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Nostalgia Issue, no.182, March 2021


cover illustration and design by: Elly Savva inside page illustration by: @matildawelsh

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Editor’s letter

As I’m sure everyone is all too aware right now, this year has been one like no other. Times are unprecedented, each day is uncertain. For many students, however, we have found ourselves thrown back into the comfort, familiarity and safety of our childhood bedrooms. Whilst I was isolating in my hometown, trying to find ways to stay entertained and reminiscing with my parents I couldn’t help but feel that whilst this year has been one of fear, sadness and grief it has also been one of community, nostalgia and love. Which is why issue 182 of Quench Magazine is themed nostalgia. This very special edition has been split up into decades, from the 60s to the 00s. With original illustrations, retro designs and classic photography to bring back all of those precious memories. For the executive team here at Quench, the regional Student Publication Association awards brought a lot of excitement. Our Social Media Manager Maja Metera won the Outstanding Commitment award, while our Deputy Head of Design May Collins won Highly Commended in the same category. A big congratulations to Kate Waldock, one of our Spotlight Editors, who won the Highly Commended award in the Best Journalist category. Quench Magazine won a Highly Commended in the Best Publication category, with our Clebar section winning Highly Commended in the Best Welsh Language category. We also want to extend a big congratulations to our sister publication Gair Rhydd who won the Best Publication award, the Taf-od team who won the Best Welsh Language award, and their Editor in Chief Tirion Davies who won the Best Journalist award.

There’s a fine line to tread when looking nostalgically back at the past. If you look simply at the surface level, celebrating past fashions and trends, you can easily gloss over the darker sides of reality hidden beneath. In Issue 182, we have included a range of articles that reflect on the harmful sides of the past as well as celebrating it. We’ve had some changes at the executive team, as we’re sadly saying goodbye to Siân Jones from Clebar and welcoming Rhiannon Jones and Angharad Roberts to the section. We have had some other new additions, with Alexa Price joining us as a Copy Editor and Lucy Battersby joining our design team. We hope that this nostalgic edition of Quench helps provide you with some escapism from the outside world as it takes you on a journey through the past. As hard as things seem right now, there is plenty to look forward to, with the vaccine programme rolling out successfully and spring looming just on the horizon. The days are becoming longer and we have already had some glimpses of sunshine. As always, we want to say a huge thank you to all of our team who made this edition possible. We hope you enjoy taking a journey through the past...

Editor-in-Chief and Deputy Editor

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Meet The Team

Editor-in-Chief: Jasmine Snow

Deputy Editor: Elly Savva

Columnist: Craig Strachan and Isabel Brewster

Second Deputy Editor: Josh Ong

Features: Caitlin Parr, Indi Scott Whitehouse and Rhianna HurrenMyers

Culture: Amy King, Megan Evans and Sarah Griffiths

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Music: Alex Payne, Daisy Gaunt amd Emily Jade Ricalton

Film & TV: Borte Tsogbadrah and Pui Kuah Cheah


Literature: Nicole Rees Williams, Ona Ojo and Neus Forner

Fashion: Henry Bell and Rachel Citron Download: Lewis Empson and Marcus Yeatman-Crouch

Clebar: Dafydd Wyn Orritt, Angharad Roberts and Rhiannon Jones

Travel: Katherine Mallet and Alice Clifford

Food: Hannah Penwright and Sasha Nugara

Spotlight: Laura Dazon, Kate Waldock and Summer Griffin

Social Media Team: Maja Metera, Manon Jones and Ebony Clent

Copy Editors: Rowan Davies, Alexa Price and Sarah Belger

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Head of Design: Madeline Howell

Deputy Head of Design: May Collins

Illustrator: Shafia Motaleb

Photographer: Sahina Sherchan

Illustrator: Amelia Field

Illustrator: Prity Chatterjee

Illustrator: Sian Hopkins

Illustrator: Shubhangi Dua

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Page Designer: Alessio Grain

Page Designer: Kacey Keane

Page Designer: Priyansha Kamdar

Page Designer: Sandra Mbula Nzioki

Page Designer: Sebastian Jose

Page Designer: Anna Kerslake

Events Manager: Shaniece O’Keefe

Page Designer: Ersila Bushi

Page Designer: Lucy Battersby

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Co n t e n t s

60s

9

page 9

70s

25

page 2 7


00s

63

page 69

page 37

s

90s

25

page 49 8


60s

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fashion

spotlight

It sounds hard to believe that a 16-year-old Cockney girl from London would come to be the face of the swinging sixties, an era which changed the course of history forever. Known as Twiggy for her slight and androgynous frame, Lesley Dawson shot to fame in 1966, becoming one of the world’s first international fashion models. She was unlike any model that had come before, with her short boyish hair, baby doll face and working-class upbringing. For many she symbolised the new generation, a wave of young people throwing away with the old and inventing new ways to express themselves through fashion and music. Unafraid of the bold and beautiful, Twiggy cemented some of the most iconic fashion trends in history. Let’s take a trip back in time and explore some of her most legendary fashion contributions! The Pixie Cut: words by: Indi Scott Whitehouse design by: Ersila Bushi

It’s no doubt that one of Twiggy’s biggest style contributions was her short hair known as the pixie cut or elfin crop. Cut short to her ears and parted to one side, this haircut went on to launch her career and pave the way for short hairstyles today. Despite its success, Twiggy confessed to have been a test subject after hairdresser Leonard Lewis had insisted on cutting her hair short. As one of London’s most respected hairdressers known for cutting Paul McCartney’s iconic Beatles ‘moptop’, she was too shy to say no. Her headshots were displayed proudly in the salon window catching the eye of Daily Express fashion reporter Dierdre McSharry, who went on to name her “The Face of 1966”. Twiggy’s striking doe deer eyes involved accentuated black eyeliner, bold mod eyelashes and what she called “twiggies”, hand painted lashes on her undereye. As a young schoolgirl, Twiggy was inspired by 60s legends such as Jean Shrimpton and Beatles girl Pattie Boyed, whose makeup looks were all about feathered lashes and cat-eye liner. Growing up in an era when experimentation was what it was all about Twiggy took this further, hand painting her lower lashes with eye liner and a paint brush. It came to define part of her identity and became one of the most recognisable make-up looks in history.

The Shift Dress and Mini Skirt:

The Mod Suit:

The 1960s saw an explosion of fashion trends brought about by emerging boutiques on London’s Carnaby Street and King’s Road, making affordable clothes available to the masses. These new trends reflected the great changes happening in society at the time such as the 60s shift dress and mini skirt, symbols of rebellion and sexual liberation following the introduction of the contraceptive pill. Working closely with Mary Quant, the fashion designer heralded as the creator of the mini skirt and integral figure in 60s mod fashion, Twiggy became the poster girl for these two short hemline trends. By the latter part of the decade, Twiggy appeared in nearly every advertising campaign donning these playful pieces often with groovy patterns and oversized buttons and collars.

The 60s weren’t just about flower power and miniskirts. Twiggy started exploring mod menswear, bringing her own feminine twist to men’s suits and clean-cut tailoring. She embraced androgynous fashion, modelling pinstripe suits complete with shirt and tie. Following the previous decade’s return to traditional housewife attire, the 1960s suit announced that the powerful woman was back, and she was here to stay. But it was unlike anything anyone had seen before. As Twiggy’s suits were splashed across the covers of magazines, attitudes towards women’s roles in society were changing. The decade saw the rise of the Women’s Liberty Movement, the introduction of the Equal Pay Act and the Civil Rights Act in the United States.

The 1960s saw the start of a significant progression for women’s place in society. When asking my 79-year-old Nana about it, she said: “I no longer had any worries about falling pregnant before I was ready; it was a time when I felt liberated, I didn’t have to rely solely on my male partner using a condom anymore.” The pill definitely symbolised a new-found sexual and economic freedom for women, which we now accept as features of standard modern-day lifestyles. Women were able to take charge of their own bodies and make more educated choices about their lives and well-being. Sex was no longer exclusively for procreation: the idea of intercourse for pleasure combined with lower risks of pregnancy greatly assisted the sexual liberation of the 60s.

music

1960s psychedelia has appeared to have a lasting impact upon the way we see, visualise, experience, and listen to music; incorporating drug-taking, love-making, and friendship within one curious subcultural movement. Becoming one of the most influential music scenes of the 20th century, psychedelia broke the conservative boundaries of music. It was new, it was exciting, and it was also extremely different to the conventional sounds of rock that music fans were already exposed to. Unlike previous genres, the psychedelic era evolved out of social consciousness towards issues like civil rights, war, and the rejection of drug use throughout society. It was an all-encompassing movement that followed the beliefs of the younger generations. Originating in San Francisco in the 1960s, psychedelia became a part of a counterculture to the hierarchies and government structures of society. The psychedelic scene became encompassed by outlaw communities of hippies, free thinkers, music fans, drug dealers and college students, all of which were fixated on taking LSD; a drug which provides its user with an altered state of feeling and awareness. LSD, also known as acid, perfectly complemented the psychedelic scene as it allowed users to be enlightened by the crisp sounds of rock music, generating trippy-like imagery that follows the psychedelic movements today.

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The contraceptive pill was approved for use in 1960, largely supported by women’s rights campaigner Margaret Sanger. Sanger was a strong advocate for ‘birth control’ and the founder of the ‘Birth Control Movement’ in the US. The campaign we now know as Planned Parenthood pushed for more accessible contraception in America. Lowering the stigma around premarital sex meant that actions such as pretending to be married when attending midwife appointments, unsafe “back street” abortions and “shotgun” weddings would become a thing of the past. The pill and the legalisation of British abortion in 1967 saw a fall in the peaked number of adoptions, which had been viewed as the main solution to “illegitimate” children. Until 1967 in the UK, the pill was mainly accessible to married women only. An eventual availability for all classes and social statuses meant that marriage and childbirth were no longer a mutually exclusive expectation. Female sexworkers could also now work without the risk of pregnancy, and therefore their jobs were made slightly safer than before. The idea of sex for pleasure alone made way for their profession to be less censored. Women had a new sense of economic independence. Less unwanted pregnancies meant that women did not have to depend on marriage to a man for social and financial support. Their careers and lives would no longer have to go on pause because of pregnancy or childcare. People now had the opportunity to plan for pregnancy.

Creating a lifestyle for itself throughout California, psychedelia saw the rise of the bands the Grateful Dead and Cream enter the limelight of this subculture with artists, such as Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin, entering this subculture also. The space-like sounds of their music created an authenticity that encompassed whole generations of people, allowing experimental music to become popular throughout this movement. Even The Rolling Stones and The Beatles found themselves a part of the movement, creating albums such as Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band and Their Satanic Majesties Request within the stereotypical formations of psychedelic music.

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By expanding the minds of those that listened to this genre, psychedelia had gained acknowledgement throughout the music industry, reflecting a drug-induced state that was popular throughout many musicians. And, as we see marijuana use increase throughout the modern day, it is no shock as to why psychedelia has entered the forefront of the music scene once again. Not only has the psychedelic style begun to become increasingly popular throughout elements of style within contemporary fashion trends, but it has also become increasingly recognisable throughout emerging music styles also.

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CONTENTS 11-12: Iconic Photography of the 60s 13-14: How Does 1980s Psychadelica Influence Today’s Music Industry? 15-16: Second Wave Feminism 17-18: Twiggy in the 60s 19 - 20: Caravan Holidays: Wouldn’t it Be Nice to Go Back to the 60s? 21-22: A Look Back at the Birth of the Contraceptive Pill and Women’s Liberation Movement

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culture

design by: Lucy Battersby Few names are associated with the 1960s quite as much as The Beatles. Catapulted to a frenzied success in the early years of the decade, John, Paul, George, and Ringo were the nation’s darlings with adoring yet hysterical girls clamouring them everywhere they went. Their youthful, fun music and playful charm made them the ideal popstars, and the first true boyband. When you think of the Beatles, you probably picture their mop-top haircuts and perfect matching suits – an image created and perfected by their manager Brian Epstein. Their photographs were everywhere, whether it was on the walls of teenage bedrooms or in music shops, they could be recognised instantly. The first image was taken by Angus McBean in 1963 in the stairwell of the EMI headquarters and was used as the cover for their debut Please Please Me. You can see four young men, full of optimism and excitement, with beaming smiles and neat haircuts as they teetered on the edge of unprecedented stardom. The second image is of the Beatles in 1969, pictured by the same photographer in the same stairwell. Whilst their cherubic grins remain, practically every other aspect is different. Their long hair and beards are a world away from their matching mop-tops, with John Lennon resembling more of a guru than a boyband darling. Even though The Beatles had changed, they were still the same four men that the nation had grown to adore. This recreation of their iconic early image reflects their continuous relevance throughout the decade and beyond.

words by: Leona Franke

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culture On the 14th November 1960, Ruby Bridges became one of the first Black children to be allowed to integrate into a white elementary school. At just six years old, the image of Ruby being escorted by federal marshals became instantly recognisable as an iconic moment in world history. Ruby faced hostile crowds at the schoolgates, whilst other parents removed their children from the school in protest, and only one staff member agreed to teach her. It is hard to believe that incidents like these happened just over sixty years ago. The prevalence of racism throughout the world and in America is often understated, which is why it is important to remember and highlight its brutality. Norman Rockwell’s famous 1964 piece The Problem We All Live With depicts the image of Ruby being escorted by police to school as a way of bringing light to the issues of racism which were potent at the time, and sadly still are today. Ruby Bridges utilised the fame from her photo, using her platform to raise awareness about issues of racism within America to this day. Now chair of the Ruby Bridges foundation, she continues the fight for the equality of both race and gender and has met with many world leaders including Barack Obama. Now aged 67 years old, Ruby Bridges has aided the movement for equality for decades and will forever be immortalised as a woman of great strength and courage. It was October 1967 and the Vietnam War had been words by: Suraya Rumbold-Kazzuz taking lives for 13 years already. Whilst North Vietnam fought against its Southern counterpart to unify the country and form a communist regime, South Vietnam worked closely with the West. Meanwhile, American youths started rebelling against the constraints of their society, aspiring to live a nonviolent life full of love. The 1960s gave the beginning to hippie culture to demur against the conflict in Asia. Their openness, sexual liberation, and adoration for nature made them earn the name of “flower children”. Hippies walked arm in arm with middle-class professionals, clergymen, and black activists in the demonstration of October 21st, 1967 in Washington D.C. The free spirits were peaceful – as one of the principles of their subculture was “Make love, not war”. That day is now known as a day when the troops received flowers. “People do resonate with peace and do resonate with goodness and hope. That’s the attraction” - Jan Rose Kasmir, now 66 years old, then a teenage hippie facing the military. When 17-year-old Leshia Evans was photographed that autumn by Jonathan Bachman, he claimed that he knew right away that the photo would be revolutionary. words by: Maja Metera

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music

1960s psychedelia has appeared to have a lasting impact upon the way we see, visualise, experience, and listen to music; incorporating drug-taking, love-making, and friendship within one curious subcultural movement. Becoming one of the most influential music scenes of the 20th century, psychedelia broke the conservative boundaries of music. It was new, it was exciting, and it was also extremely different to the conventional sounds of rock that music fans were already exposed to. Unlike previous genres, the psychedelic era evolved out of social consciousness towards issues like civil rights, war, and the rejection of drug use throughout society. It was an all-encompassing movement that followed the beliefs of the younger generations. Originating in San Francisco in the 1960s, psychedelia became a part of a counterculture to the hierarchies and government structures of society. The psychedelic scene became encompassed by outlaw communities of hippies, free thinkers, music fans, drug dealers and college students, all of which were fixated on taking LSD; a drug which provides its user with an altered state of feeling and awareness. LSD, also known as acid, perfectly complemented the psychedelic scene as it allowed users to be enlightened by the crisp sounds of rock music, generating trippy-like imagery that follows the psychedelic movements today.

Creating a lifestyle for itself throughout California, psychedelia saw the rise of the bands the Grateful Dead and Cream enter the limelight of this subculture with artists, such as Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin, entering this subculture also. The space-like sounds of their music created an authenticity that encompassed whole generations of people, allowing experimental music to become popular throughout this movement. Even The Rolling Stones and The Beatles found themselves a part of the movement, creating albums such as Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band and Their Satanic Majesties Request within the stereotypical formations of psychedelic music. By expanding the minds of those that listened to this genre, psychedelia had gained acknowledgement throughout the music industry, reflecting a drug-induced state that was popular throughout many musicians. And, as we see marijuana use increase throughout the modern day, it is no shock as to why psychedelia has entered the forefront of the music scene once again. Not only has the psychedelic style begun to become increasingly popular throughout elements of style within contemporary fashion trends, but it has also become increasingly recognisable throughout emerging music styles also.

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music

Back in 2010, producer Kevin Parker released his first solo album with his music project, Tame Impala. The album, as recognised by many critics, symbolised the same attributes, themes and sounds as psychedelic music with many music magazines comparing his style to the one and only Hendrix. Not only is this a massive compliment, but it is also extremely true. The symbolism and iconography used throughout Innerspeaker is highly comparable to the psychedelic scenes of the 1960s, allowing a rejuvenation of this specific genre to begin throughout modern music. Through the inspiration of artists like Tame Impala, the Australian music scene began to encompass musical themes that were stylistically similar to the qualities of American pysch artists, such as Sticky Fingers, Pond and GUM, followed in the footsteps of Parker, using synths, complicated guitar strings and a raw vocal disposition to create tracks that are central to today’s modern psychedelic scene. Not only have we seen the influence that Parker has had upon his country of origin, but through the likes of his own music we have seen his input upon R&B and trap artists such as SZA (Solána Imani Rowe) and Travis Scott; both of which have worked with Parker to create tracks that have been directly inspired by 1960s psychedelia. Personally, I find these collaborations incredible. They demonstrate the influence that psychedelia has had upon our future generations. The genre is so significant to our music world that it has managed to not only inspire modern rock music, but a genre of which is outside of its creative boundaries. You only have to look at SZA’s first album Z to picture, as quoted by Pitchfork magazine, a range of “gauzy keyboard tones” and “muffled guitar” sounds; all of which are stylistically similar to the qualities of psychedelic music.

