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ISSN 1755-3857 www.gasworld.com February 2013 Issue 93

gasworld magazine

Safety CGA on 100 years of gas safety Identifying hazards, mitigating risks Gases in the public domain

"There is no such thing as 'enough' when it comes to safety"

Inside this issue: Focus on Central Asia • Cryogenic distribution • Helium update


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gasworld

Contents Interview

Interview

An interview with the CGA

100 years of gas safety

Regional News

Ahead of the association's 100th anniversary, gasworld discusses safety, harmonisation and the future in an interview with CGA President and CEO Michael Tiller.

32 100 years of gas safety

6 Europe

'We cannot ignore liquid air'

10 North America Agreement between MATHESON and Gazprom

16 Pacific Rim Advanced gas lab unveiled in China

Page 32

20 Africa/Middle East Innovative development in welding sector magazines – website – conferences

22 Technology

ISSN 1755-3857 www.gasworld.com February 2013 Issue 93

gasworld magazine

Safety

World first is lauched by SDGroup

CGA on 100 years of gas safety

24 Hydrogen

Identifying hazards, mitigating risks Gases in the public domain

First filling station in the Netherlands

26 LNG US in need of LNG capacity additions

30 Hot Topic

"There is no such thing as 'enough' when it comes to safety"

Industry to challenge draft helium legislation?

On the cover this issue As the Compressed Gas Association gets ready to celebrate its 100th anniversary next month, gasworld interviews President and CEO Michael Tiller about this milestone, safety and harmonisation and, after several high profile incidents in recent years, the misuse of gases in the public domain.

Inside this issue: Focus on Central Asia • Cryogenic distribution • Helium update

01-05 Editorial.indd 1

Feature Articles 38 Industrial gas safety Identifying hazards and mitigating risks

44 Worth the wait Breakthrough in cylinder safety

46 Theresa Boehl Knowledge is key in the ongoing quest for safety

48 Cryogenic distribution Repair and refurbishment – Safety first

16/01/2013 16:48

Hot Topic

Far from over... Industry to challenge draft helium legislation? As talk of the Helium Cliff grew recently, draft legislation was unveiled for future stewardship of the US’ Federal Helium Reserve. gasworld looks at the discussion draft and why this story appears to be far from conclusion.

Page 30

50 Composite Pressure Vessels Symposium 2012 A review from Salt Lake City

54 Regional Markets

Regional Markets

Company Profile

Focus On: Central Asia

58 10 minutes with... Frank Brunsdon

60 An introduction to... Dome-loaded pressure regulators

62 Dieks Safety and standards in Eastern Europe February 2013

Focus on Central Asia Stabilising and rich in resources Page 54

DIEKS

Safety and standards in Eastern Europe Page 62

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here is no such thing as ‘enough’ when it comes to safety. Not only are those the words of Michael Tiller, President and CEO of the CGA, but that’s also the sentiment of this February issue of gasworld magazine as we explore industrial gas safety. Tiller is the subject of our flagship interview this month as we celebrate 100 years of safety at the CGA (Compressed Gas Association) and the many significant developments that the association has presided over since its formation in March 1913. The CGA was among the first of the early gas associations and continues to thrive a century later, arguably as progressive as ever and, as Tiller explains in our interview, ‘proud to be a part of the industrial gas industry’. This anniversary is a big achievement within our industry and we’re delighted to bring you a full, frank and engaging interview from page 32. Our spotlight on safety also sheds some light on other developments in the industry and we have a number of features for you to get up-to-speed with this month. Of particular interest will no doubt be the recent breakthrough in the area of cylinders in fires; a major research project into acetylene decomposition and cylinders in fires has proved that previous cooling and monitoring protocols were ‘considerably excessive’ and challenges everything that had been accepted about decomposition and the safe close out of hazardous events. Find out more about this and the new recommendations, on page 44. Also of interest will be the latest draft legislation to have emerged in the US, to tackle the future management of the Federal Helium Reserve. News of this development came hot on the heels of gasworld’s Helium-themed January issue and, with the Helium Cliff looming large on the horizon, we understand that a number of significant flaws have been identified in this recent draft legislation. With industry seemingly set to challenge these potential flaws, as our Hot Topic explores, it’s likely to be some time before any resolution is reached. We'll be sure to keep you at the forefront of these developments as they unfold throughout the year.

“The CGA was among the first of the early gas associations and continues to thrive a century later...”

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EUROPE

News in brief EIGA symposium 2013 marks 90th anniversary THE European Industrial Gases Association’s Symposium 2013 will mark the 90th anniversary of the establishment of EIGA’s predecessor CPI, which was established on 15th December 1923. To mark this important occasion EIGA intends to celebrate the considerable progress made in the gases industry towards improved safety and a reduced environmental footprint over many decades. The Symposium programme focuses on current improvements in safety and sustainability, those that are anticipated over the next decade, and the challenges these might raise. The EIGA Symposium 2013 will be held in Brussels on 30th and 31st January 2013. The programme will include 28 speakers, experts from the industrial and medical gases industry and from organisations that work with the industry. Delegates are welcome from EIGA member organisations and non-members, industrial gas companies and other organisations, delegates from European or National institutions and authorities, industrial and medical gas equipment suppliers, service providers, contractors and customers. Suggested attendees are general managers and functional experts, including operations, safety and environmental managers, process engineers, regulatory and government officers, representatives of gases associations, equipment manufacturers and suppliers, consultants, authorities, customers and business partners – and those new to the industry or wanting to gain expertise in this key area. Further details are available at www.eiga.eu.

6

First report ready | liquid air ‘in our territory’

‘We cannot ignore liquid air’ – gas professional speaks of opportunity THE concept of a nitrogen economy appears to be gathering momentum as a sustainable solution in the crossroads of energy security. For the industrial gases business, gasworld understands, this is something that cannot be ignored. The notion of the nitrogen economy is, in some quarters, considered to be a more viable alternative to the muchdiscussed hydrogen economy, which has been beset by so many technical challenges. Two companies are pioneering the use of liquid air as an energy vector – Highview Power Storage (Highview) and Dearman Engine Company – and with its potential as a sustainable solution, it’s a concept that has been making headlines in both industry press and mainstream media alike. This is something that is already clearly on the radar for the industrial gas community, with the July 2012 announcement that Highview and the Messer Group had entered into a strategic partnership agreement towards the commercial realisation of Highview’s energy storage technology. And it is not just Messer that recognises both the

significance of this technology for the gases industry and its potential for the energy sector as a whole; speaking during our interview in Paris recently, Air Liquide’s Vice-President of R&D, Olivier Delabroy, described it as ‘clearly our territory’ and something ‘we cannot ignore’. “Let’s map it, let’s monitor it. Using our unique vantage point, let’s detect what is the trigger factor, when we need to be active on it, and when the technology is mature.. It’s a concept that we are carefully looking at,” he explained. But in many respects it is likely to be a waiting game for the gases industry, dependent on the ‘trigger’ that could take it from concept to reality. Delabroy explained that Air Liquide already utilises liquid air for energy storage in some of its air separation plants and associated liquefaction units, using it to leverage the price differences between peak and off-peak consumption. This, he clarifies, is something the company does because it is easy to integrate and exploit. Taking the technology beyond this kind of usage, however, and into deployment as an energy vector

in its own right, is something that requires more planning. “I think that you have to compare it with alternative technologies,” said Delabroy. “Today we are carefully looking at that, the key factor or indicator is of course the spread of electricity that you have between the maximum daily price and the minimum. The higher the optimum that the peak and off-peak is, the more economical this technology can be and obviously the current energy-electricity spread is going to increase maybe drastically with the development of renewables.” Complexities aside, Delabroy adds, “This is a typical example that requests mapping of technologies and ecosystem, key stakeholders identification, maturity level, and definition of key indicators needing action.” He concluded, “It is in our territory and we cannot overlook it.” Related article online A unique vantage point The gases industry is in pole position to leverage opportunities across almost every sector, says Vice-President of R&D at Air Liquide, Olivier Delabroy www.gasworld.com/2001478.article

First Liquid Air energy report ready Global engineering consultancy Arup, and leading privately-owned industrial gas company, Messer Group, have sponsored the first Liquid Air Energy report. A group including leading academics, research institutions, industry and policy experts is producing a White Paper to explore the energy and economic potential of liquid air, and whether it should

– and can – become a new strategic sector in the global ‘clean tech’ ecosystem. Liquid air is a new energy storage technology that experts believe could solve some of our toughest energy challenges – including grid balancing and zero-emission transport. The technology enables energy to be ‘warehoused’, or stored, and is particularly helpful in harnessing off-peak energy and

peaks and troughs in demand. It can also harness low-grade waste heat from co-located processes, converting it into additional power. Arup and the Messer Group are bringing their expertise to the project as well as sponsoring the report. The project is also supported by The Institution for Mechanical Engineers and the Centre for Low Carbon Futures. www.gasworld.com/europe


EUROPE

linde-gazprom agreement | New site purchase in UK

Helium agreement signed in Paris RECENTLY IN Paris Alexander Medvedev, Deputy Chairman of the Management Committee of Gazprom JSC and General Director of Gazprom export LLC, and Tom Blades, Member of the Executive Board of Linde AG, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with regard to helium. The MOU stipulates cooperation in implementing new helium production projects planned by Gazprom Group concurrently with the development of the Eastern Siberia gas fields. Pursuant to the Memorandum, Linde intends to act as a strategic buyer of significant volumes of helium from the new production facility in the town of Belogorsk in the vicinity of the city of Blagoveshensk. The plant is due to be commissioned in 2018 in parallel with the start of the flow of natural gas extracted from the Chayandinskoye field along the new gas transportation route ‘Yakutia – Khabarovsk – Vladivostok’. The parties also agreed to

explore other opportunities of a more profound cooperation within the framework of new helium production projects in the Russian Far East. The Chayandinskoye field, together with other resources owned by Gazprom in the East Siberian region, forms one of the largest reservoirs of helium in the world. By using the appropriate facilities, the helium production levels will be set to enable balancing of world supplies and demand for decades. The volume of helium produced by Gazprom will

News in brief

replace the volumes produced by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) system for decades to come, as the BLM system depletes. “As global demand for helium continues to increase, this cooperation agreement will allow Gazprom to address the market request. It will also contribute to deliver the best possible value from East Siberian potential by using the optimal technologies,” said Medvedev. MATHESON has also recently signed an agreement with Gazprom.

StG buys 1.5 acre site in Newcastle-under-Lyme

© Gazprom

UK government backs fracking operations ICHEME is backing a UK government decision to lift an embargo on hydraulic fracturing – better known as fracking – after creating new regulations that it says will reduce the chance of this causing earthquakes. The technique, which involves injecting thousands of tonnes of water into gas bearing rock formations, has been a major source of controversy over recent years. The UK temporarily banned it last year, after wells drilled by gas explorer Cuadrilla Resources were linked to a series of earthquakes. Nevertheless, the government has now ruled February 2013

that the process itself poses no threat to the environment or public, provided it is well regulated. IChemE Director of Policy and Communications, Andrew Furlong, says that ‘shale gas presents an enormous opportunity for the UK’ and has welcomed the decision. He said, “The health, safety and environmental risks associated with hydraulic fracking can be managed

effectively as long as the activity is fully risk assessed and operational best practice is implemented through appropriate regulation.” “Fracking is an established technology that has been used in the oil and gas sector for decades. Furthermore, the UK has 60 years’ experience of regulating the oil and gas industries, offshore and onshore.” gasworld

magazines – website –

magazine

Oil services and fracking – Can natural gas save the world? The US is awash with newly producible shale gas and enthusiasts claim this ‘revolution’ can be repeated around the world. So could it be that natural gas offers a perfect bridging fuel to a future of limitless low-carbon energy based on hydrogen? And is there potentially a major new role for the industrial gases industry? www.gasworld.com/2001479.article

conferences

ISSN 1755-3857 www.gasworld.com December 2012 Issue 91

Oil services Can the gases industry save the world?

Features Regional Markets: Focus on

Continuing trends, yet changing

01-05 Editorial.indd 1

North America

dynamics, Page 56

ISO containers NPS profile

RD DA AN I ST IRAN DER OY IN R. R ge 50 C YL D Pa

S

StG has announced that it has completed the purchase of a new 1.5 acre site and specialty gas manufacturing plant from Air Liquide UK. The recently acquired site, located at Unit 5 Speedwell Road, Newcastle-under-Lyme, will be the home to the new StG speciality gas manufacturing facility and global head office. StG currently has other existing manufacturing operations and offices on Speedwell Road. StG Chief Executive Chris Street explained, “The purchase of the new site is a continuation of our ambitious growth plans over the next five years. The new site will house our new global headquarters and 10,000 sq. ft. state of the art manufacturing plant due to be completed in 2015.” The company expects to create over 20 new jobs in the next three years to support its fast growing business. StG now exports over 60% of its products to locations as far apart as Europe, Middle East, Asia, Australia and South America. StG is one of Europe’s leading manufacturers of speciality gas mixtures in High Pressure and Non-Refillable Cylinders. Its mixtures are used for a variety of applications including, Gas Detection, Marine, Oil Field Services, Laboratory and Analysis and Emissions monitoring. As a speciality gas company, StG can manufacture bespoke mixtures to customers’ specifications. It also holds stock of standard mixtures in Non-Refillable Cylinders for quick despatch. The company recently signed an agreement with Genstar Technologies to be its exclusive distributor for High Pressure Cylinder regulators and equipment in the UK.

12/11/2012 14:03

7


EUROPE

News in brief Air Liquide enjoys two successes AIR Liquide has announced two major successes in extreme cryogenics for scientific research, at a value of over €100m. The research of the ITER project and its related project JT60SA on fusion aims to develop know-how in this new source of energy to meet the challenge of increasing energy needs. Air Liquide will provide extreme cryogenic systems for the major projects. Based near Marseille, France, the ITER project plans the creation of an experimental reactor intended to illustrate the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion. Air Liquide will provide the biggest centralised refrigeration system ever built. Between the end of 2015 and the beginning of 2017, Air Liquide will install three refrigerators for a global cooling capacity of 75 kWat 4.5 K, or - 269°C.

Red Mountain in company first RED Mountain Energy took part in the 17th International Oil and Gas Turkmenistan Exhibition, OGT 2012, which was held in Ashgabat recently. The exhibition was attended by leading oil and gas companies from Russia, China, USA, Germany, England, France, and Japan. This was the first time Red Mountain Energy had taken part in this Exhibition and its 40m2 stand was the perfect venue from which to showcase its EPC capabilities and latest projects. International experts estimate that the amount of hydrocarbon resources in Turkmenistan exceeds 71 billion tonnes of oil, enough to make Turkmenistan self sufficient in energy and to leave a healthy energy surplus for export too.

8

Strength in homecare | aSu start-up

Opening of new ASU celebrated AIR Products and Sibur, a leading Russian petrochemical business, are jointly celebrating the opening of a new air separation unit (ASU) in Russia. The new plant is located at Sibur’s OAO Voronezhsynthezkauchuk facility and as part of the agreement signed in 2010, Air Products will own, operate and maintain the ASU. The plant has been designed to satisfy the industrial gas requirements of Voronezhsynthezkauchuk – in particular, the supply of gaseous nitrogen and compressed dry air. The ASU has the capacity to produce up to 166.4m m3 per year. In addition to providing the customer with all of its industrial gas requirements, Air Products will also supply liquid product to the Russian market. “Building reliable, mutually beneficial relationships with Russian firms, is a

key enabler in capitalising on long-term growth opportunities in this territory. As Voronezhsintezkauchuk recognises, the benefits of onsite gas production facilities in a rapidly expanding marketplace are significant and can bring substantial commercial advantages to both the customer and supplier,” commented Rob Mills, General Director, Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States at Air Products. In addition to Voronezh, the company has also signed an agreement with the Rostov administration (announced in March 2012) to construct and operate an oxygen, nitrogen

and argon liquefier with a 200+ tonnes per day capacity, including a cylinder gases depot. Facilities are expected to be on-stream in early 2014.

166

The ASU has the capacity to produce up to 166.4m m3 per year, meeting both customer needs and also supplying liquid product to the Russian market.

2010

The agreement between Air Products and Sibur was actually signed in 2010.

“...the benefits of onsite gas production facilities in a rapidly expanding marketplace are significant”

Further strength in homecare market THE Linde Group has signed an agreement to acquire the homecare company Calea France SAS (Sevres, France). Calea generated revenue in the 2011 financial year of €28m with around 200 employees. The transaction is expected to be completed at the beginning of 2013. Calea will complement the European homecare operations acquired by Linde from Air Products in Spring. The acquisition will significantly improve Linde’s position on the French homecare market. Homecare is the term applied to medical services relating to the treatment of patients in settings other than hospitals. It comprises respiratory services such as oxygen therapy, sleep therapy and ventilation services. In France, Linde’s portfolio also includes Infusion, Nutrition and

Insulin Therapy. Calea is Linde’s third acquisition in 2012 in the promising healthcare business. In April, the group acquired Air Products’ Continental European homecare business and in August it concluded its

purchase of the US homecare company Lincare Inc. Linde’s pro-forma annual revenue in the healthcare product area is now around €3bn, which makes it the largest supplier of medical gases and related services in the world.

€28m

Newly acquired company Calea generated revenue of €28m in the 2011 financial year, with around 200 employees.

