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URBAN DESIGN MASTERS THESIS GARETH RINGROSE 2014

RESPONDING TO SEA LEVEL RISE FREMANTLE, WESTERN AUSTRALIA


CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

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INTRODUCTION2 FREMANTLE AREA3 GRADUAL HAZARDS5 EVENT-BASED HAZARDS7 EDGE ANALYSIS9 HAZARDS IN SECTION11 MITIGATION STRATEGY15 STRATEGIC CONTEXT23 URBAN ANALYSIS25 THE OPPORTUNITY27 DESIGN CONCEPT29 MASTERPLAN35 DESIGN IN SECTION37 BUILT FORM39 MOVEMENT41 PUBLIC OPEN SPACE43 OTHER AREAS45 MASTERPLAN IN DETAIL @ 1:100047 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY49 CONCLUSION51 REFERENCES53

Gareth Ringrose 20258645 B. Arts (Communications) This research folio is presented for the degree of Master of Urban Design School of Landscape, Architecture and Visual Arts University of Western Australia, Perth, WA. 2014


In this century, sea level rise threatens to flood Fremantle’s historic core. How should its urban form strategise against this problem?

1.

INTRODUCTION

In the IPCC’s latest report on Climate Change, AR5 2014, its review of assembled research shows that if drastic measures are not taken to reduce the anthropogenic influences that are accelerating climate change, the Earth is likely to experience a global mean sea level rise of 0.63m by 2100 (IPCC, 2014)1, and a local sea level rise of 1.1m in the context of Fremantle, Western Australia (see figure 1), inundating its static harbour edges during normal highest astronomical tide (HAT) events (+0.7m) (see figure 2). In this scenario, storms will be more devastating, pushing a sea that starts out at a higher level, and increasing acidification in a warming ocean will damage our delicate marine ecosystem, a natural reef defence force against storm events and a significant fishing and tourism economy.

figure 1: Fremantle Sea Level Rise = 1.1m by 2100

These problems, though concerning, are an opportunity, encouraged by an increasing population, to create a more inviting, resilient, and liveable coastline. The State Government’s major strategic planning document, Directions 2031, aims to increase densification to limit Perth’s sprawling footprint and more sustainably accommodate an expected population increase of +1.75million by 2031. The document targets an additional 124,870 infill development dwellings in Perth, including 4,120 dwellings that need to be created within the City of Fremantle. This research project investigates how Fremantle’s urban form might strategise against the rising seas and help to meet densification targets.

figure 2 1: IPCC 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York. pg 18

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figure 1 image source: THEWORLDBANK 2013. Turn Down the Heat: Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts, and the Case for Resilience. Washington DC, USA: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. pg xvi figure 2 image source: Ozcoasts Australian Online Coastal Information (http://www.ozcoasts.gov.au/climate/Map_images/Perth/mapLevel2_North.jsp)


2.

FREMANTLE AREA Rous Head

Inner Harbour right: Success Harbour below: Westpac Building (1892) in the Historic Core

Heritage Core

Arthur Head Reserve

Esplanade

Upper Fishing Boat Harbour

Challenger Harbour

Lower Fishing Boat Harbour

far left: South Beach Reserve left: view from Mews Avenue of Lower Fishing Boat Harbour above: Upper Fishing Boat Harbour top: newly constructed $2m skate park in the Esplanade

Fremantle Yacht Club / Success Harbour

South Beach

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3.

GRADUAL HAZARDS

Coastlines are shaped and modified continually over time by wind, waves, tides and currents. These processes gradually erode soft shorelines, and wear on shoreline structures. A rise in sea level will increase the reach of erosion and wear, and could lead to regular inundation of low-lying edges. Higher seas will also limit natural drainage in low-lying areas behind these edges, increasing the risk of flooding due to heavy rainfall. With a 1.1m SLR, and during normal highest astronomical tide (HAT) events (+0.7m), Fremantle’s harbour edges would be inundated and parts of its historic core would sit vulnerable to flooding.

Flooding due to heavy rainfall in Fremantle Esplanade during +0.6mHT (July 2011) figure 3: pictures sourced from forum blog post found at http://www.waweathergroup.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=42171#p42171

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figure 3


Plan showing effects of gradual hazards with a 1.1m SLR and during normal highest astronoimcal tide (HAT) events (+0.7m)


4. EVENT-BASED HAZARDS Event-Based Hazards, or storms, intermittently push high seas (storm surges), big waves, and strong winds towards our shores. With higher seas from the gradual hazard developing, event-based hazards will have even greater impact, as storms will be pushing a sea that starts out at a higher level, and as a result, water will reach further inland, and flood larger areas (Oppenheimer, 2010)2. Fremantle’s tidal gauge records show how storm events have raised coastal waters above HAT’s. The highest measured additional height caused by a storm surge in Fremantle is 0.6m (BOM)3, occurring during a cyclone event (pictured below) in 1978, which with a +0.45m astronomical tide, raised waters to 1.1m above sea level. A 0.6m storm surge height additional to a 1.1m SLR and a 0.7m HAT would peak the coastal waters to 2.4m above the current sea level and push water closer to the red line indicating a 3m contour. For the purpose of this research, this 0.6m surge will be used as a measure for evaluation and design. Fremantle’s fixed breakwaters (indicated on map) attenuate wave forces to prevent sudden erosion to the harbours, but do not reduce the height of storm surges.

