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PARTNERSHIP FOR COMMUNITY ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

RESEARCH ON POSSIBILITIES OF PROGRAM REPLICATION

RESEARCH REPORT Prepared by: Research Team Leader - Ngo Thu Hang

Ha Noi, 12/2013

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Contents A. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 4   I.  

Background information ..................................................................................................... 4 1.   From Ukraine to Vietnam ................................................................................................ 4   2.   Terminology and contents .............................................................................................. 4  

II. Introduction of the research ................................................................................................ 4   1.   Research objectives ........................................................................................................... 4   2.   Theory framework .............................................................................................................. 5   3.   Specific questions .............................................................................................................. 5   B.   KEY FINDINGS ...................................................................................................................... 6   I.  

NEEDS FOR EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT .................................. 6 1.   Vietnam’s context ........................................................................................................... 6   2.   Knowledge and behaviors of students on SD & climate change adaptation .................. 7   3.   What are the reasons? ................................................................................................... 9  

II. CURRENT PROGRAMS ON ESD & CLIMATE CHANGE EDUCATION ........................ 10   1.   National programs on climate change education and adaptation ................................. 10   2.   Other programs by NGOs & international organizations ............................................. 12   3.   A  lack of a comprehensive program on ESD and climate change adaptation .............. 15   III.  

THE PROJECT MODEL’S RELEVANCE TO THE VIETNAMESE CONTEXT ............ 15

1. Improving knowledge of school children about sustainable development .................... 15   2.   A good model of behavior change ................................................................................ 17   3.   Contents & methods are relevant to the national program of MoET ............................. 18   IV.   C.   I.  

DONORS & POTENTIAL FUNDING SOURCES FOR REPLICATION ........................ 19 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION .......................................................................... 21   Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 21  

II. Recommendations for project model’s replication ............................................................ 21   1.   General recommendations ............................................................................................... 21   2.   Advocate (with MoET) for green living program to become a separate subject ............... 22   3.   Advocate for the project model to become an extracurricular subject .............................. 22   4.   Replicate in the existing provinces and districts ............................................................... 22   5.   Replicate in the clubs ....................................................................................................... 23   6.   Replicate through projects and programs of other organizations: .................................... 23  

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ABBREVIATION ACCD

Action Center for City Development

C&E

Center for Development of Community Initiative and Environment

ESD

Education for Sustainable Development

DRR

Disaster and Risk Reduction

DoET

Department of Education and Training

FGD

Focus group discussion

GAP

Global Action Plan

MoET

Ministry of Education and Training

NRC

Norwegian Red Cross

INGOs

International Non-Governmental Organizations

NGOs

Non-Governmental Organizations

VNGOs

Vietnam Non-Governmental Organizations

VNRC

Vietnam Red Cross

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A. INTRODUCTION I.

Background information:

1. From Ukraine to Vietnam: The project “Partnership for community action on climate change” originated from the Education for sustainable development (ESD) program in Ukraine. The program, started in Ukraine since 2002 by the NGO named “Teachers for Democracy and Partnership”. After its success in the pilot time, the ESD program in Ukraine became one of the elective subjects in the school curriculum. It then was implemented throughout the country, benefiting 55,000 students and 2,500 teachers in 600 schools. ACCD & C&E realized that the Ukraine ESD program is a good model for Vietnam. Therefore the two organizations, together with GAP developed project proposal applying for funding source from SIDA, to implement this project in Vietnam since 2011. 2. Terminology and contents: The project is about ESD, with a focus on climate change education and action. The project’s name in Vietnam is Partnership for community action on climate change. ACCD & C&E want to highlight the action and behavior change related to climate change. However, the project’s aim, principle and key contents remain similar with the program in Ukraine The key focus is to develop students’ Eco teams, and to transform schools into a center reaching out to parents and community members. II.

Introduction of the research:

1. Research objectives: This research aims to analyze the possibilities to replicate the program’s model in Vietnam. The following questions will be studied: • Can the program’s contents be one of the formal subjects in the curriculum of secondary school? • Can the program’s contents be integrated in the extracurricular or in the semiformal education program such as in the clubs, training centers (life skill training centers, semi-formal education centers, etc…) • Can the program’s contents be included in (or can be part of) projects and programs of other INGOs and VNGOs? •

What are the possible funding sources for the program replication?

