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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs

News and Features 4 Liquid-Only Sewers: Past, Present, and Future—Michael Saunders 30 Fred Bloetscher to Lead FSAWWA in 2021 34 From AWWA: Pacific Northwest Section is a 2020 Section Education Award Winner 40 News Beat

Technical Articles

Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority

18 Proactive Emergency: Replacing Daytona Beach’s Most Critical Water Pipe—

Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

36 Providing Resiliency in the Operation of a Transmission System—Stefano Ceriana

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Scott Richards, Eric Smith, and Mark Abram

Education and Training 10 FSAWWA Fall Conference Thank You 11 FSAWWA Membership Awards 12 FSAWWA Fall Conference Regional Sponsors Thank You 13 AWWA Partnership for Safe Water 25 FWPCOA Online Training Institute 33 CEU Challenge 41 FWPCOA Training Calendar 45 TREEO Center Training

Columns 14 Let’s Talk Safety: Keep Trouble Out and Let Help in With Access Control 28 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 32 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kowalski 35 Reader Profile—Keeli Carlton 43 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 44 FWEA Focus—James J. Wallace

Departments 42 New Products 46 Classifieds 50 Display Advertiser Index

Volume 71

ON THE COVER: The high-service pump station at the City of Daytona Beach Ralph Brennan Water Treatment Plant, with the new discharge header pipe that was installed in March 2020. (photo: City of Daytona Beach)

December 2020

Number 12

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

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Liquid-Only Sewers: Past, Present, and Future Michael Saunders Liquid-only sewers: What are they and where did they come from? That’s the normal reaction of many knowledgeable engineers and utility operators in the wastewater industry. The confusion regarding the name is understandable. Variations on this technology have included small-bore sewers, effluent-drainage sewers, septic tank effluent pump systems, septic tank effluent pumping (STEP) systems, low-pressure sewers, and effluent sewers. The variety of different names can be tracked throughout the evolution of the technology, and while these wastewater collection systems have changed throughout history, the principles they’re based on have not. All liquid-only sewer systems are built on a simple concept: If an amply sized interceptor tank is provided between the source and the discharge, solids will settle to the bottom and scum will float, creating a clear zone in the middle of the interceptor tank. Liquid-only sewers are designed to only convey wastewater from the clear zone. Figure 1 shows a typical liquid-only sewer clear zone.

Primary Wastewater Treatment Simply put, a liquid-only sewer provides primary treatment of wastewater before it’s conveyed offsite for final treatment and disposal. Benefits of providing primary wastewater treatment at the source include more-efficient wastewater conveyance, a

reduction in biosolids volume, and reductions in final treatment costs. Since there are no solids in the collection mains, they essentially behave like water mains, a characteristic that can be leveraged to convey wastewater flows at greater distances, without the need for lift stations. A liquid-only sewer can be as simple as elevating a pump on a cinder block, or placing a pump on a shelf within a septic tank so that it’s only pumping from the clear zone. To this day, there are systems in service that use this concept; however, while simple in concept, these basic systems have a history of high maintenance costs. A modern-day liquid-only sewer looks far different than the historical versions. Current liquid-only sewers can include meander tanks, filtering, turbine pumps, hanging pump assemblies, click-tight electrical connections, and remote monitoring. A typical example of a modern liquid-only sewer tank and pump unit is shown in Figure 2. The liquid-only sewer unit shown in Figure 2 is typically located at each property, where flow is intercepted, partially treated, and then pumped through small-diameter pressure mains for final treatment. Typically, a modern-day liquid-only sewer will reduce total suspended solids (TSS) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) by more than 65 percent (Bitton, 2005) and will digest over two-thirds of gross solids, grease, and oils (Tchobanoglous, 1998) before the flow enters the wastewater collection system. Most importantly, it does it for free. Indirect cost savings for capital costs, electricity, and sludge management are generated at the wastewater treatment plant.

A History of Liquid-Only Sewers So where did this concept originate? The earliest documented liquid-only sewer appears to have been a small-bore sewer system in Zambia, Africa, in 1961 (Otis, 1985). The African Housing Board of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) connected groups of what were then known as “aquaprivies” via small-diameter, gravity-flow pipes to move partially treated wastewater away from homes, with discharge to waste-stabilization ponds. There were similar systems constructed in Nigeria dating back to 1964. Around the same time, common effluent drainage systems or effluent drainage sewers were being constructed in Australia. The first system was installed in Pinnaroo in 1962, and there was a larger system constructed in Barmera in 1964 (Otis, 1985). The first liquid-only sewers in the United States were built in Florida back in the early 1970s (Subcommittee on Water Resources, 1981). Florida played a big part in the evolution of liquidonly sewers; however, these systems were referred to as STEP systems. These systems were the first examples of pressurized liquid-only sewers and were often referred to as low-pressure sewers. In the mid- to late 1970s, there were also smallbore sewer systems, similar to those in Australia, constructed in Mt. Andrews, Ala., and Westboro, Wis. (Otis, 1985). The July/August 1978 issue of EPA Journal, a publication of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), published the article, “Treatment for Small Communities,” which featured the pressure sewer systems constructed in Glide, Continued on page 6

Scum layer Clear zone Sludge layer

Figure 1. Typical liquid-only sewer configuration.

4 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 2. Modern liquid-only sewer tank and pump unit.


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Continued from page 4 Ore.; Port Charlotte, Fla,; and Port St. Lucie, Fla. (Dearth, 1978). The article stated that these systems had a capital cost of one-eighth to onehalf that of a gravity sewer. While these systems were not specifically described in the article as liquid-only sewers, they were, in fact, the first pressurized liquid-only sewer systems in the U.S. The Port Charlotte and Port St. Lucie systems were developed, constructed, owned, and operated by General Development Corporation (GDC). In July 1981, Arthur Harper, vice president of community operations for GDC, testified before the U.S. House of Representatives that, “The prototype low-pressure sewer system developed by Mr. (Harold) Schmidt now reflects over 10 years of successful operations,” He went on to say, “The concept was initially greeted with skepticism, but the skyrocketing costs of orthodox gravity systems and the accumulating data testifying to the successful operations of these systems have won increasing acceptance by federal and state regulators.” (Subcommittee on Water Resources, 1981) In other testimony given by Harper, he talked about the significant energy savings being generated, stating that 100 homes on GDC’s lowpressure sewer saved the equivalent of 25 barrels of oil a year when compared to gravity systems. He elaborated by equating the 25 barrels of oil to $675 a year and half the energy used by their gravity system. Interestingly, Harper was using the direct savings in the collection system and the indirect savings at the wastewater treatment plant to compute this number. Harper also described GDC’s experience

with regard to capital costs, stating that one section of GDC’s communities that would require a $3.5 million gravity sewer system could be served by a $1.3 million dollar low-pressure system. In June 1981, General Development Utilities (GDU), owned by GDC, joined with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) to develop a Florida manual of design and technical guidelines for low-pressure collection and treatment systems (Kreissl, 1981). This document opened the door for the use of lowpressure sewers in Florida as an accepted method of wastewater treatment. Unfortunately, this 1981 document—still referenced by Florida code—has never been updated to reflect currently available technology. The most interesting parts of the House testimony (Subcommittee on Water Resources, 1981) were the statements, made by Harold Schmidt (of GDU), regarding the difficulty in introducing new and emerging technology to the wastewater industry. First, he talked about the innate conservatism in the sewage collection and treatment field. Next, he stated that there had been a “natural tendency of suppliers, as well as design engineers, to hold to known technologies.” Finally, he talked about federal funding policies that had been directed heavily toward the construction of new “conventional systems.” Schmidt then went on to predict the following: “Now that this system, and others like it, have been accepted as a design technology in Florida, the taxpayers of that state will be reaping in the indirect windfall.” Interestingly, to this day, the original GDC low-pressure sewer systems are

still in service, utilizing the GDU design guidelines from 1981.

An Affordable Technology In 1981, Hall Ball, P.E., and Terry Bounds, P.E., founded Orenco Systems Inc. Ball and Bounds, having been involved in the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Glide, Ore., system, saw a need for affordable wastewater collection and treatment to service small communities. They also saw an opportunity to build on the concepts of STEP and small-bore sewers to bring the first engineered liquid-only sewer product to market. Ball and Bounds introduced a completely new approach to these systems. First, they used multistage turbine pumps in their liquid-only sewer packages. These pumps were known for reliability and long life cycles in water well applications, but had never been used in wastewater applications. The low-head centrifugal pumps that were being used in Florida were low cost, but also had short life cycles and required a great deal of maintenance. Multistage turbine pumps provided higher operating heads, as well as much better reliability. Secondly, Ball and Bounds introduced filtration into these systems. Filters are necessary to protect the pumps and are especially important for turbine pumps, since they can only handle solids smaller than 1/8 inch. The GDU lowhead centrifugal pumps were protected by approximately 50 square inches of ¼-inch mesh, which would often get clogged due to the size and amount of solids. Orenco introduced several variations of screening, eventually offering the Biotube® filter, with more than 5 square feet of 1/8inch filter area per filter. Finally, Ball and Bounds introduced pump vaults within the liquid-only sewer tank. These pump vaults housed the pump, filter, and control floats in a vault that could be dropped into concrete, fiberglass, and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) tanks. This simplified needed maintenance and protected critical components in the system. The concepts introduced by Ball and Bounds have become the standard for all liquid-only sewer systems manufactured today.

Moving Forward

Figure 3. Typical modern-day liquid-only sewer system.

6 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Looking ahead, liquid-only sewers appear to have a bright future. Specifically, they have proven to be ideally suited to areas that are seeing public health compromised by failing septic systems, which includes small and rural communities that need affordable and sustainable wastewater systems. Small systems simply do not have enough users to create sufficient economies of scale to make Continued on page 8


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Continued from page 6 these kinds of projects affordable without a significant infusion of federal and state dollars (Martin, n.d.). Liquid-only sewers provide low initial capital costs for making public sewers available, while providing consistent longterm operation and maintenance costs that are closely aligned with revenues. Liquid-only sewers also offer a sustainable, robust, and adaptive solution for communities impacted by climate change. For example, in Florida and other coastal states in the U.S., sea level rise is impacting existing septic systems in many communities, rendering them a public health risk (Elmir, 2018). In these areas, gravity sewers are proving too expensive and logistically too challenging to provide cost-effective solutions within the timelines required. Today, the technology and quality of liquidonly sewers continue to advance (a typical, modern-day liquid-only sewer is shown in Figure 3). It’s a proven, sustainable, resilient wastewater collection technology that has evolved significantly since the 1970s, and continues to do so. The initial skepticism from some engineers and operators described by Schmidt in 1981 has not gone away entirely, despite more than 40 years of successful operational history. As more

and more communities continue to embrace this technology, they will benefit from sustainable operational costs, reasonable user rates, and resilient infrastructure. Professionals in the industry are understanding these benefits and learning where they can best apply them. As liquid-only sewers look forward to 50 years of history in the U.S., they’re finally ready to become recognized as a mainstream solution for wastewater collection.

References • B  itton, Gabriel. 2005. Wastewater Microbiology, 3rd Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. • Dearth, Keith H. 1978. “Treatment for Small Communities.” Edited by Charles D. Pierce. EPA Journal (United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Public Awareness) 4 (7): 19-20. •  Elmir, Dr. Samir. 2018. “Septic Systems Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise.” Miami: Miami Dade County. • Kreissl, James F.; Harold E. Schmidt; Paul A. Kuhn; and Richard D. Vaughn. 1981. “Design and Specification Guidelines for Low Pressure Sewer Systems.” Florida Department of Environmental Protection, June.

8 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

• M  artin, Deb., n.d. “Affordability and Capability Issues of Small Water and Wastewater Systems.” Washington: Rural Community Assistance Partnership. • Otis, Richard J., and Mara, D. Duncan. Technical Advisory Group (TAG). 1985. “The Design of Small Bore Sewer Systems,” TAG Technical Note No. 14. United Nations Development Program, World Bank. Washington: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. •  Subcommittee on Water Resources of the Committee on Public Works and Transportation, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress. 1981. “Hearings on the Need for Legislative Changes in the Construction Grants Program of the Federal Water Polution Control Act.” Washington, D.C.: Committee on Public Works and Transportation, July. • Tchobanoglous, George, and Crites Ronald.1998. Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Michael Saunders is the market segment leader for engineered systems at Orenco Systems Inc. After 25 years of working in Florida, he’s now based in Mooresville, N.C. S


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L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Keep Trouble Out and Let Help in With Access Control When an emergency occurs at a water facility, emergency rescue personnel must have unhindered access to respond to the situation. Medics must be able to provide first aid to injured people, and law enforcement personnel must have the ability to engage a threat (a person, device, vehicle, or event) to prevent a security breach or a dangerous situation. Frequently, emergency responders will pull up to locked gates thinking they have the right passcode for entry, only to punch the code into the keypad and watch the gates do nothing. They may then resort to tailgating another car through to gain entry to where they are supposed to go. Otherwise, the emergency center dispatcher must recontact the original reporting party to get them to “buzz in” the responders, delaying emergency response.

Mandating Access Emergency access control might be addressed in local ordinances, but in many communities, it’s not. Many current codes were written years ago by fire authorities and do not take advantage of recent advancements in the access control industry. While some popular methods of emergency entry meet firefighters’ approval, other public safety agencies may not have been consulted in the selection process.

Local ordinances should guide water professionals to the preferred emergency access method, but the absence of applicable codes should not determine whether such access is provided. If you want periodic facility patrols and quick response to emergencies by patrol officers and firefighters, access to your facility had better be easy, quick, and reliable.

