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INSIDEOUTSIDEOUTSIDEINSIDEOUTSIDE SIDEINSIDEOUTSIDEINSIDEOUTSIDSIDE INSIDEOUTSIDEOUTSIDEINSIDEOUTSIDE DEOUTSIDEINSIDEOUTSIDEOUTSIDE ISIDE Urban Obversation Tower

Xiaoyu Gao


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Abstract

Through the designed three-dimensional window body, the vision of surrounding buildings is improved through refraction and reflection of distant scenery, and at the same time, through the window body itself, the possibility and variability of space functions are enriched.


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INSIDEOUTSIDEOUTSIDEOUTSIDEINSIDEINSIDEOUTSIDESIDEINSIDEOUTOUTSIDEINSIDEI English title:

Urban Obversation Tower

Author:

Xiaoyu Gao

Student ID:

04565406

Project Module:

Thesis Design of Master

Semester:

Spring 2018 - Fall 2018

Degree Pursured:

63 Units

Number of Pages:

Urban Obversation Tower

Number of Prints:

Urban Obversation Tower

Supervisors:

David Gill

Academy of Art University Graduate School of Architecture Xiaoyu Gao

3


Contents and Index 2.0 THESIS PROJECT

1.0 THESIS RESEARCHI AND PRELIMINARY

4

1.01 Concept Statement

7

2.01 Development Models

1.02 User Group

21

2.02 Site Plan

1.03 Precendent Studies

121

2.03 Floor Plans

1.04 Research

131

2.04 Building Section

1.05 Research Summary

11

2.05 Elevationsv

1.06 Site and Context Analysis

51

2.06 Wall Section

1.07 Existing Site Condition Site Plan

64

2.07 Partial Elevation

1.09 Spatial and Functional Program Table Or Diagram With Net Square Foot Areas

101

1.10 Spatial Analysis

97

2.10 Egress Diagram

1.11 Building Code Analysis

65

2.11 Structure Diagram

1.12 A Site Model

79

2.12 Mechanical Diagram

1.13 Massing Study Models

109

2.13 Site Section

1.14 Bibliography

141

2.08 Building Details 2.09 Sustainability Strategy


3.0 FINAL THESIS PRESENTATION DELIVERABLES

3.01 Presentation Model 3.02 Exterior Perspectives 3.03 Interior Perspectives 3.04 Photos of Physical Model

5


Timeline of Study

Fall 2016

Spring 2017

ARH 609: Intermediate Design Studio 1 Peter Suen, Mark Myers

Summer 2017

Fall 2017

ARH 641: Architectural History: Modernism and its Global Impact James Mallery

ARH 620: Digitally Generated Morphology David Campbell

ARH 602: Graduate Design Technology 1: Structures Carl Wilford

Goetz Frank

ARH 604: Material and Methods of Construction: Building Detailing

ARH 619: Advanced Design Studio 2 - Concept & Comprehensiveness

David Gill

ARH 608: Advanced Design Studio 1 - Concept, Context, & Typology Mark Mueckenheim Maria Paz De Moura Castro

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ARH 605: Graduate Design Technology 2: Environmental Controls

David Gill, Benjamin Corotis

ARH 659: Digitally Generated Fabrication David Campbell


Sping 2018

Summer 2018

Fall 2018

ARH 606: Construction Documents and Building Codes

ARH 614 01: Architectural Professional Practices

Gloria Jew

Elizabeth Tippin

ARH 642: Architectural Theory Gloria Jew

ARH 810 02: Master of Architecture Thesis

ARH 690: Thesis Preparation & Development

David Gill

David Gill

IAD 611 01: BIM - Building Information Modeling Edward Pertcheck

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Introduction The building is usually composed of foundations, walls, floors, roofs, stairs, doors and windows, and the windows have a decisive position. The functions of lighting, ventilation, enclosure, protection, and viewing of windows determine the relationship between the indoor environment quality of the building and the outdoor environment of the building, indirectly affecting people’s lives and work. When the “window” was created, due to material limitations, the earliest window was only a hollow, air-permeable cavity on the wall. That is, a hole is left on the wall. And

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the window is inside the frame. It can transmit light or smoke. Through the prototype of the English language-word window, the Old Norse ‘vindauga’, from ‘vindr - wind’ and ‘auga-eye’, it is obviously showed its effect of lighting and ventilation. People soon thought of using natural fiber materials as shielding to ensure light transmission and shelter from wind or rain or labor. In early days, animal skins or plant fibers were often used to weave waistbands. Later, paper or fabric is in the East, while glass is the main material in windows of Europe and America, and glass windows are important elements of Gothic cathedrals. Today, the rapid development of construction industry and the construction of exterior windows as an important part of the performance of building facades have become more and more attentions of architects. The window is a very creative element. The design of the exterior window in the building is simple and profound. From the “horizontal bar and the