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2.

Theory framework:

Program’s key results, best practices and its relevance to the Vietnamese context

Picture 1: Research framework

3.

Specific questions

This research will study the following (key) questions: • Is there a need for a program on education for sustainable development in Vietnam? • Do current programs on ESD and education on climate change by the Government & NGOs fill-in the gaps in the context? • Is the program relevant to the Vietnamese context? • To what extent has the program be accepted by the education sector and by the schools where it has been implemented? • Can the program be integrated into the formal school curriculum of the education system? • Are there any other options to replicate this program? 4. Research methods • Desk study: The research team reviewed and analyzed documents relating to this project, including: Ø Project documents Ø Guide book for teachers & Student’s book Ø Communication materials Ø Other materials developed by other organizations working in the same field (Live & Learn, Oxfam, Care International, etc.) Research report: possibilities for program replication

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• Field research: In the field research, both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used Ø Quantitative research used filled-in questionnaires to collect information and statistics about KAP (Knowledge-Attitude-Practice) of students in all the school visited. Qualitative research including in-depth interview, Focus group discussion- using historical chart, picture drawing, etc. were used to collect information from students, teachers, rectors, officers from DoET, MoET and staff of other NGOs/ other projects. Ø In the field research, snowball method was used to select the interviewees. While interviewing one person, the researcher asked him/her about others who have experiences or in in the topic to make appointment for the next interview. 5.

Scope and limitation:

The field research was implemented in all project areas: Hanoi, Thai Binh and Hue. In each province, the research team also met students who have not yet learned the green living subject. However the sample of the control group was quite small. In some case the research team could not meet stakeholders as planed because they were busy and changed the schedule at the last minute. 6.

Research team:

Team leader: Ngo Thu Hang Team members: Nguyen Huong Tra, Do Lan Phuong, Le Thi Phuong Thao

B. KEY FINDINGS: I.

NEEDS FOR EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

This part answers the following questions: (i) Is there a need for a program on

education for sustainable development in Vietnam? and (ii) Is the program relevant to the Vietnamese context? 1.

Vietnamese context:

Vietnam is one the countries affected seriously by climate change. Specifically, Vietnam is 1 in 5 countries that are most likely to be affected by sea level rise. This is not only due to the topography of the country, but also due to unsustainable activities in the past and at present. The Vietnamese Government is increasingly interested in addressing issues of climate change and sustainability. These issues are creating pressures and challenges to future development, while hindering the country’s efforts in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Vietnamese Government

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approved the National Target Program to Respond to Climate Change (National Target Program) on 12/2008. (http://www.ngocentre.org.vn/files/docs/NTP_Vietnamese.pdf) However the implementation of this national program has been facing many challenges. Knowledge and understanding of Vietnamese people about climate change has been limited. Mr. Rajendra K Pachauri, Chairman of the intergovernmental organization on climate change commented about climate change measures in Vietnam“…Vietnam needs adaptation measures other than the prevention program. In addition, raising awareness about climate change is very important, and that will help Vietnamese people realize which disasters caused by climate change, etc.” (http://giaoduc.net.vn/Kinh-te/Phong-chong-bien-doi-khi-hau-Rat-can-nhan-thuc-dungdan-post100937.gd). Besides, Vietnamese people have not yet changed behavior toward climate change adaptation and sustainable development; even though the practices are very important., Professor Nguyen Quang Rieu, from the Paris Observatory said, “Coping with the global warming must start from action” (http://giaoduc.net.vn/Kinh-te/Phongchong-bien-doi-khi-hau-Rat-can-nhan-thuc-dung-dan-post100937.gd). Studies show that households directly or indirectly cause half of greenhouse gas emissions. The major source of emissions from household fuel use for the engine and fuel use in the family (direct emissions) and industrial production of goods and services for household consumption (indirect emissions). In Vietnam, interventions to help families and individuals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly, is still limited. The role of the school in attracting families to participate in emissions reduction and community approach to reducing carbon emissions still unexplored. 2. Knowledge and behavior of student on SD & climate change adaptation: Knowledge – Attitude – Practice (KAP) test results of students, who have not learned about “living green” – the contents introduced by this project- showed that, they lack of basic knowledge about the living environment and causes of pollution. The below charts show results of KAP test with 63 students who have not yet taken green living lessons

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Chart 1: Knowledge of students reflected through their right & wrong answers about the environment Among 63 students filled in the KAP test, 71% of them did not know that the water that can be used for daily life (eating, drinking, etc.) only accounts for 1% of total area of water. Beside, many of them could not identify (name) different types of rubbish correctly, i.e. which one is organic, which one is non-organic, and which one is recyclable.