As Tash Sultana, an Australian female musician, has a sound that is incredibly similar to the qualities of Joplin’s voice, it is obvious to picture the significance that psychedelic music has had over the way we construct, consume, and understand artists within the modern industry. Music has not created anything new for itself but has depicted and manipulated qualities of previous subcultures in a way of which provides us fans with a sense of nostalgia. Our favourite genres and artists continue to live their legacy through modern musicians, allowing us youth to never forget their importance within a society encompassed with autotune, mass production, and little meaning behind the creation of new and insignificant artists. words by: Emily Jade Ricalton design by: Lucy Battersby

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literature

The revolutionary decades of 1960’s and 70’s marked an iconic time in the history of literature. The world witnessed a surge in female led media in publishing houses, magazines and novels to name just a few. In a time when the means of production were either wholly or largely owned by men, the entry of women into the production industry was an incredibly progressive transition. This transition took place in the backdrop of a social movement that sparked in the 1960’s but can be linked back to the early 50’s. The 1950’s was a time when countries were trying to revive their strength and overcome the chaos and destruction caused by the Second World War. The return of soldiers from the War fronts, however, unfolded unseen repercussions for women. The women who had joined workforces in the absence of men were now being displaced by the returning soldiers. They were expected to quietly resort back to domestic lives and accept living as subjugated housewives. However, after women recognised their potential they aimed to progress and hence rejected the idea of being locked in a domestic life. The discontentment with conformity of gender roles and systematic misogyny developed beneath the surface of a seemingly tranquil society. The Feminine Mystique by Betty Freidan’s, triggered the underlying discontent to take the form of a social movement. It argues against the idea that women only find fulfilment through domestic life and child rearing. This book prominently emphasised the individuality of women, making the point that women have human needs, like men, to grow and achieve success and are an entity separate from their family. This book criticised the patriarchal ways of the society, the male dominated workplaces and male owned means of production. It was not only the content that stirred up the revolution, but it was also the reach. This book sold over three million copies in three years and became one of the most popular books of the 20th century. This book had a unifying effect on the already dissatisfied women. It gave the social momentum needed for a largescale movement.

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Women in early 60’s broke off from the ordinary and actively contributed to varied forms of literature. The Golden Notebook by Doris Lessing ties together another writer and single mother, Anna Wulf, and her encounters with men, communism and violent resistance. Lessing fragmented the story of her life in four separate parts to dictate a distinct story about her encounters and reflect on a woman’s mind, weaving her identity together. On a similar style, Sylvia Plath expressed her domestic life from a women’s perspective by talking about womanhood and her experiences as a single mother. She displayed her emotions and despair through her essays, poems and novels. The Bell Jarwritten by Plath not only talked about feminine identity and sexual double standards but also ties to the wider themes like mental health and suicide. These terms were less talked about in the time and even lesser for women. The primary writing style of feminist literature in the 60’s was domestic realism. Domestic lives and struggle of women were highlighted which urged social change and greater acceptability of women in workplaces. words by: Shivika Singh design by: Anna Kerslake


literature

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fashion

It sounds hard to believe that a 16-year-old Cockney girl from London would come to be the face of the swinging sixties, an era which changed the course of history forever. Known as Twiggy for her slight and androgynous frame, Lesley Dawson shot to fame in 1966, becoming one of the world’s first international fashion models. She was unlike any model that had come before, with her short boyish hair, baby doll face and working-class upbringing. For many she symbolised the new generation, a wave of young people throwing away with the old and inventing new ways to express themselves through fashion and music. Unafraid of the bold and beautiful, Twiggy cemented some of the most iconic fashion trends in history. Let’s take a trip back in time and explore some of her most legendary fashion contributions! The Pixie Cut: It’s no doubt that one of Twiggy’s biggest style contributions was her short hair known as the pixie cut or elfin crop. Cut short to her ears and parted to one side, this haircut went on to launch her career and pave the way for short hairstyles today. Despite its success, Twiggy confessed to have been a test subject after hairdresser Leonard Lewis had insisted on cutting her hair short. As one of London’s most respected hairdressers known for cutting Paul McCartney’s iconic Beatles ‘moptop’, she was too shy to say no. Her headshots were displayed proudly in the salon window catching the eye of Daily Express fashion reporter Dierdre McSharry, who went on to name her “The Face of 1966”. Twiggy’s striking doe deer eyes involved accentuated black eyeliner, bold mod eyelashes and what she called “twiggies”, hand painted lashes on her undereye. As a young schoolgirl, Twiggy was inspired by 60s legends such as Jean Shrimpton and Beatles girl Pattie Boyed, whose makeup looks were all about feathered lashes and cat-eye liner. Growing up in an era when experimentation was what it was all about Twiggy took this further, hand painting her lower lashes with eye liner and a paint brush. It came to define part of her identity and became one of the most recognisable make-up looks in history.

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The Shift Dress and Mini Skirt:

The Mod Suit:

The 1960s saw an explosion of fashion trends brought about by emerging boutiques on London’s Carnaby Street and King’s Road, making affordable clothes available to the masses. These new trends reflected the great changes happening in society at the time such as the 60s shift dress and mini skirt, symbols of rebellion and sexual liberation following the introduction of the contraceptive pill. Working closely with Mary Quant, the fashion designer heralded as the creator of the mini skirt and integral figure in 60s mod fashion, Twiggy became the poster girl for these two short hemline trends. By the latter part of the decade, Twiggy appeared in nearly every advertising campaign donning these playful pieces often with groovy patterns and oversized buttons and collars.

The 60s weren’t just about flower power and miniskirts. Twiggy started exploring mod menswear, bringing her own feminine twist to men’s suits and clean-cut tailoring. She embraced androgynous fashion, modelling pinstripe suits complete with shirt and tie. Following the previous decade’s return to traditional housewife attire, the 1960s suit announced that the powerful woman was back, and she was here to stay. But it was unlike anything anyone had seen before. As Twiggy’s suits were splashed across the covers of magazines, attitudes towards women’s roles in society were changing. The decade saw the rise of the Women’s Liberty Movement, the introduction of the Equal Pay Act and the Civil Rights Act in the United States.


fashion Bright Patterned Lights: Bright coloured tights or knee-high socks were a must-have with any 60s mod minidress. Twiggy mastered this playful schoolgirl chic, pairing dresses often with vibrant red, orange and blue tights. Loafers or low-heeled dolly shoes completed the look, hinting to the decade’s “Chelsea Girl” trend inspired again by the legendary Mary Quant.

Ribbed Sweaters: Twiggy made wearing sleeveless ribbed sweaters seem effortlessly easy. Often worn with a funnel or mock neck and tucked into a pair of high-waisted flared trousers, she achieved this laidback yet sophisticated look. Long ribbed jumpers in colourful chevron patterns and stripes were also all the rage, shaped around the waste with a simple fabric belt.

Statement Earrings: Statement earrings can be that final and vital piece to completing a look, and Twiggy certainly showed that to be true. Many of her most iconic editorial outfits featured bold earrings in a variety of geometric shapes and bright colours. Her most famous pair of statement earrings were the silver “bauble” earrings. In one of her most recognisable 1966 shoots, Twiggy wears a pink shift dress with large buttons, white tights and the silver disco-ball earrings, as if ready to go groove the night away.

words by: Lydia Armstrong design by: May Collins

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travel

Wouldn’t it Be Nice... When I imagine the ‘60s, I envisage hippies, Beatlemania, and beehive hairdos. A decade bursting with vibrancy, marking a time of change both socially and politically, it’s an era to remember. Along with the fresh and funky fashion and forward-way of thinking, it was a memorable time for travel, but not quite as we know it… Think sun, sea, and salty snacks at the good, oldfashioned British seaside. In the ‘60s, many families didn’t have the means to travel abroad for their yearly getaway, so instead ventured to various seaside locations around the UK. It was long before the days of all-inclusive hotels or private villas, where holiday-makers would decide whether to stay in a static caravan or a tent on a campsite. Although for many modern souls, a long weekend spent in a cramped caravan seems like a grim bush tucker trial. For many people in the ‘60s, it was an escape from the repetitiveness of everyday life. After the end of the war and well into the ‘60s, holiday campsites continued to thrive with many new campsites opening up all over the country. Butlins holiday camps opened up three new locations in the decade, including Bognor Regis (1960), Minehead (1962), and Barry Island (1966). But, it wasn’t only holiday camps that continued to flourish. There was a significant shift in the role of caravan parks as they evolved to become more similar to holiday camps. Caravan and camping sites began to offer guests access to a range of facilities including social clubs, swimming pools, bars, and even entertainment. The pleasure of a holiday in the ‘60s lay in the simplicity of it all. The caravans were modest, fitted with only the bare essentials, and this often didn’t even include a fridge. There was no electricity, TV, or internet, and a trip to the toilet block in the dead of night was an adventure in itself. Hot summer days were spent burning on the beach or by the pool, whilst feasting on a homemade picnic in a not-so-comfy deckchair. The relaxed evenings were filled with laughter and applying bucket loads of calamine lotion on sore sunburns. Whilst the ‘60s summer spirit was made up of just that, in our 21st century environment holidays are quickly becoming bigger and more extravagant than ever. The advancement of modern technology and transport has made it easier than ever to travel to any destination around the world. Whilst in the past holidays abroad were almost exclusively for the wealthy, package deals and cheap flights have made travelling more accessible than ever before.

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Before the pandemic (and I predict after), people are more likely to opt to travel abroad with guaranteed sunshine as opposed to staying local like in the past. Although this means greater opportunities for budding explorers, it has also resulted in somewhat of a ‘competition’ among individuals to visit the best hotel and most Instagramable locations to share with friends and followers online. A result of this persistent conquest to capture the ‘perfect’ Insta is that it has become immensely easy to forget what a holiday should be all about. Gone are the days of no internet or TV and old-fashioned fun, as we increasingly find ourselves scrolling on social media comparing ourselves (and our holidays) to other people. Research shows that some young people purposefully research whether a holiday destination will match their Instagram feeds aesthetic before proceeding to book, with two-thirds of 18–34-year-old participants saying the “Instagramability of a location is the most important factor when booking.” Unfortunately, I am also guilty of exploiting my time away to *try* and get a nice picture or two to share on social media. Although I do believe that there is no harm in taking some cheeky pics for the gram, after all, sunsets and golden hour overseas seem to hit differently. I feel it is important to remember what a holiday is all about. Despite the technological and cultural advances that have been made since the ‘60s, the essence of a holiday remains the same – to try and spend time relaxing, having fun, and making memories with the ones that we love. And ultimately, not all memories need to be immortalised by Snapchat. words by: Katherine Mallett design by: Kacey Keane


travel

to Go Back to the ‘60s

QUENCH

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spotlight

History:

words by: Indi Scott Whitehouse design by: Ersila Bushi The 1960s saw the start of a significant progression for women’s place in society. When asking my 79-year-old Nana about it, she said: “I no longer had any worries about falling pregnant before I was ready; it was a time when I felt liberated, I didn’t have to rely solely on my male partner using a condom anymore.” The pill definitely symbolised a new-found sexual and economic freedom for women, which we now accept as features of standard modern-day lifestyles. Women were able to take charge of their own bodies and make more educated choices about their lives and well-being. Sex was no longer exclusively for procreation: the idea of intercourse for pleasure combined with lower risks of pregnancy greatly assisted the sexual liberation of the 60s.

The contraceptive pill was approved for use in 1960, largely supported by women’s rights campaigner Margaret Sanger. Sanger was a strong advocate for ‘birth control’ and the founder of the ‘Birth Control Movement’ in the US. The campaign we now know as Planned Parenthood pushed for more accessible contraception in America. Lowering the stigma around premarital sex meant that actions such as pretending to be married when attending midwife appointments, unsafe “back street” abortions and “shotgun” weddings would become a thing of the past. The pill and the legalisation of British abortion in 1967 saw a fall in the peaked number of adoptions, which had been viewed as the main solution to “illegitimate” children. Until 1967 in the UK, the pill was mainly accessible to married women only. An eventual availability for all classes and social statuses meant that marriage and childbirth were no longer a mutually exclusive expectation. Female sex-workers could also now work without the risk of pregnancy, and therefore their jobs were made slightly safer than before. The idea of sex for pleasure alone made way for their profession to be less censored. Women had a new sense of economic independence. Less unwanted pregnancies meant that women did not have to depend on marriage to a man for social and inancial support. Their careers and lives would no longer have to go on pause because of pregnancy or childcare. People now had the opportunity to plan for pregnancy.

21


spotlight

The Sex Liberation Movement:

What Does The Future Hold?

The sex liberation movement of the 1960s saw the youth exhibiting new, non-conformist attitudes towards sex and sexuality. The “make love not war” mantra of the counterculture was largely aided by the introduction of the pill, as increasing bodily autonomy meant people could freely explore their sexuality. The disassociation of vaginal intercourse and reproduction meant that sex for pleasure was becoming less taboo. Arguably, this did not only affect heterosexual women, but also may have triggered an increasing acceptance of the LGBT+ community; heteronormative marriages were no longer viewed as the only course of life.

The emphasis on the responsibility of contraception for women did not get shared with cisgender men. With condoms and vasectomies being the only options for people with penises, the list of contraceptive pills, IUDs, injections, coils, implants, contraceptive rings, diaphragms, and the ‘morning after’ pill for people with uteruses feels incredibly contrastive to the options for cis men. News of halted trials of a male contraceptive injection due to side effects including depression, mood disorders, increased libido and acne, was likely frustrating for people with uteruses who take the contraceptive pill and frequently exhibit these symptoms. The release of the pill was met with a large amount of medical and social debate concerning promiscuity.

Even in the early trials of the pill, side effects of dizziness, nausea, headaches and vomiting appeared - not too dissimilar to the experiences people have when taking the contraceptive pill today. Long term use of the pill can increase the risk of breast, liver and cervical cancer. It also raises the risk of blood clots and heart attack. Many modern-day takers of the pill would acknowledge an association with depression, although more scientific research is still needed in this area.

Unfortunately, many governments and people without uteruses still feel entitled to dictate how people with them should act. Many of us will have observed the pro-life campaigners outside Cardiff University in response to its official pro-choice stance. In doing this, our university assures us that we all have the right to decide what to do with our bodies. This action is only a small sample of the solidarity and demonstration that is needed to counteract the battle on the freedom of abortion. The 1960s contraceptive pill was only the beginning. The battle for accessible, impartial birth control support, and shared contraceptive responsibility is something that continues through the 21st century. We must make sure that the progress it started is not lost. There is definitely more research needed for the contraceptive pill, but it is important to acknowledge the impact that it had on female bodily autonomy, and its contribution to the social norms we observe today.

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g vin

Wha t

e re L W e o W

In this very special issue, we’ve been looking back nostalgically at the different decades, particularly our Y2K childhoods. Which is why Elly and I have decided to write about what we were loving when we were young this issue, from the Sims to Diet Coke, in the hopes it brings back some much needed joyful memories

JASMINE Sylvanian Families I’ve always been a homebody, a ‘grandma’ and so it makes sense that Sylvanian Families were my childhood toy of choice. I don’t know why living out my everyday life through fuzzy, little animal figurines appealed to me so much, but it did. Over Barbies, Polly Pockets, Bratz, Pixel Chicks and everything else I always wanted Sylvanian Families. I’d save my pocket money, trade with friends and fill my Christmas list with items like the cotton rabbit family, the canal boat or the treehouse library. Truth be told, I still have my entire village now, which is packed away in the attic so one day when my friends or I have kids I have an excuse to play again.

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The Sims It’s safe to say that The Sims was the defining game of my teen years (apart from Sims 3 which sucks). I dread to think how many hours I spent playing the Sims, especially in summer when not school or even my mom could stop me immersing myself for weeks on end. I used to create endless versions of myself, living my dreams out as a socialite or straight-A student. Not to mention all the crazy challenges I tried to complete such as, the 100 baby challenge or tiny house challenge. The freedom that the Sims gave to my younger self was unprecedented, you could do absolutely anything. A friend of mine used to go on tons of blind dates, then pay for all of her suitors to join on her holiday (thank you motherlode) and just watch all hell break loose.

Mario Let me be absolutely clear, this entire video game franchise is incredible, but more than anything for me my love of this game stems from nostalgia. During primary school, I had the privilege of having a Mario fanatic friend like me, who used to invite me over for week long sleepovers. These weeks were genuinely some of the best weeks of my life, however sad that may seem now. We used to spend all day running through Mario Bros levels, or crashing into each other on Mario Kart and only stopping to eat, sleep and maybe shower if our parents were lucky (which more than often they weren’t if I’m honest). words by: Jasmine Snow and Elly Savva design by: Jasmine Snow


Snow Days Waking up when it has snowed will never fail to bring excitement, as the regular world of cars, roads, pavements, lampposts, and trees becomes concealed under a carpet of white. Being an adult detracts from the magic of snow, as the working world (rudely) expects you to carry on with your day as if it were normal. As a child, snow days meant eagerly anticipating the cancellation of the school day, desperately refreshing the school website as if it was the Glastonbury ticket page, and tuning in to local radio stations to listen out for your school’s name as if it was the Eurovision results. When the inevitable results were in, you had a day filled with snowballs, sledging, and soggy socks to look forward to, ideally rounded off with a hot chocolate by a fire. Snow days brought with them the suspension of time and a dose of pure elation.

ELLY

Diet Coke I remember Diet Coke being the forbidden fruit of my childhood. Like Eve’s apple that glistened on the tree or Pandora’s box that reeled her in, it was a temptation dangled just in front of my eyes. Whilst my mum would order it religiously at meals, she claimed (between slurps) that this secret brown liquid was out of bounds for me. Naturally, this only ever made me want it more. I remember sneaking sips when the coast was clear, tasting a glimpse of sweet paradise. I even pretended to enjoy eating lemon slices so I could suck out the leftover remnants of caramel left behind. Fast-forward a few years and my poison of choice has switched to Pepsi Max. A steady flow of multipacks fills the fridge, so I’m usually only a few footsteps away from that familiar hiss, snap, and glug of treacle fizz. Although probably psychologically addicted now, it never tastes as good as those illicit gulps of Diet Coke stolen from my mum’s glass. Parties It’s easy to reminisce about any kind of party with rosetinted glasses now that the only social events in our calendars are the occasional drunken zoom. Thinking back to pre-pandemic house parties, I miss navigating the noise, busy corridors, and tinfoil-covered walls. I miss peeling shoes free from sticky floors, finding familiar faces in crowded rooms, and being led through the crowd by a clammy hand to escape to share a cigarette outside. I miss shouting “text me!” into the phone over loud music, squeezing friends close on the dancefloor, and linking arms as you stumble home. Feeling so starved of social contact has even made me nostalgic for childhood birthday parties. Imagine running free around a bouncy play centre, chasing a friend who pushes you down a slide into a ball pit that envelops you. Imagine choosing between orange or blackcurrant squash whilst eating finger food from paper plates, then falling asleep in the car ride home with a party bag sat on your lap, with a squashed party hat retired beside you.

