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PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Welcome back to another year at Quench, we’re so excited to introduce ourselves as Editor-in-Chief and Deputy Editor for the 2021 academic year. You may recognise us from the year before, as Editor-in-Chief of Q3 (Cardiff University’s mini-magazine) and one of the Features’ Editors. We loved being a part of KatieMay Huxtable and Luisa De la Concha Montes’s team and we’re so honoured to be able to carry on their work. Unfortunately this year, Quench is not able to be physically published due to COVID-19, but we’re still going to be bringing you daily online content and five online issues this coming year so keep your eyes peeled for what we have to come.

This year at Quench has been unprecedented to say the least, I received the role of Editor-in-Chief in April, just around the time that the UK went into a nationwide lockdown. In the beginning, I felt really overwhelmed because I was faced with a lot of new responsibilities and no real guidance on how to conduct interviews, training and a freshers fair etc. online. However, as soon as I hired Elly Savva as my Deputy Editor, everything fell into place. We spent an entire week in our jammies, conducting interviews over Zoom, which turned out to be an amazing experience. Once we’d hired our team, they helped us navigate COVID-19 in ways which we had never expected and by the time we got to Cardiff we felt like old friends.

with summers spent on opposite sides of the world. Jasmine had envisioned living the American Dream in Florida, cheering at soccer games, and having bonfires on the beach. I had intended on motorbiking the Hai Van Pass (sorry Mum), eating Pho, and drinking cocktails across Vietnam. Instead, we both found ourselves stuck within the borders of the UK, confined to our childhood bedrooms. Whilst we were forced into isolation, building the Quench team became an outlet that allowed us to join together and look outwards. It’s safe to say that 2020 has thrown a lot our way. Not only did we assume our roles in the midst of COVID-19, but we were also faced with the murder of George Floyd, which acted as a catalyst for the Black Lives Matter movement. This tragedy was just a small drop in the ocean, amongst many others who have died at the hands of police brutality. Because of the events of this year, we decided to dedicate issue 179 to the BAME community, to elevate Cardiff University’s Black and minority ethnic voices and continue to educate ourselves on the systemic racism which has penetrated our society for centuries. In this issue, you will find articles that broach these topics from a wide range of experiences. Our Literature Editor Ona Ojo talks about the importance of BAME representation in children’s books on pages 34-35, whilst Josh Ong considers our use of the BAME label on page 15. Our Download section explores how social media can help to progress societal change on pages 41-42, with contributions from Hazel Ravu and Shaniece O’Keefe. Not only has society as we know it changed, but so has Quench. This year we’ve added two new sections, the first being Literature, which will be exploring all things bookish from Instagram Poets to Famous Love Letters. As well as this, Agony Aunt has been replaced by Spotlight, our new Sex and Relationships section. We’ve also changed the overall design aesthetic of Quench, which will now reflect the bold, minimalistic design style which is sweeping the industry. Because of this new focus, we have doubled our design team in size and have been able to bring you more original artwork than ever before. Finally, we want to say a big thank you to our team for putting in so much hard work and love into this issue. We can’t wait for the year ahead and we hope you enjoy reading our magazine. Love,

front cover by: Amelia Field photography by: Sahina Sherchan

1

If this year had panned out the way that we had expected and a global pandemic hadn’t turned our realities upside down, Jasmine and I would never have crossed paths

Editor-in-Chief and Deputy Editor

2


PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Welcome back to another year at Quench, we’re so excited to introduce ourselves as Editor-in-Chief and Deputy Editor for the 2021 academic year. You may recognise us from the year before, as Editor-in-Chief of Q3 (Cardiff University’s mini-magazine) and one of the Features’ Editors. We loved being a part of KatieMay Huxtable and Luisa De la Concha Montes’s team and we’re so honoured to be able to carry on their work. Unfortunately this year, Quench is not able to be physically published due to COVID-19, but we’re still going to be bringing you daily online content and five online issues this coming year so keep your eyes peeled for what we have to come.

This year at Quench has been unprecedented to say the least, I received the role of Editor-in-Chief in April, just around the time that the UK went into a nationwide lockdown. In the beginning, I felt really overwhelmed because I was faced with a lot of new responsibilities and no real guidance on how to conduct interviews, training and a freshers fair etc. online. However, as soon as I hired Elly Savva as my Deputy Editor, everything fell into place. We spent an entire week in our jammies, conducting interviews over Zoom, which turned out to be an amazing experience. Once we’d hired our team, they helped us navigate COVID-19 in ways which we had never expected and by the time we got to Cardiff we felt like old friends.

with summers spent on opposite sides of the world. Jasmine had envisioned living the American Dream in Florida, cheering at soccer games, and having bonfires on the beach. I had intended on motorbiking the Hai Van Pass (sorry Mum), eating Pho, and drinking cocktails across Vietnam. Instead, we both found ourselves stuck within the borders of the UK, confined to our childhood bedrooms. Whilst we were forced into isolation, building the Quench team became an outlet that allowed us to join together and look outwards. It’s safe to say that 2020 has thrown a lot our way. Not only did we assume our roles in the midst of COVID-19, but we were also faced with the murder of George Floyd, which acted as a catalyst for the Black Lives Matter movement. This tragedy was just a small drop in the ocean, amongst many others who have died at the hands of police brutality. Because of the events of this year, we decided to dedicate issue 179 to the BAME community, to elevate Cardiff University’s Black and minority ethnic voices and continue to educate ourselves on the systemic racism which has penetrated our society for centuries. In this issue, you will find articles that broach these topics from a wide range of experiences. Our Literature Editor Ona Ojo talks about the importance of BAME representation in children’s books on pages 34-35, whilst Josh Ong considers our use of the BAME label on page 15. Our Download section explores how social media can help to progress societal change on pages 41-42, with contributions from Hazel Ravu and Shaniece O’Keefe. Not only has society as we know it changed, but so has Quench. This year we’ve added two new sections, the first being Literature, which will be exploring all things bookish from Instagram Poets to Famous Love Letters. As well as this, Agony Aunt has been replaced by Spotlight, our new Sex and Relationships section. We’ve also changed the overall design aesthetic of Quench, which will now reflect the bold, minimalistic design style which is sweeping the industry. Because of this new focus, we have doubled our design team in size and have been able to bring you more original artwork than ever before. Finally, we want to say a big thank you to our team for putting in so much hard work and love into this issue. We can’t wait for the year ahead and we hope you enjoy reading our magazine. Love,

front cover by: Amelia Field photography by: Sahina Sherchan

1

If this year had panned out the way that we had expected and a global pandemic hadn’t turned our realities upside down, Jasmine and I would never have crossed paths

Editor-in-Chief and Deputy Editor

2


Editor-in-Chief: Jasmine Snow

Deputy Editor: Elly Savva

Literature: Nicole Rees Williams, Ona Ojo and Neus Forner

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Meet The Team Fashion: Henry Bell and Rachel Citron

Download: Lewis Empson and Marcus Yeatman-Crouch

Coming Soon! Second Deputy Editor: Josh Ong

Columnist

Travel: Katherine Mallet and Alice Clifford

Food: Indigo Jones, Hannah Penwright and Sarah Nugara

Features: Rebecca Astill, Rhianna Hurren-Myers and Indi Scott Whitehouse

Culture: Amy King, Megan Evans and Sarah Griffiths

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Music: Alex Payne, Daisy Gaunt and Natalie Graham

Film & TV: Borte Tsogbadrah, Pui Kuah Cheah and Fin Stocking

Clebar: Dafydd Wyn Orritt and Sian Jones

Spotlight: Laura Dazon and Kate Waldock

Social Media Team: Maja Metera, Manon Jones and Ebony Clent

Writing Consultant: Mike O’Brien / Copy Editor: Sarah Belger

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Editor-in-Chief: Jasmine Snow

Deputy Editor: Elly Savva

Literature: Nicole Rees Williams, Ona Ojo and Neus Forner

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Meet The Team Fashion: Henry Bell and Rachel Citron

Download: Lewis Empson and Marcus Yeatman-Crouch

Coming Soon! Second Deputy Editor: Josh Ong

Columnist

Travel: Katherine Mallet and Alice Clifford

Food: Indigo Jones, Hannah Penwright and Sarah Nugara

Features: Rebecca Astill, Rhianna Hurren-Myers and Indi Scott Whitehouse

Culture: Amy King, Megan Evans and Sarah Griffiths

3

Music: Alex Payne, Daisy Gaunt and Natalie Graham

Film & TV: Borte Tsogbadrah, Pui Kuah Cheah and Fin Stocking

Clebar: Dafydd Wyn Orritt and Sian Jones

Spotlight: Laura Dazon and Kate Waldock

Social Media Team: Maja Metera, Manon Jones and Ebony Clent

Writing Consultant: Mike O’Brien / Copy Editor: Sarah Belger

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PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Head of Design: Madeline Howell

Deputy Head of Design: May Collins

Page Deaigner: Alessio Grain

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

N G N I G S N I N E G S I G D E I S N D S E H G E I D C H S D N C H E E N H C D E C N QU N QUE D H N E C E U H N U Q C E Q N N G U I G E I Q S U S N E Q E G N D I D G S N I H H E S G C I D C E N S N D G E H I E D C S H U N E C Q H E D N C U E E N H Q D U E C Q U N H N Q G C E I N N U S G E Q I E U S D N Q N E G I H D G N I S C S G E H I N E D C S D G N E I H E S D H C U E C N H Q D N E C D E U H N U Q C H E Q N C U E N Q N U E G N I Q U G S I Q N E S N G D E I G I N D S N H S G E I G C E H I D S D C S E N E H D H D C E C D U N H N H Q E C H E C U N C U N Q E N Q E U N E U Q U G N Q I Q G S I N E S N N G D E I G I G N D S I S H G S E I C E H D E S D C D E N H H D H E C D C U C N H N N Q E H C E E U C N U U Q N E Q Q E U N U Q G N I Q G S I N N E S N G G D E I I G D H SI ES ES Page Designer: Kacey Keane

Page Designer: Priyansha Kamdar

Photographer: Sahina Sherchan

Illustrator: Shafia Motaleb

Page Designer: Polly Denny

Illustrator: Amelia Field

Page Designer: Sandra Mbula Nzioki

Page Designer: Anna Kerslake

Illustrator: Sian Hopkins

Illustrator: Prity Chatterjee

Illustrator: Shubhangi Dua

5

Page Designer: Sebastian Jose

Page Designer: Ersila Bushi

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PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Head of Design: Madeline Howell

Deputy Head of Design: May Collins

Page Deaigner: Alessio Grain

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

N G N I G S N I N E G S I G D E I S N D S E H G E I D C H S D N C H E E N H C D E C N QU N QUE D H N E C E U H N U Q C E Q N N G U I G E I Q S U S N E Q E G N D I D G S N I H H E S G C I D C E N S N D G E H I E D C S H U N E C Q H E D N C U E E N H Q D U E C Q U N H N Q G C E I N N U S G E Q I E U S D N Q N E G I H D G N I S C S G E H I N E D C S D G N E I H E S D H C U E C N H Q D N E C D E U H N U Q C H E Q N C U E N Q N U E G N I Q U G S I Q N E S N G D E I G I N D S N H S G E I G C E H I D S D C S E N E H D H D C E C D U N H N H Q E C H E C U N C U N Q E N Q E U N E U Q U G N Q I Q G S I N E S N N G D E I G I G N D S I S H G S E I C E H D E S D C D E N H H D H E C D C U C N H N N Q E H C E E U C N U U Q N E Q Q E U N U Q G N I Q G S I N N E S N G G D E I I G D H SI ES ES Page Designer: Kacey Keane

Page Designer: Priyansha Kamdar

Photographer: Sahina Sherchan

Illustrator: Shafia Motaleb

Page Designer: Polly Denny

Illustrator: Amelia Field

Page Designer: Sandra Mbula Nzioki

Page Designer: Anna Kerslake

Illustrator: Sian Hopkins

Illustrator: Prity Chatterjee

Illustrator: Shubhangi Dua

5

Page Designer: Sebastian Jose

Page Designer: Ersila Bushi

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PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

31

31

Features

09-10. Stay in your Activism Lane 11-12. NHS: Taxes vs Charity 13-14. Get Your Sh*t Together: FirstClass Advice From your Final-Year Fairy Godmother

Column

15. First Year (Dreadful) 16. BAME & Me

Culture

17-18. The Loss of Statues 19-20. The Art of Lost Time

7

Editorial:

21-22. We’re Loving...

Film & TV

23-24. Out of Sight, Out of Mind 25-26. Favourite Non-Disney/Pixar Animation Films

Music

27-28. Contemporary Music has its Roots in Black Culture, so Why is the Industry so White? 29-30. Inspiration During Isolation: Bedroom Pop

Literature

33-34. BAME Representation in Children’s Books 35-36. The Downfall of J.K Rowling 47-38. Creative Writing Submission

Download

39-40. In Defence of Difficulty as a Device 41-42. Societal Change in the Digital Age

Fashion

43-46. Student Fashion Profile 47-48. From Jumpsuits, to Jeans and then Joggers: a Lockdown Fashion Journey 49-50. Best Runway Looks of RuPaul’s Drag Race Season 12

Travel

51-52. Learning as you Travel 53. Camping Guide 101 54. UK Countryside vs Beaches

Food

55-56. Quench Food Festival 57-58. The Origins of Britain’s Favourite Food 59-60. Cocktails for Zoom 61-62. DIFFerent Food

Clebar

63-64. Hanes Bae Teigr 65-66. Ffasiwn yng Nghymru 67-68. Illustration Submissions 69-70. Playlist of the Issue

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PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

31

31

Features

09-10. Stay in your Activism Lane 11-12. NHS: Taxes vs Charity 13-14. Get Your Sh*t Together: FirstClass Advice From your Final-Year Fairy Godmother

Column

15. First Year (Dreadful) 16. BAME & Me

Culture

17-18. The Loss of Statues 19-20. The Art of Lost Time

7

Editorial:

21-22. We’re Loving...

Film & TV

23-24. Out of Sight, Out of Mind 25-26. Favourite Non-Disney/Pixar Animation Films

Music

27-28. Contemporary Music has its Roots in Black Culture, so Why is the Industry so White? 29-30. Inspiration During Isolation: Bedroom Pop

Literature

33-34. BAME Representation in Children’s Books 35-36. The Downfall of J.K Rowling 47-38. Creative Writing Submission

Download

39-40. In Defence of Difficulty as a Device 41-42. Societal Change in the Digital Age

Fashion

43-46. Student Fashion Profile 47-48. From Jumpsuits, to Jeans and then Joggers: a Lockdown Fashion Journey 49-50. Best Runway Looks of RuPaul’s Drag Race Season 12

Travel

51-52. Learning as you Travel 53. Camping Guide 101 54. UK Countryside vs Beaches

Food

55-56. Quench Food Festival 57-58. The Origins of Britain’s Favourite Food 59-60. Cocktails for Zoom 61-62. DIFFerent Food

Clebar

63-64. Hanes Bae Teigr 65-66. Ffasiwn yng Nghymru 67-68. Illustration Submissions 69-70. Playlist of the Issue

8


features

features

Stay in your Activism Lane

Instagram

A notable example of this was #BlackoutTuesday, in which millions of Instagram users posted a black square, filling feeds usually saturated in content from friends, celebrities and corporations. The organisers said they wanted it to be ‘a day to disconnect from work and reconnect with our community’ through ‘an urgent step of action to provoke accountability and change.’

On Performative Activism

“Activism must start on an individual level”

9

The last couple of years have seen social movements interweaving the news cycle; from #BlackLivesMatter to #MeToo and LGBTQ+ pride. All of these fight for one common purpose, that being equality, but their methods of campaigning differ - and this has brought about accusations about ‘performative activism’ from people too high on their pedestals to remember that activism starts at an individual level. This mindset reared its ugly head earlier this year when people were accused of partaking in the #BlackLivesMatter movement purely to make a good impression on their social media. Slated as ‘virtue signalling’ and ‘slacktivism’, it has been suggested that this type of activism serves as a way to alleviate individual guilt either for not otherwise contributing or even being a part of the problem.

Instead of spending the day immersing myself in education on the #blacklivesmatter, I instead ended it feeling frustrated. The online conversation of that day, which should have revolved around the social movement, became overtaken by arguments over what the best way to campaign was. The conclusion seemed to be that some people were absolutely correct in their method, and the other half, who had posted, were wrong.

Hostility

The main issue arose when people wrongly, but innocently, hashtagged #BlackLivesMatter underneath the posts which clogged up the hashtag designed to spread awareness and educate others. As frustrating as this was, I can confidently say that in most cases, this was merely an annoying upshot of a wellintended desire to help. Yet on the other side of the coin, anybody who wasn’t vocal on social media was criticised for keeping quiet. You can understand why some people are hesitant to involve themselves in the public eye side of campaigning. Activism should never be made into a hostile environment

which makes people worried about ‘getting it wrong’. It’s easy to question people’s motives for posting on social media, but it’s important to remember that activism must start on an individual level before it becomes a collective. Enough individuals have to voice their own overwhelming feelings of anger and frustration at oppression for a campaign to come together and make a difference.

Performative Branding

However, I can also understand that some activism is largely performative. Many big brands use LGBTQ+ branding on products and turn awareness into a commodity. This would be encouraged if, perhaps, the profits from their LGBTQ+ products went towards charities. Sadly, a lot of the brands who align themselves with the cause publicly do not follow through behind closed doors. In 2014, Apple made a San Francisco pride video, but in 2015, it was found that their Siri app was homophobic when asked about gay clubs in Russia, where same sex marriages are still illegal. In 2018, Adidas released ‘pride pack’ trainers as part of their ‘pride collection’, but spent millions on sponsoring the Russian football World Cup in 2018, where strong homophobic views made it impossible for many LGBTQ+ fans to attend. PINK tweeted support for Pride Month in 2019 despite famously refusing to hire transgender models. (Funnily enough, the following August, they did hire their first trans model. It’s always interesting what bad PR can achieve.)

This rainbow-washing is ubiquitous in marketing at the moment and needs to be substantiated by meaningful action. This is different to individual posts of activism, like #BlackoutTuesday. These corporations are prolific in their influence and have a lot to gain from publicly aligning themselves with social movements. That is why, in their case, it is inexcusable to post empty messages of support. They should be held accountable, to make sure that their companies do what they can to push against the status quo and fight for change.

“It is inexcusable to post empty messages of support”

To Make a Difference

Once people have taken the first step in the chain of campaigning, the more likely they are to research and follow it up with steps that can make a difference - like signing petitions, writing to MPs, and challenging uneducated family and friends on the issues. I can’t help but feel that we should be encouraging each other, rather than criticising others’ efforts before they’ve even properly involved themselves in the campaigns. Now is the time to open ourselves up to these conversations without worry; to be actively against inequality, not just vocally. Talk, learn, and most importantly, support others who are fighting the same causes. words by: Rebecca Astill design by: Sian Hopkins

10


features

features

Stay in your Activism Lane

Instagram

A notable example of this was #BlackoutTuesday, in which millions of Instagram users posted a black square, filling feeds usually saturated in content from friends, celebrities and corporations. The organisers said they wanted it to be ‘a day to disconnect from work and reconnect with our community’ through ‘an urgent step of action to provoke accountability and change.’

On Performative Activism

“Activism must start on an individual level”

9

The last couple of years have seen social movements interweaving the news cycle; from #BlackLivesMatter to #MeToo and LGBTQ+ pride. All of these fight for one common purpose, that being equality, but their methods of campaigning differ - and this has brought about accusations about ‘performative activism’ from people too high on their pedestals to remember that activism starts at an individual level. This mindset reared its ugly head earlier this year when people were accused of partaking in the #BlackLivesMatter movement purely to make a good impression on their social media. Slated as ‘virtue signalling’ and ‘slacktivism’, it has been suggested that this type of activism serves as a way to alleviate individual guilt either for not otherwise contributing or even being a part of the problem.

Instead of spending the day immersing myself in education on the #blacklivesmatter, I instead ended it feeling frustrated. The online conversation of that day, which should have revolved around the social movement, became overtaken by arguments over what the best way to campaign was. The conclusion seemed to be that some people were absolutely correct in their method, and the other half, who had posted, were wrong.

Hostility

The main issue arose when people wrongly, but innocently, hashtagged #BlackLivesMatter underneath the posts which clogged up the hashtag designed to spread awareness and educate others. As frustrating as this was, I can confidently say that in most cases, this was merely an annoying upshot of a wellintended desire to help. Yet on the other side of the coin, anybody who wasn’t vocal on social media was criticised for keeping quiet. You can understand why some people are hesitant to involve themselves in the public eye side of campaigning. Activism should never be made into a hostile environment

which makes people worried about ‘getting it wrong’. It’s easy to question people’s motives for posting on social media, but it’s important to remember that activism must start on an individual level before it becomes a collective. Enough individuals have to voice their own overwhelming feelings of anger and frustration at oppression for a campaign to come together and make a difference.

Performative Branding

However, I can also understand that some activism is largely performative. Many big brands use LGBTQ+ branding on products and turn awareness into a commodity. This would be encouraged if, perhaps, the profits from their LGBTQ+ products went towards charities. Sadly, a lot of the brands who align themselves with the cause publicly do not follow through behind closed doors. In 2014, Apple made a San Francisco pride video, but in 2015, it was found that their Siri app was homophobic when asked about gay clubs in Russia, where same sex marriages are still illegal. In 2018, Adidas released ‘pride pack’ trainers as part of their ‘pride collection’, but spent millions on sponsoring the Russian football World Cup in 2018, where strong homophobic views made it impossible for many LGBTQ+ fans to attend. PINK tweeted support for Pride Month in 2019 despite famously refusing to hire transgender models. (Funnily enough, the following August, they did hire their first trans model. It’s always interesting what bad PR can achieve.)

This rainbow-washing is ubiquitous in marketing at the moment and needs to be substantiated by meaningful action. This is different to individual posts of activism, like #BlackoutTuesday. These corporations are prolific in their influence and have a lot to gain from publicly aligning themselves with social movements. That is why, in their case, it is inexcusable to post empty messages of support. They should be held accountable, to make sure that their companies do what they can to push against the status quo and fight for change.

“It is inexcusable to post empty messages of support”

To Make a Difference

Once people have taken the first step in the chain of campaigning, the more likely they are to research and follow it up with steps that can make a difference - like signing petitions, writing to MPs, and challenging uneducated family and friends on the issues. I can’t help but feel that we should be encouraging each other, rather than criticising others’ efforts before they’ve even properly involved themselves in the campaigns. Now is the time to open ourselves up to these conversations without worry; to be actively against inequality, not just vocally. Talk, learn, and most importantly, support others who are fighting the same causes. words by: Rebecca Astill design by: Sian Hopkins

10


features 43

features

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

N H S : Taxes vs. Charity

words by: Indi Scott Whitehouse design by: Shafia Motaleb

T

he Covid-19 pandemic has seen a brilliant increase

in NHS charity events and campaigns. From Captain Tom Moore to young children selling crafts on their driveways, the nation has been working hard to display gratitude, fundraise and raise awareness for the healthcare system the UK is so lucky to have. Social media tags such as the ‘Run 5, Donate 5, Nominate 5’ have seen all ages and abilities raising money for the NHS. While it is important that the selfless efforts and appreciation of the public are recognised, the lack of government support that arguably made these additional funds necessary should not be ignored.

In an interview with The Guardian, chief executive of NHS Charities Together Rebecca Orton emphasised that the £92million that it had raised so far was an addition to state funding, rather than a replacement of it. Despite this, it is important to consider why such a large amount of additional funding is needed, and why the tax funding doesn’t appear to be enough. As an essential organisation that so many rely upon, it seems unjust that the NHS and its workers are consistently wronged by the government’s austerity measures. For example, in 2017 a majority of MPs voted against lifting the 1% pay raise cap for public sector workers - including all those who work for the NHS. One of these included Boris Johnson. Additionally, in July this year the government announced a pay rise for all public sector workers to recognise their hard work and efforts during the Covid-19 pandemic. However, this increase excluded NHS nurses, with the 2018 ‘3-year NHS payment plan’ used to suggest that nurses were not eligible for an additional pay rise. The performative gratitude shown by the Prime Minister clapping outside 10 Downing Street and publicly expressing thanks to those who nursed him when he saw firsthand the fundamental need for this system, seems futile when no official governmental support is being given to the staff that are essential in the survival of this pandemic.

11

It could also be argued that the government’s displayed affirmation of pu blic fundraising efforts, such as Boris Johnson’s public declarations of praise for Captain Tom Moore and participation in the ‘Clap for the NHS’, sees them taking advantage of individuals’ good will and using it to distract from the wrongdoings and lack of obligatory support that made such efforts necessary. For example, PPE is an indisputable necessity for NHS and key workers, so why has this cause not been funded by the government? Why have they been left reliant on the skills and generosity of volunteers?

“ The hypocrisy of this public praise does not just lie with the government." The hypocrisy of this public praise does not just lie with the government. Many of the large companies encouraging working-class fundraising could be rightly criticised for the suffering of the NHS. For example, V irgin Money Giving is being used as the main donation platform for the Run For Heroes ‘Run 5, Donate 5, Nominate 5’ Instagram tag. Virgin’s founder Richard Branson has not only been previously jailed for tax evasion having not paid income tax in at least 14 years, but also successfully sued the NHS in 2017 after failing to land a contract for children’s healthcare services. When recognising these factors, it does not seem unreasonable to question whether this company is in the moral position to so enthusiastically encourage honest, tax-paying individuals to donate, when the company’s absence of tax contribution could be recognised as a contributing factor to the lack of primary funds.

website participants are informed that charities using the platform are charged an upfront joining fee and then a “2% platform fee and a 2.5% payment processing fee on donations”. While these maintenance costs may seem necessary from a business point of view, this means that based on the already exceeded £5million target, Virgin would have made at least £225k from the wellmeaning donations to their ‘not-for-profit’ organisation. The fantastic amount of public involvement has seen fundraising figures soar during the pandemic, and the enthusiasm of the public has displayed just how much the UK appreciate and rely upon the NHS. This should by no means be detracted from when addressing the lack of official government funding, but it can’t be forgotten that it is an essential and taxfunded system that should be at the forefront of government discussion. The reliance on our strained healthcare services during this time has demonstrated just how neglected it has become. The system should not be left to survive on the good will of people and charity alone.

It should be recognised that fundraisers have raised a fantastic amount of money and awareness for the cause and exceeded the £5million target of the Virgin Money Giving page. However, this high figure does not distract from the moral question of Virgin’s involvement. On the

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features 43

features

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

N H S : Taxes vs. Charity

words by: Indi Scott Whitehouse design by: Shafia Motaleb

T

he Covid-19 pandemic has seen a brilliant increase

in NHS charity events and campaigns. From Captain Tom Moore to young children selling crafts on their driveways, the nation has been working hard to display gratitude, fundraise and raise awareness for the healthcare system the UK is so lucky to have. Social media tags such as the ‘Run 5, Donate 5, Nominate 5’ have seen all ages and abilities raising money for the NHS. While it is important that the selfless efforts and appreciation of the public are recognised, the lack of government support that arguably made these additional funds necessary should not be ignored.

In an interview with The Guardian, chief executive of NHS Charities Together Rebecca Orton emphasised that the £92million that it had raised so far was an addition to state funding, rather than a replacement of it. Despite this, it is important to consider why such a large amount of additional funding is needed, and why the tax funding doesn’t appear to be enough. As an essential organisation that so many rely upon, it seems unjust that the NHS and its workers are consistently wronged by the government’s austerity measures. For example, in 2017 a majority of MPs voted against lifting the 1% pay raise cap for public sector workers - including all those who work for the NHS. One of these included Boris Johnson. Additionally, in July this year the government announced a pay rise for all public sector workers to recognise their hard work and efforts during the Covid-19 pandemic. However, this increase excluded NHS nurses, with the 2018 ‘3-year NHS payment plan’ used to suggest that nurses were not eligible for an additional pay rise. The performative gratitude shown by the Prime Minister clapping outside 10 Downing Street and publicly expressing thanks to those who nursed him when he saw firsthand the fundamental need for this system, seems futile when no official governmental support is being given to the staff that are essential in the survival of this pandemic.

11

It could also be argued that the government’s displayed affirmation of pu blic fundraising efforts, such as Boris Johnson’s public declarations of praise for Captain Tom Moore and participation in the ‘Clap for the NHS’, sees them taking advantage of individuals’ good will and using it to distract from the wrongdoings and lack of obligatory support that made such efforts necessary. For example, PPE is an indisputable necessity for NHS and key workers, so why has this cause not been funded by the government? Why have they been left reliant on the skills and generosity of volunteers?

“ The hypocrisy of this public praise does not just lie with the government." The hypocrisy of this public praise does not just lie with the government. Many of the large companies encouraging working-class fundraising could be rightly criticised for the suffering of the NHS. For example, V irgin Money Giving is being used as the main donation platform for the Run For Heroes ‘Run 5, Donate 5, Nominate 5’ Instagram tag. Virgin’s founder Richard Branson has not only been previously jailed for tax evasion having not paid income tax in at least 14 years, but also successfully sued the NHS in 2017 after failing to land a contract for children’s healthcare services. When recognising these factors, it does not seem unreasonable to question whether this company is in the moral position to so enthusiastically encourage honest, tax-paying individuals to donate, when the company’s absence of tax contribution could be recognised as a contributing factor to the lack of primary funds.

website participants are informed that charities using the platform are charged an upfront joining fee and then a “2% platform fee and a 2.5% payment processing fee on donations”. While these maintenance costs may seem necessary from a business point of view, this means that based on the already exceeded £5million target, Virgin would have made at least £225k from the wellmeaning donations to their ‘not-for-profit’ organisation. The fantastic amount of public involvement has seen fundraising figures soar during the pandemic, and the enthusiasm of the public has displayed just how much the UK appreciate and rely upon the NHS. This should by no means be detracted from when addressing the lack of official government funding, but it can’t be forgotten that it is an essential and taxfunded system that should be at the forefront of government discussion. The reliance on our strained healthcare services during this time has demonstrated just how neglected it has become. The system should not be left to survive on the good will of people and charity alone.

It should be recognised that fundraisers have raised a fantastic amount of money and awareness for the cause and exceeded the £5million target of the Virgin Money Giving page. However, this high figure does not distract from the moral question of Virgin’s involvement. On the

12


features

features

First-Class Advice from Your Final-Year Fairy Godmother CHECK YOUR GRADES You want a First? Then it’s time for some basic maths (sorry English graduates). Checking your grades may be a humbling starting point, but it can help you to visualise just how steep your final-year climb is going to be. There are a whole host of grade-calculating websites that can help you with this.

Remember – some degrees have different percentages per year. My first year didn’t count, so my second and third year were split 40%/60%, but I know other grads who’s first year counted for 10%. Keep this in mind when you’re calculating.

If you’d told me three years ago that I would graduate from Cardiff University with a firstclass degree I would have laughed. If you’d told me I would have achieved above 70% in all 12 of my contributing modules I would have cried, but I did achieve and do both of these things. However, this does not make me the world’s most perfect graduate. Even at the very end of my degree I was leaving 2000 word essays to days before their deadline, and the final few months of my degree were some of the hardest of my academic life. Now that I am well and truly out the other side, I’ve written this guide hoping to help all Quench readers to be in the best position possible to finish their degree with flying colours. To all those about to climb the final year mountain, it’s time to pull your socks up and double-knot your laces – this is dedicated to you.

have an optional dissertation embedded in your course, you’ve no doubt been doing the ‘diss dance’ for the first

dissertation felt like an impossible entanglement of ideas. But they were my ideas, and finally hitting submit on TurnItIn was the most empowering moment of my degree by far. Nevertheless, it is a mammoth task, and if you’ve hated your research-based modules then it’s important that you consider if it’s the right choice. Often worth the equivalent of two modules, your dissertation will make up a hefty percentage, and could make or break your final degree classification.

13

you will hear it a lot): it is an honour to be the first to tell you

in the library to get a sense of how an actual, finalised

that unlike literally every other assignment in the history of

dissertation looks. Note: if they are in the library they

university, you CANNOT leave a dissertation until the week

are hecking good. At the start of last year I also took out

before. My dissertation, including appendices and references

every book I could find on how to write an undergraduate

and results tables, was 55 pages, 10,000 words and 85,000

dissertation. They could become invaluable if there is, I

characters.

don’t know, a global pandemic that makes most academic staff members impossible to contact for large periods of time

words by: Rhianna Hurren-Myers

and you have to teach yourself what your analysis chapter

design by: Madeline Howell

needs to look like (I’m still mad).