Chart 2: Behaviors of students

Regarding behaviors, most of them (83%) turned off the light when going out of the room; and 73% admitted that they do not throw rubbish in the school yard and public areas. However, they do not pay attention to the energy and natural resources their families consume every day or every month. They are not concerned whether or not Research report: possibilities for program replication

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their family members use plastic bags for shopping. It also meant that students do not realize the serious consequences of using plastic bags. From the focus group discussions (FGDs) with those students (from the schools and classes where green living program has not been implemented) we realized that, they were not self-confident, and did not pay much attention to environment and climate change issues. They did not take actions at school to improve the environment. 3. What are the reasons? According to teachers and school managers, the causes of limited knowledge and behaviors on the part of the students are: (i) Students are not sufficiently exposed to important concepts such as sustainable development, environment protection, climate change and its consequences (ii) There is a lack of activities or program to encourage/ promote behaviors change toward sustainable development. Specifically, there is no subject named “environment” or “sustainable development” in the school curriculum. The contents about environment were designed to be integrated in some subjects such as geography, biology and civic education. Recently, Ministry of Education and Training (MoET) also requests teachers to integrate contents of climate change into those three subjects. In addition, the common comment among respondents about the school curriculum is that it has too much theory and lacks of skills development and behavior change programs. The gap between knowledge/information and action is not yet addressed in the school curriculum. 4.

Conclusion:

In the context of Vietnam, which is seriously affected by climate change, it is imperative that people change their s for adaptation and mitigation, However, the findings from our research show that the general understanding among the public on climate change remains limited. There is a need for climate change education both in school and in community.

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II.

CURRENT PROGRAMS ON ESD & CLIMATE CHANGE EDUCATION:

These findings answer the following questions: whether or not the current (education and communication) programs, implemented by government and NGOs, fill-in the gaps of knowledge and understanding of people? Do these programs empower children and adults to change their behaviors?

1.

National programs on climate change education and adaptation:

1.1 MOET’s program on climate change education: Background: Climate change education is under the national program on Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation. The component, climate change education, has been managed by the Department of Science and Technology of MoET. Besides, the communication activities on ion climate change education and adaptation has been implemented by the Department of Teacher and Students’ Affairs. Activities & Effectiveness: Up to present, MoET has planned to integrate climate change education into school subjects such as geography, biology and civic education. The requirements and instructions were sent out to DoET at provincial and district levels for implementation. However, according to teachers and school managers participating in this research, the result of this integrated teaching still very limited .The content of each subject is currently already overwhelming and overloading. There is no room for adding more content into these subjects. In some schools teachers do not know about the requirements for integrating climate change education.

Challenges: The national climate change education program is facing some challenges and therefore it is not as effective as expected. Firstly, the inadequate training and guiding for teachers, caused by limited funding source. According to officers of DoET, only few TOT trainers in each province while number of teachers need to be trained is so large. In addition, the lack of funding source also leads to shortening of training time. According to a school manager who had been to one of these one day training workshops, time was too short to discuss and practice how to integrate climate change education into school subjects. Materials: Insufficient material is another challenge of the national education program on climate change education. According to an officer at MoET who attended the project’s evaluation workshop, the official TOT book of this program was finalized. However, according to the users (teachers and school managers) the ToT book is not user-friendly. For them, the book is too academic without giving proper suggestions on how to integrate climate change education into school subjects. Cooperation: Currently MoET is cooperating with Live & Learn to utilize the organization’s training material on climate change. MoET approved Live & Learn’s book “ABC about climate change” as the official reference material for the national program. MoET also cooperated with Live & Learn in distributing this book to province, district and commune levels. Their funding sources were from Plan International and Research report: possibilities for program replication