Traditional Access Systems The following are some basic methodologies emergency personnel can employ to gain entry to gated areas, all with their own strengths and drawbacks; some technologies can be combined to form hybrid applications. Keypads Some gates have combination locks or keypads that accept a hand-entered numerical passcode assigned to emergency crews. Many keypad systems lack audit control, as all emergency crews typically use the same code. It’s not uncommon for safety personnel to be locked out of a call for service because the code changed and no one told the agency. Consider if a passcode were to fall into the wrong hands because it was broadcast over an insecure radio scanner: Who would be liable? What would be the potential ramifications?

Third Party With a dispatch callback procedure, telephone, or intercom system, any residents, guards, or employees can remotely grant gatedarea access to a third party. Access can also be granted directly by a guard at a perimeter checkpoint. Drawbacks to this system are that during off-hours, no one may be present to provide access, staffing is expensive, and public safety personnel could not enter a facility covertly. Locks If a facility has manually operated gates, a key and lock may be the only option. Some local agencies require the use of a lockbox, which can house a gate mechanism, another key, or an access card to open the barrier. This solution is used almost exclusively by fire departments. Some lockboxes can be accessed by an infrared beam from devices such as a personal digital assistant, but most still require conventional keys. The downside to keys is accountability and the sheer number required to equip every emergency vehicle. A lost key might require rekeying all matching locks, switches, and lockboxes, and replacing all existing keys—a costly proposition. Continued on page 16

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14 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


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Continued from page 14 Cards Access cards provide an audit trail of activity, as the system can associate each card with individual users or vehicles. Cards with a touchplate, embedded chip, and magnetic strip are inserted in or touched to a card reader to allow access. Proximity cards are read from a distance, which means the pass-through speed of emergency vehicles is increased because actual contact with the card reader is not required. If a card is lost, the associated permissions can be quickly removed from the system. Cards are relatively inexpensive and replacements can be quickly used; however, as with keys, managing a card for every potential response vehicle can be expensive and become an audit control nightmare.

Advanced Technology Systems Light Some municipalities use a traffic priority control system, where emergency vehicles in the jurisdiction are equipped with a coded infrared strobe light that preempts traffic signals during emergency responses, allowing a fire truck or police car to get a green light at controlled intersections. Similar receivers can be attached to facility gate controllers to provide emergency access to vehicles flashing the special strobe. This solution requires each emergency

vehicle to be equipped with a strobe emitter, which may prove cost-prohibitive and impractical for this limited use. Some emitters use visible light that may compromise the covert entry of responding units. Sound Sound-activated entry systems open a gate when an emergency vehicle gets within range of an audio sensor that detects the siren. Such systems are fairly inexpensive, compatible with most gate operators, and popular with fire departments. Although fire equipment typically responds to calls with lights and sirens on, announcing the arrival of law officers this way may be the last thing law enforcement wants to do. Soundactivated systems also preclude entry of officers on foot or bike and of other service providers, such as security and utility staff, who otherwise would have been provided an access card, code, or key. Radio Signal A gate equipped with a radio receiver can be opened with a manual transmitter, an “always-on” transmitter, or a radio frequency identifier. Manual transmitters require users to push a button to open a gate. This technology is used to activate garage door openers. Active transmitters require no-user action; they continuously emit a radio signal that is detected by a gate receiver, which in turn activates the gate opener. Another type of transmitter is mounted on the underside of a vehicle where the signal is detected by a roadway loop similar to those used to detect cars at traffic signals. Radio signal identification is quick (less than four seconds) and secure. Receiver range can be set from within inches of the receiver to about one-quarter of a mile away, and handheld or vehicle-mounted radios can be used to open the gate. An internal log in the receiver maintains details on what agency gained access and when, retaining the most recent transactions. Problems here include the probable number of different access frequencies or technologies

in any given jurisdiction, the compromising of receivers with matching frequencies in the event of loss or theft of a transmitter or transponder, and the possibility of an always-on transmitter inadvertently activating a gate when driven past a gated complex. Forced Entry More of a method than a system— and certainly last on the list of emergency access options—is forced entry. Crashing fences, cutting locks, and breaching gates are proven means for public safety personnel to get where they need to go, but such tactics usually result in damage to facility equipment or emergency vehicles—and could result in injury to the responders. Jumping fences also puts emergency responders at risk of injury and leaves them without vehicle-mounted equipment.

System Override What happens when there is a loss of power at your facility? Can people get out? Can people get in? Security gates should also include the ability to override the gate operator in case of a power or mechanical failure. Such systems include manually operated mechanisms and backup power supplies. A battery backup system can automatically open a gate, then shut down the gate operator until the primary power supply is restored. If both the battery backup and primary power fail, the gate operator should go into a failsafe mode that allows a malfunctioning gate to be manually pushed open so that vehicles or people are neither locked in nor locked out. Fail-safe overrides are mandatory in many jurisdictions across the country. If you increase your utility’s security by installing gated systems, remember to consider emergency access. Absent around-the-clock, onsite security staff, and without proper controls, public safety response times can be unnecessarily lengthened.

Safety and Security for Everyone Examine the options and develop a comprehensive, holistic approach in cooperation with your local authorities. Remember, the safety of your employees and customers may depend on quick, simple, and reliable access to gated and secured facilities. For more information, see the AWWA book, Security and Emergency Planning for Water and Wastewater Utilities. Other related information can be found at www.awwa.org. S

16 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


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F W R J

Proactive Emergency: Replacing Daytona Beach’s Most Critical Water Pipe Scott Richards, Eric Smith, and Mark Abram

W

ith a trend that has moved utilities towards single, regional water treatment facilities, along with recent single-point failures occurring in water supply systems, a utility must take a closer look at individual pipe criticality for loss of service. Criticality assessment often focuses on the distribution system; however, the greatest potential single point of failure is often before water leaves the water treatment plant (WTP). With aging infrastructure that has typically undergone numerous modifications (deviating from the original design intent), utilities may find themselves with single-feed pipes, a lack of valves, and other operational limitations. The City of Daytona Beach (city) identified a critical 45-year-old finished water discharge header pipe, which manifolds the high-service pumps (HSPs), as shown in Figure 1, that provide all water to the city via its sole WTP. This study provides a first-hand example of a pending single point of failure and the emergency methods that were employed to replace it, while maintaining water supply to the city. It provides a summary of the investigational findings, fast-track design, procurement, and construction process, along with results of the replacement of the discharge header for the WTP.

Background The city supplies water to a population of approximately 70,000. The Brennan WTP was constructed in 1972, discharging finished water through a 36-in. pipe. At the time of construction, the Brennan WTP was the second such plant within the city; however, after its Marion Street WTP was decommissioned, the Brennan WTP became the sole source of water for the city, thus making the single 36-in. discharge header one of the most critical pipes in the system. This existing discharge header pipe is a 36-in. ductile iron pipe (DIP), which originally discharged to the east. In a later phase of modifications to the WTP, the pipe was extended to the west, which is a 30-in. pipe that reduces to 24 in. once outside the building (Figure 2). There are seven HSPs that can supply water to the city through the discharge header. This pump station is the only source of water to the entire city, with no offsite storage tanks, though a project is currently in design to add offsite storage. Located in a humid tunnel (Figure 1), the exterior of the 36-in. pipe became heavily corroded over its 45-year life span (Figure 3), posing a greater failure risk. Upon an operator inspection of the high-service pump station (HSPS) discharge header, the city decided to further evaluate the pipe, which ultimately led to identifying reliability improvements to the HSPS discharge header. Because it’s critical to maintain operation of the pump station (and the pipe) to provide supply to the city, the project was viewed as critical and placed on a rapid schedule.

Figure 1. Discharge header pipe tunnel.

18 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Scott Richards, P.E., is infrastructure design manager and associate vice president with Carollo in Orlando. Eric Smith, P.E., is deputy utilities director with City of Daytona Beach. Mark Abram is senior project manager with Garney Construction in Hollywood.

Investigation Carollo worked closely with the city during the investigation, and the initial intent was to consider methods for rehabilitation of the pipe. The team was faced with the challenge of assessing a 45-year-old DIP that could not be isolated from service and was located just under the pump room with access limitations. The city decided to complete an investigation that focused on both the pipe interior and exterior. Although there were no indications or history of interior corrosion issues, the city felt that this was a necessary move to fully understand the conditions. In order to address this, Carollo completed an investigation of the pipe using ultrasonic thickness equipment (Figure 4) to estimate the wall thickness. Ultrasonic readings were taken approximately every 18 in. along the pipe, including fittings. At each segment, eight readings were taken around the pipe circumference at 45-degree angles (Figure 5). Furthermore, the exterior condition was analyzed, with a focus on valves, connections, gaskets, and bolts. As noted, the initial intent was to determine the pipe’s condition and the

Figure 2. Discharge header pipe record drawing.


ability to rehabilitate the pipe (primarily by blasting and recoating the exterior); however, following investigation, there was significant concern over safety risks and potential failure during rehabilitation. The following results were noted from the investigation: S The 45-year-old DIP had excellent wall thickness results. S There were no leaks. S The exterior was highly corroded, believed to be due mainly to the initial design and environment, which created a humidity trap and sweating pipe. S Flange bolts where heavily corroded and significantly deteriorated. S “Line taps” that included corroded galvanized pipe posed a risk of failure. S Air release valves were installed on steel saddles, with couplings that were highly corroded. S Only one valve was installed in-line and was inoperable. Upon completion of the investigation, a meeting was held with the city to present the results. Although the pipe material itself was not of significant concern, numerous other factors were of great concern. Rehabilitation of the pipe would require a minimum replacement of all flange bolts and tapping saddles, in addition to blasting and recoating; however, the ability to safely access the pipe and complete the work without causing a failure was the primary issue at hand. Additionally, given the lack of proper valves to isolate sections of the header, even the rehabilitated main would not provide an optimal solution. The team considered potential ways to isolate sections of the pipe, but safe accessibility remained a major issue that could not be resolved. Thus, it was determined that replacement of the header pipe would be the safer, lower-risk, and best long-term solution.

Design Based on the outcome of the investigation, the city made a proactive decision to move as quickly as possible to replace the existing header pipe. This move put the project on a fast-track schedule, with the project direction quickly focusing on the ability to design, procure, and construct a replacement with urgency. Within a few weeks of the investigation meeting, the design process began. Given the nature of the project schedule, the

Figure 3. Corroded flange and bolts from a high-service pipe into a header.

Figure 4. Ultrasonic thickness meter.

Figure 5. Sampling of ultrasonic data collected for the pipe.

Figure 6. Replacement header draft layout.

design process was atypical. At this time, there were still many unknowns, and a scope was established to design the replacement header on an aggressive schedule, with numerous workshops scheduled with the city. In just over two months, design plans were developed. During the emergency design process, numerous site meetings occurred—to make design decisions and to continue data collection. The initial design effort considered

practical site limitations, the potential pipe location, and layout. Several key items that needed to be addressed included: S W  hat portions of the header should be replaced? S H  ow is the HSPS operation maintained while replacing the header? S W  here should the replacement header be located? (The “elephant in the room”) Continued on page 20

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

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Continued from page 19 These items were quickly addressed, based on the previous investigation and building limitations. The pipe analysis previously conducted generally produced good results for the pipe wall, but the tunnel design acts as a “humidity trap,” creating an

environment for high corrosion potential on the pipe. With the bolts and tapping saddles showing the greatest corrosion, along with a lack of operational valves in the header, it was determined to replace the entire “exposed” header that existed within the tunnel. The exterior buried pipe was anticipated to be in

Figure 7. Structural encasement and new header pipe supports.

Figure 8. High-service pump station evaluation summary.

Figure 9. High-service pump station pump room prior to construction.

Figure 10. Phase 1 – Investigation.

20 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

better condition due to the more-favorable environment and lack of oxygen exposure. Based on the investigation effort, it was determined very early in the process that the best (and viewed as the only) option to replace the existing header, while maintaining water supply, was to construct a new header pipe “overhead” of the existing HSPS. This allowed for separate construction of a new pipe and sequenced tie-in to the existing pipe outside of the building and underground. An option was considered to replace the pipe in the existing tunnel, but this required building a temporary partial header. This additional work, along with the challenging accessibility, was anticipated to increase cost and risk to the project. With the overhead header location, consideration was given to shifting the header alignment “north to south” within the building, but moving the pipe south limited the discharge piping flexibility and crane access to pumps. The best location was determined to be directly over the existing tunnel. The greatest challenge to this was the structural support of the new pipe, while temporarily keeping the existing pipe below grade in service. This is further addressed in the discussion on structural engineering. Based on the initial agreed-upon layout (Figure 6), key items were established to be addressed in the design. The items have been grouped based on subject. Structural Structural modifications were required to complete the new overhead 36-in. header design. The key items included: S P  ipe supports of the new overhead header. S M  odifications to the existing stairway to make room for the header, including a new second-floor exit door and exterior stairwell. Continued on page 22

Figure 11. Phase 1 – Concrete fills the existing tunnel.


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Figure 12. Phase 2 – Beginning of header pipe construction.

Figure 13. Phase 2 – Header pipe construction.

the project for maintenance of operation and supply to the city. The header layout must address safe clearance and walk space underneath, along with practical and safe operation of valves.

Figure 14. Phase 3 – Tie-in of pumps to header.