Cyclone Alby: track, satellite image, and sudden erosion at Scarborough Beach 2) OPPENHEIMER, M. 2010. Climate Change and World Cities. Rising Currents. New York: Department of Publications, The Museum of Modern Art. pg 35 3) BOM. Tropical Cyclone Alby [Online]. [Accessed June 2014]. http://www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/history/wa/alby.shtml figure 4: pictures sourced from Australian Bureau of Meteorology found at http://www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/history/wa/alby.shtml

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figure 4


Plan showing the potential extents of flooding due to an additional 0.6m storm surge


5.

EDGE ANALYSIS

A more detailed visual of Fremantle’s contours show that the Fishing Boat, Challenger and Success Harbours (hard edges built on reclaimed land - pictured) are at most risk of inundation from gradual and event-based hazards. Fremantle’s Inner Harbour is unlikely to be inundated due to a higher edge (3m+ edge) and deep channel (13m depth). Arthur Head Reserve is extremely unlikely to be inundated with a high limestone cliff face (pictured). The map is also an interesting visual of the scale of the low-lying area.

Arthur Head Reserve: strong resistance to flooding due to high limestone edge

pictures taken August 2014 Challenger Harbour: weak resistance to flooding due to low-lying flat hard edges

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Plan showing the wider area contours


6.

HAZARDS IN SECTION

The following sections show Fremantle’s existing edges effected by the projected 1.1m sea level rise during a regular high tide event of +0.7m (gradual hazard), and an additional +0.6m storm surge event (event-based hazard)*, identified by the dark blue and red lines respectively. *storm surge based on Cycle Alby recording

EXISTING FIXED BREAKWATERS ATTENUATING WAVE FORCE & SUDDEN EROSION Fremantle’s existing fixed breakwaters, made of rocks and concrete, attenuate the force of waves to keep the water calm amongst boats in the harbour, but will not manage the problem of increased sea levels.

EXISTING RISK TO HARBOUR EDGE FLOODING DUE TO SLR & STORM SURGE Fremantle’s harbour edges are threatened by regular flooding due to SLR and storm surge tides.

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D

C


EXISTING EXPOSURE TO WAVE FORCE & SUDDEN EROSION Arthur Head Reserve is exposed to sudden erosion due to wave force from storm surges.

Cyclone Alby: sudden erosion at Scarborough Beach

EXISTING RISK OF FLOODING DUE TO HEAVY RAINFALL Behind the shoreline, contours show low-lying areas that would regularly fall below sea level, making them vulnerable to flooding from heavy rainfall.

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D C


7.

MITIGATION STRATEGY

An analysis of the gradual and event-based hazards affecting Fremantle’s coastline suggests that actions are required: IN-WATER to dissipate the effects of storms, on the SHORELINE to manage the rising seas, and UPLAND to manage vulnerability to flooding in low-lying areas. This research aims to identify the range of adaptive strategies relevant to these categories and assess their effectiveness and their applicability to Fremantle. The typologies are primarily measured by their ability to function within the physical constraints of the site, but also by their ecological value and economic viability, as healthy, fully functioning ecosystems are more resilient to stressors and therefore better able to support adaption to impacts (Munang, Thiaw, Alverson, Mumba, Liu, Rivington, 2013)4, and cost-effective solutions will drive support from important stakeholders. Additionally, how might these strategies combine to vitalise the urban culture? This accumulation of measurements asserts the diverse problematic nature of Climate Change, and emphasizes the need for a holistic response.

Upland actions, to manage vulnerability to flooding from heavy rainfall, neatly tie-in with environmental resilience. Concrete roads and concrete paths allow storm water run-off to flow quickly towards low-lying areas, putting extreme pressure on mechanical drainage systems. Fremantle’s historic core sits uncomfortably in the lowest area behind the shoreline. By increasing permeable surfaces between high and low contours, storm water can be slowed and diluted by natural drainage to reduce the risk of failing mechanical drainage and damage to heritage infrastructure. Shoreline interventions, required to prevent inundation, will affect how people interact with the water. Initial investigation measures the basic physical applicability of typologies to the site (area marked on opposite map), and a more detailed investigation is later explored relative to other contextual influences.