€3bn

© The Linde Group

Calea represented Linde’s third acquisition in the healthcare business in 2012. The group’s pro-forma annual revenue in the healthcare product area is now around €3bn.

www.gasworld.com/europe


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Americas

Acquisition in Texas | further helium mou signed

EUROPE

News in brief News in brief Praxair acquires Acetylene Russia asuOxygen staRt-up Company plans foR(AOC) aiR liquide Air Liquide is pursuing its has PRAXAIR Distribution, Inc. long-termHarlingen, development in acquired Texas-based russia andOxygen starting-up a new air Acetylene Company separation unit (ASu)ofthat will (AOC), a distributor Praxair produce oxygen and one nitrogen in industrial gases and of the the Special economic Zone of top 10 independent gas and Alabuga in Tatarstan. welding products distributors Tatarstan is one of the in the US. most economically developed The acquisition of AOC allows republics in the russian Praxair to further expandisitsthe Federation. its economy packaged presence in of fifth largestgases in russia, in terms Texas, having recently gross regional product. acquired One of two the independent main drivers ofdistributors this economy inisthe second half of 2011 that a significant manufacturing serve the industrial Houston area, namely capacity; production National Alloy Texas Welders constitutes up and to 40% of the region’sCompany. gross regional product. Supply Formed in The new state-of-the-artand ASu 1932 and majority-owned will produce perWolf day controlled by200 the tonnes founding of oxygen nitrogenfrom to supply family, AOCand operates 24 the current and futurecentral needs of locations throughout and industrialTexas, customers. it is fully southern including four standardised, cost efficient, cylinder-filling plants. comes in sales, fully packaged AOC’s technical support modules andservices offers many and related are largely benefits, including compact directed to the energy sector, design and layout and simple complementing Praxair’s pipeline operations and maintenance. Air and bulkisliquid gas to offering to Liquide planning develop petrochemical its business in customers Alabuga by along the Gulf Coast. creating a pipeline network and developing the supply chain.

subscribe now to Cold Facts tHE magazinE For CryogEniCs Join the Cryogenic Society of America at www.cryogenicsociety.org

8

10

ASU start-up | Footprint grows

Helium projects agreement signed GCe expands eastern europe between MATHESON and position Gazprom after significant acquisition in Russia a Memorandum of

in which they may establish

long-term cooperation Understanding (MOU) has been “GCE GAS ConTRol Equipment has an expressed in (GCE) now the second growas in marketing growth areastosuch and signedis between MATHESON strategy largest player within the market markets and helium has, during recent logistics, production and Gazprom, setting out for industrial years, its presence andincreased technology. MATHESON’s theequipment basis for for their future gas applications following in China India. This parentand company, Taiyo Nippon cooperationininRussia the development the acquisition a new group. gives us a strong Sanso Corporation, is the of the latter’s of substantial helium acquisition The dealinincreases position in another of the BRIC leading industrial gases reserves Eastern Siberia. GCE’s annual turnover to Deputy countries andinis Japan therefore company and the Alexander Medvedev, approximately – an welllargest in line supplier with our own of helium to Chairman of €120m the Management increase of more than 10%. growth strategy,” Hermansson the Japanese market, a market Committee of Gazprom JSC In the transaction GCE concluded positively in a ideally situated for supply from and Director General of acquired parts of the Russian statement. the Russian Far East. Gazprom export LLC, and company ZAo Tradehouse According to Kornbluth, Phil Kornbluth, Executive Krass, and its head office in “Matheson and Taiyo Nippon Vice-President, Saint Petersburg. International GCE takes Related article online Sanso are excited about the & Helium for MATHESON, over 45 employees based in a 25 years of continuous growth – GCE looking to the future prospects of working with memberand of the Taiyo Nippon Moscow St Petersburg. after anniversary celebrations Gazprom to commercialise Sanso Corporation (TNSC) www.gasworld.com/features/2000789.article GCE also gets the exclusive their Eastern Siberian helium group involved signing right to awere product rangeinthat reserves. Gazprom’s plant the MOU.and, in an efficient completes way,Pursuant broadenstoGCE’s existing should be well positioned to the terms of the product offer. supply China, Japan, other MOU, MATHESON intends to “Atas thea same timepartner we nowto Asian markets and, in time, the act strategic have an exclusive right US. We look forward to a long, Gazprom, not only astoan1,500 offproducts, with all necessary mutually beneficial relationship taker of significant volumes Ghost approvals. It gives us the with Gazprom Group.” of helium from the projects, opportunity On October 30th, Gazprom but also astoaintroduce provider these of products in the GCE network helium industry knowledge had adopted the final in other regions of the world – and expertise. The parties investment decision on primarily South America and have agreed to explore ways pre-development of the Eastern Europe,” said GCE CEo Michael Hermansson. The products are primarily cylinder regulators, welding torches and accessories.

Chayandinskoye field being of top priority for the Yakutia gas production centre. Gazprom will build up a gas pipeline from Yakutia to Vladivostok via Khabarovsk in order to transport gas produced from the Chayandinskoye field, thus triggering large-scale gas processing development in Eastern Russia. A new helium production facility in the vicinity of Blagoveshensk is tentatively scheduled to commence production of liquid helium around 2018, commensurate with the extraction of natural gas from the new field.

“it gives us the opportunity to introduce these products in other regions of the world – primarily south america and eastern europe”

Far from over... Industry to challenge draft helium legislation? As talk of the Helium Cliff grew recently, draft legislation was unveiled for future stewardship of the US’ Federal Helium Reserve. gasworld looks at the discussion draft and why this story appears to be far from conclusion. Page 30

© GCE

Linde engineers developing alternatives to helium in a number of applications Growth and expansion for Wessington FACED with a sourcing shortage of helium, several AfTER SECURInG contracts segments of industry, working with around the withcompanies Linde North America globe, Wessington Cryogenics engineers, are welcoming new will now be creating additional product developments that lead jobs and requires more to lower helium requirements, floor space. or replacing helium altogether, The company, which has without significantly sacrificing been in operation for 28 years, application quality. designs and makes specialist Berkmanns, National gasJoe storage tanks. It received Technical Manager for Linde orders for 40ft iso-containers Canada, said, and a number of “Helium 60,000 litre has become the fluid of cryogenic tanks. choice for many industrial Wessington Cryogenics processes, mostlyPaul because Managing Director, Rowe, of its just physical thermal stated one ofand these orders properties. However, there

plastic deformation upon impact are certain areas where we with high speeds. These high have successfully substituted containers, biggerachieved throughput is enough for the speedsa were in the for helium, or company reduced the world leading 10ft with ISo its to construct in helium a year, but the withof ourpast using helium amount of required, and exiting of company a number low density as a range propellant. little orhas no had adverse effect on containers 20ft ISo’s,” Rowe continued. of orders resulting it Developments with regards quality,placed, productivity or in process “new, larger and capacity needing to expand – and quickly. to nozzle gas cranes supply robustness.” “We are using a 15,000 square are being installed to assist technology allow users to use Berkmanns points to the cold foot factory about 10 miles away with these new bigger tanks, nitrogen now in many cases. spray coating process as one including a new 60,000 litre tank from our plant in Rainton Bridge In the metal fabrication example. Cold spraying is a recently ordered.” South, in Sunderland, UK,” he industry, shielding gas mixtures coating technology that differs “We only moved into this said. for arc welding can also be from new traditional spray building about two and a half “This facility thermal will, for the usewe less helium. processes in temperature ago. Andtonow need immediate future, assist in the and yearsmodified When it comes to leak velocity of the powder space. It’s a great building of ISo frames, skidparticles units even more detection, there are arerelated deposited on the targetsituation to be inhowever, for Wessington andthat other products. This understood to he be certain areas surface. Theinparticles all our staff, releases space our mainremain site to and for that have been untouchable solid at low temperature and concluded.” start building new 40ft lnG ISo where helium is concerned. adhere to the surface through www.gasworld.com/europe

www.gasworld.com/america


Americas

acquisitions announced | Certification received

Core business acquisitions for Airgas as company positions for growth AIRGAS has acquired the assets and operations of four businesses that complement the Airgas portfolio of products and services. Combined annual revenues for the four acquired businesses are approx. $20m. US Welding and Safety Supply Co., with operations in Miami, Flordia, specialises in the distribution of welding equipment and weldingrelated hardgoods, such as consumables. US Welding joined Airgas USA LLC’s South region effective 3rd December. Industrial gas and welding supply distributors Rebel Welding and Industrial Supply, Inc., with operations in Vicksburg, Missisippi, and Tallulah, Louisiana, and Sadler Welding Products LLC, with operations in Dothan, Eufaula, and Troy, Alabama, and Panama City, Florida, joined Airgas USA LLC’s South region effective 3rd December and 17th December, respectively. Rochester Welding Supply Corp., an industrial gas and welding supply distributor with operations in Rochester and Manchester, New York, also joined Airgas USA LLC’s

Northeast region, again effective 17th December. “Each of these businesses has a history of outstanding customer service and enhances Airgas’ position in its respective area,” said Les Graff, Airgas Senior Vice-President –

“We welcome all of our new associates to the Airgas family...” Corporate Development. “We welcome all of our new associates to the Airgas family and look forward to providing our new customers with the most complete offering of products, services, and expertise in the industry.” Since the beginning of its fiscal year, Airgas has acquired 12 businesses with aggregate annual revenues of approximately $39m. The company has also recently revealed the acquisition of Texas-based D&D Power, via its Red-D-Arc company. The company deals in

equipment rental and services business which provides mobile power generation and light towers, as well as preventative maintenance and other services, to the oil and gas exploration and production industry. D&D Power generated annualised revenues of approximately $25m in calendar year 2012. Meanwhile, Airgas has recently held its 2012 analyst meeting, during which it discussed strategies for organic and acquisition growth, operating efficiency opportunities, the progress of the company’s SAP implementation, and its fiscal 2016 financial goals. “Airgas is stronger than ever and well-positioned for longterm growth,” reflected Airgas Executive Chairman Peter McCausland. “While near-term uncertainty persists in the macroeconomic environment, we’re very optimistic about the long-term prospects for the US manufacturing and energy industries and our ability to leverage our unique value proposition and unrivalled platform to drive growth...”

QUOTES OF THE month

“““

“Using our unique vantage point, let’s detect what is the trigger factor, when we need to be active it, and when the technology is mature...”

“Matheson and Taiyo Nippon Sanso are excited about the prospects of working with Gazprom to commercialise their Eastern Siberian helium reserves”

“Over the past few months, we have worked closely to develop a plant supply solution that met the specific needs for their operation in Australia”

Olivier Delabroy

Phil Kornbluth

Ishmael Chalabi

Vice-President of R&D

Executive Vice-President, International

President

Air Liquide

and Helium, MATHESON

AMCS Corp.

February 2013

News in brief Air Liquide receives food safety certification for US facilities Air Liquide Industrial U.S. LP has announced that 13 of its facilities in the US have received Food Safety System Certification 22000 (FSSC 22000). FSSC 22000 is an internationally-recognised standard for food safety systems, recognised by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), a business-driven initiative for the continuous improvement of food safety management systems. Seven of the 13 sites to have received the certification are carbon liquefaction facilities, while the remaining six are liquid nitrogen plants. Air Liquide expects all of its liquid nitrogen plants and carbon dioxide liquefaction facilities that supply the US food & beverage industry to be FSSC 22000 certified by end of 2013.

new Technical Director appointed COLD Jet has announced the appointment of Arvid Nielsen. Nielsen joins the company in the position of Technical Director for Cold Jet’s Global Technology and Services Team. Already a native and resident of Denmark, he will work out of the company’s Belgian office in Zolder. “Arvid brings with him a wealth of valuable expertise and experience, much of it in the CO2/Dry Ice industry,” said Rob Berry, Senior Vice-President of Global Technology and Services for Cold Jet. “Our goal for this position is to develop our technical and operational presence in Europe and Arvid will play a key role in Cold Jet’s growth and innovation strategy across our product line,” Berry added.

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Americas

Lifetime achievement award | air liquide liquefier online

Nitrogen liquefier now online in Cleburne, Texas

Specialty Gas News

New general manager at Brooks Instrument Brooks Instrument has announced that Scott Amsbaugh has been appointed as General Manager, responsible for overseeing Brooks’ global business operations. Prior to assuming the role of Vice-President and General Manager, Amsbaugh served as vice-president of sales and marketing, where he led Brooks’ global marketing and industrial sales efforts. Under his leadership, Brooks developed a robust product roadmap, successfully launched several products, and strengthened the company’s sales and marketing talent worldwide. “Brooks is a stable company

with strong growth plans,” said Yahya Gharagozlou, Group President of ITW. “Scott will provide the leadership
necessary to ensure that Brooks achieves its strategic objectives today and grows the business in the future.” Amsbaugh has also held the positions of managing director for the Asia Pacific region, product marketing director and product marketing manager at Brooks. “I look forward to leading the charge to foster technology development, operational excellence and revenue growth, which are the foundation of the success of Brooks Instrument,” he added.

Parker signs agreement, adds systems to offering The Instrumentation Products Division (IPD) of Parker Hannifin Corporation has signed an agreement with CA-based H2scan Corporation to become the exclusive manufacturer of co-branded process systems incorporating over 11 different process monitors. The monitors will be

integrated into a larger, cobranded sensing solution targeted at refineries, petrochemicals, fertilisers, ammonia and hydrogen production plants. H2scan’s hydrogen sensing system monitors are able to detect and measure hydrogen without false readings or expensive support equipment.

SPECIALTY GAS REPORT Master Sourcing Guide 2013 The #1 Sourcing Guide for buyers of industrial, medical and specialty gas products and services Contact: pat.carlucci@specialtygasreport.com Tel: +1 757-471-1560

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AIR Liquide Industrial US has commissioned a new nitrogen liquefier at its air separation plant in Cleburne, Texas to further support growth in the Texas and Oklahoma industrial gas markets. The liquefier, the second of two now in operation at the Cleburne facility, has recently begun commercial production. The increased capacity will enable Air Liquide to increase its supply of liquid nitrogen to customers in a range of industries, including food and beverage, manufacturing, glass, electronics, oil and gas, and chemicals. To support the increased production capacity, Air Liquide plans to increase its workforce in Cleburne by one-third over a two-year period, hiring as many as 21 permanent employees, including production technicians and truck drivers.

“We are very pleased to announce the start-up of our new nitrogen liquefier in Cleburne,” said Mark Lostak, President of Air Liquide Industrial US. “This facility expansion enables us to meet the growing demands of the gas market in this region, while supporting job creation and economic growth in the City of Cleburne and Johnson County. We are proud to be a member of this community, and we look forward to strengthening our presence here in a safe and sustainable way.”

“This expansion enables us to meet the growing demands of the gas market in this region”

Peter McCausland to receive lifetime achievement award AIRGAS Executive Chairman Peter McCausland has been honoured with a lifetime achievement award by Chemical Marketing & Economics (CM&E), a topical group of the American Chemical Society’s New York section. McCausland accepted the award during the group’s Awards for Leadership in New York City in December. McCausland has been recognised for his many years of leadership at Airgas. McCausland founded Airgas in 1982 with the purchase of Connecticut Oxygen, an industrial gas distributor with approximately $3m in sales. Through strategic growth initiatives and more than 400 acquisitions in 30 years,

McCausland has led Airgas to become one of the premier industrial gas companies in the US, with sales of more than $4.7bn in its most recent fiscal year. Since its initial public offering in 1986, Airgas has delivered a total return to shareholders that is among the highest in the S&P 500 index. “Few people can found a company, help propel it for three decades and turn it into a consistent top performer in its class,” said George Rodriguez, chairman of CM&E, Board Member of ACS NY Section and Director at Argeni. The Awards for Leadership have been established by CM&E to honour individuals for extraordinary contributions in the chemical industry. www.gasworld.com/america


Pacific Rim

News in brief CO2 in short supply in Japan as sources curtail operations Oil refineries and ammonia production plants are the sources of liquid carbon dioxide and dry ice in Japan. However, many of these facilities are withdrawing from business or curtailing operations. There is, therefore, concern about a decrease in the ability of these sources to supply the gas. In November it was announced that there would be a cutback in the crude source at plants in Hokkaido and Niigata. There is a tendency for the supply of crude gas to drop as existing sources as well, so that all suppliers have been busy coping with the situation. It used to be a trend that supply of liquid carbon dioxide and dry ice really becomes tight in the summer, but this year it seems that this tightness has not dissipated even after the autumn came. Curtailment of production and withdrawal from the business of traditional source types like ammonia synthesis are following one after the other due to the slump in domestic demand and increased international competition. Investment in the development of new sources and plants has been made to cope with the disappearance of sources. Air Water Tansan is now under construction and should be completed early this year, with an annual capacity of 90,000 tpd of liquid carbon dioxide and dry ice, using source gas from the Seibu Oil plant.

“Investment in the development of new sources has been made...”

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Short supply in Japan | advanced gas lab

Air Products unveils advanced gas applications lab in Shanghai, China AIR Products has opened an advanced gas applications laboratory within its Asia Technology Centre in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Shanghai, China. The new lab will further strengthen the centre’s research and development (R&D) capabilities to support the increasing needs of highgrowth markets in China and across Asia. It represents a significant expansion of the Asia Technology Centre. The 1,200-square-metre advanced gas laboratory is equipped with state-of-the-art R&D capabilities for a wide range of high-growth markets including those stipulated in China’s 12th Five-year Plan. They include metals processing and fabrication, electronics packaging and assembly, and industrial cryogenics. The laboratory also features a newly added welding centre to accelerate the development of welding technologies and applications for the sustainable development of China’s strategic metal fabrication market. The market is the biggest in the world, driven by the rapid development of the

machinery, aerospace, mining equipment, petrochemical and automotive industries. The welding centre also serves as a platform for live demonstrations by Air Products’ fabrication applications specialists. “We are excited to unveil this advanced gas applications laboratory in China as part of the company’s long-term commitment to drive growth in energy, environmental and emerging markets through innovation and technology

development,” said Jeffrey Kramer, Vice-President and Chief Technology Officer of Air Products. “Innovation has been a cornerstone of Air Products for over 70 years. It gives us the ability to continue finding new ways to help make our world more productive, energy efficient and sustainable. Our expanded gas capabilities will better position us to meet customers’ unique needs in China and Asia with speed, cost efficiency and product quality.”

“We are excited to unveil this advanced gas applications laboratory in China as part of the company’s long-term commitment...”

Linde wins fourth China LNG project THE Linde Group has signed a contract with Sichuan Tongkai Energy and Technology Development Company for the design and supply of the Bazhong Phase II LNG plant. After winning back the customer against strong competition, this is now the fourth LNG project for the Linde Engineering Division in China. Located in the Bazhong Economic Development Zone in Sichuan, the Bazhong phase II LNG project is expected to process 1.3 million cubic

metres (Nm³) of feed gas per day, equivalent to an annual production of 300,000 tonnes of LNG. The plant will feature Linde’s patented LiMuM™ process that is able to accommodate different feed gas compositions and has proven its stability and reliability in various projects conducted by Linde. According to Zhan Jiafang, General Manager of Linde Engineering Hangzhou, “The Bazhong project is the first where Linde Engineering

China’s LNG team is fully involved in project execution, showing Linde Engineering’s determination to develop the LNG market as well as our confidence in the clean energy industry in China.” As a hi-tech company specialised in the clean energy business, Sichuan Tongkai Energy and Technology Development Co. is reported to be the company that has attracted the largest investments in Bazhong City so far. www.gasworld.com/northpacific


High purity technology Air Separation Unit for the production of liquid Oxygen, Nitrogen and Argon

SIAD Macchine Impianti S.p.A. Compressors, Air Separation Units, Automation, Welding and Services.

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• High purity oxygen, nitrogen and argon thanks to cryogenic technology. • High process efficiency, proven and widely demonstrated by the number of plants in operation. • Tailor-made fabrication to the end-user’s special requirements. • Skid-mounted assembly for faster installation, commissioning and startup. • Easy to use: fully automated system for easy and reliable “unattended” management. • Automated process control system which ensures the operating cycle can be adapted to meet variations in product request. • Remote monitoring service by SIAD Macchine Impianti to monitor the operating status.

The nature of power


Pacific Rim

Japan Gas News

Restructuring accelerated | contract for asu in australia

News taken from K.K Gas Review magazine

Taiyo Nippon Sanso accelerates restructuring April this year will see Taiyo Nippon Sanso launch a wholly-owned subsidiary called Taiyo Nippon Sanso Gas & Welding, as part of company restructuring. It will be formed through the merger of downsteam distribution companies SaanTech, Futaba Bussan, and Toei Kagaku, with Saan-Tech being the surviving company. The purpose is to cope with shrinkage of the cylinder and welding business, which has been hit by the maturation of the manufacturing industry in the country. The new company will be capitalised at ¥100m, and the number of employees on the order will be 400 from all three companies. Sales for the term ending in March 2014 should total ¥22bn, with the operating profit of about ¥500m, bringing a new major gas distributor into being. As for the future, the new company will be further involved in the merging and reorganisation of other group companies of Taiyo Nippon Sanso. At the same time it is positioning itself to raise sales up to ¥40bn by concentrating corporate assets and improving its competitive capacity. Consequentially, reorganisation of downstream distribution by the group could very well accelerate. A glance at the structure of the three-company merger shows that the surviving company Saan-Tech will become involved in the development of its own cylinder management system. This will be in addition to the cylinder business and sales of welding materials they are expanding in the west of Japan. Saan-Tech

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is an industrial gas company and has multiple faces. In April 2011, the company sold its industrial has manufacturing and welding materials businesses in the east part of Japan to Toatsu Yamazaki, focusing on business concentration. Its sales amounted to ¥16.3bn for FY2012 ending March 2012, so that the company could rank itself as a major gas distributor. The Public & Investor Relations of Taiyo Nippon Sanso noted, “We will be making adjustments later regarding the details but on the occasion of the current merger and absorption, we will be promoting increased business efficiency through consolidation of the business locations of the companies involved.”