Continued from page 20 S Modification to the building for the new header to penetrate through the walls on the east and west end. S Protection of the existing header pipe, which is located underneath the new proposed header pipe. Based on the key items discussed, the most critical one was protecting the existing pipe. To provide support for the new header pipe, the column supports could not rest directly on the tunnel ceiling without providing more support below. Cutting out and accessing the tunnel was considered a risk to damaging the existing pipe; therefore, the tunnel was filled with concrete to protect the pipe, while also providing a base to build the new supports (Figure 7). Essentially, the existing header was “buried alive” while in service. Mechanical/Pipe The new header pipe was the project goal. It needed to successfully replace the

existing pipe without interrupting service, while providing a long-term reliable solution. The key items addressed included: S Selection of pipe material and coatings - Flanged DIP was considered as the best available option, provided that it’s properly coated. Flanged cast fittings are commonly available. Cement mortar lining was considered, but ultimately, epoxy coatings that were NSF-61approved were selected. S Valves were added to allow for future isolation, flexibility, and redundancy in pumping. S Hydraulics - Both the main header and individual pump piping size were addressed utilizing a hydraulic model and pump data. S Pipe supports and restraint. S Tie-in methodology to the existing exterior piping. S Sequence of construction. As further noted, sequencing was viewed as the most critical component to

22 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Electrical To install the new header pipe, there were electrical, instrumentation, and control (EI&C) modifications that were anticipated (both interior and exterior) to the HSPS building. S I nterior EI&C piping - This piping is relatively minor, providing connection to existing sensors and local equipment. S I nterior electrical - Pump nos. 3, 6, and 7 were fed via electrical supply from the second-floor control room. This required relocation, with a recommendation that they be installed “flush” to the existing north wall and under the concrete surface to the motors. S E  xterior electrical - There were known electrical supply lines to the site equipment on both sides of the building where construction was to be done. The full impact would not be known until the site underground had been exposed. For this reason, the bid price included a contingency for the contractor to address electrical relocation work underground. Site/Civil and Ancillary Items As changes to the building exterior and interior were anticipated during construction of the new header pipe, several key items related to the existing site conditions and the architecture and utilities also needed to be addressed: S F  loor repair - Replacement of tile or alternative repair methods. S R  oof stormwater drain lines - Part of the roof drain goes through the existing tunnel and required modification. S W  ater supply lines from the header tunnel supply onsite facilities, including


process water that could not be removed from service. S R  eplacement of existing fiberglass windows and removal of minor piping that was unused. S A  sphalt repair - Replacement of the existing driveway, with possible addition around the pipe to maintain facility access. S I nstallation of curbs and bollards Protection must be provided to the new pipe located near or in the existing driveways.

Sequencing of Construction/Phasing As noted previously, the construction sequencing was viewed as the key to successful project completion. During the design, several “operational limitations” were established based on communication with the facility’s operations team. This included review of hydraulic model data, individual pump performance, variable frequency drives, generator connectivity, and size of the piping (Figure 8). With this analysis, the number and combination of pumps required for operation were established based on seasonal expectations, along with a reliability analysis based on pump history and generator connectivity. This led to a transition approach for the pumps to maintain operation, which would be integrated into the phasing approach to the project.

This, along with a requirement that system pressure be maintained at all times, led to the development of a detailed and phased construction approach to maintain operation of the facility. A five-phase approach was developed as outlined. Each phase was further detailed in the plans, with both written and plan sheets to describe each phase of the header pipe replacement. Preparation S Excavate the current header pipe underground on either side of the HSPS building and confirm the existing pipe diameters and locations of connections and existing pipe restraint. S Relocate or remove miscellaneous piping, conduits, drainage, and other equipment along the path of construction. S Remove the existing stairwell, knock out the west and east walls for new header pipe construction, and fill the existing tunnel. New Header Construction S Install the new discharge header and its associated fittings overhead in the pump room. S Test and disinfect the header prior to the transition of three of the existing HSPs to the new header. Include prefabrication of new discharge piping from each pump (not yet installed). The header was to be fully prepared and ready for operation prior to the tie-in.

Figure 15. Phase 3 – Line stop at west discharge point.

West Tie-In S O  n the west underground pipe, complete installation of a line stop (overnight); drain and isolate the 24-in. main. S I nstall a restrained 24-in. cap west of the line stop. S C  ut the 24-in. pipe at the location of elbow installation. S R  emove the line stop assembly so that the new discharge pipe can be installed above and then connect to the existing 24-in. main. S S lowly refill the line, pressure-test and disinfect, and place the new header, the 24-in. west pipe, and the three pumps into operation on the new header pipe. At this time, both header pipes were in operation. East Tie-in S O  nce the new discharge header is in operation and stable, prefabricate the pump discharge piping for remaining pumps. S I solate the 36-in. east pipe and shut down the old header pipe and its pumps. S T  ransition the remaining pumps to the new header pipe, drain the 36-in. main, and install the piping connecting the new header pipe to the existing 36-in. main. S O  nce installed, activate the remaining pumps, and place the 36-in. east pipe into operation. Continued on page 24

Figure 16. Phase 4 – Eastern tie-in.

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Figure 18. Phase 5 – Completion of the project (full view).

Figure 17. Phase 5 – Completion of the project.

Continued from page 23 At this point, the new header pipe was fully operational, and substantial completion of the project was achieved, as defined in the contract. Final Cleanup S Install a new stairwell and rebuild the wall and flooring. S Install curbing, complete paving and painting, and provide overall project cleanup.

Procurement For the entire design and construction of this project, time was of the essence. Both the city and Carollo reached out to contractors early in the design phase. Communication was frequent to gain interest, check budgetary estimates, and obtain design feedback. Critical-Path Items During the design phase, the team was looking ahead, with the ultimate goal of a quick construction timeline. A hypothetical schedule was developed throughout construction to determine the critical-path items. Equipment lead time was of initial concern, and the team reached out to vendors for key equipment. Based on this investigation, new pump discharge check valves were determined to have the longest lead time, and were considered critical-path equipment. To help maintain the construction schedule, these valves were directly purchased by the city prior to bidding. Best-Value Request for Proposals A common item of discussion was the need to have a contractor with the right skill set, experience, and ability to get the job done quickly. For this reason, the team

considered options for procurement. The city had declared this project an emergency, and successful completion on a fast-track schedule was the highest priority. For these reasons, the city elected to utilize a best-value request for proposal (RFP) procurement process to replace the pipe, which generally includes a focus on qualifications, approach, schedule, and price. Contractors were scored based on each of the following individual components, with scores weighted as follows: S Qualifications/Experience - 10 percent S Approach - 15 percent S Schedule - 40 percent S Price - 35 percent These percentages were developed based on input from city staff. It was clear that the schedule was the most important item to the city, and therefore, it was weighted as such. The best-value RFP process essentially combines an RFP evaluation with a hardbid component. Committee members reviewed and scored each submittal on its qualifications, approach, and schedule. After the committee members met and scores were collected, the separately sealed bid prices were then opened, where the scores were totaled. Garney Construction received the highest overall score and was selected to complete the work.

Construction Garney was awarded the project in July 2019, and the goal remained to have the new discharge header pipe in service prior to Daytona Speedweeks in February 2020. The proposed schedule met this date, but was aggressive, and would require a team effort from all parties involved. Within days of notice-to-proceed, the construction team had deployed equipment to the site to complete the necessary

24 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

underground investigation to confirm connection points to existing piping prior to ordering materials. This followed quickly with a number of shop drawing submittals, requiring rapid turnaround by the team in order to procure the majority of equipment. The construction schedule was developed primarily based on equipment arrival times. Equipment suppliers and vendors were in close communication during this process to ensure timely delivery. This included numerous phone calls, emails, and even a few site visits by equipment representatives to understand the critical nature of the project (Figure 9). Construction was completed following the five-phase approach, with minor adjustments by the construction team based on early field investigation. Phase 1 Phase 1 began early in the project to prepare for the new header pipe (Figure 10). While this phase was the longest, the least amount of operational changes was required. The filling of the tunnel with concrete was the most important item in this phase to prepare for the new header pipe (Figure 11). To protect the existing header pipe, while minimizing settlement potential, a “lightweight” concrete mixture was used to fill the tunnel. It was well-planned, thoroughly discussed, and a success. With the header pipe encased, the tunnel was prepared for overhead construction of the new header pipe. Phase 2 Phase 2 kicked off with the major equipment arrival (Figure 12), and the bulk of construction starting as the holiday season approached, adding yet another challenge to personnel. For this phase, the just-in-time delivery of key components (piping, valves, Continued on page 26


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Continued from page 24 etc.) was critical. As planned, early orders and close coordination with vendors kept the project on schedule. Biweekly project meetings occurred with the entire team, while communications with operational staff occurred daily. The greatest challenge in this phase was fabricating and installing the new piping overhead the existing HSPs, which were in active operation. The construction team proposed a construction method to fabricate the new header pipe, while minimizing risk to the operational pumps below (Figure 13). Special rigging equipment was implemented, including a 15-ton Broderson IB 200 carry deck crane, which was carefully placed in the middle of the HSPS room. As shown in the construction phasing photos, this was the key to safe installation of the pipe segments, while also maintaining operation. Phase 3 Phase 3 was viewed as the most critical in the project, where installation of a line stop in the active discharge header pipe was

required (Figures 14 and 15). If this were to fail, the entire city would be without water. For this reason, all hands were on deck. The city had a well-organized contingency plan in place. Additionally, the work occurred overnight, when water demands were at their lowest, for purposes of lowering velocities and pressures and minimizing the potential need of interconnects. The construction team had fully and safely prepared piping underground access, checked all piping restraints, and poured pipe supports and thrust rods in place. The line stop event was successfully completed, which allowed for the new header pipe to be connected into the existing west discharge main in the coming days. With the line stop and transition of pumps, both the old and new headers remained in service at the same time. Phase 4 Phase 4 followed, completing a similar tie-in on the east piping (Figure 16), but with the new header in service the old header could be isolated, so a line stop was not required.

This connection was a “measure twice, cut once” approach due to the alignment and rotation of the underground elbow. For this reason, extra piping and adapters were ordered; however, with proper planning, the piping dropped in as planned and the additional components were not required. Upon completion of Phase 4, substantial completion was achieved on schedule. Phase 5 Phase 5 included multiple wrap-up items, including painting, paving, and safety features (Figures 17, 18, and 19). This included some unforeseen challenges, including floor repair that required removal of brittle base/grout material that was installed during original construction, but given that there was now “pressure in the new pipe,” the pressure was off at this point. While there were certainly challenges to the schedule throughout the project, the construction team made efforts to communicate and adjust to keep the project goals in mind. Open communication was the key to success.

Conclusion The overall duration of this project— from design through construction—was right at one year (March 2019 to March 2020). Considering all the major components that had to occur (design, permitting, contractor procurement, equipment lead times, and phased construction), the stars aligned to meet this schedule, and the effort did indeed take a team of personally dedicated “stars.” From city leadership to the construction crew, each person involved in the project provided the commitment needed to successfully complete it on time and on budget. The project also displayed teamwork in action to quickly respond and maintain a safe water supply to the community. This project provides a great example of how a proactive decision by a utility can help to improve the reliability of its aging infrastructure. So, as utility systems in Florida continue to age and facilities may be combined and/or modified, being aware of pipes and facilities may become more critical than originally planned.  S

Figure 19. Phase 5 - Completion of the project (side view).

26 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


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C FACTOR

Resilience: Surviving 2020 and Moving Forward Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA

G

reetings, everyone. I hope you all are doing well. It’s December—I can’t believe another year has passed. This year has been one of the most challenging I’ve ever dealt with, and I believe the events we’ve experienced will cause changes in how we conduct business going forward in the years to come. Once again, I would like to commend water utility professionals for your ability to adapt and move forward in these challenging times. The word often used to describe this is resilience, which the Webster Dictionary defines as: “The capacity to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness.” We as utility professionals are as tough as they come. We adapted to the changes that were brought on by COVID-19 by quickly implementing procedures to protect our

employees and the public. Furthermore, we developed procedures that allowed us to continue to provide services to our customers at the same level and high quality that they are accustomed to. As a professional organization, FWPCOA was challenged as well in how we conducted business and how we provided needed training to our membership and the utility industry. In this C Factor I would like review the challenges we had this year and how we are moving forward to face them and plan for the future.

The Year in Retrospect For most of us, 2020 began as any year normally would. We were looking forward to organizing our training—state and regional short schools and other classroom training— that we were accustomed to providing. We were looking forward to the annual Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) in April and presenting our Operators Showcase there to discuss current issues. Early in February we received the sad news of the passing of our friend and colleague Walt Smyser. Walt was an honorary life member, the chair of the Website Committee, and our webmaster. This came as

a great shock to the FWPCOA family, which left a void that can never be completely filled. Of course, then came COVID-19. Things changed very quickly with the rise of the coronavirus. Most of us had no idea how this ultimately was going to affect our lives and our organization. The FWPCOA was informed on March 13 by Indian River State College (IRSC) that our spring short school, which was scheduled to begin March 16, could not be held at its campus as a result of restrictions imposed related to the virus. We were required to cancel the short school on short notice, and also cancel the March board of directors meeting that was to be held March 15 at IRSC. We then cancelled all training classes that were to be held in April as notices were coming in related to restrictions for attendance by students and instructors, and the closing of venues previous scheduled for use. On April 6 the FWPCOA training office closed all onsite face-to-face classroom training until further notice. Backflow recertification dates were extended on a case-by-case basis due to the COVID-19 restrictions. On top of this shocking news we were informed on March 13 that FWRC had been cancelled. As one of the three organizational members of FWRC, this annual event is an integral part of FWPCOA’s professional activities for the year. If things couldn’t get worse, we were notified by IRSC that our summer short school, scheduled for August 10 through 14, had been canceled due to COVID-19 restrictions, preventing us from using its campus.

