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Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.
News and Features 4 Using Sewer Inspection Data and Innovation to Successfully Implement Sewer Improvement Programs—John Schroeder and Chris Collier
11 2020 Florida Water Resources Conference: It’s All About Water—and You!—Holly Hanson 18 Florida Rural Water Association Announces President’s Award 20 Technology Spotlight 48 WEF Announces Fifth Year of Storm System Award Winners 49 2019 WEF Fellows Named 52 Kim Kowalski to Lead FSAWWA in 2020 58 Register Now for the 2020 Florida Water Resources Conference Contests! 61 News Beat
Technical Articles 22 Disruptive Technology Supports Resiliency and Certifies Inflow and Infiltration Compliance—Michael Condran
30 ACE20: AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition 31 AWWA Water Equation 47 CEU Challenge 53 FWPCOA Online Training 59 TREEO Center Training 62 FWPCOA Training Calendar
Columns 16 26 50 51 52 60
C Factor—Mike Darrow FWEA Focus—Michael W. Sweeney Reader Profile—Lisa M. Wilson-Davis Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak FSAWWA Speaking Out—Michael F. Bailey Let’s Talk Safety: An Open and Shut Case (and the Ups and Downs) for Gate Valve Safety
Departments 63 Classifieds 66 Display Advertiser Index
and Charles Hansen
32 Is Your Wastewater Collection System Model Stressed—In a Good Way?—Leisha L. Pica, Katie Bolmer, and Michelle Collins
40 From Coast To Coast, What Florida’s Largest Utilities are Doing About Inflow and Infiltration—Robert Cadle, Richard Cummings, Laurie Perkins, Dennis Davis, and Steve Hallowell
54 Odor and Corrosion Mitigation Strategies for a Complex Large-Diameter Interceptor System—Richard J. Pope, Ryan McKenna, Neepa Shah, Philip Spitzer, Jenna Covington, and Scott Hoelzle
Education and Training 12 13 14 15 28 29
FWRC Exhibitor Information FWRC Exhibit Booth Layout FWRC Exhibitor Registration FWRC Attendee Registration AWWA Membership Recognition AWWA Membership
ON THE COVER: The City of Boynton Beach water tower is illuminated to commemorate holidays throughout the year. (photo: City of Boynton Beach)
Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.
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Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Using Sewer Inspection Data and Innovation to Successfully Implement Sewer Improvement Programs John Schroeder and Chris Collier Most sewer utility owners in the United States and across Florida are facing a very similar problem: how to efficiently assess, inspect, maintain, clean, rehabilitate, and replace their aging sanitary sewer systems. There are efficient ways and methodologies to creatively utilize sewer assessment data and tools, such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) video, pipeline assessment data libraries, query tools, spreadsheets, cost estimating, geographic information system (GIS) mapping, and criticality concepts, to develop sewer and manhole rehabilitation and cleaning programs that can efficiently be incorporated into internal work orders and annual capital programs. The goal is to educate utility workers on how to enhance and revamp their daily operations and capital improvement programs (CIPs) to efficiently solve sewer problems with the newest technologies and software.
Case Study A case study will present a variety of engineering asset management concepts, lessons learned, and guidance on how to efficiently develop sewer improvement programs to: S Maximize the capacity of sewers S Increase the lifespan of sewers S Reduce sewer overflows and risk of overflows S Prevent pipe collapses
S Reduce inflow and infiltration (I/I) to the treatment plant Many utilities across the U.S. are developing a set of sewer improvement programs that solve a series of problems, varying from structural issues, sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) reduction, basic operation and maintenance (O&M), I/I reduction, and potential reduction of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) capacity expansion. If a program has a combination of these issues, then the cost-benefit ratios (i.e., return on investments) can be even greater. A common problem, I/I impacts the majority of municipal wastewater collection systems. Excessive I/I reduces the capacity of the system and can impact operations downstream of lift stations and treatment facilities; therefore, reducing I/I is a goal of many municipalities. A CCTV inspection is a commonly used tool for inspection of gravity sewer systems to identify defects within the gravity sewer pipes that contribute to I/I issues. Translating the results of the CCTV inspection into a comprehensive plan for rehabilitation of a gravity sewer system can be a challenging proposition. Sewer rehabilitation encompasses a variety of approaches that can reduce I/I and improve system infrastructure. Trenchless sewer rehabilitation remains a cost-effective way to address structural pipe defects, prevent root intrusion, and reduce infiltration. Prior to the pilot study, the majority of completed sewer rehabilitation
Table 1. National Study Average Reduction Ranges
December 2019 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
has been cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) lining of sewer mains. In most cases, this approach can be implemented before the pipe becomes severely deteriorated, avoiding emergency digs, repairs, or segment replacements that carry greater financial construction costs and increased disruptions to the public. As a higher percentage of sewer mains are lined in a particular area, other sources of extraneous flows may become more apparent. Several studies in the U.S. have indicated that a general range of I/I can be removed by addressing each component of the system. This includes I/I reduction from mainline sewers, manholes, service lateral connections, service laterals, and private property sources, such as foundations drains and sump pumps. Some studies have found that lining the mainline does not always achieve a high percentage of I/I reduction by volume; however, most pipes that are targeted for CIPP have significant leaks due to joint deterioration or other structural defects. Lining these pipe segments will reduce flows, even though the flow may now enter through nonrehabilitated manholes, connections, and laterals. Table 1 lists the reduction ranges from the studies based on several different rehabilitation approaches. Based on general industry feedback, which is supported by the results of this study, the most successful I/I reduction projects have used a comprehensive approach to sewer system rehabilitation. While this study implemented each technique in a comprehensive manner, none of the areas implemented had a true comprehensive approach. Each individual source in each area should be prioritized to develop the most costeffective rehabilitation approach that reduces the maximum amount of extraneous flow. This type of approach would include both public sewer and private property I/I removal, employing the various technologies utilized in this study. This includes the most effective combination of sewer main CIPP lining, sewer main replacement, lateral CIPP lining, lateral replacement, manhole rehabilitation, manhole frame and cover replacement, and removal of private I/I sources. Many programs have used flow monitoring and hydrologic/hydraulic modeling to better understand the wet weather response of increased flows and overflows in the sewer system. Evaluating the hydrographs is often the only method used to understand I/I. Continued on page 6
Figure 1. Wet Weather Sewer Investigation Methodologies
Figure 2. Sewer Infiltration as Seen Through ClosedCircuit Television
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Continued from page 4 One of the key lessons learned is that each area is unique and all sources of extraneous flow should be investigated with sanitary sewer evaluation survey (SSES) field investigations and methodologies to establish the best possible rehabilitation approach in each area. The more investigation that’s done to fully understand how, when, where, why, and how much I/I is getting into the sanitary sewer system, the better the chance to remove the I/I with the right focus on the proper part of the system. Figure 1 is an illustration of the various locations where extraneous water can enter the sanitary sewer system and the options for investigation programs that could be implemented to determine these unknowns. When wet weather CCTV or dye testing is included as part of the infiltration into the sewer system, it’s often fully understood how and where the rainwater or groundwater is entering the sewer system. The group of photographs in Figure 2 shows some above ground dye testing that simulates significant rainfall, while simultaneously performing CCTV to see the water enter the pipeline. These essential data are critical in implementation of a I/I reduction program. Focusing rehabilitation efforts on sewer mains can be beneficial, but this approach is not always effective in reducing wet weather flow rates since water can still enter into the system through manholes, connections, laterals, removed cleanout caps, foundation drains, or sump pumps. In certain locations, it may be more beneficial to rehabilitate the entire manhole-to-manhole segment, including the manholes and laterals that connect to that segment. In other locations, it may be more beneficial to remove private I/I sources in conjunction with mainline sewer rehabilitation. In each area, thorough investigation and prioritization can play an important role in maximizing I/I reduction and minimizing the overall costs of the program. It’s also important to understand and evaluate the triple-bottom-line benefits of sewer rehabilitation programs. This means that pipeline, manhole, and lateral rehabilitation of aging sewer systems can have a wide range of benefits that far outweigh the costs of the program. The actual financial cost-benefits of these programs include such items as: S Reduced flows to convey and pump flows to the WWTP. S Reduced overflows in the system (regulatory fines, property damage, damage to ecosystems, closing of recreational areas and beaches). S Costs of developing an emergency response and cleanup program. S Increased excess capacity of the sewer system that allows additional customers (tap fees) to be added to the collection system in population growth areas. Continued on page 8
Continued from page 6 S Reduced costs of treating the rainwater/groundwater in terms of chemical, electrical, and staffing hours. S Reduced level of service and reduced confidence from the customers. S Reduced costs when compared with emergency repairs or replacement of sewers and laterals by open cut construction. If sewers are rehabilitated prior to needing a backhoe, the costs can be two to five times less than open cut. S Other miscellaneous items.
Efficient Closed-Circuit Television Data Collection, Management, and Program Implementation
Figure 3. Pipeline Assessment Data Flow
Figure 4. Robot Closed-Circuit Television Inspection
Table 2. Pipe Rehabilitation Selection and Prioritization
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The primary author of this paper is a master trainer with the National Association of Sewer Service Companies (NASSCO) and its Pipeline Assessment and Certification Program/Manhole Assessment and Certification Program/Lateral Assessment and Certification Program (PACP/MACP/LACP) and has been certifying users and trainers across the U.S. In addition, he has been using the data and helping sewer owners to implement programs with it. Efficient sewer asset management requires a flexible and efficient set of data, software tools, engineering, construction, and implementation of the sewer program. Figure 3 illustrates the flow of data and implementation for a typical sewer asset management program. After the data get imported into a single database and GIS interface, they allow the engineers to query the data, develop recommendations, and begin to prioritize solutions, which then get constructed. Table 2 provides some methodologies utilized on recent sewer improvement programs to show the steps involved with these types of successful programs.