As the warming of the ocean raises the sea level, it also causes ecological degradation by increasing ocean acidity. This is problematic because marine ecosystems are naturally resilient to event-based hazards, helping to reduce the impact of wave forces and sudden erosion. The management, conservation, and restoration of existing ecosystems is thus a primary In-Water action that will harness the capacity of nature to buffer Fremantle from the adverse effects of Climate Change (Munang, Thiaw, Alverson, Mumba, Liu, Rivington, 2013)5. A resilient local ecosystem will also support Fremantle’s fishing and tourism economies. Additional In-Water interventions should be assessed by their ability to assist the conservation of existing natural resilience. Fremantle’s status as a carbon-neutral city is an ideal building ground for the implementation of environmentally-considered strategy.

4) MUNANG, R., THIAW, I., ALVERSON, K., MUMBA, M., LIU, J. & RIVINGTON, M. 2013. Climate change and Ecosystem-based Adaptation: a new pragmatic approach to buffering climate change impacts. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5, 67-71. pg. 1 5) MUNANG, R., THIAW, I., ALVERSON, K., MUMBA, M., LIU, J. & RIVINGTON, M. 2013. Climate change and Ecosystem-based Adaptation: a new pragmatic approach to buffering climate change impacts. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5, 67-71. pg. 2

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Plan showing the areas of required actions, including IN-WATER, SHORELINE, and UPLAND.


7.1

IN-WATER STRATEGY

Typology information: BURDEN, A. 2013. Coastal Climate Resilience: Urban Waterfront Adaptive Strategies. New York: Department of City Planning New York. pgs 88-105

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figure 5

FLOATING ISLANDS: NEW YORK

figure 7

A proposed Floating Island network uses inflatable barriers to protect the shoreline from storm surge flooding, but also provide attraction and habitat. The above concept was produced by nARCHITECTS, one of five architecture firms selected in 2009 by MoMA to participate in the Rising Currents workshop and exhibition, whose goal was to envision design solutions that would mitigate the impact of storm surges and sea level rise in New York City’s Inner Harbor. figure 9

SURGE BARRIER: ST. PETERSBURGH, RUSSIA Surge Barriers are closed during storm events to stop the flow of high storm surge tides from inundating coastlines, and because they require closing in the event of a storm, they do not protect from gradual hazards of sea level rise and erosion. The modifications to water flow that result from barriers also interrupt the natural flow of sediments that would negatively impact Fremantle’s ecosystems.

figure 6

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS: JAMAICA BAY, NEW YORK Constructed wetlands are a highly engineered In-Water action that requires specific consultation as to their attachment within a harbour site. Their benefits as a biofilter to remove sediments and pollutants would be beneficial to boosting ecosystem health. figure 8

FIXED OYSTER BREAKWATERS: ALAMABA The idea is for oyster spat to settle and concrete themselves together as they grow. This process can take a number of years to form. In turn, the structures provide habitat for many marine species and will help to protect the shoreline. figure 5: Image sourced from http://www.nycgo.com/venues/jamaica-bay-wildlife-refuge figure 6: Image sourced from http://spel.com.au/news/new-york-city-trial-floating-wetlands-jamaica-bay/ figure 7: Image exerted from Rising Currents, 2010 pg. 105 figure 8: Image sourced from https://www.flickr.com/photos/littoraria/4277526760/ figure 9: BURDEN, A. 2013. Coastal Climate Resilience: Urban Waterfront Adaptive Strategies. New York: Department of City Planning New York. pg. 100

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7.2

SHORELINE STRATEGY

Typology information: BURDEN, A. 2013. Coastal Climate Resilience: Urban Waterfront Adaptive Strategies. New York: Department of City Planning New York. pgs 66-87

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figure 12

MULTI-PURPOSE LEVEE: RIVER MAZANARES PARK, MADRID, SPAIN The submerging of transit at River Manzanares Park allows for a linear park to run alongside instead of busy vehicular streets. figure 10

figure 11

LAND ELEVATION / FLOODABLE PARKS: HAFENCITY, HAMBURG, GERMANY During my visit to Hamburg, Germany in 2012, I explored the new Hafencity development, built on raised manmade land to evade the dramatic tidal fluctuations of the Elbe River (see left images), these foundations are 8 meters above mean sea level (HafenCity Hamburg GmbH, 2011) In contrast, promenades and certain squares will remain at this area’s current elevation of about 4.5 to 5.5 meters above sea level, therefore attractively preserving their close links to the water. During extreme event-hazard events, storm surges may raise water levels up to the ground floor of the development. For this event, buildings have been individually flood-proofed. An advantage of this technique is an ability to Master Plan human experience into the design. Riverside paths, a floating pedestrian path, and floodable parks (far right images) make this an attractable and enjoyable area.

figure 10: Image sourced from http://www.kcap.eu/en/projects/v/hafencity/ figure 11: Images taken by author in 2012 figure 12: Open Space - Urban Public Landscape Design. (2013). (L. Shijian Ed.). China: Sendpoints Publishing Co. pg.50 figure 13: Image sourced from http://blogs.aecom.com/connectedcities/coastal-resilience-through-biomimicry/