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70s

25


spotlight

A Piece of History: The Creation of the LGBT+ Flag

culture In 1978, the US saw its first-ever openly gay politician: Harvey Milk. All throughout his career, he fought staunchly for gay rights in times where an overwhelming majority of people were homophobic. Despite this, he never stopped fighting for the community and its representation.

Hippie Culture Hippie culture reflects a significant period during the ‘70s where there was a widespread sentiment of rejecting the mainstream. Whilst the movement originated in the USA, it captured the world from the likes of Britain to Canada. It was predominantly inspired by the Beat Generation, a literary movement that included Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, which explored American culture and politics and rebelled against the conventions of society. There was a degree of separation between hippies and other members of society, as members of the subculture developed their freedom of expression through their choice of clothing and lifestyle. Through wearing psychedelic colours, growing out their hair, and many adopting a vegetarian diet, they promoted an alternative reality to the repressive mainstream society. While this sub-culture began its developments as a youth movement, it developed into a worldwide phenomenon.

In 1978 he hired the artist Gilbert Baker to design a flag for the annual San Francisco pride parade. Baker, a drag-performer himself, had a vision for this flag even before Harvey Milk hired him to make it. He made the original flag with eight colours, one for each element that constitutes unity, diversity, and all kinds of love. From top to bottom the flag was coloured hot pink for sex, red for life, orange for healing, yellow for sunlight, green for nature, turquoise for art, indigo for harmony, and violet for spirit.

The way that hippie culture was presented in the past, as a method to be creative and identify in a new and unique way, has helped to transform how modern-day movements work. For example, movements such as Extinction Rebellion use nonviolent direct action to highlight the emergency of the global climate crisis. Their approach attempts to craft a world for all future generations to enjoy and creates a culture that is unique and healthy. Not only is it challenging the rules and regulations of those that have stopped us from progressing, but it is inspiring a generation of free-thinkers to openly challenge and interrogate toxic systems.

Harvey Milk proudly used the original flag for the San Francisco’s Gay Freedom Day Parade, and unfortunately was assassinated later that year. A true gay icon was lost. Eventually, Baker submitted his flag for global recognition and the Paramount Flag Company tweaked it to the flag we see today in order to satisfy all elements of the rainbow. And now, this spectrum of colours has inspired all of the other LGBT+ communities to establish themselves with their own flags.

words by: Megan Evans design by: Kacey Keane

During the hippie movement, the act of coming together and uniquely integrating art and life has carried influence through to the way that we look at contemporary art today. The way that hippies romanticized the experimentation of cultures shows truly how important it was to break free from a repressive life constrained by capitalism and conservative thought.

The purpose of the LGBT+ flag is togetherness and freedom of expression to love who we want to love and to be proud of it against all odds. The flag as a whole symbolizes the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and many more communities as it brings solidarity among them. While this is the universal symbol for the community, it is also flexible in terms of including colours based on people’s perception of the community to raise awareness and create safe spaces for everyone. However, when the NHS started using the rainbow flag to represent their support to health workers amid the pandemic, it caused quite a stir. People of the LGBT+ community questioned this decision as it could potentially negate their purpose and the flag might be used to support the NHS by homophobic people who make their lives harder. While respect for health workers is due, people of the LGBT+ community felt as though their identity may be stolen if the NHS continued to keep the rainbow as their flag as well. People who are not in support of the community are putting up rainbow flags outside their homes to support health workers, but for those in the community, it’s a battle they need to start from scratch. For this reason, petitions are being signed to make the

33

By the time of the ‘70s, the hippie ethos gave rise to the free music festivals movement and the first Glastonbury festival. Hippie attitudes also spurred the growth of independent magazine publishing, with the birth of publications such as International Times, Oz, and ZigZag. They also inspired a new generation of bands and musicians such as Pink Floyd, The Jimi Hendrix Experience, and Quintessence, and even rock stars such as Mick Jagger and John Lennon took influence from hippie culture. The hippie movement influenced British youth culture, giving expression to the attitudes and values of the push for freedom. This led to the influence of a wider culture, with much more relaxation towards sex, concerns for the environment, and favour for less formal structural systems. Whilst rejecting the conservative social morality of previous generations, hippies also stood in political opposition to the nuclear policies of the West in the Cold War. As a world that is ever-changing to suit the forms of new generations, the hippie movement sheds light on preaching love and kindness, and above anything else, equality. The counterculture helped push not only the civil rights movements but also gay rights and women’s liberation activists.

33

Contents 27 - 28: Studio 54 29 - 30 The Hippie Trail 31-32: How to Throw Your Own 70s Dinner Party 33-34: Hippie Culture 35-36: The Creation of the LGBTQ+ Flag

26


fashion

The Infamous Fashion of

Studio 54 in its prime, which was a decadent thirty-three months, was the hub of New York nightlife. Fashion flocked to its dance floor in the form of elite designers, performance artists, chic celebrities and the most stylish people plucked off the street, leading to the creation of a diverse and dramatic sartorial scene. One of the most famous images ever taken at Studio 54 is that of Bianca Jagger riding a white horse at her birthday party, à la Lady Godiva, posing for photos in an off-the-shoulder red Halston gown. This encapsulates the Studio 54 ethos. Decadent, theatrical, and exquisitely stylish was the concept, and it was executed fully by both its owners and its clientele every night.

27


fashion

Often seen as the epitome of disco’s heyday, the club was full of colour and drama; think sequinned jumpsuits, vibrant bodysuits worn by the likes of Diana Ross, and an extravagant sort of expression that thrived in the New York club scene, headed by the incomparable Studio 54. It was a forum for designers to find inspiration in a creative melting pot full of hedonistic flair and artistic minds. Designed as an opera house and set up as a television studio before its transformation, the pre-existing lighting and sets were used to create an experience somewhere between performance and party, wholly uninhibited and full of some of the most glorious fashion of the 70s. Walking through the dance floor meant rubbing shoulders with Pat Cleveland in a pleated lamé gown, Grace Jones in a wide-brimmed straw hat with her signature angular makeup, Cher being dipped in a cowboy hat and drag artist Divine twirling Andy Warhol. To be there was to be part of an elite, whether because of your fame and talent or your sartorial distinction. If you were not one of those lucky enough to be guided through the back door as the celebrities and well-connected were, you faced the bustling crowds that waited on the street for approval from Steve Rubell, one of the owners of the club, and his team of bouncers. They were not so much security but a selection committee, cherry-picking the strikingly and spectacularly dressed from those desperate to gain entry to the most exclusive party in New York.

Many of New York’s fashionobsessed queer scene passed this test and frequented the club often, fleeing from the restrictive gender-normative gay bars that rejected them. Once you’d made it inside, the exclusivity washed away to become an all-embracing throng of exquisite beauty. Indeed, Andy Warhol once described it as “a dictatorship on the door but a democracy on the dance floor”. Part of the magic of Studio 54 was that that there was no separation between the elite and those who came in from the streets, creating iconic moments and a beautiful sense of shared belonging. Studio 54 was also known for its numerous parties thrown by and for fashion’s royalty, from birthdays to shows to launches. As well as Bianca Jagger’s birthday party, thrown for her by Halston, Elizabeth Taylor celebrated her 46th there in a sequin jumpsuit, maintaining her position as an unforgettable style icon. There are countless photos of celebrities at the after-party for the infamous Yves Saint Laurent Opium perfume launch, a product apt for the opiate-like haze that perfectly described the trance swathing partygoers. Fiorucci threw a party featuring their signature dancers who normally graced their shops, sometimes called ‘the daytime Studio 54’, showing the blend of fashion, party and performance that took over the club’s floor. The New Year’s parties that took place there were legendary, with performances from the likes of Grace Jones in a barely-there sparkling bodysuit. One year, four

tons of glitter were cast from the ceiling to envelop the dancers in a starry mist. To party there was to partake in a unique theatrical experience, defined by opulent beauty and freedom. This feeling hasn’t been easily shaken from the fashion world’s consciousness and Studio 54’s effect on it today still resonates. In just 2019 Michael Kors, who once danced his nights away there, put out a glorious fall collection dedicated to the majesty of Studio 54 featuring sequins, silk, feathers and fur. He even used its logo in many of the designs. Naeem Khan’s 2019 fall collection featured Pat Cleveland, Karen Bjornson and Alva Chinn as models, Halston’s muses in the 70s, dressed in gowns reminiscent of both Halston and Studio 54. The club remains a point of reference for night-time fashion and has become a popular theme for parties in recent years, as a result of the extravagant costumes and atmosphere of indulgence implicit in the name Studio 54. It came back into conversation just last year with the exhibition Studio 54: Night Magic at the Brooklyn Museum, featuring custom Fiorucci and Halston designs and outfits worn by Liza Minelli. One of the most influential scenes to ever touch the fashion world, Studio 54 was monumental to many. It represented the freedom and limitless joy of the 70s, the coming together of different types of people and the desire to let everything go by just dressing extravagantly and dancing. words by: Dominic Bramley-Carr design by: May Collins

28


travel

The Hippie Trail "The path would become a spiritual rite of passage for many who were seeking selfdiscovery and a new deWesternised consciousness"

The hippie trail of the ‘60s and ‘70s was a spiritual odyssey that has been commonly referred to as the alternative Silk Road, coursing its way through Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nepal. It became a pilgrimage for Western youths disillusioned by the formalities of society. It was a path of enlightenment, an adventure that journeyed into the magical East. The path would become a spiritual rite of passage for many who were seeking self-discovery and a new “de-Westernised” consciousness, a world apart from the conventional societies that they were escaping from. The term “hippie trail” became a trope for any person who embarked on the voyage from Western Europe to the East. However, many young travellers did not refer to themselves as hippies, but rather as freaks or intrepids. When we look back at the ‘50s, influential figures within the Beat Generation were widely considered as the first catalyst of inspiration for young travellers hoping to break away from their rigid Western lives. Jack Kerouac’s infamous On The Road was a seminal piece of literature that really set the hippie trail trajectory and

29

the counterculture’s tone. Those who read it became awakened and inspired by the philosophy embedded within his words, with its notions of freedom and alternative perspectives. Oh, and not to mention its hedonistic drug use, which became prevalent along the hippie trail. Kerouac glorified adventure and life on the open road, glamourising the freedom that a life of nomadism offered. On The Road became a significant source of inspiration for the young intrepids’ discovery of the East. Istanbul was seen as the starting point of the trail, as it was located on the eastern periphery. Many young travellers also started in European capitals such as London or Amsterdam, forging relationships and meeting like-minded people bound by the same pursuit; to seek whatever it was that they were soulfully hoping to find along their path into the unknown. The young travelers either set off in their cars or the symbolic Volkswagen van, or made use of the new overland bus companies that catered to the trail’s popularity. The bus was a common and desired mode


travel

of transport as it offered unity amongst travellers sharing the same mindset of love and freedom. Tickets for bus travel were found in underground publications, offering to take people “all the way”. However, the bolder intrepids that opted to use their own transport and distanced themselves from the coaches, believing that being bus-bound made westerners merely tourists rather than true travellers.

Perhaps the most iconic stop on the trail was Kathmandu. It became a paradise for the young trailblazers and a Mecca to be reached at the end of the trail. For many, the end of the line was too much to handle. The odyssey was over. Minds were as lost as they were at the beginning. Reflecting on his own experiences in his book, The Magic Bus, Rory Mclean best captures this notion:

A community had developed on the alternative Silk Road. Many travellers would come together and share their journey deeper into the east, sharing guidance and stories of life on the trail, leaving messages of a new learned wisdom from their journey so far. The walls of Istanbul’s infamous Pudding Shop were covered with such messages, often leaving promises to meet each other on the beaches of Goa, the epicentre of the freak scene where people could get lost and drop out in the winter months.

“Many intrepids reached Nepal and found themselves at a loss. Was the sacred mountain landscape really their spiritual haven? Could isolated Nepal actually sustain a harmonious fusion of East and West? And if Kathmandu, hidden by a ring of snow-covered peaks, wasn’t paradise, then where was it? No one had asked where to go after the End of the Road.”

For many, the voyage became one long ‘trip’ full of hashish, and then some more hashish. It was said that one could get high by just walking the streets of Afghanistan.

As the saying goes, all good things come to an end… but as cliché as it sounds, it holds a universal truth. The 1979 invasion of Afghanistan and the Iran revolution reflects this truth. As time moved on, the trail became increasingly dangerous and the awe of wanderlust that the magical East had entailed has now become a beautifully tragic memory, lost within a bygone era words by: Jacob Lewis design by: Sandra Mbula Nzioki

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food

The 1970’s, described as a pivotal change in world history, saw post- war economic booms, fights for equality, and strong movements towards environmental activism. The food was garish and often consisted of layers and show stopping looks. Dinner parties were all the rage, and it was all about who could throw the best get-together. Want to have your own 70’s dinner party? Here’s how…

What You’re Wearing...

If you’re not wearing a pair of bell-bottomed pants, you might find yourself feeling out of place. Combine them with a turtleneck or flower print shirt and you have a completed 70’s look. Alternatively, you might feel more comfortable in a slick Travoltaesque three piece. Picture Saturday Night Fever, the famous white three piece, an oversized black collar and black boots and you’ve got the look. If you want to accessorise a bit further, you could add some sideburns or a platform shoe.

What You’re Listening to...

Depending on the crowd, you may be relishing the new rise of punk rock, enjoying bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash or The Ramones. ABBA’s success in the Eurovision song contest in 1974 sparked their long-lasting popularity so maybe this will act as the background of your evening? Or perhaps you’re more of a country fan? If so, Dolly Parton, Glen Campbell and Willie Nelson are for you!

What You’re Drinking...

If you are going all out with cocktails, you might decide to present your guests with a Tom Collins or a White Russian. A Tom Collins is a simple classic filled with gin,

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food

lemon juice, sugar syrup and chilled soda, perfect for a classier drink. A White Russian is a lot more exciting and interesting with its popular mixture of vodka, Kahlua and heavy cream. As for the wine, many would agree that Mateus Rose, imported from Portugal, was a popular choice. The bulbous, irregular, squat shaped bottle made a perfect centre piece and subsequent vase. A white zinfandel was an equally popular choice for the adults of the 70’s. Packing a similarly sweet and sickly punch to the Mateus Rose, there’s clearly a running theme here.

To Snack...

Everyone knows that the appetisers and pre-dinner snacks are the most important part of a dinner party, as they set the tone and let all of the guests know what they’re in for. The classic bought nibble like foods were undoubtedly Twiglets, cheese footballs and salted peanuts. You might try some fancier canapés such as devilled eggs, mushroom volau-vents, devils on horseback or some mini baked potato skins. If the nibbles are the name of the game at your dinner party, you might step it up a level with a cheese fondue set. Cheese fondue was all the rage and if you owned a fondue set, your parties were sure to be on another level. After all, dipping cubes of food into a pot of melted cheese… what could be better?

To Start...

It wouldn’t be a 70’s party if you didn’t start with a prawn cocktail. Hopefully you can get your hands on a set of martini glasses to serve them in, but if not, wine glasses would be a suitable replacement. Divide the lettuce amongst the glasses, sprinkle over a few pink juicy prawns and season with black pepper. Mix (or buy) a Marie Rose sauce and spoon sparingly over the prawns. Dust with a little paprika, sprinkle with a few chives, top with a few extra prawns and serve. Don’t even consider trying to present your guests with a different starter… this is the only way forward.

For the Main...

There are a few options for the main dish, depending on what you fancy. Casserole type dishes were quite popular at the time, and to spice it up a bit, coq-au-vin or boeuf bourguignon frequently featured as the centre piece for a 70’s dinner party. Equally, something a little fancier like salmon en croute or duck a l’orange is a suitable choice. You may notice a common theme of foreign names running through all of these dishes and it’s clear that French cooking was the name of the game. The 70’s hosts wanted to impress their guests with their exotic cooking skills, and, if you are throwing your own party, you have to do the same. It was also quite trendy to create a true show stopping centre piece to put in the middle of your dinner table using jelly moulds and elaborate and cohesive lay outs. You can always google 70’s dinner party showstoppers if you want some garish inspiration.

To Finish...

There are a few options here but the most notable is the classic, German born, Black Forest gateau. Three layers of rich chocolate cake separated by layers of whipped cream and Morello cherries, topped with chocolate cream and fresh cherries… this is a real crowd pleaser. Equally, you could try a few other examples of traditional 70’s fare such as a Baked Alaska or layered trifle. Make sure it looks impressive if you want to be crowned top party thrower! words by: Sasha Nugara design by: Priyansha Kamdar

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culture

Hippie Culture Hippie culture reflects a significant period during the ‘70s where there was a widespread sentiment of rejecting the mainstream. Whilst the movement originated in the USA, it captured the world from the likes of Britain to Canada. It was predominantly inspired by the Beat Generation, a literary movement that included Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, which explored American culture and politics and rebelled against the conventions of society. There was a degree of separation between hippies and other members of society, as members of the subculture developed their freedom of expression through their choice of clothing and lifestyle. Through wearing psychedelic colours, growing out their hair, and many adopting a vegetarian diet, they promoted an alternative reality to the repressive mainstream society. While this sub-culture began its developments as a youth movement, it developed into a worldwide phenomenon. During the hippie movement, the act of coming together and uniquely integrating art and life has carried influence through to the way that we look at contemporary art today. The way that hippies romanticized the experimentation of cultures shows truly how important it was to break free from a repressive life constrained by capitalism and conservative thought. By the time of the ‘70s, the hippie ethos gave rise to the free music festivals movement and the first Glastonbury festival. Hippie attitudes also spurred the growth of independent magazine publishing, with the birth of publications such as International Times, Oz, and ZigZag. They also inspired a new generation of bands and musicians such as Pink Floyd, The Jimi Hendrix Experience, and Quintessence, and even rock stars such as Mick Jagger and John Lennon took influence from hippie culture. The hippie movement influenced British youth culture, giving expression to the attitudes and values of the push for freedom. This led to the influence of a wider culture, with much more relaxation towards sex, concerns for the environment, and favour for less formal structural systems. Whilst rejecting the conservative social morality of previous generations, hippies also stood in political opposition to the nuclear policies of the West in the Cold War. As a world that is ever-changing to suit the forms of new generations, the hippie movement sheds light on preaching love and kindness, and above anything else, equality. The counterculture helped push not only the civil rights movements but also gay rights and women’s liberation activists.