·The most important piece of advice you will ever hear (and

DON’T LEAVE IT TO THE LAST MINUTE.

All the gear but no idea? Take it back to basics: So you want the perfect grad job to land on your lap, but you’ve no idea how to get it? Here’s a nudge in the right direction:

Should I? Shouldn’t I? If you are one of the lucky few that

few years of your degree. At the start of last year, my

·The library: go and have a look at some of the dissertations

·Pick a good topic: Your topic will be central to success. Pick something that you don’t care about and you’ll make the workload 100 times harder for yourself.

·Value your supervisor: Not only are they often the second marker, but they also know what they’re talking about, funnily enough. Create a good relationship, send them drafts on time and don’t cancel meetings last minute. Your future self

·Double-check your social footprint: Drunk videos of yourself on Facebook may have felt like a good idea at the time, but considering 80% of employers are likely to give you a stalk as part of their recruitment process I’d delete everything and anything you wouldn’t want them to see. - Polish up your CV - Check out Cardiff University’s career team and job site - Ensure you sign up for notifications and email updates ·Portfolio: If you’re interested in the creative industries, a CV actually isn’t all that helpful. I always make sure I also submit my portfolio for all jobs I apply to. Mine

will thank you.

14


features

features

First-Class Advice from Your Final-Year Fairy Godmother CHECK YOUR GRADES You want a First? Then it’s time for some basic maths (sorry English graduates). Checking your grades may be a humbling starting point, but it can help you to visualise just how steep your final-year climb is going to be. There are a whole host of grade-calculating websites that can help you with this.

Remember – some degrees have different percentages per year. My first year didn’t count, so my second and third year were split 40%/60%, but I know other grads who’s first year counted for 10%. Keep this in mind when you’re calculating.

If you’d told me three years ago that I would graduate from Cardiff University with a firstclass degree I would have laughed. If you’d told me I would have achieved above 70% in all 12 of my contributing modules I would have cried, but I did achieve and do both of these things. However, this does not make me the world’s most perfect graduate. Even at the very end of my degree I was leaving 2000 word essays to days before their deadline, and the final few months of my degree were some of the hardest of my academic life. Now that I am well and truly out the other side, I’ve written this guide hoping to help all Quench readers to be in the best position possible to finish their degree with flying colours. To all those about to climb the final year mountain, it’s time to pull your socks up and double-knot your laces – this is dedicated to you.

have an optional dissertation embedded in your course, you’ve no doubt been doing the ‘diss dance’ for the first

dissertation felt like an impossible entanglement of ideas. But they were my ideas, and finally hitting submit on TurnItIn was the most empowering moment of my degree by far. Nevertheless, it is a mammoth task, and if you’ve hated your research-based modules then it’s important that you consider if it’s the right choice. Often worth the equivalent of two modules, your dissertation will make up a hefty percentage, and could make or break your final degree classification.

13

you will hear it a lot): it is an honour to be the first to tell you

in the library to get a sense of how an actual, finalised

that unlike literally every other assignment in the history of

dissertation looks. Note: if they are in the library they

university, you CANNOT leave a dissertation until the week

are hecking good. At the start of last year I also took out

before. My dissertation, including appendices and references

every book I could find on how to write an undergraduate

and results tables, was 55 pages, 10,000 words and 85,000

dissertation. They could become invaluable if there is, I

characters.

don’t know, a global pandemic that makes most academic staff members impossible to contact for large periods of time

words by: Rhianna Hurren-Myers

and you have to teach yourself what your analysis chapter

design by: Madeline Howell

needs to look like (I’m still mad).

·The most important piece of advice you will ever hear (and

DON’T LEAVE IT TO THE LAST MINUTE.

All the gear but no idea? Take it back to basics: So you want the perfect grad job to land on your lap, but you’ve no idea how to get it? Here’s a nudge in the right direction:

Should I? Shouldn’t I? If you are one of the lucky few that

few years of your degree. At the start of last year, my

·The library: go and have a look at some of the dissertations

·Pick a good topic: Your topic will be central to success. Pick something that you don’t care about and you’ll make the workload 100 times harder for yourself.

·Value your supervisor: Not only are they often the second marker, but they also know what they’re talking about, funnily enough. Create a good relationship, send them drafts on time and don’t cancel meetings last minute. Your future self

·Double-check your social footprint: Drunk videos of yourself on Facebook may have felt like a good idea at the time, but considering 80% of employers are likely to give you a stalk as part of their recruitment process I’d delete everything and anything you wouldn’t want them to see. - Polish up your CV - Check out Cardiff University’s career team and job site - Ensure you sign up for notifications and email updates ·Portfolio: If you’re interested in the creative industries, a CV actually isn’t all that helpful. I always make sure I also submit my portfolio for all jobs I apply to. Mine

will thank you.

14


column43

column

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Like so many others, I was duped into the widespread belief that First year would indeed be ‘the best year of my life’. Life with no parents, little to no responsibilities and repercussions certainly seemed to amount the evidence in favour of this ideal. However, as the more observant readers may have already deduced, this was certainly not the case for my experience. Whilst I was aware of these preconceptions surrounding university and its all encompassing culture, they did little to prepare me for what my life would actually be here. I grew up in a relatively small town eerily similar to that of Hot Fuzz. Within my previous school, the situation was a similar story. Jumping from a closely knit community of around 200 students to an entire university districted and separated into various academic schools made for a daunting experience. My insights into university life prior to my arrival came from two sources; word of mouth, diluted via my older brother, or however they were reflected in popular media. The latter of these was most prominent represented through Fresh Meat; which whilst perhaps was accurate to most students across the nation in textbook student houses cascading with hidden crevices of black mould, it did little to prepare me for the reality of my Harry Potter cupboard-under-the-stairs-esque room in Taly North. All of these factors proved to be a little too much for me. In school I was confidently outspoken and comfortable in most situations, but the move from knowing everyone to no-one meant for no safety net. Truth be told, I felt lost. I struggled to create any meaningful friendships with both flatmates and coursemates. From the confines of my small room, I had the capacity to speak to my pre-existing friends from back home through my computer. In short, I had no impetus to go outside; why risk the anxiety and awkwardness of meeting new people when I already had people I could speak to? It was a pretty bleak time in my life, but this article isn’t trying to score pity points. Whilst the year did manifest itself in the lowest state of mental wellbeing I’ve ever experienced, it equally fashioned itself into the most valuable year of my life. Within my small room, I was forced to look introspectively; to understand what truly made me happy. In the absence of any companionship, I gained a sense of independence born

15

out of necessity. The mediums that had kept me stable prior to university, movies, gigs or otherwise, I now had to attend myself should I still want to enjoy them. Looking back at this time, this was certainly the silver lining of the rather greyish period. It’s worth mentioning that this independence and self-reliance can be achieved in far healthier circumstances, but that doesn’t detract from the value of looking for the positives in what might seem an unwaveringly negative experience. In addition to finding out what I could rely on to keep myself afloat, what equally came apparent was who I could rely on. I wasn’t afraid of reaching out when I was at my lowest, and it became evident who was willing to hear me out and support me, rather than those who had remained friends out of mere convenience or proximity. Because of this year, I knew exactly who I could turn to, almost all of whom I know I can still rely on to this day. Whilst it was disheartening to see those who I thought I could lean on slip into the background, it certainly worked out for the better in the end. Skipping forward to now, the traditionalist first year ideal of being out at a club at all, yet alone three times a week, seems like a distant dream. Moreover, with the shift away from majority face-to-face teaching means that you’re probably going to be spending a lot more time in your room. But, that’s not to say your first year is going to be saturated with similar mandated misery. There’s plenty of fun things you can still do from the confines of inside your flats, but it may take some adapting at first. I thankfully finished my third year with a host of new friends who I met through student media. Ultimately, my first year experience would prove to be one of the most pivotal periods of my life. Your first year doesn’t have to be as disastrous as mine without still learning a lot along the way. Take your newfound freedom to explore introspection and discover what you truly enjoy, as well as both cementing old friendships, and founding some new ones too. words by: Josh Ong design by: Amelia Field

and me

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

BAME words by: Josh Ong design by: Sandra Mbula Nzioki

In light of recent movements, there has been a wider discussion of implicitly racially insensitive language, and I’ve given a lot of thought to my particular relationship to the notion of being a BAME individual. Prior to this, I had never really given the term any thought at all; it was just a way of differentiating me from other people and reminding me that I’m not fully white.

are not taking [the pandemic] seriously enough”. When he was later criticised for his words, he simply asked “What else could I say?”. These horrifyingly damaging statements not only show the blatancy of discrimination shown towards minorities within this country, but equally reaffirms the use of the terminology as a scapegoat, seemingly voiding them from accountability.

For some context, I’m half-Malaysian, half-Irish. I’ve never really identified as a BAME person; I never wake up, and remember that being a BAME individual stands as a key piece of my cultural identity. I am, however, frequently reminded, whether by the presence of a golden waving cat on my bookshelf, or my offence towards a certain BBC fried rice video, that I am Asian. My only prompts that I am a BAME individual are when I see the term used in news articles and job applications.

Cardiff Students’ Union itself has a Black and Ethnic Minorities officer, whose job is to ‘represent the interests of Black students and students of minority ethnic backgrounds (BME) students.’’ The intentions of these roles at first, seems well placed; by creating the role, it is acknowledging that there are sections of society that are underrepresented and marginalised. However, by default, it presupposes that racism is one-dimensional, and experienced uniformly by all non-whites. If I were in the role as an individual with a Southeast-Asian background, I would neither feel comfortable, nor qualified, to fully understand or speak on behalf of the experiences and issues faced by other ethnic groups that would supposedly fall under my jurisdiction. I have been profiled and subjected to racial abuse at various stages throughout my life, especially more recently in the wake of Coronavirus’ origin from within China, but I have never felt my life was under threat on the sole basis of the colour of my skin. As an Asian person, I am three times less likely to be stopped by the police, and that’s without the influence of my white-half. I cannot escape this privilege, nor can I pretend that my experiences of racism, both implicit and explicit, are equitable via our joint ‘BAME identity’.

The term itself comes shrouded in relative ambiguity. As I have come to understand and re-evaluate my relationship with the term, the concept of just lumping together the profoundly diverse history, culture and identity of these ethnicities into one vast heterogeneous classification seems wildly demeaning. Most critically, the term creates a position in which being white is the racial default. Whilst the majority demographic of Britain is white, there lies a dangerous conflation between the idea of majority rule purporting to ethnic normality. This issue is only exacerbated by attempts at achieving diversity by simply appointing or selecting a BAME individual to speak on behalf of all ethnic minorities. When Secretary of State for Health & Social Care, Matt Hancock, was questioned on the number of Black people within the Government’s Cabinet, he spoke of the “whole series of people from a Black and ethnic minority background”. The two members he went on to cite were Priti Patel and Rishi Sunak, both of whom are of South-Asian descent. There are no Black MPs in the Cabinet. This feigned attempt at representation through thought diversity only reinforces the belittling of all minorities, even those who hold positions of power. There shouldn’t be an easy linguistic avenue through which politicians can deflect away from addressing real issues of representation and diversity. Moreover, when Conservative MP Craig Whittaker was questioned on the new local lockdowns within Northern England, his simple response of “it’s the BAME communities that

So, what’s the alternative? The term’s deployment has undoubtedly helped some, via the means of positive discrimination or otherwise, but it has equally come at the cost of stripping away the individuality of varied cultures, histories of all non-white ethnic groups. I don’t think I’ll ever classify myself as BAME, nor do I believe that the majority of non-whites would either. For as long as the term exists, it denotes and perpetuates the idea of white being normal and default. As Britain grows more diverse, we can no longer be apathetic in identifying and celebrating the individualistic backgrounds of different ethnic groups. There is no joint BAME identity or experience, so why do we keep being grouped together and treated identically?

16


column43

column

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Like so many others, I was duped into the widespread belief that First year would indeed be ‘the best year of my life’. Life with no parents, little to no responsibilities and repercussions certainly seemed to amount the evidence in favour of this ideal. However, as the more observant readers may have already deduced, this was certainly not the case for my experience. Whilst I was aware of these preconceptions surrounding university and its all encompassing culture, they did little to prepare me for what my life would actually be here. I grew up in a relatively small town eerily similar to that of Hot Fuzz. Within my previous school, the situation was a similar story. Jumping from a closely knit community of around 200 students to an entire university districted and separated into various academic schools made for a daunting experience. My insights into university life prior to my arrival came from two sources; word of mouth, diluted via my older brother, or however they were reflected in popular media. The latter of these was most prominent represented through Fresh Meat; which whilst perhaps was accurate to most students across the nation in textbook student houses cascading with hidden crevices of black mould, it did little to prepare me for the reality of my Harry Potter cupboard-under-the-stairs-esque room in Taly North. All of these factors proved to be a little too much for me. In school I was confidently outspoken and comfortable in most situations, but the move from knowing everyone to no-one meant for no safety net. Truth be told, I felt lost. I struggled to create any meaningful friendships with both flatmates and coursemates. From the confines of my small room, I had the capacity to speak to my pre-existing friends from back home through my computer. In short, I had no impetus to go outside; why risk the anxiety and awkwardness of meeting new people when I already had people I could speak to? It was a pretty bleak time in my life, but this article isn’t trying to score pity points. Whilst the year did manifest itself in the lowest state of mental wellbeing I’ve ever experienced, it equally fashioned itself into the most valuable year of my life. Within my small room, I was forced to look introspectively; to understand what truly made me happy. In the absence of any companionship, I gained a sense of independence born

15

out of necessity. The mediums that had kept me stable prior to university, movies, gigs or otherwise, I now had to attend myself should I still want to enjoy them. Looking back at this time, this was certainly the silver lining of the rather greyish period. It’s worth mentioning that this independence and self-reliance can be achieved in far healthier circumstances, but that doesn’t detract from the value of looking for the positives in what might seem an unwaveringly negative experience. In addition to finding out what I could rely on to keep myself afloat, what equally came apparent was who I could rely on. I wasn’t afraid of reaching out when I was at my lowest, and it became evident who was willing to hear me out and support me, rather than those who had remained friends out of mere convenience or proximity. Because of this year, I knew exactly who I could turn to, almost all of whom I know I can still rely on to this day. Whilst it was disheartening to see those who I thought I could lean on slip into the background, it certainly worked out for the better in the end. Skipping forward to now, the traditionalist first year ideal of being out at a club at all, yet alone three times a week, seems like a distant dream. Moreover, with the shift away from majority face-to-face teaching means that you’re probably going to be spending a lot more time in your room. But, that’s not to say your first year is going to be saturated with similar mandated misery. There’s plenty of fun things you can still do from the confines of inside your flats, but it may take some adapting at first. I thankfully finished my third year with a host of new friends who I met through student media. Ultimately, my first year experience would prove to be one of the most pivotal periods of my life. Your first year doesn’t have to be as disastrous as mine without still learning a lot along the way. Take your newfound freedom to explore introspection and discover what you truly enjoy, as well as both cementing old friendships, and founding some new ones too. words by: Josh Ong design by: Amelia Field

and me

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

BAME words by: Josh Ong design by: Sandra Mbula Nzioki

In light of recent movements, there has been a wider discussion of implicitly racially insensitive language, and I’ve given a lot of thought to my particular relationship to the notion of being a BAME individual. Prior to this, I had never really given the term any thought at all; it was just a way of differentiating me from other people and reminding me that I’m not fully white.

are not taking [the pandemic] seriously enough”. When he was later criticised for his words, he simply asked “What else could I say?”. These horrifyingly damaging statements not only show the blatancy of discrimination shown towards minorities within this country, but equally reaffirms the use of the terminology as a scapegoat, seemingly voiding them from accountability.

For some context, I’m half-Malaysian, half-Irish. I’ve never really identified as a BAME person; I never wake up, and remember that being a BAME individual stands as a key piece of my cultural identity. I am, however, frequently reminded, whether by the presence of a golden waving cat on my bookshelf, or my offence towards a certain BBC fried rice video, that I am Asian. My only prompts that I am a BAME individual are when I see the term used in news articles and job applications.

Cardiff Students’ Union itself has a Black and Ethnic Minorities officer, whose job is to ‘represent the interests of Black students and students of minority ethnic backgrounds (BME) students.’’ The intentions of these roles at first, seems well placed; by creating the role, it is acknowledging that there are sections of society that are underrepresented and marginalised. However, by default, it presupposes that racism is one-dimensional, and experienced uniformly by all non-whites. If I were in the role as an individual with a Southeast-Asian background, I would neither feel comfortable, nor qualified, to fully understand or speak on behalf of the experiences and issues faced by other ethnic groups that would supposedly fall under my jurisdiction. I have been profiled and subjected to racial abuse at various stages throughout my life, especially more recently in the wake of Coronavirus’ origin from within China, but I have never felt my life was under threat on the sole basis of the colour of my skin. As an Asian person, I am three times less likely to be stopped by the police, and that’s without the influence of my white-half. I cannot escape this privilege, nor can I pretend that my experiences of racism, both implicit and explicit, are equitable via our joint ‘BAME identity’.

The term itself comes shrouded in relative ambiguity. As I have come to understand and re-evaluate my relationship with the term, the concept of just lumping together the profoundly diverse history, culture and identity of these ethnicities into one vast heterogeneous classification seems wildly demeaning. Most critically, the term creates a position in which being white is the racial default. Whilst the majority demographic of Britain is white, there lies a dangerous conflation between the idea of majority rule purporting to ethnic normality. This issue is only exacerbated by attempts at achieving diversity by simply appointing or selecting a BAME individual to speak on behalf of all ethnic minorities. When Secretary of State for Health & Social Care, Matt Hancock, was questioned on the number of Black people within the Government’s Cabinet, he spoke of the “whole series of people from a Black and ethnic minority background”. The two members he went on to cite were Priti Patel and Rishi Sunak, both of whom are of South-Asian descent. There are no Black MPs in the Cabinet. This feigned attempt at representation through thought diversity only reinforces the belittling of all minorities, even those who hold positions of power. There shouldn’t be an easy linguistic avenue through which politicians can deflect away from addressing real issues of representation and diversity. Moreover, when Conservative MP Craig Whittaker was questioned on the new local lockdowns within Northern England, his simple response of “it’s the BAME communities that

So, what’s the alternative? The term’s deployment has undoubtedly helped some, via the means of positive discrimination or otherwise, but it has equally come at the cost of stripping away the individuality of varied cultures, histories of all non-white ethnic groups. I don’t think I’ll ever classify myself as BAME, nor do I believe that the majority of non-whites would either. For as long as the term exists, it denotes and perpetuates the idea of white being normal and default. As Britain grows more diverse, we can no longer be apathetic in identifying and celebrating the individualistic backgrounds of different ethnic groups. There is no joint BAME identity or experience, so why do we keep being grouped together and treated identically?

16


culture

culture

The Loss of Statues As I write this, it’s been over a month since our feeds were

British history and celebrates the slave-trade - a prejudice that

filled with images of the defaced Edward Colston statue, as we

cannot be condoned.

watched his figure be thrown into the very same dock that was used to transport the slaves he traded. This symbolic moment

The statement made at the Bristol protests has provoked other

sparked a wave of appeals and petitions to remove other racist

cities and campaigners to follow suit. The “Rhodes Must Fall”

celebratory statues across the country. As the removal of statues

campaign has led Oxford University to address the need to

becomes a prominent social topic it is important to examine the

remove its statue of Cecil Rhodes. London has also officially

significance of such actions, and how they will move the Black

removed the statue of Robert Milligan, the founder of the West

Lives Matter movement forward, and the impact that it will have

India Docks that served a main source for slave imports. Sadiq

on the future of Western culture.

Kahn equally announced that all London statues with links to slavery need to be reviewed. Even closer to home, the Mayor

It may seem bizarre that in the 21st century, there are still such

of Cardiff has publicly acknowledged the inappropriate existence

blatant celebratory emblems of racist slave traders. But sadly, for

of the Thomas Picton statue in Cardiff City Hall. The statue of

the BAME community, the figures who oppressed and abused

the slave trader and former governor of Trinidad has since been

their ancestors stand tall across the country. It has taken the

covered up.

vandalism of the Edward Colston statue and the state of ‘social

17

unrest’ to gain the government and media attention that this

In contrast to the Prime minister’s claim that the removal of these

glorified discrimination needed. Colston’s statue stood in Bristol

statues is an unjust attempt to ‘censor history’, their removal can

to allegedly celebrate his philanthropic charity work. However, the

be seen as a creation of history and social change, rather than

statue and its plaque make no mention of the countless enslaved

the elimination of it. The names of these slave-traders and owners

and abused individuals that he transported in order to achieve

will still remain in textbooks, museums and documentaries. The

the wealth that he publicly shared. The toppling of his statue

removal of their statues makes the important statement that

sees the modern generation acting against the ignorance that

racism and the slave trade is a part of our culture that is not to

still remains in British culture and our historical education. This

be celebrated.

statue is one of the many that marks the main slave-trading ports

The removal of these statues make the Black Lives Matter

across the country, particularly in Bristol, London and Liverpool-

movement even more culturally significant to the future of society,

whose metropolitan environments and wealth stems from the

and hopefully points towards a time when racist historical figures

transportation of the transatlantic slave trade. These have often

are no longer glorified heritage symbols and are rather used as

pinpointed the geographical origins of racist pain and suffering,

evidence in the pursuit of racial justice and equality. The removal

and discriminate the BAME community from ‘whitewashed’

of them marks a pivotal point in history and in the BLM movement,

that will educate future generations on the power of social action

was temporarily replaced by a statue of protester, Jen Reid, before

and cultural change.

being removed by Bristol council. Artist Marc Mcquinn has mimicked the image seen on the day of Colston’s removal, when Reid stood

Despite government disapproval of these ‘violent’ actions,

on the empty plinth in posing with the iconic Black Power salute. This

the protesters’ clear motive to discourage the celebration of

makes a significant cultural statement and sets a new agenda for

Britain’s racist past and achieve justice for the BAME community

the historical praise that statues symbolise. Mcquinn’s statue sees a

means that this cannot be labelled as a mindless expression of

creation of contemporary history and marks a move towards a more

aggression. Demonstrators are using the actions upon physical

culturally inclusive celebration of British history. Instead of being socially

cultural symbols (such as the vandalism of Winston Churchill’s

oppressed by the celebration of the figures who enslaved their ancestors,

statue) to make a statement that the petitions and letters have

the BAME community should no longer have to be surrounded by the

not yet achieved their final goal. While the more peacefully

glorified discrimination these tributes represent.

compliant techniques have gained a certain degree of political recognition, it can be argued that they have not triggered as

The removal of the statues should not be viewed as a loss, but instead

much cultural change as we have seen since the toppling of

as an achievement for the fight against racial injustice. History remains

Edward Colston’s statue.

intact and is not being removed. The loss of the statues sees the loss of a celebrated prejudice, and the gain of social power and cultural

Historically, it is physical and forceful actions such as the toppling

inclusivity. The statue removal in Bristol pinpointed a cultural shift in

of Colston’s statue that act as successful catalysts for political

British history and hopefully marks the start of more significant social

change. To quote Emmeline Pankhurst, “Deeds not words”

progress.

have achieved increased political attention throughout history. The Suffragettes smashed shopfronts and vandalised public buildings to achieve the recognition of womens’ right to vote.

words by: Indi Scott Whitehouse design by: Kacey Keane art by: Banksy

Martha P. Johnson led the 1969 Stonewall Riots, which sparked gradual increase in the political acknowledgement for LGBTQ+ rights and equality. These are just a couple of examples of how bold material disruptions to society are successful in stimulating social change to the oppressing conditions of cultural norms. The protesters’ removal of Edward Colston aligns itself with the historically triumphant techniques for political change and is therefore a fundamental moment in the Black Lives Matter movement.

As a physical commemoration of this, Edward Colston’s statue

18


culture

culture

The Loss of Statues As I write this, it’s been over a month since our feeds were

British history and celebrates the slave-trade - a prejudice that

filled with images of the defaced Edward Colston statue, as we

cannot be condoned.

watched his figure be thrown into the very same dock that was used to transport the slaves he traded. This symbolic moment

The statement made at the Bristol protests has provoked other

sparked a wave of appeals and petitions to remove other racist

cities and campaigners to follow suit. The “Rhodes Must Fall”

celebratory statues across the country. As the removal of statues

campaign has led Oxford University to address the need to

becomes a prominent social topic it is important to examine the

remove its statue of Cecil Rhodes. London has also officially

significance of such actions, and how they will move the Black

removed the statue of Robert Milligan, the founder of the West

Lives Matter movement forward, and the impact that it will have

India Docks that served a main source for slave imports. Sadiq

on the future of Western culture.

Kahn equally announced that all London statues with links to slavery need to be reviewed. Even closer to home, the Mayor

It may seem bizarre that in the 21st century, there are still such

of Cardiff has publicly acknowledged the inappropriate existence

blatant celebratory emblems of racist slave traders. But sadly, for

of the Thomas Picton statue in Cardiff City Hall. The statue of

the BAME community, the figures who oppressed and abused

the slave trader and former governor of Trinidad has since been

their ancestors stand tall across the country. It has taken the

covered up.

vandalism of the Edward Colston statue and the state of ‘social

17

unrest’ to gain the government and media attention that this

In contrast to the Prime minister’s claim that the removal of these

glorified discrimination needed. Colston’s statue stood in Bristol

statues is an unjust attempt to ‘censor history’, their removal can

to allegedly celebrate his philanthropic charity work. However, the

be seen as a creation of history and social change, rather than

statue and its plaque make no mention of the countless enslaved

the elimination of it. The names of these slave-traders and owners

and abused individuals that he transported in order to achieve

will still remain in textbooks, museums and documentaries. The

the wealth that he publicly shared. The toppling of his statue

removal of their statues makes the important statement that

sees the modern generation acting against the ignorance that

racism and the slave trade is a part of our culture that is not to

still remains in British culture and our historical education. This

be celebrated.

statue is one of the many that marks the main slave-trading ports

The removal of these statues make the Black Lives Matter

across the country, particularly in Bristol, London and Liverpool-

movement even more culturally significant to the future of society,

whose metropolitan environments and wealth stems from the

and hopefully points towards a time when racist historical figures

transportation of the transatlantic slave trade. These have often

are no longer glorified heritage symbols and are rather used as

pinpointed the geographical origins of racist pain and suffering,

evidence in the pursuit of racial justice and equality. The removal

and discriminate the BAME community from ‘whitewashed’

of them marks a pivotal point in history and in the BLM movement,

that will educate future generations on the power of social action

was temporarily replaced by a statue of protester, Jen Reid, before

and cultural change.

being removed by Bristol council. Artist Marc Mcquinn has mimicked the image seen on the day of Colston’s removal, when Reid stood

Despite government disapproval of these ‘violent’ actions,

on the empty plinth in posing with the iconic Black Power salute. This

the protesters’ clear motive to discourage the celebration of

makes a significant cultural statement and sets a new agenda for

Britain’s racist past and achieve justice for the BAME community

the historical praise that statues symbolise. Mcquinn’s statue sees a

means that this cannot be labelled as a mindless expression of

creation of contemporary history and marks a move towards a more

aggression. Demonstrators are using the actions upon physical

culturally inclusive celebration of British history. Instead of being socially

cultural symbols (such as the vandalism of Winston Churchill’s

oppressed by the celebration of the figures who enslaved their ancestors,

statue) to make a statement that the petitions and letters have

the BAME community should no longer have to be surrounded by the

not yet achieved their final goal. While the more peacefully

glorified discrimination these tributes represent.

compliant techniques have gained a certain degree of political recognition, it can be argued that they have not triggered as

The removal of the statues should not be viewed as a loss, but instead

much cultural change as we have seen since the toppling of

as an achievement for the fight against racial injustice. History remains

Edward Colston’s statue.

intact and is not being removed. The loss of the statues sees the loss of a celebrated prejudice, and the gain of social power and cultural

Historically, it is physical and forceful actions such as the toppling

inclusivity. The statue removal in Bristol pinpointed a cultural shift in

of Colston’s statue that act as successful catalysts for political

British history and hopefully marks the start of more significant social

change. To quote Emmeline Pankhurst, “Deeds not words”

progress.

have achieved increased political attention throughout history. The Suffragettes smashed shopfronts and vandalised public buildings to achieve the recognition of womens’ right to vote.

words by: Indi Scott Whitehouse design by: Kacey Keane art by: Banksy

Martha P. Johnson led the 1969 Stonewall Riots, which sparked gradual increase in the political acknowledgement for LGBTQ+ rights and equality. These are just a couple of examples of how bold material disruptions to society are successful in stimulating social change to the oppressing conditions of cultural norms. The protesters’ removal of Edward Colston aligns itself with the historically triumphant techniques for political change and is therefore a fundamental moment in the Black Lives Matter movement.

As a physical commemoration of this, Edward Colston’s statue

18


culture

culture

The Art of Lost Time design by: Kacey Keane

Starting a Podcast words by: Sahina Sherchan

Making Jewellery words by: Kacey Keane

In an attempt to find solace, it seems that the whole world is rummaging through old ideas and trying out different hobbies, all whilst wearing the same pyjamas every day with the hope to make our seconds a little more bearable. People are learning a new language, writing a book, baking a cake every other day, opening a new Depop account to sell their handmade earrings, or believing themselves to be interesting enough to start a podcast with their friends (I am that lockdown cliché).

After completing my first year being isolated at home thanks to Covid-19, I felt the urge to do something that would allow me to express my creativity again. From a young age, I would often attempt to make jewellery, so during lockdown I decided to pick this hobby back up again. Replacing beads and string with resin allowed me to experiment with different materials such as dried flowers, glitter, seaweed, and paint to create unique designs and artistic effects. Learning how to create resin jewellery has allowed me to connect with friends and family by making customised pieces for them. Developing this hobby has been the boost of positivity I needed during these unprecedented times, and I hope to carry on making funky resin jewellery through my small business ‘@Ktheyfunky’ on Etsy and Depop. In the past few months, I have seen the rise of small businesses on social media, which shows how being in lockdown has sparked people’s desire to learn new skills and get creative. Scrolling down my social media feed to see handmade clothing and accessories inspires me to shop small and continue being a part of this new culture of handmade creations.

In many ways, this amateur podcast is the only thing in my control during these uncertain times. The routine to upload an episode every week is weirdly comforting. I never thought I’d miss being committed to something. We’ve formatted the podcast episodes to include a new guest each week, each one discussing a different topic, which has been a breath of fresh air (well, as fresh as air can be recording from your room). It also helps that I don’t have to just talk to myself and freak out my family. Instead, with this podcast, I can talk to real living, breathing, human beings. All in all, this podcast is keeping both the conversation and our will to live alive.

19

Letter Writing words by: Morgan McGowan

Writing and Art words by: Rowan Davies

Since lockdown started, I’ve been writing. I’ve sent letters and postcards across the UK and even further across the Atlantic. There’s something really interesting about this kind of extended correspondence–there’s certainly more of a thrill associated with posting a letter than there is with sending a text. While I wouldn’t say that I end up thinking more about what I’m writing, it still feels more deliberate, even when discussing undeniably nonsensical topics. I’m sure that I will never forget the wonderful discussion about the drama and Gothicism inherent in wax seals which occupied us for several weeks. There’s also something incredibly special about receiving a letter. Over the past few months, I can only think of a few moments where I have been as happy as when I’ve been reading a letter that had just arrived. My sister is still somewhat bemused by it; “but why can’t you just text each other?” she asks on a semi-regular basis. I have tried in vain to explain that yes, of course we still text each other, but I can’t exactly enclose a small gift or a terrible doodle when I send a text. Whilst instant messaging is a wonderful thing, and one which I still use daily, I find that it doesn’t compare to the act of sending and receiving a letter.