Cocoa, Florida: A Case Study Success Story The City of Cocoa wastewater collection system serves a population of nearly 19,000 people within a 3,200-acre service area. The city’s sanitary sewer system includes approximately 70 miles (~372,000 feet) of gravity sewer pipe. The city’s gravity sewers have been in service for approximately 70 years, with the majority of the system constructed in the 1950s and ‘60s. The majority of the gravity sewer pipes are vitrified clay, which is prone to failure due to its fragile nature. Prior to 2016, the city lined approximately 4,500 feet per year, beginning in 2008. All lining projects were determined by internal staff based on personal knowledge of maintenance issues
and break history. In 2013, the city began planning for a comprehensive gravity sewer pipe assessment program, and chose the RedZone Robotics Inc. SOLO robot platform due to the maintenance of traffic (MOT) and time challenges present. The autonomous robot is quickly deployed into manholes (Figure 4) and takes automatous CCTV digital photos/video with front and rear high-definition digital images that allow the office technicians to code the sewers using PACP and import the data into a comprehensive ICOM3™ database that has GIS integration. Multiple robots can be deployed by one operator, and it’s not uncommon for the robotics team to gather 5,000 to 8,000 feet of CCTV data per day. Prior to beginning the comprehensive gravity system evaluation, the following objectives for the assessment were established by the city and the engineering consultants: S Complete a comprehensive assessment of the gravity sewer system. S Provide a baseline assessment of the current likelihood of failure (LOF) and consequence of failure (COF) for the gravity sewer system. S Identify specific pipelines and areas of the city that have a high concentration of root intrusion or grease buildup, requiring frequent cleaning. S Develop rehabilitation or replacement recommendations for individual gravity sewer pipelines. S Create rehabilitation and replacement project groupings to optimize constructability and maximize economies of scale. S Prioritize rehabilitation and replacement projects using similar criteria to that used in the city’s wastewater and reclaimed water capital plan. S Recommend a short-term implementation plan for the wastewater collection system based upon project prioritization and available funding. In fiscal year (FY) 2014, approximately 346,000 feet of the city’s gravity sewer main system was inspected using the chosen robot platform. Approximately 42,000 feet could not be inspected due to obstructions and/or broken pipe segments. A majority of the uninspected pipes were cleared by city staff and reinspected utilizing internal camera assets. Upon completion of the field assessment, engineering consultants spent FY 2015 analyzing data from 1,403 sewer segments and developing the six-year CIP that would provide the city with a “playbook” for rehabilitation/replacement and O&M projects beginning in FY 2016. All of the condition assessment data were collected according to NASSCO’s PACP database and integrated into the robotics ICOM3 GIS-based asset management platform.
Figure 5. Cured-In-Place Pipe Installation
Table 3. Sewer Rehabilitation and Cleaning Summary
Adhering to the pipeline selection criteria that were established prior to the assessment, project selection began in earnest. With over 5,500 observed defects, the city needed to not only identify if replacement, rehabilitation, or cleaning was required for each segment, but also to prioritize the necessary improvements and to create groupings of projects for inclusion within its CIP. Engineers performed a detailed engineering review of the PACP data and CCTV video with ICOM software, and then developed
a prioritized replacement and rehabilitation program around a previously established annual budget of $400,000. Improvements were prioritized based on the LOF and COF of the pipe. Factors, such as proximity to the Indian River Lagoon, roadway, or rail crossing; size of pipe; and estimated I/I based on a hydraulic modeling analysis, were used to quantify the COF and prioritize the improvements. The initial prioritization Continued on page 10
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Continued from page 9 was refined for the creation of structural repair/replacement and O&M projects based on the geographic factors and to maximize economies of scale. The initial estimated budget for rehabilitation/replacement was set at $2 million. At the completion of the sixyear plan in 2021, the city is expected to spend approximately $3.2 million to correct the issues found during the 2014 field assessment (CIPP lining, cleaning, and pipe replacement).
Due to this comprehensive assessment approach, the city has increased the lining projects from the pre-2016 quantity of 4,500 feet per year to approximately 10,000 feet of CIPP per year. In addition, approximately 76,300 feet of gravity sewer main have been cleaned and inspected. After each lining and cleaning project, postinspection CCTV video is submitted to the robot company for additional PACP coding ($6,000 to $10,000 per year based on footage quantity). This process ensures that the cityâ€™s gravity sewer mains are constantly in-
spected and coded for future rehabilitation/replacement planning purposes. Figure 5 shows installation photos of the CIPP lining process that illustrate the inversion, curing, and lateral reinstatement, and the finished inside view of the sewer. Table 3 summarizes the anticipated total expenditures and rehabilitation for the FY 2016-2021 program (including manhole assessment and ongoing CCTV PACP coding). Beginning in FY 2019, the city began the second phase of gravity sewer assessment, focusing on the 1,597 manholes in the system. Once again, the city used the robot platforms to perform the MACP inspections necessary to create the next five-year rehabilitation plan. This critical assessment data will be added to the existing ICOM3 database that is shared between the city and the consulting engineering group during the O&M plan development process. As a result of the ongoing assessment and repair/replacement process, the city recognized that it was necessary to staff an assessment/ cleaning team to ensure that the proper maintenance was being performed. While this team is able to perform reactive wastewater repairs, its primary mission is to be proactive and find issues before they become news events. Through the active use of the sewer line rapid assessment tool (SL-RAT) inspection system and camera truck, coupled with the use of ICOM3/infraMAP GIS data in the field, crews are able to stay on top of any potential issues underground. As issues are found, they are either corrected immediately or placed on a list for future CIPP rehabilitation or pipe replacement programs.
Conclusion The city, with the support of its council, management, utilities staff, engineering consultants, and service contractors, has been able to successfully implement a proactive gravity sewer assessment and rehabilitation program that has resulted in lower O&M and replacement costs, minimized SSOs, and added years of service to this critical infrastructure. Sewer asset management is a combination of hard work, innovation, dedication, ingenuity, engineering, construction, public service, and the desire to provide an infrastructure that meets the customersâ€™ needs. Utilities can, through observation, learning, and implementation, hopefully improve their assets for the next generation to appreciate. John Schroeder, P.E., BCEE, is associate vice president with Hazen and Sawyer in Tampa. Chris Collier is assistant utilities director with the City of Cocoa. S
December 2019 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
It’s All About Water—and You! Holly Hanson
Who Should Attend the 2020 Florida Water Resources Conference? S Academics: Communicate your research results and find out about what other research is being conducted in your area of interest. S Consultants: Demonstrate the power and dynamics in client work and see what others are doing. S Educators: Introduce your students to the water industry at all levels and let people know what you are doing to focus on the future of water. S Managers, Directors, and Policy Makers: Discover new technologies and directions for your utility/organization. S Practitioners: Show what is being done in your organization and learn what is happening elsewhere. S Public Officials and Regulatory Members: Meet water professionals able to provide comprehensive information on every aspect of water usage. S Students: Share your research, get feedback, and network with the professionals in your target industry.
Why Attend? S Network with hundreds of other consultants and professionals onsite. S Receive the latest updates on a range of topics, such as resilient solutions to maximize infrastructure investments and optimal use for reclaimed water, from industry leaders, researchers, and expert practitioners.
S Learn about the benefits of industry-leading products. S Meet sponsors and exhibitors and learn about their practical applications and technologies. S Enhance your knowledge on the latest work and research and how it could impact you. S Fine-tune your skill set and framework with hands-on workshops. S Earn educational credits at hot-topic technical sessions. S Present your research, project, or product and get feedback.
Why Exhibit? It’s One of the Best Opportunities to Reach Your Target Market With over 350 exhibitors presenting new products and technical processes, and occupying over 100,000 square feet of the Palm Beach County Convention Center, there are more opportunities here than ever. Whether you want to grow your market share, develop leads, connect with existing customers and prospects, or market-test your idea, you will find here. Be ready to be impressed with the latest and greatest from the best and brightest. Whatever your motivation or sales strategies, your bottom line will thank you for getting to the largest joint water/wastewater/stormwater event in the Southeast. It’s all here. The only thing missing is your registration.
The Numbers Do Not Lie As we return to West Palm Beach and the Palm Beach County Convention Center, our proximity to Miami-Dade and all the many municipalities and towns located in south Florida provide an excellent opportunity to reach those potential clients and workers who manage, design, and operate the water environment industry. There is access to over 122 technical papers being presented at sessions and workshops, and involvement in the Operations Challenge Competition, Top Ops Competition, and Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest. University
students can participate in the Student Design Competition and the Student Poster Competition. With the popular “Women of Water” forum, young professionals sessions and activities, and more—there is something for everyone at every level at the 2020 Florida Water Resources Conference. Register today!