Windows free arrangement to the building facade”, Corbusier, to the contemporary glass curtain wall, the role of the outside window in the building has also changed. Today, the type of exterior windows’ area more and richer, the curtain wall, glass brick wall, glass roof, etc. can be said to be the best proof of the evolution of the concept of building windows, with the boundaries between windows and walls, roofs and so on. The more blurred, the outer windows replace the functions of the walls, and become the “skin” of the building. However, today’s building windows are merely arranged to hang on the beam and pillar floor as an architectural structure for ventilation and lighting, as a boundary between the interior and exterior of the building, and as a building user’s exterior wall opening from the inside of the building to the exterior of the building. However, with the accelerating development of urban social processes, the distance between urban buildings has narrowed, and the horizons have become more and more limited. The material and cultural spiritual needs of people living in cities have been growing. The windows should also have evolved and new understanding. Windows should not be confined to the two-dimensional framework of window frames and glass. Thus I introduce “triaxial window” to name this new change.


Concept Statement As the urban population has been increased year by year, the per capita area of urban roads is becoming less and less. Therefore the more high buildings, the ess of the spaces of high-rise buildings in the city are, The vision of the city was blocked by the surface of the building, such as the Window Wall. The views from window of the buildings are usually blocked by the windows of the opposited buildings. Therefore,starting with the troditional structure of window in the buildings, the building generally uses a two-dimensional plane window as the facade of the building monolith.Thene from the construction of the building surface, the transparent translucent window surface on the two-dimensional building facade is transformed into a three-dimensional window body, expanding the space and breaking The boundary between architecture and architecture. Firstly, instead of normal 2D framing window, the window actually has spatial meaning, 3d characteristic. Like triaxial diagram, which starts from a point, divides toward different directions, then creates lines, and lines create faces, and faces show space. Window actually should also have the same characteristic. According to the requirements of lighting and ventilation, architects chose the location as the start point for the window. In a short word, where the window

1.01 Concept Statement

is placed in the wall is the “point” for the window. Then, following the programs - the “point” has been expend, the different shapes of window have been designed from the “point”, the windows start to show the “line-frame” and the “face-shape”. However, it seems to stop right here, which them usually shows is just a two-dimensional structure, a boundary like a transparent facade, the boundary sited on the building’s facade. Therefore, like the triaxial diagram, windows already have the points, lines and faces. It is absolutely that the window has missed the spatial meaning’s part. In another words, windows actually should have the space of itself, window should not just be limited by two-dimensions. Secondly, instead of fixed on the structure, the window actually can be flexible and movable. Today, the city has been more and more crowded by the urban rapid development and population flowing into. “Street Wall”, one of the common condition of cities, is one of the example of that. The space between urban buildings has been more and more narrowed. Window, as the decoration of the building, designs to be fixed on the faced, locked on the building structures. The view through the window has been fixed by the fixed window. So that if the “point”, the location of the window can be changed, or the “directions” of the window facing or ex-

panding can be moved, the “face” the view, and the space it creating will be more adaptable and virtual to satisfy the physical and emotional requirements of citizens. Then window will be more powerful elements of architecture to break the limitation of the crowded urban condition and expand the possibility of the affect of architecture. Finally, the possibility of window effect and affect should not be limited by the opposite view, it is absolutely that the window view can be design and created by users’ required. The window’s shape and space change by the location and the direction changing, will the spatial change of the window also affect the window direction. Users passively accept the view through a window which depended on the exterior condition because the conventional window only reflects the outside of the building. Therefore, if we create space inside of the window, the space can be the possibility of the window views or extra-experience. Fbut also an expectable functional space to break the limitation of programs by located and fixed windows, or buildings.

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10


Concept Sketch

The project will respond to the contemporary urban condition of physically and emotionally narrow space by proposing a new window condition that extends the space of existing building by blurring the boundary between exterior and interior.

11


It is undeniable that the use of creativity in the creation of freedom is the true function of man. - Matthew Arnold

12


Urban Social Issue

According to the urban social current situation, intensiveness and upward development are the basic characteristics of the current city.