ASU in Western Australia to overcome challenges AMCS Corporation has entered into a contract to supply a customised ULTRA O-60™ air separation unit (ASU) to Cristal Pigment Australia Ltd in Bunbury, Western Australia. The plant is designed to the current state-of-the-art in oxygen plant technology with superior performance, high levels of automation, and flexible operation. The ASU is designed to supply gaseous oxygen (GOX) for Cristal’s TiO2 facility. The ULTRA-O™ plant design is highly packaged, significantly reducing field installation time and costs. Cristal will be able to monitor and operate this highly automated plant remotely with minimal manning and operator intervention, significantly reducing operating costs. AMCS is supplying the plant on a turn-key basis, and, after completion, AMCS plans to remotely monitor the plant and support Cristal in future operations.

“ “ “...we will be promoting increased business efficiency” Big in Japan An interview with Hirosuke Matsueda, Chairman of TNSC Five years since our last interview and it’s a case of mission accomplished for Taiyo Nippon Sanso (TNSC). Having comfortably established itself as a leading light in the global gases business, the company is now focused on its next objective – to accelerate growth even further, both in Japan and overseas. www.gasworld.com/2001117.article

“We are delighted for the opportunity to work with an innovative and forward looking global client like Cristal. Over the past few months, we have worked closely with Cristal’s engineering and commercial team to develop a plant supply solution that met the specific needs for their operation in Australia. The highly automated features of the ULTRA-O™ plant and our ULTRA-Sentry™ remote plant support system allow our customers to realise the operating cost savings and flexibility gained from owning an industrial gas plant, while overcoming the technical support and manning concerns that have made the plant ownership option less attractive in the past,” said Ishmael Chalabi, President of AMCS Corporation. AMCS is a leading global supplier of industrial gases and process plants, providing technology, equipment, and engineering services.

“The features of the plant allow our customers to realise the operating cost savings and flexibility, while overcoming the technical concerns...” © AMCS

www.gasworld.com/northpacific


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ASIA

renewable hydrogen contract

Air Products India wins renewable hydrogen contract in country first Around the gasworld in 140 characters

@The_Linde_Group

Linde wins fourth LNG project in China

@Messer_France

Messer appoints Nathalie von Siemens to the supervisory board

@dougodell

TrackAbout launched its new website! Check it out! trackabout.com

@ICO2N

Coal-Fired Carbon Capture Tops 238 MW

@Air Liquide Group

To date, more than 200,000 Air Liquide shareholders have opted for registered shares and enjoy a more direct relationship with the Group

@Lincoln Electric

We’re pleased to announce the aquisition of automated systems manufacturer, Tenessee Rand

@The_Linde_Group

“Fascinating gases: liquid oxygen is magnetic.”@Baggage Claim Terminal 2

@trackabout

Awesome presentation created by Linde which shows visual representations of invisible gases. A must see!

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AIR Products has been awarded a contract with India’s University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES) to build the country’s first solar powered renewable hydrogen fuelling station. The company’s hydrogen fuelling technology and infrastructure will be part of a mass public transit bus fuelling and vehicle demonstration programme administered by UPES. The station, which will generate hydrogen from solar energy via an electrolyser and be located at the Solar Energy Centre near Delhi, is scheduled to be on-stream in July 2013. “The hydrogen generated at this station will be 100% renewable and illustrates both India’s commitment to developing greener alternate energy sources and Air Products’ hydrogen fuelling capabilities. The UPES project will act as a springboard for many more opportunities in the automotive and telecommunication sectors

in India,” said Nigel Gibson, Managing Director at Air Products India. “Our customers are recognising the capabilities of our local team in dealing with the complexities of the regulatory authorities to validate hydrogen as a fuel, and to provide the support they need to successfully execute these projects.” Stepping stone Once complete, the UPES project will mark the third Air Products hydrogen fuelling station operating in India. Air Products India installed, and in January 2012 commissioned, a hydrogen fuelling dispenser in Pragati Maiden, Delhi to serve a fleet of hydrogen-powered auto rickshaws.

Air Products was also a key player in the opening of India’s first hydrogen fuelling station several years ago at a research and development centre in Faridabad, south of New Delhi. UPES is executing the project in collaboration with Indian Oil and it is entirely funded by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) of the Government of India. The project is cited as a significant stepping stone for the country. “Although this is a demonstration project, this will be a major stepping stone for India to move towards the hydrogen economy,” said Dr. Niranjan Raje, former director of Indian Oil and the Principle Investigator for this project.

“Although this is a demonstration project, this will be a major stepping stone for India to move towards the hydrogen economy...”

INOXCVA opens new tank facility in Kaloi amid rising demand for products InoxCVA has constructed a new transport tank construction facility, in Kalol, India, due to rising demand for the items. The shed was inaugurated in September 2012. This capacity addition has provided INOXCVA with a competitive edge and an ability to supply quality products to its clientele. The shed is completely self-reliant and is equipped with sufficient storage facility for raw materials, semifinished and finished products. Sophisticated machinery including CNC Plasma, Plate rolling, Auto welding machine, Helium leak

detection and vacuuming have all been installed at the new workshop, which is designed to manufacture tanks as per serial production philosophy. The workshop also has a

designated Painting Booth for painting the outer surface of the trailer. A highly skilled team of engineers will test the trailers on all parameters in the in-house testing facility of the shed.

© INOXCVA

www.gasworld.com/asia


Industrial Gases

Africa 2013

FUTURE INVESTMENT AND THE SUPPLY CHAIN 3rd African Industrial Gases Conference

May 20-22, 2013

Indaba Hotel & Conference Centre, Fourways, Johannesburg, South Africa

MORE INFORMATION:

email: conferences@gasworld.com telephone: +44 1872 225031 www.gasworld.com/conferences

gasworld conferences


AFRICA

Events Calendar

To enquire about adding your event or any media partnerships, email calendar@gasworld.com

February 18th – 20th 2013 3rd Annual Global LNG Forum Lisbon, Portugal http://oilgas.flemingeurope.com/ global-lng-forum

February 18th – 20th 2013 Small-Mid Scale LNG Asia Pacific Summit, Singapore bit.ly/UI3ly7

February 17th – 21th 2013 Pittcon Conference & Expo 2013 Pennsylvania, United States www.pittcon.org

March 13th – 14th 2013 LNG for Transport Forum, Royal Garden Kensington, London, United Kingdom www.ibcenergy.com/FKA2335GWWL

March 5th – 7th 2013 O&M and Lifecycle Management for CCGT Power Plants 2013 T.A. Cook Conferences, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Email:info@tacook.com Web:http://uk.tacook.com/ccgt

April 18th – 19th 2013 BCGA Oulton Hall, Leeds, United Kingdom www.bcga.co.uk

May 20th – 22nd 2013 gasworld’s 3rd African Industrial Gas Conference Indaba Hotel & Conference Centre, Fourways, Johannesburg, South Africa www.gasworld.com/conferences

June 6th – 7th 2013 5 Unconventional Hydrocarbons Summit 2013 Conference | Summit Beijing, China www.cdmc.org.cn th

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major development in welding & cutting sector

Deal brings one of most innovative developments in SA welding sector AFROX has concluded a R41m (US$4.6m) Lindoflamm® and bulk gases deal with Secunda-based welding, fabrication and maintenance specialists, Hydra-Arc. This milestone deal followed successful intensive preheating trials that incorporated Lindoflamm® heating burners into the company’s Ashlock refurbishing and pressure vessel fabrication processes during 2011/2012. Lindoflamm®, developed by Afrox’s parent company, The Linde Group, offers manufacturers and fabricators innovative pre-heating, flame straightening and heat treatment solutions. These special torches and burners provide optimal heat transfer to the work piece, reducing gas consumption, improving productivity and quality, and reducing total cost – as well as enhancing factory floor safety. The introduction of

Lindoflamm® special torches and burners is being hailed as one of the most innovative developments to take its place in the South African welding and cutting industry for some time. Lindoflamm® trials at Hydra-Arc achieved significant cost savings compared to the customer’s existing LPG heating application. The trials also indicated that production could be increased, based on the fact that pre-heating time was reduced from four hours, to just over 45 minutes on the Ashlock refurbishing. The pressure vessel preheating temperature and time was seven hours heating up to 70ºC. With Lindoflamm®

burners, the pre-heating time was reduced to one hour, reaching a pre-heating temperature of 250ºC. Based on the beyondexpectation trial results at Hydra-Arc, the company contracted Afrox to introduce Lindoflamm® pre-heating solutions in all its critical applications. The offer includes the supply of bulk oxygen, dissolved acetylene, argon and nitrogen to support TIG welding, hand-cutting, heating, plasma and laser-cutting. Afrox will continue with further trials on different pre-heating applications to ensure HydraArc benefits from the various solutions the process offers.

“The introduction is hailed as one of the most innovative developments to take its place in the South African welding and cutting industry...”

Strategic alliance with Socar Trading S.A GASOL PLC, the West African energy development company, is pleased to announce the signing of a strategic alliance agreement with Socar Trading S.A. (STSA) in relation to its proposed LNG Import Project in the Republic of Benin. STSA is the international marketing and development arm of SOCAR, the State Oil Company of the Azerbaijan Republic, which is one of the largest companies in the world. The deal’s key points include: • Alliance represents a major step towards bringing gas to constrained Benin, Togo and Ghana • Access to LNG, a storage and regasification vessel and STSA’s development

expertise • Opportunity to supply LNG to a significant growth market • New implemented strategy takes effect Under the terms of the strategic alliance, STSA will supply all liquefied natural gas (LNG) required for the project and assist Gasol with the provision of a floating gas storage and regasification vessel in the harbour at Cotonou, Benin. The project involves the regasification of LNG and the supply of that gas to power and industrial customers in Benin, Togo and Ghana. The strategic alliance is a key development for Gasol, as it ensures the supply of LNG and the storage

and regasification vessel on competitive terms, important components in putting the project together. It also allows STSA to leverage its LNG capability to support Gasol’s project and to build its presence in West Africa. Alan Buxton, COO at Gasol, said, “Our alliance with STSA represents a major step towards our goal of bringing gas to Benin, Togo and Ghana, which remain significantly gas constrained in their power plants and industries. In line with the board’s new strategy, the strategic alliance with STSA provides access to LNG and a storage and regasification vessel, but just as importantly, STSA’s experience in the development of such projects.” www.gasworld.com/africa


AFRICA

conference to address african supply chain

Middle East

Foster Wheeler awarded multi-billion dollar contract

African supply chain in spotlight at conference Building on the successes of its 10 global industrial gas events to date, gasworld is bringing its expertise and forum for insight to the African continent this May. An abundance of natural resources including natural gas, oil and minerals is driving investment in the African continent, resulting in rapid demand (+15% per annum growth) for industrial gases. At a market size of US$1.7bn, the African continent is primed to take-off, but strategic investments need to be made across all regions to ensure sufficient product is available to meet the demand. Increased discoveries of natural resources and existing reserves are being recovered at an increasing level, and the continent has become an important supplier to global markets and is attracting increased international investment in extraction, production and support industries. All which are significant drivers for industrial gas growth in the region. The supply dynamics are also changing rapidly; some regions remain short of some of the basic industrial gases, while others have surpluses and need to develop/introduce applications that will take up some of this excess. With this in mind, and two February 2013

and a half years on from its last African industrial gas conference in Kenya, gasworld is returning to Africa to tackle these trends and dynamics. The conference, titled African Industrial Gas Conference 2013 – Future Investment and the Supply Chain, is set to address the investments that are needed to be made by the gases industry and will also provide a platform to discuss the supply chain issues – to ensure Africa can maximise its potential as one of the fastest growth markets in the world for industrial gases. The event comes on the back of a successful first ever conference in North America in Miami, Florida in December (2012) and will be gasworld’s third conference gathering in Africa. To be held in Johannesburg, South Africa from 20th - 22nd May 2013, the conference is set to be the largest gathering of key decision makers in the industrial gases business to have ever been held within the African gases market. Gas applications and safety will also form part of the agenda, while the conference will explore the potential of new opportunities in LNG in the region – should new reserves be exploited in both East and West Africa. For more information: conferences@gasworld.com

Foster Wheeler’s Global Engineering and Construction Group has been awarded a project management and consultancy (PMC) services contract by Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC). The contract is for its Clean Fuels Project at the Mina Al-Ahmadi and Mina Abdullah Refineries in Kuwait. The Foster Wheeler scope revenue value of the contract is $500m and will be included in its Q4 2012 bookings. What is perhaps most interesting about the deal is what the project means for the refining sector in Kuwait. KNPC’s Clean Fuels Project is a major upgrade and expansion of the Mina Al-Ahmadi and Mina Abdullah Refineries to increase their combined throughput by 264,000 barrels per stream day to 800,000 barrels per stream day. The objective is to increase conversion of fuel oil to higher value products in order to meet expected market demand and tighter specifications (1%) for the sulphur content of transport fuels. “The Clean Fuels Project is a critical mega project that will

shape the future of Kuwait’s refining capability while driving the highest standards of commitment to the environment,” said Fahed Salem Al Ajmi, Chairman and Managing Director, Kuwait National Petroleum Company. “KNPC and Foster Wheeler have enjoyed a long-standing business association and we look forward to a true partnership in bringing the CFP to its successful commissioning.” Foster Wheeler’s scope of work includes the provision of project management services during the tendering phase for the main EPC contracts, and management of the EPC contractors through to completion of performance testing. The project is expected to be complete during Q2 2018. “Foster Wheeler’s proven project management capabilities, our experience in executing mega-projects, and the breadth of our refining technical expertise were critical factors in our success in winning this significant award,” said Umberto della Sala, COO, Foster Wheeler.

“The Clean Fuels Project is a critical mega project that will shape the future of Kuwait’s refining capability...” © Foster Wheeler

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TECHNOLOGY

Advances put older tech on ice | world first

World first is launched by SDGroup News in brief Cold Jet launches ultimate system for dry ice anytime, any application COLD JET® has announced the launch of the SDI Select™ 60 – a dry ice cleaning system that offers maximum flexibility and is described as ‘revolutionary’. The new system accommodates dry ice of any form, the ability to shave ice or direct feed pellets for unlimited control, accommodates all Cold Jet standard Aero accessories, and delivers proven cleaning effectiveness on a full spectrum of cleaning applications. “The SDI Select 60 is designed to be the most simplistic, user-friendly dry ice cleaning system available today,” said Gene Cooke, III, President and CEO of Cold Jet. “...the SDI Select 60 opens opportunities for users who experience limited dry ice availability.”

Harris Products Group announces seven-year warranty THE Harris Products Group is announcing a longer warranty for all of its industrial regulators – extending it from three years to seven years. The company made the announcement at the FABTECH/AWS trade show in Las Vegas, Nevada. The new seven-year warranty applies to all regulators, making it one of the longest warranties in the industry. “We’re able to offer this longer warranty because of the quality, durability and technology built into every regulator,” said Randy Edenfield, Director of North American Product Development/R&D. Harris regulators sold in the US are manufactured at the company’s state-of-the-art facility in Gainesville, Georgia.

22

Privately held research and development laboratory Separation Design Group (SDGroup) has developed the world’s smallest oxygen machine. TheO-Pal Personal Beverage Oxygenator is a handheld appliance that extracts oxygen from the air and injects it into beverages to improve flavour. The patent-pending device harvests oxygen directly from the air around us. To accomplish this, O-Pal employs a proprietary filter material which temporarily traps nitrogen molecules while allowing oxygen molecules to flow through to the machine’s self-contained reservoir. The captured nitrogen is then expelled back into the air. The result is a quarter-litre charge of high purity oxygen, four times as concentrated as that found in the atmosphere. When injected into beverages through the detachable diffuser O-Pal’s nano-size oxygen bubbles react with flavour and aroma

molecules to smooth the bitterness in coffee and tea, mellow the tannins and sulfites in wine, liberate the natural zest of processed juices, and rejuvenate tap and bottled drinking water which frequently contains artificially low levels of oxygen. Although O-Pal’s basic technology was developed for larger-scale medical and industrial applications, the key to its consumer appeal is its small size which is enabled by the rapid cycle time of the oxygen extraction material which SDGroup co-developed with one of the world’s largest chemical companies. According to SDGroup founder Doug Galbraith, O-Pal was conceived when the firm’s scientists discovered that oxygen, from devices they were

developing for other projects, improved the flavor of coffee and wine. “Everybody knows that wine tastes better when it’s aerated during decanting,” Galbraith said. “Oxygenation makes it better yet. When we found out about the oxygen cocktail craze going on in Europe, we decided to develop a personalsized consumer product that’s attractive enough for use in your dining room and rugged enough for use at the coffee shop or club.” In an effort to move O-Pal out of the laboratory and into the marketplace, the company has launched a $45,000 campaign on the Indiegogo crowd-funding web site. Proceeds from the campaign will be used to ramp up to full-scale production.

“...we decided to develop a personal-sized consumer product that’s attractive enough for use in your dining room”

Cryogenic advances could put older technologies on ice, Linde claims BECAUSE cold-temperature processing is so critical to many food-processing operations, improvements in technology can make a significant impact on productivity and profits. The bigger the gain, the stronger the multiplying effect. That is what has been happening over the past few years in cryogenic freezing and chilling technology according to Mark DiMaggio, Head of food and beverage, Linde North America. By focusing on the specific challenges of the food industry, Linde engineers have developed proprietary solutions that are more efficient in a number of ways, and which process from a few hundred to

20,000 lbs of food product per hour. “The impact of cryogenic advances can be pervasive, improving production capacity and overall competitiveness for years to come,” says DiMaggio, who brings more than 20 years of food and industrial gas industry experience to his role at the Linde food team. A single immersion spiral freezer can process up to 20,000 lbs of food per hour. Yet the patented design of Linde nitrogen impingement freezers still offer the highest freezing capacity per sq ft of floor space on the market, DiMaggio says. The Linde food team develops customised solutions based on

either carbon dioxide (CO2) or nitrogen, depending on which cryogen is best for the process and the plant. More efficient freezing operations can streamline downstream processes. For example, Linde implemented precise crust-freezing methods using a hygienic, cryogenic (CO2) tunnel freezer to help West Liberty Foods (Mount Pleasant) increase production rate and improve the quality of deli-log slicing on a new high-speed slicer. Just the right temperature and depth of crust-freeze on the log ensures the blade gets a clean ‘bite’ for consistent slicing and even stacking. www.gasworld.com/technology


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23


hydrogen

Linde partners in German hydrogen refuelling plan LINDE and Air Liquide are two of six companies taking part in an industry initiative to develop a network of hydrogen refuelling stations for fuel cell electric vehicles in Germany. The current partners in the H2Mobility initiative (Air Liquide, Daimler, Linde, OMV, Shell, and Total) are working on implementing a business model to build up a nationwide hydrogen refuelling station network in Germany. The objective is to prepare for the planned series launch of fuel cell electric vehicles and build up a hydrogen refuelling station infrastructure. In the currently launched third phase, partners are negotiating the foundation of a joint corporate entity to implement the business model and invest in infrastructure build.