33

The way that hippie culture was presented in the past, as a method to be creative and identify in a new and unique way, has helped to transform how modern-day movements work. For example, movements such as Extinction Rebellion use nonviolent direct action to highlight the emergency of the global climate crisis. Their approach attempts to craft a world for all future generations to enjoy and creates a culture that is unique and healthy. Not only is it challenging the rules and regulations of those that have stopped us from progressing, but it is inspiring a generation of free-thinkers to openly challenge and interrogate toxic systems. words by: Megan Evans design by: Kacey Keane


culture

34


spotlight

A Piece of History: The Creation of the LGBT+ Flag

In 1978, the US saw its first-ever openly gay politician: Harvey Milk. All throughout his career, he fought staunchly for gay rights in times where an overwhelming majority of people were homophobic. Despite this, he never stopped fighting for the community and its representation. In 1978 he hired the artist Gilbert Baker to design a flag for the annual San Francisco pride parade. Baker, a drag-performer himself, had a vision for this flag even before Harvey Milk hired him to make it. He made the original flag with eight colours, one for each element that constitutes unity, diversity, and all kinds of love. From top to bottom the flag was coloured hot pink for sex, red for life, orange for healing, yellow for sunlight, green for nature, turquoise for art, indigo for harmony, and violet for spirit. Harvey Milk proudly used the original flag for the San Francisco’s Gay Freedom Day Parade, and unfortunately was assassinated later that year. A true gay icon was lost. Eventually, Baker submitted his flag for global recognition and the Paramount Flag Company tweaked it to the flag we see today in order to satisfy all elements of the rainbow. And now, this spectrum of colours has inspired all of the other LGBT+ communities to establish themselves with their own flags.

35

The purpose of the LGBT+ flag is togetherness and freedom of expression to love who we want to love and to be proud of it against all odds. The flag as a whole symbolizes the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and many more communities as it brings solidarity among them. While this is the universal symbol for the community, it is also flexible in terms of including colours based on people’s perception of the community to raise awareness and create safe spaces for everyone. However, when the NHS started using the rainbow flag to represent their support to health workers amid the pandemic, it caused quite a stir. People of the LGBT+ community questioned this decision as it could potentially negate their purpose and the flag might be used to support the NHS by homophobic people who make their lives harder. While respect for health workers is due, people of the LGBT+ community felt as though their identity may be stolen if the NHS continued to keep the rainbow as their flag as well. People who are not in support of the community are putting up rainbow flags outside their homes to support health workers, but for those in the community, it’s a battle they need to start from scratch. For this reason, petitions are being signed to make the


spotlight

“From top to bottom the flag was coloured hot pink for sex, red for life, orange for healing, yellow for sunlight, green for nature, turquoise for art, indigo for harmony, and violet for spirit.”

NHS change their symbol to anything but the rainbow flag. Nevertheless, the NHS’s stand on this matter is that they never intended to replace the LGBT+ community’s flag and that it was only done to encourage health workers.

just one community. The different communities are just as relevant as us being part of a nation but belonging to one particular hometown. And that is all the LGBT+ community aims to achieve, a home within a home for everyone.

Most people think that it’s just one flag that represents the entire community, but in actuality, every community has a flag. The lesbian community has a beautiful flag with shades of red, orange, white, and pink that blends feminism and femininity together. The gay men’s flag has a gorgeous ombré of green, white, and blue while the bisexual flag has a tricoloured mix of pink, violet, and blue, and the transgender flag has the perfect combination of light blue, light pink, and white to signify peace between genders. There are flags to represent the asexual, pansexual, intersex, queer, and non-binary communities as well, and they all have their reasoning behind them.

words by: Adishri Chengappa design by: Alessio Grain

The core of why all of the communities have flags and inner meanings of their own is not just to feel accepted, but to belong to a group that values and relates to each other’s preferences. The LGBT+ community may be portrayed as one whole entity, but it’s the diversity within that separates it from being mainstreamed as

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clebar features

Cofio’r 80AU: Lansio’r SIanel Deledu Cyntaf Drwy’r Gymraeg

Homophobia & the AIDS Crisis

Mae S4C bellach yn sianel deledu sydd wedi bodoli ers 1982, ac sydd yn parhau i fynd o nerth i nerth. Dyma’r unig sianel yn y byd sydd yn cynnig rhaglenni drwy’r Gymraeg yn unig. O gartwns eiconig Cymraeg, i rai o ddramâu gorau’r wlad ac yn gartref i’r unig ffilm Gymraeg sydd wedi cael ei enwebu am Oscar, mae S4C yn llwyfan cenedlaethol i’r Cymry Cymraeg arddangos ei doniau a’i thalentau.

“Gay Cancer” “Gay-Related Immune Deficiency” “Gay Plague” “Wrath of God Syndrome” All of these terms were being used by the medical community before the term AIDS. You can see where the blame for the AIDS crisis of the 1980s fell; squarely on the LGBTQ+ community. The epidemic devastated the community with thousands dying, including famous faces such as Freddie Mercury and Rock Hudson, with no clear reason why nor a cure in sight. By 1995, AIDS was the single greatest killer of men aged 25-44 in America.

How did it get so bad? In the 1980s, whilst many countries had decriminalised homosexuality, LGBTQ+ members were nevertheless treated as second class citizens. Discrimination was rife in both society and government alike, from differing consent laws, laws around public displays of homosexuality, and the 1988 Section 28 passed in the UK which forbid the education or “promotion” of LGBTQ+ relationships in schools. While it was technically legal to be gay by the 1980s, it was still heavily stigmatised. This discrimination fuelled the crisis to become the deadly epidemic it was. The way the AIDS crisis was referred to in the medical community and the media made it clear that the LGBTQ+ community was being blamed. Many believed it was “nature’s way”, a religious reckoning, or simply that gay people deserved it. In the words of Senator Jesse Helms, they needed to “get their mentality out of their crotches”. In short, it was blamed on gay people and swept under the rug by politicians. As the disease affected gay men, it was unlikely to impact upon the

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Mae Sianel Pedwar Cymru (yn wreiddiol) bellach yn cael ei adnabod fel S4C a ddechreuodd ddarlledu nôl yn 1982. Sefydlwyd S4C gan Ddeddfau Darlledu 1980/1981. Cychwynnodd y sianel wreiddiol ar deledu analog yn 1982 ac roedd yn gyfrifol am ddarlledu rhaglenni Cymraeg yn ystod oriau brig a rhaglenni Channel 4 am weddill yr amser. Yn dilyn y newid i deledu digidol, daeth S4C yn sianel uniaith Gymraeg.

majority, so why care? This attitude towards the LGBTQ+ community then came to destroy the credibility of action taken to try and warn the population of the virus, as the community viewed it as another attempt to stigmatise and discriminate against them. Because of this, later efforts by the government were tarnished as anti-LGBT propaganda.

Cyn sefydlu S4C, roedd y Cymry Cymraeg yn ddibynnol ar raglenni achlysurol ar BBC Cymru a HTV Cymru. Yn aml iawn, roedd y rhaglenni Cymraeg yn cael eu dangos hwyr yn y nos neu adegau amhoblogaidd eraill. Dros y 70au bu ymgyrchwyr iaith yn brwydro dros gael gwasanaeth teledu Cymraeg, gan fod y sefyllfa yn un annerbyniol i’r Cymry Cymraeg ac i’r di-Gymraeg. Roedd nifer fawr o’r ymgyrchwyr iaith yn gwrthod talu eu trwydded deledu, a thorrwyd mewn i stiwdios teledu a bu protestwyr hyd yn oed yn dringo mastiau a distrywio cyfarpar darlledu.

The stigma of AIDS and HIV lives on. Whilst HIV is manageable, and many live long and healthy lives whilst being HIV positive both in and out of the LGBTQ+ community, gay men in particular are still heavily stigmatised. Only as of 2021 has the UK relaxed rules of bisexual and gay men giving blood, to allow men with a stable partner of over 3 months to donate. The pessimist in me leans to the shortage of blood donations during the coronavirus crisis as the true reason for the change, despite the gay community protesting the stricter rules around gay men wanting to donate for decades.

Yna, yn 1980 gwnaeth Gwynfor Evans, sydd yn ffigwr arwyddocaol yn y frwydr am sianel uniaith Gymraeg fygwth ymprydio hyd at farwolaeth ar ôl i Lywodraeth Margaret Thatcher fynd yn ôl ar addewid a wnaethant i roi sianel Cymraeg i Gymru. Fe newidiodd Margaret Thatcher ei meddwl yn dilyn cyfarfod gydag Archesgob Cymru ar y pryd, Cledwyn Hughes a Goronwy Daniel, ac yn fuan iawn daeth Sianel Pedwar Cymru i fodolaeth.

The community lost so many of our members who are now fading out of public consciousness as those who lived through the crisis grow older or pass on. I feel intense grief over not only the people we lost, but what they could have taught the community. Imagine the representation we could have had if thousands more gay men were here. Imagine the protests they could have joined, and the lessons they could have taught us about equal rights and respect. Imagine hundreds of thousands of happy elderly gay couples we could have turned to for advice and stories as young and scared LGBTQ+ teens looking to know we are not alone. The

Ar Dachwedd y cyntaf 1982 arddangoswyd y rhaglen gyntaf un ar y sianel, sef un o gartwns fwyaf dylanwadol ac eiconig Cymru, sef SuperTed. Mae’r gyfres boblogaidd yma wedi ennill amryw o wobrau gan gynnwys BAFTA ar gyfer yr animeiddio gorau nol yn 1987. Ers hynny mae’r rhaglen, fel sawl un arall bellach ar S4C wedi cael ei ddarlledu drwy’r Saesneg yn yr un modd a’i dybio yn Wyddeleg ar TG4.

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Nid yw S4C yn cynhyrchu rhaglenni ei hun, ond yn eu comisiynu oddi wrth gwmnïau annibynnol, mae hyn wedi

and desktop backgrounds. But it has to be shrunk to fit a game and its graphical capabilities. In the late 80s, that meant turning wondrous, high fantasy artwork into cute little sprites. You could see the connection though, and at the time, it was enough for players to use their imagination and visualise that stunning concept art when they were really looking at a stubby sprite on their screen. This was the progenitor for the Japanese RPG (JRPG), a sub-genre filled with eccentric designs and now a staple, with Final Fantasy having reached its 15th main series instalment and plenty of similar titles finding success since the first game released in 1987.

arwain tuag twf enfawr yn y nifer o gwmnïau cynhyrchu sydd yn bodoli yma yng Nghymru, megis ‘Cwmni Da’ a ‘Tinopolis’ i enwi rhai. Nôl yn yr 80au cafodd S4C enw da am gomisiynu cartwnau a ddaeth yn lwyddiannus yn fyd-eang megis Sam Tan, sydd yn parhau hyd heddiw i ddiddanu plant bach Cymru a ledled y byd. Mae’r sianel bellach yn nodedig am sawl rhaglen adnabyddus, gan gynnwys rhai o ddramâu fwyaf nodedig y wlad, sydd o’r safon uchaf. Mae dramâu megis ‘Y Gwyll’ ’35 Diwrnod’ ac ‘Un Bore Mercher’ wedi llwyddo yn rhyngwladol. Mae S4C hefyd yn gartref i raglenni chwaraeon, sydd yn denu nifer fawr o wylwyr pob blwyddyn i’r sianel, yn enwedig yn ystod pencampwriaeth y Chwe Gwlad er enghraifft. Er y gystadleuaeth frwd am hawliau chwaraeon gan sianel fasnachol, mae S4C yn llwyddo i ddarparu amrywiaeth o chwaraeon sydd yn cael ei ddangos drwy’r Gymraeg i’w gwylwyr. Yn wahanol i ddarlledu dramâu a rhaglenni chwaraeon, mae S4C hefyd yn gartref i’r unig opera sebon drwy’r Gymraeg, sef ‘Pobl y Cwm’. Yn wreiddiol yn cael ei ddangos ar BBC Cymru rhwng 1974 a 1982, buan iawn ddoth S4C y cartref gorau i ddarlledu ‘Pobl Y Cwm’. Ers 1982 felly, mae modd dal fyny gyda hynt a helyntion cymeriadau Cwm Deri. BBC sydd yn cynhyrchu’r opera sebon eiconig yma, a ‘Pobl y Cwm’ yw’r opera sebon mwyaf hirhoedlog a gynhyrchir gan y BBC. Crëwyd y gyfres gan y dramodydd Gwenlyn Parry a’r cynhyrchydd John Hefin. Yn yr un modd a’r opera sebon ‘Pobl y Cwm’, cyfres arall sydd wedi cael cryn dipyn o sylw ar S4c yw’r gyfres deledu i blant a phobl ifanc, sef ‘Rownd a Rownd’. Ers Medi 1995 mae ‘Rownd a Rownd’ yn cael ei ddarlledu dwywaith yr wythnos ar S4C, ac yn dilyn hynt a hanesion cymeriadau’r pentref. Cynhyrchwyd y rhaglen yn wreiddiol gan Ffilmiau’r Nant, ond bellach yn cael ei gynhyrchu gan gwmni Rondo. Mae’n deg dweud fod y daith i gael sianel uniaith Gymraeg wedi bod yn un anodd iawn ar adegau, ac yn parhau i fod yn heriol yn sgil cyllid ac ariannu rhaglenni. Ond, mae cynhyrchwyr Cymru yn parhau i fynd o nerth i nerth i gynhyrchu rhai o raglenni fwyaf arwyddocaol y wlad, ac yn creu cynnwys newydd i blant, pobl ifanc, oedolion a dysgwyr ar hyd a lled Cymru. Hir byw i S4C!

words by: Dafydd Orritt design by: Sebastian Jose

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There have been more innovations in RPGs since Final Fantasy brought the all-important character sprites, but the main focus over the years has been improvement. The formula is there create a character, live your story, follow your own path. Developers will adapt this in their own ways, and they’ll always bring little advancements and differences to set their titles apart. RPGs have remained the powerhouse of gaming genres because, at their very core, they are products of traditional creative outlets: writing, artistry, storytelling. Technology mixed these elements together, centralising story and graphics on a system that was itself always improving. So when the limit of an RPG is its creator’s imagination, it’s unlikely we’ll see this super-genre slow down anytime soon.

words by: Marcus Yeatman-Crouch design by: Madeline Howell

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CONTENTS

39-40: Paper to Programming - D&D, Text Adventures and a Gaming Super-Genre 41-42: Homophobia and the AIDS Crisis 43-44: Cheers! The 1980’s Cocktail Trend 45-46: Teenage Dreams and John Hughes 45: Cofio’r 80au: Lansio’r Sianel Deledu Cyntaf Drwy’r Gymraeg.

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Nowadays, some of the most popular video games are RPGs - Role Playing Games. This is a rather broad genre, encompassing epic fantasy and sci-fi, like The Witcher or Mass Effect series, or smaller, simpler games like Stardew Valley and Terraria. The premise is the same: you take charge of a character, controlling aspects of their life such as their appearance, job, relationships, and on a more technical level their skills and attributes too. It’s appealing, being able to immerse yourself in another world and act differently, crafting new stories for yourself every time you play. It wasn’t just video games that created this booming genre, however. As a game, it started with pens and paper; swords and sorcery. Really, the RPG is a product straight from our imagination, which computers converted into a tangible masterpiece.

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Before computers rendered the pixel-y landscape of other worlds for us to explore with our keyboards, these maps came drawn on paper. Dungeons & Dragons is possibly the first organised role-playing game, and its phenomenal impact no doubt helped realise the ability for people to turn their creativity and imagination into a real, exciting experience. D&D first came out in 1974 and allowed for parties of adventurers to step into the realm of the Dungeon (or Game) Master, reacting to the story they were told and the environment they found themselves in. Of course, unless

the group drew up and created every setting, monster and character, most of the game was visualised in their heads. It was also complicated - you needed rule books, special dice, ample space. Campaigns were long and could last months. And of course, you needed other people.

on course to become a powerhouse of gaming. The Apple II was one of the reasons for this, as its speed and realtime video processing meant it could display video games on a level near to arcade machines or the Atari. The next step? Creating a role-playing experience on the PC.

The natural progression, then, came with text-based computer games. Those Game Masters who were so dedicated to crafting a story and world for their adventurers needed to go a step further, and used early computers to programme their adventures in text form. The computer became the Game Master, narrating the story, and the adventurer would input their responses to the challenges it threw at them to progress. It was the Choose Your Own Adventure books made digital; instead of turning to page 5 if you decided to attack a monster, the computer would simply progress the story in response to the player’s actions.

There had been attempts, expeditionary efforts into dungeon crawling and questing, but the limits had yet to be pushed. Until Ultima. Its creator Richard Garriott was a Dungeon Master before a developer, so it’s no surprise Ultima shapes up to essentially be D&D with graphics. The main innovation? Character creation: Garriott let you choose attributes, equipment and powers, just like the tabletop roleplaying game. With this came an open world, the ability to navigate your own path beyond picking left or right in a walled-in dungeon, and hubs - towns and villages where you could buy supplies and better gear. As Garriott himself said, “I have laid out the fundamentals of the narrative, but a lot of the details are filled in by you, the player.”