Resilience Prevails: Maintaining the Course As I mentioned at the opening of this article, we are resilient. Facing the obstacles in front of us, we needed to find ways to continue forward as an organization and provide services to our members. Our main focus is training. The FWPCOA has already established its Online

28 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Institute for comprehensive training. With a focus on online training, we were able to boost the number of members registered for online classes. A recent report (October 2020) from the institute stated that as of this point in the current operator license renewal cycle, with approximated six months left, institute activity has already exceeded that which took place during the entire previous two-year license renewal cycle. The report confirmed that there are presently 374 students in the institute registry. In addition, the Education Committee and the FWPCOA administrator have compiled several updated courses and manuals for training. The wastewater collection C course and the stormwater C course are complete and online. The Level III Utility Maintenance Course Manual is complete and in final review, backflow testers and customer relations are in the final stages of development, and the supervision course will be the next to be developed in the future. As a professional organization, FWPCOA needed to come up with a method to continue conducting business. Having to cancel the March 15 board meeting on short notice, the FWPCOA officers were tasked with finding options for the board to safely meet. Since face-to-face meetings were out of the question due to the coronavirus, we decided to conduct our first virtual board of directors meeting on June 6. Although we had some bugs to work out, this meeting was a success. In the months since this first meeting, the association has matured in the virtual world and has used this media successfully for board meetings and other business meeting needs. In an effort to be proactive, FWPCOA developed a COVID-19 guidance document addressing how to conduct activities under current and future coronavirus restrictions. Using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, a guidance document was drafted and approved at the June board meeting. The FWPCOA has been progressively moving forward with its training efforts as each phase of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions are implemented. Since some schools have reopened, more venues have become available to hold onsite training classes. Also, a few of our utility departments have lifted restrictions and allowed FWPCOA to use their facilities for training. Classroom sizes have been limited based on the size of the facility and the

The following table lists onsite training classes that have been held, beginning in August 2020:

Date Class Aug. 10-14, 2020 Utility Maintenance III Sept. 14-17, 2020 Wastewater Collection C Sept. 21-23, 2020 Backflow Repair Sept. 23, 2020 Backflow recerts Sept. 21-24, 2020 Backflow Tester Sept. 24, 2020 Backflow recerts Oct. 8, 2020 Reclaimed Water Dist. 1-day Oct. 9, 2020 Reclaimed Water Dist. 1-day Oct. 13, 2020 Backflow recerts Oct. 15, 2020 Reclaimed Water Dist. 1-day Oct. 16, 2020 Reclaimed Water Dist. 1-day Oct. 19-22, 2020 Backflow Tester Oct. 22, 2020 Backflow recerts Oct. 26-30, 2020 Wastewater Collection C Oct. 26-29, 2020 Backflow Tester Oct. 29, 2020 Backflow recerts Nov. 2-6, 2020 Wastewater Collection C ability to maintain social distancing. Other precautions include wearing masks, health questionnaires, and taking temperatures.

What Are We Planning for the Future? The organization is planning an onsite meeting for the January board of directors meeting to be held in Plant City on Jan. 23, 2021. This will be our first onsite meeting since January 2020. The FWPCOA Short School Committee and training office are planning a spring short school at IRSC for March 15-19, 2021. The board meeting will be held on March 14 before the school begins. We are also looking to continue to build our library of FWPCOA training manuals and to offer continued training through our Onsite Institute. We see the future as being bright. We have learned much through the challenges we have faced through the year in 2020. Our resilience has prevailed once again, making us a better organization for the future.

FWPCOA Training Update We’re still looking for additional venues that can and will accommodate our training classes. Since school has resumed, we do have some venues opening up, but we still need

Location Students Manatee 10 Region 9 25 Deltona 10 Deltona 21 St. Pete 13 St. Pete 14 Tampa 11 paid instructor Tampa 10 paid instructor St. Pete 15 Tampa 11 paid instructor Tampa 11 paid instructor Deltona 31 Deltona 25 Pensacola 16 paid instructor Cocoa 18 paid instructor Cocoa 8 paid instructor Tallahassee 9 paid instructor

to follow social distancing and classroom limits. We will continue to follow the latest CDC guidelines for conducting training and are willing to follow any guidelines required by the facility, including off-hours, like nights and weekends. The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor, please contact the training office at 321-383-9690. In the meantime, and as always, our Online Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. For more information, contact the institute program manager at OnlineTraining@fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at training@fwpcoa.org. I personally hope that all of you have a very happy and joyous holiday season. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work!  S

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Fred Bloetscher to Lead FSAWWA in 2021 On December 11, Dr. Fred Bloetscher became the 95th chair of the Florida Section American Water Works Association at the section’s annual Fall Conference, held virtually this year. He succeeds Kim Kowalski. Dr. Bloetscher is currently the associate dean for undergraduate studies and community outreach and a professor at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, where his focus is on infrastructure and utility issues, including water resources, water supply sustainability, stormwater (including sea level rise), and wastewater disposal issues. He received his bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from the University of Cincinnati and earned his master of public administration degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His Ph.D. is in civil engineering from the University of Miami. His areas of interest include water and wastewater resource management, membrane processes, utility management and finance, groundwater, and waste disposal options.

Dr. Bloetscher has been nominated for the Teacher of the Year Award a number of times by his students and has received three university-wide leadership awards, plus two national leadership awards. Dr. Bloetscher was previously an adjunct faculty member at the university of Miami in Coral Gables. In 2012, Dr. Bloetscher and Dr. Daniel E. Meeroff received the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) Award for Connecting Professional Practice and Education for their work on the Dania Beach Nanofiltration Facility, which is the first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-Gold water treatment facility in the world. Dr. Bloetscher was the LEED administrator for the project. Prior to coming to academia, Dr. Bloetscher served as the utility director and deputy director for several large water and sewer systems, and as a city manager in North Carolina. He is the former chair for the Water Resources Division, Groundwater Resource

30 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Committee, and Education Committee for the American Water Works Association. He is a LEED-AP (accredited professional) and holds professional engineering licenses in nine states. Dr. Bloetscher is also the president of Public Utility Management and Planning Services Inc. (PUMPS), a consulting firm dedicated to the evaluation of utility systems, needs assessments, condition assessments, strategic planning, capital improvement planning, grant and loan acquisition, interlocal agreement recommendations, bond document preparation, consultant coordination, permitting, and implementation of capital improvement construction.  S


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FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT

Conclusion of Vision in Delusion (COVID): A Look Back at 2020! Kim Kowalski Chair, FSAWWA

I

cannot believe it has been a year already— wow! The saying is true: time flies (but we didn’t have fun), even in one of the toughest years our industry has encountered. In December when I was passed the gavel, I never imagined my year would be this tumultuous. Becoming chair of the section was something that I thought a lot about, even in my early days on the Manufacturers/Associates Council (MAC), and I could not believe it was my time.

A Different Year I was looking forward to all the regional meetings, conferences, drinking water contests, and the many local and state government meetings; instead, FSAWWA was faced with lockdowns and cancellations like we had never seen before. This past year proved to me the dedication and excellent quality of the people who work in this industry. I know this is the career we all chose, buts it’s very apparent how important it is to supply safe and reliable drinking water to our communities! An excellent example of this dedication is our Water Utility Council (WUC). When COVID-19 hit, the members took it upon themselves to hold weekly pandemic virtual meetings, which are still ongoing. These virtual meetings are for all the utility members to discuss the impacts and challenges they are being faced with due to COVID-19. Topics have included staffing requirements, testing, and personal protective equipment.

As cancellations occurred, FSAWWA realized that we would have to conduct business differently, as we were no longer able to hold training and social events in person. The staff worked tirelessly (led by Peggy Guingona, our executive director) to find the right platforms to hold our events virtually so we could continue to deliver the same exceptional experience as our “live” events. We moved the MAC New Technology Showcase to a virtual platform, opening it up to the entire state; we did this as well with our other training opportunities. So far, we’ve held 38 training events, which includes our virtual annual Fall Conference. There is a lot of work that goes into making these events run smoothly—again, thanks to Peggy and her staff!

Fundraising Successes Despite all of the hardships, there were also opportunities to raise money and influence lives. Water Equation (WE) held a national fundraising event involving all of the AWWA sections called WE Walk!, where people gathered virtually to fund scholarships, leadership programs, and safe water projects. Participants were able to walk, run, or bike, logging their miles as they went. This was an eight-week program that raised a total of $26,405 for WE! The top spot for the most funds raised went to Florida with $6,093.02! There were different categories, and some are listed here. Mark Lehigh, our very own current section director and past FSAWWA chair, came in first place overall with the most mileage.

32 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Going the Extra Miles S 118 B4 5/25 (118-mile virtual walk around Lake Okeechobee): Mark Lehigh took the winning spot. TOP Walkers S Mark Lehigh: 566.6 miles (118 B4 5/25) S Kyla Jacobsen: 542.10 miles (AWWA Sections and Friends) S Colleen Heath: 460.5 miles (New England Young Professionals) The section also gave money to Water For People and the Roy Likens Scholarship Fund. We were able to change the lives of 12 students with scholarships, with a total of $45,000 in scholarships awarded.

My Thanks Thank you to all of our volunteers and members during this difficult year; your patience and dedication helped FSAWWA accomplish many things. I also want to thank the FSAWWA staff: Peggy, Donna, Casey, and Jenny! This year, more than ever, your tireless and excellent work kept us on track! Thank you, thank you! I also cannot forget about the Executive Committee for its support and fellowship—you helped me to realize my dream! This past year was hard for me—both professionally and personally—and it will never be forgotten. I want to thank my family (Scott and Regan) for all of their support; I could not have done it without you. I am honored for the opportunity you have given me to be your section chair. Again, this has been my Conclusion of Vision in Delusion (COVID). Although I will not be passing the gavel to Fred Bloetscher, the 2021 section chair, personally, I know that he will excel in this new role. Here’s to 2021 being better than 2020!  S


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Distribution and Collection. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators ( DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 334203119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Providing Resiliency in the Operation of a Transmission System

Liquid-Only Sewers: Past, Present, and Future

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW02015377) 1. A  pproximately ___ percent of households are served by a municipal sewage transmission system. a. 20 b. 40 c. 60 d. 80

1. B  all and Bounds introduced the use of ____________ pumps in their liquid-only systems. a. multistage turbine b. submersible c. positive displacement d. low-head centrifugal

2. _ ____________ valves are devices installed at the high points in a transmission pipeline to help dissipate trapped gases. a. Check b. Air release c. Vacuum-pressure d. Reduced pressure backflow

2. Th  e first liquid-only sewers build in Florida in the 1970s were referred to as _______ systems. a. septic tank effluent pumping (STEP) b. vacuum assist c. high-pressure d. package

3. Immediately following the September 2014 Citrus Avenue pipeline break, how was sewage collection at the three downstream pump stations handled? a. Bypass pumping b. Vacuum trucks c. Off-line storage d. Diverted to separate transmission main

3. Th  e author states that modern-day liquid-only systems reduce which of the following by more than 65 percent? a. Total dissolved solids b. Nitrate c. Total suspended solids d. Phosphate

Stefano Ceriana

4. O  ver the past nine years, the South Seminole and North Orange County Wastewater Transmission Authority has been performing ___________ testing to determine pipeline thickness. a. ultrasonic b. X-ray c. caliper d. coupon 5. Th  e ______________ program has reduced pump repair/replacement costs by approximately 38 percent over the past three years. a. valve maintenance b. pump management c. pipeline cleaning d. pump right-sizing

Michael Saunders

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW02015378)

4. A  liquid-only sewer provides ___________ treatment of wastewater. a. primary b. advanced primary c. s econdary d. high-level 5. Th  e clear zone from which liquid-only systems pump is located in which section of the tank? a. Bottom b. Center c. Top d. Downstream end

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

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AWWA Section Services provides sections with content for their publications. These articles contain brand new information and will cover a variety of topics.

Pacific Northwest Section is a 2020 Section Education Award Winner

A

The section, and the Washington State Department of Health, Division of Drinking Water, deliver chlorine residual testing and laboratory skills training

2015 study of over 30 water treatment plants in northwest Washington by the Washington State Department of Health (WSDOH), Division of Drinking Water, found that measurements of critical water quality treatment parameters did not have the precision and accuracy necessary to provide consistent results. Operators identified the primary issue as a lack of

instructions on the correct techniques needed to achieve testing standards. In looking at the study results and operator comments, WSDOH decided that the most-important parameter, and the one that might have the biggest impact on customer water quality, was chlorine residual. The WSDOH set about developing a handson workshop to allow operators to learn

A typical workshop setup.

Testing the samples.

34 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

correct testing techniques—and to practice and practice again.

Workshop Delivers Training The workshop is set up for groups of 10 to 20 operators working in pairs, with each operator having a portable test kit. Samples of local water are prepared so all attendees are working from the same source, and accuracy and consistency comparisons can be part of the learning experience. The teaching kit contains flasks, pipettes, standards, reagents, wipes, gloves, and all other needed materials. The operators are only required to bring their portable chlorine test kit, a pen, and a calculator. Designed for up to 20 attendees, and running three and a half hours, the workshop includes five wet exercises to measure free and total chlorine, and for attendees to check their instrument calibration and refine techniques.