Hydrogen as a catalyst for engines, company claims Not only does hydrogen on demand save fuel and deliver increased horsepower, it also reduces the carbon footprint, according to Hydro Dynamics. Tests results show as much as 85% cleaner emissions using a proper HHO system and Hydro Dynamics claims that engines are less efficient than you would think. Most engines don’t burn all the fuel injected into them, creating inefficiency, increase in fuel consumption and in turn, creating pollution. By injecting hydrogen gas into an engine it increases the octane, which increases combustion. The hydrogen acts as a catalyst, like a booster that helps fuel burn more efficiently.

24

First filling station in the Netherlands Air Liquide is investing in, installing and commissioning a new public hydrogen filling station in Rotterdam, Netherlands, for fuel cell electric vehicles, in collaboration with the Dutch Ministry of Transport and the Environment. The project has the financial backing of the European Union as part of the TransEuropean Transport Networks (TEN-T) program. These TEN-T community funds constitute an important source of European Union funding for transport infrastructures. This is the first time that European TEN-T funding has been allocated to the development of hydrogen electricmobility. This station will be the first Air Liquide hydrogen filling station located in the Netherlands. With the capacity to provide fifty fills per day, this dual-pressure station, which will operate at 350 and 700 bar, will supply hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles. One fill will provide these vehicles with an autonomy of 500-600km. This station will open to the public in late 2013

as part of a European hydrogen infrastructure deployment project run by Air Liquide and six other European partners. The project also includes studies on the opening of filling stations in four European countries: France, Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. François Darchis, Senior Vice-President and a member of Air Liquide’s Executive Committee, commented, “Air Liquide is proud to be playing an active role in this new project supported by the European Union. This development demonstrates the group’s commitment to contributing to the deployment of the ‘hydrogen energy’ infrastructure worldwide.” “Hydrogen is one of the innovative solutions that offer a response in the short term to the challenges of sustainable mobility: reducing greenhouse gases, local pollution in our cities and dependency on oilbased fuels thus contributing to the preservation of the environment. Following on from recent initiatives supported by the British and German

governments, the ‘hydrogen energy’ drive continues to move forward in Europe.”

700

The dual pressure station will be able to operate at 350 and 700 bar, supplying hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles.

600km

One fill from the station will provide vehicles with an autonomy of 500600km.

2013

The station will be open to the public late this year (2013).

© Air Liquide

News in brief

A new role for hydrogen? | first station

A new role for hyrogen in the future? A new report from the Institution of Gas Engineers & Managers (IGEM) reveals the significant potential for using hydrogen to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and improve the efficiency of renewable technologies, including wind and solar power. Hydrogen: untapped energy?, is the latest technical report from IGEM, that explores how hydrogen can be used as a carrier to store energy produced from a wide range of primary sources, and to power applications including electric vehicles, heating and power generation. Peter Hardy, IGEM’s Technical Services Manager,

explained, “To tackle carbon emissions, climate change and security of energy supply it is imperative that countries continue to invest in developing renewables, and technologies like hydrogen and fuel cell technology.” “IGEM firmly believes that diversity of supply is essential, a message we are communicating to Governments, regulators, and industry through our programme of activities. That

said, we also know that cleanburning natural gas must figure for the foreseeable future.” “IGEM will also be hosting a conference next year to bring the gas, utilities and energy sectors up to speed with the latest developments in hydrogen and fuel cell technology,” Hardy added. IGEM is the preeminent Chartered Institution for the UK and overseas gas industries and value chains.

“IGEM firmly believes that diversity of supply is essential, a message we are communicating to Governments, regulators, and industry” www.gasworld.com/hydrogen


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If the future could choose


LNG

News in brief Gazprom successfully completes Northern Sea Route delivery THE Ob River liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier chartered by Gazprom Group has successfully completed the world’s first LNG supply via the Northern Sea Route (NSR). The carrier left the Port of Hammerfest (Norway) on 7th November and arrived at the regasification terminal in the Port of Tobata (Japan) delivering a Gazprom Group-owned LNG cargo to Japanese consumers. The voyage was accomplished safely and fully in accordance with schedule. The ultimate success was assured by professionalism of the Ob River’s crew and highlevel support of ice masters, captains and crews of the ice breakers ‘50 Years of Victory’, ‘Russia’ and ‘Vaygach’ as well as offshore personnel of Atomflot and the NSR Administration under the Federal Agency for Sea and Inland Water Transport (the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation). On board the carrier there was a working group of the Krylov State Research Center and Sovcomflot. The experts were onboard for conducting R&D that featured ice navigation during intense ice formation in the Arctic Seas. Two return passages of the Ob River LNG carrier via the NSR confirmed technical and economic feasibility of the NSR for international LNG shipments. A number of factors that were all brought together in the project may be considered an attractive and reliable solution for the LNG interregional trade, bearing in mind implementation of Russian gas liquefaction projects in the Arctic region. The voyage’s success makes it viable to supply Russian LNG to the AsiaPacific and European markets via the Northern Sea Route.

26

capacity additions required

US in need of LNG capacity additions THE need for America to begin producing more LNG became apparent after a report revealed the country has been importing the gas at a cost three times higher than it is in the US. According to Department of Energy data published recently, the US imported 62 LNG cargoes in the first 10 months of 2012. The cargoes were obtained from world markets where prices are up to three times higher than the US. The US NYMEX market closed at $3.70/MMBtu on Monday 3rd of December, while Europe’s Zeebrugge gas market closed at $10.50/MMBtu, for example. Meanwhile, Asian prices have been trading even higher at more than $13/MMBtu. “US LNG producers have an opportunity to liquefy low cost domestic gas to fill the demand met by these imported cargoes,” said Bob Nimocks, President of Zeus Development Corporation. “The challenge is liquefaction capacity.” According to a Zeus survey, 34 US plants can produce

about two million gallons of LNG daily. Yet, half is needed for local pipeline balancing, what the industry calls ‘peak shaving’. The other half is being sold by tanker truck to growing US transportation and industrial markets. These markets outbid importers because without LNG they would have to rely upon even higher priced petroleum fuels, such as distillate, which sell for about $22/MMBtu. In some regions, such as New England, demand for LNG has risen sharply. The largest supplier, Distrigas of Massachusetts, however, must import its LNG via tanker ship from Trinidad. In recent years, Trinidad has been selling more cargoes to Asia. Rising demand for transportation and industrial fuel, combined with penned up demand from importers, is spurring new liquefaction projects in North America. At least 20 projects have been announced. Yet, in total, they will add just two million gallons per day to domestic supply. At the time of the report,

LNG imports in 2012 had averaged six million gallons per day.

62

According to data, the US imported 62 LNG cargos in the first 10 months of 2012.

34

According to a survey, 34 US plants can produce around two million gallons of LNG daily. Half of this required for local pipeline balancing, known as ‘peak shaving’.

20

Demand is spurring new liquefaction projects in North America, with at least 20 projects announced as of December 2012.

6

Also as of early December 2012, LNG imports in the US in 2012 had totaled six million gallons per day

Advancement of Mozambique LNG project after agreement is reached ANADARKO Petroleum Corporation has announced advancement of the Mozambique LNG project after it reached a coordinated agreement for constructing a LNG park in the Cabo Delgado Province of the country. “Reaching an HOA with Eni is a significant step that preserves the project timeline,” said Anadarko President and CEO, Al Walker. “We expect the HOA to lead to a unitisation agreement to further facilitate the efficient development of the common resources, as well as the independent reservoirs on both blocks, enabling enhanced economies of scale through

shared infrastructure and facilities.” “Our commercial and technical teams have proven the ability to work collaboratively through these discussions, as we work alongside the Mozambican government toward a shared target of first LNG cargoes in 2018.” In addition, multiple FEED contracts have been awarded for both onshore LNG construction and offshore installation. “We are very pleased to also announce the awarding of multiple FEED contracts advancing the onshore and offshore components of this LNG project

in northern Mozambique,” continued Walker. “Awarding FEED is an important event for Mozambique, as it marks a significant milestone in the development cycle of this project. We are grateful for the support of ENH and the government of Mozambique in moving this project forward.” © Anadarko

www.gasworld.com/lng


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GREEN NEWS

News in brief World’s largest CFB biomass power plant in operation Foster Wheeler has announced that the GDF Suez power plant located in Polaniec, Poland, is now in commercial operation, delivering over 200 MWe of electricity to the country’s electricity grid solely from biomass. The plant is powered by the world’s largest and most advanced biomass CFB (circulating fluidised-bed) boiler, which was supplied by Foster Wheeler. CFB technology is capable of fully firing a wide range of biomasses and other fuels, including those derived from agricultural crops. ‘Agro’ biomass can be produced much faster and on a larger scale than longer growth wood-based biomasses, thus improving the economics and sustainability of biomass power. “The challenge has always been to design a boiler capable of reliably firing difficult-to-burn agro biomass while at the same time increasing steam temperatures to achieve high power plant efficiency,” said Jaroslaw Mlonka, President and CEO of Foster Wheeler Energia Polska. “This particular CFB incorporates many advanced design features that enable the Polaniec plant to achieve a net plant efficiency of over 36%, based on the fuels lower heating value, while firing solely biomass containing up to a 20% agro component.” The Polaniec plant is owned and operated by GDF Suez, and began commercial operation in November, six weeks ahead of schedule. Foster Wheeler provided a turnkey delivery of the boiler island and fuel yard, including design and supply of all steam generation and auxiliary equipment, civil work, erection and commissioning.

28

ccs backed as a vital technology

Green groups endorse CCS efforts THE Global CCS Institute has welcomed a new report by the ENGO Network, titled ‘Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage’, which urges government and industry to back CCS as a vital technology to reduce global carbon emissions. The report was launched at the United Nations’ climate talks in Doha, Qatar, where representatives of the Network urged that CCS be included in the climate mitigation portfolio of technologies. Experts such as Lord Nicholas Stern and former Executive Director of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Claude Mandil attended the launch in support of the report findings. “Environmental groups play an important role when they promote information and advice that strengthen both global and national actions to tackle climate change,” Lord Stern said. “This report by the ENGO Network on CCS highlights the need to sharply reduce

emissions from the use of fossil fuels, and also offers significant support for the safe, effective and prompt deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies.” “I very much welcome this report, which provides sensible perspectives on the challenges and potential of carbon capture and storage.” Mr Mandil commended the ENGO Network for acknowledging CCS as an essential part of a suite of technologies, including renewables, needed to address the climate challenge. “It is very encouraging that these major NGOs recognise CCS has an important role to play in mitigating greenhouse gases and that it must be included in climate change policies,” he said. Institute CEO Brad Page said that in a world facing a 40% increase in energy consumption, between 2009 and 2035, it was incumbent upon us to consider all serious potential options for limiting the amount

of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. “The ENGO Network has carefully and independently examined the latest available science and analysed real life experiences to conclude that the planet’s future wellbeing depends, in part, on the further development and deployment of CCS,” Mr Page said. “Their acceptance of, and support for, CCS is a major step forward because it recognises that CCS is a safe, clean and effective technology for tackling climate change. This represents not just an opportunity – it highlights the obligation of governments – to act now to accelerate the deployment of this technology.” Mr Page said that CCS was already a reality, with all three components (carbon capture, transportation and injection into suitable geological sites) having been demonstrated at largescale in commercial projects, such as Sleipner in Europe and Great Plains/Weyburn and Shute Creek in North America.

Report also highlights key role of CCS technologies in meeting future targets ALTHOUGH currently negligible in prominence, carbon capture and storage (CCS) could be the technology that makes the world’s carbon emission reduction targets achievable, says GlobalData in a recent report. The company’s report, entitled Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) for Coal Fired Plants – Opportunity Assessment and Key Country Analysis to 2025, explores the retrofit potential and new market potential for the global CCS market in terms of revenues and capacity. It also discusses the key drivers and restraints impacting the market, identifying that this

technology must be employed much more widely in order for CCS to make the level of impact that its potential suggests. Only recently has the concept of long-term carbon storage been viewed as a viable means of reducing the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere from power plants. Correspondingly, a modest 238 megawatts (MW) of CCS capacity was installed globally at the end of 2011, but according to current government plans and other initiatives, a far more substantial 10 gigawatts (GW) is expected to come online by the end of the decade. China, the US, Australia, Japan, Norway,

the Netherlands and the UK have invested heavily in CCS Research and Development (R&D) activities and are the global leaders in the industry; however, there are currently no large-scale CCS demonstration projects for coal-fired plants. In a separate development, Paul Dougas has been revealed as the new Chair of the Global CCS Institute Board.

www.gasworld.com/environmental


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HOT TOPIC

Rob Cockerill Managing Editor

Far from over...

Industry to challenge draft helium legislation? As talk of the Helium Cliff grew recently, draft legislation was unveiled for future stewardship of the US’ Federal Helium Reserve. gasworld looks at the discussion draft and why this story appears to be far from conclusion.

J

ust days before the New Year began, the US’ House Natural Resources Committee Chairman Doc Hastings unveiled a discussion draft of the Responsible Helium Administration and Stewardship Act (RHASA). If passed, the act would potentially clear up fears over the future management of the Federal Helium Reserve in Amarillo, Texas. News of the draft legislation came just as the term ‘the Helium Cliff’ was coined and talk of this impending crisis was beginning to gather pace. Global helium shortages persisted in 2012 and, as last month’s gasworld magazine revealed, with no significant new capacity set to enter the market until second-half 2013, shortages will continue until late into the year. Compounding this have been fears over the future of the Federal Helium Reserve, operated by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). By law, the Reserve is slated to stop selling commercial helium later this year, a move that would cut access to half of the domestic supply and cause significant economic harm. With no new legislation currently in place for this resource, and the possibility that funding for the BLM’s helium program will run out at the end of 2013’s third quarter, there are fears that up to 4 BCF per year of capacity linked to the BLM Pipeline could be at risk this October. A discussion draft of the RHASA is now in circulation, but is this really a viable plan for the future management of the Reserve? Industry does not appear to think so. Stewardship according to the draft The proposed legislation is described as ‘a bill to prevent an impending helium shortage and protect thousands of American jobs by implementing a common 30

“This bill is an opportunity for both sides of the aisle to come together and fix a problem that will have serious impacts on American jobs and the economy...” sense plan to sell helium from the Federal Helium Reserve in a responsible manner’. In essence, the new legislation would continue the sales of commercial helium until nearly all the stored helium supply is sold, while also implementing free-market reforms to promote more competition and a better return for US taxpayers. It would also ‘increase transparency’ as to the upkeep of the Reserve, its pipeline and storage system, and any issues in this supply chain. Funds from the sale of helium would go to the Helium Production Fund, used to operate and maintain the Federal Helium Reserve and crude helium pipeline, while any excess revenue would be directed to the general Treasury. According to an official press release, the RHASA would: • Prevent global helium shortages and promote market-based reforms by implementing a three-phase system (see graphic, right) for operating the Federal Helium Reserve over the next decade until the Reserve is emptied of helium. • Increase transparency and prevent unexpected supply disruptions by requiring the BLM to make more

information available online regarding planned maintenance closures of the Reserve, the duration of the closure and efforts to minimise any impacts to the supply chain. • Require the federal government to work with state geological surveys to complete a national helium gas assessment. • Establish coordinated research on helium-3 isotope that could be used for national defense and clean energy development. Chairman Hastings announced, “This bill is an opportunity for both sides of the aisle to come together and fix a problem that will have serious impacts on American jobs and the economy.” “Helium is no longer just about party balloons and has become a key driver in our high-tech economy. The current federal helium program is outdated and needs to better reflect the current supply and demands for helium. Yet Congress must do more than just keep the Reserve open and maintain the status quo...Reforms are necessary to inject competition and obtain a more accurate price for helium that gets a fair return for taxpayers.” However, gasworld understands that the draft is still far from being a workable solution to this long-running story. It is important to note that this is currently only a discussion draft of the RHASA. But we understand that the industry has identified several significant flaws in this proposed framework and is keen to have these technical and conceptual concerns addressed before legislation is enacted. While it is felt that the draft RHASA does introduce several positive concepts and improvements over previous draft legislation, such as increased competition in the marketplace by providing access to the Reserve to non-refiners, contention remains over the omission of a requirement that helium refiners provide tolling services to non-refiners, among other concerns. With industry set to challenge this latest draft legislation and the understanding that there are a number of challenges to be overcome before the RHASA is workable, it seems this story could continue to run for some time yet.

Related articles online Perturbed by the Helium Cliff? Missed out on the January issue of gasworld magazine? Find out more about the current and future global helium market and the changing dynamics online: www.gasworld.com/2001613.article www.gasworld.com/2001614.article

www.gasworld.com/hottopic


HOT TOPIC

A flawed plan? The proposed three-phase system Source: US House Natural Resources Committee press release

Phase B Phase A The Federal Helium Reserve will continue operating under current law until 1st October 2013 or the date, if later, when the debt is paid off.

A quarterly helium auction will be established to promote competition and ensure a better return for taxpayers. 60% of the crude helium will be made available to refiners and those with existing tolling agreements, while 20% will be available to any bidder (including refiners) that is pre-approved by the Secretary and has a proven interest in helium. As the helium sold to other bidders is refined, an additional amount of the crude helium, up to the remaining 20%, will be made available by auction to refiners and those with existing tolling agreements. The Secretary of the Interior will set a minimum sale price for auctions based on a confidential survey of current market crude helium prices and a review of action prices. The Secretary has the authority to increase or decrease the minimum price based on market conditions.

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Phase C Starting when there is 3 billion cubic feet of helium remaining in the Reserve, commercial sales of helium will end and the remaining helium will only be available for federal national security and scientific needs.