The mirror has evolved to become a symbol of reflection and self-evaluation and has never possessed as much power and influence as it does during our current social climate. Staring at my reflection each day has progressively peeled back the layers of my existence, highlighting every minuscule detail I subconsciously loathe about myself: my hair, my bodily features, my inconsistency to explore new things. It appears to be the little things that fuel my frustration, thus completely eradicating me of character and spirit. It is also these recent thoughts of mine that have allowed me to form a deeper relationship with myself. Through this mentally exhausting period where I cannot seem to let go of those voices of self-doubt, I have come to re-establish my drive to continue writing and creating art. Being enclosed in the confines of my own home has put me to the ultimate creative test, where during this time I have searched in every way for inspiration through photography, independent reading, and mood board creating, forming a powerful artistic urge within me to set up and curate my own online platform. It is a place that maintains my sanity and keeps my thought processes intact, but most significantly, it is a place where I have total control. I guess that what I have ultimately discovered through this experience is that mental restraint is simply a gateway to greatness. After all, the most talented artists have blossomed from their roots of oppression.

20


culture

culture

The Art of Lost Time design by: Kacey Keane

Starting a Podcast words by: Sahina Sherchan

Making Jewellery words by: Kacey Keane

In an attempt to find solace, it seems that the whole world is rummaging through old ideas and trying out different hobbies, all whilst wearing the same pyjamas every day with the hope to make our seconds a little more bearable. People are learning a new language, writing a book, baking a cake every other day, opening a new Depop account to sell their handmade earrings, or believing themselves to be interesting enough to start a podcast with their friends (I am that lockdown cliché).

After completing my first year being isolated at home thanks to Covid-19, I felt the urge to do something that would allow me to express my creativity again. From a young age, I would often attempt to make jewellery, so during lockdown I decided to pick this hobby back up again. Replacing beads and string with resin allowed me to experiment with different materials such as dried flowers, glitter, seaweed, and paint to create unique designs and artistic effects. Learning how to create resin jewellery has allowed me to connect with friends and family by making customised pieces for them. Developing this hobby has been the boost of positivity I needed during these unprecedented times, and I hope to carry on making funky resin jewellery through my small business ‘@Ktheyfunky’ on Etsy and Depop. In the past few months, I have seen the rise of small businesses on social media, which shows how being in lockdown has sparked people’s desire to learn new skills and get creative. Scrolling down my social media feed to see handmade clothing and accessories inspires me to shop small and continue being a part of this new culture of handmade creations.

In many ways, this amateur podcast is the only thing in my control during these uncertain times. The routine to upload an episode every week is weirdly comforting. I never thought I’d miss being committed to something. We’ve formatted the podcast episodes to include a new guest each week, each one discussing a different topic, which has been a breath of fresh air (well, as fresh as air can be recording from your room). It also helps that I don’t have to just talk to myself and freak out my family. Instead, with this podcast, I can talk to real living, breathing, human beings. All in all, this podcast is keeping both the conversation and our will to live alive.

19

Letter Writing words by: Morgan McGowan

Writing and Art words by: Rowan Davies

Since lockdown started, I’ve been writing. I’ve sent letters and postcards across the UK and even further across the Atlantic. There’s something really interesting about this kind of extended correspondence–there’s certainly more of a thrill associated with posting a letter than there is with sending a text. While I wouldn’t say that I end up thinking more about what I’m writing, it still feels more deliberate, even when discussing undeniably nonsensical topics. I’m sure that I will never forget the wonderful discussion about the drama and Gothicism inherent in wax seals which occupied us for several weeks. There’s also something incredibly special about receiving a letter. Over the past few months, I can only think of a few moments where I have been as happy as when I’ve been reading a letter that had just arrived. My sister is still somewhat bemused by it; “but why can’t you just text each other?” she asks on a semi-regular basis. I have tried in vain to explain that yes, of course we still text each other, but I can’t exactly enclose a small gift or a terrible doodle when I send a text. Whilst instant messaging is a wonderful thing, and one which I still use daily, I find that it doesn’t compare to the act of sending and receiving a letter.

The mirror has evolved to become a symbol of reflection and self-evaluation and has never possessed as much power and influence as it does during our current social climate. Staring at my reflection each day has progressively peeled back the layers of my existence, highlighting every minuscule detail I subconsciously loathe about myself: my hair, my bodily features, my inconsistency to explore new things. It appears to be the little things that fuel my frustration, thus completely eradicating me of character and spirit. It is also these recent thoughts of mine that have allowed me to form a deeper relationship with myself. Through this mentally exhausting period where I cannot seem to let go of those voices of self-doubt, I have come to re-establish my drive to continue writing and creating art. Being enclosed in the confines of my own home has put me to the ultimate creative test, where during this time I have searched in every way for inspiration through photography, independent reading, and mood board creating, forming a powerful artistic urge within me to set up and curate my own online platform. It is a place that maintains my sanity and keeps my thought processes intact, but most significantly, it is a place where I have total control. I guess that what I have ultimately discovered through this experience is that mental restraint is simply a gateway to greatness. After all, the most talented artists have blossomed from their roots of oppression.

20


Roath Lake holds a special place in my heart. I’m lucky enough to cycle around

Plants have never been something which

it on my route to work, a moment which

excited me, but after meeting Elly, I’ve

instills a dose of serenity into my day. It’s

become an avid plant lover. Throughout

at its best when the sun just starts to dip

COVID-19, I’ve started to find real joy

and the light ripples across the water, with

in the simple things again. Watering,

the white lighthouse standing tall and the

feeding and trimming the plants is such

swans sweeping across below.

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

WHat We’re Loving

Whilst Cardiff is full of beautiful spots,

a simple and yet rewarding experience. I love seeing new leaves unfurl and flowers bloom. I only wish my student room had

I might be in the minority here, but for

space for more!

me, the unexpected saving grace of this year has to be the arrival of face masks.

Hello Fresh is a subscription service which

As well as being a necessity to prevent

provides you with fresh ingredients to

covid transmissions, they add a splash of

make meals from scratch. For someone

anonymity and intrigue into our daily lives.

who isn’t a very confident cook, this

What’s hiding behind the mask? Who

was a game changer. Every meal I

knows, everybody looks better with their

made was guaranteed to taste delicious

nose and mouth covered anyway…

with instructions and portions already prepared for me. It gave me so much more confidence in myself, so much so that in

Should changing your hair be something

the end I was cooking for my whole house.

that is planned and considered, or should it be something that’s done in the COVID-19 took many things away, but

moment? I’ve always made decisions on

there was one thing I found myself in

a whim, reaching for a box of dye without

abundance of: time. Once I’d adapted

a second’s thought or placing the kitchen

to my newfound way of life, one of my

scissors in the hands of my bewildered

favourite ways to pass the time was to

mother and insisting on a change. Whilst

simply sit outside, with a glass of wine and

it’s led to some disasters, I haven’t grown

the incredible music of Phoebe Bridgers,

tired of my impulsivity yet.

or Clairo aka sad indie girl music and enjoy watching the world go by.

21

words by: Jasmine Snow and Elly Savva design by: Jasmine Snow

22


Roath Lake holds a special place in my heart. I’m lucky enough to cycle around

Plants have never been something which

it on my route to work, a moment which

excited me, but after meeting Elly, I’ve

instills a dose of serenity into my day. It’s

become an avid plant lover. Throughout

at its best when the sun just starts to dip

COVID-19, I’ve started to find real joy

and the light ripples across the water, with

in the simple things again. Watering,

the white lighthouse standing tall and the

feeding and trimming the plants is such

swans sweeping across below.

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

WHat We’re Loving

Whilst Cardiff is full of beautiful spots,

a simple and yet rewarding experience. I love seeing new leaves unfurl and flowers bloom. I only wish my student room had

I might be in the minority here, but for

space for more!

me, the unexpected saving grace of this year has to be the arrival of face masks.

Hello Fresh is a subscription service which

As well as being a necessity to prevent

provides you with fresh ingredients to

covid transmissions, they add a splash of

make meals from scratch. For someone

anonymity and intrigue into our daily lives.

who isn’t a very confident cook, this

What’s hiding behind the mask? Who

was a game changer. Every meal I

knows, everybody looks better with their

made was guaranteed to taste delicious

nose and mouth covered anyway…

with instructions and portions already prepared for me. It gave me so much more confidence in myself, so much so that in

Should changing your hair be something

the end I was cooking for my whole house.

that is planned and considered, or should it be something that’s done in the COVID-19 took many things away, but

moment? I’ve always made decisions on

there was one thing I found myself in

a whim, reaching for a box of dye without

abundance of: time. Once I’d adapted

a second’s thought or placing the kitchen

to my newfound way of life, one of my

scissors in the hands of my bewildered

favourite ways to pass the time was to

mother and insisting on a change. Whilst

simply sit outside, with a glass of wine and

it’s led to some disasters, I haven’t grown

the incredible music of Phoebe Bridgers,

tired of my impulsivity yet.

or Clairo aka sad indie girl music and enjoy watching the world go by.

21

words by: Jasmine Snow and Elly Savva design by: Jasmine Snow

22


43 film & tv

Out of Sight,Out of Mind?

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

film & tv

words by: Nidhi Pattni design by: Amelia Field

We are witnessing a revolution, one that is long overdue and began long before it was trending. The tragic death of George Floyd on May 25th, 2020, sparked a global outcry against the long-running pattern of innocent Black lives being brutally murdered at the hands of racist police officers. However, the conversation is not only about America’s long history of police brutality but about the culture of discrimination and injustice that exists in every facet of life for Black people. Productive conversations between non-Black communities on how they can be better allies were taking place every day. What actions are helpful, and what are instead performative and/or counterproductive? With this came important decisions on how to move forward. Some of these decisions were taken by network executives after they were asked to look at their line-up of content, which for decades included offensive racial stereotypes in their storytelling. HBO MAX made the controversial decision to temporarily pull Gone with the Wind from their streaming platform. This move came shortly after screenwriter John Ridley expressed that the film should be removed and re-introduced with disclaimers informing viewers of the harmful racial stereotypes laced into the story.

23

the racist stereotypes programmes contained before they progressed to watch them. These decisions have equally been met with criticism, mostly from fans of these famous television shows and movies. These reactions all have one thing in common: a disregard for the monumental impact cinema and art has in shaping societies. Stereotypes continue to exist because they’re repeated. When the massively popular HBO show, The Simpsons, perpetuates the tired narrative of the stereotypical Indian who feasts on monkey brains, the thoughts of those who see the Indian community through an already narrow lens only become solidified. It’s a vicious cycle of misrepresentation where marginalised communities face the consequences - all for the masses to enjoy a few laughs. Critics of HBO’s decision claimed that the move was censorship at best. However, that argument failed to acknowledge that the series was still available to watch on other platforms. Also noteworthy is that HBO is not a government entity, but a private company that has the liberty to make content decisions. The mere fact that fans are angry over the removal of a beloved film from just one platform echoes a larger mindset, one that attaches more value to offensive art than to the ones offended.

The fight for racial equality, specifically the Black Lives Matter movement, is far more important than a film buff’s problematic attachment to an 80-year-old film. When implications of stereotypes against African-Americans are literally life-threatening, the question shouldn’t be how we can enjoy these works of art without feeling guilty of its offensive exploitation of the black experience. It should be how to amplify and be permanent allies, beyond marketing gimmicks and surface level actions that seem to be in favour of the film or work of art in question rather than marginalised voices that need our support.

Now the question of whether racist and problematic content should be removed or be presented with disclaimers before they begin is one that is complex. On one hand, the removal of harmful content is a statement of support showing that the network doesn’t endorse racially offensive character tropes. However, this is also a convenient way for networks to erase their racist past. It is a mode of damage control rather than a show of solidarity. Also, erasing this content takes away from the conversation about the toxic ways minorities have been represented for decades. In order to ensure that future content steers clear of offensive and tired stereotypes, an acknowledgment of past mistakes is essential.

Similar decisions were taken by several other networks including Disney+, adding disclaimers to warn viewers of

As an Indian woman, I have often been frustrated by representations that diluted my culture into an offensive

stereotype. Whether that’s Apu from The Simpsons or Rajesh Koothrapalli from The Big Bang Theory, I was consistently disappointed by how my community was so lazily misrepresented. Both these shows are beloved pop culture classics and will remain so for decades to come, hence adding a disclaimer or removing the content will do nothing to reduce the royalties that the networks and makers continue to enjoy. Ultimately, the damage is done, and is still being done with the mere existence of these shows. I believe that the question of whether a piece of art should be erased or re-introduced with disclaimers makes it very easy for writers and producers to dust their hands off of the damage they’ve caused to minorities for years. It makes their role simple and is almost a statement within itself that the hurt caused can almost be reversed with a few minor changes to the content. In order for producers, writers, directors and networks to truly become a part of the movement (that is if it was their intention in the first place), these minor changes are only scratching the surface. These changes should have been made years ago, why have they waited so long? The Black Lives Matter movement is hardly new. Network executives knew what they were doing. We have seen Black communities fight for their rights for centuries, and more recently with social media the movement has been increasingly gaining momentum, but nonetheless it has been around for a very long time. The fact that no support was provided before this, shows that there was simply a lack of interest due to no pressure put on them to take action. Communities that have been given the short end of the stick with how they were represented don’t just need to be shown the most basic level of respect, but also need to be given a seat at the table to represent themselves. Netflix curated a list of films and documentaries created and starring black artists, however is that enough? Shouldn’t they be making more of an effort to amplify black voices and put money behind content produced by black creators?

Past errors of judgement by network executives cannot be rectified, but they can do a better job at being allies by creating an environment where diversity is not just an but the goal. The problem of obligation misrepresentation is not a new one, it has been decades of non-black storytellers speaking for and over the community. The pain and isolation felt by these communities as a result is only known to them, and to believe that a few logistical changes to your streaming platform can even begin to repair that damage is insulting. The platforms that for so long misrepresented Black communities need to make real change within their organisation to include more Black voices, who can tell their own stories. What they do with racially insensitive content they created in the past is only one of the many changes they need to make in order to show their solidarity and respect for the communities they have profited from, it’s the least they can do.

24


43 film & tv

Out of Sight,Out of Mind?

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

film & tv

words by: Nidhi Pattni design by: Amelia Field

We are witnessing a revolution, one that is long overdue and began long before it was trending. The tragic death of George Floyd on May 25th, 2020, sparked a global outcry against the long-running pattern of innocent Black lives being brutally murdered at the hands of racist police officers. However, the conversation is not only about America’s long history of police brutality but about the culture of discrimination and injustice that exists in every facet of life for Black people. Productive conversations between non-Black communities on how they can be better allies were taking place every day. What actions are helpful, and what are instead performative and/or counterproductive? With this came important decisions on how to move forward. Some of these decisions were taken by network executives after they were asked to look at their line-up of content, which for decades included offensive racial stereotypes in their storytelling. HBO MAX made the controversial decision to temporarily pull Gone with the Wind from their streaming platform. This move came shortly after screenwriter John Ridley expressed that the film should be removed and re-introduced with disclaimers informing viewers of the harmful racial stereotypes laced into the story.

23

the racist stereotypes programmes contained before they progressed to watch them. These decisions have equally been met with criticism, mostly from fans of these famous television shows and movies. These reactions all have one thing in common: a disregard for the monumental impact cinema and art has in shaping societies. Stereotypes continue to exist because they’re repeated. When the massively popular HBO show, The Simpsons, perpetuates the tired narrative of the stereotypical Indian who feasts on monkey brains, the thoughts of those who see the Indian community through an already narrow lens only become solidified. It’s a vicious cycle of misrepresentation where marginalised communities face the consequences - all for the masses to enjoy a few laughs. Critics of HBO’s decision claimed that the move was censorship at best. However, that argument failed to acknowledge that the series was still available to watch on other platforms. Also noteworthy is that HBO is not a government entity, but a private company that has the liberty to make content decisions. The mere fact that fans are angry over the removal of a beloved film from just one platform echoes a larger mindset, one that attaches more value to offensive art than to the ones offended.

The fight for racial equality, specifically the Black Lives Matter movement, is far more important than a film buff’s problematic attachment to an 80-year-old film. When implications of stereotypes against African-Americans are literally life-threatening, the question shouldn’t be how we can enjoy these works of art without feeling guilty of its offensive exploitation of the black experience. It should be how to amplify and be permanent allies, beyond marketing gimmicks and surface level actions that seem to be in favour of the film or work of art in question rather than marginalised voices that need our support.

Now the question of whether racist and problematic content should be removed or be presented with disclaimers before they begin is one that is complex. On one hand, the removal of harmful content is a statement of support showing that the network doesn’t endorse racially offensive character tropes. However, this is also a convenient way for networks to erase their racist past. It is a mode of damage control rather than a show of solidarity. Also, erasing this content takes away from the conversation about the toxic ways minorities have been represented for decades. In order to ensure that future content steers clear of offensive and tired stereotypes, an acknowledgment of past mistakes is essential.

Similar decisions were taken by several other networks including Disney+, adding disclaimers to warn viewers of

As an Indian woman, I have often been frustrated by representations that diluted my culture into an offensive

stereotype. Whether that’s Apu from The Simpsons or Rajesh Koothrapalli from The Big Bang Theory, I was consistently disappointed by how my community was so lazily misrepresented. Both these shows are beloved pop culture classics and will remain so for decades to come, hence adding a disclaimer or removing the content will do nothing to reduce the royalties that the networks and makers continue to enjoy. Ultimately, the damage is done, and is still being done with the mere existence of these shows. I believe that the question of whether a piece of art should be erased or re-introduced with disclaimers makes it very easy for writers and producers to dust their hands off of the damage they’ve caused to minorities for years. It makes their role simple and is almost a statement within itself that the hurt caused can almost be reversed with a few minor changes to the content. In order for producers, writers, directors and networks to truly become a part of the movement (that is if it was their intention in the first place), these minor changes are only scratching the surface. These changes should have been made years ago, why have they waited so long? The Black Lives Matter movement is hardly new. Network executives knew what they were doing. We have seen Black communities fight for their rights for centuries, and more recently with social media the movement has been increasingly gaining momentum, but nonetheless it has been around for a very long time. The fact that no support was provided before this, shows that there was simply a lack of interest due to no pressure put on them to take action. Communities that have been given the short end of the stick with how they were represented don’t just need to be shown the most basic level of respect, but also need to be given a seat at the table to represent themselves. Netflix curated a list of films and documentaries created and starring black artists, however is that enough? Shouldn’t they be making more of an effort to amplify black voices and put money behind content produced by black creators?

Past errors of judgement by network executives cannot be rectified, but they can do a better job at being allies by creating an environment where diversity is not just an obligation but the goal. The problem of misrepresentation is not a new one, it has been decades of non-black storytellers speaking for and over the community. The pain and isolation felt by these communities as a result is only known to them, and to believe that a few logistical changes to your streaming platform can even begin to repair that damage is insulting. The platforms that for so long misrepresented Black communities need to make real change within their organisation to include more Black voices, who can tell their own stories. What they do with racially insensitive content they created in the past is only one of the many changes they need to make in order to show their solidarity and respect for the communities they have profited from, it’s the least they can do.

24


film & tv

Kubo and the Two Strings (2016) By Matt Taylor

Chicken Run (2000) By Tabitha Down

Quite simply, Kubo and the Two Strings is Laika’s magnum opus. Though it was only the studio’s fourth feature film, I shall be staggered if they make anything that supersedes it. It’s a beautiful, life-affirming film about faith, family, and loss packed with stunning performances, edge-of-your-seat action, a tremendously moving score by Dario Marianelli, and some of the most drop-dead gorgeous visuals ever put to film.

So, it is like The Great Escape… but with chickens. Imagine the looks that the person pitching this idea got in the Aardman boardroom. Following the massive success of the first three Wallace and Gromit short films throughout the 90’s, Chicken Run hit our screens in 2000 as Aardman Animation’s first feature length film. With the success of its predecessors alongside an incredible cast including actors Mel Gibson, Imelda Staunton and Timothy Spall, it is no wonder it became the highest grossing stop-motion film in animation history. As well as its truly unique animation style, Chicken Run actually makes you LOL - like actually laugh, not just a small nose exhale.

If you’re wondering how gorgeous Kubo is, it is the only film in history to be nominated for both Best Visual Effects and Best Animated Feature at the Academy Awards, and it is all stop-motion. Everything we see (save a few greenscreen backgrounds) is real, and it’s frankly outrageous for a movie to look this good – you could choose any single frame and put it in an art gallery, and it wouldn’t be out of place. It’s also not entirely a kids’ movie: first-time director Travis Knight, who would go on to direct the excellent Bumblebee (2018), refuses to shy away from the film’s darker aspects. While there are fantastic comedic moments throughout, much of the film is extremely dark and grown-up (look no further than the genuinely terrifying Sisters, or those creepy eyes at the bottom of the lake). Kubo strikes a perfect balance between light and dark that most animated movies never even attempt to find, and it’s all the better for it. Kubo is, effortlessly and brilliantly, one of the greatest animated movies of all time.

25

film & tv

The Prince of Egypt (1998) By Sallie Phillips The Prince of Egypt is a film that has everything required to be an animated classic, but is, in my opinion, criminally underrated. This is despite the fact that it was made by animation heavyweight DreamWorks. I adore this film because of the way it handles such a difficult topic, especially in a children’s film and I think many people could do worse than this film to gain an understanding of the story of Moses and the Plagues of Egypt. Given that I am Jewish, I have a personal attachment to the film and its inspirational story. I also love this film because of the beautiful hand drawn animation and the sweeping landscape designs, with the choices of natural colours for the backgrounds. For me, one of the best things about this film is the soundtrack. Although the songs are quite dark, they are all fitting with the tone of the film, cleverly interwoven to move the story along. Where necessary, the songs are also heartfelt, and just hit you where it is intended to convey the heavy emotional impact of the film. I think that a couple of songs, namely “Deliver Us” and “When You Believe” are prime examples of this! I’m always in tears at the end of this film because of the emotional rollercoaster that it is. If you haven’t already, I recommend you watch this.

It’s a family classic, with slapstick moments for the kids and also some more refined hidden gem lines for the parents, and has definitely stood the test of time. So much so that in June this year, Netflix confirmed a sequel was in the works: “POULTRY NEWS: Exactly 20 years to the day since the original was released, we can confirm there will be a Chicken Run sequel coming to Netflix!! Produced by @aardman, production is expected to begin next year. Eggsellent.” As someone who grew up with the original and can genuinely say it is still probably in my top ten, I am VERY excited. At least some good news for us in 2020!

Coraline (2009) By Megan Evans Coraline is one of my favourite animated films that hasn’t got the Disney and Pixar brand plastered all over the credits. It is directed by the talented Henry Selick, who produced and wrote many of the top stop motion animation films, including James and the Giant Peach (1996) and The Nightmare before Christmas (1993), distributed by Focus Features. I really love the dark twisted tale of the movie mixed with the delicate and beautiful animation that it incorporates within. When I first watched the film, I was completely and utterly mesmerised by the imagery and its weird and wacky ideas that were conveyed - from the upside down world to the magic realism of child-like objects and animals coming to life and my childhood fantasies becoming a reality. Coraline’s character gives a young child that confidence we all need and love. Not to mention, courage, adventure and creativity. There are so many hidden gems within the film that demonstrate how well-thought out the concept is, making it enjoyable for both adults and children. The film took twenty months to shoot and every little detail served a purpose to craft this world that is so enchanting, so much so that you would want to be part of it. This unconventional story marks its place amongst a crowded market of children’s films as one of the best in terms of animation, style and music. design by: Sebastian Jose

26


film & tv

Kubo and the Two Strings (2016) By Matt Taylor

Chicken Run (2000) By Tabitha Down

Quite simply, Kubo and the Two Strings is Laika’s magnum opus. Though it was only the studio’s fourth feature film, I shall be staggered if they make anything that supersedes it. It’s a beautiful, life-affirming film about faith, family, and loss packed with stunning performances, edge-of-your-seat action, a tremendously moving score by Dario Marianelli, and some of the most drop-dead gorgeous visuals ever put to film.

So, it is like The Great Escape… but with chickens. Imagine the looks that the person pitching this idea got in the Aardman boardroom. Following the massive success of the first three Wallace and Gromit short films throughout the 90’s, Chicken Run hit our screens in 2000 as Aardman Animation’s first feature length film. With the success of its predecessors alongside an incredible cast including actors Mel Gibson, Imelda Staunton and Timothy Spall, it is no wonder it became the highest grossing stop-motion film in animation history. As well as its truly unique animation style, Chicken Run actually makes you LOL - like actually laugh, not just a small nose exhale.

If you’re wondering how gorgeous Kubo is, it is the only film in history to be nominated for both Best Visual Effects and Best Animated Feature at the Academy Awards, and it is all stop-motion. Everything we see (save a few greenscreen backgrounds) is real, and it’s frankly outrageous for a movie to look this good – you could choose any single frame and put it in an art gallery, and it wouldn’t be out of place. It’s also not entirely a kids’ movie: first-time director Travis Knight, who would go on to direct the excellent Bumblebee (2018), refuses to shy away from the film’s darker aspects. While there are fantastic comedic moments throughout, much of the film is extremely dark and grown-up (look no further than the genuinely terrifying Sisters, or those creepy eyes at the bottom of the lake). Kubo strikes a perfect balance between light and dark that most animated movies never even attempt to find, and it’s all the better for it. Kubo is, effortlessly and brilliantly, one of the greatest animated movies of all time.

25

film & tv

The Prince of Egypt (1998) By Sallie Phillips The Prince of Egypt is a film that has everything required to be an animated classic, but is, in my opinion, criminally underrated. This is despite the fact that it was made by animation heavyweight DreamWorks. I adore this film because of the way it handles such a difficult topic, especially in a children’s film and I think many people could do worse than this film to gain an understanding of the story of Moses and the Plagues of Egypt. Given that I am Jewish, I have a personal attachment to the film and its inspirational story. I also love this film because of the beautiful hand drawn animation and the sweeping landscape designs, with the choices of natural colours for the backgrounds. For me, one of the best things about this film is the soundtrack. Although the songs are quite dark, they are all fitting with the tone of the film, cleverly interwoven to move the story along. Where necessary, the songs are also heartfelt, and just hit you where it is intended to convey the heavy emotional impact of the film. I think that a couple of songs, namely “Deliver Us” and “When You Believe” are prime examples of this! I’m always in tears at the end of this film because of the emotional rollercoaster that it is. If you haven’t already, I recommend you watch this.

It’s a family classic, with slapstick moments for the kids and also some more refined hidden gem lines for the parents, and has definitely stood the test of time. So much so that in June this year, Netflix confirmed a sequel was in the works: “POULTRY NEWS: Exactly 20 years to the day since the original was released, we can confirm there will be a Chicken Run sequel coming to Netflix!! Produced by @aardman, production is expected to begin next year. Eggsellent.” As someone who grew up with the original and can genuinely say it is still probably in my top ten, I am VERY excited. At least some good news for us in 2020!

Coraline (2009) By Megan Evans Coraline is one of my favourite animated films that hasn’t got the Disney and Pixar brand plastered all over the credits. It is directed by the talented Henry Selick, who produced and wrote many of the top stop motion animation films, including James and the Giant Peach (1996) and The Nightmare before Christmas (1993), distributed by Focus Features. I really love the dark twisted tale of the movie mixed with the delicate and beautiful animation that it incorporates within. When I first watched the film, I was completely and utterly mesmerised by the imagery and its weird and wacky ideas that were conveyed - from the upside down world to the magic realism of child-like objects and animals coming to life and my childhood fantasies becoming a reality. Coraline’s character gives a young child that confidence we all need and love. Not to mention, courage, adventure and creativity. There are so many hidden gems within the film that demonstrate how well-thought out the concept is, making it enjoyable for both adults and children. The film took twenty months to shoot and every little detail served a purpose to craft this world that is so enchanting, so much so that you would want to be part of it. This unconventional story marks its place amongst a crowded market of children’s films as one of the best in terms of animation, style and music. design by: Sebastian Jose

26


music

music

CONTEMPORARY MUSIC HAS ITS ROOTS IN BLACK CULTURE, SO WHY IS THE INDUSTRY SO WHITE?

Music’s rich history is indebted to the culture of African-Americans. Much of contemporary music as it exists today can trace its roots back to the ‘Spirituals’ of the African-born slaves, who, after being stolen from their homeland, were forced to convert to Christianity and gradually blended their African musical heritage with that of their American and European masters. After being robbed of their language, families and freedoms, the slaves soon began to reshape the conservative doctrine of western Christianity into their own unique version infused with the power of music. Born out of the plight of the slaves, ‘spirituals’ as these evocatively melancholic songs became known, spread by word of mouth to convey plans of escape from the plantations or to send secret messages to one another. These encrypted songs, which numbered more than 6000 at their peak, are still popularised today with songs such as ‘Wade in the Water’ and ‘Swing Low, Sweet Chariot’ being regularly performed by choirs and artists to this day. Many were later developed by the ‘Jubilee Singers’ heralding from America’s deep south who built on the ‘spirituals’ and brought them to a wider audience touring throughout Europe.

“EVERY GENRE OF CONTEMPORARY POPULAR MUSIC CAN ARGUABLY BOAST OF HAVING ITS

However, it was only after the 1920’s when the internationally famous Czech-born composer Antonin Dvořák relocated to America and heard the beauty of the “Plantation Songs” that he insisted that the ‘new’ sound of American music ‘must be founded upon what are called the Negro melodies’. From then on he dedicated himself to creating a national music of America and composed his internationally recognised Symphony no. 9 (subtitled ‘From the new World’) in their honour. As music inspired by Black culture began to enter into the mainstream, songs became more of a tool of escapism for racially segregated people than ever before. Seeking solace in music around the time of the notorious Jim Crow laws, which segregated society into a White hierarchy, Black musicians developed ‘the Blues’, which has gone on to influence millions of musicians around the world. Artists such as Bessie Smith, known as ‘The Empress of the Blues’, and Blind Lemon Jefferson began their careers busking on street corners but as the popularity of jazz and blues grew in the early 1920s, their fame and renown quickly grew and made them into national stars selling many records.

27

Undoubtedly, it’s impossible to discuss the impact African culture has had on the music industry without referencing Motown. Founded in 1959 by Berry Gordy, as a young man he borrowed $800 from his family and set out to create a “24 hour hit making and artist development factory”. The label’s signature beats and exclusively uplifting pop and soul oozed with both passion and optimism. Motown music quickly became the soundtrack of teenage America, boasting artists such as Smokey Robbinson, Marvin Gaye and Stevie Wonder and it remains the most successful AfricanAmerican business in the United States to this day. Ella Fitzgerald, Nina Simone, Aretha Franklin, Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, Ray Charles; the list of Black artists who shaped the music we know today is endless. Every genre of contemporary popular music can arguably boast of having its roots in Black culture. Yet, despite this, only 15.6% of music industry employees identify as members of the BAME community. This is a shocking omission and the music industry owes it to the rich musical heritage of the BAME community to make better efforts in favour of diversity. However, it cannot be denied that the music industry makes stringent efforts to ‘nurture the talents of members of the BAME community’, yet, according to Kanya King founder of the ‘Music of Black Origin’ or the ‘Mobo’ awards in 1996, ‘Black people are excluded from the financial rewards that have driven billions into the global economies, and helped create entire industries’. The industry cannot afford to ignore her words as statistics show that BAME minority employees lose out on a staggering £3.2 billion a year in wages, or the equivalent of around £3.90 per hour compared to their White peers. King’s claim that any promise of initiatives which engage with the issue of ‘white washing’ within the music industry is just ‘empty words’ and that although the industry ‘nurtures the talent [of Black musicians]’ it then excludes many from the ‘financial rewards that have driven billions to the UK and global economies and helped create entire industries’. When there is a loss of around £3.90 an hour between a Black and White employee within the industry, then such biases jump from problematic to overt racism. The industry seems to be improving as the younger generations develop into senior positions; 23.7% of music industry employees aged 25-34 are members of the BAME community, as opposed to a meager

43

“EVERY GENRE OF CONTEMPORARY POPULAR MUSIC CAN ARGUABLY BOAST OF HAVING ITS ROOTS IN BLACK CULTURE” Ella Fitzgerald

RAY CHARLES

Aretha Franklin

7.61% aged 45-64 (as of 2018). Displaying the progressivism of the younger people, however, these figures prove discrimination is still rife as the diversity split is far from equal. Current members of the industry owe it to their forerunners to have a fairer positive discrimination policy, and the Black community deserve to be far better represented especially given the context. words by: Daisy Gaunt design by: May Collins

28


music

music

CONTEMPORARY MUSIC HAS ITS ROOTS IN BLACK CULTURE, SO WHY IS THE INDUSTRY SO WHITE?