1.05 Research Summary

13


2

Residents per km , 2015 20-99 100-199

14

200-1k

1k-2k

2k-4k

4k-6k

6k-8k

8k-10k

1975

1990

1267.8

1373.4 472.1

395.1

1152.9

904.2

2015

340.0

1307.7

1050.3

2000

256.7

867.8

1975 1990

India

260.3

1975 1990 2000 2015

175.5

904.2 120.2

France

134.0

59.1

56.7

64.1 25.6

22.8

17.9

52.7

World Population Density Analysis

21.3

2000 2015

China


1990 2000 2015 1975 1975

1990

2000

85.4

126.7

102.5

32.0

26.3

60.7

22.0

16.3

321.2

281.3

252.3

195.5

175.3

218.4 134.1

52.8 124.1

52.6 123.2

159.4

904.2 50.9 119.8

43.4

United state

Japan

Mexico

1975 1990

2000

2015

2015

Urban density and life culture are closely related, and Latin America and East Asia are known for their highdensity urban form. Singapore, Hong Kong and Seoul combine extremely high density and very high levels of prosperity. The wealthiest large western cities such as London, Paris, New York and San Francisco are also relatively high and are intensifying. Another important aspect of population density is the relationship between tourism demand and energy use. There are many examples of large urban areas with very low densities, the most obvious of which are metro areas in the United States such as Atlanta and Houston.

Population (million) 2 Built-up Area(000s km )

15


San Francisco 2018 Population Density

San Francisco has become one of the most densely populated cities in the United States, even in the whole world.

16


Residents per km , 2015 20-99

100-199

200-1k

1k-2k

2k-4k

4k-6k

6k-8k

8k-10k

10k-12k

12k-15k

15k-18k

18k-22k

22k-28k

28k-40k

40k-80k

80k+

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San Francisco Urban Development Process Analysis Here uses San Francisco as representation of modern cities to analyze the process, characteristics and issues of modern urban development. Metropolitan pressure continues to increase the value of land and the constraints of urban power grids. Horizontal movement is limited and urban fabrics move to the sky. The architectural form has become higher and bigger than ever. Then, with a large population influx into the cities, the city has become a concentrated area for high-density living and work. Congestion and denseness are its distinctive features.

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More and More Crowded Downtown Business District

Now, San Francisco City Skyline

1970-1995, The population flowed from the city to the suburbs, and the big cities are formed.

Before 1945, the population flowed from small cities to big cities.

Before 1920, people migrated from the countryside to the cities.

v

1865-1918 Industrial Revolution

Colonial Period - Famer , Manor, Village

1492-1502 Cristoforo Colombo Found America

Nature

Population (million) 2 Built-up Area(000s km )

19


People in the Downtown

People in the world, usually not only live in the world, but also work in the world. Therefore, city as a densely populated area. People in the city, not only live in the city, but also work in the city.

20


LIVING & WORKING & ENTERTAINMENT

LIVING & WORKING & ENTERTAINMENT IN DOWNTOWN

21


Urban Residents

22

Office Workers

Tourists


Students

Artist

Downtown User Group

Total Citizens 870,887 Total Housing Units 386,755 Educational Attainment: 87.4% (Percent high school graduate or higher) Number of Companies 116,803 Annual Tourists 24,600,000 Art & Entertainment Facilities 1020V

According to the population distribution, San Francisco’s main population groups are resident and staff. In addition, and San Francisco has coastal tourism resources to attract tourists, and it also has attracted many artists to settle and make art designs here. Therefore, the downtown of San Francisco has become a complex, densely populated area. Crowding has become a basic feature of current SF downtown.

1.02 User Group

23


24


User Group and City Areas Selection As a result of downtown’s characteristiccrowding, selecting a richer and denser area of downtown, which has more high-rise buildings, as the site to research, analyze and redesign. This area contains a large number of office workers and urban residents, and adjacent to the seaside tourism area, which has certain tourist attraction. At the same time, this area is distributed with the design institutes and the art galleries, with a certain number of art designers, so that the region also has certain artistic creation vitality and demand.

Residents

Office Workers

Tourists

Students

Artist

25


Residents

26

Office Workers

Tourists

Students

Artist


City Has Been Block By The Window Wall As the urban population has been increased year by year, the per capita area of urban roads is becoming less and less. Therefore the more high buildings, the ess of the spaces of high-rise buildings in the city are, The vision of the city was blocked by the surface of the building, such as the Window Wall. The views from window of the buildings are usually blocked by the windows of the opposited buildings.

27


Residents

28

Office Workers

Tourists

Students

Artist


Breaking The Visional And Spatial Barriers Between Buildings. The ground space has become less and less, so from the outdoor space into the architectural superstructure, exploring how to make better use of vertical space, breaking the boundaries between the buildings, and expanding the urban horizon.

29


Residents

30

Office Workers

Tourists

Students

Artist


Breaking The Limitation of Facade. Transform Two-dimentional Window.