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SEAWALL: BLACKPOOL, UK

figure 13

Renowned for hosting the strange behaviour of many stag and hen do’s, Blackpool’s iconic boardwalk seawall has become a major element of its attraction. Its applicability in this style to Fremantle is implausible because there is little room to move outward toward the ocean, but emphasises the value of combining human experience with strategic intervention.


figure 15

figure 14 figure 16

7.3

UPLAND STRATEGY

When rain falls onto impermeable surfaces (concrete/asphalt), it cannot drain through and runs off towards the lowest point. Previous mapping shows that this point, in Fremantle, sits in its historical urban core. During rainfall events, mechanical drainage systems pump this run-off away from the floodable area. However, as sea levels rise, limiting the efforts of any natural drainage at this lowest point, the pressure on these mechanical systems is stretched, and their failure would result in damage to valued infrastructure. The associated storm water run off also has a negative environmental impact, decreasing the natural groundwater recharge process, and washing pollutants into water bodies.

figure 17

To reduce the risk of flooding and ecological degradation in Fremantle, Upland strategy must slow the run-off towards low-lying areas by increasing natural permeable elements that filter pollutants and absorb the water before slowly releasing it. Techniques that serve this purpose include: Green Roofs, Inland Planting, and Permeable Paving (Gundermann, 2013)6. Additionally, Water Basins allow for the detention of water from storm surges or increased run-off. They conceptually have dual-usage for when they are empty and for when they are full of water (see figure 4), perhaps applicable in Fremantle as a skate-bowl/Water Basin extension to the newly constructed Esplanade Skate Park. figure 18 6) GUNDERMANN, B. 2013. From Resistance to Resilience. In: TURNER, S. (ed.). Auckland, New Zealand: Stephenson & Turner. pg. 33

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figure 14 + 16: Water basin + permeable paving at San Martin De La Mar Square, Santander http://afasiaarchzine.com/2015/12/zigzag-angelini-casino/ figure 15: Chicago City Hall green roof, Chicago, IL. http://www.powerhousegrowers.com/6-successful-sustainable-green-roof-projects/ figure 17: Central Park, New York. http://www.viajejet.com/wp-content/viajes/central-park-de-nueva-york.jpg figure 18: Rotterdam Water Plaza, Rotterdam, Netherlands. http://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/19/world/europe/can-rotterdam-become-the-sustainable/


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8.

STRATEGIC CONTEXT

It is no coincidence that waterfronts are often totally cut off from the cities in which they surround. The boom of the private motorcar occurred after the establishment of most cities, leaving the waterfront as the only remaining state-owned land available to develop transport infrastructure (Gundermann, 2013)7. This is certainly evident in Fremantle where a freight rail line and wide road create a linear barrier between pedestrians and the water, discouraging interaction. This urban disconnection is explored through mapping, photographic and modelling evidence. Necessary shoreline intervention is required to mange the rising seas, and State Government densification targets, could be the catalysts to repairing this disconnected condition.  would seem that a large-scale intervention of this nature would be supported by It Fremantle mayor, Dr. Brad Pettitt. Discussing infill development in a recent interview with Online tabloid, PerthNow, Dr. Pettitt stated: “The State Government needs to take a more interventionist approach if it’s serious about this (infill). There is little value in having another document with a series of blue-sky outcomes that don’t have any teeth to back them up” (Law, 2014)8. The plan opposite identifies an area of potential large-scale intervention that is also at risk of frequent inundation.

Underutilsed harbourside areas of potential opportunity,.

7) GUNDERMANN, B. 2013. New Urban Shores: Landscape Architecture New Zealand. In: TURNER, S. (ed.). New Zealand: Stephenson & Turner Ltd. pg. 8 8) LAW, P. 2014. Future Perth: 900,000 new homes without the urban sprawl. via PerthNow [Online] [accessed Nov 10, 2014] http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/special-features/future-perth-900000-new-homes-without-the-urban-sprawl/story-fnknbeni-1227098457513

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Plan showing area of potential large-scale intervention.


9.

URBAN ANALYSIS

Analysis of the urban

SIGNIFICANT COASTAL POS

CAT TRANSPORT

LAND USE

»» limited and disconnected, but highly active.

»» blue CAT line shows desired linear movement, connecting residents/visitors between the urban centre and South Beach.

»» Uses: Residential / Commercial / Industrial

RAIL LINE CAUSING URBAN DISCONNECTION Fremantle’s freight rail line runs approximately six to seven times a day, connecting Fremantle’s North Port with it’s South Port based in Kwinanna. It sits as a large physical and metaphorical barrier between residents and the water, but it is of high importance to the State’s lucrative trade economy and cannot be destroyed. The plan shown opposite, and the physical scale model shown below, accentuates the clear gap in the urban form due to a wide linear rail and road corridor.

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»» no residential uses interacting with harbour area.