Music’s rich history is indebted to the culture of African-Americans. Much of contemporary music as it exists today can trace its roots back to the ‘Spirituals’ of the African-born slaves, who, after being stolen from their homeland, were forced to convert to Christianity and gradually blended their African musical heritage with that of their American and European masters. After being robbed of their language, families and freedoms, the slaves soon began to reshape the conservative doctrine of western Christianity into their own unique version infused with the power of music. Born out of the plight of the slaves, ‘spirituals’ as these evocatively melancholic songs became known, spread by word of mouth to convey plans of escape from the plantations or to send secret messages to one another. These encrypted songs, which numbered more than 6000 at their peak, are still popularised today with songs such as ‘Wade in the Water’ and ‘Swing Low, Sweet Chariot’ being regularly performed by choirs and artists to this day. Many were later developed by the ‘Jubilee Singers’ heralding from America’s deep south who built on the ‘spirituals’ and brought them to a wider audience touring throughout Europe.

“EVERY GENRE OF CONTEMPORARY POPULAR MUSIC CAN ARGUABLY BOAST OF HAVING ITS

However, it was only after the 1920’s when the internationally famous Czech-born composer Antonin Dvořák relocated to America and heard the beauty of the “Plantation Songs” that he insisted that the ‘new’ sound of American music ‘must be founded upon what are called the Negro melodies’. From then on he dedicated himself to creating a national music of America and composed his internationally recognised Symphony no. 9 (subtitled ‘From the new World’) in their honour. As music inspired by Black culture began to enter into the mainstream, songs became more of a tool of escapism for racially segregated people than ever before. Seeking solace in music around the time of the notorious Jim Crow laws, which segregated society into a White hierarchy, Black musicians developed ‘the Blues’, which has gone on to influence millions of musicians around the world. Artists such as Bessie Smith, known as ‘The Empress of the Blues’, and Blind Lemon Jefferson began their careers busking on street corners but as the popularity of jazz and blues grew in the early 1920s, their fame and renown quickly grew and made them into national stars selling many records.

27

Undoubtedly, it’s impossible to discuss the impact African culture has had on the music industry without referencing Motown. Founded in 1959 by Berry Gordy, as a young man he borrowed $800 from his family and set out to create a “24 hour hit making and artist development factory”. The label’s signature beats and exclusively uplifting pop and soul oozed with both passion and optimism. Motown music quickly became the soundtrack of teenage America, boasting artists such as Smokey Robbinson, Marvin Gaye and Stevie Wonder and it remains the most successful AfricanAmerican business in the United States to this day. Ella Fitzgerald, Nina Simone, Aretha Franklin, Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, Ray Charles; the list of Black artists who shaped the music we know today is endless. Every genre of contemporary popular music can arguably boast of having its roots in Black culture. Yet, despite this, only 15.6% of music industry employees identify as members of the BAME community. This is a shocking omission and the music industry owes it to the rich musical heritage of the BAME community to make better efforts in favour of diversity. However, it cannot be denied that the music industry makes stringent efforts to ‘nurture the talents of members of the BAME community’, yet, according to Kanya King founder of the ‘Music of Black Origin’ or the ‘Mobo’ awards in 1996, ‘Black people are excluded from the financial rewards that have driven billions into the global economies, and helped create entire industries’. The industry cannot afford to ignore her words as statistics show that BAME minority employees lose out on a staggering £3.2 billion a year in wages, or the equivalent of around £3.90 per hour compared to their White peers. King’s claim that any promise of initiatives which engage with the issue of ‘white washing’ within the music industry is just ‘empty words’ and that although the industry ‘nurtures the talent [of Black musicians]’ it then excludes many from the ‘financial rewards that have driven billions to the UK and global economies and helped create entire industries’. When there is a loss of around £3.90 an hour between a Black and White employee within the industry, then such biases jump from problematic to overt racism. The industry seems to be improving as the younger generations develop into senior positions; 23.7% of music industry employees aged 25-34 are members of the BAME community, as opposed to a meager

43

“EVERY GENRE OF CONTEMPORARY POPULAR MUSIC CAN ARGUABLY BOAST OF HAVING ITS ROOTS IN BLACK CULTURE” Ella Fitzgerald

RAY CHARLES

Aretha Franklin

7.61% aged 45-64 (as of 2018). Displaying the progressivism of the younger people, however, these figures prove discrimination is still rife as the diversity split is far from equal. Current members of the industry owe it to their forerunners to have a fairer positive discrimination policy, and the Black community deserve to be far better represented especially given the context. words by: Daisy Gaunt design by: May Collins

28


music

music

How Bedroom Pop Has Provided a Soundtrack for Lockdown BEDROOM You’ve felt that shame. Buried deep in a mound of neglected textbooks and illegible notes that were the product of three hours sleep and ungodly amounts of Jaeger, you’re scrolling again. The second hour of your five-minute break is creeping closer, and you’ve officially seen everything that Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and Snapchat have to offer. No, not the usual shame of procrastination- for the past couple of months, we’ve had Corona shame.

P O P

Never mind that we’re seemingly surrounded on every front by a lethal virus, and your entire routine has become a relic of last year, you now have to contend with the guilt of not doing ten Joe Wicks workouts, baking four banana loaves and creating umpteen pieces of art a day. It’s the last one that’s been particularly cutting - the shame of not creating. You now know with painstaking awareness that Shakespeare penned King Lear during a pandemic, that Van Dyck (no, not the Red’s player) produced his wondrous Saint Rosalie during a lockdown, and that Klint, Titian, and Holbsein all birthed career-defining works despite being confined to their homes.

MUSIC

29

Those artists are explicitly exceptional. Bedroom pop is not. It is precisely for that reason that the genre has been sound-tracking this year’s lockdown. What they are, however, is familiar with two things; art, and isolation. They all belong to the close-knit cabal known loosely under the umbrella of ‘bedroom pop’, a broad term for the DIY genre. Originally a footnote under LoFi, the popularity of the term grew as laptops became increasingly commonplace in the early 2010s, and has been used to describe the warm, amateurish sounds that many aspiring musicians are now able to experiment with from the comfort of their home. Intentionally clumsy, but rich in valence and laced with youthful angst, the genre has a charming accessibility for listeners; you’re not witnessing something concocted by Max Martin deep in the belly of a shiny Swedish laboratory, but something closer to a glimpse into a life that you could have lived. Bedroom pop is a remarkably individual affair. Drum machines and loop pedals fill the band member-shaped voids, allowing the artists to make their music truly theirs, without the need for compromise or balance. All of the above describes exactly why the genre has been a tonic for the mixed emotions of a world placed under house arrest.

On Conan Gray’s latest release and debut full length album, Kid Krow, the Californian Youtuber-turnedsinger reflects on the importance of surrounding yourself with friends- a sentiment that’s particularly poignant given the current restrictions. Indeed, the track (Online Love) unintentionally predicted a struggle that many couples would quickly grow to understand. He’s not alone, either. Over the past four months, dozens of others have followed suit. Another rising star, Chloe Moriondo, released a slim EP, and the track Kindergarten weaves a tale of youthful crushes with the mundanity of school life- a life that’s now on hiatus. Titans of the genre, Clairo, Beabadoobee, Sody, and Gus Daperton have all offered a smattering of singles too, with the latter’s recently released Post-Humorous managing to be both deeply personal and subtly relatable. In the first verse Daperton, the bowl-cut sporting Millennial who rose to fame a couple of years ago pines for times gone by, crooning ‘old friend/it’s me and you again/and old boy/as me and you rejoice’. Each track captures a slice of normality, soured by our new reality. Of course, Bedroom pop artists aren’t exempt from the reluctant pause that the music industry is experiencing; there’s undoubtedly hard drives full of unreleased tracks waiting to be dropped as soon as they can be promoted by an accompanying tour. More excitingly, there’s likely to be a wave of soon-to-be artists who may have managed to use the breathing room to grab a copy of Garageband and start experimenting. Infinite Bisous, TheSecondSex, Jerkcurb, and Black Pool are just a couple of the many artists in the genre that are on the cusp of breaking into the mainstream, and that list is set to grow even longer. The global pandemic has been turbulent, challenging, and for many intensely lonely. However, as our interactions have dwindled, our need for the distinctly human touch of bedroom pop has never been greater.

words by: Alex Payne design by: Madeline Howell

30


music

music

How Bedroom Pop Has Provided a Soundtrack for Lockdown BEDROOM You’ve felt that shame. Buried deep in a mound of neglected textbooks and illegible notes that were the product of three hours sleep and ungodly amounts of Jaeger, you’re scrolling again. The second hour of your five-minute break is creeping closer, and you’ve officially seen everything that Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and Snapchat have to offer. No, not the usual shame of procrastination- for the past couple of months, we’ve had Corona shame.

P O P

Never mind that we’re seemingly surrounded on every front by a lethal virus, and your entire routine has become a relic of last year, you now have to contend with the guilt of not doing ten Joe Wicks workouts, baking four banana loaves and creating umpteen pieces of art a day. It’s the last one that’s been particularly cutting - the shame of not creating. You now know with painstaking awareness that Shakespeare penned King Lear during a pandemic, that Van Dyck (no, not the Red’s player) produced his wondrous Saint Rosalie during a lockdown, and that Klint, Titian, and Holbsein all birthed career-defining works despite being confined to their homes.

MUSIC

29

Those artists are explicitly exceptional. Bedroom pop is not. It is precisely for that reason that the genre has been sound-tracking this year’s lockdown. What they are, however, is familiar with two things; art, and isolation. They all belong to the close-knit cabal known loosely under the umbrella of ‘bedroom pop’, a broad term for the DIY genre. Originally a footnote under LoFi, the popularity of the term grew as laptops became increasingly commonplace in the early 2010s, and has been used to describe the warm, amateurish sounds that many aspiring musicians are now able to experiment with from the comfort of their home. Intentionally clumsy, but rich in valence and laced with youthful angst, the genre has a charming accessibility for listeners; you’re not witnessing something concocted by Max Martin deep in the belly of a shiny Swedish laboratory, but something closer to a glimpse into a life that you could have lived. Bedroom pop is a remarkably individual affair. Drum machines and loop pedals fill the band member-shaped voids, allowing the artists to make their music truly theirs, without the need for compromise or balance. All of the above describes exactly why the genre has been a tonic for the mixed emotions of a world placed under house arrest.

On Conan Gray’s latest release and debut full length album, Kid Krow, the Californian Youtuber-turnedsinger reflects on the importance of surrounding yourself with friends- a sentiment that’s particularly poignant given the current restrictions. Indeed, the track (Online Love) unintentionally predicted a struggle that many couples would quickly grow to understand. He’s not alone, either. Over the past four months, dozens of others have followed suit. Another rising star, Chloe Moriondo, released a slim EP, and the track Kindergarten weaves a tale of youthful crushes with the mundanity of school life- a life that’s now on hiatus. Titans of the genre, Clairo, Beabadoobee, Sody, and Gus Daperton have all offered a smattering of singles too, with the latter’s recently released Post-Humorous managing to be both deeply personal and subtly relatable. In the first verse Daperton, the bowl-cut sporting Millennial who rose to fame a couple of years ago pines for times gone by, crooning ‘old friend/it’s me and you again/and old boy/as me and you rejoice’. Each track captures a slice of normality, soured by our new reality. Of course, Bedroom pop artists aren’t exempt from the reluctant pause that the music industry is experiencing; there’s undoubtedly hard drives full of unreleased tracks waiting to be dropped as soon as they can be promoted by an accompanying tour. More excitingly, there’s likely to be a wave of soon-to-be artists who may have managed to use the breathing room to grab a copy of Garageband and start experimenting. Infinite Bisous, TheSecondSex, Jerkcurb, and Black Pool are just a couple of the many artists in the genre that are on the cusp of breaking into the mainstream, and that list is set to grow even longer. The global pandemic has been turbulent, challenging, and for many intensely lonely. However, as our interactions have dwindled, our need for the distinctly human touch of bedroom pop has never been greater.

words by: Alex Payne design by: Madeline Howell

30


music

43

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

music

words by: Natalie Graham design by: Amelia Field Berry Gordy became Detroit’s most successful manufacturer, not as a partaker in the booming motor industry, but as the creator and owner of an assembly line of music that would appeal to a Black and White audience. Motown Records, like all good success stories, had humble beginnings operating out of Gordy’s house on West Grand Boulevard, Detroit. ‘Hitsville USA’ was to create a back catalogue so impressive it would form a blueprint for modern soul and pop success. From girl groups to hit singer songwriters and sampling on countless contemporary dance singles, Motown’s music has stood the test of time, executing a sophisticated crossover between pop and soul. Motown Records was a force of social and cultural change, playing a key role in the racial integration of popular music. Berry Gordy was the first black owner of a commercially successful record label, a ground-breaking success in an era when America was undeniably divided and the mainstream was an appallingly segregated zone. Only 10 years before Motown’s birth stood an apartheid-style listing on the Billboard charts for ‘Race Music’; music composed and performed by Black musicians. Radio airplay was segregated and Black artists of the time were managed, produced and controlled by a forcibly White record industry. “The Sound of Young America” tore up the segregated rule book to become an imperative player in the Civil Rights Movement and force of unification amongst a divided society. Smokey Robinson said of Motown’s cultural impact: “Into the 1960s, I was still not of a frame of mind that we were not only making music, we were making history…I recognized the bridges that we crossed, the racial problems and the barriers that we broke down with music. I recognized that because I lived it. I would come to the South in the early days of Motown and the audiences would be segregated. Then they started to get the Motown music and we would go back and the audiences were integrated and the kids were dancing together and holding hands”

31

Motown’s artists were faced with the same prejudice as their predecessors, but this story has a twist- they triumphed. Unfortunately, for the Tamla Motown record label, triumph came at a cost; Gordy took an unconventional route to breaking the musical colour barrier by rejecting political radicalism, in an attempt to avoid the confines of Black radio stations or the Black touring circuit. Hitsville was to create a body of work focused on pop music with mass appeal. An all-white sales and marketing team was hired to ensure white radio play, and with regard to album covers in Motown’s adolescence, Gordy never put a photograph of the artist on the record sleeve. In the case of an Isley brother’s album cover, a picture of a white couple was plastered across the front.

Gordy, whilst judiciously avoiding tainting Motown’s reputation, continued to be an ambassador for the civil rights struggle. Motown acts played at fundraisers for African American causes as well as donating to the chosen organisations of Dr. King after his assassination in 1968. In 1970 he put the sounds of the civil rights fight on vinyl, an enduring archive of the black struggle. Motown proved black songwriters and artists were equally deserving of a place at the top of the pop hierarchy, developing a universally recognized sound that delivered hit after hit. Success came at a cost, but Motown remains one of the most influential institutions in not only the music industry, but the civil rights movement.

Despite the early successes of the Civil Rights Movement throughout the 60’s, the music industry retained differing White and Black music venues. Overtime Gordy opened doors for Motown artists, getting them invites to play The Ed Sullivan Show. But the sacrifice was great, willingly or not artists were asked to sacrifice their Blackness to further Motown’s pop crusade. All artists were taught how they should act and talk in the public domain, they were ambassadors for Black music in the White mainstream, entertainers told to ignore the message of Black power. However, for many Motown artists Gordy’s requirements were a necessary sacrifice, race music became rhythm and blues and the old order of the music industry was slowly being dismantled. From 1967 through the songwriting of Whitfield and Strong, Motown acts began to sing about issues that mattered to the Black community, bringing titles such as ‘Message From a Black Man’ to the musical mainstream. The poetic socio-political lyrics of Marvin Gaye’s ‘What’s Going On’, an impassioned statement on the black experience in America has now been recognized by many as the best Motown album ever released.

32


music

43

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

music

words by: Natalie Graham design by: Amelia Field Berry Gordy became Detroit’s most successful manufacturer, not as a partaker in the booming motor industry, but as the creator and owner of an assembly line of music that would appeal to a Black and White audience. Motown Records, like all good success stories, had humble beginnings operating out of Gordy’s house on West Grand Boulevard, Detroit. ‘Hitsville USA’ was to create a back catalogue so impressive it would form a blueprint for modern soul and pop success. From girl groups to hit singer songwriters and sampling on countless contemporary dance singles, Motown’s music has stood the test of time, executing a sophisticated crossover between pop and soul. Motown Records was a force of social and cultural change, playing a key role in the racial integration of popular music. Berry Gordy was the first black owner of a commercially successful record label, a ground-breaking success in an era when America was undeniably divided and the mainstream was an appallingly segregated zone. Only 10 years before Motown’s birth stood an apartheid-style listing on the Billboard charts for ‘Race Music’; music composed and performed by Black musicians. Radio airplay was segregated and Black artists of the time were managed, produced and controlled by a forcibly White record industry. “The Sound of Young America” tore up the segregated rule book to become an imperative player in the Civil Rights Movement and force of unification amongst a divided society. Smokey Robinson said of Motown’s cultural impact: “Into the 1960s, I was still not of a frame of mind that we were not only making music, we were making history…I recognized the bridges that we crossed, the racial problems and the barriers that we broke down with music. I recognized that because I lived it. I would come to the South in the early days of Motown and the audiences would be segregated. Then they started to get the Motown music and we would go back and the audiences were integrated and the kids were dancing together and holding hands”

31

Motown’s artists were faced with the same prejudice as their predecessors, but this story has a twist- they triumphed. Unfortunately, for the Tamla Motown record label, triumph came at a cost; Gordy took an unconventional route to breaking the musical colour barrier by rejecting political radicalism, in an attempt to avoid the confines of Black radio stations or the Black touring circuit. Hitsville was to create a body of work focused on pop music with mass appeal. An all-white sales and marketing team was hired to ensure white radio play, and with regard to album covers in Motown’s adolescence, Gordy never put a photograph of the artist on the record sleeve. In the case of an Isley brother’s album cover, a picture of a white couple was plastered across the front.

Gordy, whilst judiciously avoiding tainting Motown’s reputation, continued to be an ambassador for the civil rights struggle. Motown acts played at fundraisers for African American causes as well as donating to the chosen organisations of Dr. King after his assassination in 1968. In 1970 he put the sounds of the civil rights fight on vinyl, an enduring archive of the black struggle. Motown proved black songwriters and artists were equally deserving of a place at the top of the pop hierarchy, developing a universally recognized sound that delivered hit after hit. Success came at a cost, but Motown remains one of the most influential institutions in not only the music industry, but the civil rights movement.

Despite the early successes of the Civil Rights Movement throughout the 60’s, the music industry retained differing White and Black music venues. Overtime Gordy opened doors for Motown artists, getting them invites to play The Ed Sullivan Show. But the sacrifice was great, willingly or not artists were asked to sacrifice their Blackness to further Motown’s pop crusade. All artists were taught how they should act and talk in the public domain, they were ambassadors for Black music in the White mainstream, entertainers told to ignore the message of Black power. However, for many Motown artists Gordy’s requirements were a necessary sacrifice, race music became rhythm and blues and the old order of the music industry was slowly being dismantled. From 1967 through the songwriting of Whitfield and Strong, Motown acts began to sing about issues that mattered to the Black community, bringing titles such as ‘Message From a Black Man’ to the musical mainstream. The poetic socio-political lyrics of Marvin Gaye’s ‘What’s Going On’, an impassioned statement on the black experience in America has now been recognized by many as the best Motown album ever released.

32


literature

literature

The Importance of PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Representation in Children'sBooks words by: Ona Ojo design by: Priyansha Kamdar When I think of my favourite books from my childhood, so many lovely series come to mind: Amelia Bedelia, Junie B. Jones, Charlie & Lola, or anything by Roald Dahl. Growing up, these were the characters I wanted to emulate. I acted out Amelia’s misadventures. I tried to be cheeky like Junie. I pretended my older brother, to his annoyance, was the Charlie to my Lola. And while I remember those series fondly, it vexes me to realize that I had been reading for years before I saw characters (longer still for central characters) who looked like me. I had read about white people of all ages, animals, fictional creatures, and even objects that come-to-life, but rarely BAME children or families. The struggle to achieve representation is not unique to children’s literature; most genres lack diversity in both the characters leading and filling out the stories and the authors and publishers advocating for them. However, the diversity deficit is particularly staggering in children’s literature - the category where it is most necessary. A 2017 study by the Department of Education found that 33% of primary school students in the UK are of minority ethnic origins. Despite this, a survey of British children’s literature found that only 7% of books released in 2018 featured a BAME character, with an even smaller 4% featuring a BAME protagonist. This is made more worrying by the fact that 42% of British children’s books in the same year had animated objects or animals as main characters. Consequently, BAME children in the UK are 5-10 times more likely to come across a book centred on an object or animal than a book that contains characters of their ethnicity.

33

It’s clear that BAME representation is insufficient, and the sluggish growth from year to year indicates that it is not prioritized. So why does representation matter? When BAME children don’t see themselves in the books they read, the absence fosters a sense of ‘other’ in society. ‘Othering’ refers to the practice of distinguishing certain characteristics from the chosen norm in order to alienate groups of people from social acceptance. History has normalised white as the standard: to be nonwhite is to be ‘other’ and therefore unequal. ‘Othered’ ethnic minorities are seen as inherently separate from the white norm, which decreases the understanding and empathy they receive. This becomes the basis for discrimination. ‘Othering’ in modern literature is more subtle (in most cases) but causes a lack of confidence in BAME children as they fruitlessly attempt to imitate what is accepted. When discussing her debut children’s book Sulwe, actress and author Lupita Nyong’o said, ‘one of the first times I drew my family, I drew them with light skin. I used the cream-coloured crayons and not the dark ones because I just didn’t see that in books. I didn’t think we belonged in books.’

Adichie says, expressing his biased logic. In a Guardian article, journalist Alison Flood emphasizes that BAME stories cannot only be explored in relation to suffering because it upholds the stereotype of ethnic minorities as perpetually in conflict. In conclusion to her university story, Adichie asserted, ‘to insist on only negative stories is to flatten my experience and to overlook the many other stories that formed me.’ Stereotypes are easier to establish than they are to combat, especially when introduced at a young age. It is equally important to increase representation as it is to challenge bias and diversify portrayals of white and non-white characters alike.

And when BAME students don’t see themselves in books, they grow to believe that they cannot write those books, leading to a cyclical lack of representation. Students are less likely to engage with content they cannot connect to, meaning the overrepresentation of white characters or culture could even hinder their development.

So where do we start? It’s easy to incorporate new, more inclusive books while still reading classics or favourites. Based on his Oscar-winning short film of the same name, Hair Love by Matthew Cherry is described as an ode to natural hair. In Sulwe, Lupita Nyong’o combats colourism and insecurity about darker skin. Ramadan Moon by Na’ima B. Robert explores Ramadan celebrations around the world. Children that read more diverse books like these will then be able to better empathise with people of different backgrounds.

I want to note that representation isn’t simply the number of books with BAME characters. There also needs to be diversity in how our characters are represented. In the few books featuring BAME characters, the 2017 CLPE study found many instances of colourism. The BAME characters also tended to be underdeveloped, both in character and illustration, when compared to their white counterparts in the story. Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie explains how economic and cultural power shapes whose stories are told and how they are told in her 2009 TED talk ‘The Danger of a Single Story.’ She recounts one university professor describing her novel as not ‘authentically African’ as the characters were too much like him. ‘My characters drove cars, they were not starving. Therefore, they were not authentically African,’

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

BAME

Avoiding discussions on race is a privilege that non-white families do not have. And when chosen, it puts those children at a disadvantage. Delaying the conversation only harms their future understanding of race and, as a result, the BAME people in their community. Parents and teachers should take advantage of children’s books, both general adventures and those that feature social justice topics, as a natural introduction.

As I get older, it’s easy for me to self-select my reading lists, actively seeking books that reflect my culturally diverse community and ones that challenge the biases I’ve yet to discover. But children can only read what’s around them or, more often, what is chosen for them. Children’s author Kiran Millwood Hargrave asserts that books should be both windows and ‘mirrors, a way of examining the world as it is and could be.’ Children are naturally curious about the world around them and the books they read need to reflect and encourage their multicultural lives.

34


literature

literature

The Importance of PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Representation in Children'sBooks words by: Ona Ojo design by: Priyansha Kamdar When I think of my favourite books from my childhood, so many lovely series come to mind: Amelia Bedelia, Junie B. Jones, Charlie & Lola, or anything by Roald Dahl. Growing up, these were the characters I wanted to emulate. I acted out Amelia’s misadventures. I tried to be cheeky like Junie. I pretended my older brother, to his annoyance, was the Charlie to my Lola. And while I remember those series fondly, it vexes me to realize that I had been reading for years before I saw characters (longer still for central characters) who looked like me. I had read about white people of all ages, animals, fictional creatures, and even objects that come-to-life, but rarely BAME children or families. The struggle to achieve representation is not unique to children’s literature; most genres lack diversity in both the characters leading and filling out the stories and the authors and publishers advocating for them. However, the diversity deficit is particularly staggering in children’s literature - the category where it is most necessary. A 2017 study by the Department of Education found that 33% of primary school students in the UK are of minority ethnic origins. Despite this, a survey of British children’s literature found that only 7% of books released in 2018 featured a BAME character, with an even smaller 4% featuring a BAME protagonist. This is made more worrying by the fact that 42% of British children’s books in the same year had animated objects or animals as main characters. Consequently, BAME children in the UK are 5-10 times more likely to come across a book centred on an object or animal than a book that contains characters of their ethnicity.

33

It’s clear that BAME representation is insufficient, and the sluggish growth from year to year indicates that it is not prioritized. So why does representation matter? When BAME children don’t see themselves in the books they read, the absence fosters a sense of ‘other’ in society. ‘Othering’ refers to the practice of distinguishing certain characteristics from the chosen norm in order to alienate groups of people from social acceptance. History has normalised white as the standard: to be nonwhite is to be ‘other’ and therefore unequal. ‘Othered’ ethnic minorities are seen as inherently separate from the white norm, which decreases the understanding and empathy they receive. This becomes the basis for discrimination. ‘Othering’ in modern literature is more subtle (in most cases) but causes a lack of confidence in BAME children as they fruitlessly attempt to imitate what is accepted. When discussing her debut children’s book Sulwe, actress and author Lupita Nyong’o said, ‘one of the first times I drew my family, I drew them with light skin. I used the cream-coloured crayons and not the dark ones because I just didn’t see that in books. I didn’t think we belonged in books.’

Adichie says, expressing his biased logic. In a Guardian article, journalist Alison Flood emphasizes that BAME stories cannot only be explored in relation to suffering because it upholds the stereotype of ethnic minorities as perpetually in conflict. In conclusion to her university story, Adichie asserted, ‘to insist on only negative stories is to flatten my experience and to overlook the many other stories that formed me.’ Stereotypes are easier to establish than they are to combat, especially when introduced at a young age. It is equally important to increase representation as it is to challenge bias and diversify portrayals of white and non-white characters alike.

And when BAME students don’t see themselves in books, they grow to believe that they cannot write those books, leading to a cyclical lack of representation. Students are less likely to engage with content they cannot connect to, meaning the overrepresentation of white characters or culture could even hinder their development.

So where do we start? It’s easy to incorporate new, more inclusive books while still reading classics or favourites. Based on his Oscar-winning short film of the same name, Hair Love by Matthew Cherry is described as an ode to natural hair. In Sulwe, Lupita Nyong’o combats colourism and insecurity about darker skin. Ramadan Moon by Na’ima B. Robert explores Ramadan celebrations around the world. Children that read more diverse books like these will then be able to better empathise with people of different backgrounds.

I want to note that representation isn’t simply the number of books with BAME characters. There also needs to be diversity in how our characters are represented. In the few books featuring BAME characters, the 2017 CLPE study found many instances of colourism. The BAME characters also tended to be underdeveloped, both in character and illustration, when compared to their white counterparts in the story. Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie explains how economic and cultural power shapes whose stories are told and how they are told in her 2009 TED talk ‘The Danger of a Single Story.’ She recounts one university professor describing her novel as not ‘authentically African’ as the characters were too much like him. ‘My characters drove cars, they were not starving. Therefore, they were not authentically African,’

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

BAME

Avoiding discussions on race is a privilege that non-white families do not have. And when chosen, it puts those children at a disadvantage. Delaying the conversation only harms their future understanding of race and, as a result, the BAME people in their community. Parents and teachers should take advantage of children’s books, both general adventures and those that feature social justice topics, as a natural introduction.

As I get older, it’s easy for me to self-select my reading lists, actively seeking books that reflect my culturally diverse community and ones that challenge the biases I’ve yet to discover. But children can only read what’s around them or, more often, what is chosen for them. Children’s author Kiran Millwood Hargrave asserts that books should be both windows and ‘mirrors, a way of examining the world as it is and could be.’ Children are naturally curious about the world around them and the books they read need to reflect and encourage their multicultural lives.

34


literature

literature

43

What the F***, J. K. Rowling? words by: Neus Forner design by: Anna Kerslake

As a die-hard Harry Potter fan, I wish I wasn’t writing this article, but it is happening and it has to be addressed. The Wizarding World has always been an inclusive world, where being different was not a crime, but a gift. Elitist and purist views were shut down, always welcoming kindness and respect above all. Every Harry Potter lover holds on to the amazing values taught through the books by our beloved characters. It saddens me that the creator of such a beautiful world has been sharing some transphobic tweets that have offended many fans. About two years ago, fans pointed out that Rowling liked a tweet that referred to trans women as “men in dresses”. Many decided to give her the benefit of the doubt, not being ready to completely shut down the creator of one of the most magical worlds ever, but it didn’t end there. People started noticing that Rowling followed a few commentators that still assured that trans women were men. It got even worse when she publicly supported the ideas of Maya Forstater, a researcher that lost her job due to transphobic comments. It got darker when, a few months ago, J.K. Rowling published a 3,700 essay talking about gender, sex and abuse. She supported Maya Forstater, shared some disturbing opinions, and stated “I refuse to bow down to a movement that I believe is doing demonstrable harm in seeking to erode ‘woman’ as a political and biological class and offering cover to predators.” The Harry Potter fandom is an extremely big international community from all sorts of backgrounds and ages. Tense discussions started forming around various platforms. Although some understood her point of view and defended her ideas, the majority of the fandom found them derogatory and hateful. It disappoints many readers, like me, to know that the woman who created such revolutionary stories is now creating such a negative and disrespectful community around her.

35

Many of the actors from the Harry Potter movies have spoken up and shared their opinion on everything that is going on. Daniel Radcliffe, Harry Potter himself, wrote an article for The Trevor Project, an L.G.B.T.Q. youth suicide prevention group. Radcliffe supported that trans women are women, and said that “any statement to the contrary erases the identity and dignity of transgender people and goes against all advice given by professional health care associations who have far more expertise on this subject matter than either Jo or I.” Another strong support for the trans community was Emma Watson, who played Hermione Granger. She has always been a figure of unconditional support for the L.G.B.T.Q+ community, and she showed her support by tweeting, “trans people are who they say they are and deserve to live

their lives without being constantly questioned or told they aren’t who they say they are.” Other actors, like Rupert Grint who plays Ron Weasley, and Katie Leung who plays Cho Chang, have also voiced their support to the trans community. Her words were extremely hurtful for all the trans and non-binary fans who found solace in the Harry Potter world. The community welcomed every member with open arms, and it was a safe haven for many. Harry’s story was used as a means of escape from all of the hate and darkness that they were feeling. For many readers, the story no longer feels like home, as they cannot untie it from the author’s ideas. They were able to walk away from a story they no longer identify with. I’m still not sure how I feel, but one thing I do know is that the Harry Potter series was too life-changing to just walk away from. It is impossible not to love these stories anymore. That is the problem that many fans are facing, their love for the world and the characters trumps whatever Rowling says. It is hard to disassociate the artist from the art, but it is something many readers and fans are trying to do. As fans reproach, we made the fandom, we created the welcoming community and it will not be taken from us.

knowing that she who helped me escape to a magical and unique world is someone who I no longer recognise. These past few months have been hard for most of the Harry Potter fandom. Seeing the creator, who was treated like royalty by her fans before, share transphobic ideas and opinions has disappointed and hurt many people. Queer readers found safety and peace inside Hogwarts, and it was an especially hard blow for them. To all of the queer fans, you are not alone. One thing is clear, she gave us the world, but we created the fandom. This fandom is inclusive, tolerant, and respectful, welcoming any and all. Hogwarts will always be there to welcome you home.