The building generally uses a twodimensional plane window as the facade of the building monolith. Therefore from the construction of the building surface, the transparent translucent window surface on the two-dimensional building facade is transformed into a three-dimensional window body, expanding the space and breaking The boundary between architecture and architecture.

31


Things that can be seen under the sun are not as interesting as what happens behind the glass. - Baudelaire

32


Window Analysis

According to analyze the traditional window and modern curtain wall, it will help to refine the window meanings and structures in order to find the extra possibility of the window. Therefore, it will help to create, or refine the space of the window by extending its structure, redesign its geometric shape, adding its function and so on.

33


The Troditional Window Types

Through the summary of the troditional window types, analyzing the development process of window. Then, it is absolutely that window design almost following the ventilation ,view lighting funcations and so on, Therefore, the window’s spatial funcations should also include those funcation, but it also have extra possibilities of funcations by technology or meaning-refining.

34


35


The Meaning Of Window

The definition of windows is enriched by summarizing the meaning of windows in different fields. Therefore, the meaning of architectural windows can be inspired and extended. The possibility of windows are increase, and it will be summed up on the windows of actual buildings. Then, it can extend troditional two-dimentional window into three-dimensional dwindows, which adding the spatial possibilities of windows.

36


37


The Relationship Of Room And Window

According to the condition of windows, room can be divided into two categories. One is a room with the window, another is a room without the window. The first one can be divided into two categories. One is a full black enclosed space, another is a full open sapce, such as a canopy. The latter one can be divided into three categories. One is a room with a sky-window just for lighting and ventalition. Another is a room with holes as window. The last one is a room with frame-window. All five types of rooms can also can infiltrate and relate to each other and combine into a new room-window systems.

38


39


Eye View’s Horizontal Span Analysis

In order to refine the view-function of window, it is necessary to analyze the efficiency of human eye view. Then, when the two-dimensional window extends into three-dimensional window, the efficiency of its view could be refine or even improved by more effective eye view’s horizontal span.

40


41


Eye View’s Vertical Span Analysis

In order to refine the view-function of window, it is necessary to analyze the efficiency of human eye view. Then, when the two-dimensional window extends into three-dimensional window, the efficiency of its view could also be refine or even improved by more effective eye view’s vertical span.

42


43


Window View’s Vertical Span Analysis

When the two-dimensional window extends into three-dimensional window, the efficiency of its view could also be refine or even improved by more effective eye view’s vertical span. Then, with the height changing and the limitation of the window size, the effciency of view will be effect by following the change.

44


45


Window View’s Possibility

If the window transfors from twe-dimention into three-dimention, that means it will extro space and funcation. Then, it also means more possibility of view chances,To be detailed, it means the window will have more oppotunities or chances to choose or create its view instead of being blocked by the opposite buildings or unchanged normal view.

46


47


48

Window Typology Analysis


49


50


Window Topology Analysis

Explore the 3d model of Windows and try to extend and expand the window space.

51


The city is the center of various industries. - Wei Cooper

52


Site Analysis According to the case studies, summarizing and analyzing the relation to the window and space. Therefore, a better understanding and widening of the definition and possibilities of the function and space of the windows are obtained.

1.06 Site and Context Analysis

53


Site Location

54

Green Plants


Green Plant Coverage Analysis

Most of the green plants in San Francisco are in the southwest and the northern mountainous areas, where the site area is low and the park area is small.

55


Site Location High-rise Buildings Dense Area

56


High-rise Buildings Dense Area Analysis The base is located in the densely populated area of San Francisco’s urban high-rise buildings, and is also an area of dense commercial buildings. Due to its dense population and small area per capita, the building has a high altitude, a large amount of construction demand, and high demands on the environment. However, from the analysis of vegetation coverage, it can see that the natural ecological environment is relatively rare except for coastal landscape resources.

57


Site Location

58


Tourism Landscape Resources Analysis

San Francisco has a wealth of humanities and history tourism resources, but most of the distribution is scattered, and there is no centralized large-scale amusement park and other facilities planning. The site is close to the sea, surrounded by rich tourism resources, but the distribution of resources is scattered and fragmented.

59


Site Location

60


Site Location

The site is located between Market Street and Mission Street, between Fremont Street and Beale Street. The site is surrounded by high-rise business buildings, so that the site has been blocked by the surroundings buidlding which has limiting views and less sunlight.

61


Site Location

62


Site’s Sunpath Analysis

The site has been blocked by the surrounding high-rise buildings , which limited the sunlight through the day and the year.