Again though, this wasn’t enough. It was just text, and even on the primitive teletype (a bit like a typewriter-telegram hybrid), budding developers were restricted to key symbols to represent the character, walls and monsters. They needed graphics: vibrant colours and clear lines so the player could really see what they were doing. Arcade games like Space Invaders had these, but there was yet to be a computer that could run a game beyond text. The main stumbling block was the capabilities of the personal computer. Arcade machines were far more powerful and could render relatively decent graphics with ease. Computers had no such strength - games had to be put on a floppy disk, and no large graphics could fit onto one of those. With less than a megabyte of storage to work with, developers had to get creative. The breakthrough came when pioneering programmer Ken Williams tried using a VersaWriter (a bit like a very clunky, primitive drawing tablet for the Atari) to create simple, line-based graphics. It worked a charm, and the first computer game with graphics, Mystery House was released on the Apple II computer to critical acclaim. This was the start of a rapid rise in innovation for computer games that set the PC

With Ultima, Garriott gave players the fundamental RPG. It was basic, with graphics anything but timeless and combat that left a lot to be desired, but it was the start. Open worlds, character creation and a reactive story are key factors in a successful RPG nowadays, and it was through a master of tabletop stories that roleplaying found liftoff in the realm of video games. From this point, it came down to perfection. The building blocks were there, and it was up to developers to add and refine as they went along. The importance of the traditional creators in writers and storytellers has already been mentioned, but this next period of innovation handed the spotlight to artistry. Players had the experience and action - now they needed it to look good. This came from one of the biggest gaming franchises of all time: Final Fantasy. Inspired by Ultima, Japanese company SquareSoft created their own RPG, and to make it stand out from the crowd they hired imaginative artists to create unique characters beyond the tropes of elves, orcs and dwarves. If you’ve seen video game concept art before, you’ll get the idea - it’s incredibly impressive, and often taken for posters


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and desktop backgrounds. But it has to be shrunk to fit a game and its graphical capabilities. In the late 80s, that meant turning wondrous, high fantasy artwork into cute little sprites. You could see the connection though, and at the time, it was enough for players to use their imagination and visualise that stunning concept art when they were really looking at a stubby sprite on their screen. This was the progenitor for the Japanese RPG (JRPG), a sub-genre filled with eccentric designs and now a staple, with Final Fantasy having reached its 15th main series instalment and plenty of similar titles finding success since the first game released in 1987. There have been more innovations in RPGs since Final Fantasy brought the all-important character sprites, but the main focus over the years has been improvement. The formula is there create a character, live your story, follow your own path. Developers will adapt this in their own ways, and they’ll always bring little advancements and differences to set their titles apart. RPGs have remained the powerhouse of gaming genres because, at their very core, they are products of traditional creative outlets: writing, artistry, storytelling. Technology mixed these elements together, centralising story and graphics on a system that was itself always improving. So when the limit of an RPG is its creator’s imagination, it’s unlikely we’ll see this super-genre slow down anytime soon.

words by: Marcus Yeatman-Crouch design by: Madeline Howell

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features

Homophobia & the AIDS Crisis “Gay Cancer” “Gay-Related Immune Deficiency” “Gay Plague” “Wrath of God Syndrome” All of these terms were being used by the medical community before the term AIDS. You can see where the blame for the AIDS crisis of the 1980s fell; squarely on the LGBTQ+ community. The epidemic devastated the community with thousands dying, including famous faces such as Freddie Mercury and Rock Hudson, with no clear reason why nor a cure in sight. By 1995, AIDS was the single greatest killer of men aged 25-44 in America.

How did it get so bad? In the 1980s, whilst many countries had decriminalised homosexuality, LGBTQ+ members were nevertheless treated as second class citizens. Discrimination was rife in both society and government alike, from differing consent laws, laws around public displays of homosexuality, and the 1988 Section 28 passed in the UK which forbid the education or “promotion” of LGBTQ+ relationships in schools. While it was technically legal to be gay by the 1980s, it was still heavily stigmatised. This discrimination fuelled the crisis to become the deadly epidemic it was. The way the AIDS crisis was referred to in the medical community and the media made it clear that the LGBTQ+ community was being blamed. Many believed it was “nature’s way”, a religious reckoning, or simply that gay people deserved it. In the words of Senator Jesse Helms, they needed to “get their mentality out of their crotches”. In short, it was blamed on gay people and swept under the rug by politicians. As the disease affected gay men, it was unlikely to impact upon the

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majority, so why care? This attitude towards the LGBTQ+ community then came to destroy the credibility of action taken to try and warn the population of the virus, as the community viewed it as another attempt to stigmatise and discriminate against them. Because of this, later efforts by the government were tarnished as anti-LGBT propaganda. The stigma of AIDS and HIV lives on. Whilst HIV is manageable, and many live long and healthy lives whilst being HIV positive both in and out of the LGBTQ+ community, gay men in particular are still heavily stigmatised. Only as of 2021 has the UK relaxed rules of bisexual and gay men giving blood, to allow men with a stable partner of over 3 months to donate. The pessimist in me leans to the shortage of blood donations during the coronavirus crisis as the true reason for the change, despite the gay community protesting the stricter rules around gay men wanting to donate for decades. The community lost so many of our members who are now fading out of public consciousness as those who lived through the crisis grow older or pass on. I feel intense grief over not only the people we lost, but what they could have taught the community. Imagine the representation we could have had if thousands more gay men were here. Imagine the protests they could have joined, and the lessons they could have taught us about equal rights and respect. Imagine hundreds of thousands of happy elderly gay couples we could have turned to for advice and stories as young and scared LGBTQ+ teens looking to know we are not alone. The


features

fact that almost every LGBTQ+ person from the 80s is likely to have known someone who died from AIDS is sobering and gives us an idea of how severely this virus was allowed to affect people. However, that does not mean it’s all doom and gloom. The community grew in confidence, raised their voices and spurred more displays of activism in response. ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) was one of the most prominent groups to push the government and medical community into taking action to find a cure and start caring that thousands of gay men were dying. There were protests at city halls, traffic stopped in New York, and politicians offices stormed with outpourings of unwavering determination, forcing people to listen. Hundreds gathered at the FDA headquarters when they refused to discuss an experimental drug for AIDS with protestors blocking traffic, wearing bloody lab-coats and lying down with tombstones in front of the building. After this, an FDA meeting was agreed to within days. Not only did the community loudly voice their anger, but they brought forth research and ideas. They educated themselves on clinical trial protocols, the newest immunosuppressant drugs, the approval process by health administrations and brought their research to the table so that the scientific community had no choice but to listen.

who have tirelessly pushed for inclusive sex education in schools as well as making sure the treatments for HIV and its prevention are affordable and accessible to all. Unfortunately, we can never get back the generation we lost. We may have lost more than we can ever know, and for that we should grieve and remember how society failed them. However, we can continue their legacy and ensure their struggle is not forgotten. We must continue the fight to erase HIV stigma and the discrimination and inequality LGBTQ+ people still face, and we must continue to push forward together as a community. Activism has always been at the heart of the LGBTQ+ community, who have stood by one another through the hard times as well as the good. We must continue the fight for the sake of those who are no longer here to do so themselves. words by: Amy Leadbitter design by: Elly Savva

Along with this, various self-help and support groups were created, giving care to those mistreated and dying and giving comfort and validation to the partners left behind and unrecognised by the law. They also educated the community on practices such as safe sex, forms of protection, and slowly worked to erode both the effects of the virus and the stigma for those infected. This work continues today, through charities such as the Gay Men’s Health Project, and activists

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food

Cheers! The 80’s cocktail culture was characterised by sexual innuendoes, neon colours, sour mix, Southern Comfort, Baileys, Peach schnapps and glasses that were either huge or tiny and nothing in between. The cocktails were sickly and lurid, adorned with rainbow coloured swizzle sticks and sparklers. Drinking was largely popularised by the American sitcom Cheers, as the 80’s youth followed the lives of the characters as they drank and relaxed in the iconic Boston based bar. The release of Tom Cruise’s Cocktail saw a new insight into the romantic world of cocktail mixing and the art of bartending, fueling the 80’s love for a fun and sexy drink. My mum fondly remembers her regular haunt, the Covent Garden bar, Rumours, which she believes perfectly characterises the cocktail scene. With its neon purple logos, dark corners, vinyl bonkettes and C-list celebrities, the crowd would be swarming with their pitchers of Mai Tai and Long Island Iced tea. Many of the iconic cocktails drank in the 80’s were created in the 70’s but they were branded by the 80’s consumption and lifestyle. Want to experience the perfect 80’s evening? These cocktails will help you get there!

Mai Tai One of the most famous tiki drinks in the world, this cocktail was famously served in pitchers during the 80’s. The name is said to come from the first person to try this cocktail as they called out “Mai Tai” which means “the best – out of this world” in Tahitian. - 1 ½ oz white rum - 3 oz orange curacao - ¾ oz lime juice - ½ oz orgeat - ½ oz dark rum Add the white rum, curacao, lime juice and orgeat into a shaker with crushed ice and shake. Pour into a double rocks glass and drizzle the dark rum onto the back of a spoon so it floats on top. Garnish with a wheel of lime and sprig of mint.

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The 1980’s Slow Comfortable Screw Against The Wall This is a good summertime cocktail of the 80s. The sexy name can be broken down into parts to represent each ingredient. Slow – sloe gin, Comfortable – Southern Comfort, Screw – Orange juice, The wall – Galliano. - 2oz vodka - 1oz Sloe gin - 1oz Southern Comfort - 1oz Galliano - 2oz Orange juice Add the Vodka, Southern Comfort and orange juice to a highball glass filled with ice and stir. Drizzle the Sloe gin around the surface and pour the Galliano onto a spoon so it floats on top. Do not stir.

Between the Sheets The name of this sexually provocative cocktail accurately depicts the 80’s cocktail culture. This twist on a classic sidecar is a delicious cocktail to try! - 1oz Cognac - 1oz Triple sec - 10z Light rum - ¼ oz Fresh lemon juice Add all ingredients to cocktail shaker with a scoop of ice and shake, strain into a martini glass and top with an orange peel.


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Cocktail Trend Alabama Slammer The Alabama Slammer was supposedly born at the University of Alabama and is intended to be slammed back to make a point. Initially created in the 70’s, it was popularised in the 80’s scene with its use of Southern Comfort and Sloe gin. You can shot it, or allow it to mix and blend in a long glass and enjoy all of its flavours. - 1oz Southern Comfort - 1oz sloe gin - 1oz amaretto liquor - 2oz orange juice Add all ingredients to a cocktail shaker and a scoop of crushed ice. Give it a good shake and strain into a highball glass filled with ice, garnishing with a wedge of orange.

Harvey Wallbanger This luridly coloured cocktail defines the tackiness of the 80’s. Easy to make, it is essentially a fancier version of a classic screwdriver. Drink this cocktail to channel the days of a classic disco. - 1 ¼ oz vodka - ½ oz Galliano - 3 oz orange juice Fill a tall glass with ice and add the vodka and orange juice, followed by a good stir. Float the Galliano on top by pouring on to the back of a spoon and garnish with a skewered orange slice and maraschino cherry.

Long Island Iced Tea Born out of Prohibition when thirsty scofflaws wanted to disguise their booze, this Long Island cocktail was an 80’s favourite. As one of the most alcoholic cocktails ever, there is no surprise that the popularity of this drink has lived on. - ¾ oz Vodka - ¾ oz white rum - ¾ oz tequila - ¾ oz gin - ¾ oz triple sec - ¾ oz sugar syrup - ¾ oz lemon juice - Coke to top Add all alcoholic components, sugar syrup and lemon juice to a glass filled with ice and stir. Top up with a splash of coke, garnish with a wedge of lemon and serve with a straw. The Fuzzy Navel With the release of Peach Schnapps into the American market in 1984, bartenders were eager to incorporate it into their drinks. With equal parts schnapps to equal parts orange juice, this simple cocktail is a great one for beginners. Propelling peach schnapps into popularity, this questionably named, and luridly coloured cocktail is what the 80’s were all about. - 3oz Peach Schnapps - 3oz orange juice Pour the orange juice and Peach Schnapps into a highball glass and top with ice and an orange wheel. Serve and enjoy! Simple and delicious. words by: Sasha Nugara design by: Sebastian Jose illustrations by: Shubhangi Dua

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film & tv

Teenage Dreams and John Hughes

John Hughes’ movies defined a generation raised in the ‘80s, and it’s likely that some of his classics (namely The Breakfast Club, Pretty in Pink and Ferris Bueller’s Day Off) still hold a lot of relevance over 30 years later. However, as contemporary society has progressed and attitudes have changed, such movies have been tainted by hindsight. Many themes and tropes that were popular in Hughes’ writing now seem problematic and outdated. Do they wash with young people today, or are these ‘classics’ better left in the ‘80s?

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film & tv

A painstakingly obvious feature in Hughes’ back catalogue is the problematic character portrayal of Long Duk Dong in Sixteen Candles. For those who are unfamiliar, Long Duk Dong is a Chinese exchange student who is slammed by contemporary critics as being a racist Asian caricature. Actor Gedde Watanabe described the role as his “big Hollywood break” but recognised the issues with his character after the movie was released to audiences: “I was making people laugh. I didn’t realise how it was going to affect people.” More recently, audiences have called for a greater effort to create authentic Asian characters, and these days using Long Duk Dong as comic relief comes across as cheap and lazy writing. Another more subtle trope used in Hughes’ movies which definitely hasn’t aged well is the perpetuation of toxic masculinity. In general, the male characters in these movies are well-rounded and somewhat dreamy (*cough* Andrew McCarthy *cough*). John Cryer’s ‘nice guy’ Duckie in Pretty In Pink, however, demonstrates how the underdog character can actually come across as creepy and bitter. When Andie chooses Blane over Duckie despite his obvious pining throughout the movie, he goads her for rejecting him and appears to have expected Andie to be with him just because he wanted her in the first place. These aspects of John Hughes’ movies are decisive red flags nowadays, but I personally see them as “of their time” and as things that audiences and creators have grown from. No doubt if they were adapted for the 21st Century, these elements would be removed, and casting would be much more diverse. In my opinion, problematic elements aside, no films in the coming-of-age genre encapsulate the struggle of being a teenager quite so genuinely as those written by Hughes. He creates characters who are real and grounded and go through issues that still connect with young people today.

Though they seem outdated, the archetypes in The Breakfast Club are important to understand the message behind the movie. The general premise of the characters being in detention throws them together and forces them to have conversations about growing up that they usually would not have had because of their respective positions in high school society. Andrew points out with an iconic line, “We’re all pretty bizarre. Some of us are better at hiding it, that’s all”, which demonstrates that despite their different archetypes, they are fundamentally similar. Their archetypal personalities are symbolic of the fact that on the surface, we all seem poles apart but in reality, we share the same angst that comes with growing up. The characters learn by the end that how you’re perceived by others isn’t important in the grand scheme of things because we are all just plodding along in life, doing the best we can. This is a theme that speaks to me and my peers and spans across many John Hughes movies, such as Ferris Bueller’s Day Off. Ferris is lauded as a hero by his peers at school for seamlessly escaping the confines of high school just for one day, to live out his fantasies which otherwise would be repressed by the American education system. Alongside him, his best friend Cameron’s insecure and neurotic personality is recognisable by anyone who went to secondary school. Ironically, the first time I watched the film was on a sick day off school. Seeing the contrast between the confidence in Ferris and enclosed Cameron and recognising that I possessed the same fears and insecurities as Cameron due to an intense need to please people, inspired a reaction in me that manifested itself as “be more like Ferris.” As well as being a deeply enjoyable and brilliant movie, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off serves as a reminder to stop taking life so seriously, something I needed as a teenager and even more now as I move into my twenties. Yes, as Hughes’ films age, they bring on moments of inward cringing. It’s undeniable, however, that these are still meaningful favourites of our generation that should be watched by all. words by: Sophie Revell design by: Amelia Field

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Cofio’r 80AU: Lansio’r SIanel Deledu Cyntaf Drwy’r Gymraeg Mae S4C bellach yn sianel deledu sydd wedi bodoli ers 1982, ac sydd yn parhau i fynd o nerth i nerth. Dyma’r unig sianel yn y byd sydd yn cynnig rhaglenni drwy’r Gymraeg yn unig. O gartwns eiconig Cymraeg, i rai o ddramâu gorau’r wlad ac yn gartref i’r unig ffilm Gymraeg sydd wedi cael ei enwebu am Oscar, mae S4C yn llwyfan cenedlaethol i’r Cymry Cymraeg arddangos ei doniau a’i thalentau. Mae Sianel Pedwar Cymru (yn wreiddiol) bellach yn cael ei adnabod fel S4C a ddechreuodd ddarlledu nôl yn 1982. Sefydlwyd S4C gan Ddeddfau Darlledu 1980/1981. Cychwynnodd y sianel wreiddiol ar deledu analog yn 1982 ac roedd yn gyfrifol am ddarlledu rhaglenni Cymraeg yn ystod oriau brig a rhaglenni Channel 4 am weddill yr amser. Yn dilyn y newid i deledu digidol, daeth S4C yn sianel uniaith Gymraeg. Cyn sefydlu S4C, roedd y Cymry Cymraeg yn ddibynnol ar raglenni achlysurol ar BBC Cymru a HTV Cymru. Yn aml iawn, roedd y rhaglenni Cymraeg yn cael eu dangos hwyr yn y nos neu adegau amhoblogaidd eraill. Dros y 70au bu ymgyrchwyr iaith yn brwydro dros gael gwasanaeth teledu Cymraeg, gan fod y sefyllfa yn un annerbyniol i’r Cymry Cymraeg ac i’r di-Gymraeg. Roedd nifer fawr o’r ymgyrchwyr iaith yn gwrthod talu eu trwydded deledu, a thorrwyd mewn i stiwdios teledu a bu protestwyr hyd yn oed yn dringo mastiau a distrywio cyfarpar darlledu. Yna, yn 1980 gwnaeth Gwynfor Evans, sydd yn ffigwr arwyddocaol yn y frwydr am sianel uniaith Gymraeg fygwth ymprydio hyd at farwolaeth ar ôl i Lywodraeth Margaret Thatcher fynd yn ôl ar addewid a wnaethant i roi sianel Cymraeg i Gymru. Fe newidiodd Margaret Thatcher ei meddwl yn dilyn cyfarfod gydag Archesgob Cymru ar y pryd, Cledwyn Hughes a Goronwy Daniel, ac yn fuan iawn daeth Sianel Pedwar Cymru i fodolaeth. Ar Dachwedd y cyntaf 1982 arddangoswyd y rhaglen gyntaf un ar y sianel, sef un o gartwns fwyaf dylanwadol ac eiconig Cymru, sef SuperTed. Mae’r gyfres boblogaidd yma wedi ennill amryw o wobrau gan gynnwys BAFTA ar gyfer yr animeiddio gorau nol yn 1987. Ers hynny mae’r rhaglen, fel sawl un arall bellach ar S4C wedi cael ei ddarlledu drwy’r Saesneg yn yr un modd a’i dybio yn Wyddeleg ar TG4. Nid yw S4C yn cynhyrchu rhaglenni ei hun, ond yn eu comisiynu oddi wrth gwmnïau annibynnol, mae hyn wedi