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31


Source: CGA

Interview

100 years of gas safety As the CGA celebrates a century of safety and standards, gasworld interviews current President and CEO Michael Tiller. By Rob Cockerill

W

hen the ‘founding fathers’ of the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) set out to promote safety and self-regulation in 1913, it may have been an altogether different industry, but the philosophy was just the same – striving for a safe, secure and responsible approach to industrial and medical gases. The quest began in 1907, when the United States Congress authorised the Bureau of Explosives (BOE) of the Association of American Railroads to propose regulations for the safe transport

32

of compressed gas in cylinders. Four years later, in 1911, the BOE proposed the first compressed gas regulations to the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and these proposed regulations prompted a number of compressed gas manufacturers to hire Robert King, of the law firm Philbin Beekman & Griscom, to represent their interests with the BOE and the ICC. It soon became evident that a national association of compressed gas manufacturers was needed to promote selfregulation of the industry and from these

foundations, the CGA would soon be born. That moment came in March 1913, two months after King, on behalf of his clients, had sent a letter to the 75 known manufacturers of compressed gas in the US and invited them to attend a meeting in New York with the purpose of organising a new industry association. “The matter of regulation of the gas industry in this country has begun,” King noted in his letter, “and now is the time to take steps to secure uniform, safe and reasonable regulations.” Up to 45 companies indicated support for such an association and on 21st March 1913, the organisational meeting of the Compressed Gas Manufacturers’ Association (CGMA, now CGA) was held. The CGA had arrived and was among the first of the early gas associations, with some of its earliest records indicating that the association and its members worked closely on the initial compressed gas regulations with authorities from the ICC, BOE and other industrial groups. The birth of the CGA came at a difficult time in world events and within years of its formation, during World War I, the then CGMA worked extensively with the US government to provide technical expertise on gases and to develop a programme for the expedited return and refill of empty cylinders. By 1920, the CGMA expanded to include Canadian manufacturers of compressed gas and in 1924, just over a decade after the association had began, its first publication was published, entitled Safe Handling of Compressed Gases. The 1920s would also see the CGMA make proposals for the requirement of labeling of cylinders to promote the clear identification of contents and ownership – the kind of proposals that would still not be out of date today, almost a century later. Illustrious Throughout the decades that followed, the CGA was at the heart of the development of many of the standards, practices, processes and guidelines that the gases industry currently adheres to. Each era has ushered in new advances in technologies and understanding – and the association has been at the forefront of promoting the safe and appropriate self-regulation of the industry. Overseeing developments at the CGA today, and at the helm as the association celebrates its 100th anniversary next month, is President and CEO Michael Tiller. The 55 year-old has been at the CGA for almost 20 years and with the association celebrating such an illustrious history this year, gasworld asks Tiller to identify some of the key moments in its history. www.gasworld.com/interview


Interview

Before highlighting a number of breakthroughs in the industry, Tiller explained, “The founding fathers of the CGA indicated that the association should be technical in nature, as opposed to a marketing-oriented trade association. From the early days, CGA members focused its attention on the development of, and support for, industry standards.” “Today, the aspect of our industry that continues to work with regulators and legislators to develop effective and appropriate regulations fulfilling our mission for the safe, secure, and environmentally responsible manufacture, transportation, storage, transfilling, and disposal of industrial and medical gases and their containers, is really no different today than the philosophy that the founding fathers had a century ago.” Tiller cites a plethora of landmark achievements at the CGA, not just in rules and regulations, but also including efficiency measures for its members and its activities in the 1970s as an early proponent of ‘green’ concerns and environmental awareness. These include: • Tests of cylinders equipped with springloaded pressure relief devices (PRDs) in the 1930s, in order to prove their trustworthiness in protecting cylinders from critical failures in fire. The tests were acknowledged by the BOE when spring-loaded PRDs were accepted in regulations. • Critical research in 1936 formed the basis for calculations of cylinder yield points. • CGMA developed a specification for single-use cylinders in 1945 to address a growing need for small quantities of propane as a cooking fuel and medical gases for emergency response use. Work was also advanced to standardise cylinder valves and cylinder filling practices during this time. • CGMA was reorganised to become the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) in 1948, recognising the importance of including manufacturers of industrial gas equipment in the membership. • As new regulations were developed in the 1960s, the CGA worked to share information with members and promote understanding of new safety requirements and held its first safety seminars in 1962. • The CGA initiated a programme of cooperation with the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) in 1967 to develop medical specifications which recognised medical gases separately from traditional pharmaceuticals. • When the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970, February 2013

the CGA expanded efforts to address environmental impacts created by the industry and to lobby for effective regulations in this area. • In 1978, the CGA established the Leonard Parker Pool Safety Awards to recognise companies that have demonstrated the greatest improvement in safety performance during the previous two years. “This award continues to be a hallmark of safety in the compressed gas industry,” Tiller enthuses. • The CGA established the Compressed Gas Emergency Action Plan (COMPGEAP) as a program of

“The founding fathers of the CGA indicated that the association should be technical in nature...” coordinated response to emergencies involving the physical distribution of compressed gases in the 1980s. • The CGA worked to establish the fleet safety excellence awards in 1988. • In the 1990s the CGA was granted non-governmental organisation (NGO) consultative status at the United Nations (UN) Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (SCETDG) and the Sub-Committee of Experts on the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (SCEGHS). • Also in the 1990s, the CGA worked with the European Industrial Gases Association (EIGA) to coordinate the development of new and revised standards to provide consistent requirements around the world. This was later expanded to form the International Harmonisation Council, which includes CGA, EIGA, the Asia Industrial Gases Association (AIGA), and the Japan Industrial and Medical Gases Association (JIMGA). “In recent years,” Tiller adds, “the CGA continues to advocate for industrial and medical gas safety with a variety of US and Canadian regulators. CGA publications are adopted by reference in many federal regulations, national codes and standards, and model regulations.” Recent successes include the CGA’s work to introduce the Medical Gas Safety Act (2011), which was eventually incorporated into the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act

Accessible Tiller on the accessibility of the CGA… “Starting with our membership criteria, CGA is very open and completely accessible. Any company engaged in the manufacture, sale, transportation, or distribution of industrial or medical gas, or of equipment, materials, or supplies used specifically in connection with, or services specifically provided to, the industrial and medical gas industry, may be eligible for membership in the Association.” “It is very easy for anyone, member or non-member to submit a proposed change to CGA publications through our public website, www.cganet.com. The proposed changes are typically reviewed by a CGA committee during the normal review cycle. If the CGA becomes aware of important changes that are needed to technical or safety information in a publication, well prior to its review cycle, our members are permitted to shorten the revision cycle of a particular publication.”

(FDASIA). July 2012 would see the FDASIA signed into US law by President Obama. The act provides for a certification process for designated medical gases for specified indications where such certification is in effect an approved drug application, but exempts such gases from traditional drug fees. “The Act also requires the FDA to work with industry to determine whether any changes to the Federal drug regulations are necessary for medical gases,” Tiller explains, “and to submit to the Committee on Health, Education, Labour, and Pensions of the Senate and the committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report regarding any such changes.” “This interaction with FDA and Congress will take place over the next four years. In Canada, discussions with Health Canada continue today targeting a similar reappraisal of medical gas regulations.” CGA today As 2013 begins, the CGA maintains over 300 publications and 21 technical committees, while participating in the development of national and international codes to enhance public safety and promote self-regulation of the industry. A century on, the CGA is actively engaged with US and Canadian regulators to incorporate a number of CGA publications into the code of federal

8 33


Interview

100 years of gas safety

4regulations. For example, the CGA

achieved another milestone in 2012 for medical gases in the development and adoption by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy of a Model Act for the Wholesale Distribution of Medical Gases. “This act, once adopted by state governments, will aid to differentiate medical gases from those drug products typically distributed by pharmacists,” Tiller comments. In 2012, the CGA also created a partnership with the Gases and Welding Distributors (GAWDA) association in order to provide CGA publications to GAWDA distributor members. As part of this relationship, CGA and GAWDA co-sponsor an annual Safety Award recognising improvements in safety for distributors. A significant observation for Tiller in the CGA’s anniversary year is the industry’s unwavering commitment to safety and standards. He reflects on the unique position that the gases business finds itself in, as a self-regulated industry, and speaks of his pride at this dedication to safe practice. “Industry’s focus on safety is largely responsible for the acceptance of recommendations and proposed standards among regulators in the US and Canada,” he says. “Many industries would like to be self-regulated but that is rarely achieved because safety is not always the driving force. I am proud to be part of an organisation where safety is truly the driving force for members in our industry.” “To have the credibility needed to influence regulation or legislation, an industry has to demonstrate that it is actually safe and is always striving to improve its safety standards and safety record.” Spotlight on safety At this point in our interview, it seems appropriate to take the spotlight off the CGA briefly and discuss safety within the industry – and the future.

"There is no such thing as 'enough' when it comes to safety..." “When discussing the CGA’s revised strategic plan I described a ‘circle of life’ philosophy. The overall foundation for achieving our industry’s safety mission relies on six interwoven segments, where each part must be effective to be safe – member companies, people, work process, standards, distribution, and adherence.” “The associations around the world promoting safe practices in the gas industry can bring people together, facilitate work processes, develop and distribute standards, but the ‘adherence’ segment takes dedication from companies in our industry to not only support their associations, but to promote safety as a culture within and around their organisation. Company commitment is required to assure everyone who needs them has access to safety standards, that their processes adhere to or exceed the industry’s safe practices by periodically reviewing and

Standardised cylinder acceptance tests and valve thread requirements

1913 CGA began, in its then guise as the CGMA

1910

Tiller is a man that believes there is no such thing as enough when it comes to safety, and is keen to emphasise the responsibility of everyone both inside and outside of the industry. Asked what his message would be to gasworld readers, Tiller explains, “Worldwide safety for our industry relies on everyone who touches our products.” “It relies on those companies that support safety via their participation in their country’s gas and/or equipment associations; but industry safety also relies on those companies who are not involved, as well as our customer base.”

1920 1920s Expanded to include Canadian manufacturers of compressed gas Published its first publication, Safe Handling of Compressed Gases

34

revising their internal practices, training their employees, and being diligent in making sure certain employees are following the standards.” Tiller also gives a rousing call for anyone currently not involved with their regional association to get involved, all in the name of safety. “If your company has experience and expertise I urge you to become involved with your regional industrial and medical gas association,” he encourages. “All companies in our industry should share the cost of developing and making sure everyone follows the safest practices. If you do not have the expertise or ability to play an active role in your association, be certain to obtain and adhere to the safety practices being promoted.” He added, “The public, your customers, your employees and all their families are counting on you to do the right thing.” Questioned whether there was more that could be achieved in the sphere of industrial gas safety, Tiller underlines his mantra that there is no such thing as enough. “I believe many companies are very focused on safety,” he says. But there is no such thing as ‘enough’ when it comes to safety.” “Industrial gas safety is certainly a primary focus for CGA and its members. CGA’s technical committees regularly update our publications, emphasising new technologies and best practices to make our industry safer. Lost time incident rates are improving in most locations thanks to our members around the world, our relationship with GAWDA in the US expands our safety message beyond the major gas and equipment companies, but there is always more that can be achieved.” “We are always looking at ways to get the safety message into the hands of the people who need it. Whether that be expanded development of training materials, better and easier access to seminar presentations, or simply finding a way to reach companies that are not adequately focused on safety.”

1930s Performed fire tests of cylinders equipped with spring-loaded pressure relief devices (PRDs)

1930 Performed critical research to form the basis for calculations of cylinder yield points

1940s Developed a specification for singleuse cylinders Instrumental in the development of lighter weight cylinders

1940

1950

Reorganised to become the CGA (1948) 1950s Incorporated recommendations for a pin index safety system into its publications Developed the diameter index safety system www.gasworld.com/interview


Interview

An interview with the cga

The public domain While talking safety and the responsibility of those not just within the industry but also externally, we are drawn to the subject of gases in the public domain; more specifically, the portrayal and misuse of these hazardous substances. This is a subject that gasworld has covered extensively before and especially with fellow association the BCGA (British Compressed Gases Association). For the CGA, this is also a topic of great concern and Tiller has the same kind of disdain for the irresponsible portrayal of gases as his counterparts at other regional associations. He says, “Overall the public is not aware of the hazards associated with gases and we often see a lackadaisical approach to safety. This philosophy is condoned and confirmed with gases like helium, and recently sulphur hexafluoride, which are used in publicly televised science demonstrations and attempts at humorous displays to alter the tone of the voice on television and in the movies.” “The public is lead to believe that this behaviour is not particularly dangerous, despite documented cases of death from similar gas inhalation abuse. Early in 2012, a US teenager died after inhaling helium at a party, and there have been many other similar cases over the years around the world.” As we continue to discuss this prevalent issue, Tiller talks with almost humour about the impact of taking work home with him as he describes the actions of his ‘gasvigilante’ daughter; it seems there really is never ‘enough’ when it comes to spreading the message of safety. “CGA and other industry associations have sent numerous letters over the years to television stations, commercial sponsors and movie creators trying to get them to stop promoting the misleading appearance that inhaling helium is a safe practice. When my daughter was 16-years-old she got into an argument with her high school teacher who was having students inhale helium

1960s CGA held its first safety seminars and expanded committee activities

1960 Initiated a program of cooperation with the US Pharmacopoeia (USP) to develop medical specifications which recognised medical gases separately from traditional pharmaceuticals February 2013

from balloons as part of science class – apparently this was part of the curriculum.” “My daughter refused to participate and argued why doing so was dangerous. I ended up getting a call from the principal, who didn’t know where I worked, so she was somewhat surprised, and learned a lot, from the response she got from me.” “A year later, the same compressed-

gas-vigilante daughter called a restaurant manager over and asked why a helium cylinder sitting in his reception area wasn’t properly secured. Perhaps I talked about work too much at home.” In all seriousness, Tiller is concerned about the rise of trendy gas-oriented food and beverage concoctions and the lack of knowledge among the general public toward the handling and use of the gases they are essentially dealing with. This is a very modern day subject and the kind of consideration or challenge that probably would not have been dreamt of when the CGA began 100 years ago. It is also an issue that needs to be addressed, he urges. In the late 1990s, the CGA undertook a significant effort to address compressed

1970s With the establishment of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the CGA expanded efforts to address environmental impacts created by the industry

1970

1980s Established the Compressed Gas Emergency Action Plan (COMPGEAP) for coordinated response to emergencies

1980

gas abuse and misuse. The CGA and the National Welding Supply Association (NWSA), now the Gases and Welding Distributors Association (GAWDA), embarked upon a cooperative effort to publish sales and security guidelines to prevent the diversion of nitrous oxide for the purpose of abuse. This information was also provided to regulatory organisations and other interested parties. The CGA and NWSA distributed letters to many companies using commercials promoting inhalation of helium, as well as promoting an understanding of the dangers of helium abuse to schools, advertising agencies, companies, entertainment developers, and so forth. Later, in 2001, the CGA and NWSA also promoted model legislation making the sale of nitrous oxide for recreational inhalation and inhalation of nitrous oxide to ‘get high’ criminal offenses. But the misuse of gases and their irresponsible portrayal is a topic that still seems to make headlines around the world and Tiller is keen to see more action taken. “As restaurants experiment with molecular gastronomy, we are seeing more instances of food and beverage preparation using liquid nitrogen. Unfortunately this practice has led to the horrible incident that Gaby Scanlon in the UK had to endure after the consumption of liquid nitrogen in her cocktail and likely other incidents that could have been avoided.” “Those working in our industry are trained of the dangers and appropriate safety measures needed regarding the products we provide, however as uses for our products extend beyond traditional customers, industry needs to assess how it will deal with communicating the dangers, safe handling procedures and the appropriate uses of our products.” “Whether it is providing adequate customer training or a process of customer qualification, gas companies will need to decide whether or not they want their products used for certain applications.” 8

1990s Began work to harmonise industrial gas requirements across the globe Granted non-governmental organisation (NGO) consultative status

1990

2000

Regulatory advances in the transportation Established the fleet safety sector moved forward at a rapid pace excellence awards Specifications modified for DOT cylinders

Collaborative efforts including CGA result in the formation of the International Harmonisation Council

Established the Leonard Parker Pool Safety Awards in 1978

Efforts undertaken to tackle compressed gas abuse 35


Interview

4Future

As the CGA celebrates a century of standards and safety, it is very much a case of onwards and upwards; Tiller reflects on a number of key targets for 2013 and beyond. One of those ongoing challenges is for global harmonisation. Tiller describes the ‘excellent’ relations it has with sister associations and organisations and how, on a year round basis, the CGA works with other associations to harmonise safety requirements for compressed gases in an effort to share best practices and make global business more effective. “One particular hurdle to this process,” he explains, “is the variance in regional regulatory requirements related to our industry. Though each organisation has been successful in working with regulatory bodies to advance their positions, we are working to evaluate how to work together to better harmonise regulations.” “There are many hurdles in the process of global harmonisation. The primary hurdle is differences in regulations from country to country. Our harmonisation process is still in a relatively early stage. We are in the process of identifying and filling any gaps where standards do not exist, as well as identifying inconsistencies in practices and determining if those differences are due to different safety philosophies from region to region or adherence to different countries’ regulations.” “Those practices that are different safety philosophies can be evaluated and adjudicated via today’s harmonisation process. But those that are due to different regulations create an interesting long-term future for harmonisation. Should industry strive to harmonise regulations in all countries around the world in addition to its own safety standards?” “Right now harmonisation of industry publications and practices is formidable on its own, without having to convince every regulatory body from every country to change their regulations to what industry believes is the best safety practice.”

An interview with the cga

The year ahead will also see the continuation of the CGA’s work to address medical gas regulations with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Congress and Health Canada, while the association will drive the adoption of the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Model Act for the Wholesale Distribution of Medical Gases by state governments in the US. Ongoing work with DOT, DHS OSHA, and Transport Canada will continue, as

"CGA is proud to be a part of the industrial gas industry"

will participation with ISO and the UN, we understand. Meanwhile the CGA is internally investigating several improvements to its technology offerings and staff structure to best serve its membership. But 2013 is a year of celebration for the CGA and Tiller describes some of the developments taking place at the Chantilly, Virginia-based organisation. “In addition to continuously improving our publications, of course the 100th anniversary will be a primary focus for CGA in 2013. We are excited to share this milestone with our members and industry contacts and have prepared extensive historical materials celebrating the industry and association’s achievements throughout the last century. We will also publish a revised and expanded CGA Handbook of Compressed Gases this year.” “CGA is tremendously excited to celebrate the 100th anniversary with our members, other safety organisations, and stakeholders. Our main celebration event will be our 100th Annual Meeting, to be held in Scottsdale, Arizona from 7th to 12 April. We will also be working throughout the year to communicate CGA’s longstanding safety achievements, industry safety advances,

CGA Structure Tiller on the structure of the CGA… “CGA’s funding comes from its members and the customers of our publications and seminars. Our members, whose dues not only provide over 80% of our revenue, also provide the technical experts to populate our 21 standing technical committees, 323 active work items, and over 600 meetings last year.” “Their contribution to CGA’s safety mission and to the safety of the industry as a whole is huge.”

2000s CGA and NWSA (now GAWDA) promote model legislation in efforts to tackle compressed gas abuse Formed a Security Committee to interface with the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with regard to industrial gas security topics

2010s Work to introduce the Medical Gas Safety Act, incorporated into the Food and Drug Administration Safety Innovation Act (FDASIA)

Released innovative member website

FDASIA signed into US law by President Obama (2012)

2000 Worked to secure a contract with US Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop codes and standards need for the developing hydrogen infrastructure 36

and the importance of self-regulation.” “In addition to these special events, we will hold over 300 technical committee, task force, ad hoc committee, and expedited work process committee meetings in 2013." "We typically produce 40 to 50 new or updated publications per year. But we are excited to be publishing the 5th edition of the CGA Handbook of Compressed Gases in 2013. The last edition was published in 1999; our members were able to add a significant amount of new information to the new Handbook. This will also be the first time that the Handbook is published in colour!” In closing, Tiller reflects again on the CGA’s pride at the inherent focus of the gases industry and this ongoing commitment to safety. “As a safety organisation, CGA is proud to be a part of the industrial gas industry. Our members have always demonstrated a focus on safety through their support of CGA’s technical committees, publication development, and self-regulation efforts.” “And although there is always room for improvement, the safety focus within our member companies is exemplary and efforts to advance safety across the industry are always well-supported.”

Partnership created with GAWDA to provide CGA publications to GAWDA distributor members

2010 Maintains over 300 publications and 21 technical committees (2012) Celebrates 100th anniversary (21st March 2013) www.gasworld.com/interview


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SPECIAL FEATURE

Identifying hazards and mitigating risks By Stephen Harrison

A

lthough critical for the operation of many industries, industrial gases can be associated with a spectrum of possible hazards and need to be treated with respect, assessing and controlling the relevant risks. From minor injury at one end of the scale, to potentially more serious damage to health and although rare - even death, at the other end, the safe handling of gases is vital. Effective product stewardship is therefore required to uphold safety levels at such facilities – a holistic approach to product responsibility that involves identifying the possible hazards and evaluating the risks that may stem from a product throughout all stages of its lifecycle. The risk potential is assessed in relation to employees, neighbouring facilities, and the environment; the aim is then to avoid or reduce these risks as far as possible. Physical and health hazards One of the main hazards when handling

38

gases is toxicity. Examples of gases that fall under this hazard category include carbon monoxide or some of the gases that contain sulfur, such as hydrogen sulphide or carbonyl sulphide, which are commonly produced in refineries, chemical and petrochemical plant operations, especially with increased de-sulfurisation taking place in refineries as oil companies are forced to tap into a lower quality of crude. Any leakage of these gases potentially creates a significant safety issue. Another leading hazard is the flammability of gases – and with flammability comes the more severe implication of explosion. There are multiple gases which are classified as flammable, but often many of them generally only pose a flammability hazard when mixed with air or other oxidants, creating a combustible atmosphere that might be ignited by flames, sparks, hot surfaces, electrostatic energy or other ignition sources. Asphyxiation is another primary hazard.