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British Council. Specifically, Live & Learn staff worked together with MoET trainers to conduct TOT training courses for teachers in provinces before distributing the book to them. In addition, MoET is also cooperating with UNICEF in bigger program on disaster preparedness and mitigation which also includes development of communication material. Intention/ future plan: Integrating materials of international organizations and NGOs in the national program materials: in order to finalize the national program materials and make them more effective, MoET is welcoming materials from different NGOs and international organizations to use as reference materials. Evaluating and approving the teaching/ learning materials on climate change education: MoET also reviews and approves training/ teaching and communication materials on climate change and sustainable development. Ms. Dung, officer of the Department of Science, Technology and Environment of MoET, who participated in the project’s workshop, highly appreciated the book developed by this project and suggested that, it should be submitted to MoET for evaluation. Once it was approved by the Ministry, it can be suggested as reference material using for the national program (similar to Live & Learn’s ABC book) Changing/ improving the school curriculum: According to the interviewed MoET officer, the Ministry is revising the school curriculum with an aim to limit number of subjects and reduce the workload for students. In the curriculum reform, MoET also wants to focus on skill training for children. Therefore, they want to use the teaching program/ curriculum and materials developed by international organizations and NGOs as references. Future cooperation with the project and ACCD & CE: The interviewed with MoET officer said that contents/ topics developed in the green living program are relevant to the national program’s objectives. Therefore, those contents could be integrated in the new subject named “life skills” in the revised curriculum. 1.2 MONRE’s national program on climate change adaptation Background: Raising awareness and capacity building is one of the objectives of the National Target Program (NTP) on climate change adaptation. The NTP developed in 12/2008, includes three phases which are (i) 2009-2010: start- up; (ii) 2011-2015: implementation; and (iii) 2015 – 2020: development Activities: Specific activities were mentioned in the NTP include: developing training courses and communication materials, training for staff and communicators, who then conduct communication activities. The NTP also plans to promote behavior change among community members toward sustainable development, including saving energy, saving water, reducing volume of waste and recycling rubbish. These activities are similar to the actions suggested in the green living program by this project. Effectiveness: N/A Research report: possibilities for program replication

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2.

Other programs done by NGOs & international organizations

2.1 Vietnam Red Cross (VNRC) and Norwegian Red Cross (NRC): Background: The VNRC’s Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) program, of which climate change adaptation is one component, was started more than 10 years ago. It received supports from Save the Children and some other international organizations. Currently the program was funded by American Red Cross. Similarity, NRC also works on DRR in the central coastal areas and northern mountainous provinces; and climate change adaptation is one of the organization’s focuses. Activities: Both VNRC and NRC are working on communication to raise community awareness about climate change and climate change adaptation. Materials and intention/ future plan: VNRC has communication materials on DRR, which were developed long time ago. Now, they intend to revise/ upgrade the materials to use in communication for children in school. 2.2 Live & Learn: Background: Live & Learn has been working in environment issue and climate change for a long time. The organization supports youth groups to develop their initiatives in environment protection and climate change adaptation. Live & Learn receives funding source from work with many INGOs and Embassies like Plan International British Council, Oxfam and Embassy of UK. Activities: Regarding climate change adaptation and sustainable development, Live and Learn focuses on communication to raise awareness (mainly for youth and children), develops materials and supports initiatives/ projects developed and managed by youth groups. The organization also works with children in schools (in Hanoi) through a project of a youth group. Together with school teachers, the youth group conducts communication events as an extracurricular program for children in school to provide them with the useful information about sustainable development and climate change. Materials: Live & Learn has good experience in developing communication and training materials on sustainable development and climate change. They used the resource materials from international sources and revised them using the hands-on experience from Live & Learn’s projects. Therefore their materials, according to experts and users, were practical, useful and relevant to the Vietnamese context. Live & Learn has books (TOT book and children’s text book) on climate change approved by MoET. These books are used as formal reference material in the national program on climate change education. The books were developed based on the organization’s experience on climate change adaptation and mitigation projects using funding from Plan International. After developing the material, the two organizations sent to MoET for approval. These books were selected for the national program as reference materials.