I’m not sure if I’m more angry or disappointed. It angers me to see such a powerful person with the privilege of an enormous platform use it to incite hatred towards an already vulnerable community. It disappoints me

36


literature

literature

43

What the F***, J. K. Rowling? words by: Neus Forner design by: Anna Kerslake

As a die-hard Harry Potter fan, I wish I wasn’t writing this article, but it is happening and it has to be addressed. The Wizarding World has always been an inclusive world, where being different was not a crime, but a gift. Elitist and purist views were shut down, always welcoming kindness and respect above all. Every Harry Potter lover holds on to the amazing values taught through the books by our beloved characters. It saddens me that the creator of such a beautiful world has been sharing some transphobic tweets that have offended many fans. About two years ago, fans pointed out that Rowling liked a tweet that referred to trans women as “men in dresses”. Many decided to give her the benefit of the doubt, not being ready to completely shut down the creator of one of the most magical worlds ever, but it didn’t end there. People started noticing that Rowling followed a few commentators that still assured that trans women were men. It got even worse when she publicly supported the ideas of Maya Forstater, a researcher that lost her job due to transphobic comments. It got darker when, a few months ago, J.K. Rowling published a 3,700 essay talking about gender, sex and abuse. She supported Maya Forstater, shared some disturbing opinions, and stated “I refuse to bow down to a movement that I believe is doing demonstrable harm in seeking to erode ‘woman’ as a political and biological class and offering cover to predators.” The Harry Potter fandom is an extremely big international community from all sorts of backgrounds and ages. Tense discussions started forming around various platforms. Although some understood her point of view and defended her ideas, the majority of the fandom found them derogatory and hateful. It disappoints many readers, like me, to know that the woman who created such revolutionary stories is now creating such a negative and disrespectful community around her.

35

Many of the actors from the Harry Potter movies have spoken up and shared their opinion on everything that is going on. Daniel Radcliffe, Harry Potter himself, wrote an article for The Trevor Project, an L.G.B.T.Q. youth suicide prevention group. Radcliffe supported that trans women are women, and said that “any statement to the contrary erases the identity and dignity of transgender people and goes against all advice given by professional health care associations who have far more expertise on this subject matter than either Jo or I.” Another strong support for the trans community was Emma Watson, who played Hermione Granger. She has always been a figure of unconditional support for the L.G.B.T.Q+ community, and she showed her support by tweeting, “trans people are who they say they are and deserve to live

their lives without being constantly questioned or told they aren’t who they say they are.” Other actors, like Rupert Grint who plays Ron Weasley, and Katie Leung who plays Cho Chang, have also voiced their support to the trans community. Her words were extremely hurtful for all the trans and non-binary fans who found solace in the Harry Potter world. The community welcomed every member with open arms, and it was a safe haven for many. Harry’s story was used as a means of escape from all of the hate and darkness that they were feeling. For many readers, the story no longer feels like home, as they cannot untie it from the author’s ideas. They were able to walk away from a story they no longer identify with. I’m still not sure how I feel, but one thing I do know is that the Harry Potter series was too life-changing to just walk away from. It is impossible not to love these stories anymore. That is the problem that many fans are facing, their love for the world and the characters trumps whatever Rowling says. It is hard to disassociate the artist from the art, but it is something many readers and fans are trying to do. As fans reproach, we made the fandom, we created the welcoming community and it will not be taken from us.

knowing that she who helped me escape to a magical and unique world is someone who I no longer recognise. These past few months have been hard for most of the Harry Potter fandom. Seeing the creator, who was treated like royalty by her fans before, share transphobic ideas and opinions has disappointed and hurt many people. Queer readers found safety and peace inside Hogwarts, and it was an especially hard blow for them. To all of the queer fans, you are not alone. One thing is clear, she gave us the world, but we created the fandom. This fandom is inclusive, tolerant, and respectful, welcoming any and all. Hogwarts will always be there to welcome you home.

I’m not sure if I’m more angry or disappointed. It angers me to see such a powerful person with the privilege of an enormous platform use it to incite hatred towards an already vulnerable community. It disappoints me

36


literature

literature

My Ghost

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

A Poetry Collection

43 43

She haunts my every step, Gets inside my head, Pulls the thread, Now I'm undone.

She sees me but I'm broken By nothing but her Empty face. She takes my sight, Then offers light, Then traps me in a dark place.

Grief

So many tears shed She weeps, standing still. Water seeps into the ground, Poisons rivers. They branch out, formless. They mean life. Now death. A sad exchange. It creeps out to sea, sand forgiving, Becoming hard, unmoving. The sea waits as the rivers swell. She still screams in pain.

Love Through the Seasons Withered leaves fall from trees Hide insecurities. Winter breeze, icy freeze, A storm has come. Ice melts as truth unfolds, A happy hum. Sun is high, songbirds sing, But beat their wings As winter comes again.

words by: Jacob Evans design by: Anna Kerslake

42 37

38


literature

literature

My Ghost

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

A Poetry Collection

43 43

She haunts my every step, Gets inside my head, Pulls the thread, Now I'm undone.

She sees me but I'm broken By nothing but her Empty face. She takes my sight, Then offers light, Then traps me in a dark place.

Grief

So many tears shed She weeps, standing still. Water seeps into the ground, Poisons rivers. They branch out, formless. They mean life. Now death. A sad exchange. It creeps out to sea, sand forgiving, Becoming hard, unmoving. The sea waits as the rivers swell. She still screams in pain.

Love Through the Seasons Withered leaves fall from trees Hide insecurities. Winter breeze, icy freeze, A storm has come. Ice melts as truth unfolds, A happy hum. Sun is high, songbirds sing, But beat their wings As winter comes again.

words by: Jacob Evans design by: Anna Kerslake

42 37

38


download43

A dexterous pair of hands can conquer Nintendo’s Super Mario Bros. (1985) in an hour. In the hands of a professional, that estimate plummets to five minutes. 32 short levels comprise the game’s one and only mode; there is no other content. Now consider that, after inflation, Super Mario Bros. retailed at ~$140 USD. Sandwiched between the major recession of 1980, the collapse of the games industry in 1983, and the economic chaos of Black Monday in 1987, Nintendo targeted the funds and faith of families with neither to spare. Even before industry standards and consumer expectations materialised, Nintendo knew Super Mario Bros. couldn’t rest on excellence alone: it needed a strong value proposition. So, how did game designers imbue a 31-kilobyte cartridge with intergenerational staying power? Simple: they made it controller-gnawingly difficult. Super Mario Bros.’ success reveals that even basic, value-focused experiments with difficulty have the power to cast ripples through time and culture. Imagine, then, the creative potential that artists can achieve with difficulty in the present, where game development has accelerated to the point of cinematic fidelity. Every medium offers unique tools to the artist. The novel’s incorporeal narration explores the mind, the song’s melody lends a sonic form to feeling, the play’s stage binds story to arena, and the film’s camera conjures the illusion of perspective. All pursue the common goal of dramatizing conflict. To that end, the video game’s unique tool, interactivity, is not merely a utility: it is another dimension of involvement. By thrusting the player into a dynamic space where skill and choice advance story, the game embroils the player in that conflict. Just like their character (the protagonist), the story depends on the player to act. Depending on the game’s theme, the concept of difficulty can be inseparable from that formula. Consider the purpose of antagonism in story; it is an ideological obstacle which forces the protagonist to conquer a weakness to achieve their goal. By thrusting the player into conflict, the game antagonizes not only its protagonist, but the

player themselves. Difficulty, then, is the manifestation of antagonism for the player, a means of challenging the audience not just with ideas, but with tangible adversity of their own. It is a narrative device as rich with potential as any other. In From Software’s dark fantasy-action Dark Souls, the player assumes the role of the Chosen Undead, a lumbering, skeletal husk cursed with eternal life. Their destiny is simple: they must make pilgrimage to the First Flame, the origin of life and light, and rekindle the holy fire to prevent the world from dissolving into darkness. The ruins of Lordran writhe with feral and sunken men staring from crumbling ramparts, plague-bearing vermin lurking in tunnels, and faceless knights bound to clockwork servitude for eternity. Almost every living entity is tortured by damnation and inflicts that pain on the player at all costs. The game offers little in the way of guidance or support; there are no maps, no quest markers, and what few objectives the player encounters are often delivered in riddles by madmen with no faith in your success. But by far the most intriguing aspect of Dark Souls is the absence of difficulty settings. At no point is the player asked to choose ‘easy, medium, or hard’ as most games do: Dark Souls simply is. Dark Souls was not the first game to discard difficulty settings – Super Mario Bros. did not offer an ‘easy mode’ – but it was amongst the first to do so with purpose. Lordran’s deranged and frenzied population will kill the player dozens, if not hundreds of times. Oftentimes, one misstep, one lapse in perception, or one mistimed parry is fatal. That is because the Chosen Undead’s pilgrimage is metaphorical. There is a reason why every other Undead in Lordran is a weeping, hopeless mess. ‘That’s you’, says Dark Souls, ‘when you inevitably give up’. With its relentless difficulty, Dark Souls builds an external narrative around the player. Here, the forces of antagonism – a depressing world sprawling with brutal resistance – challenge you with the argument that you’ll break eventually, just like everyone else. There is no easy mode in Dark Souls for the same reason any protagonist cannot overcome resistance by wishing it were easier:

because it would not force change within. Hence, the story is in your hands: to see it through, you must evolve, embrace discipline, and exercise mental fortitude. Some argue Dark Souls’ absence of difficulty settings is not informed by nuance or intelligent design, but rather a rigid and exclusionary insistence on how the game should be experienced. In this view, the inability to determine Dark Souls’ difficulty alienates low-skilled players, and disabled players, from progressing in the game. Thus, Dark Souls should have an easy mode. It’s a sympathetic argument, but its solution is misguided. Difficulty and accessibility are not mutually exclusive. Concerning disabled players, Dark Souls, or any game for that matter, should strive to provide accessibility options. Consider games like The Last of Us Part II, which provide visual indicators instead of sounds for the hearing-impaired, and custom control settings to facilitate one-handed play. Devising alternative inputs and feedback to bring the experience to disabled players is a universally constructive development. But accessibility means bringing the experience to disabled players, not trivializing it beyond meaning. Quadriplegic gamer Limitlessquad beat Dark Souls’ successor Sekiro: Shadows Die Twice with extremely limited motor function. Ultra Street Fighter IV competitor Mike ‘Brolylegs’ Begum, whose arthrogryposis is so restrictive he plays using his mouth, was widely considered the best Chun-Li player in the world. Disabled people eat discipline for dessert. If they want Dark Souls, give them Dark Souls. Perfectly abled gamers who find Dark Souls too hard and simply wish it were easier, meanwhile, deserve no sympathy. You don’t have an accessibility problem; you have an attitude problem. If Miyazaki wishes to use static difficulty as a narrative device to express his vision, and delicately balance the game around it, he is free to do so. If you find that unpalatable, well, welcome to art. Not all art is for all. Chances are, unless you are a literature addict and narrative nerd, the postmodern absurdity of James Joyce’s Ulysses won’t be an enjoyable or comprehensible experience. Should James Joyce rise from the grave, crawl from the earth, shatter the plaque, and announce

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

download

to the world, “the shadow realm cannot bind me until I have converted Ulysses into a conventional archplot for the sensibilities of the average reader?”. Or should you accept that, if you don’t want to face soul-shattering conflict, don’t play a game about it? Chances are, Dark Souls was right about you. words by: Mike O’Brien design by: Sebastian Jose

39

40


download43

A dexterous pair of hands can conquer Nintendo’s Super Mario Bros. (1985) in an hour. In the hands of a professional, that estimate plummets to five minutes. 32 short levels comprise the game’s one and only mode; there is no other content. Now consider that, after inflation, Super Mario Bros. retailed at ~$140 USD. Sandwiched between the major recession of 1980, the collapse of the games industry in 1983, and the economic chaos of Black Monday in 1987, Nintendo targeted the funds and faith of families with neither to spare. Even before industry standards and consumer expectations materialised, Nintendo knew Super Mario Bros. couldn’t rest on excellence alone: it needed a strong value proposition. So, how did game designers imbue a 31-kilobyte cartridge with intergenerational staying power? Simple: they made it controller-gnawingly difficult. Super Mario Bros.’ success reveals that even basic, value-focused experiments with difficulty have the power to cast ripples through time and culture. Imagine, then, the creative potential that artists can achieve with difficulty in the present, where game development has accelerated to the point of cinematic fidelity. Every medium offers unique tools to the artist. The novel’s incorporeal narration explores the mind, the song’s melody lends a sonic form to feeling, the play’s stage binds story to arena, and the film’s camera conjures the illusion of perspective. All pursue the common goal of dramatizing conflict. To that end, the video game’s unique tool, interactivity, is not merely a utility: it is another dimension of involvement. By thrusting the player into a dynamic space where skill and choice advance story, the game embroils the player in that conflict. Just like their character (the protagonist), the story depends on the player to act. Depending on the game’s theme, the concept of difficulty can be inseparable from that formula. Consider the purpose of antagonism in story; it is an ideological obstacle which forces the protagonist to conquer a weakness to achieve their goal. By thrusting the player into conflict, the game antagonizes not only its protagonist, but the

player themselves. Difficulty, then, is the manifestation of antagonism for the player, a means of challenging the audience not just with ideas, but with tangible adversity of their own. It is a narrative device as rich with potential as any other. In From Software’s dark fantasy-action Dark Souls, the player assumes the role of the Chosen Undead, a lumbering, skeletal husk cursed with eternal life. Their destiny is simple: they must make pilgrimage to the First Flame, the origin of life and light, and rekindle the holy fire to prevent the world from dissolving into darkness. The ruins of Lordran writhe with feral and sunken men staring from crumbling ramparts, plague-bearing vermin lurking in tunnels, and faceless knights bound to clockwork servitude for eternity. Almost every living entity is tortured by damnation and inflicts that pain on the player at all costs. The game offers little in the way of guidance or support; there are no maps, no quest markers, and what few objectives the player encounters are often delivered in riddles by madmen with no faith in your success. But by far the most intriguing aspect of Dark Souls is the absence of difficulty settings. At no point is the player asked to choose ‘easy, medium, or hard’ as most games do: Dark Souls simply is. Dark Souls was not the first game to discard difficulty settings – Super Mario Bros. did not offer an ‘easy mode’ – but it was amongst the first to do so with purpose. Lordran’s deranged and frenzied population will kill the player dozens, if not hundreds of times. Oftentimes, one misstep, one lapse in perception, or one mistimed parry is fatal. That is because the Chosen Undead’s pilgrimage is metaphorical. There is a reason why every other Undead in Lordran is a weeping, hopeless mess. ‘That’s you’, says Dark Souls, ‘when you inevitably give up’. With its relentless difficulty, Dark Souls builds an external narrative around the player. Here, the forces of antagonism – a depressing world sprawling with brutal resistance – challenge you with the argument that you’ll break eventually, just like everyone else. There is no easy mode in Dark Souls for the same reason any protagonist cannot overcome resistance by wishing it were easier:

because it would not force change within. Hence, the story is in your hands: to see it through, you must evolve, embrace discipline, and exercise mental fortitude. Some argue Dark Souls’ absence of difficulty settings is not informed by nuance or intelligent design, but rather a rigid and exclusionary insistence on how the game should be experienced. In this view, the inability to determine Dark Souls’ difficulty alienates low-skilled players, and disabled players, from progressing in the game. Thus, Dark Souls should have an easy mode. It’s a sympathetic argument, but its solution is misguided. Difficulty and accessibility are not mutually exclusive. Concerning disabled players, Dark Souls, or any game for that matter, should strive to provide accessibility options. Consider games like The Last of Us Part II, which provide visual indicators instead of sounds for the hearing-impaired, and custom control settings to facilitate one-handed play. Devising alternative inputs and feedback to bring the experience to disabled players is a universally constructive development. But accessibility means bringing the experience to disabled players, not trivializing it beyond meaning. Quadriplegic gamer Limitlessquad beat Dark Souls’ successor Sekiro: Shadows Die Twice with extremely limited motor function. Ultra Street Fighter IV competitor Mike ‘Brolylegs’ Begum, whose arthrogryposis is so restrictive he plays using his mouth, was widely considered the best Chun-Li player in the world. Disabled people eat discipline for dessert. If they want Dark Souls, give them Dark Souls. Perfectly abled gamers who find Dark Souls too hard and simply wish it were easier, meanwhile, deserve no sympathy. You don’t have an accessibility problem; you have an attitude problem. If Miyazaki wishes to use static difficulty as a narrative device to express his vision, and delicately balance the game around it, he is free to do so. If you find that unpalatable, well, welcome to art. Not all art is for all. Chances are, unless you are a literature addict and narrative nerd, the postmodern absurdity of James Joyce’s Ulysses won’t be an enjoyable or comprehensible experience. Should James Joyce rise from the grave, crawl from the earth, shatter the plaque, and announce

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

download

to the world, “the shadow realm cannot bind me until I have converted Ulysses into a conventional archplot for the sensibilities of the average reader?”. Or should you accept that, if you don’t want to face soul-shattering conflict, don’t play a game about it? Chances are, Dark Souls was right about you. words by: Mike O’Brien design by: Sebastian Jose

39

40


download43

download

design by: Ersila Bushi words by: Hazel Ravu Soon after the murder of George Floyd, Twitter burst into flames of protest. The timeline was on fire, burning with unlimited content; firstly centred around the atrocity of what happened to Floyd, before quickly expanding to a deep dissection of the racial injustice seeped into man-made systems across the planet. Before this, seeing a tweet with one million likes was very rare. In fact, I had never seen one. Then suddenly, it was normal to see several tweets reaching that number. Tweets which were describing how people were no longer tolerating racial injustice. It felt surreal. This is because police brutality has been an ongoing, blatant truth for a long time, yet this response was like nothing I’d ever seen before. Although, the anger I felt was familiar. As a black woman, it was so empowering to see the platform flooded with testimonies from black people’s personal archives all explaining how they, at least once, were disadvantaged in society because they were black. The bravery from these people sparked the same in many others, until it got to a point where I could not visit the app without experiencing some sort of childhood nostalgia. The best thing about the openness from these people on Twitter was how apparent it became that it was not only black users reflecting on their lives. It seemed like for the first time, a large number of individuals who were not black were taking the time to thoroughly understand the pain many have felt for centuries. This is important because it truly only is selfeducation that can kickstart the destruction of the long-lasting cycle of racism. Many people were beginning to understand that it is not enough to simply recognise racism in a sort of detached way as opposed to looking within themselves and their actions to see if there’s a change that can be made internally, as well as how they present externally. I used twitter to share my own anecdotes and feelings that swarmed my brain and heart during the heat of this movement. Mostly however, I reposted, retweeted, and shared the courageous words of others. I was surprised to see how those above actions of mine affected the people who followed me. Shockingly, I received a message from a white guy I used to go to school with; we must have only had a handful of conversations. He told me that my voice on social media had been inspiring for him and he has consequently learnt a lot from some of the information I had been retweeting regarding Black Lives Matter. This message made me happy; to think I had aided in one extra person’s understanding of such an important topic. However, I was happier when a white girl I went to primary school with, 2 hours away from where I live now, reached out to me and apologised for some ignorant comments she had made towards me in year five, ten years ago. Funnily, that old conversation had been running through my mind over the past few days before I received her message. This highlighted to me the self-reflecting journey Twitter and other platforms had encouraged several people to embark on. It was with that that I realised the power of social media during this movement. The ability we had to share content on a mass scale meant that everybody was confronted with information that could not be ignored. From this, a better understanding was offered to those who may not have properly understood before, from all different ethnicities. And therefore, we become many steps closer to complete equality in society.

41

words by: Shaniece O’Keeffe Society is changing and with COVID-19 and the increasing use of digital technology, we have adapted the ways in which we speak up. Instagram, an app used primarily to share selfies, photos and videos, has seen a shift in the type of content being posted. The change in young people’s interests and beliefs and how politically involved they are today has channelled into the Black Lives Matter movement. The app’s content has followed in the steps of Twitter and Facebook in the way that people use it politically; through photo threads, Instagram stories and live streaming. Being a young adult, I use Instagram a lot as a social media platform and have seen the increase of political activism in relation to the Black Lives Matter movement. Seeing my friends, family and peers get involved with the fight against racial injustice has been a remarkable experience, however it is a basic thing that we should expect if we want real change. If you have the knowledge to try and make a difference, whether that’s providing thousands of people with information on the current situation, signing as many petitions as possible, donating or even changing one person’s views, it’s worth doing. The Black Lives Matter movement has dominated Instagram and the immense amount of support for the movement continues to be present. I had taken to Instagram to share important educational posts on my story. These posts had been useful to me in understanding the statistics, shedding light not only on the death of George Floyd, but also other examples of police brutality and fatality motivated by race. It helped me recognise that this is not just an issue in America but in the UK too. What stood out to me the most were some YouTube influencers and how they were using their voices and platforms to educate. Two YouTubers in particular, Vee Kativhu and Unjaded Jade, both used their platforms to share useful information. The content of their posts would not only discuss the current issue but would address topics such as how to be actively anti-racist and how everyone can get involved. Something that really stood out to me, were the livestreams on Instagram where many YouTubers spoke about different topics to do with racism and raising money at the same time. Discussions on a topic or matter can really have a positive impact on a person. Hearing people discuss and have a conversation can be as important as sharing posts and statistics. Social media and Instagram in particular have provided people not only with an opportunity to read and learn, but also share people’s voices, which has a lasting impact. In-person protests have not always been a viable option to all people here in the UK due to the coronavirus outbreak. Instagram became a tool which helped people use their voices and show support through sharing a variety of helpful content. The sharing of educational books, films, charity links, petitions and other useful resources was where I began to gain a much deeper understanding on what this movement was about. It was much more than the murder of an innocent man, but on the racial injustice still present today in the UK and around the world. These recommendations have equipped people to do their own research and learning. Taking an active approach on the issue and educating yourself is important as it gives you the knowledge to educate people, friends and family that may not fully understand the severity of racism and its presence in our society today.

42


download43

download

design by: Ersila Bushi words by: Hazel Ravu Soon after the murder of George Floyd, Twitter burst into flames of protest. The timeline was on fire, burning with unlimited content; firstly centred around the atrocity of what happened to Floyd, before quickly expanding to a deep dissection of the racial injustice seeped into man-made systems across the planet. Before this, seeing a tweet with one million likes was very rare. In fact, I had never seen one. Then suddenly, it was normal to see several tweets reaching that number. Tweets which were describing how people were no longer tolerating racial injustice. It felt surreal. This is because police brutality has been an ongoing, blatant truth for a long time, yet this response was like nothing I’d ever seen before. Although, the anger I felt was familiar. As a black woman, it was so empowering to see the platform flooded with testimonies from black people’s personal archives all explaining how they, at least once, were disadvantaged in society because they were black. The bravery from these people sparked the same in many others, until it got to a point where I could not visit the app without experiencing some sort of childhood nostalgia. The best thing about the openness from these people on Twitter was how apparent it became that it was not only black users reflecting on their lives. It seemed like for the first time, a large number of individuals who were not black were taking the time to thoroughly understand the pain many have felt for centuries. This is important because it truly only is selfeducation that can kickstart the destruction of the long-lasting cycle of racism. Many people were beginning to understand that it is not enough to simply recognise racism in a sort of detached way as opposed to looking within themselves and their actions to see if there’s a change that can be made internally, as well as how they present externally. I used twitter to share my own anecdotes and feelings that swarmed my brain and heart during the heat of this movement. Mostly however, I reposted, retweeted, and shared the courageous words of others. I was surprised to see how those above actions of mine affected the people who followed me. Shockingly, I received a message from a white guy I used to go to school with; we must have only had a handful of conversations. He told me that my voice on social media had been inspiring for him and he has consequently learnt a lot from some of the information I had been retweeting regarding Black Lives Matter. This message made me happy; to think I had aided in one extra person’s understanding of such an important topic. However, I was happier when a white girl I went to primary school with, 2 hours away from where I live now, reached out to me and apologised for some ignorant comments she had made towards me in year five, ten years ago. Funnily, that old conversation had been running through my mind over the past few days before I received her message. This highlighted to me the self-reflecting journey Twitter and other platforms had encouraged several people to embark on. It was with that that I realised the power of social media during this movement. The ability we had to share content on a mass scale meant that everybody was confronted with information that could not be ignored. From this, a better understanding was offered to those who may not have properly understood before, from all different ethnicities. And therefore, we become many steps closer to complete equality in society.

41

words by: Shaniece O’Keeffe Society is changing and with COVID-19 and the increasing use of digital technology, we have adapted the ways in which we speak up. Instagram, an app used primarily to share selfies, photos and videos, has seen a shift in the type of content being posted. The change in young people’s interests and beliefs and how politically involved they are today has channelled into the Black Lives Matter movement. The app’s content has followed in the steps of Twitter and Facebook in the way that people use it politically; through photo threads, Instagram stories and live streaming. Being a young adult, I use Instagram a lot as a social media platform and have seen the increase of political activism in relation to the Black Lives Matter movement. Seeing my friends, family and peers get involved with the fight against racial injustice has been a remarkable experience, however it is a basic thing that we should expect if we want real change. If you have the knowledge to try and make a difference, whether that’s providing thousands of people with information on the current situation, signing as many petitions as possible, donating or even changing one person’s views, it’s worth doing. The Black Lives Matter movement has dominated Instagram and the immense amount of support for the movement continues to be present. I had taken to Instagram to share important educational posts on my story. These posts had been useful to me in understanding the statistics, shedding light not only on the death of George Floyd, but also other examples of police brutality and fatality motivated by race. It helped me recognise that this is not just an issue in America but in the UK too. What stood out to me the most were some YouTube influencers and how they were using their voices and platforms to educate. Two YouTubers in particular, Vee Kativhu and Unjaded Jade, both used their platforms to share useful information. The content of their posts would not only discuss the current issue but would address topics such as how to be actively anti-racist and how everyone can get involved. Something that really stood out to me, were the livestreams on Instagram where many YouTubers spoke about different topics to do with racism and raising money at the same time. Discussions on a topic or matter can really have a positive impact on a person. Hearing people discuss and have a conversation can be as important as sharing posts and statistics. Social media and Instagram in particular have provided people not only with an opportunity to read and learn, but also share people’s voices, which has a lasting impact. In-person protests have not always been a viable option to all people here in the UK due to the coronavirus outbreak. Instagram became a tool which helped people use their voices and show support through sharing a variety of helpful content. The sharing of educational books, films, charity links, petitions and other useful resources was where I began to gain a much deeper understanding on what this movement was about. It was much more than the murder of an innocent man, but on the racial injustice still present today in the UK and around the world. These recommendations have equipped people to do their own research and learning. Taking an active approach on the issue and educating yourself is important as it gives you the knowledge to educate people, friends and family that may not fully understand the severity of racism and its presence in our society today.

42


PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

fashion

H A N N A H J O L AY E M I

How would you describe your style/ aesthetic? Fashion, for me, is a way in which I can express my emotions or specific vibe for that particular day or week. For that reason, I wouldn’t say I fall under a particular style, or ‘aesthetic’. I enjoy being able to try out different styles, textures and prints etc. I love to accessorise, chunky chains and rings are what I live for. My wardrobe ranges from a cute leather skirt and heels to comfy joggers and sneakers - I love a lot of variation. Who is your biggest fashion icon? I would say my biggest fashion inspiration is my mum; she has been my inspiration since before I was even born. I loved the way she was able to merge our cultural attire and streetwear back in the ’90s, and how she remains to do so even now as she has gotten older as her style has evolved - she’s an OG style influencer. Teyana Taylor, Rihanna, @melissaswardrobe, @lisajemide, @zinaldiaa____ on Instagram are also inspirations for me, but my list could go on. What does fashion mean to you? Fashion has always been a big thing for me, when I was a lot younger, I was always intrigued by different genres of fashion. Personally, it’s all about experimenting with different styles of clothing items and trying new things out. I love the process of formulating an outfit in my head and creating it in real life.

Find Hannah on: Instagram @hannah_jaay YouTube https://m.youtube.com/c/ HannahJolayemi

43

fashion

- FA S H I O N P R O F I L E -

Where are your favourite places to shop? I would say my favourite places to shop are Zara, PLT, Depop and also charity shops (they have the best gems if you look carefully). What is your favourite item of clothing? My favourite thing isn’t a clothing item, but a piece of jewellery. I live for my chains, especially one in particular, which is personalised with my middle name – I have had it since I was born and it was one of the first gifts my parents got me and I have cherished it for a while now. What is your favourite colour to wear?

I would say my favourite colours to wear are neutrals because they are so versatile and can be worn whatever the season. All neutral colours pair so well with one another. They have been in trend ever since the first Yeezy collection dropped in 2015. I have been experimenting with brighter colours a lot more though. What is a fashion trend you love and a fashion trend you hate? I have been loving the incorporation of 90’s and 00’s fashion into modern wear, which goes to show how style consistently ascends and descends in popularity. A fashion trend I hate is wearing joggers and heels, very ‘when you have the gym at 5 pm and the club at 9 pm’, make it make sense please!

I WEAR THINGS T H AT MAKE ME LOOK G OOD B E C AU S E WHEN I LOOK G OOD, I FEEL G OOD

What influences your style and the way you dress ? I very much like to be on-trend and adapt my style to whatever is poppin’ at given moments, but I also just like what I like. I wear things that make me look good because when I look good, I feel good, and as weird as it may sound, it really helps with my general mood. What is your number one fashion tip? I would say don’t allow society or social media to dictate what you should be doing or wearing. If you like it and you feel comfortable then go for it. Influencers and public figures may look good and have all these luxe pieces, but that may not be a true reflection of their circumstances. You do you, that’s what looks best ultimately.

Talk us through one of your outfits (all black outfit with boots) This picture was one of my quarantine photo-shoots; I was inspired by the movie The Matrix and very much loved their streamlined and simplistic but bold outfits. I am wearing a ribbed turtle-neck jumper because I like the ribbed material as it just adds some texture to the outfit. I also added this black denim mini skirt to add a femme flair to the outfit and then paired them with these boots which I am absolutely obsessed with because they have crocodile detailing all over the boot and a square toe which I love. For accessories, I have a mini bag and a pair of vintage Gucci mini sunglasses which are definitely homages to 90’s fashion inspiration and of course The Matrix movie itself where the characters had mini sunglasses. Finally, an outfit of mine is not complete without a chain. words by: Henry Bell design by: May Collins

44


PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

fashion

H A N N A H J O L AY E M I

How would you describe your style/ aesthetic? Fashion, for me, is a way in which I can express my emotions or specific vibe for that particular day or week. For that reason, I wouldn’t say I fall under a particular style, or ‘aesthetic’. I enjoy being able to try out different styles, textures and prints etc. I love to accessorise, chunky chains and rings are what I live for. My wardrobe ranges from a cute leather skirt and heels to comfy joggers and sneakers - I love a lot of variation. Who is your biggest fashion icon? I would say my biggest fashion inspiration is my mum; she has been my inspiration since before I was even born. I loved the way she was able to merge our cultural attire and streetwear back in the ’90s, and how she remains to do so even now as she has gotten older as her style has evolved - she’s an OG style influencer. Teyana Taylor, Rihanna, @melissaswardrobe, @lisajemide, @zinaldiaa____ on Instagram are also inspirations for me, but my list could go on. What does fashion mean to you? Fashion has always been a big thing for me, when I was a lot younger, I was always intrigued by different genres of fashion. Personally, it’s all about experimenting with different styles of clothing items and trying new things out. I love the process of formulating an outfit in my head and creating it in real life.

Find Hannah on: Instagram @hannah_jaay YouTube https://m.youtube.com/c/ HannahJolayemi

43

fashion

- FA S H I O N P R O F I L E -

Where are your favourite places to shop? I would say my favourite places to shop are Zara, PLT, Depop and also charity shops (they have the best gems if you look carefully). What is your favourite item of clothing? My favourite thing isn’t a clothing item, but a piece of jewellery. I live for my chains, especially one in particular, which is personalised with my middle name – I have had it since I was born and it was one of the first gifts my parents got me and I have cherished it for a while now. What is your favourite colour to wear?