63


64

JAN 8:00 AM (Sunrise)

JAN 12:00 PM (Noon)

JAN 5:30 PM (Sunset)

JUN 5:00 AM (Sunrise)

JUN 12:00 PM (Noon)

JUN 8:00 PM (Sunset)


JAN 7:00 AM (Sunrise)

JAN 12:00 PM (Noon)

JAN 5:00 PM (Sunset)

Site’s Sunlight Analysis

According the sunlight analysis, the site is less sunlight because of blocking by surrounding high-rise buildings. This is the normal issue for urban dense high-rise buildings’ blocks. Thereofore, how to bring in the sunlight during the day is one of the most improtant and necessary matter for the site condition.

65


27,255 sqft

Site Location

66


Site Building Code Analysis Zoning Disricts: C-3-O(SD) DOWNTOWN- OFFICE (SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT) Height & Bulk Districts 450-S Special Use Districts Transit Center C-3-O(SD) Commercial Within 1/4 Mile of an Existing Fringe Financial Service

Special Sign Districts & Legislative Setbacks None Port & Coastal Zone Not in the Coastal Zone & Not under Port Jurisdiction

Limited &Nonconforming Uses & Redevelopment Areas None Mayop’s Invest In Neighborhoods Initiative Area None

1.07 Existing Site Condition Site Plan

1.11 Building Code Analysis

67


68


The Height Of Surrounding Existing Buildings

The site has been blocked by the surrounding conditions of building.

69


70


Parking Area

Retuarants

Shoping Area

Business Companies

Banks

Residences

Cafes & Bars

Hotels

Surrounding Companies Type Analysis

The surrounding buildings are mainly commercial buildings, mostly commercial companies and banks. Commercialization of area atmosphere, entertainment, leisure and relaxation space are relatively missing.

71


72


The Entry For Buildings

Path To The Site

Shoping Area

The Entries Of Existing Buildings Analysis The site is surrounded by comprehensive commercial high-rise buildings. Due to how dense commercial high-rise buildings surround the building, the flow of people to the base has become multi-directional. In addition, the paths that exists between buildings and buildings runs through or leads to the base, making the site more relativistic and multi-directional.

73


74


The gaps between buildings

The gaps above the ground

The View Direction of Surrounndings Analysis

The space between the existing buildings has small gap spaces between them, so that the site can have opportunities to look through them for far view.

75


76


The direction of reflection of view

The direction of view

The reflected effect and affect of interior

The View Direction of Surrounndings Analysis Because the space between the existing buildings has small gap spaces between them, Therefore, the design can not only have opportunities s to reflection the faraway view for surrounding buildings to affect their view conditions, but also have opportunities to create interior spaces with more possibilities and changes.

77


78


The Photographs Of Site

79


All cities are crazy, but it’s gorgeous madness. All cities are beautiful, yet cold and beautiful. - Ke Da Mori

80


Site Model Scale : 1/32”=1’-0” Length : 40” Width : 32”

The site model uses a transparent acrylic sheet to mark the facades of urban buildings and splices out the surrounding building mechanism of the site, showing the criss-crossing phenomenon of high-rise cities.

1.12 A Site Model

81


82


83


84


85


86


87


In the space age, the most important space is between the ears and ears. - Thomas J Barou

88


Programing Narrative

Combining the meaning of different areas of the window, explore the role and significance of building window, then create or rich architectural window space functional meaning, namely the window function, the function of the existing buildings with a window of its own building circulation function value.

89


90


People are trapped in urban buildings by urban living and working patterns. While, buildings are blocked by each other in the high density city.

91


92


The window is transformed from two dimensions to three dimensions, and the space can be generated and extended, and the space generated can be reused to enrich the function of the building block. The surrounding buildings can reflect and reflect the distant view of the city through the window body, and can also penetrate the window and explore the natural and non-realistic creation space of the central Africa. So the building blocks through the window block, stretching out the view of the real landscape, the urban function reservation, the space that stretches out and can create the creation space of the virtual image. 93


Promming Analysis

Auxiliary Programs

94

Connected Programs


1.10 Spatial Analysis

95


Programing Intersection

Auxiliary Programs

96

Connected Programs

Proportion(Increasing)


97


27256 SQFT

SITE AREA AREA PER PERSON

NUMBER OF ROOMS

SINGLE ROOM AREA (SQFT)