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Future plan: The organization will continue to work with youth groups to raise awareness for school children on climate change. According to Ms. Do Van Nguyet, director of Live & Learn, it may take a long time to work with school teachers (in order to train them and then coach them in their teaching). By contrast young people are very good at the participatory teaching activities and they can facilitate the learning sessions, based on the Experiential Learning Cycle. Live & Learn thinks that integrating climate change education into the formal curriculum of the school is not feasible considering the overloading of the current curriculum. 2.3 Center for Sustainable Community Development (S-CODE): Background: S-CODE is well-known for its Environment & Community (known as CEDO) in Ha Nam province. The project, funded by Danish Embassy, focuses on community-based environmental protection. Community people initiated and managed their own projects on clean water, waste classification and disposal, making and using green manure for organic agriculture production, etc. (http://greenhanam.com.vn/en/introduction/project-document-community-basedsustainable-development-peri-urban-areas) Activities: The organization is working with adults and school children. In community, they conducted communication sessions in the meetings of the Women’s Union, Farmers Union and village meetings to promote green living behaviors. In school, the project also worked with core teams (of students) to provide them with communication skills. These skills enable students to conduct communication sessions to raise awareness of their peers in school. It also supports for the extracurricular activities of the schools. Materials and intention/ future plan: according to project coordinator of S-CODE, the organization has extensive experience in facilitating community participation and in developing communication campaigns at the grassroots level. However they do not have experience in teaching school children or in developing materials to be used in school. S-CODE staff developed school materials by themselves without outside support. The project coordinator thinks highly of the materials developed by the green living program and the topics/ contents introduced in the green living books. She wants to work with ACCD & CE in the future to replicate the project model in S-CODE project areas and to utilize the green living books. 2.4 Care International: Care International also focuses on climate change. It has cooperated with ACCD and other organizations in the climate change working group to implement small projects to promote climate change communication to raise community awareness. During the last few years, Care International also funded Live and Learn to develop climate change adaptation materials. However, Care International now focuses on mainstreaming climate change in all projects and program activities, other than having a separate project on climate change adaptation. In addition, Care International is prioritizing target groups from ethnic minorities in mountainous areas. Research report: possibilities for program replication

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2.5 Oxfam Great Britain: Background: Oxfam GB and six other NGOs currently received fund from AusAid to implement a project on climate change adaptation in the Mekong delta. Raising community people’s awareness and changing their behaviors is one of the major components of this project. Activities: Oxfam GB’s communication sessions mostly target women, as their project is partnering with the Women’s Union. They also apply the model of behavior change similar to the green living program. Their project encourages the application of new behaviors and follow-up after communication sessions and campaigns.

Intention/ future plan: Oxfam GB’s program manager and coordinator highly appreciated the green living model, implemented by ACCD and C&E; and the project’s results in the pilot phase. They encouraged ACCD and C&E to contact Oxfam GB to find the suitable cooperation in the future. Oxfam is now participating in the climate change working group and network of organizations working in DRR. According to the program manager, from now on, he and his organization will work more closely with those networks to select the best practices and models to be replicated and advocate good models to the government.

2.6 Football For All in Vietnam (FFAV) Background: FFAV is an INGO funded by Norwegian football federation. The organization is based in Hue and works in some other provinces, like in Do Son town, Hai Phong city and in Tien Giang province. Ms. Nguyen Thu Ha, former director of Thua Thien Hue’s DoET, after her retirement, is now working as (full time) advisor for the organization. Activities: FFAV forms football clubs in community (with members are girls and boy) and train them not only football but also life skills. The clubs also work as change agent in community development where the activities were held with participation of parents and community people In Do Son town, Hai Phong city the clubs are good at HIV/ AIDs prevention activities and community outreach. Climate change adaptation and life skills are the key contents provided by FFAV’s clubs because their target groups live in the regions badly affected by climate change and natural disasters such as the coastal region and the Mekong delta). Materials and Future plan: FFAV has not yet had training material on life skill and climate change adaptation. FFAV project officer and adviser are developing the material. FFAV therefore highly appreciates the green living program and its books. Research report: possibilities for program replication

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They want to cooperate with C&E and DoET of Quang Dien and Hue city in replicating the project model in their football clubs. 3.