I would say my favourite colours to wear are neutrals because they are so versatile and can be worn whatever the season. All neutral colours pair so well with one another. They have been in trend ever since the first Yeezy collection dropped in 2015. I have been experimenting with brighter colours a lot more though. What is a fashion trend you love and a fashion trend you hate? I have been loving the incorporation of 90’s and 00’s fashion into modern wear, which goes to show how style consistently ascends and descends in popularity. A fashion trend I hate is wearing joggers and heels, very ‘when you have the gym at 5 pm and the club at 9 pm’, make it make sense please!

I WEAR THINGS T H AT MAKE ME LOOK G OOD B E C AU S E WHEN I LOOK G OOD, I FEEL G OOD

What influences your style and the way you dress ? I very much like to be on-trend and adapt my style to whatever is poppin’ at given moments, but I also just like what I like. I wear things that make me look good because when I look good, I feel good, and as weird as it may sound, it really helps with my general mood. What is your number one fashion tip? I would say don’t allow society or social media to dictate what you should be doing or wearing. If you like it and you feel comfortable then go for it. Influencers and public figures may look good and have all these luxe pieces, but that may not be a true reflection of their circumstances. You do you, that’s what looks best ultimately.

Talk us through one of your outfits (all black outfit with boots) This picture was one of my quarantine photo-shoots; I was inspired by the movie The Matrix and very much loved their streamlined and simplistic but bold outfits. I am wearing a ribbed turtle-neck jumper because I like the ribbed material as it just adds some texture to the outfit. I also added this black denim mini skirt to add a femme flair to the outfit and then paired them with these boots which I am absolutely obsessed with because they have crocodile detailing all over the boot and a square toe which I love. For accessories, I have a mini bag and a pair of vintage Gucci mini sunglasses which are definitely homages to 90’s fashion inspiration and of course The Matrix movie itself where the characters had mini sunglasses. Finally, an outfit of mine is not complete without a chain. words by: Henry Bell design by: May Collins

44


fashion

fashion

J O L A Y E M I

45

featuring: Hannah Jolayemi design by: May Collins

46

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

H A N N A H


fashion

fashion

J O L A Y E M I

45

featuring: Hannah Jolayemi design by: May Collins

46

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

H A N N A H


fashion

fashion

From Jumpsuits, to Jeans, and Joggers: A Lockdown Fashion Journey

Slip Into Something More Comfortable

“So it does look like you’ve made great progress given the circumstances…I think your results and analysis section looks good. Just your conclusion and reference list to go. Shall we schedule another meeting for this time next week to go over these final points?” We were a few weeks into the Coronavirus UK-wide lockdown and this was my third Skype meeting with my dissertation supervisor. My webcam was currently revealing a small window of lockdown utopia, with bras and tidy bedrooms. However, hidden below the eyeline of my laptop camera was the antithesis of my presentable, washed hair and mascara; a four year-old pair of grey pyjama bottoms, as well as my trusty slippers - sporting one too many holes. Before Coronavirus, I thought attending supervisor meetings in my pyjamas was a situation I would only live through in my nightmares, waking myself up by lying in a sweat-puddle of embarrassment. Now though, pyjama meetings had become a conscious decision, albeit only horizontally and I was squirming in my desk chair.

How Are You Really Doing?

Somewhere between academic referencing styles and arranging our next chat, we settled into what had become a natural conversation topic. As I am sure was the case around the world, Coronavirus had become the uncomfortable elephant in the room. How are the infection stats where you are? Are your friends and family well? How are you keeping busy during the days of nothing that do not appear to be slowing down anytime soon? And then, just before we said goodbye…

“Any plans for the weekend?” I blinked. Between the midday lie-ins and banana bread baking, I had failed to realise that we were in fact nearing 5pm on a Friday evening. Two months ago, Friday nights meant cocktails with the girls or fancy restaurant meals with my boyfriend with the appropriate outfit to match. Two months later, the lashes and lip liner had all but disappeared. In the four weeks of an all-consuming global pandemic, so had my apparent ability to answer questions about weekend plans. I stumbled through a reply, something about taking some time to enjoy the daily walk or outdoor exercise and before I knew it the call was over.

47

Heels vs Heavy Jumpers

Fast forward a month past University deadlines and I had taken the (somewhat brave) decision to sort my overflowing wardrobe and use my endless free-time productively. Personally, early May has long-marked the time to begin a systematic season-change fashion turnout. Drag the shorts and bikinis out of storage, and hide my heavy jumpers away until winter rolled around again. It was a Marie Kondo ‘Does-this-bring-me-joy’ style operation that I would like to think most people follow in some way, but this year, I was struggling. My personal vow to throw out the clothes that I knew I wouldn’t wear this time next year was proving harder than usual, and my hands were lingering over a pair of gold heels. In a world where the future of bars and clubs was widely contested, what use did I have for them?

“Would I ever wear heels again?” Fast Fashion, Slow Lockdown

Fast forward again and we’re days away from August. Somehow, we’ve made it through nearly five months of lockdown and most aspects of life are returning to some form of normality. One aspect, however, looks set to stay on a path of no return for my foreseeable future. For pretty much my whole life, August has been the month of summery foreign holidays. This time last year I was on the coast of Northern Spain, the year before Fiji, the year before that Croatia. As is traditional, I would normally be harvesting the best holiday garms that the online shops had to offer around now. Order after order from PLT and ASOS, Missguided and I Saw It First. Entire evenings dedicated to mood boards and Pinterest and saved outfit ideas. This year, however, my thoughts towards holiday fashion have subconsciously shifted – and not just because my current holiday expectations lie in maybe a spontaneous weekend to Scotland.

to come into work while sick with Coronavirus - with no social distancing measures in place. In spur-of-the-moment honesty, I have at no point been totally shocked by these allegations against Boohoo. It is no industry secret that the foundations of fast-fashion are built on anti-social working conditions and exploitation. However, by combining Boohoo’s current legal battles with some of the difficult lessons I’ve been forced to learn during lockdown, this information has been the nail in the coffin of my previously unhealthy and unethical relationship with clothes. Lockdown has provided a refreshing reset on both the clothes I want to wear and the quality of clothing I choose to buy. Fashion might have now become an issue of priority for most, but it should also be credited for providing us an opportunity to realign our clothing choices in line with a more sustainable and ethical future.

Looking Forward to Getting Back Out There

In truth, lockdown hasn’t totally transformed my relationship with fashion and beauty. I will be the first to admit that whilst the sweatpants and messy buns were interesting for a couple of days, I am at the front of the queue to put my glad rags back on. At the same time, I’ve only made one online shopping order (for a new pair of iets frans joggers, believe it or not) and I am yet to hit the high streets in person. Whilst no-makeup days may still be the norm for now, I am silently pleased that my gym leggings are spending more and more time back in my chest of drawers where they belong. words by: Rhianna Hurren-Myers design by: Madeline Howell

On the 5th July, an undercover reporter at The Times dropped the bombshell that workers making Boohoo’s Nasty Gal clothes at their Leicester factory could expect pay to be as little as £3.50 an hour, far beneath this country’s minimum pay of £8.25. The clothing giant is now supposedly being investigated by the National Crime Agency for claims of exploitation and slavery. At the same time, Labour Behind the Label claimed that some of the employees at Leicester’s factories were being forced

48


fashion

fashion

From Jumpsuits, to Jeans, and Joggers: A Lockdown Fashion Journey

Slip Into Something More Comfortable

“So it does look like you’ve made great progress given the circumstances…I think your results and analysis section looks good. Just your conclusion and reference list to go. Shall we schedule another meeting for this time next week to go over these final points?” We were a few weeks into the Coronavirus UK-wide lockdown and this was my third Skype meeting with my dissertation supervisor. My webcam was currently revealing a small window of lockdown utopia, with bras and tidy bedrooms. However, hidden below the eyeline of my laptop camera was the antithesis of my presentable, washed hair and mascara; a four year-old pair of grey pyjama bottoms, as well as my trusty slippers - sporting one too many holes. Before Coronavirus, I thought attending supervisor meetings in my pyjamas was a situation I would only live through in my nightmares, waking myself up by lying in a sweat-puddle of embarrassment. Now though, pyjama meetings had become a conscious decision, albeit only horizontally and I was squirming in my desk chair.

How Are You Really Doing?

Somewhere between academic referencing styles and arranging our next chat, we settled into what had become a natural conversation topic. As I am sure was the case around the world, Coronavirus had become the uncomfortable elephant in the room. How are the infection stats where you are? Are your friends and family well? How are you keeping busy during the days of nothing that do not appear to be slowing down anytime soon? And then, just before we said goodbye…

“Any plans for the weekend?” I blinked. Between the midday lie-ins and banana bread baking, I had failed to realise that we were in fact nearing 5pm on a Friday evening. Two months ago, Friday nights meant cocktails with the girls or fancy restaurant meals with my boyfriend with the appropriate outfit to match. Two months later, the lashes and lip liner had all but disappeared. In the four weeks of an all-consuming global pandemic, so had my apparent ability to answer questions about weekend plans. I stumbled through a reply, something about taking some time to enjoy the daily walk or outdoor exercise and before I knew it the call was over.

47

Heels vs Heavy Jumpers

Fast forward a month past University deadlines and I had taken the (somewhat brave) decision to sort my overflowing wardrobe and use my endless free-time productively. Personally, early May has long-marked the time to begin a systematic season-change fashion turnout. Drag the shorts and bikinis out of storage, and hide my heavy jumpers away until winter rolled around again. It was a Marie Kondo ‘Does-this-bring-me-joy’ style operation that I would like to think most people follow in some way, but this year, I was struggling. My personal vow to throw out the clothes that I knew I wouldn’t wear this time next year was proving harder than usual, and my hands were lingering over a pair of gold heels. In a world where the future of bars and clubs was widely contested, what use did I have for them?

“Would I ever wear heels again?” Fast Fashion, Slow Lockdown

Fast forward again and we’re days away from August. Somehow, we’ve made it through nearly five months of lockdown and most aspects of life are returning to some form of normality. One aspect, however, looks set to stay on a path of no return for my foreseeable future. For pretty much my whole life, August has been the month of summery foreign holidays. This time last year I was on the coast of Northern Spain, the year before Fiji, the year before that Croatia. As is traditional, I would normally be harvesting the best holiday garms that the online shops had to offer around now. Order after order from PLT and ASOS, Missguided and I Saw It First. Entire evenings dedicated to mood boards and Pinterest and saved outfit ideas. This year, however, my thoughts towards holiday fashion have subconsciously shifted – and not just because my current holiday expectations lie in maybe a spontaneous weekend to Scotland.

to come into work while sick with Coronavirus - with no social distancing measures in place. In spur-of-the-moment honesty, I have at no point been totally shocked by these allegations against Boohoo. It is no industry secret that the foundations of fast-fashion are built on anti-social working conditions and exploitation. However, by combining Boohoo’s current legal battles with some of the difficult lessons I’ve been forced to learn during lockdown, this information has been the nail in the coffin of my previously unhealthy and unethical relationship with clothes. Lockdown has provided a refreshing reset on both the clothes I want to wear and the quality of clothing I choose to buy. Fashion might have now become an issue of priority for most, but it should also be credited for providing us an opportunity to realign our clothing choices in line with a more sustainable and ethical future.

Looking Forward to Getting Back Out There

In truth, lockdown hasn’t totally transformed my relationship with fashion and beauty. I will be the first to admit that whilst the sweatpants and messy buns were interesting for a couple of days, I am at the front of the queue to put my glad rags back on. At the same time, I’ve only made one online shopping order (for a new pair of iets frans joggers, believe it or not) and I am yet to hit the high streets in person. Whilst no-makeup days may still be the norm for now, I am silently pleased that my gym leggings are spending more and more time back in my chest of drawers where they belong. words by: Rhianna Hurren-Myers design by: Madeline Howell

On the 5th July, an undercover reporter at The Times dropped the bombshell that workers making Boohoo’s Nasty Gal clothes at their Leicester factory could expect pay to be as little as £3.50 an hour, far beneath this country’s minimum pay of £8.25. The clothing giant is now supposedly being investigated by the National Crime Agency for claims of exploitation and slavery. At the same time, Labour Behind the Label claimed that some of the employees at Leicester’s factories were being forced

48


fashion

fashion

Best Runway Looks SEASON

Of Rupaul’s Drag Race TWELVE

words by: Henry Bell design by: Sandra Mbula Nzioki

Gigi Goode, Black Wedding The simplistic approach to the runway results in a perfected, detailed and, most importantly, breath-taking look. The Dior inspired silhouette of Gigi’s dress presents a more restrained approach to the category, yet still conveys a high sense of fashion and elegance. Matched with a platinum wig, Gigi’s black wedding dress shows how a more minimalist approach can bring some of the most memorable moments on the runway. Crystal Methyd, Fall Runway As a huge fan of horror films, I was immediately obsessed with this look. Crystal’s ability to turn horror film icon Freddy Kreuger into a fashion week worthy look is stunning. Turning the iconic jumper into a gown, whilst also including details such as the safety pins and band aid wig to complete the outfit. Not only does this runway showcase Crystal’s outlandish approach to fashion, it also perfectly meets the criteria. Nothing says autumn like Halloween. Gigi Goode, Black Wedding - @thegigigoode

Widow Von Du, Stars and Stripes Not only is this look beautiful, with the bold lines and 3D stars creating a bold fashion piece, but it also carries a strong political message. The Black Panther inspired look is dedicated by Widow to Black history, presenting a very important and relevant message. Drag is returned to its strong political core with Widow’s fashion, which is used as a vessel to celebrate Black excellence, while also bringing awareness to the ongoing fight against racism. Rock M. Sakura, Tulle Runway This runway really does read tulle, the proportions and the immense use of the fabric not only meets the runway criteria but also serves as a fun, campy look. The silhouette is perfect, with the over exaggerated proportions allowing the tulle fabric to be used to its best capability. It is refreshing to see such a different shape outfit on the runway, showing that fashion doesn’t have to be slimming to be beautiful.

Jaida Essence Hall, The Colour Purple Jaida consistently presented flawless runway looks throughout the season, with her purple runway being one of the best. Both the fit and colour of the dress compliments the always beautiful Jaida, whilst her choice of hat pays homage to the film that inspired the runway. What makes this runway even more impressive is that like many of her looks, Jaida designed and sewed it herself.

Crystal Methyl, Makeover Challenge This look by Crystal defines modern drag: no boundaries. Crystal’s consistent approach to her ideal of drag diversifies herself from her fellow competitors and shapes her own path to achieve an influential runway. This Bert and Ernie inspired make-over from Crystal did not win the challenge, but it did exhibit the closest family resemblance on the runway and was by far the most memorable.

Nicky Doll, Fall Runway Though Nicky Doll did not remain in the season for long, she sure did make an impression with her well put together runway looks. Fashion is most exciting when gender roles and stereotypes are demolished, which is why this look is so successful. Nicky presents a fitted, androgynous suit look showcasing a high level of taste and also an arguably more European perspective on fashion. The added details such as the hat and monocle further elevate the look, creating a sophisticated high fashion runway overall.

Gigi Goode, Buttons and Bows Gigi’s approach to fashion was often more restrained and minimalist in approach. This outfit however, though simple in its silhouette, is both gag worthy and eccentric. The hundreds of buttons covering the outfit, shoes and accessories not only shows a dedication to the theme, but also presents a bold fashion statement. Furthermore, the different shades of orange buttons prevent the colours becoming mundane, and instead allows the outfit to become a couture piece. This look surely cements Gigi’s place amongst high fashion queens such as Raja and Violet Chachki.

Widow Von Du , Stars and Stripes runway - @thewidowvondu

Crystal Methyd - makeover challenge - @crystalmethyd

Nicky Doll - Fall runway - @thenickydoll

49

50


fashion

fashion

Best Runway Looks SEASON

Of Rupaul’s Drag Race TWELVE

words by: Henry Bell design by: Sandra Mbula Nzioki

Gigi Goode, Black Wedding The simplistic approach to the runway results in a perfected, detailed and, most importantly, breath-taking look. The Dior inspired silhouette of Gigi’s dress presents a more restrained approach to the category, yet still conveys a high sense of fashion and elegance. Matched with a platinum wig, Gigi’s black wedding dress shows how a more minimalist approach can bring some of the most memorable moments on the runway. Crystal Methyd, Fall Runway As a huge fan of horror films, I was immediately obsessed with this look. Crystal’s ability to turn horror film icon Freddy Kreuger into a fashion week worthy look is stunning. Turning the iconic jumper into a gown, whilst also including details such as the safety pins and band aid wig to complete the outfit. Not only does this runway showcase Crystal’s outlandish approach to fashion, it also perfectly meets the criteria. Nothing says autumn like Halloween. Gigi Goode, Black Wedding - @thegigigoode

Widow Von Du, Stars and Stripes Not only is this look beautiful, with the bold lines and 3D stars creating a bold fashion piece, but it also carries a strong political message. The Black Panther inspired look is dedicated by Widow to Black history, presenting a very important and relevant message. Drag is returned to its strong political core with Widow’s fashion, which is used as a vessel to celebrate Black excellence, while also bringing awareness to the ongoing fight against racism. Rock M. Sakura, Tulle Runway This runway really does read tulle, the proportions and the immense use of the fabric not only meets the runway criteria but also serves as a fun, campy look. The silhouette is perfect, with the over exaggerated proportions allowing the tulle fabric to be used to its best capability. It is refreshing to see such a different shape outfit on the runway, showing that fashion doesn’t have to be slimming to be beautiful.

Jaida Essence Hall, The Colour Purple Jaida consistently presented flawless runway looks throughout the season, with her purple runway being one of the best. Both the fit and colour of the dress compliments the always beautiful Jaida, whilst her choice of hat pays homage to the film that inspired the runway. What makes this runway even more impressive is that like many of her looks, Jaida designed and sewed it herself.

Crystal Methyl, Makeover Challenge This look by Crystal defines modern drag: no boundaries. Crystal’s consistent approach to her ideal of drag diversifies herself from her fellow competitors and shapes her own path to achieve an influential runway. This Bert and Ernie inspired make-over from Crystal did not win the challenge, but it did exhibit the closest family resemblance on the runway and was by far the most memorable.

Nicky Doll, Fall Runway Though Nicky Doll did not remain in the season for long, she sure did make an impression with her well put together runway looks. Fashion is most exciting when gender roles and stereotypes are demolished, which is why this look is so successful. Nicky presents a fitted, androgynous suit look showcasing a high level of taste and also an arguably more European perspective on fashion. The added details such as the hat and monocle further elevate the look, creating a sophisticated high fashion runway overall.

Gigi Goode, Buttons and Bows Gigi’s approach to fashion was often more restrained and minimalist in approach. This outfit however, though simple in its silhouette, is both gag worthy and eccentric. The hundreds of buttons covering the outfit, shoes and accessories not only shows a dedication to the theme, but also presents a bold fashion statement. Furthermore, the different shades of orange buttons prevent the colours becoming mundane, and instead allows the outfit to become a couture piece. This look surely cements Gigi’s place amongst high fashion queens such as Raja and Violet Chachki.

Widow Von Du , Stars and Stripes runway - @thewidowvondu

Crystal Methyd - makeover challenge - @crystalmethyd

Nicky Doll - Fall runway - @thenickydoll

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50


travel

travel

LEARNiNG AS YOU TRAVE L ‘Climb the mountain so you can see the world, not so the world can see you,’ said David McCullough Jr, capturing the importance of travel and all of the possibilities it has to offer. It can unite loved ones, broaden minds, aid discoveries, and introduce you to new cultures and foods. However, the overarching gift that travel can provide is education, and luckily over the past years, it has become easier and easier to do so (excluding our current coronavirus situation). The world around us can raise our awareness and teach us about things that we never learnt in school. Indeed, travel’s educational powers have never been more essential than right now, as seen amidst the Black Lives Matter movement. Whilst watching documentaries and reading articles or biographies are all vital in aiding the fight for equality, travel offers a unique experience that these mediums cannot compete with. The ability to visit locations of civil rights conflicts and sites of atrocities really provides us with an insight into the suffering that has been endured by so many throughout history. This article will focus on two important places to visit in order to learn about incredible individuals and groups who sacrificed not only their time and energy but often their lives in order to fight against discrimination and inequality. The Civil Rights Trail The Civil Rights Trail runs primarily throughout the Southeastern United States, marking key events and celebrating key

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figures within the Civil Rights Movement. The trail goes through Georgia, Alabama, Virginia, North Carolina, Mississippi, Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Kansas, and Washington D.C. and serves as both a historical tour and a pilgrimage in honour of thousands of men and women who dedicated their lives to the fight against inequality. The trail includes: • Clinton High School in Clinton, Tennessee. This was the first public school in the South to desegregate following Brown v. Board of Education. In 1956, twelve African-American students, the Clinton 12, were accepted into the school. • Woolworth’s Lunch Counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. Many sit-ins took place here to protest against discrimination. On the 1st February 1960, four Black students held their first sitin, refusing to leave after they were denied service in the segregated cafe. As a reaction to these protests, the sit-in movement began to spread throughout the South and eventually led to Woolworth’s serving their first Black customer on the 25th July that same year. • Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama. On the 7th March 1965, hundreds of peaceful protesters marched from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama to fight for equal voting rights and were met with violence from the police. The brutality of the state troopers was photographed and filmed, raising awareness and rallying supporters for the

Civil Rights Movement across America and the world. These are just three examples of the locations included on the trail and the stories they have to tell, however, there are hundreds more. While each location is important in itself, you will also find museums, churches, houses that belonged to key Civil Rights figures, and memorial centres throughout the trail. Each stop will increase your understanding of the extent of the racial discrimination that has been ongoing in America across the nation’s history. Robben Island Robben Island is located off the north coast of Cape Town, South Africa. Throughout the years it has had many purposes, but it was most famously a prison during the apartheid era and held many Black political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela. At the end of apartheid in the early 1990s, the prison was closed, but not destroyed. It instead became a UNESCO World Heritage site, allowing thousands of visitors each year to learn about its inmates and the brutal years of injustice and inequality. Visiting the island both educates us on the history, through seeing the awful conditions and learning about individual struggles, and highlights the resilience of humankind and how we can overcome oppression. Learning about the prison should encourage and inspire us to continue with the fight for equal rights. While victories like the end of apartheid are steps in the right direction, the battle is nowhere near over.

SAiD DAViD MCCULLOUGH JR, CAPTURiNG THE iMPORTANCE OF TRAVEL AND ALL OF THE POSSiBiLiTiES iT HAS TO OFFER

words by: Alice Clifford design by: May Collins

52


travel

travel

LEARNiNG AS YOU TRAVE L ‘Climb the mountain so you can see the world, not so the world can see you,’ said David McCullough Jr, capturing the importance of travel and all of the possibilities it has to offer. It can unite loved ones, broaden minds, aid discoveries, and introduce you to new cultures and foods. However, the overarching gift that travel can provide is education, and luckily over the past years, it has become easier and easier to do so (excluding our current coronavirus situation). The world around us can raise our awareness and teach us about things that we never learnt in school. Indeed, travel’s educational powers have never been more essential than right now, as seen amidst the Black Lives Matter movement. Whilst watching documentaries and reading articles or biographies are all vital in aiding the fight for equality, travel offers a unique experience that these mediums cannot compete with. The ability to visit locations of civil rights conflicts and sites of atrocities really provides us with an insight into the suffering that has been endured by so many throughout history. This article will focus on two important places to visit in order to learn about incredible individuals and groups who sacrificed not only their time and energy but often their lives in order to fight against discrimination and inequality. The Civil Rights Trail The Civil Rights Trail runs primarily throughout the Southeastern United States, marking key events and celebrating key

51

figures within the Civil Rights Movement. The trail goes through Georgia, Alabama, Virginia, North Carolina, Mississippi, Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Kansas, and Washington D.C. and serves as both a historical tour and a pilgrimage in honour of thousands of men and women who dedicated their lives to the fight against inequality. The trail includes: • Clinton High School in Clinton, Tennessee. This was the first public school in the South to desegregate following Brown v. Board of Education. In 1956, twelve African-American students, the Clinton 12, were accepted into the school. • Woolworth’s Lunch Counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. Many sit-ins took place here to protest against discrimination. On the 1st February 1960, four Black students held their first sitin, refusing to leave after they were denied service in the segregated cafe. As a reaction to these protests, the sit-in movement began to spread throughout the South and eventually led to Woolworth’s serving their first Black customer on the 25th July that same year. • Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama. On the 7th March 1965, hundreds of peaceful protesters marched from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama to fight for equal voting rights and were met with violence from the police. The brutality of the state troopers was photographed and filmed, raising awareness and rallying supporters for the

Civil Rights Movement across America and the world. These are just three examples of the locations included on the trail and the stories they have to tell, however, there are hundreds more. While each location is important in itself, you will also find museums, churches, houses that belonged to key Civil Rights figures, and memorial centres throughout the trail. Each stop will increase your understanding of the extent of the racial discrimination that has been ongoing in America across the nation’s history. Robben Island Robben Island is located off the north coast of Cape Town, South Africa. Throughout the years it has had many purposes, but it was most famously a prison during the apartheid era and held many Black political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela. At the end of apartheid in the early 1990s, the prison was closed, but not destroyed. It instead became a UNESCO World Heritage site, allowing thousands of visitors each year to learn about its inmates and the brutal years of injustice and inequality. Visiting the island both educates us on the history, through seeing the awful conditions and learning about individual struggles, and highlights the resilience of humankind and how we can overcome oppression. Learning about the prison should encourage and inspire us to continue with the fight for equal rights. While victories like the end of apartheid are steps in the right direction, the battle is nowhere near over.

SAiD DAViD MCCULLOUGH JR, CAPTURiNG THE iMPORTANCE OF TRAVEL AND ALL OF THE POSSiBiLiTiES iT HAS TO OFFER

words by: Alice Clifford design by: May Collins

52


travel

C amping Guide words by: Katherine Mallett design by: May Collins

Packing Checklist: 1) Tent 2) Sleeping bag 3) Blow up bed/ camping mat 4) Pillow (if you’re feeling boujee) 5) Torch/ fairy lights 6) Deck of cards 7) Dry shampoo- aka life saver 8) Books 9) Umbrella (you’ll probably need it) 10) Your sense of adventure!

There’s no better way to experience the great outdoors than a good, old-fashioned camping trip. Whether it be on the doorstep of the great blue sea, with seagulls acting as your wake-up call, or deep in the countryside with farm animals as your only neighbours, a couple of nights in a tent can be refreshing and fun. As summer gets into full swing, it might be time to escape the monotony of the city and get in among mother nature herself. So grab your tent, your sleeping bag, and your Ross Kemp alter-ego, ready for a spot of relaxation or pure uncensored adventure. Destination Decisions: When embarking on a camping adventure, it is important to pick the perfect location for all your holiday needs. There’s a lot to consider when booking the perfect campsite, including location, facilities and the size of your plot. To make life a little easier, here are just a few of the best campsites the UK has to offer: Ayr Holiday Park – St Ives Pitch up your tent alongside breathtaking views of St Ives bay and the crystal-clear sea beyond. Ayr Holiday Park boasts amazing facilities including modern shower blocks, dishwashing and laundry rooms, perfect for all your camping needs. The location of the campsite is no less than perfect, being just a ten-minute walk from the beautiful beaches and town centre. There’s lots to keep you busy in St Ives, from surfing and soaking up the sun (British weather permitting), to visiting the Tate St Ives for a dose of contemporary art. Price (summer season): tent plus two adults £39.75 per night, with a £75 deposit required on each booking. Visit: https://www.ayrholidaypark.co.uk Ten Acres Vineyard Camping – Devon The countryside is calling from Ten Acres Vineyard Campsite and you would be silly to miss this one. The one-acre campsite has just ten pitches, guaranteeing plenty of space for all its campers. There is a shower and toilets on site, as well as a shared fire pit around

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which all your summer dreams can come true! The site is located next to the vineyard, which offers weekend vineyard tours, including wine-tastingwhat more could you ask for? Don’t forget to take a stroll in to Winkleigh village with two pubs and a farmers market on the first Saturday of each month. Price (summer season): £8.00 per night per adult (16+). Visit: https://www.tenacresvineyardcamping. co.uk Castle Knights Camping – South Wales Take a trip back in time and camp at Castle Knights site, where your tent will be situated right next to Usk castle. Fortunately, despite the medieval setting, the site boasts modern facilities with a kitchen block, toilets, and two hot power showers. There are plenty of local outdoor activities to fill your days- from walks, to mountain climbing or canoeing, you won’t have a dull day (except from maybe the sky, of course). Price (summer season): £10 per night per adult. Visit: https://www.castleknights.co.uk/camping Pastime Preparation: Despite the plethora of activities that the campsites above have to offer, you might like to plan some other pastimes to help fill your days. 1) A pack of cards– the very essence of camping is stripping it back to the basics. Forget WIFI connection and Netflix for a few days and reach for a pack of cards after a day at the beach or roaming the woods. Fun games such as Go Fish!, Rummy and Cheat are perfect to play around the campfire, just make sure you’re clued up on the rules beforehand! 2) Sunrise/sunset walk– name a better time to wake up early to see the sunrise than on your holiday. If the hard floor is keeping you up at night, make the most of the day by getting up early and watching the sunrise from the top of the hill or on the beach. 3)Reading– it goes without saying that a holiday is the perfect time to catch up on that reading list that seems to have gotten ahead of you throughout the year. Grab a book and hot chocolate (or tinny) and read the day away. 4)S’mores– there’s nothing like a camping trip to get roasting some marshmallows on an open flame. We may not be able to get to America this year, but we can bring America to us with some crackers, chocolate and marshmallows, creating a sweet S’mores treat.

Making the Most of the UK: Countryside Beaches

travel

43

VS

Usually, summer brings hordes of tourists with their suitcases, swimming costumes and goggles packed up ready for a week of relaxation. However, this summer seems to have drawn more of a local crowd of adventure-seekers to our British beaches. Stay-cations are more popular than ever this summer, and while a week away in the Balearics may have been on the top of your list, here are some equally as beautiful destinations in Britain which you shouldn’t be too quick to judge.

to stay in the cave after his pursuers left, surviving on the surrounding nature and water from a nearby well. St Govan’s history harks back to as early as the 6th century, but his personal history is mysterious at best. Some believed him to be a thief, some believed he was the legendary knight from the court of King Arthur. Whatever you believe, the site became an important site of worship, with a chapel erected in the cliffside sometime in the 13th or 14th century.

and Uig. Not only that, but you can take day trips out to St Kilda and the Atlantic Coast from the pontoon at Miavaig. The countryside in Lewis is beautiful and wildlife dominates the landscape, making for a surreally scenic holiday. Machair (a mass of wildflowers and orchids) forms on the beachfront from the deposition of sand and shell fragments by the wind, making the beaches on the Western Isles of Scotland some of the most breathtaking in Britain.

If your idea of paradise spans from soft sand and crashing waves to vast expanses of lush green grass and rolling hills, the Welsh countryside is for you. Our first destination of choice for this summer is Pembrokeshire. Nestled on the coast of South-West Wales is the Pembrokeshire Coast, which boasts stunning views in one of Wales’ three national parks. Pembrokeshire is brilliant for a week getaway for walks along the beach, the hills or the mountains – it has it all. Rugged cliffs border around quaint fishing villages and picture-perfect coastlines. As of November 2019, 39 of Pembrokeshire’s beaches were awarded the Blue Flag, which recognises them as environmentally aware and eco-friendly. Stunningly clear ocean water makes for happy wildlife and visitors alike. If walks and beaches don’t appeal, native to Pembrokeshire is the largest colony of Puffins in Southern Britain. You can visit the Puffins on a boat trip off the coast of Pembrokeshire to Skomer Island during the months of April-August. For as little as £16pp you can view the colonies of Puffins, Guillemots and Razorbills whilst simultaneously enjoying panoramic coastal views.

If Pembrokeshire doesn’t appeal, another destination worth visiting in the UK to satisfy your stay-cation needs is the Scottish Western Isles of the Outer Hebrides. Situated on Europe’s Atlantic Edge, the Outer Hebrides is a chain of inter-connected islands with a unique way of life. The wildlife is ubiquitous, the scenery is astonishing, and the community is close, warm, and welcoming. The Outer Hebrides tourism website encourages visitors to follow their designated ‘Eat Drink Hebrides Trail’ to get a real taste of the islands and features several local bars, cafés, pubs and restaurants to visit. What tastes better than homemade food, local beers, and supporting local businesses?