TOTAL PEOPLE

Special Office

150

9

150

20

1350

General Office

96

1

57600

600

57600 1000

Program & User Group Business Office Spaces Offices

Employee / Visitor Support Spaces

Operation & Maintenance spaces

Staff Spaces

Delivery Spaces

Promming Table

Amusement Park

Gallery & Museum

Gallery & Museum

Observation Spaces

98

84420

Conference Room

100

2

500

50

Convenience Store

96

3

300

50

300

Lobby

96

1

3200

200

3200

Atria or Common Space

100

2

3200

200

6400

Cafeteria

100

2

600

50

1200

Private Toilets

120

4

580

50

2320

Child Care Centers

100

1

500

50

500

Physical Fitness Area

120

2

1200

200

2200

Interior or Surface Parking Areas

430

1

1430

30

1430

General Storage

150

3

150

3

450

Kitchen

100

2

600

50

1200

Atria or Common Space

100

2

500

50

1000

IT Closets

120

1

240

20

240

Maintenance Closets

120

2

240

20

240

Management Room

150

3

150

3

450

Administration Curator’s Office

100

2

300

60

600

Conversation & Documentation

100

1

500

50

500

Workshops

100

1

500

20

1000

Stores & Reserves Room

100

1

500

5

500

Technical Premises

300

1

300

3

300

Staff Premises

120

2

240

2

240

200

1

200

1

Laboratory Entertainment & Tourism Spaces

Botanical Garden

TOTAL AREA (SQFT)

200 120480

Outdoor Botanical Garden

100

1

5000

50

5000

Conservatory of Flowers

100

1

5000

50

5000

Restroom

120

4

580

50

2320

4D Theater

96

2

4800

50

8400

Ecological landscape facilities

120

1

48000

400

48000

Caferia & Restaurant

100

2

600

50

1200

Restroom

120

4

580

50

2320

Entertainment facilities

200

3

200

10

600

Retail Space

96

1

2400

25

2400

Event Space

100

1

2000

20

2000

Display Room

120

2

2400

20

4800

Exhibition

120

2

1200

20

2400

Assembly & Lecture Room

96

2

4800

50

9600

Reference & Reading-room

100

1

2000

20

2000

Restroom

120

4

580

50

2320

Caferia & Restaurante

120

1

2400

20

2400

Event Space

100

1

600

6

600

Observation Space

120

1

4800

40

4800

Education Space

100

1

4000

40

4000

Exhibition

100

1

5000

50

5000

Lounge

200

1

600

3

600

Restroom

120

4

580

50

2320

Retail Space

96

1

2400

25

2400

`


图表标题

Special Office

General Office

Conference Room

Convenience Store

Lobby

Atria or Common Space

Cafeteria

Private Toilets

Child Care Centers

Physical Fitness Area

Interior or Surface Parking Areas

General Storage

Kitchen

Atria or Common Space

IT Closets

Maintenance Closets

Management Room

Administration Curator’s Office

Conversation & Documentation

Workshops

Stores & Reserves Room

Technical Premises

Staff Premises

Laboratory

Outdoor Botanical Garden

Conservatory of Flowers

Restroom

4D Theater

Ecological landscape facilities

Caferia & Restaurant

Restroom

Entertainment facilities

Retail Space

Event Space

Display Room

Exhibition

Assembly & Lecture Room

Reference & Reading-room

Restroom

Caferia & Restaurante

Event Space

Observation Space

Education Space

Exhibition

Lounge

Restroom

Retail Space

1.09 Spatial and Functional Program Table Or Diagram With Net Square Foot Areas

99


100

5F

27F 31F

37F


Site’s Sunlight Analysis

According to zoning, the height of buildings that can be built on the site is 450 ft, divided by the height of each tier of 12 ft, and 37 floors can be set. According to the site area is 27,255 sqft. The total building volume is 1,00,8435 sqft.

101


Observation Spaces Gallery & Museum

Amusement Park

Entertainment & Tourism Spaces

Botanical Garden

Spare Space Empty Floors

Offices Delivery Spaces Staff Spaces Delivery Spaces

102

Business Office Spaces Operation & Maintenance spaces


Programming Mass Analysis

According to the perogramming analysis, Analyze to get the demand for different functional space areas. According to the image analysis, there is a large number of see-through volume vacancies, meaning that the required functional space can be re-shaped based on empty space.

103


Promming Possibilities Analysis

104


105


The main constituent of life is not facts and events. Its main ingredient is the storm of thoughts. It strikes people’s minds throughout their lives. - Mark Twain

106


Study Models

Based on field analysis and planning analysis, based on the scale considerations, the following focuses on the research and testing of the concept mass models.

1.13 Massing Study Models

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Creativity comes from unexpected combinations of different things. - Nikolai Negroponte

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Precedent Studies

According to the case studies, summarizing and analyzing the relation to the window and space. Therefore, a better understanding and widening of the definition and possibilities of the function and space of the windows are obtained.

1.03 Precendent Stuvdies

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Broadcom Yakum Setter by Ayala Lifshitz

The design creates a workspace as an intermediate collaborative space that maintains and expands the collaboration bewtween the singular and the team while protecting privacy. As a result, the windows of a building can be expanded into spatial masses instead of architectural surfaces as spatial expansion and space bridges in the vertical space between buildings, which can reduce the intensive congestion of buildings on the ground.