Preparing the chlorine standard.


FWRJ READER PROFILE Polk Regional Water Cooperative water conservation team, promoting our rebate and incentive programs—and more! What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor’s degree in environmental studies/growth management, with a minor in English, from Rollins College in Winter Park. I also have a certificate in leadership development in public administration.

Keeli Carlton Winter Haven Water, City of Winter Haven Work title and years of service: I have been the water conservation specialist for two and a half years with the city. What does your job entail? I’m involved with customer engagement, utility public outreach, education, event coordination, grant writing, and investigation. I’m an active member of the

The workshop kits are contained in three or four file boxes and cost between $1,500 and $2,000 to set up. A packaged PowerPoint presentation and two or three trained speakers round out this high-quality, consistent instruction and hands-on training. The workshop is approved for three continuing education units (CEUs) for both water and wastewater operators in Washington. While each initial workshop was a great learning experience, WSDOH ran into a few hurdles while reaching out to the operators. First, budgets limited development of new kits to allow other staff to reach more operators. Additionally, there was no income from these workshops (WSDOH had no mechanism to charge for training), so replacement of consumables was limited. Lastly, WSDOH mostly depended on being invited to a utility to do the training. The workshop was well received and WSDOH began to repeat it in the northwest region as utilities heard about and requested it, and as the WSDOH staff had the time and materials available.

Help From the Section At a workshop in Anacortes, Wash., in June 2019, the training coordinator for the

What do you like best about your job? I am happiest when I am engaging with our customers of all ages. Communication is key, and filling the minds of our water users with knowledge about our water system and the connection it has to the lakes in the Winter Haven area and beyond is my passion. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to FSAWWA. How has the organization helped your career? The FSAWWA has been a wonderful way to network and gain knowledge on a variety of water-related topics. I was pleased to find that I

Northwest Washington Subsection (NWWA) of the Pacific Northwest Section (PNWS) heard the concerns and limitations of the program, and NWWA offered to help. By allowing NWWA to arrange the workshops (location, advertising, registration accounting, and fees) WSDOH could concentrate on its strengths, which were program and instruction. The NWWA, which generally runs more than a dozen operator workshops a year, would take over workshop logistics, which was its strength. The subsection was able to charge for the half-day workshops (typically $50), which provided income for building new training kits, restocking consumables, and spreading the opportunity to a wider audience in the state. In the following nine months (before the COVID-19 pandemic shut down in-person training) NWWA and two other PNWS subsections arranged 13 workshops at eight locations in six counties. Over 180 operators representing more than 50 utilities and water districts attended the training. When in-person training is again allowed, new workshops will be scheduled throughout western Washington. At this time, NWWA is developing a training kit for the WSDOH eastern regional office, and

could learn about every aspect of water utilities through this platform. During the “shut down” due to COVID-19, the virtual webinars became a common place for me to see how other utilities were communicating with the public, and they gave me a chance to expand my knowledge base at the same time. I enjoy knowing I’m part of a bigger picture being a part of FSAWWA. What do you like best about the industry? Water in general is the element that flows through us all. It touches every aspect of life. The importance of our industry, and how diverse it is, leaves a lot of room for exciting projects out there to be a part of. It never gets “old.” What do you do when you’re not working? I am the mother of three beautiful and amazing children, ages 12, 6, and 3. If I am not attending a sporting event featuring one of them, we are outside investigating nature. We are all native to Florida, and our mission is to visit all of the Florida state parks out there; it’s something we love to do in our downtime. I love to capture all of our memories in photographs along the way. S

with the local subsections, can begin training operators at workshops. The efforts to produce and organize these workshops emphasizes the added value of AWWA sections working with local health authorities in providing high-quality and consistent training to the largest number of operators. For more information regarding the program, please contact: S Jeff  Lundt –fjeff.lundt@kingcounty.gov S S teve Deem – steve.deem@doh.wa.gov S Nancy Feagin – nancy.feagin@doh.wa.gov S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

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F W R J

Providing Resiliency in the Operation of a Transmission System Stefano Ceriana

T

he South Seminole and North Orange County Wastewater Transmission Authority (authority) was created by an act of the Florida Legislature in 1978 as a separate local agency of the government, with powers designed to meet the particular needs of the various municipalities within the area in relation to the transmission of wastewater to a single/solitary regional sewage treatment plant. Design work for the authority began in the spring of 1979. Construction grants were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and bond anticipation notes were issued during 1981 in the amount of

$7 million. Construction on the system began in February 1982. Initial flows into the system began in February 1983 and the total system was completed in the fall of that year. The authority’s responsibilities include funding, planning, operating, and maintaining a wastewater transmission system (transmission system) that serves its five local municipal members, including Seminole County, City of Casselberry, City of Winter Park, City of Maitland, and City of Winter Springs. The transmission system consists of 32 pump stations, over 105 system valves, more than 115 air release valves (ARVs), and approximately 37.5

Stefano Ceriana is senior project manager and client service manager with Reiss Engineering Inc. in Winter Springs.

mi of transmission force mains that transport the wastewater to a gravity sewer manhole that flows to the City of Orlando’s Iron Bridge Regional Water Reclamation Facility. Figure 1 shows the authority’s service area boundary, pump stations, and transmission mains. In 2013 the authority’s staff was reduced to one employee (an executive director) who oversees and manages the day-to-day duties. The physical operation and maintenance (e.g., removing/installing pumps, site maintenance, etc.) of the pump stations is the responsibility of each member entity within their respective service areas. The remaining responsibilities required to run the transmission system, with continuous and uninterrupted service to customers, falls under the responsibility of the program management consultant team, which oversees and manages both the nonphysical and limited physical operation and maintenance of the authority’s transmission system. This article will present the challenges that the authority faces every day as it strives to provide an uninterrupted transmission system to its members, and how, through its program management, has been successful thus far in achieving that goal.

Wastewater System Management

Figure 1. South Seminole and North Orange County Wastewater Transmission Authority Service Area

36 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

When it comes to managing a transmission system, protecting public health is paramount. Two primary goals of wastewater operations are to provide uninterrupted wastewater transmission and mitigate overflows into streams, lakes, and private properties. These goals are accomplished by utilizing leading-edge technology, system management, and long-range maintenance, as well as fiscal and environmental stewardship. Approximately 20 percent of households in the United States are on septic tanks, where owners are more likely to know what happens to their household wastewater once it’s flushed or disappears down a drain because they’re Continued on page 38


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Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

37


Continued from page 36 responsible for the maintenance of their own sewage treatment systems. The remaining 80 percent of households that don’t use a septic system are served by a municipal transmission system. When their wastewater is flushed or disappears down a drain, it’s removed from their homes, never to be seen, smelled, or thought of again. To ensure that wastewater customers never have to think about their wastewater once it leaves their property, a utility with a transmission system needs to be proactive and consider all possibilities that could cause an interruption of service. These possibilities can be broken down into two main categories: daily maintenance and upkeep, and natural disasters. Daily Maintenance and Upkeep Failure of a transmission system due to maintenance and upkeep typically can be narrowed down to two locations. The first is at the wastewater pump station. When pumps or electrical systems fail, wastewater is not discharged, wet wells fill, gravity sewers must surcharge, and wastewater overflows onto roads or into private residences. The second is along the transmission pipeline, when a pipeline break occurs. The pipeline break not only causes a discharge of wastewater to the environment at the location of the incident, but it also impacts any upstream pump stations that discharge into the pipeline that experienced the break. In order to avoid these types of transmission system failures, it’s necessary to maintain and upkeep the transmission system.

Natural Disasters The failure of a transmission system due to natural disasters is most typically attributed to hurricanes and other major storm events. When a hurricane is forecasted to make landfall, community partners and residents of Florida (or any other state) within the path of the bad weather are encouraged to prepare by stocking up on bottled water and taking other measures to have enough water on hand for drinking, food preparation, and sanitation. This is a must, especially if the local water treatment plant loses power and can no longer provide potable water. Not much thought, however, is given to wastewater disposal. The consequences of a pump station losing power has the same consequences as the failure to maintain and upkeep a pump station, but they’re magnified due to the added factor of inflow and infiltration, which increases the fill rate and surcharge of the system. Recently, with better communication systems, local municipalities are able to send out alerts to their citizens and inform them to limit their wastewater discharge, but residents will still need to use their bathrooms regardless of the weather. Failures attributed to natural disasters can be mitigated by installing emergency generators, which will provide continuous power during a power loss—as long as fuel is available. Ensuring the absolute reliability of a transmission system means maintaining every working part of that system to prevent any interruption in service. The authority and its program management consultant have worked closely to provide the support, technical knowledge, and expertise to achieve absolute

Table 1. Criteria Table

38 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

reliability. The actions taken are further explained.

Pump Station and Pipeline Maintenance In 2013 and 2014, an evaluation of the authority’s pump stations was completed. Seven criteria items were evaluated, including physical condition, age, flow, station capacity, station operation, station type, and environmental factors. Table 1 shows a section of this criteria table. Each item was scored based on a predetermined ranking system, which allowed development of a priority list of repairs and rehabilitations for the pump stations. Over the subsequent five years, four pump stations underwent upgrades and rehabilitations, and seven emergency generators were added to pump stations that did not have a generator, or to replace a generator that had reached the end of its service life. The transmission system pipelines underwent a similar assessment to that of the pump stations. The specific criteria used to evaluate the pipelines were different, and included pipe corrosion, age, capacity (velocity), pipe material, location within the transmission system, and environmental factors. The pipeline assessment was more of a challenge by virtue of the underground pipeline location. Without the ability to set eyes on the infrastructure and formulate a first-hand visual assessment, the method chosen to formulate a priority list included limited physical inspection. Over the last nine years, the authority has been performing ultrasonic testing throughout the transmission system to obtain pipeline thickness data. The pipeline inspection data obtained have been limited in comparison to the 37.5 mi of transmission system; therefore, extrapolation of the condition assessment information to pipelines of similar material of construction, location, and age was done. In addition, the age criterion required record drawing information to determine when the pipeline was installed, but this information was not always available, which required coordination with each individual member entity and engineering judgement to develop a ranking system. The 2013 condition assessment has been a valuable tool, and in 2019 the executive director of the authority requested an update to be performed. The update was completed to account for the increase in flows and reflect modifications of piping and pump stations to better evaluate the current system capacity and operational abilities of the authority’s system.


The 2019 evaluation was completed, and a new set of priority lists was created.

Air Release Valve Management Program When the authority’s transmission system was constructed, approximately 100 ARVs were located throughout the system. Hydrogen sulfide gas, which is released by wastewater, naturally rises and collects at high points within the pipeline. The trapped gas can cause water hammer or pressure surges, flow issues, and corrosion, all of which impact the integrity of the pipelines. The ARVs, which are installed at the high points in a pipeline where trapped gas collects, help dissipate these trapped gases and extend the service life of pipelines. The effectiveness of an ARV depends on how well it’s operated and maintained. Prior to the authority’s current program manager taking over the ARV management program, maintenance consisted of cleaning the ARVs on an as-needed basis, and repairing or replacing damaged ARVs within a 10- to 12week turnaround period. In order to improve the ARV management program, an assessment was made to determine the needs, and a new program was created that included the following: • Cleaning Schedule – Most ARVs were placed on a quarterly cleaning schedule. The ARVs that require more maintenance are cleaned quarterly, while ARVs that require less are cleaned biannually or once a year. Furthermore, data collected at each quarterly cleaning are used to update the cleaning schedule for each individual ARV. • ARV Repairs – Repairs that used to rely on contractors to retrieve the ARV, and repair and return it into service, are now completed by program management staff. The most common failures that cause an ARV to go offline are damaged flapper seals, O-rings, springs, and stems/floats; therefore, additional parts have been added to the inventory to allow for more-rapid repairs when an ARV is found to be offline. • Odor Checks – When an ARV releases trapped gas, the gas is released into the atmosphere surrounding the ARV. The odorous release of hydrogen sulfide gas is unpleasant to anyone nearby. Even though the release of the gas does not impact the operation of the transmission system, it’s unpleasant to utility customers and the general public, so monthly odor control checks on ARVs that are known to release high amounts of hydrogen sulfide are performed. These ARVs are fitted with odor

Figure 2. Citrus Avenue Pipeline Break

Figure 3. Vacuum Trucks in Service

control systems and the odor control media are replaced when they are no longer effective. The action of replacing every foot of pipeline that reaches the end of its service life, or has deteriorated quicker than anticipated, is not an option for most utilities. Often, the best option is to maintain the reliability of the existing pipeline by current means and methods that are often lower cost and less impactful to the community than excavation and replacement of the pipe. It’s still necessary to ensure that the rehabilitation means are properly executed and not ignored after completion. It’s impossible to say that the authority’s pipelines have maintained their operation for

as long as they have solely because of the ARV management program, but what can be said is that the program does not damage or deteriorate the pipelines.