CHARACTER AREAS »» HERITAGE PRECINCT: A rich walkable urban core of heritage listed buildings and public life. »» RESIDENTIAL GRID: An ordered grid of residential dwellings. »» UPPER FISHING BOAT HARBOUR: A social area of popular seafood restaurants and notably Little Creatures Brewery. The Duyen replica sits within this harbour as a tourist attraction. »» LOWER FISHING BOAT HARBOUR: The loosely ordered buildings of the Lower Fishing Boat Harbour are predominately maritime retail, shipping service, and shipping storage. Its water space provides large sheltered mooring areas, wharf space for vessels up to 60 metres, refueling facilities and support services to fishing industry. »» FREMANTLE SAILING CLUB: The Fremantle Sailing Club is a not for profit sporting organisation that plays a key role in the Western Australian maritime community. The history of the club dates back to the 1800’s, but its current site in Success Harbour was developed in 1979. »» CHALLENGER HARBOUR: The Challenger harbour was built for the 1987 America’s Cup in 1983/84 and included facilities specifically for the associated 12-Metre Class racing yachts. It has since been modified for recreational boating. Quest Harbour Village Serviced Apartments are situated on the south-eastern boundary »» INNER HARBOUR: An area of significant buildings, including the Port Authority centre, Maritime Museum, Challenger Institute of Technology and Market buildings. Passengers board here for the Rottnest Express.

ROAD NETWORK SHOWING URBAN DISCONNECTION Fremantle’s street network and urban grain is evidently disrupted on its harbourside.

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10. THE OPPORTUNITY In response to the contexts explored, there is opportunity to help meet densification targets and create a more inviting, resilient and liveable coastline through responsive and innovative harbourside development. The key design objectives will be to: »» Establish a more accessible harbourside, better connecting the city and the water; »» Effectively incorporate in-water, shoreline, and upland climate mitigation strategies; and »» Retain the freight rail link between Fremantle and Kwinana ports (integral to local, state, and national economy); A more detailed design investigation will be conducted within the red marked boundary (shown opposite). This area is the most plausible for immediate shoreline intervention considering its larger and potentially more easily displaced warehouse structures identified through urban analysis.

Fremantle’s bulky rail corridor frequently divides land uses along the harbourside.

Fremantle pocket of mixed-used development on the harbourside offers significant social and cultural value.

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Opportunity Plan


11. DESIGN CONCEPT

EXISTING PHYSICAL CONDITION Disconnected and threatened by rising seas.

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KEY INTERVENTION: RAIL OUT Limitations on development near rail corridors has constrained Fremantle from a more humanised public space near the water, but a rail connection between Fremantle’s North Port and Kwinana Port is critical to the State’s lucrative trade economy. To give freedom to strategic intervention and design, Fremantle’s freight rail connection has been moved to an alternate route, travelling along Challenger Harbour, across 90m of water, and along the main breakwater.

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PHASING

URBAN STRUCTURE

A. Delayed intervention area

Guided by East/West view corridors (orange lines), stretching the residential grid towards the harbour edge will help repair the existing disconnected urban condition - this pattern generates semi-conventional blocks for a legible street network. A condensed Mews road (red line) will reflect the characteristics of South tce. (black line).

B. Immediate intervention area (detailed design investigation area) C. Delayed intervention area D. Delayed intervention area

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PUBLIC OPEN SPACE + MITIGATION

BUILT FORM

In place of some of the space created by moving the rail out, a linear park levee connecting the Esplanade with South Beach is positioned to protect Fremantle from inundation, provide interesting POS, and indicate the floor height for immediate and delayed shoreline developments. Running along where the rail once was, the old tracks will be used to make feature furniture. The park is accessible at frequent points on its Eastern side.

URBAN STRUCTURE and PUBLIC OPEN SPACE have outlined block perimeters for built form development. Detailed on the physical model above, the configuration of built form is constrained by orientation relative to sunlight access:

Levee Height: 5m above SL (2-3m higher than existing contour)

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E/W facing buildings are shorter and double-loaded N/S facing buildings are taller and single-loaded


Elevated Developable Land

Floodable Parks

Linear Levee Park

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT Within the shoreline space, elevated developable land will prevent shoreline inundation, help to meet infill development targets, provide a vitalised public domain, and repair the urban disconnection. This is enhanced by a linear levee park in place of the bulky freight rail line, further safeguarding Fremantle from inundation and connecting two key public open spaces (Esplande & South Beach). Floodable parks and floating paths will compliment the renewed relationship with the harbourside, using tidal changes as an integrated element of attraction. A physical scale model was used to test development typologies within the developable space. The key principles included:

view corridors extending to Fixed Jetties with connecting floating paths

»» Establishing an urban structure that would fuse with the existing residential area; and »» Single-loaded apartments along an east-west axis, and doubleloaded apartments along a north-south axis, achieving optimum solar-gain.

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12. MASTERPLAN The Masterplan, shown opposite, illustrates the resolution of assessment, evaluation and design for the vision of a more inviting, resilient and liveable coastline. The design aims to capitalise upon the major asset of Fremantle Harbour by providing easy public access, views, and a contribution of high-quality public realm.