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arwain tuag twf enfawr yn y nifer o gwmnïau cynhyrchu sydd yn bodoli yma yng Nghymru, megis ‘Cwmni Da’ a ‘Tinopolis’ i enwi rhai. Nôl yn yr 80au cafodd S4C enw da am gomisiynu cartwnau a ddaeth yn lwyddiannus yn fyd-eang megis Sam Tan, sydd yn parhau hyd heddiw i ddiddanu plant bach Cymru a ledled y byd. Mae’r sianel bellach yn nodedig am sawl rhaglen adnabyddus, gan gynnwys rhai o ddramâu fwyaf nodedig y wlad, sydd o’r safon uchaf. Mae dramâu megis ‘Y Gwyll’ ’35 Diwrnod’ ac ‘Un Bore Mercher’ wedi llwyddo yn rhyngwladol. Mae S4C hefyd yn gartref i raglenni chwaraeon, sydd yn denu nifer fawr o wylwyr pob blwyddyn i’r sianel, yn enwedig yn ystod pencampwriaeth y Chwe Gwlad er enghraifft. Er y gystadleuaeth frwd am hawliau chwaraeon gan sianel fasnachol, mae S4C yn llwyddo i ddarparu amrywiaeth o chwaraeon sydd yn cael ei ddangos drwy’r Gymraeg i’w gwylwyr. Yn wahanol i ddarlledu dramâu a rhaglenni chwaraeon, mae S4C hefyd yn gartref i’r unig opera sebon drwy’r Gymraeg, sef ‘Pobl y Cwm’. Yn wreiddiol yn cael ei ddangos ar BBC Cymru rhwng 1974 a 1982, buan iawn ddoth S4C y cartref gorau i ddarlledu ‘Pobl Y Cwm’. Ers 1982 felly, mae modd dal fyny gyda hynt a helyntion cymeriadau Cwm Deri. BBC sydd yn cynhyrchu’r opera sebon eiconig yma, a ‘Pobl y Cwm’ yw’r opera sebon mwyaf hirhoedlog a gynhyrchir gan y BBC. Crëwyd y gyfres gan y dramodydd Gwenlyn Parry a’r cynhyrchydd John Hefin. Yn yr un modd a’r opera sebon ‘Pobl y Cwm’, cyfres arall sydd wedi cael cryn dipyn o sylw ar S4c yw’r gyfres deledu i blant a phobl ifanc, sef ‘Rownd a Rownd’. Ers Medi 1995 mae ‘Rownd a Rownd’ yn cael ei ddarlledu dwywaith yr wythnos ar S4C, ac yn dilyn hynt a hanesion cymeriadau’r pentref. Cynhyrchwyd y rhaglen yn wreiddiol gan Ffilmiau’r Nant, ond bellach yn cael ei gynhyrchu gan gwmni Rondo. Mae’n deg dweud fod y daith i gael sianel uniaith Gymraeg wedi bod yn un anodd iawn ar adegau, ac yn parhau i fod yn heriol yn sgil cyllid ac ariannu rhaglenni. Ond, mae cynhyrchwyr Cymru yn parhau i fynd o nerth i nerth i gynhyrchu rhai o raglenni fwyaf arwyddocaol y wlad, ac yn creu cynnwys newydd i blant, pobl ifanc, oedolion a dysgwyr ar hyd a lled Cymru. Hir byw i S4C!

words by: Dafydd Orritt design by: Sebastian Jose


on angel hair and baby's breath Broken hymen of Your Highness, I'm

black Throw down your umbilical noose so I can climb right back;I kno

clebar

can be overwhelmed, and you can be underwhelmed, but can you ev

be whelmed?; blue soup; I hate the way you talk to me, and the way y

your hair. I hate the way you drive my car. I hate it when you stare. I

your big dumb combat boots, and the way you read my mind. I hate y

much it makes me sick; it even makes me rhyme. I hate it, I hate the

you're always right. I hate it when you lie. I hate it when you make me

even worse when you make me cry. I hate it when you're not around, a

fact that you didn't call. But mostly I hate the way I don't hate you. No close, not even a little bit, not even at all; Major dilemma. If actually

some terrible chance, end up in flagrante surely these would be m

attractive at crucial moment. However, of reaching crucial moment g

increased by wearing these; scary stomchancesach-holding-in pant

popular with grannies the world over. Tricky. Very tricky; Do you hav

time to listen to me whine About nothing and everything all at once?

one of those Melodramatic fools Neurotic to the bone No doubt abo

wanna really, really, really wanna zigazig ah If you wanna be my love

gotta get with my friends (Gotta get with my friends) Make it last fo friendship never ends If you wanna be my lover, you have got to give

is too easy, but that's the way it is; My loneliness is killing me (And I) I

confess I still believe (Still believe) When I'm not with you I lose my min

me a sign, hit me baby one more time; the Frist Rule of Fight Club is

Don't talk about Fight Club; I'm the King of the world!; I'm just a girl, st

in front of a boy - asking him to love her; Strike a pose Vogue (vog design by: Maja Metera

vogue); And so Sally can wait She knows it's too late As we're walking

Her soul slides away But don't look back in anger I heard you say; J

doesn't share food!; We were on a break!; Pivot!; See? He’s her lobs

wish I could, but I don’t want to.; How you doin'?; She didn't give a d 48 about some of them, but she had grown to learn that inattention can


90s

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literature features

:Progressive The 1996 best-selling novel Bridget Jones’ Diary by Helen Fielding chronicles the life of thirty-something singleton, Bridget Jones, as she navigates her way through a journalism career, friendship, and love. The novel has sold over two million copies worldwide, with three sequels and a film series grossing over $700,000,000. However, the series has gained criticism in recent years for being potentially problematic with an anti-feminist sentiment. This backlash is not new, many feminist writers at the time (including Germaine Greer) condemned it for its portrayal of women. The resurgence in debate comes in response to the character of Bridget Jones being listed as one of the seven women who’ve changed women’s lives by the BBC, alongside giants such as Helen Brook, Barbara Castle, and Jayaben Desai. In addition to this, she was also named the most inspiring movie heroine by Sky Cinema, above Hermione Granger, Erin Brockovich, and even Mulan. So, what is so bad about the obviously beloved heroine?

*TRIGGER WARNING* This article includes details of eating disorders, drug abuse, and mental illness. What is ‘Heroin Chic’? In the early ‘90s, fashion was dominated by the ‘heroin chic’ look. This popularised aesthetic saw magazine covers and catwalks characterised by sharp bone structures, underweight figures, pale skin, dark under eyes, and limp hair; mirroring a more stylised version of what the stereotypical heroin user would look like. It was an extreme look that was argued to be a retaliation to the healthy, perfected look of previous glamour models such as Cindy Crawford. However, at a time when these models and photographers had such an influence on their consumers, and when heroin was argued to be at its most accessible, it is important to question the impact that such a trend had upon eating disorders, mental health, and drug abuse. Drug Use in the 90s Heroin use was rife in the ‘90s. The drug became cheaper, purer, and more accessible to all classes and cultures. Its appearance in the fashion and arts industries saw it become more commonly used by the middle-classes. The introduction of being able to snort the drug for the first time meant that the stigma and dangerous associations of injecting it were reduced and it fell into the category of more typical drug use. The glamorisation of drug use in fashion and advertising saw models posing in dingy flats, appearing emaciated and impoverished. The use of famous models and products such as in Kate Moss’s infamous Obsession perfume commercial associated the drug with a life of alluring desirability.

Well, firstly, her obsession with her weight. Throughout the book, Bridget hovers around nine stone and yet is supposed to be a ‘fat’ character. She constantly counts calories, and this is encouraged by her friends. For example, when Mark Darcy tells her he likes her ‘just the way she is’, they ask ‘not thinner?’. A post-Christmas weight of 9st 4lbs is lamented as a ‘terrifying slide into obesity’ despite being a perfectly healthy weight.

music

Cultural Influence Heroin’s appearance in classic films such as Pulp Fiction, and its role in grunge culture with Kurt Cobain speaking openly about his use of the drug, portrayed its use as part of a popular mainstream lifestyle. The impressionable

Secondly, the sexual harassment Bridget experiences in her workplace is glossed over and even joked about. Her relationship with Daniel Cleaver is one hell of an HR nightmare - he’s just lucky she fancies him as much as he fancies her. She even says herself ‘v. much enjoying being sexually harassed by Daniel Cleaver’. Then there’s Mr Fitzherbert (also known as ‘Titspervert’) who doesn’t bother to remember Bridget’s name but openly stares at her breasts without any consequences. Perhaps the worst is Bridget’s boss at ‘Sit Up Britain’, Richard Finch, who frequently instructs cameramen to take footage of Bridget’s bum and remarks that at his station, ‘nobody gets sacked for shagging the boss - that’s a matter of principle’.

How were two of the decades most prominent subcultures - Grunge and Rave - so similar, yet also so different? It’s fair to say the growth and intensity of subcultures took the mainstream off guard in the early nineties. The most prominent in the early years were Grunge and Rave; they were relatively anarchistic and challenged the rigidities of the status quo which made involvement feel like rebellion. Born out of Seattle, Washington, what began as a mixture nihilistic punk, heavy metal and a sprinkling of seventies rock and pop, later morphed into the unique sound of ‘Grunge’. A sigh of relief from the Reagan-era of starched white shirts, Grunge proprietors sought revenge on the Wall Street culture that dominated mainstream media.

53

What may be most problematic is that Bridget’s thoughts often revolve around how attractive she is to men. For example, Bridget writes, ‘there is nothing so unattractive to a man as a strident feminist’; this ruffled as many feathers in the ‘90s as it does now. However, Helen Fielding has defended the line as something she meant as ‘a multi-layered joke’. In fact, most of Bridget

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CONTENTS

51-52: Why the Disney Renaissance is so Memorable 53-54: Heroin Chic 55-56: Grunge vs Rave 57-58: Bridget Jones’s Diary: Progressive or Problematic? 59-60: 90s Travel Essentials 61-62: 90au - Sut Wnaeth Enwogion Cymraeg Dominyddu’r Byd

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film & tv

Why the Disney Renaissance is so Memorable

In 1989, Disney’s The Little Mermaid was released, which marked the start of what was to become the most treasured time in Disney classics history - the Disney Renaissance era. Originally given the go-ahead in 1984, The Little Mermaid was actually not released until five years later due to the misconception from the studio that a “girl’s film” would not be as successful at the box office. After this decision was made in ‘84, Disney released a series of films and flops including The Black Cauldron, The Great Mouse Detective and Oliver & Company, and though they remain family favourites today, they did not make as much profit as the studios originally planned at the time - massively damaging their reputation and bank simultaneously. Keeping their deep-sea sensation in their back pocket until 1989 may have been one of the best moves that Disney ever made, as the multi-Academy Award winner reignited the flame behind the happiest franchise on Earth and paved the way into Disney’s golden era which we still reflect on so fondly today.

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Especially now with the ongoing rise in live-action remakes, many are left feeling nostalgic for the animated classics that came before. Those released during the Renaissance period, in chronological order, were: The Little Mermaid (1989), The Rescuers Down Under (1990), Beauty and the Beast (1991), Aladdin (1992), The Lion King (1994), Pocahontas (1995), The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996), Hercules (1997), Mulan (1998), and Tarzan (1999); and make up the large majority of inspiration behind the current era of reimagined classics releases. One thing that will stand out across all of these movies are their songs and scores, all of which (except perhaps from The Rescuers Down Under) provided the soundtrack to our childhoods and remain some of the most famous songs in cinematic history to date. Whether you were more into Part of Your World or Be Prepared; Out There or The Gospel Truth; Prince Ali or Colours of the Wind; there is something within this era that suits every taste


film & tv and has the power to provide endless joy and nostalgia through song. The rise in movies that also provided the opportunity to double as onstage musical productions re-defined Walt Disney’s reputation, and birthed a new sub-genre of musical theatre-style numbers. Though Disney had released many classics before that included mesmerizing and equally iconic scores, nothing preRenaissance possessed such charisma or charm as those of 1989-1999, nor the opportunity to be transformed into the larger-than-life musical numbers that are associated with Disney movies and Disney Parks performances to date. Paving the way for ‘musical’ films later to come such as Enchanted (2007), The Princess and the Frog (2009), Tangled (2010), Frozen (2013), and Moana (2016), these musical films set the bar for what audiences expected to hear when buying a ticket to a Disney movie but what were they expecting to see? Well, it is undeniable that since the dawn of Disney we have seen one character in particular progress more than any other - the Princess or leading female protagonist. Snow White (of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, 1937, the first and oldest featurelength Disney film) and Moana (currently Disney’s newest Princess in a released feature film) are almost incomparable — from one waiting to be awakened by true love’s kiss after an encounter with the Evil Queen and a poison apple, to the other being the daughter of an island Chief, a talented sailor and master way finder, uninterested in being Chieftain respectively. Have no doubt, the likes of Aurora and Cinderella from way back in the 1950s will always be Princesses incredibly dear to my heart, but the Princesses of the Renaissance era brought a more modern and empowered Princess to

the fore of a corporation that is heavily responsible for inspiring our young girls and children. Without the Ariels, Belles, and Mulan’s of the 80s and 90s, we would never have the Merida’s, Annas, Elsa’s, or Rey Skywalkers (if you count Rey following the amalgamation of the Disney and Star Wars franchises) that we have on our screens today. Reminiscing on growing up in a self-proclaimed ‘Disney household’ brings nothing but happy memories. Each Disney classic means something different, but to me, they represent all of our most special family moments and memories. Yet, though I still yearn to watch films of the Renaissance period constantly, I undoubtedly could not be gladder that any children of my own will be growing up with liberated Princesses and a more rich and diverse representation of cultures and histories, in a new and more inclusive era to the one that provided the catalyst for the love of Walt Disney Studios that my generation will always possess. words by: Caitlin Parr design by: Sandra Mbula Nzioki

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features

*TRIGGER WARNING* This article includes details of eating disorders, drug abuse, and mental illness. What is ‘Heroin Chic’? In the early ‘90s, fashion was dominated by the ‘heroin chic’ look. This popularised aesthetic saw magazine covers and catwalks characterised by sharp bone structures, underweight figures, pale skin, dark under eyes, and limp hair; mirroring a more stylised version of what the stereotypical heroin user would look like. It was an extreme look that was argued to be a retaliation to the healthy, perfected look of previous glamour models such as Cindy Crawford. However, at a time when these models and photographers had such an influence on their consumers, and when heroin was argued to be at its most accessible, it is important to question the impact that such a trend had upon eating disorders, mental health, and drug abuse. Drug Use in the 90s Heroin use was rife in the ‘90s. The drug became cheaper, purer, and more accessible to all classes and cultures. Its appearance in the fashion and arts industries saw it become more commonly used by the middle-classes. The introduction of being able to snort the drug for the first time meant that the stigma and dangerous associations of injecting it were reduced and it fell into the category of more typical drug use. The glamorisation of drug use in fashion and advertising saw models posing in dingy flats, appearing emaciated and impoverished. The use of famous models and products such as in Kate Moss’s infamous Obsession perfume commercial associated the drug with a life of alluring desirability. Cultural Influence Heroin’s appearance in classic films such as Pulp Fiction, and its role in grunge culture with Kurt Cobain speaking openly about his use of the drug, portrayed its use as part of a popular mainstream lifestyle. The impressionable

53


features demographic who consumed such cultures and viewed the glorified malnutrition in adverts and on magazine covers were heavily influenced by this. With heroin use nearly doubling since the mid-’80s, the effect of fetishising drug use and the unhealthy physical state it caused became clear. The sexualised imagery of underweight figures and the lifestyle of frequent drug use was largely pioneered by designers like Calvin Klein and model Kate Moss. The iconic model, who in recent years retracted her mantra that “nothing tastes as good as skinny feels”, was viewed in the fashion industry as an unconventional beauty who contrasted the ‘curvy’ look of her predecessors. The 90s saw a rising number of people suffering from eating disorders, and with the glamorisation of severely underweight figures suggested by the fashion industry to be the body ‘goal’, it is unsurprising that the aspirations for these unachievable body types caused a decline in positive mental health. Turning Point: The death of the 20-year-old photographer Davide Sorrenti in 1997 marked a turning point for public opinions on ‘heroin chic’. After his death was linked to a heroin overdose, the fashion industry and followers of the trend received a wake-up call to the dangerous nature of the drug. In the same year, President Bill Clinton publicly accused the fashion industry of glamorising drug use, claiming that “glorifying death is not good for any society”. The authoritative acknowledgment of the aesthetic showed that even the President realised how what was first perceived as a fashion statement had the potential for detrimental effects on the public’s mental and physical health. 1997 also saw Stella McCartney, John Rocha, and ten other British fashion designers sign a statement declaring their worry about the industry’s glamorisation of substance abuse. Recognising the negative effects it was having on younger and impressionable demographics, they formed the ‘Designers Against Addiction’ campaign which raised money for research into drug addiction. The Current Climate: Regardless of the trend, modelling undoubtedly affects the behaviour and mentality of society, with research still finding links between eating disorders and the body types and aesthetics displayed in fashion and the media. However, this recognition and the increased awareness of campaigns such as the Body Positivity Movement saw fashion and advertising introduce a more diverse range within modelling. This allows a wider number of consumers to relate to a fashion or trend and not feel the need to pursue lifestyle changes to achieve what could be an unachievable, unhealthy look. Heroin chic was certainly a significant moment in fashion, advertising, and in our society. While it can be argued that the trend was an attempt to counteract the unachievable perfection of glamour models, it is important to acknowledge the addition of yet another aesthetic that was harmful to aspire to. Through recognising the effect that the trend had on mental health, organisations can work towards creating better support for those dealing with drug abuse and other mental health problems. There is no denying that the media still contains negative examples to influence the public. However, the recognition of this, and a move towards more diverse and inclusive advertising means that the negative repercussions of desirable aesthetics like ‘heroin chic’ can become a thing of the past.

words by: Indi Scott Whitehouse design by: Priyansha Kamdar

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music

How were two of the decades most prominent subcultures - Grunge and Rave - so similar, yet also so different? It’s fair to say the growth and intensity of subcultures took the mainstream off guard in the early nineties. The most prominent in the early years were Grunge and Rave; they were relatively anarchistic and challenged the rigidities of the status quo which made involvement feel like rebellion. Born out of Seattle, Washington, what began as a mixture nihilistic punk, heavy metal and a sprinkling of seventies rock and pop, later morphed into the unique sound of ‘Grunge’. A sigh of relief from the Reagan-era of starched white shirts, Grunge proprietors sought revenge on the Wall Street culture that dominated mainstream media.