© Linde Gases

Industrial gas safety

Asphyxiation occurs where there is a lack of oxygen and it only takes two deep breaths in an atmosphere that excludes oxygen – for instance where air has been displaced by pure nitrogen – to cause an individual to collapse instantly into unconsciousness. If they continue to inhale the nitrogen while unconscious, death will follow very rapidly. Asphyxiation is often referred to as ‘the silent killer’ as there is seldom any warning that these inert gases are present in such a large volume. With these inert gases, there are no warning odours and often the absence of visible vapour clouds. Oxygen deficiency can occur as a result of an excess of nitrogen, which might perhaps be used intentionally on a refinery for the purpose of enhancing safety. For example, to blanket a flammable atmosphere, or as an initial step to purge a storage vessel that previously contained a flammable gas, to allow welders to subsequently work in the vessel after a second purge with breathable air. In www.gasworld.com/specialfeatures


SPECIAL FEATURE

these cases of confined space entry, it is imperative to have a robust work permit system in place, to ensure the atmosphere in the confined space is safe before entering. The entry permit procedure should include confirmation of ventilation, gas monitoring equipment, availability of rescue equipment, and a safety guard on duty just outside of the confined space. Conversely, the other safety issue associated with oxygen is if too much of it is present. During oxygen enrichment, if oxygen levels exceed 23%, combustion procedures that are very familiar are altered. For example, in a normal air atmosphere, a welding flame would burn at a controllable rate, but where there is too much oxygen present, flames unexpectedly burn with a much larger flame. Oxygen enrichment could be caused by a leak of oxygen, which is often used in large quantities for many applications in industrial facilities such as refineries, including contemporary de-sulfurisation processes. The potential for a major leakage is small, but it must be considered as a potential hazard. The next safety issue is corrosive gases, which are generally also toxic, and have the potential to cause rashes, long-term skin damage and also burn respiratory tissue on contact, with potentially fatal consequences. Gases in this category include ammonia and the hydrogen chloride used on plants for de-scaling piping and process equipment. These scale deposits are sometimes flushed with gases such as hydrogen chloride, which are acidic and capable of efficiently returning process equipment to its original state, thereby improving its performance. These potentially hazardous gases are intentionally handled in plants for maintenance purposes or produced as byproducts and providing they remain within the system, there is no threat. However, these gases are aggressive – particularly in combination with high moisture content - and have the potential, over time, to dissolve pipe work and create holes from which they and other gases can escape. A niche category of hazards is radiation. Some instrumentation and level control devices harness radioactive sources for optimal function. For example, a radioactive float can be used to measure the liquid levels. The rare gas isotope Krypton 85 might also be present in some refineries. Although radiation is an uncommon hazard on refineries and petrochemical plants, where radioactive materials are being processed, plant personnel should have a good understanding of the associated risks. Then there is the element of hazard related to pressure. Many cylinder gases February 2013

are stored under pressures up to 300 bar. This represents high energy and the hazard therefore relates to a sudden release of pressure that could harm personnel, and damage to assets – especially if the cylinder itself is projected at a high velocity due to the sudden release of the pressure energy. Providing gas cylinders are used as instructed and stored in well ventilated areas and at normal temperatures, there is rarely an incident. However, if these cylinders are placed in direct and intense sunlight they begin to heat up and the gas inside starts to increase in pressure. With most gas products, this doesn’t pose a problem because the cylinder is

“Although nitrogen is used to mitigate another hazard, it brings its own hazards to the site...”

designed to withstand this pressure build up, but with liquefied gas such as LPG, the contents begin to vapourise when the cylinder is heated and a leak due to overpressurisation could occur. Additionally, if cylinders are exposed to extreme heat sources such as a fire, pressure can build up to a point where it will rupture the cylinder and explode, releasing the considerable stored energy in the cylinder in a dramatic fashion – essentially a phenomenal explosion with potentially very severe consequences. Gas cylinders are designed to safely contain their contents up to 1.5 times the normal working pressure, but a fire near any cylinders could overcome this safe limit and have severe consequences for personnel, as well as fire fighting teams. These teams need to be aware of the hazard in order to be able to make the right decisions in an emergency situation. Moving on from cylinders, liquid nitrogen is an example of a gas that is often supplied to and stored on the refinery as a cryogenic liquid. It is often used as a purge gas to blanket the top of a storage vessel for enhanced safety. Although nitrogen is used, in this application, to mitigate another hazard, it brings its own hazards to the site. Under normal storage conditions, liquid nitrogen exists at the extremely low temperature of -196ºC. If a leakage occurs, liquid nitrogen can cause skin and tissue damage, known as ‘cold burns’. Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is non-negotiable when handling cryogenic or corrosive gases and

cylinders & fires Gas cylinders are designed to safely contain their contents up to 1.5 times the normal working pressure, but a fire near any cylinders could overcome this safe limit.

heavy gas cylinders. Complete chemical body suits are used to protect personnel entering atmospheres that contain high levels of toxic gases or where the presence of these gases is suspected. Linde, for example, provides a wide range of PPE and breathable air for personnel who wear chemical body suits, supplied in a cylinder or through a piping system into the suit. Chemical hazards Dissolved acetylene gas, used for welding and cutting metal and for a variety of maintenance operations on the plant, is supplied to a refinery in a cylinder in which the acetylene is dissolved in a solvent which is supported in a porous mass. Cylinders containing dissolved acetylene are particularly sensitive to heat sources and the difficulty is that heat exposure could take place unknown to plant personnel. Such an insidious kind of reaction might propagate from a small beginning, with no one aware that it has begun. Hours later and the cylinder might explode for no apparent reason. Therefore best practice has typically been, where the cylinder is suspected to have been exposed to a heat source, such as a nearby fire or excessive sunlight, it should be cooled down for at least 24 hours before being handled; then a complete inspection has to be carried out before using it again. Additionally, immediate advice should be sought from the gas supplier, if such a situation is suspected. However, a recent research breakthrough dispels this concept and has concluded that just one hour cooling time followed by a further one hour monitoring precaution would be more than prudent (see page 42). Material handling hazards There are also several safety issues associated with the transport and handling of gases. For instance, many gases are supplied to the plant in large, heavy cylinders that can weigh up to 70kg and the simple act of manual handling could involve health hazards to plant personnel. The risk of injury associated with handling heavy gas cylinders can often be mitigated by placing cylinders in a covered but open-walled outside storage area, close to where the cylinders are delivered, and piping the gas indoors to where it 8 33 39


SPECIAL FEATURE

4 is needed in the plant or laboratory. A

central external storage area also helps to address the risks associated with potential gas leaks through suitable ventilation and can minimise cylinder delivery vehicle movements. As part of its HiQ® specialty gases and equipment product range, Linde designs, installs and maintains central gas supply systems to safety supply potentially dangerous gases from these central cylinder stores to multiple local work areas. Another hazard is the movement of gas delivery vehicles on site. Gas cylinder delivery trucks and bulk liquid tankers can drive to each gas storage area to minimise potential handling risks, but in turn, their presence on site can pose a potential safety hazard to personnel walking around in the area. Occasionally, enough emphasis is not placed on these basic, everyday physical and material handling risks as attention is sometimes diverted to the potentially more severe hazards of toxicity or explosion.

Mitigation To mitigate the safety risks, ideally plant personnel should ensure that leaks from pipe work and equipment never occur. Since we do not work in a perfect world, however, continuous testing should take place for the presence of leaks. This precaution also applies before new plant facilities are commissioned. Leak detection is a key way to mitigate many safety risks related to gases. Gases used for leak detection are often pure helium or mix of helium in nitrogen and Linde Gas is able to help with these gases, providing, for example, cylinders containing a mixture of 10% helium in nitrogen. Helium is a very small molecule and quickly draws attention to the presence of a leak. It is also ideal for leak testing because it can be selectively Leak detection detected using a helium Leak detection is a key ‘sniffer’, which way to mitigate many is a simple gas safety risks related to chromatograph. gases. Gases used for leak Helium is detection are often pure not normally helium or mix of helium present in the in nitrogen and Linde atmosphere in Gas is able to help with large quantities, these gases, providing, so if it is for example, cylinders detected by the containing a mixture of sniffer, it is 10% helium in nitrogen. a conclusive indication of a leak. However, through 40

Identifying hazards and mitigating risks – industrial gas safety

extended use, equipment vibrates and ages. Cracks can appear, flanges can loosen and corrosion occurs. Over time, even if successful leak tests in the build phase have been conducted, long-term deterioration is inevitable. Plant personnel therefore need to detect gas leaks on a continuous basis using sensors and detectors placed around the refinery that are primed to detect very specific kinds of gas leaks. Gas detectors are used to monitor for and warn of the existence of specific toxic or combustible gases and oxygen deficiency or enrichment hazards. Typical measurement levels will be in the low parts per million levels for toxic gas, while combustible gases are

“Leak detection is a key way to mitigate many safety risks related to gases...”

measured in percent levels related to the lower explosive limit (LEL) and oxygen deficiency/enrichment in percent level of oxygen around the target of 21%. Gas detection monitoring devices can be classified in three ways. A fixed system refers to a stationary monitoring system permanently installed in the workplace. The detecting sensor may be hard wired, or use wireless signals to a central reporting station. Most will come with an auditory alarm system. The type of sensor used will be defined by the system, as well as the gas or gases to be detected. Fixed gas detection can be used indoors, as well as having outdoor use as a perimeter monitor with chemical manufacturing and petrochemical sites. Gas detectors are quite specific in what they search for. One detector may be deployed to identify oxygen, either to flag enrichment or a deficiency, while another might be primed to detect a flammable gas leak, such as methane, or a toxic gas like sulphur dioxide. Knowing which gases are being handled in a particular plant, the gas detection system can be tailored to detect specific leaks. In terms of portable devices, when personnel walk through different areas where a variety of gases may be used, four sensors are commonly built into one device to detect main typical risks. Area monitoring detection offers the benefits of a multi-gas fixed system in a transportable unit. These units are designed for team protection or area surveillance for short-term work where fixed gas systems are not suitable.

Portable gas detection refers to gas detectors inventory which are management carried or worn by the plant Another mitigation tool is employee as inventory management. The part of their more cylinders on site, the PPE. Typically more chemicals present and battery the more opportunity for operated, cylinder valve leakages. By portable storing only what is needed, monitors are the probability of a potentially used for toxic hazardous leak is reduced as or combustible well as the potential severity of gas detection, the consequences. as well as for oxygen deficiency/enrichment monitoring in confined spaces. Linde’s G-TECTA™ portable gas detection range offers simple one-button operation and can be used and tested by field engineers through to manufacturing operatives, ensuring reliable and high quality gas readings and an immediate warning indication if there are any issues with the functionality of the sensor. G-TECTA is certified to global standards and is suitable for use in potentially explosive environments as well as safe areas. While the efficacy of the human nose as an extremely reliable gas detector cannot be ruled out - certain toxic gases, such as hydrogen sulphide, which smells like rotten eggs, or the pungent odour of ammonia can be detected by smell – many gases have no odour and make their detection by the human nose impossible. In addition to Linde’s G-TECTA gas detection range, Linde supplies a full range of test mixtures and calibration gases to ensure the optimal function of gas detectors critical in potentially life-threatening circumstances. A simple but effective way to mitigate gas risks on-site is to keep personnel fully informed of hazards through safety data sheets and proper product labelling. This information is critical to conducting risk assessments relating to handling and usage. Training is another option and here Linde provides gas safety courses, seminars and workshops for gas users. Yet another mitigation tool is inventory management. The more cylinders on-site, the more chemicals present and the more opportunity for cylinder valve leakages. By storing only what is needed, the probability of a potentially hazardous leak is reduced as well as the potential severity of the consequences. Through its internet based ACCURA® cylinder tracking service, Linde can help gas users take complete control of their cylinder inventories including movement history, batch expiry dates and 8 www.gasworld.com/specialfeatures


Trust is inspired by quality, safety and reliability.

At Linde, quality, safety and reliability are defining criteria for all our products, technologies and services. They lay the foundation for the relationships of trust that we build with our customers. Lindeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitment to its customers does not stop with the supply of industrial gases. We ensure our products are designed and supplied to help our customers meet the highest standards of safety. We offer an end-to-end safety programme for gas systems operators that includes training sessions, gas supply risk analysis, facility audits and maintenance, as well as safety accessories. Safety is a core value at Linde. Our proactive approach can help you meet your legal and safety responsibilities. Our goal at Linde is zero incidents which is why we actively support our customers towards the same goal. This is just one example of how Linde, with around 62,000 employees in more than 100 countries worldwide, is helping to find tomorrowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s solutions today by developing innovative ideas that set new standards. Linde â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ideas become solutions.

www.linde.com


Identifying hazards and mitigating risks – industrial gas safety

© Linde Gases

SPECIAL FEATURE

4 custom warnings. Additionally, for bulk

gas supplies, Linde’s remote SECCURA® service will monitor gas levels and manifold pressures, in addition to organising replacement of cylinders and bundles by trained Linde drivers, further mitigating potential incidents. International legislation driving safety Legislation is rapidly tightening to boost the safety of gas handling and usage to entirely new levels. This impacts on product registration, classification and labelling,

reach and ghs Two of the biggest regulatory developments driving legislative change are REACH and the Globally Harmonised System of Classification (GHS). REACH is a European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use. The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS), addresses the classification of chemicals by types of hazard and proposes harmonised hazard communication elements, including labels and safety data sheets.

impact of ghs The global implementation of GHS will affect over 60 countries and will directly impact all pure gases in the EU countries from 1st December 2010, with the re-classification of gas mixtures being implemented from 2015.

42

packaging and transportation, storage, product information and product disposal. Two of the biggest regulatory developments driving legislative change are REACH and the Globally Harmonised System of Classification (GHS). REACH is a European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use. In the process of being implemented, REACH deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances. The purpose of this regulation is to ensure a high level of protection for human health and the environment. This includes the promotion of alternative methods for assessment of hazards of chemicals, as well as the free movement of substances on the market of the European Union. REACH makes industry responsible for assessing and managing the risks posed by chemicals and providing appropriate safety information to their users. Substances in volumes over one ton per year that are either manufactured or imported into the EU (even in preparations/ mixtures and articles), now have to be registered. The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS), addresses the classification of chemicals by types of hazard and proposes harmonised hazard communication elements, including labels and safety data sheets. It aims at ensuring that information on physical hazards and toxicity from chemicals be made available to enhance the protection of human health and the environment during the handling, transport and use of these chemicals. The GHS also provides a basis for harmonisation of rules and regulations on chemicals at national, regional and worldwide level, an important factor also for trade facilitation. Linde Gases is not only taking the

necessary steps to not only align itself to the GHS across its entire range of gases and chemicals, but has also launched an initiative to help its gases customers to understand and adopt the multiple changes that will impact the way gases are transported, stored and handled across their supply chains. The company has published a detailed Gases and Applications handbook to provide clear pictorial representations of the new GHS classification and labelling system and comparisons with existing EU classification systems, aims to clarify updated property descriptions of hazardous products and their main labelling information. The global implementation of GHS will affect over 60 countries and will directly impact all pure gases in the EU countries from 1st December 2010, with the re-classification of gas mixtures being implemented from 2015. Yet another critical piece of the gas safety jigsaw is the quality standard ISO 10156 which impacts on how flammable and oxidising gases are defined, labelled and where and how they should be stored. While most countries have systems for the classification of hazardous chemicals - including gases - to ensure safe transportation, storage, use and disposal, to date various national or regional systems have not always been compatible. This incompatibility has often meant the relabelling, or the use of multiple labels, on a product, increasing the risks involved in handling gases. For organisations operating at an international level, the need to comply with multiple regulations on hazard classification and labelling has meant that end-users may perceive inconsistent label warnings, therefore increasing the risks involved in handling a particular gas, in addition to the added time or barriers companies may face to align their classification and labelling with local requirements. “Regardless of the extent of gas usage in a lab or industrial setting, teaching personnel about the properties and potential risks of different gases will improve safety,” comments Steve Harrison, Head of Specialty Gases and Specialty Equipment at The Linde Group. “Preventive maintenance is another critical component of safety when it comes to gas handling. We recommend that routine inspections are carried out by our trained professionals to ensure that pressurised gas systems are always in compliance with local regulations and fully optimised to operate at their peak performance. Any deviations from regulations, or early warning signs such as leaks or breakdowns, should be addressed immediately.” www.gasworld.com/specialfeatures


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33 43


SPECIAL FEATURE

Worth the wait

Breakthrough in cylinder safety challenges common perceptions

L

ike all closed metal containers, gas cylinders present an explosion risk if exposed to fire. Fire and Rescue Services (FRS) are aware of this and have safe methods for dealing with cylinders involved in fires. If the contained gas is flammable, or is oxygen, this can considerably increase fire loads. But dissolved acetylene (DA) in particular has distinct properties which require special precautions. The direct heat of a fire may, in extreme circumstances, initiate decomposition of acetylene. As an exothermic (heat creating) reaction, this could cause a DA cylinder to reheat after the fire is extinguished. Until recently, this has meant that safety measures for such incidents have been what is now proven to be excessively precautious, involving water cooling for at least 24 hours and a hazard zone of up to 200m. 44

Now, however, a significant breakthrough has been made where acetylene cylinders in fires are concerned â&#x20AC;&#x201C; challenging everything that had previously been accepted about decomposition and the safe close out of hazardous incidents. While it may have been a long time coming, the results of a rigorous and major research project involving up to five stakeholder parties could change this particular approach to safety across the world. Disruption DA is the most flexible oxyfuel gas and is used across multiple welding and metal cutting applications. Put simply, there is no replacement for it and when handled, stored and transported correctly, acetylene is perfectly safe and has been invaluable to industry for over 150 years. From 2003 until recently, and only in the

UK, FRS had operated with considerable precaution for DA cylinders, which involved water cooling them for at least 24 hours, during which a hazard zone of 200m radius was usually maintained throughout. Whilst very safe, this often lead to major disruption which, in turn, prejudiced safety away from the incident. The UK protocol had been at odds with what previously operated safely in the UK prior to 2003 and still operated safely in other countries. In 2006 the British Compressed Gases Association (BCGA) joined senior representatives from the Fire Service, Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Department for Transport (DfT), Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), Highways Agency, Police, Network Rail, Transport for London (TFL) and others, to form a National Stakeholder Group (NSG) to work together on the issue. www.gasworld.com/specialfeatures


SPECIAL FEATURE

A sub-set of these stakeholders cofunded major research into acetylene decomposition and the behaviours of cylinders in fires, conducted over a number of years from 2008 by BAM, the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing. BAM is world renowned in acetylene science and research and the task was to find out, with certainty, how many hours of realistic cooling it takes to be sure that no decomposition can be ongoing and therefore, that it is safe to close out an incident completely. Years later, the results would offer to significantly change approaches to cylinders in fires. Breakthrough Among the findings, it was discovered that mechanical impact alone to an unheated cylinder cannot initiate acetylene decomposition. Furthermore, the cooling needed to ensure that any decomposition reaction caused was extensively investigated and the precautionary 24-hour cooling period was proved to have been considerably excessive. The results from the BAM work may be summarised as follows: • Mechanical impact alone CANNOT initiate acetylene decomposition. • A robust combination of heat transfer experimentation and computer modelling has produced a model which could be questioned for various ‘what if?’ scenarios and cooling rates. The modeling conclusions were then confirmed through small and full-scale fire tests. • Decomposition of acetylene cannot be initiated until at least 350ºc, meaning that only a cylinder which has been exposed to direct flame impingement can be at any risk. • Polymerisation reactions of acetylene can occur at temperatures below 300ºc, but these are pressure-reducing reactions and therefore not of concern to FRS. • Finally, the BAM work confirmed that the 24-hour precautionary cooling period had been very significantly excessive. The scope and validity of the BAM work was discussed extensively with the Fire Service and with DCLG’s expert panel of consultant Professors and a recommendation was accepted that just one hour of cooling followed by a further one hour of monitoring precaution would be more than prudent. It is no coincidence that the findings of the BAM research agreed exactly with the empirical evidence found at real incidents. February 2013

Doug Thornton, Chief Executive of the BCGA, has personally invested considerable time and effort into this quest and spoke of his delight at the research project finally coming to fruition. He explained, “This is a good news story for acetylene as a product, which had been facing unjustified calls for it to be banned or replaced, but also for the Fire and Rescue Services, who had been wasting great amounts of firefighter and appliance time.” “It also is of great benefit to society at large, where it had been clear that the disruption caused around acetylene

© BAM Ignition cavity with cover wagon for the backfire test of acetylene cylinders.

