAÇADE SYSTEM.

5

PROCESS OF OBTAINING FAÇADE SYSTEM THROUGH DIGITAL TOOLS

5

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SHADOW ANALYSIS TIME

SHADOW OF BUILDING WITH PANELS OPENED

SHADOW OF BUILDING WITH PANELS CLOSED

SHADOW OF DESINED PANEL

9 AM

1 PM

6PM

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PVC MESH TENSILE FABRIC MOVING STEEL PIPES TO ANCHOR TENSILE FABRIC FOR OPENING AND CLOSING

10MM THCK GLASS HANDRAIL FIRST FLOOR CONCRETE SLAB STEEL CONNECTION BETWEEN FAÇADE AND FLOOR SYSTEM REINFORCEMENT MESH FOR CONCRETE CORROGATED METAL SHEET STRUCTURAL STEEL BEAMS ACOUSTICAL CEILING PANELS

CONCRETE WALL

GROUND LEVEL FLOOR

STRUCTURAL STEEL LATTICE TO HOLD FABRIC PANELS

GROUP FAÇADE ASSEMBLY DIGITAL MODEL

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GROUP FAÇADE ASSEMBLY PHYSICAL MODEL


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FAÇADE ASSEMBLY MODEL DISPLAYING TENSILE FABRIC WITH 3D PRINTED MOVABLE NODE COMPONENTS TO CHANGE DEGREE OF OPENINGS IN FAÇADE SYSTEM

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INDIVIDUAL FAÇADE COMPONENT DESIGN Group Façade explorations directed us towards more detailed level of investigations. Individually I chose roof panels of façade for detailed studies. Though one unified façade wraps whole skin it is evident that roof panels in façade would have a shield to protect pavilion from rain. Therefore individually I developed a façade module with tensile mesh fabric which is installed above ETFE screen. Single ETFE foil is chosen because of its lightweight, whereas Tensile mesh fabric would allow rain water to drain through the façade without collecting in separate façade modules. It would also be interesting to know that these panels are designed to be rigid without opening and closing motion due to their position on roof. These panels would receive afternoon sun perpendicular to them all year round, therefore an automated skin is not needed.

FIG 32 ROOF PANELS WITH ETFE PROTECTING PAVILION FROM RAIN, SELECTED FOR INDIVIDUAL COMPONENT DESIGN

FIG 33 RENDERS OF INDIVIDUAL MODULE AND CLUSTER OF MODULES DESIGNED WITH STRUCTURAL LATTICE, ETFE, AND STRETCHED MESH FABRIC

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1

2

3

• SEE DETAILS 1, 2, 3 ON FOLLOWING PAGES

FIG 34 EXPLODED VIEW OF DESIGNED ROOF PANEL WITH DIFFERENT LAYERS OF MATERIALS

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1

2

3

1 SUPPORTING STEEL STRUCTURE 2 EXTRUDED ALUMINIUM CLAMP ASSEMBLY 3 FABRIC MEMBRANE WITH GARLAND EDGE ROPE

DETAIL 1 – CONNECTION DETAILS OF TENSILE FABRIC WITH STEEL PIPE 31


DETAIL 1.1 – EXPLODED VIEW OF CONNECTION DETAILS OF TENSILE FABRIC WITH STEEL PIPE 32


3 4

2 1

1 SUPPORTING 100 X 50 MM ALUMINIUM SECTION 2 EXTRUDED ALUMINIUM RAIL TO PLACE ETFE FOIL 3 COVER PLATE SCREWED ON TOP TO SECURE ETFE 4 SINGLE ETFE FOIL SHEET WITH ROPED EDGES PLACED INSIDE EXTRUDED ALUMINUM RAIL

DETAIL 2 – ETFE FOIL CONNECTION DETAIL 33


DETAIL 2.2 – EXPODED VIEW OF ETFE FOIL CONNECTION DETAIL 34


INDIVIDUAL COMPONENT FOR 3D PRINTING Our structural lattice for faรงade is curved, and it was important to design a node connection between steel pipes which would allow flexible node, so that a freeform curvature could be obtained. Fig(35) shows a node connection obtained from Super Studio website (http://design.epfl.ch/piraeus/tag/attractor).