Area 55000.0 sq ft https://www.archdaily.com/782624/broadcom-yakum-setter-architects?ad_medium=widget&ad_ name=more-from-office-article-show

Location Yakum, Israel

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Observation Tower by BIG The spiral layout of the building combines different programming elements and cycles into a continuous dynamic rotation space. The space is proportional to the visitor’s movement, creating a unique environmental viewing experience. The whole building is the window of the city where people observe. Structurally, its central space is falling, and the movement of Pin turns inside out, like celestial bodies circling over the city, and Pin allows visitors from one pole to the other to experience the city landscape in a dynamic three-dimensional seemingly suspended in the air. Architects BIG Location Phoenix, AZ, USA Area 70,000 sq ft https://www.designboom.com/architecture/big-architects-phonix-observation-tower/

Project Year 2012

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Conservatory Of Flowers by Lord &Burnham

The building type of a greenhouse or greenhouse is a masterpiece that urban residents can see in the combined urban environment of the factory world and the self-aware world. These types of buildings are called “natural cinemas.� Work and life can also occur in natural landscapes. Imagine people putting their desks on a garden lawn, like a picnic, while enjoying nature while doing everyday life and work.

Project Year 1878 Architectural Style Italianate, Gothic https://goldengatepark.com/conservatory-of-flowers.html

Location San Francisco, California

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Lotte World by Lotte

The Lotte World, which opened on July 12, 1989, is the largest indoor theme park in the world that has been recorded in the Guinness Book of Records. It is also known as the worldclass theme park like the United States Disneyland. Lotte World is a city of entertainment and commerce that is located in the center of Seoul. Business can be combined with leisure and entertainment, so work and life can also take place in recreational scenes. Imagine workers working on the Ferris wheel with a desk and a roller coaster passing from a conference room. Space is not limited by the function. Theme Indoor Planet Ride Visitors Per Annum 7.3 million Area 1,380,430 sq ft http://www.lottehotel.com/world/en/Default.asp

Location Sincheon-dong, Seoul, South Korea

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What is faster than the speed of light in the world is the speed of thinking. - Zhenxiu Zhao 128


Research According to the case other projects than architectural precedents, summarizing and analysing the relation to the architectural window and space. Therefore, a much wider understanding and insights of the meanings and possibilities of the functions and space of the windows are obtained.

1.04 Research

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You Watch the City, The City Watches You by Ai Wei Wei The name “Candy House” comes from the German folk fairy tales of children who lost their way in the forest. Concerned about the intervention of high-tech monitoring, the concept of freedom and opening of space ceased to exist, and people’s survival experience in public space also followed. change. The audience needs to enter the exhibition hall through the dark and narrow entrance. The spooky other projection, surveillance grid and unpredictable darkness will give the audience a sense of strangeness and insecurity, but it also provides some curiosity and imagination.

Types of work Interactive Installation Co-architects Ai Wei Wei & Jacques Herzog & Pierre de Meuron

http://www.metropolismag.com/ideas/arts-culture/ai-wei-wei-herzog-de-meuron-warn-the-city-watches-you/

Location the Park Avenue Armory in New York City

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Descension by Anish Kapoor

Gazing into a whirlpool is like staring into the abyss, its incessant exercise hypnosis, because you are swallowed up by its darkness. The sound of a turbine seems to come from the earth’s gut.Getting up from the floor, it penetrates your legs until it reaches the stomach, a low resonant sound that can come from a huge organ.

Project Year 2017 https://www.domusweb.it/en/art/2015/06/05/anish_kapoor_san_gimignano.html

Location Brooklyn , New York

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Super Natural by Misako Inaoka Designed to explore the delicate boundaries between nature and man-made. By closely observing the surrounding natural and social environment, designers have discovered that the boundaries between manipulating and manipulating between man-made and nature become blurred in our society. Designers try to explore the coexistence patterns of natural and man-made forms and explore their hidden beauty and characteristics. By emphasizing these subtle details, exaggerating their illusions and nurturing the designer’s own invention biology and landscape.

Types Of Work Site-Specific installation

http://www.misakoinaoka.com/installation-1/#/super-natural/

Exhibition Venue Queens and Nails Annex (QNA) gallery, San Francisco

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Optical Illusional Surfaces by Alissa + Nienke

Human perception is the outside world, not only visually, but also auditory, olfactory, tactile, and so on. So breaking the limitations of window space volume, it can start with five senses, not only to break the visual constraints, but also to extend the space from other perceptions, increasing the window space possibilities and scalability.