Pump Management Program In 2016, the executive director noticed that expenses to repair or replace pumps had gradually increased over the previous year. In order to control costs, a pump management program was created. The program consisted of a pump inspection checklist that would be completed by a pump contractor for each pump within the transmission Continued on page 40

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

39


Continued from page 39 system. It was understood that the checklist evaluation approach was limited since it was to be completed in the field instead of in the contractor’s shop, where the pump can be disassembled and a detailed inspection completed. The checklist results, once completed, often identified preliminary problems that could potentially lead to larger problems for the pump. Based on the checklist results, and in close coordination with each member entity, preventive maintenance repairs for pumps were prioritized. Once the contractor was selected to complete the repairs, close coordination among the member entity, contractor, and program manager took place to ensure that spare pumps were installed each time a pump was removed for service. The same pump contractor who removed the pumps took them to his shop and repaired them based on the checklist results. During the repair process, the contractor also identified additional issues that were not identified in the field. This process has extended the service life of many pumps and has avoided potential issues or problems, which if left unchecked, would have resulted in more-complex and costly repairs. In the past three years, authority costs to repair or replace pumps have been reduced approximately 38 percent, demonstrating that the pump management program’s proactive approach is both beneficial to service reliability and cost savings.

Emergency Response Pipeline or pump station failures cannot be predicted, but when they do occur, the response requires immediate action and coordination to limit the consequences of the failure. The authority developed an emergency response protocol, in which the first numbers to call in an

emergency are the personal cell phone numbers of the program management staff members. Once the emergency call is received, the protocol outlines the responsibilities and actions required. The following is an example of the protocol in action during an emergency. In September 2014, an 18-in. pipeline along Citrus Avenue broke due to a fracture in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. The pipeline caused an immediate spill at the location of the break and impacted three upstream pump stations that discharged into the broken pipeline (Figure 2). The goal for the authority was to minimize the wastewater spill and coordinate repairs as quickly as possible. The following tasks were completed soon after notification of the pipeline break: 1)  Contact the member entity to request assistance with the repair of the broken pipeline. 2) Identify the downstream valve to isolate the system. 3) Coordinate the required vacuum truck (Figure 3) for the three downstream pump stations that could no longer discharge into the broken pipeline. The pipeline break caused a spill of approximately 400,000 gal at the location. Following the repair of the damaged pipe, program management staff placed “No Fishing/ No Swimming” signs at the downstream stormwater discharge point, where they remained for more than a week until laboratory results showed that there was no longer any contamination from the spill, and sanitizer could be applied at the location of the break. More importantly, none of the three upstream pump stations experienced any wastewater spills. The coordination of

appropriately sized vacuum trucks, based on the capacity of each pump station and in close coordination with each member entity on the location for the vacuum trucks to be emptied, was successful. This specific pipeline break on Citrus Avenue was repaired and the transmission system returned to normal operating conditions in under 10 hours. In the last five years, the authority’s program manager has responded to two other emergencies, including one wet well overflow and one damaged pipeline caused by construction activities not related to the authority. In each emergency response, the ability of the program management staff to respond quickly allowed the authority to minimize interruptions to its transmission system.

Conclusion The authority, like any transmission system, strives to never have an interruption of service. Emergencies or failures cannot always be prevented, but steps can be taken to minimize them when they occur. The close working relationship between the authority and its program manager has developed into a proactive approach to the operation and maintenance of the transmission system, with the goal to reduce the probability and consequences of system failures, whatever their causes. Activities, such as routine condition assessments and pump/ARV management programs, help to increase system reliability. Coupled with a commitment to responsiveness by the authority’s program management team, operational and emergency response efforts are focused and adapted to where and when they are needed—most every hour of every day.  S

NEWS BEAT At a time when many offices, warehouses, and other buildings and facilities are not fully occupied due to COVID-19, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) have developed a guide to help building managers address water system stagnation. Stagnation within building water systems is a concern in periods of low or no occupancy. When water does not move through the system, water quality issues may arise at an outlet, a group of outlets, or

throughout an entire building water system, causing potential health risks. Titled “Responding to Stagnation in Buildings with Reduced or No Water Use,” the guide “provides a decision-making framework for building managers to design responses to building water system stagnation,” said William Rhoads, a co-author of the guide and a post-doctoral researcher at Virginia Tech. Peter DeMarco, executive vice president of advocacy and research at IAPMO, said the new document provides essential guidance at a crucial time. “As buildings reopen across the country, it will be critically important

40 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

for building owners and facility managers to actively address water quality concerns in plumbing systems due to stagnation,” he said. “We appreciate the opportunity to work with Dr. Rhoads and the other authors on the development of this important guidance document.” Because of the many differences in building water system operation and design, one set of instructions is not appropriate for all buildings. The guide provides a framework for building managers and is a resource that water systems can utilize to suppor the business community in their service areas. S


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for the latest updates on classes December 7-9.............. Backflow Repair............................. Deltona.................. $275/305

2021 UPCOMING CLASSES January 11-14.............. Backflow Tester.............................. St. Petersburg......... $375/405 11-15.............. Stormwater C.................................. Deltona.................. $325 25-28.............. Backflow Tester.............................. Deltona.................. $375/405

February 1-5.............. Water Distribution Level III............ Deltona.................. $325 4.............. Reclaimed Water C 1-day ............ Deltona.................. $125/155 4.............. Reclaimed Water B 1-day.............. Deltona.................. $125/155 8-10.............. Backflow Repair*............................ St. Petersburg......... $275/305 15-17.............. Backflow Repair............................. Deltona.................. $275/305 26.............. Backflow Tester Recerts***........... Deltona.................. $85/115

March

8-11.............. *Backflow Tester............................. St. Petersburg......... $375/405 15-19.............. Spring State Short School............. Ft. Pierce Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. *B  ackflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

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NEW PRODUCTS The RotaCut Inline Macerator from Vogelsang is designed to remove heavy solids from the waste steam, while using a spinning blade assembly to reduce debris, such as rags, wipes, hair, string, plastics, wood, and bone, into an acceptable size for the downstream equipment to pass. Instead of shredding hard objects, such as metal or stone, the units catch heavy debris in a collection pot for removal from the line. Not only will these units protect pumps and dewatering equipment, they are ideal for sludge conditioning based on the blades’ ability to create homogenized slurry. RotaCut comes in numerous models designed for a range of flow rates and pressures. These units are ideal for numerous wastewater applications, such as: • Primary sludge • Sludge transfers • Dewatering feed • Digester feed, digester cleaning • Septage/fats, oils, and grease (FOG) receiving The unit’s auto cut control design automatically maintains the proper tension between the blade and the cutting screen, ensuring a proper cutting action, even as the blades wear. Other features include: • Auto Reverse: Should a piece of debris get lodged in the screen, the rotating blade system will automatically switch back and forth from forward to reverse until the piece of debris is severed and dislodges. • Self-sharpening blades: The unit’s design allows the blades to maintain their edge through the natural course of operation and the manner in which the blades pass over the screen. •  Easy inline maintenance: There are no cartridge-style parts that have to be sent out for reconditioning or factory refurbishment. All models feature a quickrelease door allowing access to the cutting head. All screens are reversible to allow for a fresh cutting surface without buying a new spare part. Typical routine service, such as changing blades or flipping the reversible cutting screen, takes only a fraction of the time required to service a typical twin-shaft grinder. •  Adaptable to any operation: Available in several models and several cutting screen patterns, RotaCut macerators can be provided in a design that will produce a designated size solid. (www.vogalsang.info)

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The ProSeries-M MD-3 chemical metering pump from Blue-White Industries delivers precise chemical feed to water and wastewater treatment applications. The multihead configuration of MD-3 provides superior performance and will not lose prime. When the product’s first diaphragm is in the suction phase, the second diaphragm is in the discharge phase. This causes gaseous fluids to be pumped in a near continuous flow. Ordering is straightforward and allinclusive, and a single model includes all necessary components for installation. The drop-in-place design of MD-3, along with conveniently built-in controls, makes installation and setup fast and efficient. (www.blue-white.com)

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Tomorrow Water has introduced the Proteus high-rate filtration system for wastewater treatment. The system uses the company’s BBF floating media to effectively remove suspended solids and soluble organic compounds through physical filtration and biological treatment. As a replacement for primary clarifiers, it can shrink process footprints, while increasing carbon capture and biogas production. The expanded polypropylene media design boasts a high solids loading rate, providing the ideal surface area to build biofilm. Through carbon diversion, BBF facilitates the effective removal of solids and soluble organics by performing biological treatment and physical filtration simultaneously. The process begins when the influent enters the BBF reactor from the top through the influent pipe, then gravity reaches the bottom and flows upward through both media layers. Particles are filtered by the media, and soluble pollutants and nutrients that pass through the media layer are removed by the media’s biofilm. The treated water then exits the reactor through the effluent waterway on top of the reactor. As the upflow treatment process continues, head loss will be increased by the excess solid deposits. The expanded polypropylene media provides a high solids loading rate with a unique shape and a high void ratio. Gravitybased, zero-energy backwash uses only process water for cleaning. With continuous aeration capability and no settling required, the system can manage high peaking factors and variable flow rates, simplifying treatment of dilute flows.

42 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

With continuous aeration capabilities and no settling required, the system can manage high peaking factors and variable flow rates, simplifying the treatment of diluted flows. (www.tomorrowwater.com)

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The Dynasonics TFX-5000 ultrasonic clamp-on meter from Badger Meter accurately measures the volumetric flow of clean liquids and those with small amounts of suspended solids or aeration, such as surface water or raw sewage. It’s ideal for water and wastewater applications, such as lift stations, booster pump stations and water mains. The meter provides accuracy up to plus or minus 0.5 percent and flow rates ranging from 0.07 to 33,000 gpm on pipes from 1/2 to 48 in. Designed to clamp onto the outside of pipes, the TFX-5000 meter does not contact the internal liquid, allowing for installation without shutting down operations in new and retrofit applications. It’s equipped with an internal clock and built-in 8 GB datalogging capabilities to log water flow down to one second. The TFX-5000 meter is also compatible with BEACON Advanced Metering Analytics and AquaCUE Flow Measurement. (www.badgermeter.com)

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Xylem has introduced its Sanitaire Digital Pressure Monitor (DPM) that effectively transforms wastewater diffusers into smart diffusers. The Sanitaire DPM maximizes diffuser operation and increases energy savings through strategic fine-bubble aeration system monitoring and intelligence, providing an enhanced digital interface with diffuser health data, engineering and economic calculations, and asset management recommendations. Aeration is typically a large singleline item in a wastewater plant’s operations budget. With utilities constantly seeking ways to reduce operating costs, while maintaining treatment compliance, the DPM empowers utilities with a digital solution that intelligently monitors and manages their aeration systems. “Energy cost savings and an extended system life cycle continue to be paramount for water utilities to find both operational and financial efficiencies,” says Adam McNeill, director of sales and treatment. “The launch of the DPM reflects our commitment to evolving our water and wastewater treatment portfolio. It goes beyond improved technology to include product intelligence that delivers more value to the user.” (www.xylem.com) S


Test Yourself What Do You Know About COVID-19 and Water/Wastewater? Donna Kaluzniak

1. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Andrew Wheeler, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator, sent a letter to the governors of all states, territories, tribes, and Washington, D.C., requesting that, when enacting restrictions to curb the spread of COVID-19, state authorities consider water and wastewater workers to be a. available as needed. b. eligible for extra pay. c. essential workers. d. important but nonessential. 2. According the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) coronavirus disease 2019 website, ribonucleic acid (RNA) from the virus that causes COVID-19 has been found in untreated wastewater. What additional protections, specific to COVID-19, are recommended for workers involved in wastewater management, including those at wastewater treatment facilities? a. No additional protections, as standard practices associated with wastewater operations are sufficient. b. Temperature checks must be made before a wastewater employee starts work, and every three hours during the workday. c. Wastewater employees must wear N95 respirators during wastewater operations. d. Wastewater employees must wear Tyvek coveralls at all times during wastewater operations. 3. Per the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) guide, Critical Infrastructure Operations Centers and Control Rooms – A Guide for Pandemic Response (Operations Centers Guide), a key mitigation measure in workforce planning includes a. dividing essential teams into shifts, cutting hours to ensure no two groups of employees overlap. b. ensuring all contractors, field workers, and visitors have access to the operations center. c. requiring all employees to work from home. d. suspending agreements for mutual assistance and sharing of operators from other organizations. 4. Per the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) COVID-19 website, employers who need to clean and disinfect environments potentially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 should use disinfectants with label

claims to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 that are registered with the a. CDC. b. EPA. c. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). d. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

a. detention time would be too long for the virus to survive. b. source waters cannot be contaminated with the virus. c. the virus cannot live in water. d. water treatment plants use filters and disinfection to remove or destroy pathogens.

5. P  er the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, wastewater-based COVID-19 surveillance is being conducted around the United States. Wastewater surveillance can be used to detect the presence of COVID-19 within a sewershed, potentially earlier than with established case surveillance. Wastewater-based surveillance can also be used to a. determine the total number of infected persons in a community. b. determine the percent of population of infected persons in a community. c. monitor trends in COVID-19 within a sewershed. d. rule out the presence of COVID-19 infections in a community.

10. Per the EPA document, Maintaining or Restoring Water Quality in Buildings With No or Low Use, water in buildings that have been closed for weeks or months can become unsafe to drink or use. Building owners must take proactive steps to maintain water quality. Public water systems should take the important action of a. boosting disinfection levels at building locations when buildings reopen. b. coordinating distribution flushing activities with nearby building owners. c. flushing interior plumbing of buildings coming back online. d. testing water inside buildings.

6. Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, when using wastewater-based COVID-19 surveillance, acceptable sample types include untreated wastewater or a. digested sludge. b. primary effluent. c. primary sludge. d. secondary sludge.