FIG 35 NODE DESIGN FOR FREEFORM STEEL PIPE LATTICE

According to ( Martin, 2010 ) this node can have two motions as shown in figure, to achieve a freeform steel lattice. After all pipes are adjusted to required shape round steel discs shown in figure are squeezed together to keep individual node rigid in required shape. This node design was studied and a node with 4 steel members with similar detail was developed for my project. This node would allow us to achieve freeform shape for UK pavilion design. For same detail a 3d printed Model was also manufactured as part of this report.

FIG 36 DESIGNED NODE CONNECTION BETWEEN MEMBERS OF STRUCTURAL LATTICE OF FAร‡ADE SHOWING FLEXIBILITY OF NODE IN TWO DIRECTIONS

FIG 37 STRUCTURAL STEEL LATTICE WITH DESIGNED NODES

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4 2

3

1

1 60 MM DIA HOLLOW STEEL PIPES 2 PIN JOINT TO ALLOW MOVEMENT OF PIPES AS PER DEFORMATION OF LATTICE 3 STEEL COMPONENTS HOLDING PIN JOINTS ALLOWING MOTION IN DIFFERENT AXIS FOR DEFORMATION OF LATTICE 4 STEEL DISCS HOLDING MEMBERS TOGETHER AND MAKING JOINT RIGID AFTER ADJUSTING PIPES AS PER DEFORMATION IN FORM

DETAIL 3 – NODE CONNECTION BETWEEN MEMBERS OF CURVED STRUCTURAL LATTICE OF FACADE 36


3D PRINTED MOVABLE NODE COMPONENT

37


3D PRINTED MOVABLE NODE COMPONENT

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SUMMARY AND LIMITATIONS Facade design and technologies module gave me an insight to the process by which a façade system is achieved. It forced me to think about a functional façade which performs according to need of a building and its site climate. Our proposal for UK pavilion for Milan Expo 2015 required a skin which could be responsive to climatic conditions of site. Therefore we studied pinecone to understand its biological process of opening and closing of its scales, based on its biological needs. This principle was then applied to our own façade system to mimic pinecone to achieve solar responsive skin for our UK pavilion design. This façade system was then developed to level of micro details to understand its practicality. Group models were made and investigations were carried out within group to detail this moving façade. After this for my report I emphasized on roof panels for the façade which would be rigid but will follow same language as rest of the façade, with an additional layer of ETFE foil to protect pavilion from rain. During this process intensive research was done with help of 3d printing technique, which helped us to investigate details physically. Some of these models are presented in this report to demonstrate readers how these models can enhance understanding of micro details in construction. However after intensive research through studio models and academic resources there are limitations to this report. In this report movable façade details are not dealt with electronic systems due to constraints of time. Therefore only a physical component was designed which showed movement of fabric panels by moving it up and down. Moreover details in this report are designed and produced with reference to similar case examples, therefore these details are indicative and could be improved with expertise of façade specialists in architectural industry for any engineering failures which might occur. At the end of this module I feel more confident in dealing with details of façade systems, understanding connections between different materials along with greater knowledge of façade design process.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY DAWSON, C., VINCENT, J. F. & ROCCA, A.-M. 1997. How pine cones open. Nature, 390, 668-668. HERZOG, T., KRIPPNER, R. & LANG, W. 2004. Facade Construction Manual, De Gruyter. MARTIN. 2010. DEFORMABLE SKIN [Online]. Available: http://design.epfl.ch/piraeus/author/martin. WATTS, A. 2011. Modern Construction Envelopes, Springer. YAHYA, H. 2001. The Miracle Of Creation In Plants, Goodword Books.

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Facade Design and Technologies  

Academic Report for Facade technologies Module at Department of Architecture And Built Environment University Of Nottingham

Facade Design and Technologies  

Academic Report for Facade technologies Module at Department of Architecture And Built Environment University Of Nottingham

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