“The research brought real science and fact to displace the myths...”

incidents had caused huge inconvenience and also, sometimes, had prejudiced safety away from the incident through emergency services being delayed in road congestion.” Where do we go from here? The conclusions of the BAM work were finally incorporated into new UK FRS HazMat guidance published in November 2012 and it is thought that these findings are of global significance, to both Fire and Rescue Services and other organisations alike. In the UK, BCGA members have been offered various initiatives to help, including: • Special retro-reflective marking tape is being applied to DA cylinders, to help the FRS identify DA more easily. • The UK’s DSEAR (Dangerous Substances Explosive Atmospheres) Regulations require users to undertake a comprehensive risk assessment that mandates the use of flashback arrestors (it is not clear that all users are fully aware of DSEAR). BCGA fully endorses

the mandatory use of flashback arrestors. • BCGA has developed a simple risk assessment model for oxy-acetylene users – available free to download as TIS15. • A full DSEAR risk assessment model is summarised in BCGA Guidance Note GN13. The BCGA has also made agreement with online trading website EBAY to ban the sale of DA cylinders through its site as a means of restricting access to the product by untrained and unskilled individuals. The association will also continue to help the Fire Service through training and provision of training material to HazMat officers within the Fire Service. In addition, BCGA members offer the emergency services expert help at incidents through its Competent Person Scheme. The BCGA has also advised on the potential effects of mechanical impact to DA cylinders, which will help police and Highways agency staff when dealing with road traffic incidents. It is hoped that the new UK protocol may be adopted in other countries too and thereby mitigate needless disruption by such incidents. Thornton reflected on the success of this research project for the BCGA and concluded, “This is a great result. I’d like to take the chance to thank those who funded the BAM research, but also those in the Fire Service, particularly Sir Ken Knight (The Government’s Chief Fire and Rescue Advisor) who were open-minded enough to accept the challenge to what had seemed to be best practice, but in reality was based on myth and folklore.” “The research brought real science and fact to displace the myths.”

MORE INFORMATION More detail on the BAM research, the new UK Hazmat guidance and a number of relevant publications can be seen on www.bcga.co.uk/preview/cif.php

45


Column

Knowledge is key in the ongoing quest for safety With Theresa Boehl

S

46

In addition to resources, it’s also important to have set goals and identify successful facilities to look up to and emulate © Cryofab

Weisend outlined oxygen deficiency hazards (ODH), a very serious phenomenon that is especially relevant for professionals working in cryogenic facilities. He warns that when inert gases such as nitrogen, helium or argon displace room air, they lower the percentage of oxygen in the space below that is required for human life. OSHA defines an area as oxygen deficient if the percentage of oxygen is less than 19.5% by volume. “It’s very important to understand that this is not a hazard associated only with large cryogenic facilities or applications,” Weisend reminds us. “Even small amounts of cryogenic liquids can create lethal conditions in small areas and rooms.” Knowing how to avoid these lethal conditions is a matter of education, prevention and attention. To that end, several national labs in the US offer formal ODH policies and techniques online, including Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (http://2csa.us/3q), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (http://2csa.us/65) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (http://2csa. us/66). Jefferson Lab also features an online ODH test to accompany their safety information: http://2csa.us/67. Surely these few resources I’ve listed

ome months back, I took a tour of the cryogenic facilities at a university overseas, a special day trip organised as part of a conference I was attending. Needless to say, facility tours are not always action-packed, but nonetheless I was poised with my camera, ready for any interesting shots that might present themselves. A dozen or so tour attendees were milling about among the machinery and equipment when a technician walked up to a dewar. Seconds later, billowy clouds of vapour expanded down at our feet, with tiny liquid droplets dancing around on the concrete floor before disappearing. This was the kind of action I was ready for. But as I snapped away, a fellow tour participant who had also witnessed the impromptu cryo show leaned over to me, shook his head and said in a low voice, “That’s dangerous.” None of the other tour participants looked concerned, but I stopped taking photos for a minute and thought, ‘actually, maybe he’s right’. It just goes to show how easily that potentially dangerous situations can arise when your mind is somewhere else completely. Safety – it’s the topic that never gets old. The good news is that since there will always be a need to maintain safe facilities and environments, you can be sure that there will always be a supply of resources to help professionals learn more about safe procedures and habits. The real challenge is knowing where to find these resources – documents, organisations, training opportunities – and keeping up with them. At the Cryogenic Society of America (CSA), our biggest resource is our membership, whose knowledge and expertise are valuable for cryogenics professionals around the world. John Weisend, CSA Chairman and Senior Scientist in the Cryogenics Group of the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden, writes a ‘Defining Cryogenics’ column for Cold Facts magazine for example, in which he does an excellent job of explaining fundamental concepts in the world of cryogenics. In his Fall/Autumn 2011 column,

are just the tip of the iceberg, but I encourage readers to explore these and any other resources they might have at their fingertips. In addition to resources, it’s also important to have set goals and identify successful facilities to look up to and emulate. In a recent newsletter, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory reported that despite maintaining facilities that use large amounts of gases and cryogenic liquids, they have never suffered a serious oxygen deficiency injury. While it may seem that dangerous situations are lurking around every corner, it’s encouraging to hear that safety can be continuously maintained on any scale, as long as sound procedures and precautions are in place.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Theresa Boehl is Editor of Cold Facts magazine, the magazine of the Cryogenic Society of America, Inc. (CSA) To see more articles from the Cryo Corner, follow the link below or scan the QR code. www.gasworld.com/ columnists

www.gasworld.com/columnists


© Messer

SPECIAL FEATURE

Cryogenic distribution Repair and refurbishment – Safety first

T

hinking of replacing your tired and outdated tanker? Confident in its payload and current compliance, but concerned that technology development and evolving standards might leave it trailing behind in the years to come? Well it may be time to think again, for the repair and refurbishment of existing cryogenic tanks and trailers could open up a whole new avenue in safety and innovation. Distribution is a vital part of the industrial gas supply chain, striving to deliver the correct gases, of the correct quality, to the correct location, at the correct time, and in the correct mode of supply. With distribution costs thought to make up some 50% of all air gas industry (AGI) costs, according to a projection last year in gasworld magazine, the performance of the cryogenic fleet is 48

significant, if not integral. Over a trailer’s 20-30 years expected life, the cost of operations and maintenance is likely to cost more than the initial capital investment. Repair and refurbishment is, most importantly, key to delivering on safety goals and reducing accidents, while it can also present a branding opportunity as the upkeep of the livery could include new decals. The most common road accident reasons within the air gases industry are roll-over incidents, quite often as liquid moves from side to side and in a second wave, pushes the trailer onto its side, or in some circumstances where the driver has to make a fast steering change to avoid hinderers and the trailer then swings and turns over. Despite driver training, this has been a frequent cause for accident,

often leading to damage to trailers, trucks, and drivers – and third parties. Frequent accidents with rollovers, which we understand are a challenge for all or most industrial gas companies, are possible to reduce via a combination of lower tanks and the latest in running gear design. The whole industry is striving to reduce such incidents, via better understanding, more training and better equipment. In fact, improving safety has never been more important and keeping the utmost attention on this ambition will only continue in the future. Equally, there is little doubt about the continued trend towards specialisation and high performance in the future of the cryogenic distribution business – on all levels. A platform for innovation When investing in the upkeep and safety of

“...refurbishment and repair can give many additional years service” www.gasworld.com/specialfeatures


SPECIAL FEATURE

a cryogenic trailer, why not maximise the return on investment and consider that time spent in rehab as a platform for upgrades and innovation? Repair and refurbishment represents an opportunity not just to implement new technologies, but also as a platform to come up with even newer ideas and concepts based on the experiences and first-hand findings of servicing/repair operations. What could repair and refurbishment do for your cryogenic fleet? If a tanker has a shelf-life of 20-30 years, considering the cycles of improvement that technologies will go through in that time, there could be multiple major phases of upgrade in your trailer’s lifetime. Continuous Improvements progress the design and evolution of the trailer itself, while it is also likely that the axle specialists, pump specialists and flow meter specialists will also add more Continuous Improvement contributions – paving the way to more dedicated tankers and optimal performance. As time evolves, trailers will likely have substantially more payload, use less fuel, be faster to both fill and discharge, and offer greater road stability. Refurbishment, while limited in its capabilities, offers the platform to better optimise the trailer and fleet in line with modern demands. Repair and refurbishment services vary by company/manufacturer but can often include: • Vacuum and plumbing repairs • Replacement of piping and valve components • Installation of replacement OEM parts and/or repair of existing components • Work to reduce rollovers and both inner and outer shell repair • Re-insulating, helping to minimise product losses • Perlite repacking • Tailor-made service to encompass specific customer requirements • Leak testing • Pressure testing • Equipment modifications • Cosmetic repairs • Inspection and compliance checks Jason Gill, Technical Sales Director at UK-based M1 Engineering Ltd, described the advantages of refurbishing a cryogenic trailer, “Providing the vessel is adequately sized in volume (to be filled to latest Gross Vehicle Weights) and is light enough in construction to give a high payload, vessels after refurbishment and repair February 2013

getting closer to customers with after sales service Chart Ferox has announced the expansion of its after sales service support for SPV’s (small pressure vessels) in additional European locations, Chart Italy (Padova) and Chart France (Fonsorbes). These two certified service centres enable Chart to deal with vacuum and plumbing repairs on small cryogenic pressure vessels up to 230 litres capacity and represent an example of repair and refurbishment services as a platform for upgrades and innovation. “Our aim is to supply our customers with the best quality products and full after sales support which are key factors in enabling us to increase our business in these regions,” stated Philippe Lartigaud, Sales and Marketing Director, Chart Europe . All repairs will be completed to Chart’s high standards and comprehensive technical support will be readily available. An essential part of Chart’s customer support is an easy accessible main spare parts business tool. The rehab shops in Chart Ferox Děčín specialising in the repair and refurbishment of all sizes cryogenic tanks, ISO Containers and trailers from simple leak and plumbing repairs to replacement of piping and valve components. Extensive work for rollovers and inner and outer shell repair, re-insulating

can give many additional years service. For example, a trailer chassis may last 15 years, but a tank can go on to give 30+ years service.” “There needs, however, to be a study on whether the old equipment is really efficient; old steel trailers are often in excess of 2,000kg heavier than newer aluminium designs which bring operational benefits through reduced distribution costs.” “The main benefit for a gas company/ operator is reduced investment over a new trailer – this can be in excess of a 50% saving on the cost of new equipment.” Gill explains that refurbishing trailers can also introduce new technologies such as: • Wabco opti-turn for improved steering • New pumps for higher pressure deliveries • Redesign of piping to allow ease of driver operation, • Improved lighting (LEDs over bulbs) • Anti-tow aways systems • Roll Stability for improved safety. A whole host of companies are dedicated to the repair and refurbishment of cryogenic tanks and trailers, while most manufacturers also provide these services

and vacuum work is also among the full service options available. The repair facility is integrated with Chart’s manufacturing site, so the latest updates in equipment design and manufacturing processes are always built into these repairs. The online store allows customers the ability to order spare parts and accessories round the clock, most of which are available for delivery within 24 hours. Service Manager Mr. Jakub Michalek is proud of Chart’s new service centres and he believes it provides customers with fast, efficient, professional and industry leading technical services.

“The main benefit for a gas company is reduced investment over a new trailer”

and after-sales support. Repair centres are often integrated with manufacturing facilities, enabling upgrades to the latest in equipment design, manufacturing processes and technologies. Taking your trailer into rehab can keep your equipment operating smoothly, safely and as optimally as possible. So, the question lingers, what could repair and refurbishment do for your cryogenic fleet?

Directory For more information on where to find cryogenic tank and trailer manufacturers and repair service providers, check out the gasworld directory at: www.gasworld.com/directory.

49


SPECIAL FEATURE

Composite Pressure Vessels Symposium 2012 A review from Salt Lake City Dr Roy S. Irani, Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

T

he second ever Symposium on Composite Pressure Vessels (CPV) organised by Seifert & Skinner & Associates was held in the compact and delightful environment of the Mormon Centre of Salt Lake City, Utah in the US in December (2012). Attended by experts/ specialists from 17 different countries covering all corners of the globe, the three-day meeting was most rewarding for all who attended – not only for its excellent set of 23 presentations and associated videos, but also for the intense and compact set of more than a dozen exhibits and live demonstration of how to design a safe Type 4 CPV. Today metallic pressure vessels, primarily steel, account for more than 98% of the total market. But if the cost of manufacturing a CPV is reduced, then the latter would start to dominate the scene, it is suggested. The main aim of

50

the symposium was to see how, in the future, composite materials can be made to compete on a more equal commercial footing with their metallic counterparts of steel and aluminium alloy-based cylinders. The superior weight carrying features of composites was never under question, especially when Type 3-4 designs were considered. So the emphasis was to see how modern materials and more efficient production techniques (concentrating on fibre winding techniques and methodologies) can improve the costcompetitiveness of composite vessels. Right from the outset, an in-depth analysis of the various fibres and resin systems available was described by Skinner, who emphasised the importance of utilising high strength/high modulus carbon fibres for critical aerospace applications, though such use had now been widened to cylinders used for on-

“The superior weight carrying features of composites was never under question, especially when Type 3-4 designs were considered”

board fuel storage such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrogen. Similarly, the use of an epoxy resin was recommended albeit with its longer cure times, higher curing temperatures and highest cost, amongst all the commonly used resins, if the best performance is to result. Also, by introducing the concept of a ‘structural efficiency’ it was demonstrated that composites are between 2-3 times more efficient than the equivalent metallic 8 pressure vessels. www.gasworld.com/specialfeatures


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February 2013

33 51


SPECIAL FEATURE

4

CPV Symposium 2012 – A Review

Even though filament winding was patented by Richard E. Young over 50 years ago in 1957, a number of authors presented the state-of-the-art in this field. One particular presentation showed how non-productive parts of the winding cycle such as fibre/liner handling steps can be greatly reduced by means of automation,

“No doubt composites will be profitable and compete with steel cylinders one day...”

Fig. 2 A Type 4 LPG cylinder

Fig. 1 A blow moulded plastic liner

thus improving the winding time. In the case of a 40 litre, 200 MPa cylinder, from 17 minutes down to 10 minutes. Hence, greater use is made of the winding machine improving the overall efficiency of the operation. The presentation concluded by demonstrating the power of an automatic Towpreg winding process over the orthodox wet winding process, the former being over 50% quicker. Many of the papers concentrated on plastic-based liners, as used in Types 4/5 composite cylinders. An example of one such blow-moulded liner is shown in Fig. 1, which when incorporated into the relevant protective cage is seen as the finished product as a Type 4 LPG cylinder, in Fig. 2. A number of speakers discussed the usefulness of composites in the NGV (natural gas vehicle) and hydrogen markets, where weight considerations rank high. With the global growth from 6-12 million NGVs in the past six years and with sales of over $150m in 2011 alone, the future here indeed looks very promising. 52

One speaker concentrated on the South American market, with its four million NGVs, whose population is increasing by over 30,000 vehicles/month simply by converting to CNG. Not surprisingly, Brazil is the future area of growth for CNG, with some interest towards composite cylinders. It was argued by some speakers that some of the costs of production can be reduced if the standards which govern composite cylinder technology can be made more pragmatic. It was questioned whether the usefulness of the gunfire test was needed for every new design. Its introduction into standards in the early days was justified, since composites were widely used in military aircraft. But to continue with its use for medical oxygen cylinders, used by domiciliary patients, is unrealistic and adds unnecessary costs onto the users. Similarly other presentations ran through a number of critical aspects related to testing the composite cylinder to ensure a safe product is placed on the market. A 200 bar working pressure CPV with a 50 litre volume has a stored energy of over 0.4kg of TNT (and hence a high potential for causing damage or even loss of life). Thus CPVs need to be made strictly according to the prevailing Regulations and Standards. Equally it is essential that in future standards, only necessary and vital tests directly related to safe and efficient operations

are specified. This will only happen if the global Competent Authorities will accept such standards. When that happens, it is hoped that provided a composite cylinder is maintained adequately and retested at the specified intervals, the lifetime limitations on composite cylinder may also be removed from the current 15 year interval; thus further improving the cost advantages of composites when compared to their metallic counterparts. No doubt composites will be profitable and compete with steel cylinders one day. As Seifert explained in the concluding presentation, how soon that day comes, depends on a number of factors, many (preferably all) of which will have to coincide. These include considering hybrid designs (carbon/glass), fully automated manufacturing sites, faster winding speeds, and integrated quality control. A view to 2020 The concluding aspect of the Symposium was to review the ‘Successes, Failures and Trends’ of the entire Symposium with a Q&A session. There was a healthy debate with many of the participants contributing, who concluded that CPVs will remain in full focus of many engineering disciplines, particularly the motor vehicle one, in the coming decades. The organisers are to be congratulated in this worthwhile event for furthering the world of composite materials with special emphasis on pressure vessels, which in the CNG market alone are expected to reach the 20 million figure by 2020. Surely by then, many of the features highlighted in this constructive Symposium will have borne fruit, to capture a lion’s share of this market.

NEXT MONTH Compressed Gas Business – Auditing Facilities A step-by-step guide to auditing your compressed gas facility.

CONTACT For further information please contact roy.irani@hotmail.co.uk

www.gasworld.com/specialfeatures


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          


Regional MARKETS

Regional Markets Focus on: Central Asia

Central Asia as a region is stabilising in political activity and has important natural resources that are being developed or will be developed in coming years. Ahead of its launch of a new series of country reports on the region, gasworld reports on the activity and potential for the region.