What’s Included With Your Booth Purchase? S Exhibit space is a 10’ x 10’ unit that includes: - booth carpet - 6’ table - 3’ side drape dividers - 8’ back drape - 1 chair - trash bin S Single line of one exhibitor company identification sign S Up to 10 staff exhibit-hall-only registrations per booth S Company listing in the official FWRC program conference issue S Discounted booth cost for members of the American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, or Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association S Discounted advertising rates in the Florida Water Resources Journal conference issue S Acknowledgment on FWRC social media sites S Free access to technical sessions (but will not earn educational credits) S Complimentary drink tickets to the Sunday President’s Reception S Unlimited guest passes available online at http://fwrc.org/exhibitors/registration/guest -registration/ for customers and prospective clients S Complete email list of pre-FWRC 2020 conference attendees S 24-hour security
Where to Register for a Booth? For all of the information you need, go to www.fwrc.org. Now you know. Make good choices. See you there! Holly Hanson is executive director of the Florida Water Resources Conference. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
FWPCOA Year-End Review for 2019 Mike Darrow President, FWPCOA S ell, my term as the president of FWPCOA is nearly completed, and what a quick two years it’s been. My term is over at the end of this month. My thoughts for the direction of the association during my term were to bolster support to our instructors to serve our members’ training needs, and to try to increase some involvement from our membership at the regional level for events, meetings, and training. Supporting the membership (and membership support!) is so important to FWPCOA. Instructors are also very important to the association and its training program. We have been increasing our instructor base for more training opportunities for certifications and continuing education units (CEUs) for our members across the state. We are continuing to make improvements with new technology to help increase the efficiency of these types of programs. We like working on behalf of the operators, mechanics, coordinators, and technicians to move the profession forward, representing all of these groups across the state on technical, professional, and other important issues to further our industry. Volunteering your time and effort has really helped FWPCOA again this year, so thank you! Our passion for this industry never stops, as I see when I travel and look at water quality facilities, lift stations, backflow preventers, fire hydrants, meter services, and my favorite water storage tanks wherever I go. The board of directors and members of the operators association had a lot of help in moving the cart forward in 2019 because of the involvement of different committees and talented members who are working on behalf of the membership. I thank you all who work so hard and contribute to our success.
Highlights for the Association in 2019 Some highlights for this year of our members’ hard work include: S Development and approval by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Operator Certification program (FDEP OCP) for the Class B wastewater treatment operator license prerequisite course for the state exam by Scott Ruland! Wow, thank you! This class is now online, thanks to Tim McVeigh. The FWPCOA wastewater collection training manual is now completed—on time and under budget! Thanks to Jeff Elder, Rim Bishop, Walt Smyser, and David Pachucki! Great work! Successfully renewed the FDEP contract for being a CEU provider for the operator certification program. Thank you Rim and Shirley Reaves. The number of instructor participation and training courses given has increased. Thank you instructors! Currently in development is a FWPCOA utility maintenance training manual, using the model of the recently completed wastewater collection training manual. Thanks to Bob Case, Dave, Walt, and Tom King. The on-the-road utility maintenance III class has been a success and a big help to our members and our utilities. Thank you Shirley, Dave, Bob, and Tim! Contributed to the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) Operators Challenge event for water and wastewater at the Florida Water Resources Conference. Worked on a FWEA/FWPCOA maintenance certification initiative. New committee chairs were appointed this year: • Kevin Shropshire, Legislative and Rules Committee • Scott Anaheim, FlaWARN Steering Committee • Peter Selberg, Customer Relations Committee. Executed multi-year agreements with Indian River State College (IRSC) for FWPCOA short schools and supporting hotels, promoting long-term stability. Membership levels were maintained, with 5,275 members, which shows the strength of our training. Created and filled three honorary life member positions: • David Clayton (posthumously), Region 3 • Renee Moticker and Robert McColgan, Region 7 Presented two 50-year membership pins to: • Bobby Jones • Art Seay
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
S Pat Murphy, secretary-treasurer-elect, was elected as the latest operator inductee into the Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers! S Enhanced support for instructors, thus making more training available to members. Thank you again to all the instructors! S Hosted March and August short schools at IRSC in Ft. Pierce, with the great success of educating our members. S Hosted the FWPCOA annual awards banquet at the August short school in Ft. Pierce. Congrats to all the winners and thank you Renee! S Our fine FWPCOA webmaster, Walt Smyser, gave website training and implemented a website-based expense reporting module. He is using technology even better on the website for training registration, news, and events.
Committees The committees are where it all happens internally in the association and here are some updates on committees that I recently received. These dedicated professionals work hard on behalf of the membership to support their discipline or role in the organization. Their guidance and volunteering is so important to our success. Thank you all. Education Committee This committee does a great job under the leadership of Tom King. The committee's responsibility is to assure the quality of the FWPCOA training programs and instructors, and it supplies oversight and guidance to the training coordinator. The committee looks to develop new classes and update others, including using the California State University (CSU) manuals in some of the training. This year’s short schools each trained over 330 students in March and in August and they continue to get better in quality. Our instructors are wonderful! They are mostly working full-time jobs in their discipline at a utility and volunteer (on their time off!) to train folks for the state and regional training events. This is truly appreciated and admired by us all—thank you! Shirley Reaves, our training coordinator, has done a great job again this year and we hope to provide even more training in 2020. Thank you, Shirley, for your efforts and for coordinating a lot of the classes throughout the state.
System Operators Committee This committee continues to shine under the leadership of Ray Bordner. The committee set up and instructed multiple wastewater collection and water distribution classes at our state spring and fall short schools. We have conducted on-the-road classes (where training comes to your utility) and are looking forward to providing more of them in 2020. This year, there was an increase of weeklong classes given on the road in the system operator disciplines of Wastewater Collection A, B, and C, and Water Distribution 1, 2, and 3. Also added was the very popular Utilities Maintenance Level 3. Awards Committee The committee is a staple of our association, giving out multiple awards and recognition to our membership. Under the leadership of Renee Moticker the committee continues to do a great job researching and presenting awards, which are given out at the April Florida Water Resource Conference and in August at the FWPCOA awards luncheon. This year over 30 awards were given out to outstanding members—congrats to you all. Renee reminds you that the deadline is Dec. 31, 2019, for the scholarships to our schools for the 2020 training year. A region can submit two recipients for the scholarships, who must be members in good standing for at least a year. The regions select the award recipients, not the Awards Committee, so what are you waiting for!
Online Institute The Online Institute, under the direction of Tim McVeigh, has done a spectacular job of developing and managing this training online to anyone who wants knowledge or CEUs and has limited access to local training. Tim started this program a few years back, and now it has grown and continues to serve our membership 24/7. He’s looking for help in this process. This could be your chance to get involved, so if you’re interested, contact Tim at Prog-Admin@fwpcoa.org. New online courses have been developed for certification. Currently, there are 107 courses, including those that provide CEUs, and the following popular short courses: S Stormwater C, Wastewater Collection C, and Water Distribution Levels 2 and 3 S Drinking Water Treatment Plant Operator Class B and C S Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Class B and C for treatment plant operators S Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Class A and B exam review
C Factor Topics (2018-2019)
Check out www.fwpcoa.org for all of your training needs.
of this magazine sure did help me out on this! Thanks, Rick—you are the best!
Your New President
We are moving things forward nicely. Our board and committees have done a great job of developing new FWPCOA training manuals, which was brought about due the limited availability of training manuals from CSU. Our new manuals will be out soon for many subject areas and are geared to Florida issues and new and proven methods for our disciplines. The manuals will be a benefit to our members, with a new modern look and more-current information, and a cost savings for printing them ourselves (versus buying them from CSU). Your involvement in our improvements in FWPCOA is the key to our success! In my view, we still need to improve, at the regional level, the involvement of regional instructors in different disciplines, and local training opportunities in some regions. We still need regional members to get involved in any way they can, even if it’s just for social events. The goals we had originally set are still relevant looking forward to the future. The columns I wrote during my term mainly touch on some of these goals and the direction forward, and are shown in the graph above. I sure hope you enjoyed reading them. The fine editor
Kenneth Enlow from Region IV will take over the presidency of FWPCOA in January 2020. I know he will do a great job leading the membership forward. His talents are different than mine (which is a good thing!) and he will be sure to lead us to even more member involvement and success for our association.
My Thanks to You! It was a pleasure serving you and supporting our profession of operators. Your efforts to help volunteer and support us are tremendous. I want to thank the other associations that help us in our work: S Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) S Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) S Florida Rural Water Association (FRWA) S FDEP OCP S University of Florida Training, Research, and Education for Environmental Occupations (UF TREEO) S Public Reuse Commission (PRC) S Water Reuse Association Continued on page 18
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Continued from page 17 I also want to thank the vendors and sponsors for their support of FWPCOA and the regions by giving excellent information to the members. Your help is truly appreciated.