Answers on page 50

7. Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, if an employee reports or develops symptoms of COVID-19 at work, they should be separated from other employees and arrange for private transport home, then contact their medical professional. What additional steps should be taken? a. Ensure everyone in the department knows who is sick. b. Perform enhanced cleaning and disinfection of common areas and shared surfaces. c. Quarantine all employees who were in contact with the individual with symptoms. d. Send all employees who were near the sick employee for COVID-19 testing. 8. Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, hazard controls should be developed using methods such as engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Which of these control types is favored based on the hierarchy of controls? a. Administrative controls b. Engineering controls c. Management controls d. PPE 9. Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, COVID-19 has not been spread through treated drinking water, and tap water is considered safe. This is because

References used for this quiz: • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency coronavirus and drinking water and wastewater website:  https://www.epa.gov/coronavirus/coronavirus-anddrinking-water-and-wastewater • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency document, Maintaining or Restoring Water Quality in Buildings With No or Low Use: https://www.epa.gov/ sites/production/files/2020-05/documents/final_ maintaining_building_water_quality_5.6.20-v2.pdf • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention coronavirus disease 2019 website, sanitation, and wastewater workers page: h ttps://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/ community/sanitation-wastewater-workers.html • Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) Critical Infrastructure Operations Centers and Control Rooms – A Guide for Pandemic Response, available on the CISA website: h ttps://www.cisa.gov/publication/critical-infra structure-operation-centers-and-control-roomsguide-pandemic-response • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) COVID-19 website: h ttps://www.osha.gov/SLTC/covid-19/control prevention.html#solidwaste

Send Us Your Questions

Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

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FWEA FOCUS

Don’t Miss Out! FWEA Has a Lot to Offer! James J. Wallace, P.E. President, FWEA

T

his month I want to focus on the many valuable, insightful, and social opportunities that FWEA has provided this fall as we have pivoted to delivering content virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These events have covered a wide range of industry topics, as well as some fun, social interactions. It’s my intention to celebrate the great work of these many volunteers, and to remind you that FWEA will offer a similar, if not more robust, lineup of learning opportunities and social interactions in the early months of 2021. Don’t miss out! The FWEA has a lot to offer!

Committee Offerings In the good old days, FWEA was able to provide a full-day seminar comprising a variety of pertinent topics in a single area of expertise onsite, providing both technical education and networking. Our Air Quality, Wastewater Process, Collection Systems, and Biosolids committees have used this formula to great success over the years. Enter COVID-19 and a long list of hurdles to clear to provide content live and in person. Well, this past October and November, FWEA’s Wastewater Process Committee developed a plan to deliver that same valuable content, while also doing it in a way that was both virtual and very easy to accommodate. The Wastewater Process Seminar was delivered between October 22 and November 19 through five modules (October 22 and 29; November 5, 12, and 19) delivered over the lunch hour (noon to 1 p.m.). Each module contained two 30-minute presentations. The seminar was available as a series, or individually as one single module. Thank you to our entire Wastewater Process Committee leadership for their efforts in creatively delivering this content virtually to FWEA members. Not to be outdone, the FWEA Collection Systems Committee utilized a similar approach to deliver the Collection Systems Virtual Seminar

series. The series was conducted over three successive We d n e s d ay s (November 4, 11, and 18), from noon to 1 p.m. Each session focused on a unique theme, with session 1 on inflow/infiltration mitigation programs, session 2 on septic-tosewer options, and session 3 on smart sewers. Thank you to the Collection Systems Committee leadership for bringing together such a strong technical program and delivering valuable content to FWEA members in such short order and in a unique way, as compared to prior years. The importance of FWEA’s dedication to delivering pertinent technical content to our members in the current environment cannot be understated. Be sure to keep your eyes open in 2021 as FWEA’s committees continue to raise the bar with the depth and quality of the technical offerings. In addition, we’re studying available options to provide access to content from these prior seminars for those who were unable to attend.

Chapter Offerings Our local chapters have been busy this fall providing valuable opportunities to FWEA members. In September, the FWEA South Chapter held a “Women in Engineering” panel luncheon (virtually), with the following presenters: S Lynette Ramirez, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department S Maria Molina , Nova Consulting S Lynette Cardoch, Moffat & Nichol S Jennifer Leone, Pure Technologies S Carolina Maran, South Florida Water Management District This was an enlightening panel discussion regarding women professionals working in the local market in the various capacities represented by the panel members. One week later, the Central Florida Chapter provided an opportunity to unwind and enjoy some much-needed networking with colleagues while participating in “FWEA Feud.” Thank you to this chapter’s leadership for providing this chance at some fun, while reminding us of the joys of networking that have been less frequent in the days since the

44 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

beginning of the pandemic. In October, the chapter switched gears from the social offering in September and provided a technical webinar on emerging and reemerging pathogens in wastewater, with the following presenters: S Jerry Diamond, Ph.D., Tetratech S B en Stanford, Ph.D., Hazen and Sawyer Finally, the Southwest Chapter conducted its 19th Annual Golf Tournament benefiting FWEA’s Norm Casey Scholarship and Florida Gulf Coast University Scholarship, which are awarded through the chapter. Golf is one activity that has been able to continue in the state of Florida under “socially distanced” requirements. While most of our spring and summer FWEA chapter scholarship golf tournaments were delayed until 2021, the Southwest Chapter was able to set a successful framework for future events. One final note: Given the virtual nature of the majority of FWEA chapter offerings, please consistently peruse the www.fwea.org website and be sure to look through the event calendar. In the past, if you lived in one part of the state, attending an event in another part of the state was not easy; however, with virtual events, if you see a program to your liking in another chapter, you are more than welcome to virtually attend that event. Not many silver linings in a pandemic, but that can certainly be considered one. S


Water & Wastewater Courses Unidirectional Flushing Workshop

Water Class C Certification Review

Wastewater Collection System Cleaning & Maintenence

Introduction to Electrical Maintenance

Dec. 3, 2020 | Virtual Course | CEUs: 0.8

Jan. 4-8, 2021 | Virtual option available Jan. 11-13, 2021 | Gainesville, FL | CEUs: 2.0

Dec. 8, 2020 | Virtual Course | CEUs: 0.8

SCADA & Electrical Training

Water Distribution Systems Operator Level 1 Training Course

Jan. 14-15, 2021 | Gainesville, FL | CEUs: 1.2

Dec. 9-11, 2020 | Virtual Course | CEUs: 2.4

Jan. 25-29, 2021 | Virtual option available

Process Control of Advanced Waste Treatment Plants

Asbestos Refresher: Contractor/Supervisor

Wastewater Class C Certification Review

Course can be brought to your location

Dec. 15-17, 2020 | Gainesville, FL | CEUs: 2.1 Virtual option available

Asbestos: Cement Piping (Class II)

Course can be brought to your location CEUs: Initial 0.8, Refresher 0.4

Backflow Prevention Courses Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester Training & Certification

Backflow Prevention Assembly Repair and Maintenance Training & Certification

Dec. 7-11, 2020 | Pensacola, FL Jan. 9-17, 2021 | Tampa, FL* Jan. 11-15, 2021 | Gainesville. FL Jan. 16-23, 2021 | Venice, FL Jan. 25-28, 2021 | Jacksonville, FL Hybrid online option available

Backflow Prevention Recertification

Jan. 25-27, 2021 | Gainesville, FL Feb. 27-28, 2021 | Venice, FL

Dec. 10-11, 2020 | Davie, FL Jan. 9-10, 2020 | Bradenton, FL Jan. 30-31, 2021 | Tampa, FL Jan. 28-29, 2020 | Pensacola, FL

*Two consecutive Sat. & Sun.

Online Courses Backflow Preventinon Assembly Tester Training & Certification

Wastewater Collection Systems

CEUs: 3.75

Wastewater Class B Certification Review

Introduction to Backflow Prevention

CEUs: 4.0

CEUs: 0.7

Wastewater Class C Certification Review

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations Class C Training Course

Water Distribution Systems Level 2 & 3

Water Class C & B Certification Review

Approved C Wastewater Course | CEUs: 15.0 State of Florida Approved Course | CEUs: 4.0

www.treeo.ufl.edu Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

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CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

POSITONS AVAILABLE WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS

Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida.

U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www. uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include:

Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Treatment Plant Operator. Apply at www.titusville.com

46 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS

U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

City of St. Petersburg Plant Maintenance Technician III

City of St. Petersburg - Plant Maintenance Technician III IRC51229 This is supervisory and participatory work in the highly skilled technical work of the maintenance and repair of industrial treatment and pumping equipment, process control and instrumentation, advanced electronics and electrical systems for water and wastewater treatment plant and pumping stations. Work involves assisting in developing and maintaining a comprehensive and uniform corrective and preventative maintenance program; supervising technical, skilled journeyman level and semi-skilled employees engaged in all aspects of the repair, maintenance and care of plants including pumping stations, facilities and appurtenances; preparation of manpower, materials and cost estimates for assigned projects; and review of work performed by outside maintenance contractors. Requirements: Valid High School Diploma/GED; valid State of Florida Class “B” CDL w/ airbrakes; considerable progressive journeyman level experience in maintenance and repair of industrial plant or water and/or wastewater treatment equipment, monitoring instruments, electrical devices and mechanical systems. Close Date: Open Until Filled; $23.73 - $37.35 Hourly; See details at www. stpete.org/jobs EEO-AA-Employer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets’ Pref www.stpete.org/jobs


The Coral Springs Improvement District – A GREAT place to further your career and enhance your life!

Water Plant Operator CSID offers: Well established private lift station maintenance repair Company looking for 1 or 2 Level II LPSS system operators. Candidates will need one year experience with lift station mechanic, electrician, or municipal inspector. Either of the above from the private sector. Plumbing, electrical, underground construction experience. Familiarity with tools of trade: electrical multimeters, gas hydraulic cut off saws, boom trucks, along with other items associated with the transmission of raw wastewater, Salary and compensation package will be based on level of experience. Must have a clean MVR and drug test. Serious candidates only. Email resume to ssrminc@outlook.com.  Coral Springs Improvement District JOB OPENING PLANT MAINTENANCE MECHANIC The Coral Springs Improvement District is looking for a Plant Maintenance Mechanic with initiative to join our team. The Coral Springs Improvement District - A GREAT place to further your career and enhance your life! Plant Maintenance Mechanic CSID offers:

Salary levels are at the top of the industry Health Insurance that is unmatched when compared to like sized Districts The Coral Springs Improvement District is currently accepting applications for the position of water treatment plant operators. Applicants must have a valid Class C or higher Drinking water license and experience in Reverse Osmosis/Nano Filtration treatment processes preferred however not required. Position requirements include knowledge of methods, tools, and materials used in the controlling, servicing, and minor repairs of all related R.O. water treatment facilities machinery and equipment. Must have a valid Florida drivers license, satisfactory background check and pass a pre-employment drug screening test. The minimum starting salary for this position is $48,000. Salaries to commensurate relative to level of license and years of experience in the field. The District has excellent company paid benefits including a 6% non-contributory investment money purchase pension plan, and voluntary 457 plan with match up to 6%. EOE. Resumes and applications may be submitted to directly to jzilmer@csidfl.org or fax resume to 954-753-6328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Salary levels are at the top of the industry Health Insurance that is unmatched when compared to like sized Districts The Coral Springs Improvement District is currently accepting applications for the position of Plant Maintenance Mechanic. All applicants must have 1+ years’ experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and plumbing duties. Applicant must be able to perform duties including independent inspections, troubleshooting, and repairs to a wide variety of machinery including pumps, motors, generators, electrical systems, and both diesel and gasoline engines. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license, satisfactory background check and pass a pre-employment drug screening test. The minimum starting annual salary for this position is $58,000. Salary to commensurate relative to certifications and years of experience in the field. The District has excellent company paid benefits including a 6% non-contributory investment money purchase pension plan, and voluntary 457 plan with match up to 6%. EOE. Resumes and applications may be submitted to directly to jzilmer@csidfl.org or fax resume to 954-753-6328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $51,112. - $96,050. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

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Career Opportunity for Professional Engineer Toho Water Authority Kissimmee, FL An exciting opportunity for a Professional Engineer is now available! Toho Water Authority is a rapidly growing independent authority and the largest provider of water, wastewater and reclaimed water services in Osceola County with a service population over 100,000. TWA owns and operates 13 water plants and 8 wastewater plants. With a 300+ person workforce, we treat and distribute approximately 37.5 million gallons of potable water and reclaims 27 million gallons of wastewater each day. TWA values customer service, collaboration, teamwork, productivity, and innovation! TWA is leading a multijurisdictional effort to implement the largest inland desalinization facility project in Florida, is among the few recipients of the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) loan in the US, is piloting an indirect potable reuse project, and is currently in the preliminary design phase for a combined surface water facility to augment reclaimed water and produce potable water. TWA recognizes that our employees are our greatest assets and our competitive compensation package, including benefits and work life balance offers employees the satisfaction of being employed among the Top Places to Work in Central Florida. TWA is looking for a forward thinking and motivated Professional Engineer who is ready for an exciting role. This position offers an opportunity to apply and build upon your water and wastewater infrastructure project management skills in managing and planning capital project assignments through construction; master plans, engineering studies and hydraulic modeling. Additional responsibilities of the Professional Engineer may include design of collection and distribution system and lift station rehabilitation projects. This position will be mentored by a Chief Engineer and works closely with a highly dedicated and knowledgeable team of engineers, administrative staff, engineering technicians, construction inspectors and development management staff. The Professional Engineer position at TWA may work somewhat independently depending on ability, expertise and experience. The Engineering Division oversees a five year Capital Improvement Plan budget of approximately $600 million. Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. Compensation package also includes competitive medical benefits, onsite wellness center, retirement match, generous paid leave, professional development, and more! TO APPLY, applicants who possess a Bachelor’s Degree from an ABET accredited university in Engineering and a State of Florida Professional Engineer License or the ability to obtain within one year. Strong organizational skills, communication skills, and ability to manage multiple priorities a must. An emphasis is placed on writing skills and public presentations. To learn more about TWA and to apply, please visit www.tohowater.com. Toho Water Authority is an Equal Opportunity Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status.