A lack of a comprehensive program on ESD and climate change adaptation

The above findings reveal that the education system - both formal and informal – cannot meet the needs of school children and adults. These programs mainly worked on communication and extracurricular activities. Everyone interviewed is concerned about the overloading of the current school curriculum. In addition, the communication activities by different programs and organizations in schools and in community have not yet reached the goal of behavior change. Most of them follow the conventional model of “information leading to new action”. Compared to the model of the green living program, the conventional model lacks of different entry points to effect behavior change. It is also noted that the “empowerment” aspect has not been sufficiently taken into account. The conventional model of behavior change sees the “target group” as a passive group. The target group is assumed to be the recipients of information, instead of being active seekers of information and knowledge. In short, the research found that Vietnam still lacks of a comprehensive and effective education program on ESD and climate change education; and also lacks of a good model for behavior change. III.

THE PROJECT MODEL’S RELEVANCE TO THE VIETNAMESE CONTEXT

This part answers the following questions: • Is the green living program relevant to the Vietnamese context? • Can it fill-in the current gaps about knowledge/ understanding of school children and community members? and • Does the green living program provide an effective behavior change model? 1.

Improving knowledge of school children about ESD:

Results of KAP test showed that students, who learned green living subject in school have better understanding of sustainable development, climate change and sustainable development than others who do not. The below chart shows the comparison between knowledge of 63 students who took green living lessons and those who had not.

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Chart 3: Knowledge of students who took green living lessons and those who did not

The chart shows the number of students who had the right answers in the KAP test about knowledge and understanding of green living. Respondents were students who took green living lessons and those who did not. Specifically, 88% of students who already learned about those contents knew that water is not renewable; 76% of them understood that water used for daily life accounts for 1% of the total water. Most of them, 87% identified “eco-bag� correctly among different types of bag. The percentage of correct answers was significantly lower among students who did not learn green living lessons. In the focus group discussions, researchers asked students to draw pictures showing current situation of the living environment in their community. In the classes where green living subject was implemented, students are much more active and selfconfident. They immediately identified the causes of pollution in their community and illustrated these cases in their pictures, including smoke from transportation vehicles, untreated waste water, etc. They also identified the behaviors that caused pollution such as burning straw, throwing rubbish into rivers and using chemical fertilizer in the rice fields. Those students could explain very clearly the bad effects of using plastic bags through role-play in a short drama between a child and a mother. Those contents were included in the green living subject, which was introduced by this project. Teachers were trained in the TOT courses by Vietnamese and foreign experts. They then teach the students ten topics including waste, energy, water, shopping, social relationship, health, plants, new life style, the future, and working in team.

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2.

A good model of behavior change:

The below chart shows some common behaviors of students who took green living lessons. They pay attention to their households’ electricity and water consumption; and are concerned about using plastic bags in shopping.

Chart 4: Behaviors of 144 students who took green living lessons

Their behaviors are different from those who did not take green living lessons. In the FGDs and in-depth interviews, students took green living lessons shared about their new behaviors.

After the sessions on saving water and electricity, they practiced to monitor the volume of electricity consumed by their households; and asked all family members to turn-off the un-used lights, water heater and other electronic equipment. They then felt very happy to see the reduction of electricity as showed in the monthly bill. The reason for positive changes in behaviors of students is that, in the green living subject, students formed the eco-teams which identified the issues they need to change in daily life in order to have sustainable development and to adapt with climate change. Each eco-team registered the topics they would practice, such as recycling rubbish, saving electricity and water, etc. From individual level, they then planned for group projects. After one or two weeks, each group presented their project’s results with friends and teachers. The lessons were lively and relevant to what happened in daily life: students brought the household’s bills of electricity and water to the classroom and they had discussion in the group about how they could further improve their actions.

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The green living program encourages the participation of students. Students build up new habits, take pride in what they are doing, and keep finding out new ways to live sustainably. Each eco-team is the change agent of the school and community. They mobilize participation of their parents and neighbors to their eco-team’s project activities. Students in Trung Hoa secondary school in Hanoi were able to mobilize people living around their school to clean the streets nearby. One woman participated in that activity with the students said, she saw a group of students cleaning the school gate and the road nearby every day, and so she felt that she should also join with the kids. Parents of another eco-team in the Le Hong Phong secondary school in Hue city also joined with their kids in making and using the so-called “the smart dustbins” made of recycled materials. 3.