I want to thank the members in my own Region X for their support and help during my tenure as president. Thanks to each region’s board of directors for their input and guidance for direction, as well as the fine FWPCOA exec-
utive board leading the way to the future. A new addition to this board is Athena Tipaldos from Region XI, where her leadership will be a great contribution. Welcome! And lastly, my thanks goes to my employer, the City of Plant City, and all of the team there where operators, mechanics, technicians, and city support personnel daily exemplify what it means to be professionals. You have done well and helped greatly in carrying out our mission—it’s an honor to work with you all! You are real “silent sentinels” on guard 24/7, providing water and wastewater treatment and protecting public health and the environment! We work with Patrick Murphy (the new FWPCOA executive board vice president), who is our chief operator at Plant City and an American-Irish wastewater lad, whose passion never stops in providing operational excellence and high-quality effluent! Cheers, brother! I wish you all continued success, and also to your utility, company, or firm. Together, we can make a difference for our community, state, and industry. Merry Christmas and Happy Holidays to you all! May God bless you! See you on the water! S
Florida Rural Water Association Announces President’s Award Alicia Keeter, general manager of South Walton Utility Services Inc., was the recipient of the Florida Rural Water Association (FWRA) President’s Award during the annual Tribute to Excellence awards ceremony, held on Sept. 10, 2019, at the WaterPro Conference in Nashville. The award is presented to an individual or an organization that has gone “above and beyond” the normal scope of activities and support for rural water across the United States based on loyalty, dedication, and outstanding contributions to the rural water cause. In the wake of Hurricane Michael, Keeter went above and beyond to be the incident commander for Florida's Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWarn) and coordinated utility-to-utility response efforts in the Bay County/Panama City staging area and response center. Her efforts were incredible, untiring, and extremely effective in returning service to dozens of water utilities in the area and to hundreds of thousands of people. She marshalled and managed two dozen responding water utilities from Florida, surrounding state rural water associations, and other water utility responders, like the Florida regulatory and assistance agencies. Keeter oversaw hundreds of individual responders. According to FRWA, She epitomizes water utility leadership, stepping up to minimize suffering for the public from lack of water services and public health, fire, and environmental protection. Without her leadership and coordination many utilities would not have recovered as quickly. From 2001 to 2006 she was development superintendent of the St. Joe Company. She served as the project manager for South Walton Utility Inc. before becoming the general manager in January 2017. S
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Alicia Keeter (center) with Kent Watson (left), NRWA president, and Matt Holmes (right), NRWA deputy chief executive officer at the annual Tribute to Excellence awards ceremony. (photo: Florida Rural Water Association)
Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ December 2019
T E C H N O L O G Y
S P O T L I G H T
Natural Wonders and Manmade Marvels: Aquastore Glass-Fused-to-Steel Tanks Provide Unmatched Design-Build Flexibility Old Florida still exists in some places. Unspoiled beaches, wildlife preserves, and turquoise waters attract visitors to destinations like Manatee County (county) on the Gulf Coast. Situated about 45 miles southwest of Tampa, the area dials you back to a simpler time before highrise condos, superhighways, and mega theme parks. Towns like Anna Maria, Bradenton, Holmes Beach, Palmetto, and Longboat Key are long on charm and beauty. A lush environment like this requires water to thrive, and prudent management of that water is essential. The county takes its water management seriously, including the methods it uses to recycle wastewater for irrigation and other nonpotable uses. The county’s 5,300 reclaimed water customers include golf courses, parks and playgrounds, landscape areas, highway medians and rights of way, and farms; other uses include toilet flushing and fire protection. About 62 percent of the wastewater generated in the county is reused in the reclaimed water system. The county has three water reclamation facilities that can operate at a combined capacity of up to 33.5 million gallons per day. The reclaimed water distribution system consists of approximately 943,276 linear feet (179 miles) of county-owned transmission mains, two booster pump stations, and one repump station. A 30inch transmission main interconnects the county’s three service areas, with smaller distribution mains within the service areas. With so much riding on the performance of its water reclamation system, the county turned to proven providers like CST and Florida Aquastore for its liquid storage needs. The relationship dates back to 2007, when the county replaced an aging welded steel tank at its North County Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) with a glass-fused-to-steel Aquastore tank. That set a precedent for five additional tank purchases. “One of the main reasons Florida Aquastore won the original bid is that it was able to retrofit its tank to bolt onto our original concrete slab,” says Brent Laudicina, lead operator of North County WRF. “We were impressed with the company’s flexibility because it did exactly what we asked, instead of saying it can only do it one way.” At six million gallons, the county has the distinction of having the most Aquastore
storage in the entire state of Florida. The county’s first Aquastore measured 98 feet by 19 feet, with a capacity of 1 million gallons, and is used for sludge storage. In 2013 it replaced two more welded tanks with two Aquastore tanks— also for sludge storage—and ordered three more in 2017 for storage of influent (raw sewage) as part of an upgrade of the facility. “The consulting engineering firm KimleyHorn came to us and asked for a tank configuration that provided three million gallons of storage,” says Peter Boccagna, sales manager at Florida Aquastore for the state of Florida. “A tank of that capacity typically has a wide diameter, and there was a narrow footprint to work with, so it wouldn’t fit. After discussions with the engineers, they decided to put in three one-million-gallon equalization tanks in a tight alignment, and the result was a perfect fit.” As Boccagna knows, Aquastore tanks can be built in close proximity to each other; in fact, the three equalization tanks sit just five feet apart from one another. Unlike other liquid storage tanks, an Aquastore tank is built using a series of mechanical jacks that are safe and fast, and allows it to use a smaller footprint than traditional steel or concrete tank erection. The top ring of panels is assembled first, then lifted up to make room for the next ring, and so on. “It’s cool to watch them go up,” says Laudicina. “Those tanks went up in two weeks, tops. Construction was simple and there were very few—if any—special requests of us.”
Aquastore’s glass-fused-to-steel technology is the water and liquid storage leader, outperforming concrete, bolted steel, and elevated tanks. More than 100,000 tanks have been installed for numerous applications in over 70 countries around the world. It’s corrosion-resistant and built to withstand Florida’s hot sun, humidity, and salt air, and retains its brilliant luster for decades, which means it doesn’t have to be repainted. Life cycle costs are some of the lowest in the industry, with minimal maintenance required. Laudicina also quickly learned about the Aquastore’s adaptability when one of the tanks was recently pressed into service for alum storage. Alum is used in the processing of drinking water to promote coagulation of tiny particles, as well as remove color and improve turbidity. The spent alum from the county’s potable water facility contained dirt and debris that had to be isolated from the clean, drinkable water. “We had a lot of rain last winter and the drying beds were wet the whole time, which meant we ran out of storage capacity for the spent alum,” he says. “We called in tanker trucks and pumped the alum, hauled it to our plant, put it directly into one of the sludge holding tanks, pressed it, and then hauled it to a biosolids dryer facility.” As CST knows, a dependable tank is the anchor of every efficient liquid handling facility. That’s why Aquastore is the preferred choice for potable water storage and many other liquid applications. Aquastore proves its versatility every day, going the extra mile, like helping the county convert wastewater processing sludge into a Class AA biosolid, which it sells to local sod farms and orange groves for fertilizer. The county values its relationship with Florida Aquastore, which is the premiere tank supply and installation company throughout Florida, the Caribbean, and Latin America, with over 1500 installations in 32 countries. Florida Aquastore prides itself on being a liquid storage partner, not just a vendor. Just looking at the tanks every day reminds Laudicina that his employer made the right choice. “We can’t tell our oldest tank from the new ones,” he says. “They look amazing. The Aquastore has a more contemporary look that gives the plant an overall look of sophistication.” u
Technology Spotlight is a paid feature sponsored by the advertisement on the facing page. The Journal and its publisher do not endorse any product that appears in this column. If you would like to have your technology featured, contact Mike Delaney at 352-241-6006 or at firstname.lastname@example.org.
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ December 2019
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Disruptive Technology Supports Resiliency and Certifies Inflow and Infiltration Compliance Michael Condran and Charles Hansen oastal communities worldwide are facing documented sea level rise (SLR) as a threat to their critical infrastructure. According to Lindsey (2018), the measured mean sea level in 2017 had risen 3 in. from 1993, and marks the highest level since satellite data collection began in that year. In addition, 2017 was the seventh consecutive year of documented year-over-year increases in SLR, and the 22nd year of that past 24 years where sea levels were greater than the previous year. Hummel (2018) evaluated coastal wastewater infrastructure systems in the United States and concluded that proactive evaluation programs are an important first step in preparing for anticipated SLR conditions through the 21st century; with existing models predicting SLR to range from 0.66 to 6.6 ft by 2100 (Melillo, 2014). With the changing climate, impacts to coastal communities will continue to challenge infrastructure operation and maintenance. Coupled with aging wastewater collection systems, the future conditions represent a significant challenge for utility owners, especially where inflow and infiltration (I/I) is reducing the available treatment capacity and unnecessarily increasing electrical demands, chemical usage, and labor costs. Coastal communities are already being affected by the global SLR phenomena, and those in the state of Florida are especially vulnerable. The Florida counties of Miami-Dade and Broward each have greater populations that reside on land below 4 ft relative to mean sea level than any U.S. state, except Florida itself, and the state of Louisiana (Climate Central, 2018). The latest “State of the Water Industry Report” (American Water Works Association, 2018) lists the most significant water industry concerns as aging infrastructure renewal/replacement and capital financing for the fourth straight year. This means utility owners must ensure that capital expenditures are prioritized in the most efficient manner. The use of cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) and other trenchless lining solutions have been used for nearly 50 years. Despite the requirement to submit sample pieces of liners or
coupons that contractors are often required to submit with final closed-circuit television (CCTV) videos, many CIPP lining projects are not providing anticipated I/I reductions following rehabilitation. For over three decades, municipal utilities have relied on CCTV to inspect and certify pipeline water tightness, following rehabilitation and new installation projects, prior to acceptance and warranty expiration. Numerous recent case studies from across the U.S. have documented significant defects from CIPP and similar rehabilitation techniques that had been previously certified as watertight by CCTV inspection, resulting in excessive I/I and its negative consequences. An innovative technology known as focused electrode leak location (FELL) has emerged that automatically locates and measures defects with precision, quantifying defects that are routinely missed by legacy CCTV inspections. There is no operator interpretation of FELL results, thus delivering an unbiased inspection to utility owners. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted field benchmarking studies of FELL, and since 2014 has included the technology in consent decrees across the U.S. to verify I/I compliance. High groundwater conditions, common across much of Florida, make effective, watertight pipeline rehabilitation more challenging, and proper procedures need to be taken to mitigate quality control concerns in the groundwater conditions that adversely affect liner installations. Unfortunately, if appropriate quality control procedures are not taken, or left to a contractor’s discretion, the useful service life and/or water tightness of rehabilitated pipelines can be significantly reduced. It has been well-documented that pipeline defects occur from resin wash out, emulsification, or improper or uneven curing, and are much more prominent in CIPP installations where elevated groundwater levels exist. Recent studies have shown that most defects are nearly impossible to identify using visual technologies, like CCTV alone. Applying FELL technology offers utility owners the ability to precisely locate pipeline defects to
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Michael Condran, P.E., is vice president— southeast region, with Electro Scan Inc. in Tampa. Charles Hansen, MBA, is chairman and founder of Electro Scan Inc. in Sacramento, Calif.
within 3/8 in., and then quantify the defect infiltration flow rate, measured in customary units of gallons per minute (gpm). Other common construction defects result from poor wet-out, accelerant burn, accidental cutting, incorrect service reconnections, blistering, defective epoxy, delamination, fins and folds, pinholes, defective top-hats, and wrinkles. These common defects are often missed by even the most experienced and certified CCTV operator. While CCTV is an important tool to document structural and operational items, visual inspection is not sufficient to document pipeline defects, particularly with difficult-tosee porosity in liner systems, often caused by external hydraulic pressure from elevated groundwater conditions. This issue led academic researchers, consulting engineers, and utility managers to seek a new way to certify the water tightness of new and rehabilitated pipes.