Owner Decoratori Bassanesi

http://www.metropolismag.com/design/alissa-nienke-design-profile/

Types Of Work An Ongoing Exploration Of Materials

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It is said that history likes to trick people and likes to joke with people. Originally to this room, the result was to another room. - Lenin

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Bibliography List...

1.14 Bibliography

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Thesis Project

The project is responded to the pre-thesis

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Conceptual Onsetting Diagram

Comparing the real life to the unreal life, testing the surreal ideas in order to transferring them into real life with real programs and means

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View Model Test

Explore the relationship between mesh and sphere, and study the refraction relationship between concave and convex facades and planes.

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2.01 Development Models


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View Model Test

Exploring the Visual Relations between the Interlaced Space and the Interior and Outside of Buildings.

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Structure Model Test

The relationship between support and traction of different space truss structures to large hollow space was tested, and the support system and support points of sphere and column were found.

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SunPath Analysis

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Sunlight conceptrual Diagram

Working with the directed sunlight, the function and principle of vertical mirror and concave-convex mirror in reflecting sunlight are tested to solve the problem of inadequate site illumination.

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Direct sunlight

Reflected direct sunlight

Direct sunlight

Reflected direct sunlight

Direct sunlight

Reflected direct sunlight

Direct sunlight

Reflected direct sunlight

Direct sunlight

Reflected direct sunlight

Direct sunlight

Reflected direct sunlight

Direct sunlight

Reflected direct sunlight

Direct sunlight

Reflected direct sunlight

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Sunlight- reflection Analysis

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Sun

Sunset

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Sunlight Direcrtion Analysis For Four Direction Of The Building

Four facades of the building facing the street are analyzed by mapping the illumination route, and the qu’yu of concentrated illumination and reflection of light is compared..

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View conceptrual Diagram

Analysing the visual effect of different media such as straight, concave and convex, sphere and transparent material in high-rise Jenson building.

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Directed View Reflected View

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View Relationship Between Jenson Building and Double Skin Sphere Space.

Analysing he influence of the line of sight of high-rise Jenson building is different from that of double-deck sphere structure.

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Directed View Reflected View

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Sphere Organization Analysis

To control the spatial arrangement of spheres and ensure that the multi-angle spheres are considerable, in order to create more layers of reflection and building space arrangement and coincidence relationship.

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View Program Diagram

Adding the nature or other program to make the office space and outside view have more reak and surreal possibility.

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Site Plan

2.02 Site Plan

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1st Floor Plan

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2.03 Floor Plans

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5th Floor Plan

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2.03 Floor Plans

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16th Floor Plan

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2.03 Floor Plans

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27th Floor Plan

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2.03 Floor Plans

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30th Floor Plan

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2.03 Floor Plans

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2-2 Buiding Section-Cross

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.2.04 Building Section Cross


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2-2 Buiding Section-Cross

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Beale Street Elevation

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Mission Street Elevation

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Fremont Street Elevation

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Market Street Elevation

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Fundation Constructional Section

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Fundation Partial Elevation

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Middle Part Constructional Section

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Middle Part Partial Elevationv

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Top Part Constructional Section

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Top Part Constructional Section

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Building Datils of Critical Areas

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Sustainability Diagram The seven modules equilateral triangle glass panel in the building forms the facade of the sphere space, combined with flexible ball arrangement and flexible structural support, allowing the building to be disassembled and reassembled over time and functional requirements.

The buildings are arranged according to the needs of the building.

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Adding the flexible support structures as the rainforced construction members for the whole building.

Building structural materials are arranged and reorganized according to the needs of the building.

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Sustainable Strategy-Solar Energy Diagram

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Mechanical Diagram

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Building Datils of Critical Areas

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Egress Diagram Egress Stair is rotated by following the double sphere space , the double-skin structural space provides a independent and successional space as assistant space for the programing space.

2.10 Egress Diagram

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Structural Analysis Expand the space of the original single facade, making it a space utility. The double-layer space-frame is used as the ball bearing body to realize the establishment of a large volume. Elevators, stairs and external auxiliary support structures as a whole architectural framework combine a single sphere space.

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Sphere Space

Egress Stair

Elevator

External Support Column

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Sphere Surface Glass Panel

Support Columns As Space Frame Members For Double Spherical Surface

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Sphere Surface Support Beam For Space Frame

Sphace Frame Joints

Structural Analysis

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2.13 Building Section of an Important Public Space

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Profile for Xiaoyu Rosalind Gao

Xiaoyu Gao / M. Arch Thesis  

M. Arch Thesis

Xiaoyu Gao / M. Arch Thesis  

M. Arch Thesis

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