55


music

The term was first coined in the seventies by critic Lester Bangs but appropriated by indie label Sub-Pop in 1988, who, little known to them, created a cultural phenomenon in a matter of just a few years. They began by creating their ‘Singles Club’ where every month, they sent seveninch records to subscribers, promoting upcoming bands with an explicitly DIY-feel - think crashing, heavy drums and thick guitar screeches. Sub-pop created an ethos of slackers, embracing the mood of Generation X with ‘few heroes, no anthems, and no style to call their own… they possess only a hazy sense of their own identity’ (Time Magazine). This apathetic attitude was soundtracked by the 1991 release of four seminal grunge albums over just six months, including Pearl Jam’s Ten and, what would arguably later become the grunge bible, Nevermind by Nirvana, whose youth-orientated call to arms attacked the mundanity of contemporary culture. In fact, making a mockery of mainstream culture became a theme. After reaching out to former Sub-Pop employee for a ‘lexicon of grunge speak’, the New York Times actually published a list of words that were completely made up, falling prey to the comical cynicism of the collective generation. Peaking at the same time, deep electronic acid house music also rose to dominance. Rave, as well as its moodier counterpart, was a subculture born out of rebellion. Underground dance culture was relatively popular in late-eighties America, but only became popularised as raves in the early 1990’s. Groups of thousands of young people cascading upon abandoned warehouses or carparks became a sensation, the bright flashing lasers and fluorescent costume, combined with the intensity of the electronica, provided by the likes of The Chemical Brothers, Aphex Twin etc kept coming and coming. Rave attendees seemed to have an insatiable appetite for faster and faster beats. Alongside this, the drug consumption at these parties became uncontrollable, leading to the criminalisation of many raves due to violation of Section 63 of the 1994 Criminal Justice Act. In response, more than five thousand cascaded the streets of London, protesting their ‘Right to Rave’. Attending these parties became like an undercover mission; event organisers operated through burner phones and meeting points in attempts to throw police off guard.

Although the popularity of the raves was at its peak, it was as avant-garde as it was uncommercial. Hardcore rave styles of music from the likes of The Prodigy got little radio airtime despite breaking into the UK Top 40 on numerous occasions. What brought the two drastically different sub-groups together was their anarchistic, destructive nature and their lack of regard for the mainstream. Both a far cry from the likes of Boyz II Men or Mariah Carey, both Grunge and Rave cultures sought something with more substance and created a close-knit community of misfits and outcasts. Yet, by the mid-to-late nineties, both subcultures found themselves burnt out. The Washington Post hailed the ‘story of Grunge as the story of death’. The ‘heroin-chic’ aesthetic that accompanied the music, combined with the death by overdose of so many (Kurt Cobain, somewhat signalling the end of the reign of Grunge) was mirrored by the drug-culture of the Raves, which went hand in hand with taking MDMA (known then as ecstasy) by the mid-nineties. It all came to a head in 1995 when Leah Betts passed away on her eighteenth birthday after taking a pill. Raves became synonymous with criminality. Top of the Pops banned music with any mention of the word ‘acid’ or that could be seen as encouragement of Rave culture. Grunge was seen to glamorise debilitating mental illnesses like depression and younger listeners we seen as being influenced by the many overdoses of prominent musicians at the time. So, the groundbreaking sub-cultures were deemed dangerous for general consumption and a war was waged by the mainstream media on these seemingly dangerous youth cultures. Thankfully, their influences are still felt in music today, with DIY-esque bands making a comeback, as well as the continuation of EDM nights in clubs nationwide. words by: Daisy Gaunt design by: Ersila Bushi

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literature

:Progressive The 1996 best-selling novel Bridget Jones’ Diary by Helen Fielding chronicles the life of thirty-something singleton, Bridget Jones, as she navigates her way through a journalism career, friendship, and love. The novel has sold over two million copies worldwide, with three sequels and a film series grossing over $700,000,000. However, the series has gained criticism in recent years for being potentially problematic with an anti-feminist sentiment. This backlash is not new, many feminist writers at the time (including Germaine Greer) condemned it for its portrayal of women. The resurgence in debate comes in response to the character of Bridget Jones being listed as one of the seven women who’ve changed women’s lives by the BBC, alongside giants such as Helen Brook, Barbara Castle, and Jayaben Desai. In addition to this, she was also named the most inspiring movie heroine by Sky Cinema, above Hermione Granger, Erin Brockovich, and even Mulan. So, what is so bad about the obviously beloved heroine? Well, firstly, her obsession with her weight. Throughout the book, Bridget hovers around nine stone and yet is supposed to be a ‘fat’ character. She constantly counts calories, and this is encouraged by her friends. For example, when Mark Darcy tells her he likes her ‘just the way she is’, they ask ‘not thinner?’. A post-Christmas weight of 9st 4lbs is lamented as a ‘terrifying slide into obesity’ despite being a perfectly healthy weight. Secondly, the sexual harassment Bridget experiences in her workplace is glossed over and even joked about. Her relationship with Daniel Cleaver is one hell of an HR nightmare - he’s just lucky she fancies him as much as he fancies her. She even says herself ‘v. much enjoying being sexually harassed by Daniel Cleaver’. Then there’s Mr Fitzherbert (also known as ‘Titspervert’) who doesn’t bother to remember Bridget’s name but openly stares at her breasts without any consequences. Perhaps the worst is Bridget’s boss at ‘Sit Up Britain’, Richard Finch, who frequently instructs cameramen to take footage of Bridget’s bum and remarks that at his station, ‘nobody gets sacked for shagging the boss - that’s a matter of principle’. What may be most problematic is that Bridget’s thoughts often revolve around how attractive she is to men. For example, Bridget writes, ‘there is nothing so unattractive to a man as a strident feminist’; this ruffled as many feathers in the ‘90s as it does now. However, Helen Fielding has defended the line as something she meant as ‘a multi-layered joke’. In fact, most of Bridget

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literature

or

Problematic? Jones is based on Fielding’s own experiences. The ‘90s was a slow time for feminism, there was a lull in its popularity as the stereotype of ugly, bitter and loud women took hold and so Bridget’s assessment wasn’t entirely incorrect. It may be unfair to judge Bridget by today’s standards as the ‘90s and early ‘00s were a very toxic time for women’s body image. Heroin chic and fad diets were in, with waif-like models everywhere you looked. Renee Zellweger and Kate Winslet, who are both perfectly healthy sized women, were deemed Hollywood’s ‘fat’ girls. Compulsive calorie counting was a reality for many women, which they saw reflected in Bridget. Her ridiculous standards for herself were what women related to. Similarly, sexual harassment in the workplace was a harsh reality for many women. A lurid comment, or a hand on a bum wasn’t uncommon at all. If women were really experiencing this, why shouldn’t it be included in a novel about women’s experiences? Just because it depicts unhealthy eating habits and sexual harassment doesn’t mean it endorses them. It takes a comedic spin on them, which is perhaps wrong, or maybe it’s honest and in-keeping with a specifically British brand of humour.

Maybe Bridget does spend too much time waiting for a man to call her back, counting calories, reading sexist self-help books, but can any women say they haven’t done the same thing? Even Germaine Greer admits to spending too much time waiting by a telephone for a call that never came. Feminists spent the ‘60s denouncing women’s magazines such as Jackie for focusing too much on makeup, fashion, sex, and relationships, only to retract those comments years later, admitting that if these issues did really affect women and these magazines helped women, then it would be un-feminist and even patronising to dismiss them as unimportant and girlish. Perhaps then, if women were being affected by sexual harassment, diet culture and dating they should be allowed to write about it. If comedy is what helped them to cope, who are we to tell them that was wrong? Obviously, Fielding had hit a niche which spoke to women because it gave birth to a whole new genre of literature, the (controversially named) ‘chick-lit.’ This was writing by women for women, and it continues to be the most lucrative genre of literature. words by: Ella Lloyd design by: Madeline Howell

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travel

90s

Travel

ls

Essentia

Ah, the ‘90s. Those were the good old days. Well, I can imagine they were, I was only born in 1997. From what I know it was the era of the Tamagotchi, cheesy boybands, and Julia Roberts in Pretty Woman, so it must have been pretty good. It was also the time of a rapid rise in the travel industry. As travelling became easier and easier, avid travellers jetted off on new adventures. And while the travel bug has carried on to the present day, due to a huge advancement in technology, travel has changed forever. So, what was it like to travel, God forbid, without a smartphone and the comfort of the internet everywhere you go? A key ‘90s travel item was the trusty travel book. Without the ease of TripAdvisor, you arrived at a new destination with a completely blank canvas. With no raving reviews or brutal criticisms, it would be complete potluck if it weren’t for those

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travel

travel guides. While they were helpful, they couldn’t tell you about all the hidden gems that the internet can nowadays. So, with just a book as guidance, people had to ask locals and other travellers for tips and advice about the best places to go. This meant that tourists could fully immerse themselves and meet new people from different cultures and backgrounds, finding out more about a place than just visiting the local sights. Whilst now we can find out about a country or city with just a few clicks, back in the ‘90s the world still felt like the unknown. Due to my guilty pleasure of spending hours scrolling through Instagram, I don’t think I could ever be surprised by the beauty of a beach or a snowy mountain range. The beauty of the unknown has become so well known that it is no longer a hidden mystery that will blow your mind. Instead, it can even be underwhelming, as Gigi Hadid’s trip to the Bahamas looked much better than ours. Travelling without social media allowed real discoveries and let us unearth the mysteries of exotic places with our own experience, rather than the experience of someone else. Also, without the luxury of Google Maps, you had to set off with much less guidance than we can get now. Unlike today, travelling in the ‘90s meant you had to put your D of E map reading skills to good use. In short, you had to be your own Google and make these discoveries yourself.

To capture those travelling moments in the ‘90s, you needed your film camera. Instead of taking multiple snaps of everything you see, a film camera had to be used sparingly, which allowed you to admire your surroundings through your eyes rather than your phone. Whilst you might be left with some dodgy shots, nothing can beat the feeling when you receive your photos and come across an absolute gem. It makes you forget about all the photos where your finger was covering the lens. Another ‘90s travel essential was an old school Walkman and an array of CDs and tapes to get you through long journeys. It allowed you to take the Spice Girls and Ricky Martin with you wherever you went, letting you listen to Spice Up Your Life as you soaked up the sun on a Caribbean beach, or Livin’ La Vida Loca as you walked down a bustling Spanish street. What is cooler than clipping your Walkman onto your belt and setting off on the road? Okay, well maybe the invention of Spotify was a blessing in disguise, but at the time it was a revelation! So, with the world at a standstill and our travel plans on pause for the foreseeable future, nostalgic thoughts occupy my mind regularly. The nostalgia of warmer, simpler times. words by: Alice Clifford design by: Alessio Grain

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clebar

90au - Sut Wnaeth

Yr enw cyntaf sydd yn dod i’r pen pob tro pan mae nifer yn meddwl am berson enwog Cymraeg yw Syr Tom Jones sydd nawr wedi bod yn canu am dros 50 blynedd. Erbyn y 90au yr oedd Tom Jones yn barod wedi creu enw mawr i’w hun ar ôl 30 blynedd o fod o dan y chwyddwydr. Yn y 90au, wnaeth Tom Jones greu’r caneuon ‘Delilah’ ac ‘If Only I Knew’, dau gân sydd dal yn adnabyddus iawn heddiw. Wnaeth caneuon fel y ddau yma a’i amser yn Las Vegas helpu Tom Jones i adeiladu ei lwyddiant yn enfawr, yn enwedig ar ôl dadfeiliad yn ystod yr 80au cynnar. Daeth Tom Jones i’r 90au yn fwy ac yn well byth. Ers hynny, mae’n amlwg mai Tom Jones yw un o’r sêr mwyaf yn y byd, heb sôn am Gymru. Mae nawr yn farnwr sioe teledu boblogaidd, ‘The Voice’ ac mae’n cael ei weld fel trysor cenedlaethol yn gyffredinol. Enw arall Cymraeg sydd yn enfawr o fewn y byd cerddoriaeth yw’r Stereophonics. Cafodd y band ei ffurfio yng Nghwmaman, De Cymru yn 1992. Roedd eu halbwm cyntaf, ‘Word Gets Around’ (1997) yn llwyddiant enfawr. Mae’r albwm yn cynnwys caneuon enwog iawn fel ‘A Thousand Trees’ a ‘Local Boy in the Photograph’ sydd dal yn cael eu perfformio yn aml gan eu bod nhw’n boblogaidd iawn. Mae hwn yn dangos dylanwad y Stereophonics. Mae eu caneuon cynnar o’r 90au yn cael eu gweld fel clasuron i nifer o gefnogwyr. Y Stereophonics yw’r band roc Cymraeg mwyaf, gan hyd yn oed gwerthu allan nifer o lefydd gwahanol yn eu taith yn 2020. Gan adeiladu cymaint o lwyddiant yn ystod y 90au wnaeth y Stereophonics fynd ymlaen i greu cân efo Tom Jones (‘Mama Told Me Not To Come’) gan bwysleisio yr oeddent yn creu enw da, sydd dal yma heddiw yn 2021. Pan mae nifer o bobl yn meddwl am wlad fel Cymru, maent weithiau yn meddwl am le llonydd heb lawer yn mynd ymlaen; ond mae nifer o’r enwau enwocaf yn perthyn i’w wlad fach yma. Mae hyn yn dangos fod Cymru yn wlad llawn cyfleoedd. Yr oedd y 90au yn ddegawd syfrdanol i’r enwau enwog Cymraeg o ran nifer o fentrau gwahanol trwy adeiladu enw da a sicrhau llwyddiant syfrdanol. Gallwch hyd yn oed dweud wnaeth enwogion Cymraeg dominyddu’r byd yn ystod y 90au, gan ddangos llwyddiant yn y byd cerddoriaeth, ffilm a chwaraeon. Gan wneud hyn, yr oedd y 90au yn oes bwysig o ran rhoi Cymru ar y map i gael ei adnabod fel gwlad sy’n llawn dalent.

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Gan symud ymlaen i’r byd ffilm a theledu, mae’n werth trafod Catherine Zeta Jones. Actores Cymraeg a wnaeth creu enw enfawr i’w hun yn ystod y 90au. Ei ymddangosiad cyntaf oedd yn 1990 efo’r ffilm ‘1001 Nights’. Nid oedd yn lwyddiannus iawn, ond roedd Catherine Zeta Jones yn benderfynol i fod yn ffilmiau Hollywood. Wnaeth hi sefydlu ei hun fel actores lwyddiannus erbyn diwedd y 90au gan ymddangos mewn ffilmiau fel ‘The Mask of Zoro’ (1998) ac ‘Entrapment’ (1999). Roedd gan Catherine Zeta Jones cymaint o ddatblygiad allweddol yn ystod y 90au wnaeth ei llwyddiant symud i’r 2000au gan ymddangos mewn ffilmiau fel ‘Chicago’ (2003) ac ennill gwobr BAFTA.Yn


clebar

Cymraeg Dominyddu’r Byd olaf, nid ydynt yn gallu trafod enwau Cymraeg a gadael allan un o’r chwaraewyr pêl-droed mwyaf enwog yn y byd, Ryan Giggs. Cafodd Ryan Giggs ei ddewis i fod yn rhan o glwb pêl droed Manceinion pan yr oedd yn bedwar ar ddeg yn 1987. Yn 1991 cafodd ei ymddangosiad cyntaf i Fanceinion ac yn gyflym cafodd i’w weld fel chwaraewr talentog a medrus. Yn ystod y 90au datblygodd Giggs enw enfawr yn y byd pêl-droed. Ryan Giggs yw’r un o’r chwaraewr pêl-droed fwyaf llwyddiannus yn y byd gan ennill dros 34 dyfyniadau gan gynnwys 13 teitlau ‘Premier League ac ‘BBC Sport Personality of the Year’ yn 2009. Ers hynny mae nawr wedi ymddeol ac yn datblygu enw da drwy hyfforddi tîm pêl-droed Cymru. Felly, wrth gofio’r enwau yma rydym wedi’i weld yn ystod y 90au, wnaeth nifer o enwogion dominyddu’r byd mewn nifer o sefydliadau gan roi Cymru ar y map. Rydym yn cofio’r enwau yma hyd yn oed heddiw, ac maen nhw’n parhau i ysbrydoli’r Cymry hyd heddiw. words by: Angharad Roberts. design by: Sahina Serchan

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00s

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CONTENTS 65-66: Mean Girls and the Rise of the Y2K Aesthic 67-68: The Games That Shaped Us 69-70: The Rise and Fall of the Juicy Couture Tracksuit 71-72: The Perfect Noughties School Disco Feast 73-74: Nostalgia: Looking Backwards Whilst Moving Forward

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film & tv

Aesthetic words by: Borte Tsogbadrakh design by: Shafia Motaleb

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film & tv

T

here are only a few films that reach the iconic status of Mean Girls (2004) and its impact on contemporary popculture. Watching it almost serves as a rite of passage to all the other cheesy teen films that most of us grew up with. With the recent rise of the Y2K aesthetic, as well as all the Pinterest mood boards that are based off of this film, Mean Girls once again finds itself at the forefront of trendsetting.

Y2K fashion; a complete reversal from the previously popular grunge aesthetic of the 90s. Of course, the film also features a pink, velour tracksuit, making most of us wish that we ourselves could lounge in this Juicy Couture uniform.

Without a doubt, the Plastics’ wardrobe is the main feature that fully encapsulates the early 2000s vibe of the film; from preppy skirts to tight crop-tops with matching, pink cardigans.

It’s also interesting to note that Mean Girls’ portrayal of the Y2K aesthetic goes beyond just fashion. Instead, the film never forgets to highlight a ridiculous lifestyle full of glamour and excess that seemingly reflects our perception of the early 2000s. Living in a mansion, driving a fancy car at sixteen, and spending too much time at the shopping mall were all part of the consumerist fever dream that marked this new era. With this luxurious lifestyle, also came the trend of sporting bling on every occasion possible. We all remember the large rhinestone necklace of her initial that Regina wore throughout the film, perfectly demonstrating the obsession with branding in true Y2K style.