Trenchless Technology Development The CIPP technology was developed in 1971 in London, England, by Eric Wood. He invented this pipe rehabilitation method to repair a leaking pipe under his garage. He initially named the process in situ form, derived from the Latin meaning “form in place.” In January 1975, Wood applied for a patent for CIPP lining that was granted in February 1977. Insituform Technologies later commercialized the patent and brought the technology to the U.S. shortly thereafter. Since its inception, CIPP has been widely adopted due to its ease of installation and low cost, compared to dig and replace. The CIPP can be used to rehabilitate san-
itary sewers, storm drains, and pressurized water and gas pipelines. Circular pipe, from 4 to 60 in., and a variety of noncircular pipes, such as egg shapes, ovoids, and box culverts, can be lined. Lining removes the pipe from service for the duration of the CIPP installation and reinstatement process, with bypass pumping sometimes necessary. Prior to lining, the pipe must be cleaned by jetting to remove corrosion and debris. Protruding lateral connections must also be removed, with some repairs required where the existing pipe is substantially deformed, damaged, or collapsed. After lining, each service connection or lateral must be reinstated before the pipe can be returned to service, usually within the same day. Lined water mains must also be disinfected before returning to full service. The CIPP liners of nonwoven polyester felt or fiber reinforced fabric are manufactured to fit each host pipe. Liners are typically impregnated with a polymer resin, which creates a lined pipe within the host pipe when cured or cooked. Liners are designed with sufficient thickness when cured to sustain the loads imposed by external groundwater and internal service pressure, soil, and overhead traffic. Liners are typically saturated with polyester, vinyl ester epoxy, or silicate resin using vacuum, gravity, or other applied pressure. The resin includes a chemical catalyst or other hardener to facilitate curing. The outermost layer of the liner tube is typically coated with a polymer film to protect the liner during handling and installation, with impregnated liner typically chilled for transportation to the jobsite to maintain stability until installed. In the mid-1990s, patents for CIPP expired, opening up competition from foreign and domestic suppliers. As the number of lining companies grew, the overall cost for CIPP declined. As municipal contracts continued to be awarded to the lowest bidder, requiring only visual inspection to accept a contractor’s work, post-CIPP inspection, prior to contractor acceptance, has never been more important. The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) has established several standards pertaining to CIPP installation, summarized in Table 1.
tems, Seventh Edition, Volume 2, its primary author, Ken Kerri, Ph.D., P.E., of Sacramento State University, began documenting that pipeline rehabilitation projects using CIPP were not achieving the expected I/I reductions at utilities around the U.S. Since all postrehabilitation inspections were being performed using CCTV, and in preparation for the update to Volume 1 of his manual, Dr. Kerri sought out other technologies that may be applicable to inspect CIPP installations. Specifically, Dr. Kerri identified and evaluated FELL technology as part of the work to update the Volume 1 manual. In 2011, EPA published “Field Demonstration of Condition Assessment Technologies for Wastewater Collection Systems” (Figure 3) where it benchmarked several new technologies, including early versions of FELL. Conducted in Kansas City, Mo., the study verified the use and advantages of FELL technology to consistently find defects missed by CCTV inspection. In 2012, EPA published “A Retrospective Evaluation of Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) Used in Municipal Gravity Sewers” (Figures 2, 4, and 5). As part of the study, independent testing of CIPP was conducted in both large- and smalldiameter sewers in two cities: Denver and Columbus, Ohio. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the originally expected lifespan of CIPP (typically assumed to be 50 years) was reasonable, based on the current condition of the liners. Despite the large public investment in CIPP, prior to this study, there had been little quantitative analysis to confirm if structural or operating performance was as expected. Field samples were retrieved from CIPP linings, along with specific measurements and tests taken to measure liner thickness, annular gap, ovality, density, gravity, porosity, flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile strength, tensile modulus, surface hardness, glass transition temperature, and Raman spectroscopy. The report utilized a variety of ap-
proaches to evaluate the state of deterioration of previously installed CIPP liners; however, prior to this study, researchers were able to only find scattered efforts that thoroughly evaluated the long-term performance of rehabilitated sewer sections. Typically, rehabilitated sections of collection systems were evaluated using only visual inspection or CCTV inspection before, and immediately following, the lining of a pipe. After CIPP lining, pipes were often moved to the lowest priority level for ongoing inspection, assuming that CIPP liners were near-new in quality. In general, research staff noted several advantages and disadvantages of CCTV inspection, including: Advantages of CCTV Inspection S Relatively low cost S Familiar to agencies S Can uncover other operating problems (potential blockages) S Can provide broad coverage of relined sections within an agency leading to statistically meaningful results Disadvantages of CCTV Inspection S Can only identify deterioration or defects that are easily identified visually S Liner distortion difficult to identify S Not possible to evaluate intermediate stages of deterioration The EPA study also tested several CIPP liners that represented a relatively new, fiveyear-old CIPP liner installed in an 8-in. clay pipe. Given the recent installation, consultants were able to compare test results from the quality assurance (QA) sample retained immediately following the installation five years earlier. Results were compared to current test results, both in accordance with ASTM D638 and ASTM D790. It should be noted that many municipalContinued on page 24
Table 1. Key American Society of Testing and Materials Standards Covering Cured-in-Place Pipe Installations
Initial Focused Electrode Leak Location Evaluations Following the 2010 release of Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Collection SysFlorida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Continued from page 23 ities take QA samples or coupons for either laboratory testing or possible warranty claims, but no actual testing had been done on the pipes after CIPP samples had been taken five years earlier. Significant differences were found: testing of the QA coupon from the 8in. Columbus CIPP liner performed immediately following the installation showed a finished thickness of 7.5 millimeter (mm), but, in contrast, the EPA-funded study showed an average measured liner thickness of 5.72 mm and a design value of 6 mm. One possible explanation for the difference between the two measurements was that the original QA coupon was taken at the upstream end of the CIPP liner, while the recently exhumed coupon came from the downstream end of the lined pipe. A relatively steep slope (i.e., approximately 8 percent pipe gradient) was also found, which could have resulted in stretching the liner, causing a subsequent thinning of the pipe wall. Another potential explanation is that QA samples are typically prepared by curing an extension of the liner within the manhole. Since this practice does not have the same installation and curing conditions within the sewer line itself, the study concluded that such samples generally will have higher test results than coupons cut from within a sewer.
Cured-in-Place Pipe Liner Inspection Improvements While the EPA study on CIPP concluded that there was “no reason to anticipate that tested liner samples would not last for their intended lifetime of 50 years (and perhaps beyond),” the study did not address or attempt to quantify the severe degradation in operat-
ing performance of the postrehabilitation pipe where break-ins, root intrusions, and other failures were found. Also, shortfalls in CIPP liner wall thickness measured for most of the liners, coupled with the differences in results from QA coupons taken within a manhole, pointed to the need to develop better nondestructive tests for assessing the acceptability of newly installed CIPP liners, and then tracking their deterioration over time. Researchers were disappointed to find that commercially available ultrasonic thickness gauges did not work adequately on field CIPP samples, even though they gave good results on laboratory-prepared samples with moderate thickness. The report went on to describe issues encountered with the use of ultrasonic thickness probes used on field samples. The inability of commercially available tools to measure the thickness of large-diameter CIPP liners from the inner surface only (an important QA issue because large diameters are prone to thickness variation around the circumference) is a clear call for the need to develop new technologies to accomplish this task in a cost-effective and reliable manner. It was also noted that significant differences existed in data reported from QA and quality control (QC) testing at the time of installation when compared with data from tests conducted by different laboratories. This suggested that more attention needed to be done on documenting and reducing the variability of test results derived from coupon recovery procedures and comparing test results from different laboratories. Finally, the report stated that “while liner cross sections should continue to be labora-
tory-certified, long-term operating performance of CIPP may not be assured, especially if proper installation and inspection protocols are not satisfied.”
New Nondestructive Testing Methods The FELL technology was first offered as a commercial service in 2012 for gravity pipes up to 8 in. in diameter. In 2013 the technology was further developed to retrofit existing CCTV trucks, with the ability to inspect pipes up to 66 in. in diameter. The FELL technology provides an automatic and unbiased identification of pipeline defects where water can pass through the wall of a nonmetallic or coated metallic pipe. The technology principle is that if pipe wall defects exist that allow an electric current to pass through, then the pipe will leak water. Using a focused alternate current (AC) band, each pipe wall defect is located, quantified, and tabulated in real time and presented in a summary report for each individual defect in a pipe segment. The FELL technology can be used in five important ways: 1. Establish baseline defect flow conditions to prioritize a rehabilitation program. 2. Overcome shortcomings of visual observations and cataloging defects using CCTV cameras. 3. Quantify specific flow reductions from repairs, relining, and renewal projects by testing lines before and after rehabilitation. 4. Establish minimum allowable standards for defect flows. 5. Certify that postrehabilitated repairs, relining, and renewal of pipes conform to the owner’s contract specifications. Figure 1 depicts a schematic cross section of the FELL process.