The key intervention of moving the rail out to the breakwater has been considered below, drawing on the character of Fremantle and setting the tone for the identity of place.

The existing urban structure has formed the foundation for urban renewal, as the frequent straight streets running parallel to the harbour now punch through to the harbourside, protecting views and providing easy public access. Pedestrians will now be able to step down to meet the water for a more immersive experience. Whilst the linear levee park forms part of the mitigation strategy, it will also act as a vitalising connection between the historic core and south beach - two key nodes otherwise poorly connected. The public open spaces and features will underpin the uplifted liveability of the urban area.

RAIL CROSSING The proposed alternate rail route cuts accross the water, leaping from Challenger Harbour to the main fixed breakwater. Its style would be an industrial aesthetic, drawing on the port setting, similar to the Kinzie Bridge in Chicago (pictured). The bridge would stay upright unless signalled by oncoming trains, allowing the usual flow of boats.

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HISTORIC CORE

New Rail Crossing

South Street

Masterplan SOUTH BEACH


13. DESIGN IN SECTION The plans, shown opposite, demonstrate the design strategy in section, elevating the land for shoreline mitigation, development, and a renewed public relationship with the harbourside. The elevated land is partially used as undercroft parking, which would be protected by flood defences.

D B

C A

a) Exemplar built form: Wapping Wharf, Bristol, UK

b) Exemplar High quality public realm: ‘The Goods Line’, Sydney, Aus

a) image sourced from: http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2015/10/the-goods-line-by-aspect-studios/ b) image sourced from: https://www.retailgazette.co.uk/blog/2016/08/bristols-wapping-wharf-retail-concept-takes-shape-witharrival-of-shipping-containters

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14. BUILT FORM Directions 2031 indicates that 4,120 dwellings are to be created within the City of Fremantle (WAPC, 2012)10. Infill development within this first phase area will help reach these Government targets and drive the economic viability of implementing a more resilient coastal edge. This project may be inspired by climatic problems, but it is driven by densification. The detailed design area is composed predominantly of residential and mixed-use development, attributing approximately 974 residential dwellings and 28 small commercial units, and also features an iconic hotel building and large office building. The calculated schedule is based on an abridged method, which would be adjusted to market advice. Building heights are determined by their orientation relative to sunlight access. East/ West facing buildings are shorter & double-loaded. North/South facing buildings are taller & single-loaded. This approach also helps to frame public open spaces.

7-storey Mixed-Use 120m2 Units = 14x commercial units / 84x residential units 5-storey Mixed-Use 125m2 Units = 14x commercial units / 56x residential units

7-storey Residential 120m2 Units = 462x residential units 5-storey Residential 125m2 Units = 345x residential units

Allocated parking spaces are built into the elevated land, becoming undercroft parking areas (see sections pg.38). TOTALS 28x small commercial units 947x residential units

preliminary built form modelling

10) WAPC 2012. Delivering Directions 2031. In: PLANNING (ed.). Perth. pg 17

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10-storey Parking Garage 10-storey Commercial Building 12-storey Feature Hotel 7-storey Mixed-Use 5-storey Mixed-Use 7-storey Residential 5-storey Residential

Built Form Plan


15. MOVEMENT The proposed movement network provides a permeable layout of streets that are designed to promote sustainable modes of transport. This network incorporates the following street types:

Main Linear Corridor: Mews Rd. »» 2 northbound lanes / 1 southbound lane (2 southbound lanes at major junctions); »» 2 northbound lanes support: flow of traffic not interrupted by vehicles turning right into existing grid; CAT public transport northbound (anti-clockwise loop with Elevated Local Road); »» cycle lanes.

Elevated Local Road »» 1 northbound lane / 2 southbound lanes; »» 2 southbound lanes support: flow of traffic not interrupted by vehicles turning right into existing grid; CAT public transport southbound (anti-clockwise loop with Mews Rd.).

Elevated Slow Moving Local Road »» street paved similar to adjacent path encouraging; »» slow moving, pedestrian-friendly movement.

Elevated View Corridor Road »» 1 northbound lane / 1 southbound lane; »» wide streets supporting view corridors; »» low height vegetation on median strip supporting view corridor.

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Main Linear Corridor: Mews Road Elevated Local Road Elevated View Corridor Road Elevated Slow Moving Local Road

Street Hierarchy Plan


16. PUBLIC OPEN SPACE The Linear Levee Park connects significant existing POS along an active green belt. Inspired by New York’s High Line Park, it is mixed with hard elements and so elements. The harder elements could be built using the rail materials that it has displaced The park is accessible at many spots on its Eastern Side (stairs and ramps), encouraging public engagement.

case study reference- floating jetties (Hamburg, Germany)

The Floodable Parks are terraced levels intended to enhance the public experience with the water by using tidal fluctuations as a feature. The Floating Paths also integrate human experience with tidal fluctuations and will provide extra boat mooring space. case study reference- floodable spaces (Hamburg, Germany)

case study reference- linear park (‘High Line Park’, New York, USA)

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Linear Levee Park Floodable Park

Gathering Space

B

A

Public Open Space Plan

Floodable Kiosk/Gazibo

Fixed Jetties & Floating Path


B

17. OTHER AREAS The sections shown opposite demonstrate the condition of other areas following the initial interventions of the Masterplan. These areas will maintain their existing uses until they are scoped for later phase designs.