Contents & methods are relevant to the national program of MoET

This part answers the question: is the project’s model relevant to the national program on climate changes education and requirements of MoET? The contents and topics introduced by this project about green living are in line with the national program on climate change education, according to the officer of MoET participating in the project’s workshop. In the green living subject, students learned about the necessary contents including building social relationship, water, energy, rubbish, health , shopping and sustainable life style style . The MoET officer also said, sustainable development would be emphasized in the revised (new) curriculum, of which there would be a new subject about life skills. The contents of green living subject meet the requirements and objectives of MoET about sustainable development, life skill and climate change adaptation. In addition, in the current school curriculum, there isn’t any subject providing students with comprehensive contents about sustainable development. According to people interviewed this research, all the necessary topics such life skills, life style, and environment were separated and integrated in different subjects. There is a need to advocate for a new subject on sustainable development in the new school curriculum. Teaching methods used in green living program is in line with MoET’s policies to reform teaching methods: The ministry has been encouraging teachers apply the so-called “new method” for many years. However, its effectiveness is still limited due to capacity of teachers and the conditions in each school. Participating in this project, teachers of the “project schools” were trained and coached carefully about interactive and learner-centered teaching methods. They then can apply the “new methods” in the green living sessions; and in their other lessons as well. Question and answer (Q&A) and group discussions, group exercises are the common activities to mobilize students’ participation in the green living lessons. Students become self-confident, creative; and able to develop their presentation skills, group work skills and problem solving skills.

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Time allocation for each green living lesson is similar with the standard subject in the school curriculum. Each green living lesson lasts from 40 minutes to 45 minutes. However, the challenge hindering green living to become a separate subject in the school curriculum is that, there are already too many subjects; and MoET is considering limiting the subject in order to reduce the workload for students and teachers in school. In such circumstance, the green living program with all the important topics and advantages cannot become a separate/ independent subject in the formal curriculum.

4.

Conclusion:

After three-year implementation, the project achieved significant results such as improving knowledge and skills for students and helping them change behavior toward the sustainable living style. The green living subject, introduced by this project, includes all the necessary topics that are in line with MoET’s requirements and objectives. The teaching methods used in this subject are also promoted by MoET. The difference is that under the green living program, teachers were properly trained and sufficiently supported to use these methods. IV.

DONORS & POTENTIAL FUNDING SOURCES FOR REPLICATION

This part answers the question: what are the financial resources for replication? Who are the potential donors? And how to mobilize fund from them?

In general, the research found that, sustainable development and climate change adaptation are the hot topics in Vietnam and in the world, so there are many donors interested in the issue. Apart from foreign donors, Vietnamese government also invests significant funding and other resources into the national programs on sustainable development and climate change education... The below table summarizes donors and funding sources for projects and programs in the topic: Donor Mapping Name World Bank

Funded programs/ projects in this topic

Intention/ Trend & Notes

• Supports MoET in reforming the curriculum, of which, sustainable development and life skill will be emphasized

Prefer to fund government organizations and the advocacy networks WB officer suggests ACCD & CE join the education working group to advocate the project model to MoET

• Giving grant for initiatives like this project model, when it firstly introduced in Vietnam UNICEF

• Supports MoET and DoET in some provinces/ cities in the DRR program, focusing more on communication to

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• Has good relationship with policy maker (in MoET) in environment protection and climate change Page 19


raise awareness and to communication materials

UNDP

for

topic; • Facilitate the group of UN organizations. and INGOs working with MoET in DRR

• Supports studies on climate change; • Provides funding intervention projects

AusAid

develop

specific

• Funds large projects/ programs, mainly proposed from a network or an alliance

http://www.vn.undp.org/content/ vietnam/en/home/ourwork/envir onmentclimate/small_grant_pro gramme/ http://aid.dfat.gov.au/countries/easta sia/vietnam/Pages/climatechange.aspx

• Currently funds 6 NGOs working in climate change USAID

Danish Embassy

• US-Vietnam project to address climate change in Vietnam’s forest & deltas

• Funds for community –based environment projects, like S-CODE’s projects in Ha Nam, Thai Nguyen, etc. • Climate change priorities

is

one

of

their

• Funded MoET’s teacher training activity & material development by Live & Learn

Luxembourg

Plan International

address-climate-change-vietnamsforests

• Green Growth is one of the top priorities of the Danish Government. • Denmark is the first donor to support the Vietnamese NTP