Publication of ASTM F2550-13 and ASTM F2550-18
Figure 1. Schematic of a Simplified Electrical Scanning Circuit in a Nonconductive Pipe
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
In 2013, ASTM International ratified and published ASTM F2550-13, Standard Practice for Locating Leaks in Sewer Pipes by Measuring the Variation of Electric Current Flow Through the Pipe Wall (Figures 8, 9, and 10). Managed by ASTM Committee F36, ASTM F2550-13 had been previously issued in 2006 as ASTM F2550-06. Building on its earlier scope, terminology, significance, use, principle of operation, apparatus, field procedures, and reporting, the 2013 version was modified to state the following: “It is recommended that separate scan-
ning tests be taken before and after any pipe repair, relining, or renewal activity to compare electrode current values, and for closed-circuit television (CCTV) video to re-examine pipes to determine if any visual defects were missed or not recorded during initial examination.” The 2013 version of ASTM F2550 was again ratified with no other modifications in 2018 for its application as the standard for FELL pipeline inspection through 2026.
Table 2. Recent Florida Focused Electrode Leak Location Field Demonstrations
Florida Case Studies Summary During 2018 and 2019, several FELL field demonstration inspections were performed for large and small Florida utilities in the gravity collection systems. Table 2 lists relevant data collected during 10, one-day field pilot demonstrations. The pipe segments selected by the individual owners to reflect a small portion of the collection system they wished to inspect relating to how CIPP installations compared to unlined host pipe. In all cases, the unlined segments were vitrified clay pipe (VCP), and ranged from 50 to 60 years in age. The field demonstrations were performed to show utility operators and their consulting engineers how the FELL data acquisition process is conducted. Results were presented immediately following each individual pipe segment scanned. Following field work, FELL results were compared to CCTV inspection videos, where available. In every case where FELL found defects in CIPP liners, the companion CCTV results log indicated that no defects contributing to infiltration. In one case, the CIPP inspection showed a water-tight installation. The majority of CIPP defects identified were related to poor lateral reinstatements, and less so due to liner tears, wrinkles, or fins. In most cases, CIPP liners showed numerous very small defects, though less than the ASTM level relating to “small defects.” These small defects are characterized as “pinhole” leaks and are not included in the total defect flow rate reported by FELL. The follow-up scanning work with other U.S. utilities over the previous six years has shown that pinhole leaks identified in an original FELL inspection degrade over time, often resulting in measurable defect flows, as defined by ASTM F2550. In several cases, inspections of 50- to 60year-old VCP showed nearly water-tight conditions or very low infiltration flow rate potential. These data were used immediately by the utilities to avoid planned CIPP rehabilitation, where previous intentions were to line the pipe due to its age. In this way, capital re-
sources can be optimized to avoid rehabilitating pipes that do not require attention at this time.
Lessons Learned Results of FELL pipeline inspections across the U.S. over the past six years, and shown recently in 10 field demonstrations in Florida in 2018 and 2019, provide the following lessons learned: 1. The CCTV inspection has inherent disadvantages where it cannot reliably or consistently detect lining defects, quantify openings to ground, or assess service reinstatements. Defects in CIPP often do not become visible on camera until a few seasons later, often after the warranty period has expired. 2. The CIPP lining of sewer mains does not always reduce defect flows. Post-CIPP defect flows may be higher after lining than before, as remote tap cutters may accidentally create collateral openings to the soil. 3. To better manage capital expenditures, lateral connection liners should be a postCIPP decision, not an across-the-board pre-CIPP specification requirement. 4. Since FELL inspection provides a highly precise location and flow quantification for each defect, post-CIPP CCTV should be done after FELL, with cameras stopping at each defect location identified by FELL to pan, tilt, and zoom accordingly. Otherwise, CCTV will likely pass by or miss the defect. 5. Utilities should not just measure success on a top-down basis to see area reductions in defect flow; rather, they should assess contractor performance on a pipe-by-pipe basis. 6. Lateral connection liners should only be recommended for those services that have unacceptable levels of defect flow. 7. Future wastewater rehabilitation specifications should consider: 1) a contractor per-
formance bonus for every service connection that registers zero defect flow, 2) a requirement to joint-grout all service connections where defect flows are found by FELL, and 3) requiring the installation of a lateral connection liner at the cost to the contractor, where all services show post-CIPP defect flows greater than preCIPP levels.
References • Melillo, J.M., Richmond, T.C., and Yohe, G.W., Eds. (2014), “Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment.” U.S. Global Change Research Program, 841 pp., doi:10.7930/J0Z31WJ2. • Hummel, M. A., Berry, M. S., and Stacey, M. T. (2018). “Sea Level Rise Impacts on Wastewater Treatment Systems Along the U.S. Coasts.” Earth’s Future, 6, 622–633. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017EF000805. • Linsey, Rebecca, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “Climate Change: Global Sea Level.” Aug. 1, 2018. • American Water Works Association, “State of the Water Industry Report,” 2018. Denver, Colo. • United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Field Demonstration of Condition Assessment Technologies for Wastewater Collection Systems.” July 2011. • United States Environmental Protection Agency. “A Retrospective Evaluation of Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) Used in Municipal Gravity Sewers.” January 2012. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
From Social Media to Utility Media Michael W. Sweeney, Ph.D. President, FWEA nce upon a time, not so long ago, water utilities were invisible entities pretty good at staying out of sight from customers and the media. They were quietly and stealthily keeping the “business” moving in the right direction to and from homes and businesses and providing service 24/7/365. The closest they got to customers was when they paid their bills at the counter, or receiving a complaint call when a problem occurred. This was the “old normal.” By today’s standards, and compared to other multibillion dollar industries, water utilities had a limited interest in developing strong connections with customers. Some exceptions may have occurred when it was time to raise the rates or in exercising eminent domain, but It was a de facto sign of success when they didn’t hear from anybody. Silence was acceptable. As we now know well, that all has changed dramatically. Customer connection opportunities now abound in unprecedented ways. The high-tech revolution begot home computers, which miniaturized into cell phones, that all connected to the ubiquitous internet. Suddenly, putting the letter “e” or an “i” in front of familiar words meant something special was possible. People gradually turned into videographers capable of airing stories live in ways that could engross us or gross us out, infuriate us, or create viral content—good or bad—very rapidly. Precipitously, well-meaning souls are chased by trolls. Friends, like it or not, this is social media and it has immense powers of persuasion and/or the
ability to affect behavior due to its expansive reach, ease of use, and ever-present access. Social media has moved from a best practice to an essential customer communication tool.
How Big Has Social Media Become? A recent Water Research Foundation project* states that almost two-thirds, or 65 percent, of American adults use social networking sites, and only 13 percent of American adults are not using the internet. Facebook dominates: 79 percent of online adults use it. For smaller utilities, rural residents are just as likely to use Facebook as urban residents. Age is no longer a barrier to social media use; 62 percent of online adults 65 and older use Facebook. Lastly (drum roll please!), 3.2 billion people use social media, and its growth and reliance has not yet peaked.
How Can Water Utilities Adopt or Improve Social Media Practices?
First and foremost, at the center of attention is the customer, and we must understand their interests and what they need and want to know on an ongoing basis. The purveyors of utility information must put themselves in the mindset of customers to determine what content is important and what they value. Consider incorporating any of these contentrelated practices that you may find useful, whether you are just getting started or have been posting for a while: 1. Create a social media calendar that covers your activities, with a mind to the time of year. A calendar helps plan and keep the content relevant. 2. Determine posting frequency, which can vary. Once a day may be too near the frequent end of
the spectrum (unless an event of interest needs updating); once per week is probably at the farther end of the range. Use interesting photos, infographics, and video clips where possible. Keep video clips brief (10 to 20 seconds max) and use captions. Always include your company logo. Get information out in a timely manner when it involves a utility-related problem, and keep it up to date. Monitor what others are saying about your utility. Answer questions as soon as possible to avoid a trend resulting from incorrect interpretations or assumptions. Clarify information if it can help inform a conversation or if it looks like a trend is starting due to the insertion of wrong information. Use engagement management tools that continuously monitor comments and mentions directed at your utility. Develop content that is not too technical and not condescending.
Customer Expectations and Comments Utilities are reporting worthwhile results using social media outlets. From case studies, social media updates customers about service interruptions, boil water advisories, evacuation and shelter information, road or lane closures, and major or neighborhood project updates. Some utilities use social media monitoring to track what the community is feeling and saying and steering their content appropriately. In surveys, utility customers use language like this to describe what they want from their utility on social media: S "I think that public officials should utilize social media during a crisis and provide as much information to the public as possible." S "I believe there is a need for social media to be used effectively in crisis situations." S "I would definitely appreciate real-time updates on things that affect me, especially when there is a crisis."* Remember, using social media proactively and honestly keeps our customers informed and helps further the understanding of the true value of water and the activities we engage in to meet their expectations. * Water Research Foundation, “Effective Use of Social Media for Water Utilities,” Project #4638, 2017. S
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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Is Your Wastewater Collection System Model Stressed—In a Good Way? Leisha L. Pica, Katie Bolmer, and Michelle Collins Leisha L. Pica, P.E., is a program manager and Michelle Collins, P.E., is a project engineer with Jacobs Engineering Group in Tampa. Katie Bolmer, P.E., is a project manager with Jacobs Engineering Group in Cincinnati.