Whilst these two British summer holiday spots may not be comparable to the blistering sun in Spain, it is fair to say that they are inexplicably charming in their own right. Both Pembrokeshire and the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides serve as reminders to us of the attraction of staying local for this season and are

Pembrokeshire also prides itself on its rich history. The county has everything from prehistoric tombs and Medieval castles to Celtic religious shrines. Take a step back into history and visit one of the most interesting must-see destinations in Pembrokeshire this summer: St. Govan’s Chapel. A ‘hermit’s tiny cell built into the cliffside’. Legend has it that St Govan hid in the cliffside after having been attacked by Irish pirates on the coast and decided

Just as England has Stonehenge and Wales has Pentre Ifan, Scotland has the Callanish Stones, located near Loch Roag in Lewis. The Callanish Stones date back approximately 5,000 years and were thought to be part of a celestial observatory. Framed by the rolling hills of Great Bernera, the Callanish Stones are a must-see sight to behold in Scotland. The Isle of Lewis hosts several guided tours to showcase some of the island’s best landmarks, monuments and areas of outstanding natural beauty. For walkers, the ‘Hidden Hebrides’ tour is a brilliant walking experience to explore the spectacular isle on foot. For both experienced and aspiring surfers alike, there are plenty of surf schools open which supply equipment and lessons for all abilities. Additionally, it is worth visiting the Outer Hebrides for the stunning beaches and coastlines, like those that line the Isle of Lewis: Reef, Cliff, Mangersta

words by: Siân Jones design by: May Collins

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54


travel

Packing Checklist: 1) Tent 2) Sleeping bag 3) Blow up bed/ camping mat 4) Pillow (if you’re feeling boujee) 5) Torch/ fairy lights 6) Deck of cards 7) Dry shampoo- aka life saver 8) Books 9) Umbrella (you’ll probably need it) 10) Your sense of adventure!

C amping Guide There’s no better way to experience the great outdoors than a good, old-fashioned camping trip. Whether it be on the doorstep of the great blue sea, with seagulls acting as your wake-up call, or deep in the countryside with farm animals as your only neighbours, a couple of nights in a tent can be refreshing and fun. As summer gets into full swing, it might be time to escape the monotony of the city and get in among mother nature herself. So grab your tent, your sleeping bag, and your Ross Kemp alter-ego, ready for a spot of relaxation or pure uncensored adventure. Destination Decisions: When embarking on a camping adventure, it is important to pick the perfect location for all your holiday needs. There’s a lot to consider when booking the perfect campsite, including location, facilities and the size of your plot. To make life a little easier, here are just a few of the best campsites the UK has to offer: Ayr Holiday Park – St Ives Pitch up your tent alongside breathtaking views of St Ives bay and the crystal-clear sea beyond. Ayr Holiday Park boasts amazing facilities including modern shower blocks, dishwashing and laundry rooms, perfect for all your camping needs. The location of the campsite is no less than perfect, being just a ten-minute walk from the beautiful beaches and town centre. There’s lots to keep you busy in St Ives, from surfing and soaking up the sun (British weather permitting), to visiting the Tate St Ives for a dose of contemporary art. Price (summer season): tent plus two adults £39.75 per night, with a £75 deposit required on each booking. Visit: https://www.ayrholidaypark.co.uk Ten Acres Vineyard Camping – Devon The countryside is calling from Ten Acres Vineyard Campsite and you would be silly to miss this one. The one-acre campsite has just ten pitches, guaranteeing plenty of space for all its campers. There is a shower and toilets on site, as well as a shared fire pit around

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which all your summer dreams can come true! The site is located next to the vineyard, which offers weekend vineyard tours, including wine-tastingwhat more could you ask for? Don’t forget to take a stroll in to Winkleigh village with two pubs and a farmers market on the first Saturday of each month. Price (summer season): £8.00 per night per adult (16+). Visit: https://www.tenacresvineyardcamping. co.uk Castle Knights Camping – South Wales Take a trip back in time and camp at Castle Knights site, where your tent will be situated right next to Usk castle. Fortunately, despite the medieval setting, the site boasts modern facilities with a kitchen block, toilets, and two hot power showers. There are plenty of local outdoor activities to fill your days- from walks, to mountain climbing or canoeing, you won’t have a dull day (except from maybe the sky, of course). Price (summer season): £10 per night per adult. Visit: https://www.castleknights.co.uk/camping Pastime Preparation: Despite the plethora of activities that the campsites above have to offer, you might like to plan some other pastimes to help fill your days. 1) A pack of cards– the very essence of camping is stripping it back to the basics. Forget WIFI connection and Netflix for a few days and reach for a pack of cards after a day at the beach or roaming the woods. Fun games such as Go Fish!, Rummy and Cheat are perfect to play around the campfire, just make sure you’re clued up on the rules beforehand! 2) Sunrise/sunset walk– name a better time to wake up early to see the sunrise than on your holiday. If the hard floor is keeping you up at night, make the most of the day by getting up early and watching the sunrise from the top of the hill or on the beach. 3)Reading– it goes without saying that a holiday is the perfect time to catch up on that reading list that seems to have gotten ahead of you throughout the year. Grab a book and hot chocolate (or tinny) and read the day away. 4)S’mores– there’s nothing like a camping trip to get roasting some marshmallows on an open flame. We may not be able to get to America this year, but we can bring America to us with some crackers, chocolate and marshmallows, creating a sweet S’mores treat.

Making the Most of the UK: Countryside Beaches

travel

43

VS

Usually, summer brings hordes of tourists with their suitcases, swimming costumes and goggles packed up ready for a week of relaxation. However, this summer seems to have drawn more of a local crowd of adventure-seekers to our British beaches. Stay-cations are more popular than ever this summer, and while a week away in the Balearics may have been on the top of your list, here are some equally as beautiful destinations in Britain which you shouldn’t be too quick to judge.

to stay in the cave after his pursuers left, surviving on the surrounding nature and water from a nearby well. St Govan’s history harks back to as early as the 6th century, but his personal history is mysterious at best. Some believed him to be a thief, some believed he was the legendary knight from the court of King Arthur. Whatever you believe, the site became an important site of worship, with a chapel erected in the cliffside sometime in the 13th or 14th century.

and Uig. Not only that, but you can take day trips out to St Kilda and the Atlantic Coast from the pontoon at Miavaig. The countryside in Lewis is beautiful and wildlife dominates the landscape, making for a surreally scenic holiday. Machair (a mass of wildflowers and orchids) forms on the beachfront from the deposition of sand and shell fragments by the wind, making the beaches on the Western Isles of Scotland some of the most breathtaking in Britain.

If your idea of paradise spans from soft sand and crashing waves to vast expanses of lush green grass and rolling hills, the Welsh countryside is for you. Our first destination of choice for this summer is Pembrokeshire. Nestled on the coast of South-West Wales is the Pembrokeshire Coast, which boasts stunning views in one of Wales’ three national parks. Pembrokeshire is brilliant for a week getaway for walks along the beach, the hills or the mountains – it has it all. Rugged cliffs border around quaint fishing villages and picture-perfect coastlines. As of November 2019, 39 of Pembrokeshire’s beaches were awarded the Blue Flag, which recognises them as environmentally aware and eco-friendly. Stunningly clear ocean water makes for happy wildlife and visitors alike. If walks and beaches don’t appeal, native to Pembrokeshire is the largest colony of Puffins in Southern Britain. You can visit the Puffins on a boat trip off the coast of Pembrokeshire to Skomer Island during the months of April-August. For as little as £16pp you can view the colonies of Puffins, Guillemots and Razorbills whilst simultaneously enjoying panoramic coastal views.

If Pembrokeshire doesn’t appeal, another destination worth visiting in the UK to satisfy your stay-cation needs is the Scottish Western Isles of the Outer Hebrides. Situated on Europe’s Atlantic Edge, the Outer Hebrides is a chain of inter-connected islands with a unique way of life. The wildlife is ubiquitous, the scenery is astonishing, and the community is close, warm, and welcoming. The Outer Hebrides tourism website encourages visitors to follow their designated ‘Eat Drink Hebrides Trail’ to get a real taste of the islands and features several local bars, cafés, pubs and restaurants to visit. What tastes better than homemade food, local beers, and supporting local businesses?

Whilst these two British summer holiday spots may not be comparable to the blistering sun in Spain, it is fair to say that they are inexplicably charming in their own right. Both Pembrokeshire and the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides serve as reminders to us of the attraction of staying local for this season and are

Pembrokeshire also prides itself on its rich history. The county has everything from prehistoric tombs and Medieval castles to Celtic religious shrines. Take a step back into history and visit one of the most interesting must-see destinations in Pembrokeshire this summer: St. Govan’s Chapel. A ‘hermit’s tiny cell built into the cliffside’. Legend has it that St Govan hid in the cliffside after having been attacked by Irish pirates on the coast and decided

Just as England has Stonehenge and Wales has Pentre Ifan, Scotland has the Callanish Stones, located near Loch Roag in Lewis. The Callanish Stones date back approximately 5,000 years and were thought to be part of a celestial observatory. Framed by the rolling hills of Great Bernera, the Callanish Stones are a must-see sight to behold in Scotland. The Isle of Lewis hosts several guided tours to showcase some of the island’s best landmarks, monuments and areas of outstanding natural beauty. For walkers, the ‘Hidden Hebrides’ tour is a brilliant walking experience to explore the spectacular isle on foot. For both experienced and aspiring surfers alike, there are plenty of surf schools open which supply equipment and lessons for all abilities. Additionally, it is worth visiting the Outer Hebrides for the stunning beaches and coastlines, like those that line the Isle of Lewis: Reef, Cliff, Mangersta

words by: Siân Jones design by: May Collins

53

54


food

food

Food festivals allow you to experience a variety of foods from a variety of cultures. One minute you will be indulging on Italian cuisine as you experience traditional pizzas straight from Naples, then next you’ll be eating authentic Indian curries from Mumbai. Quench Magazine showcases the diversity that Cardiff University has to offer, as our team originate from all over the world. As the Food section, we have decided to demonstrate the medley of cultures that our magazine houses through hosting our very own print food festival! Each issue we’ll see recipes from two sections that exhibit their own backgrounds and what each recipe means them. You can get to know the team and be educated on different cultures in the process!

Ingredients: - 5 tbsps vegetable - 3 garlic cloves, finely chopped - 1 fresh green chilli, finely chopped - 1 tsp grated ginger - 4 green cardamom pods, bruised - 1 small cinnamon stick - 500g red lentils - 1.2l vegetable stock - 400g tinned tomatoes - 1 tsp curry powder - 1 tsp black mustard seeds - 1 tsp ground turmeric - 1 tsp cumin seeds - 1 tsp coriander seeds

words by: Indigo Jones design by: Ersila Bushi

55

Special Dahl by Sasha Nugara

I have chosen this recipe because I love a curry and although I don’t think you can beat a classic chicken curry, a lentil dhal offers a much healthier, meat free alternative. After sampling hundreds of recipes, I believe that this spiced dhal is truly superior, and of course the Food section always know best! Method: Warm one tablespoon of oil in a large saucepan over a medium heat and add the garlic, chilli, ginger, and fry for 30 secs. Then add the cardamom and cinnamon for a further 30 secs. Add the lentils and vegetable stock, bring to the boil and turn down to a simmer for 15 minutes. Add the tin tomatoes and break them up with a spoon. Cook for another 20-25 mins, or until the lentils are soft and the mixture is thick. Add more liquid where required. Remove from the heat and discard the cardamom and cinnamon sticks. In a separate frying pan, heat the remaining oil over a low heat and add the remaining spices, frying until aromatic and the seeds start to pop. Tip the spices into the lentils and stir, adjusting the seasoning where necessary. When ready to eat, stir in the baby spinach and top with a fried egg. A naan creates the perfect accompaniment, and a squeeze of fresh lemon juice cuts through the rich spices. This makes about 6-8 portions, so enjoy with your loved ones.

Pice ar y Maen aka Welshcakes by Dafydd Orritt This is a traditional dish that is known all over the country and it’s a tradition to most of the Welsh population on St David’s Day (March 1st)! Its cultural significance to Wales makes it a perfect recipe to represent Clebar.

Ingredients: -110g of (preferably Welsh) salted butter -225g of Self-raising flour (sieved) -85g of caster sugar -A handful of sultanas -1 free range egg (beaten) -Add milk, if needed

43

Method: Start by rubbing the butter into the flour to make a breadcrumb like texture. Add the sugar and sultanas, then stir in the egg. The ingredients then should form a ball of dough after mixing, add a splash of milk if needed to help form the dough. Roll out the dough on a lightly floured surface then cut it into rounds by using a circle shaped cutter. You will now need a bakestone or a heavy cast-iron griddle. Rub it with butter and wipe the excess away, before putting it on a direct heat, then wait until it heats up. Next, you need to place the cut dough on the griddle and cook for 2-3 minutes on each side, or until brown. Lastly, remove from the pan and dust with caster sugar while still warm. Some people leave out the sultanas and replace them with chocolate chip chunks, so you can substitute with anything of your choice! A perfect afternoon treat with a cup of tea, mwynhewch! Top Tip: The key aspect of this recipe is ensuring that you have the right temperature of your griddle or bakestone. If it’s too hot the cakes will burn before they are cooked through and if the temperature is low the texture will dry.

To Serve: - Handful baby spinach leaves - 1-2 eggs - Warm naan - Half a lemon

words by: Dafydd Orritt design by: Ersila Bushi

56


food

food

Food festivals allow you to experience a variety of foods from a variety of cultures. One minute you will be indulging on Italian cuisine as you experience traditional pizzas straight from Naples, then next you’ll be eating authentic Indian curries from Mumbai. Quench Magazine showcases the diversity that Cardiff University has to offer, as our team originate from all over the world. As the Food section, we have decided to demonstrate the medley of cultures that our magazine houses through hosting our very own print food festival! Each issue we’ll see recipes from two sections that exhibit their own backgrounds and what each recipe means them. You can get to know the team and be educated on different cultures in the process!

Ingredients: - 5 tbsps vegetable - 3 garlic cloves, finely chopped - 1 fresh green chilli, finely chopped - 1 tsp grated ginger - 4 green cardamom pods, bruised - 1 small cinnamon stick - 500g red lentils - 1.2l vegetable stock - 400g tinned tomatoes - 1 tsp curry powder - 1 tsp black mustard seeds - 1 tsp ground turmeric - 1 tsp cumin seeds - 1 tsp coriander seeds

words by: Indigo Jones design by: Ersila Bushi

55

Special Dahl by Sasha Nugara

I have chosen this recipe because I love a curry and although I don’t think you can beat a classic chicken curry, a lentil dhal offers a much healthier, meat free alternative. After sampling hundreds of recipes, I believe that this spiced dhal is truly superior, and of course the Food section always know best! Method: Warm one tablespoon of oil in a large saucepan over a medium heat and add the garlic, chilli, ginger, and fry for 30 secs. Then add the cardamom and cinnamon for a further 30 secs. Add the lentils and vegetable stock, bring to the boil and turn down to a simmer for 15 minutes. Add the tin tomatoes and break them up with a spoon. Cook for another 20-25 mins, or until the lentils are soft and the mixture is thick. Add more liquid where required. Remove from the heat and discard the cardamom and cinnamon sticks. In a separate frying pan, heat the remaining oil over a low heat and add the remaining spices, frying until aromatic and the seeds start to pop. Tip the spices into the lentils and stir, adjusting the seasoning where necessary. When ready to eat, stir in the baby spinach and top with a fried egg. A naan creates the perfect accompaniment, and a squeeze of fresh lemon juice cuts through the rich spices. This makes about 6-8 portions, so enjoy with your loved ones.

Pice ar y Maen aka Welshcakes by Dafydd Orritt This is a traditional dish that is known all over the country and it’s a tradition to most of the Welsh population on St David’s Day (March 1st)! Its cultural significance to Wales makes it a perfect recipe to represent Clebar.

Ingredients: -110g of (preferably Welsh) salted butter -225g of Self-raising flour (sieved) -85g of caster sugar -A handful of sultanas -1 free range egg (beaten) -Add milk, if needed

43

Method: Start by rubbing the butter into the flour to make a breadcrumb like texture. Add the sugar and sultanas, then stir in the egg. The ingredients then should form a ball of dough after mixing, add a splash of milk if needed to help form the dough. Roll out the dough on a lightly floured surface then cut it into rounds by using a circle shaped cutter. You will now need a bakestone or a heavy cast-iron griddle. Rub it with butter and wipe the excess away, before putting it on a direct heat, then wait until it heats up. Next, you need to place the cut dough on the griddle and cook for 2-3 minutes on each side, or until brown. Lastly, remove from the pan and dust with caster sugar while still warm. Some people leave out the sultanas and replace them with chocolate chip chunks, so you can substitute with anything of your choice! A perfect afternoon treat with a cup of tea, mwynhewch! Top Tip: The key aspect of this recipe is ensuring that you have the right temperature of your griddle or bakestone. If it’s too hot the cakes will burn before they are cooked through and if the temperature is low the texture will dry.

To Serve: - Handful baby spinach leaves - 1-2 eggs - Warm naan - Half a lemon

words by: Dafydd Orritt design by: Ersila Bushi

56


food

food

THE ORiGiNS OF BRiTAiN’S FAVOURiTE FOOD words by: Hannah Penwright design by: May Collins Whether it was toad in the hole, bangers and mash, or shepherd’s pie, if you’re British it’s likely that these dishes graced your dinner plates growing up. Many of them follow the ‘meat and two veg’ stereotype of a traditional dinner over here, but other cultures have also significantly influenced our meals. But are popular British dishes such as spaghetti Bolognese and chicken tikka masala authentic to the countries we associate them with? We’ll be looking at the origins of these two dishes, as well as two of the nation’s favourites: fish and chips, and the humble roast dinner. Roast Dinner Roast Dinner is the ultimate comfort food, and it turns out that people back in the 15th Century felt the same way. King Henry VII’s royal guard ate roast beef so often that this is how they became known as ‘beefeaters’. It became common to have a roast dinner every Sunday during the Industrial Revolution. Nobility would roast a whole animal on their own fireplace during church, whilst lower classes took their meat to their local bakery to cook. Originally, Yorkshire puddings would have been cooked underneath the roasting meat so as not to waste any fats or juices. The puddings were served as a starter (with lashings of gravy) so that everyone would eat less meat during the main meal, as meat was so expensive. Nowadays, a roast dinner without roast potatoes would be practically criminal, but the original roast didn’t include them. When potatoes were

57

first brought over to England in 1586 they were nowhere near as popular as they are today. It took until 1795 for potatoes to become a staple in British people’s diets, when the ruling classes realised that potatoes could be a solution for food shortages. Chicken Tikka Masala Chicken tikka masala is almost always found on the menu at Indian restaurants, so it comes as a surprise that many believe the curry was invented in Britain. One story that claims to tell the truth behind chicken tikka masala’s origin starts in Glasgow, in the Shish Mahal curry house. In the 1970s, staff received a complaint from a customer that his chicken was dry. The owner happened to be on a liquid-based diet at the time so decided to add in some of his tomato soup, yoghurt and extra spices to the curry, and it was an instant hit.

Perhaps we’ll never know the true origin of chicken tikka masala. But one fact remains; it’s a very tasty dish, and one that’s here to stay. Spaghetti Bolognese As popular as spaghetti Bolognese might be here, in 2016 beloved Italian chef Antonio Carluccio claimed that there is no such dish in Italian cuisine. Why then do we see it as so Italian? Especially when served alongside garlic bread- which turns out wasn’t invented in Italy either, but actually in the United States. If you’re in Italy and fancy some spaghetti Bolognese, then 1) don’t try and order it; they’ll probably stare at you in horror at the fact you’ve even dared ask, and 2) instead order ‘Tagliatelle al Ragù alla Bolognese’. Ragu is a meat-based Italian sauce, cooked low and slow. Bolognese is a variation of ragu originating from Bologna. Tagliatelle is the best choice of pasta because the thickness of the strands helps hold the sauce. You’ll never find the sauce ladled on top of the pasta either. Instead, the tagliatelle is lifted straight from its cooking water and mixed into the Bolognese. If the ‘normal’ version of spaghetti Bolognese many of us are accustomed to wasn’t enough of an abomination for Italians, wait until you hear this. As part of their ‘Little Twists’ series, Sainsbury’s spaghetti Bolognese recipe included stirring in instant coffee granules. Considering

coffee has its own culture in Italy, Italians probably don’t even consider instant coffee a real drink - let alone an addition to pasta. Fish and chips Whether it’s your Friday night tradition, a holiday treat, or the main reason you agreed to go clubbing in the first place, if your fish and chips are eaten hot and fresh (and in Britain of course), it’s guaranteed to taste delicious. But as seems to be the case quite often, people can’t settle on where the true origins of the dish lie. On the one hand, it’s believed that during the 1860s, Joseph Malin opened the first fish and chip shop in London to help his family earn enough to make a living. Fried potato was already on the menu, and Joseph persuaded his family to include fish too, and the famous pairing was created. However, many believe that during the same decade, the meal was first sold by John Lees at Mossley Market in Lancashire. Growing demand led Lees to open up a shop, which had an inscription that read: “This is the first fish and chip shop in the world”. Even if it can’t be pinpointed where fish and chips was originally invented, perhaps this isn’t a bad thing. After all, two versions being invented in both the north and the south meant the dish could spread across the country even faster. As more shops selling fish and chips opened up around England, Italian migrants decided to take the dish to Wales, Ireland and Scotland, so even more people could feast on Britain’s favourite takeaway.

However, the fact that many other British cities, such as Birmingham and Newcastle, claim the dish was invented there, makes it difficult to pinpoint its true origin. It doesn’t stop there. Chef Zaeemuddin Ahmad claims that the dish is in fact an authentic Mughlai recipe invented by his family, and has been passed down through many generations. It’s also argued that Mrs Balbir Singh’s Shahi chicken masala was the inspiration for chicken tikka masala, and her recipe for the former was published in the 1961 edition of her book ‘Indian Cookery’.

58


food

food

THE ORiGiNS OF BRiTAiN’S FAVOURiTE FOOD words by: Hannah Penwright design by: May Collins Whether it was toad in the hole, bangers and mash, or shepherd’s pie, if you’re British it’s likely that these dishes graced your dinner plates growing up. Many of them follow the ‘meat and two veg’ stereotype of a traditional dinner over here, but other cultures have also significantly influenced our meals. But are popular British dishes such as spaghetti Bolognese and chicken tikka masala authentic to the countries we associate them with? We’ll be looking at the origins of these two dishes, as well as two of the nation’s favourites: fish and chips, and the humble roast dinner. Roast Dinner Roast Dinner is the ultimate comfort food, and it turns out that people back in the 15th Century felt the same way. King Henry VII’s royal guard ate roast beef so often that this is how they became known as ‘beefeaters’. It became common to have a roast dinner every Sunday during the Industrial Revolution. Nobility would roast a whole animal on their own fireplace during church, whilst lower classes took their meat to their local bakery to cook. Originally, Yorkshire puddings would have been cooked underneath the roasting meat so as not to waste any fats or juices. The puddings were served as a starter (with lashings of gravy) so that everyone would eat less meat during the main meal, as meat was so expensive. Nowadays, a roast dinner without roast potatoes would be practically criminal, but the original roast didn’t include them. When potatoes were

57

first brought over to England in 1586 they were nowhere near as popular as they are today. It took until 1795 for potatoes to become a staple in British people’s diets, when the ruling classes realised that potatoes could be a solution for food shortages. Chicken Tikka Masala Chicken tikka masala is almost always found on the menu at Indian restaurants, so it comes as a surprise that many believe the curry was invented in Britain. One story that claims to tell the truth behind chicken tikka masala’s origin starts in Glasgow, in the Shish Mahal curry house. In the 1970s, staff received a complaint from a customer that his chicken was dry. The owner happened to be on a liquid-based diet at the time so decided to add in some of his tomato soup, yoghurt and extra spices to the curry, and it was an instant hit.

Perhaps we’ll never know the true origin of chicken tikka masala. But one fact remains; it’s a very tasty dish, and one that’s here to stay. Spaghetti Bolognese As popular as spaghetti Bolognese might be here, in 2016 beloved Italian chef Antonio Carluccio claimed that there is no such dish in Italian cuisine. Why then do we see it as so Italian? Especially when served alongside garlic bread- which turns out wasn’t invented in Italy either, but actually in the United States. If you’re in Italy and fancy some spaghetti Bolognese, then 1) don’t try and order it; they’ll probably stare at you in horror at the fact you’ve even dared ask, and 2) instead order ‘Tagliatelle al Ragù alla Bolognese’. Ragu is a meat-based Italian sauce, cooked low and slow. Bolognese is a variation of ragu originating from Bologna. Tagliatelle is the best choice of pasta because the thickness of the strands helps hold the sauce. You’ll never find the sauce ladled on top of the pasta either. Instead, the tagliatelle is lifted straight from its cooking water and mixed into the Bolognese. If the ‘normal’ version of spaghetti Bolognese many of us are accustomed to wasn’t enough of an abomination for Italians, wait until you hear this. As part of their ‘Little Twists’ series, Sainsbury’s spaghetti Bolognese recipe included stirring in instant coffee granules. Considering

coffee has its own culture in Italy, Italians probably don’t even consider instant coffee a real drink - let alone an addition to pasta. Fish and chips Whether it’s your Friday night tradition, a holiday treat, or the main reason you agreed to go clubbing in the first place, if your fish and chips are eaten hot and fresh (and in Britain of course), it’s guaranteed to taste delicious. But as seems to be the case quite often, people can’t settle on where the true origins of the dish lie. On the one hand, it’s believed that during the 1860s, Joseph Malin opened the first fish and chip shop in London to help his family earn enough to make a living. Fried potato was already on the menu, and Joseph persuaded his family to include fish too, and the famous pairing was created. However, many believe that during the same decade, the meal was first sold by John Lees at Mossley Market in Lancashire. Growing demand led Lees to open up a shop, which had an inscription that read: “This is the first fish and chip shop in the world”. Even if it can’t be pinpointed where fish and chips was originally invented, perhaps this isn’t a bad thing. After all, two versions being invented in both the north and the south meant the dish could spread across the country even faster. As more shops selling fish and chips opened up around England, Italian migrants decided to take the dish to Wales, Ireland and Scotland, so even more people could feast on Britain’s favourite takeaway.

However, the fact that many other British cities, such as Birmingham and Newcastle, claim the dish was invented there, makes it difficult to pinpoint its true origin. It doesn’t stop there. Chef Zaeemuddin Ahmad claims that the dish is in fact an authentic Mughlai recipe invented by his family, and has been passed down through many generations. It’s also argued that Mrs Balbir Singh’s Shahi chicken masala was the inspiration for chicken tikka masala, and her recipe for the former was published in the 1961 edition of her book ‘Indian Cookery’.

58


food

food

Quarantine Cocktails: A Virtual Cocktail Night

words by: Indigo Jones design by: Kacey Keane Following the easing of lockdown measures, the British population seem united in their newfound obsession with online video-call services like Zoom. Behind (far behind) the front-line workers, Zoom is the silent hero of the past six months, as many have used the service to connect with one another for a wide-variety of events such as birthday parties and pub quizzes. Many of us have spent the odd “boozy” night on a Zoom call with friends, there is no better way to combat socially distanced learning this new academic year than a Zoom cocktail night with friends, family, neighbours or even your pets. Even though we’re transition back to ‘normal’ life, it’s more than likely people will continue to connect in this way and so here are a few of my favourite budget-friendly cocktails you can make from the comfort of your own home.

Pornstar Quarantini Ingredients:

If you haven’t got a cocktail shaker by this point, these recipes are wasted on you. However, if you don’t have

Passoã: 30ml Vodka: 30ml (Vanilla Vodka if you’re feeling bougie)

one, grab two cups and a sieve, adapt and overcome. In a cocktail shaker (or your makeshift one) add the passoã, vodka and lime juice over ice and shake

Prosecco

ZOOMojito

Method:

together. Pour the mixture into a martini glass and top

Method:

Passionfruit

First, swig the white rum- you’ll need a bit of dutch courage

Lime Juice (15ml or 1 tbsp)

up with prosecco. Serve with half a passionfruit and a shot of prosecco on the side. For guidance on whether

Ingredients:

before your online pub quiz. Jokes aside, put two shots

White Rum: 60ml

(60ml) of white rum in a cocktail shaker with ice. Then

Lime Juice: 30ml

add the lime juice, soda water, and some sprigs of mint

1 Lime

to the rum and shake. If it’s too bitter, add some sugar to

Mint

sweeten the drink. Although, if you’re sweet enough or

Piña Corona

Method:

Soda Water

you want your drink to taste as bitter as the friends you’re

Ingredients:

Do you like piña coladas and getting caught in the rain?

Sugar

about to beat in the quiz then you can leave the sugar out.

Malibu: 60ml

Well personally, I’m not a fan of the latter, so, for now,

Serve on ice with a slice of lime, as well as mint to garnish

Pineapple Juice: 120ml

we’ll stick to the cocktails indoors. To start, add the

Coconut Milk

Malibu, pineapple juice, and a dash of coconut milk into

Pineapple

a cocktail shaker with ice. When that’s fully mixed, serve

Sex in the House Ingredients: Vodka: 30ml Peach Schnapps: 30ml Orange Juice Grenadine Strawberries

Method: It’s a bit more mundane than a Sex on the Beach, with less sand and no indecent exposure. In a cocktail shaker with ice, add the vodka, peach schnapps and

you should do the shot of prosecco before drinking the martini, after the martini, or perhaps adding it to the martini, seek professional advice.

in a glass over ice with pineapple to garnish. Then drink them until you no longer care about being caught in the

orange juice. Give the mixture a good shake then pour it in a glass over ice. To achieve the traditional sunset vibes of a Sex on the Beach, add a dash of grenadine and watch the colours blend together beautifully. After you’ve added

With these quick and easy cocktail ideas, you’re ready for your next Zoom call. Although, I recommend you don’t drink them during work calls, online lectures or interviews, if you do, put them in a mug so nobody can tell!

a few strawberries to garnish, don’t forget to think back to previous holidays and those summer romances as you enjoy your cocktail.

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60


food

food

Quarantine Cocktails: A Virtual Cocktail Night

words by: Indigo Jones design by: Kacey Keane Following the easing of lockdown measures, the British population seem united in their newfound obsession with online video-call services like Zoom. Behind (far behind) the front-line workers, Zoom is the silent hero of the past six months, as many have used the service to connect with one another for a wide-variety of events such as birthday parties and pub quizzes. Many of us have spent the odd “boozy” night on a Zoom call with friends, there is no better way to combat socially distanced learning this new academic year than a Zoom cocktail night with friends, family, neighbours or even your pets. Even though we’re transition back to ‘normal’ life, it’s more than likely people will continue to connect in this way and so here are a few of my favourite budget-friendly cocktails you can make from the comfort of your own home.

Pornstar Quarantini Ingredients:

If you haven’t got a cocktail shaker by this point, these recipes are wasted on you. However, if you don’t have

Passoã: 30ml Vodka: 30ml (Vanilla Vodka if you’re feeling bougie)

one, grab two cups and a sieve, adapt and overcome. In a cocktail shaker (or your makeshift one) add the passoã, vodka and lime juice over ice and shake

Prosecco

ZOOMojito

Method:

together. Pour the mixture into a martini glass and top

Method:

Passionfruit

First, swig the white rum- you’ll need a bit of dutch courage

Lime Juice (15ml or 1 tbsp)

up with prosecco. Serve with half a passionfruit and a shot of prosecco on the side. For guidance on whether

Ingredients:

before your online pub quiz. Jokes aside, put two shots

White Rum: 60ml

(60ml) of white rum in a cocktail shaker with ice. Then

Lime Juice: 30ml

add the lime juice, soda water, and some sprigs of mint

1 Lime

to the rum and shake. If it’s too bitter, add some sugar to

Mint

sweeten the drink. Although, if you’re sweet enough or

Piña Corona

Method:

Soda Water

you want your drink to taste as bitter as the friends you’re

Ingredients:

Do you like piña coladas and getting caught in the rain?

Sugar

about to beat in the quiz then you can leave the sugar out.