British Embassy

http://www.usaid.gov/vietnam/pre ss-releases/us-vietnam-project-

http://greenhanam.com.vn/

• funds projects offices

by

government

• calls for proposal: https://www.gov.uk/government/ publications/south-east-asiaprosperity-fund-2014-2015

• Provides a large funding in the bilateral program in Thua Thien Hue province on community development • Focuses on child-centered disaster risk management and climate change adaptation

http://plan-international.org/aboutplan/resources/videos/vietnamclimate-change-in-a-mountaincommunity/

• Young filmmakers: children from ethnic minorities played a leading role in making the film, which was produced as part of Plan Internationals climate change adaptation program and funded by AusAID • Funded Live & Learn to develop the training materials (ABC on climate change and its TOT book) Research report: possibilities for program replication

Page 20


Oxfam GB

• Receives funding from AusAid to implement the project in Mekong delta. • Funded Live & Learn to develop communication materials

Global Environment Facility; and Vietnam Environment protection fund

http://www.gef.monre.gov.vn/Default.as px?tabid=618 http://www.vepf.vn/

C. CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS I.

Conclusions:

• The need: Vietnam is among five countries to be affected seriously by climate change, specifically by sea level raise. There is a need for improving knowledge and skills for children and adults and changing behaviors toward sustainable development; • Current programs on sustainable development and climate change adaptation and mitigation, by governmental and non-governmental organizations, have not yet been effective. • The green living program, adapted from the Ukraine’s “lessons for sustainable development”, showed good results after piloting in 3 provinces. Its contents and methods are relevant to MoET’s national program on climate change education. The project also was highly appreciated by its stakeholders including school children, teachers, school managers and staff of DoET. • The project model can be replicated throughout the country. There are possibilities for its replication. Donors pay attention to climate change adaptation and mitigation projects in Vietnam. Vietnamese government also invests money in the NTP and the national program on climate change adaptation.

II.

Recommendations for project model replication 1. General recommendations: -Replicate the project model of sustainable behavior change, its contents and materials: Select the suitable approach and process for replication: • • • • •

Selection of the suitable province/ city Finalization of material TOT trainings to train teachers Replicate on a small scale Review and draw lesson learns

Research report: possibilities for program replication

Page 21


Replicate on a bigger scale

Apply the lesson learns of this pilot project in regard to cultural adaptation 2. Advocate (with MoET) for green living become a separate subject Participate in the relevant networks to build strong alliance for advocacy: • • • •

Education working group Climate change working group (and/ or the Disaster and Risk Reduction – DRR- working group) Present the project model in those groups’ meetings Join the advocacy activities of the networks

Submit the book green living to MoET for evaluation/ approval • •

ACCD and C&E should make an official meeting with MoET to request their evaluation of the green living program and its books. Officers from MoET are in favor of the green living program and willing to provide support.

Develop the advocacy project, including the below key activities: • • • •

Implementation in some selected areas together with MoET (for testing) Training TOT trainers (preparation for scaling up) Revise and finalize materials (preparation for scaling up) Prepare financial resources for scaling up

3. Advocate for the project model to become the extracurricular subject: • Given the overloading of the current school curriculum, ACCD and C&E can consider advocate for green living program to become recognized as an extracurricular subject. 4. Replicate in the existing provinces and districts: Fundraising for project model replication: DoET is a potential funder for expanding the model. However they will not fund ACCD and C&E staff time. Their funding will cover teacher training and printing of books. Teacher training: • •

Invite the teachers who are teaching green living to train other teachers Send TOT trainers to areas where there is strong support from local DoET

Research report: possibilities for program replication

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Build capacity for school administrators so that they can support teachers in green living program 5. Replicate in the clubs: Engage the existing clubs, like FFAV’s clubs, Reading for Children club and the Life Skills clubs Train communicators or volunteers working in the clubs 6. Replicate through projects and programs of other organizations: Utilize funding sources of those projects and programs (like OGB’s project in Mekong delta, S-CODE projects in Ha Nam and Thai Nguyen etc.

Research report: possibilities for program replication

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Research report on school program replication  

The project “Partnership for community action on climate change” originated from the Education for sustainable development (ESD) program in...

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