Figure 1. City’s Consent Order Mandates Related to Wastewater Collection System Hydraulic Model
Figure 2. Eight-Step Stress Test Methodology
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
n 2015 and 2016 the City of St. Petersburg (city) experienced extreme rain events that resulted in unauthorized discharges due to capacity limitations in the sewer collection system, water reclamation facility effluent filters, injection wells, and impacts from inflow and infiltration (I/I). Because of the 2015 wet weather overflow events, the city engaged a team of professional engineers to perform an evaluation of its wastewater collection system and water reclamation facilities to identify the most cost-effective solution to mitigate potential similar overflows during future storm events. The city advanced a two-phase approach for development of a Wet Weather Overflow Mitigation Program (WWOMP). During Phase 1 of WWOMP, the team performed an assessment of the city’s wastewater collection system hydraulic model. Phase 1 determined that the city’s model was up to date relative to software and collection system components; however, the model needed to be modified to respond to rainfall inputs and recalibrated so that it could be a more useful tool in assessing I/I and capacity issues within the system. In addition to the recommendations related to the model, the near-term recommendations from Phase 1 included: S Construct additional injection well capacity S Perform I/I field reconnaissance during wet weather S Expand implementation of manhole inserts and plugs S Perform public outreach to target private sources of I/I S Facilitate local plumbing workshops to discuss practices that impact I/I
As Phase 1 was completed, the city entered into a consent order to mitigate overflows and develop a long-term strategy for improving its wastewater collection system. During Phase 2, the team conducted an engineering study geared toward collecting data and improving evaluation tools to more cost-effectively target and mitigate the primary sources of I/I. The data were collected to update the model calibration and validation, characterize I/I sources, and develop stress test scenarios under wet weather simulations to identify areas vulnerable to potential system surcharging and/or overflows. The
Phase 2 components are shown with their corresponding consent order mandates in Figure 1. This article presents a step-by-step process to successfully evaluate rainfall impacts on a coastal community's wastewater collection system. Under this process, the collection system response to a variety of wet weather conditions was evaluated to identify where the collection system is vulnerable to capacity issues, under what conditions those issues may occur, and the cost to mitigate the mostextreme wet weather conditions. The results of this work will be incorporated into the city’s Integrated Water Resources Master Plan (IWRMP). Figure 3. Rainfall Measurements
Approach With the completion of the calibration and validation of the collection system model, the city had a tool with which to analyze the collection system for its response to a variety of rainfall events and to perform conceptual planning of system improvements. To understand where the collection system experiences capacity issues, such as surcharging sewers, bottlenecks, and/or overflowing manholes, a stress test was performed for the collection system using the updated model. A stress test is a model simulation exercise intended to use a set of hypothetical conditions and assumptions that create challenging conditions across the entire collection system. In addition to evaluating the system response to current conditions, the stress test was also used to evaluate the effect of future conditions, including future population projections and the stressor of climate-adjusted rainfall.
Methodology The stress test was performed using the following general methodology: S Define the existing and future conditions model scenarios for which the stress test is to be run. Model scenarios include definition of the rainfall amount, distribution, and planning horizon. S Gather data and perform analyses to support development of the identified model scenarios. S Build and run the stress test model scenarios and report the results. S Use the results of the stress test, along with data and the results of previous WWOMP analyses (as appropriate) to provide a ranking of the capacity issues within the collection system. The eight-step process used for performing a stress test of the city’s wastewater collection system is presented in Figure 2. Step 1: Create Rainfall Simulation A synthetic rainfall event was developed using data and information collected during the 2016 Tropical Storm Hermine. The storm’s total
Figure 4. Impact of Saturated Ground Conditions
rainfall varied significantly across the sewershed (as shown in Figure 3); therefore, using the actual rainfall would result in an uneven stress application across the collection system. Rainfall always varies spatially event by event, and there is no established pattern for what areas of the system get more rainfall than others. To address this situation, a synthetic rainfall event was developed using the storm and rain
gauge RG 2 as a basis to stress the system evenly. As shown in Figure 3, RG 2 received the most rainfall during the storm’s most intense 24 hours on Aug. 31, 2016, and therefore represents the most extreme condition for rainfall. The rainfall time series at RG 2 for this 24-hour period was used to establish the stress test rainfall distribution. The distribution was then scaled to various Continued on page 34
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Continued from page 33 total rainfall amounts to evaluate the collection system response to a range of rainfall amounts.
Figure 5. Definition of System Capacity Issues
Figure 6. Comparison of Surcharged and Overflow Conditions for 3-in. and 7-in. Rainfall Events
Table 1. Overview of Model Capacity Issues for 3-in. Rainfall Event
Step 2: Input Saturated Ground Conditions Into Model There are essentially two seasons in Florida: the dry season (December-June) and the wet season (July-November). During the dry season, soils are significantly less saturated than during the wet season. It takes a lot of rainfall to get a response in the collection system, so it was important to run the stress test with saturated ground conditions. This was important because starting the stress test with the ground conditions experienced in May would have resulted in much of the applied rainfall remaining in the ground, and thereby not affecting the collection system. This would not represent a “stressed” condition for the collection system. This difference is illustrated in Figure 4. In Figure 4, the orange upper portion of the chart represents base wastewater flow (BWF), which is the flow discharged by users into the sanitary sewer system. As shown in the figure, the BWF tends to be consistent. The blue lower portion of the figure represents groundwater infiltration (GWI), which represents the flow of groundwater that enters the collection system through leaking pipes, pipe joints, and manhole walls. Running the stress test with wet ground conditions, following several days of rain, caused the voids in the soil to already be filled with water. This situation impacts the collection system as the rain is seeking a place—whether inside the collection system or flooding above ground. This step ensured that the more conservative approach was taken with the model simulation. The stress test rainfall events were evenly applied across the collection system with completely saturated ground conditions. Step 3: Apply Simulation Across the Service Area The third step was comprised of completing the modeling exercise using the inputs established from Steps 1 and 2. Rainfall depth was the only assumption that was varied with the stress test. The results of the model run were evaluated under Step 4. Step 4: Evaluate Impacts of Varying Rainfall Depths on Collection System Varying rainfall depths were selected with which to evaluate the system response. The team desired to incrementally stress the collection system to develop a knee-of-the-curve analysis for assessing the collection system’s response to rainfall depth. The following incremental rainfall depths were evaluated: Continued on page 36
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Continued from page 34 S 7-in. rainfall depth was the average depth that fell across the system during the most intense 24 hours of Tropical Storm Hermine. S 5-in. and 3-in. rainfall depths were selected to compare smaller events with the 7-in. event. S 2-in. and 4-in. rainfall depths were selected to determine incremental stress. Step 5: Identify Areas With Capacity Issues Sanitary sewers are designed to flow less than full. The stress test determined areas where capacity issues were most likely to occur in the system. The capacity issues identified from the model simulation were the starting points for further investigation. The two primary capacity issues noted from the stress test were: 1) surcharging sewers that receive more flow than the pipes can carry but not so much flow as to spurt out of manholes, and 2) locations where the sys-
tem is overwhelmed to the degree that manholes are overflowing. The criteria for defining surcharging sewers was flow within 2 ft of ground surface (refer to Figure 5). It’s noted that there were several other sewers surcharged with the flow level above the crown of the pipe. It was determined that those conditions were not sufficiently surcharged to meet the stress test criteria. While the metersheds that contain the model-predicted flooding manholes help to direct the city to areas of interest, the cause of the capacity issue(s) resulting in the flooding manholes may not be contained within these metersheds. The metersheds downstream of the flooding manholes may contain bottlenecks, such as an undersized sewer or lift station, that cause backup in the upstream system. Conversely, an upstream metershed may contribute significant I/I to the collection system, resulting
Table 2. Overview of Model Capacity Issues for 7-in. Rainfall Event
Table 3. Overview of Model Capacity Issues for Rainfall Events
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
in a flooding manhole in a downstream metershed. Each area containing flooding manholes must be evaluated and the cause of the flooding manhole diagnosed before action can be taken to mitigate the capacity issue. Figure 6 visually compares the results of the 3-in. and 7-in. rainfall events. The red dots shown in the figure indicate overflowing manholes and the blue lines represent highly surcharged sewers. Additional information is presented in Tables 1 and 2 for these rainfall events for comparison purposes at the city’s Northeast Water Reclamation Facility (NEWRF), Northwest WRF (NWWRF), and Southwest WRF (SWWRF). The results of the model stress test indicated that the total number of overflowing manholes and mi of surcharging sewer nearly doubles for each rainfall variation (3-in., 4-in., 5-in., and 7in.). A summary of the systemwide impacts for each rainfall event is presented in Table 3. Step 6: Prioritize Capacity Issues As the city’s IWRMP is developed, each area of the collection system exhibiting manhole overflows and excessive sewer surcharge in response to wet weather was evaluated to determine the most cost-effective combination of I/I reduction and capacity improvements. Given the level of needed capacity improvements, combined with other utility infrastructure improvements, the city needed a strategy to prioritize the collection system issues. Early in the WWOMP, the collection system metersheds were initially ranked by the I/I characterization performed on the metered flow data. Under the I/I characterization, observed flow data were disaggregated into individual components: GWI, base sanitary flow, and rainfall-derived I/I (RDII). At the conclusion of this effort, the basins were ranked by their maximum GWI and/or RDII. While this approach was useful in identifying the leakiest areas within the sewer system, flow analysis alone cannot account for the system capacity limitations and secondary flow paths. The stress test performed using the calibrated and validated collection system model incorporates both the calibrated I/I parameters, and the hydraulic pathways and restrictions in the system, into each scenario model run. To comply with the requirements of the city’s consent order, a ranking of basins was developed from the results of the stress test. While surcharging in sewers can result in increased maintenance costs, the most immediate concern related to capacity issues is the potential impact to human and environmental health caused by unpermitted discharges from the sanitary system; therefore, the areas for improvement within the collection system were ranked by the number of model-predicted flooding manholes. Table 4 provides an overview of the ranking
of the metersheds exhibiting modeled flooding manholes from all the calibration condition rainfall stress test model runs, sorted first by the number of overflowing manholes in response to the 2-in. rainfall event. Metersheds that contained no modeled overflowing manholes for that rainfall event were sorted by overflowing manholes in response to the 3-in. rainfall event, and so on. This methodology places higher priority on the overflowing manholes that occur during more frequent events. This ranking points to the critical vulnerabilities within the city’s collection system; however, the improvements necessary to resolve these vulnerabilities may occur within these metersheds—downstream to resolve system bottlenecks and/or upstream to remove significant sources of I/I.
cated capacity issues throughout the collection system in each of the water reclamation facility basins. Issues were often increasing in severity in response to an increase in rainfall. These capacity issues included: 1) surcharging sewers due to sewers under capacity relative to flows, 2) surcharging sewers due to downstream bottlenecks, and 3) flooding manholes. These model-indicated capacity issues will require system improvements to achieve the level of service chosen as part of the IWRMP.