M

uch of Central Asia formed part of the mighty Soviet Union up until 1990/1. Covering a land mass of approximately 4.7 million square kilometres and having a combined population of 95 million people (2011), the region often suffered from dictatorships, rigid state control, border disputes, poverty, ethnic violence, lack of investment, and a general breakdown in infrastructure during a fraught decade in the 1990s. However, following the example shown in Kazakhstan, by far the largest economy and land mass in Central Asia, the various 54

countries are stabilising somewhat and are opening up to investment, privatisation, and are encouraging exploration and processing of some of the natural resources that exist. In fact, some such as Uzbekistan are marketing themselves as an interesting new tourism destination. The combined regional GDP amounted to some US$235bn in 2011, but wealth varied across the zone. Kazakhstan is the wealthiest in terms of US$ per capita GDP, with an average in 2011 of greater than US$9,000 per Capita compared with the poorest country, Tajikistan, which measured

an average US$950 per capita. Clearly, sandwiched between the Russian Federation, China and the Middle East/Asia, there are significant oil and natural gas reserves in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, as well as large coal reserves in Uzbekistan. On the other hand, some of the countries have mineral ores and precious metals which has resulted in an established steel industry in Kazakhstan and gold, silver and Uranium extraction in Tajikistan. So what does this mean for the demand for industrial gases, and what does the www.gasworld.com/regionalmarkets


Regional MARKETS

Central Asia regional GDP (US$235bn, 2011) Source: Spiritus Group

5% Afghanistan 1% Tajikistan 2% Kyrgystan 12% Turkmenistan

18% Uzbekistan

62% Kazakhstan

current structure of supply look like? Well, with major economic regions like North America, Western Europe and Japan suffering significant slowdown, stagnation and recessions, the international industrial gases community has been focusing on emerging regions such as South America, China, the Middle East and South East Asia in the past 15 years. Central Asia was clearly not on their radar. Structure of supply Some readers may not be familiar with the Russian/Ukrainian gases business, but it February 2013

will not be surprising that the structure of supply mirrors how the supply chain was organised in the Soviet era. Most large state-run enterprises owned and operated their own air separation plants, generally supplied by Russian ASU manufacturer, Cryogenmash. These enterprises would ‘sell’ surplus gases to the local community, or even have their own cylinder filling facilities and fill cylinders of oxygen, acetylene for the local distributors. Such enterprises included steel manufacturers, copper smelters, fertiliser and chemicals plants. There is clear evidence that smaller engineering companies also bought and operated their own smaller ASUs, generally from Kislorodmash in Ukraine. As we said, mirroring what happened in Russia and Ukraine, it is not surprising that the supply structure is very much like that in Central Asia. However, much equipment is old, dilapidated and inefficient and so there are shortages of some of the basic air gases across countries and in certain areas within countries, necessitating imports from the closest reliable sources. Looking at Kazakhstan, a country twice as large as Ukraine, which in itself is twice as large as France, there is a big divide between the east of the country where all the steelworks are located and the large oil & gas reserves in the North and West. The oil producing regions need nitrogen for line testing and purging for example, but struggled to find local suppliers so had to import liquid nitrogen by rail from Russia – with its inherent unreliability and border delays and high costs.

“There is clear evidence that smaller engineering companies also bought and operated their own smaller ASUs...”

The basic steelmaking processes did not require much argon and so, most ASUs built in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s did not have much argon capacity associated with them. So argon was short if needed by either the steel producers or even the engineering concerns (supporting industry and the oil & gas sector). So argon has been imported from the Middle East, via Azerbaijan or Iran or via other countries. What is changing? Well, there is change afoot and the first signs of international involvement have been taking place in the past two to three years. Again led by Kazakhstan, it was the acquisition made by ArcelorMittal of the Karmet steel complex in Temirtau in 2007 that has led to the entry of one major gas company, Linde Gas, into the region. ArcelorMittal had a problem; as a founding company, Ispat Steel had acquired Karmet Steel in 1995 (reverted to AcelorMittal in 2007). With the acquisition, the company bought all the Russian built ASUs that were supplying the oxygen to the steelworks – many of them old. The Kazakh Government insisted that the oldest ‘oxygen plants’ had to be replaced by new plants on safety grounds. ArcelorMittal started the process of feasibility of 8 55


Regional MARKETS

Focus on CENTRAL ASIA

© ArcellorMittal ArcelorMittal acquired the Karmet steel complex in Temirtau in 2007, which led to the entry of Linde Gas into the region as ArcelorMittal outsourced its gas supply.

4replacing some plants, but was impacted

by the global recession in 2009 and made a strategic decision to outsource gas supply. One problem, however, is that no international company had a presence in Kazakhstan and the initial expressions of interest were to supply ArcelorMittal with a plant (sale of equipment and not an onsite supply scheme). Eventually, the global number one steel maker convinced two major gas companies to offer a supply scheme and eventually, through the tender process, Linde Gas prevailed. The plant was originally due to have come on-stream mid 2012. As a result of this investment, Linde Gas has set-up an official business operation within the country. At present Linde is the only major global gases company with a presence in the region. However, other companies are becoming more active – especially related to plant supply – and Russian-based ASU supplier Red Mountain has become more active in the area. The close proximity to China has also led to increased activity from Chinese plant suppliers as well. The four other countries of the former Soviet Union, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, 56

“...new investments in coal, oil & gas, minerals extraction and processing are likely to boost gas demand over the next decade”

Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, suffer from a lack of supply. There are basic but old oxygen production units and several independent companies are operating as distributors of gases produced by major organisations that have surplus to sell. The one exception is of course the sixth and last of the countries that make up the region – Afghanistan. The world knows about Afghanistan for all the wrong reasons – its whole history for the past 200 years has been turbulence, occupation, ethnic divisions and drugs trade; the current presence of the international community is via military forces under the UN mandate. Afghanistan does have potential and the mineral resources to be exploited in

the future. For now, the industrial gases business is small but focused on supplying the military forces, medical and core industrial gas needs, such as cutting and welding gases and carbon dioxide for carbonated soft drinks. The potential? The latest reports from gasworld (gasreports: Central Asia, see right) show that the region had a total gas market value of some $115m in 2011. However, new investments as described above in coal, oil & gas, minerals extraction and processing are likely to boost gas demand over the next decade. While growth will vary across the region, there is an expectation that industrial gas demand will grow between 12-18% per year, albeit from a low base, but still strong growth anyhow. gasworld forecasts that the market will at least double in size by 2020. This may be a conservative growth prediction as some large projects, including potential coal gasification and more mineral processing, could significantly boost the demand and this is likely to increase the interest of the international gases community as well. www.gasworld.com/regionalmarkets


gasworld intelligence

Central asia Gas reports now available!

gasreport: Uzbekistan

2011

The Central Asian Serie

This new batch of reports deliver detailed industrial gas market information, focusing on:

s

A gasworld publication

• Industrial gas supply structure • Companies operating within each country • Market structure in terms of demand for gases (volume and value) • Macro-economic influences and drivers • Future market demand for gases (realistic forecasts) These slick and informative gas reports have been compiled by the business team to provide you with sufficient information to make the next strategic step in your decision making process. These gas reports are powered by Spiritus data – the leading global consultancy in the industrial gases business. Contact businessinfo@gasworld.com / +44 1872 225031

www.gasworld.com/intelligence


SPECIAL FEATURE

FrankBrunsdon General Manager, Buzwair Gases

Thanks for taking 10 minutes out with gasworld. What have we interrupted in your schedule today? I have just returned to Qatar after spending Christmas and New Year in the UK, and I am preparing for another challenging and successful new year for our company. Perhaps you could tell us a little about the company’s operations? Yes, we have two air separation units producing liquid nitrogen, oxygen and argon, as well as a 24 tonnes per day liquid carbon dioxide plant. We either sell the aforementioned gases in liquid form via road tankers or transfil them into gaseous cylinders. During 2010 we started Buzwair Scientific & Speciality Gases Division where we produce multi-component speciality gases. The production facility is believed to be the most technically advanced units in the Middle East and in 2012 our laboratories gained ISO/IEC 17025 certification which we are all very proud of and will certainly bring new sales growth to this division. At the beginning of 2012 a new filling station was opened which services the nonrefillable cylinder market for calibration gas mixtures. Buzwair has two showrooms in Qatar that offer a wide selection of welding and cutting equipment and consumables. What’s the best thing about Buzwair? The best thing about Buzwair gases is that it is a family-owned business and every person that works for Buzwair works remarkably hard toward its development and progress. It is truly an exceptional company and I am very proud to be a member of the Buzwair Family. We have a simple philosophy which ensures great team success; reacting quickly and doing the job in the same manner and expediency that you would expect from your supplier. What’s the last stamp in your passport? Oman – the Buzwair technical team met in Oman, together with the air separation unit manufacturer that will install the plant for Buzwair, supplying the new 58

Sun Metals Steel plant with industrial gases, this project will prove to be a major advancement for further developing Buzwair Gases within the region. What was the last book you read? It was Jeffery Archer’s book ‘The Sins of the Father’, the sequel to ‘Only time will tell’. It is a historical fictional story based around my home town of Bristol. What do you see shaping the industrial gases business in the future? As anyone who has been in our industry for the past two decades and has witnessed the disappearance of many gas companies worldwide, albeit small, medium or multi-nationals, will know, there will always be room for businesses like Buzwair. Examples of this can be seen by the spectacular growth of Chinese gases company Yingde Gases and of course my old company Messer – which gives me confidence for the future, as I am sure that we will see more local small-to-medium gases companies explore business opportunities that will exist in the future. What’s the most exciting growth driver for industrial gases going forward? I believe that the growth driver probably presents itself in four sectors: energy; medical; high technical gases; and environment. During this decade, energy will be propelled by natural gas from shale which can deliver cleaner, affordable and energy security for many countries. This, in turn, will create new jobs for many thousands of people and our industry will piggy-back onto all new industries with new innovative gas applications. The medical industry will also grow in developing countries, as I have seen recently in Africa where there is enormous potential for progress and advancement. We expect high growth for multi-component and ultra high purity gases by offering end-users locally produced and quality assured products. What travel plans do you have in 2013? Travelling is part of my job and an aspect

“I will also need to assist in developing our business activities in Vietnam” I enjoy very much is the opportunity to meet new people and learn from their experiences within our industry. Oman is a particular country I like to visit as there is a very good potential to develop our business there, and the people are extremely considerate. I will also need to assist in developing our business activities in Vietnam, a country that I first went to in 1995 with The Messer Group. Who or what was the biggest influence in your career so far? I have been extremely lucky in my career in the industrial gases industry during the past 26 years. I have worked for two gas companies, The Messer Group and Buzwair, which are both family-owned companies and seem to have a different perspective on the most important matter in business – that the customer is the key to gaining success and keeping them is paramount to survival and growth. What do you do in your spare time? We all work six days a week in Qatar and most, if not all, employees are here without family, which brings a whole new dimension to managing a company. Therefore, we have tried very hard, and have hopefully succeeded, in bringing a family atmosphere to the workplace – so I do not have much time for outside interests, apart from playing nine holes of golf when possible.

10 minutes more... Spend 10 minutes catching up with fellow gas professionals online. Use your smartphone to scan the code (right) or visit: www.gasworld com/interviews

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SPECIAL FEATURE

An introduction to...

Dome-loaded pressure regulators

P

ressure regulators are used to regulate gas pressure down to a desired level. Applications can be found, for example, in central gas supply from bulk or cryogenic tank, as well as in cylinder supplies. Technically, there are various kinds of designs of pressure regulators – ‘dome loaded’ is just one of them. Generally, dome-loaded pressure regulators are characterised by high backpressure stability, even if consumption or inlet pressure fluctuates. This ensures maximum process safety. Pressure fluctuations in the gas supply can be a risk in industrial manufacturing processes. Fluctuations in consumption can lead to uncontrolled loss or increase of pressure for the consecutive process. Consequences can be degraded material, as well as broken technical devices in the downstream process. This is where dome pressure regulators are the solution: they provide a stable outlet pressure and eliminate the risk of pressure fluctuations in the process. The regulation’s characteristics are extremely stable, even in the case of extremely high or low flow rates in the limiting performance range. Domeloaded pressure regulators realise precise regulation even at large pressure differences; a two-stage pressure regulation is no longer necessary in some cases. Even a small Delta of less than 1 bar/14.5 PSI can be accurately regulated. The outlet gas pressure can be easily adjusted by a pilot pressure regulator or an electrically controlled proportional valve. This enables maximum flexibility and makes it possible to respond to temperature fluctuations or changes in the downstream process immediately. Even two dome regulators or more can be controlled with a single pilot gas regulator or proportional valve. By this, a parallel arrangement is much more precise. These regulators are used in many different applications, for example in oil & gas/energy generation, automobile/ shipbuilding, semiconductor & photovoltaic, chemical, pharmaceutics or food industry. Especially in the latter, dome regulators need to be made from high quality materials such as 316L stainless steel and brass – meeting the industry requirements. But how do they work and what’s the 60

1

2 3

5

4

Inlet pressure Pilot pressure Outlet pressure

“These very precise regulations are used in many different applications...”

difference compared to a spring-loaded pressure regulator? Unlike the latter regulators, that use spring force to open the valve system, dome-loaded regulators have a pressure chamber (or gas cushion)1 for this purpose. In the pressure chamber, the pilot gas acts on a diaphragm whose stroke movement is transferred to the valve seat via a diaphragm plate2. This is the same effect that usually the spring generates. However, a spring can never have a constant force over its whole expansion process. This has a strong effect: when consumption changes, the spring force cannot balance it out and back-pressure fluctuates. The dome loaded regulator, in contrast, automatically adjusts the gas cushion and balances out consumption chances. Dome regulators can be dynamic or chambered. Chambered means, the dome gets filled once through a needle valve. As this implies that it is hard to adjust outlet pressure if the process changes, or the temperature or consumption changes, this method is not used frequently these days. In contrast, the dynamic version has an installed pilot pressure regulator

that regulates the pilot gas. By that, the gas cushion can be changed and outlet pressure can be adjusted easily. State-ofthe-art dome pressure regulators use their own gas for the gas cushion and bring it back into the process afterwards. This closed system does not blow off in the atmosphere so even oxygen or burning gases can be regulated by their own gas. Furthermore, no gas is wasted and there is no need to place an additional cylinder with pilot gas next to the regulator. This reduces the lifetime costs of the regulators. What makes a good dome pressure regulator is the diameter of the diaphragm2 in relation to the valve, the valve itself3, and where it takes the backpressure. High quality dome regulators have a large diameter diaphragm to realise precise regulation. The larger the diameter, the more accurate the valve can be open and closed. The valve itself should be balanced; it means that the valve has a drilling, that leads the back-pressure under the valve and thereby balances it out. This balanced seat design4 leads to a smooth regulation characteristic. Finally, high quality dome regulators have an additional internal pipeline in the dome5 for recirculation. This helps to control the pressure where you want to have it controlled: in the outlet of the dome, not at the valve seat.

WITH THANKS... gasworld would like to thank Alexander Kampschulte and Sebastian Lehmann of WITT-Gasetechnik, for contributing this month’s insightful equipment profile. WITT offers dome-loaded regulators as completely mounted sets including pilot pressure regulator, pressure gauges and fittings. As a ready to use ‘SET’ package, all components of the complete solution are perfectly connected to each other. The SETs are assembled, tested and can directly be used in the process. Several options as filters or pre-assembled Maintenance Kits are also available. In general these products require almost no maintenance and are available in various sizes and materials. www.wittgas.com

www.gasworld.com/specialfeatures


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website gasworld.com has been transformed! The website brings you the same quality news, views and information as before, helping you to stay at the forefront of the industrial gas industry, but all this is now brought to you through a brand new, cutting-edge platform. Accessible from the same domain www.gasworld.com offers enhanced search facilities, an improved archive, better advertising opportunities and easy-to-use navigation. Register your details: Register yourself on the new website in order to receive newsletters and take advantage of a range of other online opportunities.

directory gasworld.com features the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest online industrial gas directory, listing the contact details and product offerings of thousands of industrial gas and equipment companies. This directory is printed annually, providing industrial gas professionals across the globe with a comprehensive guide to industrial gas services. Get your company listed: From a free standard listing to an attractive box designed to draw the readerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attention to your company first, the gasworld directory is the place to be. Contact us for more information.

business intelligence Market intelligence and business information are important tools for any business, to ensure the right decisions are made. gasworld has launched a new service, offering reports on various aspects of the global industrial gases business. These new, slick and informative gas reports have been compiled by the business team to provide you with sufficient information to make the next strategic step in your decision making process.

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© DIEKS

Company Profile

Text Text

DIEKS

Safety and standards in Eastern Europe

T

hroughout its history, DIEKS and all its staff have always been focused on the high quality of service and strict adherance to the letter of the law. The Ukrainian-German joint venture company was founded in 2003, following a decision to establish a JV company of Technical Supervision German TUV NORD GRUPPE. From then, TUV NORD-DIEKS was born and its technical base has been constantly updated with modern equipment for destructive and non-destructive testing operations. November 2010 saw the company withdraw from TUV NORD GRUPPE and just months later, in February 2011, changed its name to the LLC Joint Ukrainian-German enterprise ‘Technical Supervision Company DIEKS’ (DIEKS). Realising the importance of the development of the company, and having a clear goal of leading in the field of technical supervision companies, DIEKS creates a mobile group of experts engaged in all regions of Ukraine, as close as possible to its clients. However, the company decided not to be limited only by the territory of Ukraine and began offering its services in the CIS countries and Eastern Europe, including Romania, Poland and Serbia. 62

Best practice and training One of the most promising and demanding areas of work is the collaboration with companies in the production and sales of industrial gases. Combining the best practices of TUV, and its own professional experiences within the CIS countries, DIEKS works closely with world leaders in the field, such as Linde Gas and Messer Group for example, as well as with local producers. The main services provided for the cryogenic companies are inspection and certification of cryogenic equipment, nondestructive testing during the installation of the equipment and piping work, the design works and inspections of facilities, and staff training on safety and permits for the execution of works and use of equipment of increased danger. The company’s experts also regularly hold training courses in a number of specialised subjects. Construction assistance One of the most important events of 2012 for the company was its participation in the construction of an air separation unit for Messer Ukraine. This included a huge range of services, such as passportisation

“DIEKS actively works with existing cryogenic companies in the region and is working to establish cooperation with global cryogenic companies that are not yet represented in Ukraine...”

and certification of equipment, examination of equipment for compliance with standards in force in Ukraine, and the examination and approval of project documentation. But the most important and timeconsuming stage of the work was the holding of non-destructive testing of welding seams for installation of the cold box. To perform the required volume control, modern equipment for X-ray testing was purchased. This equipment allowed the company to ‘take a solid first place in the provision of services for nondestructive testing’. Understanding the perspectives of the introduction and development of Ukrainian enterprises and cryogenic technologies, DIEKS actively works with existing cryogenic companies in the region and is also working to establish cooperation with global cryogenic companies that are not yet represented in Ukraine. To this end, representatives of the company attended the annual Cryogen-Expo exhibition held from 6th - 8th November 2012 in Moscow, which has traditionally been represented by industry leaders. Currently, DIEKS employs over 150 people, providing a highly skilled level of services executed by the company. The company’s mission is the protection of the people, environment and industrial equipment from accidents and man-made disasters. The result, DIEKS says, is wellhoned and predictable machines, ordered production processes, safety in buildings, and qualified personnel in safety.

get in touch Want more like this? Do you want to read more about Russian companies and the Eastern Europe gases market? Find out more about gasworld’s Russian language magazine now, contact: gasworld@live.ru

ISSN 1755-38 57 www.ga sworld.c om Ноябрь 2012 Выпуск № 24

Криоген-Э

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gasworld magazine February 2013  

gasworld, global industrial gas magazine. the focal point for industrial

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