A

D C

Other Areas Plan


UPPER FISHING BOAT HARBOUR The above section shows a delayed intervention area with retained social uses and the implementation of the Linear Levee Park. Temporary floodwalls could be installed to prevent damage to significant buildings (e.g. Little Creatures Brewery)

LOWER FISHING BOAT HARBOUR The above section shows a delayed intervention area with retained industrial uses and the implementation of the Linear Levee Park.

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18. MASTERPLAN IN DETAIL @ 1:1000

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Pedestrian Access to Elevated Land

Feature Social Space with views towards iconic new rail bridge Feature Hotel Building

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19. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY

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PHASE ONE: YEAR 1

PHASE TWO: YEAR 2-3

»» Ecological / Climatic / Engineering consultation;

»» Construction of alternate rail route & bridge;

»» Upland Strategy implementation;

»» Construction of Linear Levee Park (upon completion of rail);

»» Land acquisition.

»» In-Water Strategy implmentation.


PHASE THREE: YEAR 4-6

PHASE FOUR: YEAR 7-12

PHASE FIVE: YEAR 13-20

»» Elevate land and streets with new precinct.

»» Land acquistion and detailed design of other shoreline development areas;

»» Identification and development of further opportunities adjacent to Mews Road.

»» Elevate land and streets of remaining shoreline development areas.

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20. CONCLUSION Strategically, this project presents a rational proposition for infill development: “Fremantle can support population density, it’s an area where there are jobs and also transport connections… there is diversity of social and economic opportunities” – Fremantle Member, Mr. Josh Wilson (Claire Moody, 2015)11. However, regardless of its strategic rationale, its proposal would likely stir some public resistance. Local Fremantle residents, Bruce Maluish and Eileen English, expressed their concerns of increased congestion, stress on existing infrastructure, and a detrimental effect on the city’s character: “they (local Government) have no feeling for the character of Fremantle… to go and put six-storey-high buildings in here is not appropriate” (Claire Moody, 2015). The proposed development exhibits several key features that will help to alleviate community resistance, including: improved public domain, increased public waterfront accessibility, safeguarding of valued historic infrastructure, sea level rise resilience, and conservation of ecological systems. In the isolated areas where Fremantle does engage with its waterfront, they are extremely successful places for people. It was considered that by increasing the accessibility of interesting public waterfront spaces, this would be a key premise for galvinising public support, typified by the design’s floodable parks. A permeable urban structure and vitalised linear movement would reconnect the harbourside with Fremantle and enact a more walkable city beyond the popular historic core, effecting an increased use of public transit systems, and helping to lessen fears of increased congestion from new residents and visitors.

11) CLAIRE MOODY, R. T. 2015. Perth infill backlash: Suburbs fighting high-density development [Online]. ABC News. Available: http://www. abc.net.au/news/2015-06- 08/perth-infill- backlash-suburbs- fighting-high- density-development/6521460.

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Without intervention, sea level rise threatens to regularly flood and inundate Fremantle’s low-lying areas. At the same time, a warming ocean will impact the livelihood of coastal fisheries and marine ecosystems, deteriorate the natural biodiversity, and potentially lead to a decline in tourism. The proposed strategy to safeguard valued infrastructure draws on the understanding that healthy, fully functioning ecosystems are more resilient to stressors and therefore better able to support adaptation (Munang et al., 2013)12, asserted by the proposal of actions in the water, and on the land. An environmentally-friendly strategy for sea level rise resilience will help to alleviate resistance in an eco-conscious community. This project could be coordinated by the MRA, acting as a broker between local communities, various levels of government, agencies, and private developers. State and Federal governments would need to fund the infrastructure, including the alternate rail reserve and linear levee park, with private developers brought in to develop sites. Following Directions 2031, Perth remains extraordinarily short of its long-term infill target of 47%, falling to 28% in 2012. According to Fremantle Mayor, Dr. Brad Pettitt, “The State Government needs to take a more interventionist approach if it’s serious about this (infill). There is little value in having another document with a series of blue-sky outcomes that don’t have any teeth to back them up” (Law, 2014). This project clearly follows this train of thought, balancing environmental, technical, social, and economic priorities to achieve strategic goals. The idea of linking densification to coastal resilience will become increasingly significant in appropriate river and coastal foreshores across Perth in the future.