“On Wednesdays, we wear pink”....

It presents the cliché of high school cliques and social hierarchy - perhaps like no other film in its genre.

Regina George and her two loyal followers, Gretchen and Karen, set all the fashion rules and trends at North Shore High School. It’s almost as if the Plastics were based on the iconic Bratz dolls with their revealing clothes, large hoop earrings, and constantly glossy lips. In one of the film’s most iconic scenes, Gretchen tells Cady, “on Wednesdays, we wear pink”, emphasizing the hyperfeminine aesthetic of

When it comes to Mean Girls’ stereotypical portrayal of high school culture in the early 2000s, it’s almost self-explanatory. It presents the cliché of high school cliques and social hierarchy - perhaps like no other film in its genre. At the top of this food chain is Queen Bee herself, Regina George. However, unlike similar villains in other prominent 2000s teen films, Rachel McAdam’s portrayal of this archetypal character is surprisingly humanising and offers an almost satirical commentary on ‘girl world’. This teen film has it all: girl drama over a boy, an unavoidable makeover, and most importantly a ‘happy ending’ at prom. Although it’s been almost 17 years since its release, Mean Girls continues to be a pop-culture phenomenon with its slightly trashy, guilty-pleasure feel, which in all honesty sums up my recollection of what the early 2000s were. Moreover, it is exactly our generation’s nostalgia for this era that brought back the rise of this Y2K aesthetic and I personally am all here for it. To sum up in Gretchen Wiener’s iconic words: “That’s so fetch!”

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download

THE GAMES THAT SHAPED US

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design by: Madeline Howell


download LEGO Star Wars

Mario Kart DS

Call Of Duty Modern Warfare 2

LEGO Star Wars was the very first game I got when my Dad gave me full responsibility for our PS2, effectively starting me on my journey into gaming. But that’s not just why I picked this as my favourite game of the 2000’s. Trust me, LEGO Star Wars really is a treat. I see it as the first in LEGO’s long line of franchise games - they’ve made LEGO Batman, Marvel Superheroes, Indiana Jones, everything - and it all started with this Star Wars game. For a kid that was already getting into the movies, being able to experience the prequel trilogy through the medium of a LEGO video game was incredible. I got to visit every scene through the levels, destroying and puzzle solving in what, at the time, felt like an amazingly restructured world; as if I was living the movies.

Casting my mind back to 2006, I remember receiving the jet black Nintendo DS Lite as a Christmas present. From then on, we were an inseparable pair. Wherever I went, it came with me and it kickstarted my love for video games alongside my PS2. As a result it means I can write about that love for video games a whole 15 years later.

I’ve always been an FPS gamer. My first real entry to gaming came via a first generation Xbox, with my tiny childhood hands wrapped around its gargantuan monstrosity of a controller. I switched to PC a long time ago, but those early formative years still shape the way I play today, none more so than Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2.

The absolute highlight of my DS library however had to be Mario Kart DS, which was not only an amazing game in its own right, but also served as an introduction to one of my favourite game franchises of all time. Mario Kart DS has it all; an awesome selection of racers (Yoshi being the obvious best, of course) and tracks (shoutout to Waluigi Pinball and Tick Tock Clock for being the best tracks ever), including retro revamps of fan-favourite tracks from previous instalments of the series - meaning I could enjoy classic courses from games released before I was even born. Another joy of Mario Kart DS was its play-anywhere portable nature, it was instant fun anywhere as soon as I unfolded my DS. Where this became most useful was the utility of sneaking my DS under my pillow for some post-bedtime racing, even on a school night - the thug life chose me clearly.

Search and Destroy was certainly the most pivotal to my game choices later in life. Much to my academic progress’ dismay, I was enticed into the all encompassing world of Counter Strike: Global Offensive in my sixth form years to fill the S&D shaped hole in my life. After all, S&D was just a diluted version of CSGO, so that evolution was only really a matter of time. The core DNA of my early gaming years in S&D still show when I play games today. I even still throw in a trickshot in my CS games for old time’s sake.

If any game turned me into a completionist, it was this one. Like every LEGO game, Star Wars had collectibles: red bricks for cheats, minikits, statues, and of course, the characters. I loved being able to play as so many different Star Wars characters, learning all their special moves and using them to go back to levels and reach new secrets I wouldn’t have been able to get to before. That’s one of the best things about LEGO games you keep unlocking new characters with new abilities that you remember you needed for previous levels, so suddenly you feel compelled to go back and play through a level again just for that coveted collectible. With LEGO Star Wars: The Skywalker Saga on the way, which is set to combine my other favourite LEGO game (Star Wars: The Original Trilogy, of course) with new levels from the final 3 films of the franchise, my nostalgia for the original LEGO Star Wars has been reignited. I’m so excited to revisit one of my childhood defining games in 2021 with even more opportunities and improvements, and more collectibles than I’ll ever be able to keep track of.

words by: Marcus Yeatman-Crouch

One aspect that has stuck with me to this day - the absolute competitive need to finish in first place. My friends know the extent to this as they have suffered in my unflinching warpath to achieve Mario Kart supremacy with my refusal to accept any position other than first place, and they have Mario Kart DS to thank for that (sorry about that guys).

Beyond gameplay, Modern Warfare 2 was also my first real introduction to the toxic world of in-game chats. At just 12 years old, I was subject to being verbally abused by men in their late twenties and beyond. They’ve probably got kids of their own now. To this day, MW2’s lobby soundtrack produces an almost Pavlovian response within me to prepare myself for strangers calling my mum a slag, through a microphone sounding like they were radioing in on an ongoing coup in Iraq. It certainly helped me to get thick skin from an early age; blocking out the noise of inting teenagers is almost second nature now.

Mario Kart is a series that has always retained its nostalgic charm to me. Its timeless gameplay has me picking up every new entry in the series and in every corner drifted and red shell thrown, I get that warm fuzzy feeling that quickly subsides with blue shell induced rage.

Over the last year I found myself falling for COD again. While I hadn’t really touched the franchise since MW3 released, the 2019 reboot tapped back into the core DNA that made me fall in love with gaming in the first place. Neither game is without its flaws, but the core skills and that I learned from endless hours of sitting in front of my TV after school have proved invaluable in my gaming since.

words by: Lewis Empson

words by: Josh Ong

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e

e f th & F a ll o

J uiy is

fashion

R e h T

P

reviously the ‘it girl’ uniform of Paris Hilton and celebs alike in the early 2000s, the iconic Juicy Couture tracksuit has made a rather nostalgic comeback into our wardrobes after its previous recession. During its release in 2001, the bejewelled tracksuits were worn by celebrities and featured all over the tabloid press, becoming a huge success for its founders Gela Nash-Taylor and Pamela Skaist-Levy. However, after the growing contemporary fashion market began to prefer minimalist designs, Juicy seemed to disappear through this new wave and was perhaps even branded old and ‘trashy’. A brand that once was at the heart of celebrities’ wardrobes was now nowhere to be seen, or so we all thought.

2020 was certainly an unpredictable year for a whole host of reasons, but the resurgence of early noughties designs commonly referred to as ‘y2k’ was perhaps one that many of did not predict. Nevertheless, loungewear and comfortable ‘at home’ looks were on the minds of many of us as we began to work from home. Our new lifestyles called for wearable pieces that combined both style, comfort and a splash of nostalgia. For many young individuals, that was the iconic Juicy Tracksuit itself.

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So, how did this brand go from making $605 million in sales (2008), for being sold 5 years later for less than a third of that price? Juicy’s two female founders originally set out to make more comfortable clothing in the maternity sector, with their first set of maternity jeans becoming a huge success despite their high price tag. This ultimately led them to expand their range to cater

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C

for every woman that wanted to be comfortable yet stylish. From this, in 1995 a line of V-neck t-shirts that focused on fit, fabric, comfort and colour were created and released into 26 colours, under their new name ‘Juicy Couture’.

Another successful release meant Juicy quickly expanded further, with the iconic tracksuit constructed similarly to that of their first garments, cut with an hourglass shape to flatter, bootleg joggers and unique letter ‘J’ zips for noticeable branding. They featured a soft velour finish, complete with encrusted jewelled elements to the back of the tracksuits spelling out ‘Juicy’, yet another playful take on branding. The tracksuits were released in 2001 for $155, a price point which was high enough to class it as a luxury item sold at high end department stores but still fairly accessible for those wanting a slice of luxury that wouldn’t completely break the bank. It was from this release that the brand of Juicy Couture began to soar, as tabloid celebrities like Paris Hilton and


fashion Lindsay Lohan adorned front pages wearing head to toe Juicy. This was largely due to Juicy’s team beginning to send out and gift tracksuits to celebrities, an extremely clever marketing technique at the time, much like PR gifted packages today. Celebrities were seen doing mundane tasks wearing these tracksuits which in turn inspired audiences to buy into the tracksuit lifestyle as well. More celebrity endorsements came with the entirety of Britney Spears’ bridal party seen in Juicy Couture tracksuits to her wedding to Kevin Federline, as well as Jennifer Lopez wearing a pink Juicy set in her music video for “I’m Real”.

branded products at discounted prices, abandoning Juicy’s high end market and sparking store closures. However, in 2016 popular social media influencer Kylie Jenner was seen pictured in a black Juicy Couture tracksuit on her Instagram which sparked up interest following their recent hashtag ‘#TRACKISBACK’. In 2017, Jamie Mizrahi was appointed as creative director and its new collection was debuted at a New York fashion week party with OG stars such as Paris Hilton making appearances. This ultimately began a resurgence for the label, as fashion itself had also opened up a huge market for loungewear. Juicy was beginning to become a household name once again and this was helped by collaborations with other ABG brands such as Kappa. The iconic tracksuit was then cleverly rebranded to target both its old and new audience. Juicy recognised the once teen and young consumers had now grown into women, whose demand for the design still largely focused on comfort and style, but with less flashy branding. As well as this, the tracksuits became available to purchase at stores such as Urban Outfitters with the aim of creating a new love for the designs amongst youthful consumers.

Cu tur e At a time where what celebrities wore influenced the general public so much, Juicy combined fun, embellished, and heavily branded elements, to create something many shoppers looked for. Ultimately, this led to the purchase of the brand by Liz Claiborne in 2003 for $226 million, as well as their net sales nearly doubling from 2006-2007.

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So, what went wrong? In the 2008 Great Recession, Juicy headed towards a dark period, as overly branded items were far less popular due to fashion making a move towards minimalism. And in 2013, the brand was sold to ‘Authentic Brands Group’ (ABG) for only $195 million, as a deal was signed with retailer ‘Kohls’ to sell

2020 was certainly a year of comeback, as new head of design Amy Gibson (known for leading designs at Beyoncé’s Ivy Park) pioneered its resurgence given the current demand for lockdown leisure wear. In the beginning of the pandemic months, the tracksuit trend remerged as staple work from home uniform. Later on that year, one of Juicy’s first brand ambassadors Kim Kardashian released a velour tracksuit collection for her brand ‘Skims’ as a definite nod towards the early Juicy Days. Paris Hilton was also seen sporting the new collection with many of the campaign shots featuring styling very similar to that of Juicy, with ombre lens large sunglasses and heavily branded oversized designer bags. With research showing that a sense of nostalgia can in fact help us cope with loneliness, perhaps in these weird times Juicy’s playful take on loungewear with its soft feel and witty rhinestone puns offers us a bit of escapism. design by: Shafia Motaleb words by: Maggie Gannon

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food

Space Raiders,

Party Rings,

words by: Alice Friel

words by: Kimberley Jones

It’s 5:30 on a Friday evening. Your mum has just dropped you off at the school gates. You and your friends have donned your most glittery disco dancing outfits, but you all bypass the dance floor and head straight for the tuck shop. There’s only one thing on your mind: the bag of Space Raiders you’ve been looking forward to all day.

One of the ultimate school disco food is the tray of party rings. The crunchy biscuit with different coloured icing giving off a hint of delicate flavouring depending on the colour. There is orange icing with white lines, pink icing with white lines and pink icing with yellow lines. The tastiness of the party rings meant you could never only have one party ring; you either had multiple of one colour or one of each.

I fondly remember my pocket money weighing heavy in my hand, exchanged it for that small bag of golden goodness. Pickled onion was unrivalled. The acidic vinegar flavour used to make my mouth water, but they were so addictive. Space Raiders were one of those snacks that you’d forget existed for the other 364 days of the year. On school disco night though, you’d have an alien-shaped corn crisp feast. And all for the bargain price of 20p a bag!

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These biscuits were always in my school discos, and eating one today brings me back to those old days of being 11 or 12 in a decorated sports hall, with my friends dancing to the Black Eyed Peas while the boys would run and slide on their knees. You knew the disco would be good when the buffet was mainly full of biscuits and that the tray with the most biscuits was the Party rings.


design by: May Collins

food

Sweet Shop,

Rainbow Sherbet Straws,

words by: Maja Metera

words by: Shannon Bowes-Cavanagh

When I was in the third grade I could not wait to be just one year older, because being ten years old meant that I could attend my primary school’s dances. It was just our gym, with disco lights, and a DJ; they weren’t catered. But life was good, because we would all storm the little shop selling sweets on the first floor.

If you were not swinging your partner round to ‘5, 6, 7, 8’ or lining up to do the Macarena then I can guarantee you were over by the snack station. The main staple of the school disco snack table was by far the rainbow sherbet straws. These were an absolute crowd pleaser for a few reasons. One, they were literally 1p. Two, they were bright neon straws full of sugar which, to a 10-year-old, is incredible.

We had feet-shaped lollypops that we would lick and dip in popping sprinkles. We chewed on gum more sour than a lemon and called anyone weak who dared to make a face. I was the best at this game. I loved lemon. We pretended that salted puffs were wedding rings and each of the girls had ten husbands. We once ordered pizza just for our group – which was strictly forbidden by the teachers. We were the kings and queens of the school and nobody could stop us.

I would say this is a child friendly version of a shot because you have to down all the sherbet straight away (or it gets stuck), leaving you with a serious buzz. It’s a snack that most of us will have forgotten about but look back on nostalgically. I think we can all agree, the best way to end a term was with some neon sherbet straws and a glowstick, grooving to Reach for the Stars.

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features

Nostalgia is a feeling which is there more often than we realise. It’s one of those feelings which can creep up on you, sifting its way through your memories, but it can also feel as though you’ve been slapped in the face by a wet fish. It is unforgiving and can undermine how you are actually feeling in favour of something which no longer exists outside of your own mind. Tricky. There’s the nostalgia we all know for our childhood books and films. The one where we long to watch Harry Potter on repeat, savouring the warmth and safety it offers against the lives we are living now, where things have never felt more precarious and uncertain. It can give us comfort which is unparalleled and a familiarity which soothes us. I don’t think there is anything to dispute here; childhood nostalgia is something which I think should be revisited often if only to offer us a respite from the reality we are living as adults. Then, of course, there is nostalgia for people. I think this one can often be a little more painful. It is almost as though your mind bookmarks your memories alongside your friendships at the time, and to no longer be able to be present in these memories can sometimes stir a feeling of grief. That time is gone, and there is no way to bring it back. Sometimes the people you spent that time with have gone also, perhaps in not such a dramatic way, but you have grown apart and your lives are no longer on the same path. Nostalgia is rarely all-consuming, but that doesn’t mean it is any easier to disregard. It can sit at the back of your mind, revisiting you just before you fall asleep with thoughts of times where you were perhaps happier, or where life felt easier.

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I think often to my friendship group at home. We all went to school together, struggling through GCSE’s and A-Levels, spent summer holidays swimming in the river and taking camping trips together. We had our first festival experiences together, our first holidays without our parents together, and we often had our first jobs in the same places. My hometown is shaped by these memories, shaped by my friends, and I feel so lucky to have had this. Sometimes, perhaps more often recently, I find it difficult to escape the nostalgia for this time. I wish that I could watch these memories on a film, or to hold them in a concrete form so that it would be impossible to lose them. But then, I have to remind myself that nostalgia, as wonderful as it is, can often be deceptive. I still had worries back then, the future still felt uncertain, and I wanted to fast-forward my life to have experiences outside of my hometown. Nostalgia paints these memories in warm, golden light, and this isn’t a bad thing- that’s exactly how these times should be remembered. But they should be remembered, not revisited. If you haven’t already picked this up, I can find it difficult to let go of nostalgia. We haven’t even begun the second semester and I am already reminiscing of last autumn. But when, last week, my housemate sat us down to watch his favourite film, I was struck by something that was said. I won’t quote, but to briefly summarise; the real loss isn’t the loss of time, but a failure to acknowledge that time. I think this is true; nostalgia, even though it can feel like grief, is actually a way to celebrate those things that have shaped you.


features

There are some things that I will never feel nostalgic for. My art foundation, which I hated. My first job in a Chinese restaurant that paid me £4 an hour (enough said). But that is why nostalgia is so brilliant; because it picks up your good memories, the ones which make you feel warm and safe, and puts them in a box for you. And the most wonderful thing is that this box does not have a limited capacity, it will just grow as the years go by, and as more good memories are made. words by: Isabel Brewster design by: Anna Kerslake

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American Boy by Estelle and Kanye West Grace Kelly by MIKA Sugar, Sugar by The Archies AMERICA BY RAZORLIGHT FIVE COLOURS IN HER HAIR BY MCFLY CHANGES BY DAVID BOWIE 75


words by: Jasmine Snow and Elly Savva design by: Jasmine Snow

STARZ IN THEIR EYES BY JUST JACK WANNABE BY SPICE GIRLS CHAMPAGNE SUPERNOVA BY OASIS Foundations by kate nash HEY JUDE BY THE BEATLES ELECTRIC FEEL BY MGMT

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“How sad and bad and mad it was - but then, how it was sweet” - Robert Browning

Profile for Cardiff Student Media

Quench Magazine, Issue 182, March 2021  

Editor-in-Chief: Jasmine Snow Deputy Editor: Elly Savva Sub-Deputy Editor: Joshua Ong

Quench Magazine, Issue 182, March 2021  

Editor-in-Chief: Jasmine Snow Deputy Editor: Elly Savva Sub-Deputy Editor: Joshua Ong

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