Malibu: 60ml

Well personally, I’m not a fan of the latter, so, for now,

Serve on ice with a slice of lime, as well as mint to garnish

Pineapple Juice: 120ml

we’ll stick to the cocktails indoors. To start, add the

Coconut Milk

Malibu, pineapple juice, and a dash of coconut milk into

Pineapple

a cocktail shaker with ice. When that’s fully mixed, serve

Sex in the House Ingredients: Vodka: 30ml Peach Schnapps: 30ml Orange Juice Grenadine Strawberries

Method: It’s a bit more mundane than a Sex on the Beach, with less sand and no indecent exposure. In a cocktail shaker with ice, add the vodka, peach schnapps and

you should do the shot of prosecco before drinking the martini, after the martini, or perhaps adding it to the martini, seek professional advice.

in a glass over ice with pineapple to garnish. Then drink them until you no longer care about being caught in the

orange juice. Give the mixture a good shake then pour it in a glass over ice. To achieve the traditional sunset vibes of a Sex on the Beach, add a dash of grenadine and watch the colours blend together beautifully. After you’ve added

With these quick and easy cocktail ideas, you’re ready for your next Zoom call. Although, I recommend you don’t drink them during work calls, online lectures or interviews, if you do, put them in a mug so nobody can tell!

a few strawberries to garnish, don’t forget to think back to previous holidays and those summer romances as you enjoy your cocktail.

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food

DIFFerent Food

words by: Isobel Wackett design by: May Collins

FOOD food

My housemates and I are always after tasty treats amongst the many restaurants Cardiff has to offer. Like most money saving students, we are always on the hunt for the best deals, and unlike many cities, you don’t have to splash out a fortune to get a delicious yet affordable meal in Cardiff. Personally, I am not one for fine dining, so I tend to opt for a more relaxed atmosphere when it comes to cuisine; you’ll often find me in hustling street food markets or coffee shops nestled amongst side streets. I’ve devised a list of my favourite restaurants and cafes within Cardiff’s city centre to share with you.

01

02

As you walk through the doors, you’re hit with aromatic spices making your mouth water. This is one of the most instagrammable restaurants I’ve ever visited. With fairy lights draped over the walls, quaint swinging chairs and a vibrant atmosphere, you can’t help but fall in love with this restaurant. Mowgli’s offers simple Indian dishes which are packed full of fresh flavours, exuberating all your taste buds and leaving you totally stuffed but somehow wanting more. This is a must for any student wanting something more exciting than your usual Bill’s or Prezzo dining experience.

Located in Cathays Community Centre, the Embassy Cafe is situated just a few short strides away from Lidl. Everything here is vegan, mostly organic and locally sourced. Open Monday to Friday 8:30-3:30, this cafe offers freshly baked cakes and delicious breakfasts. Each week the lunch menu changes to keep up with what veg is available, so you are constantly surprised with different platters, sandwiches, or hot pots. As well as this, the community centre also offers a ‘Community Fridge’ which is open to the public from 9:30-11am everyday, where the public can donate surplus food so that others can benefit.

MOWGLI’S STREET FOOD

03

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EMBASSY CAFE

Please check it out on their website! https://www.cathays.org.uk/eat/community-fridge/

04

BAR 44

THE DEAD CANARY

After scouting out different tapas bars in Cardiff I found Bar 44, and have never looked back. This bar boasts a relaxing atmosphere and offers some of the best glasses of sangria within the city. The best thing about tapas is the social element of it, and that it gives you the ability to try a range of new foods with all your mates. The bar gives you an extensive list of different tapas to choose from, and the staff will try and persuade you to order the specials and not the classic (and quite boring) ‘Patatas Bravas’, which inevitably every Brit opts for when in a Spanish restaurant! Situated opposite the Principality Stadium, it’s the perfect location for rugby fans who want something hearty and home cooked to fill their rumbling bellies after a match.

This drinks and cocktails bar has the funkiest vibe and will never disappoint those seeking a fun and mysterious atmosphere. Close to the city centre on Barracks Lane, The Dead Canary offers you a unique list of cocktails in an eccentric and sophisticated manner. The drinks menu is inspired by the owner’s canary birds, and is set out in a picture book format, so expect some weird and wonderful drinks like the ‘Flustercluck’. This bar also offers private hire and cocktail making masterclasses. The Dead Canary is unlike any bar I have ever been to and exudes an outlandish atmosphere.

words by: Isobel Wackett design by: May Collins

62


food

DIFFerent Food

words by: Isobel Wackett design by: May Collins

FOOD food

My housemates and I are always after tasty treats amongst the many restaurants Cardiff has to offer. Like most money saving students, we are always on the hunt for the best deals, and unlike many cities, you don’t have to splash out a fortune to get a delicious yet affordable meal in Cardiff. Personally, I am not one for fine dining, so I tend to opt for a more relaxed atmosphere when it comes to cuisine; you’ll often find me in hustling street food markets or coffee shops nestled amongst side streets. I’ve devised a list of my favourite restaurants and cafes within Cardiff’s city centre to share with you.

01

02

As you walk through the doors, you’re hit with aromatic spices making your mouth water. This is one of the most instagrammable restaurants I’ve ever visited. With fairy lights draped over the walls, quaint swinging chairs and a vibrant atmosphere, you can’t help but fall in love with this restaurant. Mowgli’s offers simple Indian dishes which are packed full of fresh flavours, exuberating all your taste buds and leaving you totally stuffed but somehow wanting more. This is a must for any student wanting something more exciting than your usual Bill’s or Prezzo dining experience.

Located in Cathays Community Centre, the Embassy Cafe is situated just a few short strides away from Lidl. Everything here is vegan, mostly organic and locally sourced. Open Monday to Friday 8:30-3:30, this cafe offers freshly baked cakes and delicious breakfasts. Each week the lunch menu changes to keep up with what veg is available, so you are constantly surprised with different platters, sandwiches, or hot pots. As well as this, the community centre also offers a ‘Community Fridge’ which is open to the public from 9:30-11am everyday, where the public can donate surplus food so that others can benefit.

MOWGLI’S STREET FOOD

03

61

EMBASSY CAFE

Please check it out on their website! https://www.cathays.org.uk/eat/community-fridge/

04

BAR 44

THE DEAD CANARY

After scouting out different tapas bars in Cardiff I found Bar 44, and have never looked back. This bar boasts a relaxing atmosphere and offers some of the best glasses of sangria within the city. The best thing about tapas is the social element of it, and that it gives you the ability to try a range of new foods with all your mates. The bar gives you an extensive list of different tapas to choose from, and the staff will try and persuade you to order the specials and not the classic (and quite boring) ‘Patatas Bravas’, which inevitably every Brit opts for when in a Spanish restaurant! Situated opposite the Principality Stadium, it’s the perfect location for rugby fans who want something hearty and home cooked to fill their rumbling bellies after a match.

This drinks and cocktails bar has the funkiest vibe and will never disappoint those seeking a fun and mysterious atmosphere. Close to the city centre on Barracks Lane, The Dead Canary offers you a unique list of cocktails in an eccentric and sophisticated manner. The drinks menu is inspired by the owner’s canary birds, and is set out in a picture book format, so expect some weird and wonderful drinks like the ‘Flustercluck’. This bar also offers private hire and cocktail making masterclasses. The Dead Canary is unlike any bar I have ever been to and exudes an outlandish atmosphere.

words by: Isobel Wackett design by: May Collins

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clebar

Hanes Bae Teigr

Gyda ‘Black Lives Matter’ yn symudiad amlwg iawn yn ystod y Clo Mawr, pa ffordd well o ddysgu am hanes cymunedau aml-ethnig yng Nghymru na thrwy edrych ar hanes Bae Teigr? Efallai eich bod wedi dod i astudio yng Nghaerdydd er mwyn cael blas o fyw mewn dinas, neu efallai eich bod am drochi eich hun ymhellach yn niwylliant a hanes Cymru. Peidiwch â rhyfeddu os nad ydych wedi clywed am hanes Bae Teigr, dyw e ddim yn hanes cyffredin ymysg pobl ifanc. Fel arfer, daw puteindra a ffeuau gamblo i’r feu wrth feddwl am Fae Teigr sy’n rhagdybiaeth ddadleuol sydd gan bobl o’r lleoliad. Dyma ymgais i leihau’r stigma. Cafodd Bae Teigr ei ddefnyddio fel enw lleol ar gyfer ardalodd Tre-biwt a Dociau Caerdydd. Roedd Caerdydd yn ddinas a gafodd ei mowldio gan fomentwm y Chwildro Diwydiannol yn yr 1790au. Fe ddatblygodd Caerdydd i fod yn borthladd dylanwadol diwydiannol, ac rhoddod y cyfnod hwn gryn sylw i’r ddinas sydd yn adnabyddus ledled y byd erbyn hyn. O ganlyniad i’r Chwildro Diwydiannol, cafodd Camlas Sir Forgannwg ei hadeiladu yn 1794. Roedd y gamlas yn golygu bod haearn a glo yn gallu cael eu danfon at Gaerdydd o’r Cymoedd. Roedd y gamlas ar ymyl y Cymoedd o dan olwg Richard Crawshay o Weithfeydd Haearn Cyfarthfa; haearnfeistr cyfoethog o Ferthyr. Gyda’r angen am haearn a glo yn tyfu’n gyflym, adeiladwyd nifer o ddociau yn ystod yr 1830au. Ymhlith y dociau hyn roedd Doc Gorllewin Bute, Doc Dwyrain Bute a Doc y Frenhines Alexandra.

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Chwaraeodd y Cyfnewid Glo ran allweddol i lwyddiant diwydiannol y brifddinas. Fe wnaeth yr adeilad Gradd II safoni’r pris ar gyfer glo yn rhyngwladol. O fewn ei muriau, gwelodd y neuadd fasnach fawr lu o ddynion busnes, masnachwyr a barwniaid glo yn llifo i mewn ac allan o’r drysau bob dydd. Cafodd nifer o gynigion busnes llewyrchus eu gwneud am flynyddoedd gyda


clebar

gwledydd rhyngwladol. Dyma oedd un o farchnadoedd rhyngwladol gorau’r byd yn y cyfnod hwn. I esbonio grym y farchnad, yn y Cyfnewid Glo arwyddwyd y siec £1 miliwn gyntaf yn y byd. Oherwydd hyn, roedd gan y Cyfnewid Glo draweffaith hynod ar hanes Bae Teigr a’i ddyfodol. Er mor ffyniannus oedd y farchnad ryngwladol hon, fe wnaeth ddioddef effeithiau’r Ail Ryfel Byd. Wrth i’r angen am lo ostwng, daeth golau newydd i ddiwydiannau dur mewn gwledydd eraill. Yn anffodus, roedd allforio glo yng Nghaerdydd yn beth prin yn yr 1960au. O ganlyniad, collwyd 3,200 o swyddi yn 1978. Dyw’r ystrydeb boblogaidd o drais a chamweddau dadleuol ddim yn gynrychiolaeth deg o gymunedau’r ardal. Dywedodd Neil Sinclair, hanesydd o’r ardal, bod y stigma yn cymylu’r ffaith fod y mwyafrif o ddynion a oedd yn byw yno yn gweithio’n ddiflino. Roedd pawb yn gofalu am ei gilydd a doedd dim drws dan glo. Nododd y byddai pawb wedi cael eu lladd petai’r gymuned mor wael â beth sy’n cael ei ddarlunio. Ymysg holl negeseuon ‘Black Lives Matter’, mae’n ddiddorol clywed bod ‘Good old fashioned racism’ yn ddatganiad cyffredin ar strydoedd Bae Teigr yn yr 1950au ac 1960au. Er bod tafarndai gyda morwyr cwerylgar yn cael eu galw’n ‘Bucket of Blood’ a ‘Snakepit’, roedd eraill yn ymffrostio naws fwy Bohemaidd. Denodd tafarndai’r ardal bobl y tu allan i’r dre i fwynhau jazz a bwyd Ffrengig blasus. Un o’r bobl enwocaf o’r ardal yw’r Fonesig Shirley Bassey a arwyddodd ei chytundeb cyntaf yn 1953. Dyma berson nodedig oherwydd iddi fod o dras amlethnig. Mewn ffordd, fe aeth o fod yn ferch o Fae Teigr i’r Fonesig ym Mae Monte Carlo. Dyma daith o fywyd unigolyn sy’n symboleiddio llwyddiant unigolyn aml-ethnig a ddaeth o ardal a chanddi ragdybiaethau ymrysongar. Er i’r datganiad ‘Good old fashioned racism’ fod yn gyffredin ar hyd a lled Bae Teigr, caiff ei gofio yn bleserus fel ardal a oedd tu hwnt i’w hoes o ran cytgord rhwng hiliau. Erbyn heddiw, mae prifddinas Cymru yn gartref i un o’r cymunedau aml-genhedlig hynaf ym Mhrydain. Yn ystod dyddiau llewyrchus y Bae o ran y diwydiant glo, roedd ardal y dociau’n croesawu nifer o fewnforwyr. Trwy gydol yr 1950au, recordiwyd bod o leiaf 57 cenedligrwydd gwahanol yn bresennol yn Nhrebiwt. Gan foddi mewn diwylliant ac amrywiaeth, roedd cymunedau mwyaf yr ardal yn cynnwys Norwyaid, Somaliaid, Yeminiaid, Caribïaid, Eidalwyr a Groegwyr. Gwelodd Bae Teigr hiliau a chefndiroedd amrywiol yn uno’n gymdeithasol. Fe wnaeth nifer o fewnforwyr briodi menywod o Dde Orllewin y Cymoedd. Gyda chymysgedd unigryw o ddiwylliannau gwahanol, does dim rhyfedd fod academyddion wedi rhyfeddu ar Fae Teigr a’i aml-ethnigrwydd ers hynny. Ymysg y dathliadau dros gytgord rhwng hiliau, roedd yr 1960au yn nodi cyfnod lle roedd dinistriadau ar raddfa fawr ar fannau penodol ym Mae Teigr. Deallodd y cymunedau nad oedd hi’n addas i breswylio yn Nhrebiwt, gan adael nifer allan o le.

Petaech yn mynd am dro o amgylch yr ardal yn yr 1980au, byddech yn gweld dociau gwag a segur. Cynyddodd lefelau diwethdra dipyn yn yr 1970au, a phrofodd y ddinas ostyngiad mawr o ran poblogaeth oherwydd yr holl ddinistr. Er yr holl drafferthion hyn, roedd Bae Teigr dal yn croesawu wynebau newydd o amglych y byd. Daeth yr ardal i fod yn ddihangfa i ffoaduriaid o’u cartrefi drwy gydol yr 1970au ac 1980au. Roedd yr 1990au yn nodedig yn hanes Bae Teigr. Dyma oedd y blynyddoedd trawsnewidiol a welodd Bae Teigr yn blodeuo i fod yn Fae Caerdydd wedi i Argae Bae Caerdydd gael ei godi. Cafodd ei chwblhau yn 1999, a dywed fod yr Argae yn gatalydd i adfywiad hen ardal y dociau ym Mae Teigr. Heddiw, mae’n siŵr eich bod yn gyfarwydd â Bae Caerdydd. Gallwch fynd ar deithiau cwch o Gei’r Fôr-forwyn a chewch ymweld ag atyniadau sydd yn denu ymwelwyr ar draws y byd. Mae’r rhain yn cynnwys; Canolfan Gelfyddydau’r Eglwys Norwyaidd a Chanolfan Mileniwm Cymru i enwi ond ychydig. Caiff sawl ymgais gydwybodol eu gwneud er mwyn cofio hanes Bae Teigr. Un o ganeuon enwog y Fonesig Shirley Bassey oedd ‘The Girl from Tiger Bay’ a gyfansoddwyd gan y Manic Street Preachers. Mae’r gân yn canolbwyntio ar fagwraeth Shirley Bassey sydd, iddi hi, yn ardal brydferth; ‘In a place so full of beauty’. Yn fwy diweddar, cafodd ‘Trychineb yr S.S. Swiftsure’ gan Richard Vaughan ac Ifan Erwyn Pleming ei chomisiynu ar gyfer Eisteddfod yr Urdd 2019. Yn ddigon gweddus, Eisteddfod ym Mae Caerdydd oedd hi gyda’r gân yn cyfeirio at Fae Teigr. Er mor hawdd ydyw i ddysgu ac anghofio am hanes ein gwlad, mae’n bwysig cadw straeon o’r fath mewn cof wrth weld hiliaeth yn digwydd o’n hamgylch. Tro nesaf ewch chi i Fae Caerdydd, cofiwch am ei hanes a’i fan cychwyn. words by: Daniel O’Callaghan design by: Jasmine Snow

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clebar

clebar

u r m y h g N g n y n w i s a f F

Siopa’n lleol

words by: Dafydd Orritt design by: Priyansha Kamdar

C lec s Cymr u Cwmni ffasiwn moesegol ydi ‘Clecs Cymru’ sydd yn cael ei redeg gan ddwy chwaer. Mae’r cwmni yma yn gwmni newydd iawn, a’i prif nod ydi i sicrhau eu bod yn gwerthu cynnyrch sydd yn foesegol gywir, yn gynaliadwy a ddim yn gwneud niwed i’r amgylchedd. Ers dechrau’r cwmni, mae ‘Clecs Cymru’ yn gwerthu crysau-t a siwmperi. Mae’r cynnyrch i gyd yn organig, golygir hyn nad yw paladdwyr yn cael eu defnyddio er mwyn eu creu. Dyma sydd yn niweidiol i’r amgylchedd a ffermwyr. Yn ychwanegol i hynny, mae’r broses o greu’r crys-t yn gofyn am lawer llai o ddŵr na chotwm arferol sydd yn cymryd dros 2,000 litr o ddŵr i greu un crys-t. Nid yn unig mae’r cwmni yn gynaliadwy, ond hefyd maent yn sicrhau bod eu gweithgynhyrchwyr yn cael eu trin yn deg ac yn cael cyflogau deg. Felly mae eu gweithgynhyrchwyr yn rhan o’r ‘Fair Wear Foundation’ sydd yn sicrhau bod eu gweithwyr yn cael eu talu’r cyflog byw, yn gweithio oriau teg a does dim defnydd o lafur gorfodol na llafur plant yn perthyn i’r gweithgynhyrchwyr. Mae’n debyg y bod dyfodol disglair i’r cwmni cynaliadwy Cymraeg yma! Dilynwch nhw ar instagram: @clecs_cymru.

Alis Knits Cwmni dillad, gemwaith a gweuwaith o Gaerdydd ydi ‘Alis Knits’. Mae’r cynnyrch unigryw, ffasiynol a lliwgar yma heb os yn aros yn y côf. Fy hoff beth am ddyluniadau Alis yw eu bod nhw’n unigryw i unrhyw gwmni arall yng Nghymru, yn enwedig y clustlysau siâp calon, a’r sgarffiau a hetiau sydd eu gweu gyda geiriau fel ‘bêb’ a ‘babvves’ ar hyd y cynnyrch. Mae Alis Knits wedi derbyn cryn dipyn o sylw ar Instagram yn ystod y cyfnod clo gyda’i chyfres o siwmperi ‘gobaith’ sydd yn dod mewn tri lliw gwahanol. Mae’r siwmperi yma yn sicr wedi rhoi gobaith i bawb yn ystod y cyfnod ansicr yma! Nid yn unig gemwaith a dillad mae Alis yn gynhyrchu ond

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mae hi hefyd yn gweu clustogau lliwgar a cyfoes sydd yng nghyd fynd a’r sgarffiau a’r ‘bucket hats’ Mae’r cwmni bach yma yn sicr yn gwmni cyfoes sydd yn creu cynnyrch modern a hynod ffasiynol sydd yn addas ar gyfer unrhyw berson! Dilynwch ei chyfri instagram, @Alis.knits ar gyfer y ‘giveaway’ diweddara, neu i brynu siwmper neu sgarff ar gyfer y gaeaf oer sydd o’m blaenau!

Cow b o i s Ydi hi’n ‘steddfod heb stondin Cowbois? Neu wyt ti *wirioneddol* mewn gig Cymraeg heb weld y dyluniadau Cymreig o gwmpas? Cwmni teuluol o’r Bala ydi ‘Cowbois’ sydd yn dylunio pob math o hwdis, crysau-t a siwmperi. Mae’r cwmni yma yn eiconig yng Nghymru bellach, gyda phawb o bob cwr o’r wlad yn gwisgo eu dyluniadau cŵl! Fy hoff beth i am gwmni Cowbois ydi eu bod nhw’n rhyddhau dyluniadau cyfoes yn syth, ac yn creu crysau-t i gyd fynd a unrhyw achlysur e.e.. llwyddiant egsubol y Tîm Pêl-droed yn yr Ewros nôl yn 2016, neu pan gafodd yr arwydd ‘Cofiwch Dryweryn’ ei ddifetha’ – creodd Cowbois grys-t i godi ymwybyddiaeth am y mater ac i arddangos pwysigrwydd cofio Tryweryn i’r Cymry a thu hwnt. Yn ddiweddar, rhyddhawyd Cowbois grys-t gyda’r dyfyniad ‘Daw eto haul ar fryn’ arno er mwyn codi calon y genedl yn ystod y cyfnod clo. Mae’r crys-t poblogaidd yn dod mewn amryw o liwiau gwahanol. Cwmni Cymreig sy’n caru Cymru ydi Cowbois i ddweud y lleiaf! Rhan amlaf mae eu dyluniadau yn cynnwys sloganau

megis ‘Cymraeg, iaith y nefoedd’ a ‘Cymru am byth’ – y cwmni perffaith i unrhyw genedlaetholwr neu genedlaetholwraig sydd yn bwriadu cymryd rhan mewn gorymdaith am annibyniaeth i Gymru yn y dyfodol agos! @cowbois_1962

B ud d ug Crefftwraig o’r enw Buddug Humphreys sydd ty ôl i’r cwmni ‘Buddug’ sydd yn dathlu 15 blwyddyn mewn busnes eleni. Merch o Gaernarfon sydd wedi ymgartrefu yng Nghaerdydd ydi hi, ac mae hi’n creu ei gwaith mewn stiwdio uwchben ei siop yng nghanol y ddinas, yn arcêd y castell. Mae ei chefndir Cymraeg yn ysbrydoliaeth fawr i’w gwaith, yn yr un modd a chefn gwlad Cymru, llenyddiaeth a diwylliant y wlad. Mae Buddug yn cael ei adnabod fwyaf am ei gwaith enamel ar fetel, sef techneg o feddalu gwydr ar gopr, arian neu ddur. Mae hi’n rhoi haenau o enamel ag yn ysgrifennu rhwng yr haenau, fel arfer yn ysgrifennu rhai o ddyfyniadau fwyaf arwyddocaol Cymru megis ‘Cenedl heb iaith, cenedl heb galon’ Mae’r ffordd mae Buddug yn ysgrifennu ar ei gwaith yn ffordd y mae hi yn cadw’n driw i’w ‘brand’ personol. Nid yn unig gemwaith mae Buddug yn creu, ond hefyd printiau Cymreig ar bapur neu blât, blodau bychain enamel mewn gwydr a hefyd dyfyniadau poblogaidd mewn ffrâm. Yn ychwanegol i hynny, mae Buddug yn cynnig ystod eang o gardiau ar gyfer unrhyw achlysur arbennig. Mae modd hefyd i bersonoleiddio gemwaith Buddug, boed yn fwclis neu yn freichled – anhreg berffaith. @buddug_studio.

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clebar

n w i s v a Ff

clebar

u r m y h g N g n y

Siopa’n lleol

words by: Dafydd Orritt design by: Priyansha Kamdar

C lec s Cymr u Cwmni ffasiwn moesegol ydi ‘Clecs Cymru’ sydd yn cael ei redeg gan ddwy chwaer. Mae’r cwmni yma yn gwmni newydd iawn, a’i prif nod ydi i sicrhau eu bod yn gwerthu cynnyrch sydd yn foesegol gywir, yn gynaliadwy a ddim yn gwneud niwed i’r amgylchedd. Ers dechrau’r cwmni, mae ‘Clecs Cymru’ yn gwerthu crysau-t a siwmperi. Mae’r cynnyrch i gyd yn organig, golygir hyn nad yw paladdwyr yn cael eu defnyddio er mwyn eu creu. Dyma sydd yn niweidiol i’r amgylchedd a ffermwyr. Yn ychwanegol i hynny, mae’r broses o greu’r crys-t yn gofyn am lawer llai o ddŵr na chotwm arferol sydd yn cymryd dros 2,000 litr o ddŵr i greu un crys-t. Nid yn unig mae’r cwmni yn gynaliadwy, ond hefyd maent yn sicrhau bod eu gweithgynhyrchwyr yn cael eu trin yn deg ac yn cael cyflogau deg. Felly mae eu gweithgynhyrchwyr yn rhan o’r ‘Fair Wear Foundation’ sydd yn sicrhau bod eu gweithwyr yn cael eu talu’r cyflog byw, yn gweithio oriau teg a does dim defnydd o lafur gorfodol na llafur plant yn perthyn i’r gweithgynhyrchwyr. Mae’n debyg y bod dyfodol disglair i’r cwmni cynaliadwy Cymraeg yma! Dilynwch nhw ar instagram: @clecs_cymru.

Alis Knits Cwmni dillad, gemwaith a gweuwaith o Gaerdydd ydi ‘Alis Knits’. Mae’r cynnyrch unigryw, ffasiynol a lliwgar yma heb os yn aros yn y côf. Fy hoff beth am ddyluniadau Alis yw eu bod nhw’n unigryw i unrhyw gwmni arall yng Nghymru, yn enwedig y clustlysau siâp calon, a’r sgarffiau a hetiau sydd eu gweu gyda geiriau fel ‘bêb’ a ‘babvves’ ar hyd y cynnyrch. Mae Alis Knits wedi derbyn cryn dipyn o sylw ar Instagram yn ystod y cyfnod clo gyda’i chyfres o siwmperi ‘gobaith’ sydd yn dod mewn tri lliw gwahanol. Mae’r siwmperi yma yn sicr wedi rhoi gobaith i bawb yn ystod y cyfnod ansicr yma! Nid yn unig gemwaith a dillad mae Alis yn gynhyrchu ond

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mae hi hefyd yn gweu clustogau lliwgar a cyfoes sydd yng nghyd fynd a’r sgarffiau a’r ‘bucket hats’ Mae’r cwmni bach yma yn sicr yn gwmni cyfoes sydd yn creu cynnyrch modern a hynod ffasiynol sydd yn addas ar gyfer unrhyw berson! Dilynwch ei chyfri instagram, @Alis.knits ar gyfer y ‘giveaway’ diweddara, neu i brynu siwmper neu sgarff ar gyfer y gaeaf oer sydd o’m blaenau!

Cow b o i s Ydi hi’n ‘steddfod heb stondin Cowbois? Neu wyt ti *wirioneddol* mewn gig Cymraeg heb weld y dyluniadau Cymreig o gwmpas? Cwmni teuluol o’r Bala ydi ‘Cowbois’ sydd yn dylunio pob math o hwdis, crysau-t a siwmperi. Mae’r cwmni yma yn eiconig yng Nghymru bellach, gyda phawb o bob cwr o’r wlad yn gwisgo eu dyluniadau cŵl! Fy hoff beth i am gwmni Cowbois ydi eu bod nhw’n rhyddhau dyluniadau cyfoes yn syth, ac yn creu crysau-t i gyd fynd a unrhyw achlysur e.e.. llwyddiant egsubol y Tîm Pêl-droed yn yr Ewros nôl yn 2016, neu pan gafodd yr arwydd ‘Cofiwch Dryweryn’ ei ddifetha’ – creodd Cowbois grys-t i godi ymwybyddiaeth am y mater ac i arddangos pwysigrwydd cofio Tryweryn i’r Cymry a thu hwnt. Yn ddiweddar, rhyddhawyd Cowbois grys-t gyda’r dyfyniad ‘Daw eto haul ar fryn’ arno er mwyn codi calon y genedl yn ystod y cyfnod clo. Mae’r crys-t poblogaidd yn dod mewn amryw o liwiau gwahanol. Cwmni Cymreig sy’n caru Cymru ydi Cowbois i ddweud y lleiaf! Rhan amlaf mae eu dyluniadau yn cynnwys sloganau

megis ‘Cymraeg, iaith y nefoedd’ a ‘Cymru am byth’ – y cwmni perffaith i unrhyw genedlaetholwr neu genedlaetholwraig sydd yn bwriadu cymryd rhan mewn gorymdaith am annibyniaeth i Gymru yn y dyfodol agos! @cowbois_1962

B ud d ug Crefftwraig o’r enw Buddug Humphreys sydd ty ôl i’r cwmni ‘Buddug’ sydd yn dathlu 15 blwyddyn mewn busnes eleni. Merch o Gaernarfon sydd wedi ymgartrefu yng Nghaerdydd ydi hi, ac mae hi’n creu ei gwaith mewn stiwdio uwchben ei siop yng nghanol y ddinas, yn arcêd y castell. Mae ei chefndir Cymraeg yn ysbrydoliaeth fawr i’w gwaith, yn yr un modd a chefn gwlad Cymru, llenyddiaeth a diwylliant y wlad. Mae Buddug yn cael ei adnabod fwyaf am ei gwaith enamel ar fetel, sef techneg o feddalu gwydr ar gopr, arian neu ddur. Mae hi’n rhoi haenau o enamel ag yn ysgrifennu rhwng yr haenau, fel arfer yn ysgrifennu rhai o ddyfyniadau fwyaf arwyddocaol Cymru megis ‘Cenedl heb iaith, cenedl heb galon’ Mae’r ffordd mae Buddug yn ysgrifennu ar ei gwaith yn ffordd y mae hi yn cadw’n driw i’w ‘brand’ personol. Nid yn unig gemwaith mae Buddug yn creu, ond hefyd printiau Cymreig ar bapur neu blât, blodau bychain enamel mewn gwydr a hefyd dyfyniadau poblogaidd mewn ffrâm. Yn ychwanegol i hynny, mae Buddug yn cynnig ystod eang o gardiau ar gyfer unrhyw achlysur arbennig. Mae modd hefyd i bersonoleiddio gemwaith Buddug, boed yn fwclis neu yn freichled – anhreg berffaith. @buddug_studio.

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PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Playlist 8. “xXXi_wud_nvrstøp_ÜXXx (Remix)” by 100 Gecs ft. Tommy Cash & Hannah Diamond 1. Valentina by Serena Isioma 2. Ne Me Quitte Pas (Don’t Leave Me) by Orion Sun 3.F2020 by Avenue Beat 4. Losing You by Solange 5. XS by Rina Sawayama 6. Great One by Jessie Reyez 7. Trigger Bang by Lily Allen

9. Rollercoaster by Ivy Sole 10. FUBT (Fucked Up But Not) by HAIM 11. c2.0 by Charli XCX 12. O.D. by Britney Stoney 13. Are You Bored Yet? by Wallows ft. Clario 14. fever dream by mxmtoon 15. Mirror Masa (I Think I’m Fallin’ for Ya) by Dathan

words by: Jasmine Snow and Elly Savva design by: Jasmine Snow

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43

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

PLEASE DEETE THESE BORDERS WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED DESIGNING

Playlist 8. “xXXi_wud_nvrstøp_ÜXXx (Remix)” by 100 Gecs ft. Tommy Cash & Hannah Diamond 1. Valentina by Serena Isioma 2. Ne Me Quitte Pas (Don’t Leave Me) by Orion Sun 3.F2020 by Avenue Beat 4. Losing You by Solange 5. XS by Rina Sawayama 6. Great One by Jessie Reyez 7. Trigger Bang by Lily Allen

9. Rollercoaster by Ivy Sole 10. FUBT (Fucked Up But Not) by HAIM 11. c2.0 by Charli XCX 12. O.D. by Britney Stoney 13. Are You Bored Yet? by Wallows ft. Clario 14. fever dream by mxmtoon 15. Mirror Masa (I Think I’m Fallin’ for Ya) by Dathan

words by: Jasmine Snow and Elly Savva design by: Jasmine Snow

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Profile for Cardiff Student Media

Quench Magazine, Issue 179, October 2020  

BAME Issue, no. 179, October 2020 Editor-in-Chief: Jasmine Snow Deputy Editor: Elly Savva Second Deputy Editor: Josh Ong

Quench Magazine, Issue 179, October 2020  

BAME Issue, no. 179, October 2020 Editor-in-Chief: Jasmine Snow Deputy Editor: Elly Savva Second Deputy Editor: Josh Ong

Profile for gairrhydd
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