Instrumentation Technology SCADA Unit (ITSU) Technician Department: Public Utilities Independent highly skilled technical work in the installation, adjustment, maintenance, repair, troubleshooting, and monitoring of water/wastewater instrumentation equipment, PLC’s, computers and peripherals, electronic control mechanisms, analog/digital converters, pneumatic/hydraulic controllers, encoded digital frequency shift telemetry and related utility technology components. Job Description: As an Instrumentation/Technology Technician will, with instruction from supervisor, maintain, repair, monitor, and/or calibrate a variety of electronic, hydraulic/pneumatic, automatic control devices, sensors, recorders, meters, detectors, and other specialized testing devices/computer technologies used to support a utility. This will include providing support for the hardware and/or software utilized in these technologies.  Some of the technologies supported are  SCADA, Maximo,  AMR and telemetry.  Additional duties are as follows, but not limited to: • Inspect and diagnose technical instrumentation and/or hardware/ software problems. • Locates, adjusts, and repairs defects in instrumentation and/or hardware/software. • Utilizes a variety of equipment with skill such as electronic testers (including voltmeters, ammeters, insulation testing meters, industrial analyzers, and oscilloscopes), pneumatic/hydraulic testers, computers, master controllers, microprocessors, laboratory and shop instruments, and other specialized control devices. • Installs, adjusts, and maintains SCADA system, alternating and direct current devices, sensors, recorders, analog/digital parameter transmitters, receivers; medium/high/ultra-high frequency radio alternating and direct current receivers, transmitters and auxiliaries; flow loop systems, alternating and direct current circuitry with solid state electronic micro circuitry, pneumatic control systems, according to diagrams, drawing, and sketches.  Installs and tests antennae, frequency monitors, microphones, cable, electrical interference suppressors.  Installs instrumentation controls per specification; makes modifications to equipment, as necessary. Minimum Qualifications:  Technical school diploma or its equivalent and two (2) years of experience in related field; OR a High School Diploma or GED and three (3) years experience in the installation, maintenance, troubleshooting and repair of electronics equipment and IT Technologies.  Certification may be required as assigned by management or by licensing codes and regulatory laws. May require five (5) years minimum water and wastewater plant experience in maintenance, troubleshooting, repairs, and installations. Preferred Qualifications: Additional Courses in electronic control, instrumentation, electrical engineering, remote data acquisition, IT Technology Systems, or related field.   International Society for Automation (ISA) certification as a Certified Control Systems Technician (CCST). Pay: $20.01 - $27.37 - On-Call Required. https://bit.ly/3ifvmPL

48 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Skilled Trades Worker II - Waste Water

Manager II - Lift Station/Facilities Maintenance

Department: Public Utilities

Department: Public Utilities

Responsible for the installation, maintenance, trouble shooting and repair of all electrical and mechanical equipment and appurtenances at all Public Utilities facilities. Must be fully proficient in the duties of a Skilled Trades Worker 1 and demonstrate the ability to construct and repair electrical panels, fabricate mechanical repairs, and have basic knowledge of instrumentation, telemetry, communication systems and computers.

Responsible for the daily management, administrative, and technical functions associated with the operation and maintenance of the regional wastewater collection system. Responsible for facility maintenance at the water production plants, wastewater treatment plants, lift station and vacuum system, and related appurtenances.

Job Description: • Install, replace, repair and modify mechanical and electrical equipment located on and within Public Utilities facilities, including, but not limited to, pump valves, regulators, actuators, control panels, communication systems, motor controls, electronic filtering and switching system. Ensure compliance with all federal, state, and county safety requirements, including lock-out/tag-out and confined space entry as well as general industry safety rules. • Document and maintain work order and safety records in written and in electronic format. Respond to emergency situations as needed. • Perform lift station maintenance that may include mowing, trimming of shrubbery, weed eating, pressure washing, fence repair and painting. Maintain assigned equipment and vehicles. Minimum Qualifications:  A High School Diploma or its equivalent and three (3) years of experience in applicable trades which include work in the water/wastewater collection field, performing pump, valve or hydraulic system repair and maintenance. Possession of a valid Florida Driver’s License at time of hire. Preferred Qualifications:  Valid Class “C” wastewater collection

system certification. Ability to obtain Class “B” wastewater collection system certification. Ability to obtain Class “A” CDL with air brake endorsement. Pay: $18.48 (Step 1)

https://bit.ly/2FrqUzc

Job Description: Manage the daily operation of lift station operation, vacuum system operation and treatment plant facility maintenance, to ensure safe, proper operation and maintenance. Responsible for ensuring compliance with the regulatory requirements and industry standards for multiple facilities.  Ensure appropriate scheduling for each area to comply with regulatory requirements, effective and efficient operation.  Prepare and administer budgets, associated reports required for proper operation of the utility.  Monitor and maintain appropriate preventative maintenance programs associated with facilities.  Some of the essential job functions are as follows: • Review maintenance and operational control strategies with Lead Chief Treatment Plant Operators, Water and Wastewater Superintendents • Develop and implement cost savings programs for utility • Review operational data and trends • Respond to emergencies as required • Conduct facility inspections Minimum Qualifications:  A Bachelor’s Degree from an accredited college or university in any Physical or Natural Science, Engineering, Business Administration or a highly related field to any of these areas plus four (4) years of related experience. Experience may substitute for the required degree on a year-for-year basis. Must have at least two years of experience supervising employees in this field.  Preferred Qualifications:  Training in physics, hydraulics, mechanical construction and maintenance, electrical/electronic theory and maintenance, computer software applications, supervision and customer service.  Journeyman/Master electrician license.  Possession of FW&PCOA Class “A” wastewater collection system certification.  Florida Class “A” Commercial Driver’s License. Pay: $57,824.00 - $76,689.60 https://bit.ly/3cfuqcj

Licensed Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator & Utilities Mechanic I (Maintenance Worker), Water Rec

Laboratory Manager $68,809 - $96,822/yr. Utilities Treatment Plant Operator or Trainee $48,408 - $68,114 or $43,907 - $61,782/yr. Utilities System Operator II or III $41,815 - $58,841 or $43,907 - $61,782/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.

http://www.cityofcocoabeach.com/619/Employment-Opportunities

LOOKING FOR A JOB?

The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

49


SERVING FLORIDA’S WATER AND WASTEWATER INDUSTRY SINCE 1949

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 43

Editorial Calendar

January 2016

January.................Wastewater Treatment February................Water Supply; Alternative Sources March.....................Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April .......................Conservation and Reuse May .......................Operations and Utilities Management June .......................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .......................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August...................Disinfection; Water Quality September............Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.................New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.............Water Treatment December..............Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

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AWWA Partnership for Safe Water������������������������13 Blue Planet Environmental Systems���������������������51 Carollo Engineers���������������������������������������������������21 CEU Challenge��������������������������������������������������������33 Data Flow Systems���������������������������������������������������8 Diversified Billing System��������������������������������������30 FSAWWA 2020 Fall Conference Thank You����������10 FSAWWA 2020 Fall Conference Regional Sponsors Thank You�������������������������������������������12 FSAWWA Membership Awards������������������������������ 11 FWPCOA Training Calendar�����������������������������������41 FWPCOA Online Training Institute �����������������������25 Grundfos������������������������������������������������������������������15 HIVENT�����������������������������������������������������������������������2 Hydro International�������������������������������������������������17 Hudson Pump������������������������������������������������������������9 J&S Valve�����������������������������������������������������������������27 Lakeside Construction Equipment��������������������������7 Orenco Systems��������������������������������������������������������5 Reiss Engineering���������������������������������������������������37 UF TREEO Center����������������������������������������������������45 Vogelsang����������������������������������������������������������������31 Xylem������������������������������������������������������������������������52

1. C  ) essential workers.

Per the EPA coronavirus and drinking water and wastewater website, “EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler sent a letter to governors in all 50 states, territories, tribes, and Washington, D.C., requesting that water and wastewater workers, as well as the manufacturers and suppliers who provide vital services and materials to the water sector, are considered essential workers and businesses by state authorities when enacting restrictions to curb the spread of COVID-19.”

2. A  ) No additional protections, as standard practices associated with wastewater operations are sufficient.

Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, sanitation and wastewater workers page, “Recently, ribonucleic acid (RNA) from the virus that causes COVID-19 has been found in untreated wastewater. While data are limited, there is little evidence of infectious virus in wastewater, and no information to date that anyone has become sick with COVID-19 because of exposure to wastewater. Standard practices associated with wastewater treatment plant operations should be sufficient to protect wastewater workers from the virus that causes COVID-19. These standard practices can include engineering and administrative controls, hygiene precautions, specific safe work practices, and personal protective equipment (PPE) normally required when handling untreated wastewater. No additional COVID-19-specific protections are recommended for workers involved in wastewater management, including those at wastewater treatment facilities.”

3. A  ) dividing essential teams into shifts, cutting hours to ensure no two groups of employees overlap.

Per the CISA Operations Centers Guide, under Key Mitigations – Workforce Planning, “Divide essential teams into shifts, cutting hours to ensure that no two groups of employees overlap. • Segregate crews on shift work and split system operators (days/nights or split individual shifts) among primary, backup, and contingency (reserve) operations centers and control rooms. Operating shifts in different locations should provide a 12-hour window to sanitize equipment. • Sequester and maintain a completely healthy shift or “reserve force” taken out of normal rotation that can step in when minimum staffing levels cannot be met. • Develop a supplemental staffing plan for potential use of retirees, supervisors, managers, and engineers with the requisite skills to backfill operations center and control room personnel and support staff, as required. •  Request and provide mutual assistance and sharing of operators with other similar organizations. • Make available employee assistance programs and other professional services.”

4. B) EPA.

Per the OSHA COVID-19 website, “Employers operating workplaces during the COVID-19 pandemic should continue routine cleaning and other housekeeping practices in any facilities that remain open to workers or others. Employers who need to clean and disinfect environments potentially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 should use EPA-registered disinfectants with label claims to be effective against SARSCoV-2.”

5. C  ) monitor trends in COVID-19 within a sewershed.

Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, “wastewater surveillance can be used to support the following response objectives: • Detect the presence of COVID-19 within a sewershed, potentially earlier than with established case surveillance . . . However, not detecting viral RNA in wastewater can never be used to rule out the presence of infections in a community. • Monitor trends in COVID-19 within a sewershed, including both reported cases and unreported infections. . . Trends in

50 December 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

viral concentrations in wastewater have been demonstrated to lead trends in new reported cases within a sewershed by days.”

6. C) primary sludge.

Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, “Untreated wastewater and primary sludge are both acceptable community wastewater surveillance sample types. . . If laboratory methods are available, sludge sampling is recommended to evaluate infection presence within a sewershed with few known case patients because the virus will be more concentrated in sludge. Untreated wastewater samples are recommended when wastewater treatment plants apply disinfectant before sludge can be sampled, sludge testing demonstrates high assay inhibition or poor virus recovery, or solids residence time within the primary clarifier is unknown.”

7. B) Perform enhanced cleaning and disinfection of common areas and shared surfaces.

Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, on the COVID-19 employer information for utility workers page, “Take action if an employee is suspected or confirmed to have COVID-19. • Immediately separate employees who report with or develop symptoms at work from other employees and arrange for private transport home. These employees should self-isolate and contact their health care provider immediately. • Perform enhanced cleaning and disinfection after anyone suspected or confirmed to have COVID-19 has been in the workplace. Cleaning staff should clean and disinfect offices, bathrooms, common areas, and shared equipment used by the sick person, focusing especially on frequently touched surfaces or objects. If other workers do not have access to these areas or items, wait 24 hours (or as long as possible) before cleaning and disinfecting.”

8. B) Engineering controls

Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, employer information for utility workers page, “Engineering controls are favored over administrative and personal protective equipment (PPE) for controlling existing worker exposures in the workplace because they are designed to remove the hazard at the source, before it comes in contact with the worker. Well-designed engineering controls can be highly effective in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection. The initial cost of engineering controls can be higher than the cost of administrative controls or PPE, but over the longer term, operating costs are frequently lower, and in some instances, can provide a cost savings in other areas of the process.”

9. D) water treatment plants use filters and disinfection to remove or destroy pathogens.

Per the CDC coronavirus disease 2019 website, Frequently Asked Questions page, “The virus that causes COVID-19 has not been detected in treated drinking water. Water treatment plants use filters and disinfectants to remove or kill germs, like the virus that causes COVID-19. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates water treatment plants to ensure that treated water is safe to drink.”

10. B) coordinating distribution flushing activities with nearby building owners. Per EPA’s document, Maintaining or Restoring Water Quality in Buildings With No or Low Use, “Building and business closures for weeks or months reduce water usage, potentially leading to stagnant water inside building plumbing. This water can become unsafe to drink or otherwise used for domestic or commercial purposes. . . While buildings/businesses are closed, proactive steps can be taken to prevent stagnation and maintain building water quality. . . For Public Water Systems - Coordinate distribution flushing activities with nearby building owners/managers. Be prepared to provide information on system disinfection activities.”


Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2020

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