12) MUNANG, R., THIAW, I., ALVERSON, K., MUMBA, M., LIU, J. & RIVINGTON, M. 2013. Climate change and Ecosystem-based Adaptation: a new pragmatic approach to buffering climate change impacts. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5, 67-71. pg. 1 13) LAW, P. 2014. Future Perth: 900,000 new homes without the urban sprawl. via PerthNow [Online] [accessed Nov 10, 2014] http://www. perthnow.com.au/news/special-features/future-perth-900000-new-homes-without-the-urban-sprawl/story-fnknbeni-1227098457513


figure 1: THEWORLDBANK 2013. Turn Down the Heat: Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts, and the Case for Resilience. Washington DC, USA: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. pg xvi figure 2: Ozcoasts Australian Online Coastal Information (http://www.ozcoasts.gov.au/climate/Map_images/ Perth/mapLevel2_North.jsp) figure 3: pictures sourced from forum blog post found at http://www.waweathergroup.com/forum/viewtopic. php?p=42171#p42171 figure 4: pictures sourced from Australian Bureau of Meteorology found at http://www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/history/wa/alby.shtml

FIGURES

figure 5: Image sourced from http://www.nycgo.com/venues/jamaica-bay-wildlife-refuge figure 6: Image sourced from http://spel.com.au/news/new-york-city-trial-floating-wetlands-jamaica-bay/ figure 7: Image exerted from Rising Currents, 2010 pg. 105 figure 8: Image sourced from https://www.flickr.com/photos/littoraria/4277526760/ figure 9: BURDEN, A. 2013. Coastal Climate Resilience: Urban Waterfront Adaptive Strategies. New York: Department of City Planning New York. pg. 100 figure 10: Image sourced from http://www.kcap.eu/en/projects/v/hafencity/ figure 11: Images taken by author in 2012 figure 12: Open Space - Urban Public Landscape Design. (2013). (L. Shijian Ed.). China: Sendpoints Publishing Co. pg.50 figure 13: Image sourced from http://blogs.aecom.com/connectedcities/coastal-resilience-through-biomimicry/ figure 14 + 16: Water basin + permeable paving at San Martin De La Mar Square, Santander http://afasiaarchzine. com/2015/12/zigzag-angelini-casino/ figure 15: Chicago City Hall green roof, Chicago, IL. http://www.powerhousegrowers.com/6-successful-sustainable-green-roof-projects/ figure 17: Central Park, New York. http://www.viajejet.com/wp-content/viajes/central-park-de-nueva-york.jpg figure 18: Rotterdam Water Plaza, Rotterdam, Netherlands. http://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/19/world/europe/ can-rotterdam-become-the-sustainable/

21. REFERENCES

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BURDEN, A. 2013. Coastal Climate Resilience: Urban Waterfront Adaptive Strategies. New York: Department of City Planning New York. FREMANTLE, C. O. 2013. Climate Change Adaption Plan. In: PLANNING (ed.).

REFERENCES

GUNDERMANN, B. 2012. Adaptive Urbanism: Sea Level Rise, Resilience & Urban Development. In: TURNER, S. (ed.). New Zealand: Stephenson & Turner Ltd. GUNDERMANN, B. 2013a. From Resistance to Resilience. In: TURNER, S. (ed.). Auckland, New Zealand: Stephenson & Turner. GUNDERMANN, B. 2013b. New Urban Shores: Landscape Architecture New Zealand. In: TURNER, S. (ed.). New Zealand: Stephenson & Turner Ltd. IPCC 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York. LAW, P. 2014. Future Perth: 900,000 new homes without the urban sprawl. via PerthNow [online] [accessed Nov 10, 2014] http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/special-features/future-perth-900000-new-homes-without-the-urban-sprawl/story-fnknbeni-1227098457513 MUNANG, R., THIAW, I., ALVERSON, K., MUMBA, M., LIU, J. & RIVINGTON, M. 2013. Climate change and Ecosystem-based Adaptation: a new pragmatic approach to buffering climate change impacts. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5, 67-71. OPPENHEIMER, M. 2010. Climate Change and World Cities. Rising Currents. New York: Department of Publications, The Museum of Modern Art.

physical model development

THEWORLDBANK 2013. Turn Down the Heat: Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts, and the Case for Resilience. Washington DC, USA: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. WAPC 2010. Directions 2031. In: PLANNING (ed.). Perth, Australia: WAPC. WAPC 2012. Delivering Directions 2031. In: PLANNING (ed.). Perth. 2013. Open Space - Urban Public Landscape Design, China, Sendpoints Publishing Co.

Gareth Ringrose 20258645 B. Arts (Communications) This research folio is presented for the degree of Master of Urban Design School of Landscape, Architecture and Visual Arts University of Western Australia, Perth, WA. 2014

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Responding to Sea Level Rise in Fremantle, Western Australia (Urban Design Masters Thesis, 2014)  

In this century, sea level rise threatens to flood Fremantle’s historic core. How should its urban form strategise against this problem? //...

Responding to Sea Level Rise in Fremantle, Western Australia (Urban Design Masters Thesis, 2014)  

In this century, sea level rise threatens to flood Fremantle’s historic core. How should its urban form strategise against this problem? //...

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