Results The first action after the stress test was completed was for the city to select a level of service for master planning purposes. Jacobs then determined the most cost-effective combination of improvements to achieve the selected level of service. Conceptual cost estimates were developed for infrastructure improvements to mitigate the capacity issues for various rainfall depth scenarios. Continued on page 38
Table 4. Prioritized Metershed Based on Overflowing Manholes
Step 7: Verify Stress Test Results After the priorities were determined, it was important to verify the stress test results with the city’s operations staff, and the step was essentially a form of ground truthing the modelpredicated results. Even though the results were based upon a synthetic simulation, staff can verify if the priority locations tend to experience problems during wet weather. Each area exhibiting model-predicted manhole overflows and excessive surcharge in response to wet weather was evaluated with the city’s operations staff, and the team reviewed the locations of potential capacity issues with the staff. This step included updating lift station operational strategies. In general, the locations the model simulation predicted as problematic matched the field conditions observed by city staff. Step 8: Utilize Information to Select Level of Service The stress test revealed several model-indi-
Figure 7. Comparing the Level of Service Scenarios Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Continued from page 37 The results and associated costs were presented to the city council to facilitate its selection of an appropriate level of service for capital planning. It’s interesting to compare the results of all four scenarios to see how they vary across basins and improvement strategy (Figure 7). Figure 8 summarizes the incremental benefits
the city would realize if it decided to use a planning level of service less than the 7-in. rainfall event. S If the city elected to construct no improvements, the model simulation resulted in 48 overflowing manholes and 35.9 mi of surcharging sewers. S Investing $50 million to mitigate the impacts from the 3-in. rainfall event lowered the re-
sults to 44 overflowing manholes and 35.1 mi of surcharging sewers. S Investing $95 million to mitigate the 4-in. rainfall event lowered the impacts to 35 overflowing manholes and 34.5 mi of surcharging sewers. S More-appreciable improvement was observed with mitigating the 5-in. rainfall event. A $207 million investment would reduce conditions to 10 overflowing manholes and 18.5 mi of surcharging sewers. The city ultimately decided, for planning purposes, to select the 7-in. rainfall event to determine all capital investments necessary to eliminate overflowing manholes and sewers surcharging within 2 ft of the ground surface. Without the stress test results, it would have been very difficult to select a level of service for the IWRMP.
Figure 8. Incremental Benefits Across Level of Service Scenarios
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
• "Wet Weather Overflow Mitigation Program – Phase II." CH2M Hill Engineers. August 2018. • “Collection System Level of Service Technical Memorandum.” Jacobs Engineering. October 2018. S
Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ December 2019
F W R J
From Coast To Coast, What Florida’s Largest Utilities are Doing About Inflow and Infiltration Robert Cadle, Richard Cummings, Laurie Perkins, Dennis Davis, and Steve Hallowell From the east to the west coasts, Florida’s largest utilities have the challenge of developing adequate plans for assessing the impacts from inflow and infiltration (I/I) and then designing appropriate rehabilitation and replacement (R&R) programs to manage the identified I/I. Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department (HCPUD) and JEA are two utilities that are implementing I/I programs. This article will discuss the similarities and differences between the two I/I programs, identify challenges and solutions experienced during the field investigations, and present the results and outcomes as each utility moves forward with the next phases of its program.
An Unseen Issue Exposed
The Tampa Bay area endured torrential rainfall during the summer of 2015, experiencing over 28 in. of rainfall in July and August of 2015, which was over 13 in. above normal. In 2016, Hurricanes Hermine and Matthew hit the state, while it also felt the impacts of Hurricane Irma in 2017. It’s estimated that between 200 and 500 mil gal (MG) of sewage was spilled into Tampa Bay over this time period. While numerous reasons can be identified as having an impact on the spills, I/I is a leading cause. Similar impacts, but to a lesser degree, were felt in northeast Florida following Hurricanes Matthew and Irma. Estimates indicate that approximately 13 MG of wastewater were spilled into northeast Florida waterways pursuant to those two hurricane events.
Response from the State
Often overlooked, I/I is an issue for utilities, in both a figurative and a literal way. Figuratively, because the sewer collection systems that serve to collect and transport wastewater are buried and can’t be easily seen or inspected by those operating them or the public at large; literally, because over the decades since installation of sewer collection systems, utilities have invested very little in maintaining these buried assets, which have a finite life. The I/I in these aging systems have been accepted as a normal operating condition that utilities must work around—that is until the wet and hurricane seasons of 2015 and 2016.
On Sept. 26, 2016, in response to recent spills associated with both sanitary sewer overflows and other sources, Florida Gov. Rick Scott issued an emergency rule enacting revised spill reporting requirements. The new rule required notification to both the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the general public within 24 hours of a wastewater spill. Furthermore, during subsequent hurricanes, such as Matthew and Irma, FDEP did not suspend the rule for maintaining compliance with the revised wastewater spill reporting require-
The City of Jacksonville was severely affected by Hurricane Matthew.
Hurricane Irma brought heavy rainfall to the Tampa Bay area.
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
At the time the article was written, Robert Cadle, P.E., was water/wastewater reliability specialist with JEA in Jacksonville. Richard Cummings is division director—field maintenance services with Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department in Tampa. Laurie Perkins, P.E., is group leader— infrastructure assessment; Dennis Davis, P.E., is client services manager; and Steve Hallowell, P.E., is vice president with WrightPierce in Maitland.
ments, ensuring that it would be made aware of spills caused by these “Acts of God.” Subsequently, FDEP issued many consent orders following these storms for sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs).
The Magnitude of the Issue Managing large utilities with many miles of sanitary sewer collection systems is a challenge, which is all too familiar for many of Florida’s major utility providers, such as JEA and HCPUD. Although each utility initially went about managing the challenges differently, their outcomes were ultimately similar. The eighth largest community-owned utility company in the United States, JEA is the largest in Florida. It serves approximately 455,000 electric, 337,000 water, 261,000 sewer, and 8,000 reclaimed water customers, and is responsible for the planning, operation, and maintenance of extensive wastewater collection, transport, and treatment facilities. The infrastructure includes over 3,900 mi of sanitary sewers and force mains, more than 69,000 manholes, more than 1,400 pumping stations, and 11 wastewater treatment plants. Six of the JEA wastewater treatment plants, including the Southwest Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) and the Arlington East WRF, maintain and utilize outfalls to the St. Johns River to dispose treated wastewater that is not distributed to JEA customers. These surface water discharges
are regulated by FDEP permits, and the total nitrogen (TN) component of the wastewater flows is limited by total maximum daily loads (TMDL) in those permits. The TMDL 12-month average limit for the St. Johns River in Jacksonville is 683 tons. Between Oct. 1, 2017, and Sept. 30, 2018 (fiscal year [FY] 2018), the total amount of TN discharged to the St. Johns River from JEA’s six WRFs and the St. Johns River Power Park (SJRPP) was 550 tons. The total TN discharge for FY 2019 is forecast to be 512 tons. Through several corporate initiatives, JEA is committed to further reducing its TN TMDL. One of JEA’s goals for realizing this reduction of TN is to implement and execute I/I studies of its wastewater service areas. The objectives of these studies are to identify and repair sewer system defects to reduce the entrance of extraneous flows into the wastewater collection system, which will result in lower wastewater flows, reduced pumping costs, less chemical usage, and lower wastewater treatment costs. The presence of significant I/I issues in the Southwest Service Area (SWSA) has been documented in previous studies conducted in the early 2000s. More recently (in 2015 and 2016), JEA operations staff identified specific pump station basins in the SWSA, in which pumps were experiencing extremely high run times, and sewer overflows occurred during significant rain events. In November 2017, these conditions prompted JEA to solicit professional services through a request for proposal (RFP) process and select a firm to conduct an I/I study in specific pump station basins in the SWSA. Following Hurricane Matthew, JEA added several pump station basins located in the Arlington East Service Area (AESA), in which high flows were encountered in response to the hurricane, to the RFP. Pursuant to the RFP, the Southwest/Arlington East Infiltration and Inflow Study and Remediation Plan commenced in March 2018 to specifically identify, quantify, and eliminate sources of I/I. The SWSA encompasses over 100 sq mi and is comprised of approximately 600 mi of 4- to 54-in. diameter pipes. The pipe materials of construction include approximately 420 mi of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe, approximately 120 mi of vitrified clay pipe (VCP), and 60 mi being a mix of cast iron, ductile iron, and concrete pipe. The AESA encompasses over 100 sq mi and is comprised of approximately 650 mi of 4- to 42-in. diameter pipes, including gravity sewers and force mains. The pipe materials of construction include approximately 540 mi of PVC and HDPE pipe, approximately 106 mi of vitrified clay pipe (VCP), and 4 mi being a mix of cast iron, ductile iron, and concrete pipe.
Figure 1. Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department Sewer Basins
As one of the largest utilities in Florida, HCPUD is similarly responsible for a large wastewater collection, transport, and treatment system. Infrastructure for HCPUD includes over 2,565 mi of gravity sanitary sewer and force mains, 809 pumping stations, 1,342 low-pressure sanitary sewer (LPSS) pump stations and 36,259 manholes, all flowing to six regional wastewater treatment facilities. In the past several years, each of the wastewater treatment plant facilities have experienced a wide range of I/I flows associated with these events, and HCPUD decided to start an I/I investigation with the River Oaks Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility (ROAWTF) basin. The RO-AWTF basin has 90 pump stations. The basin was chosen as a beginning point due to four main factors: S Physical location near Tampa Bay, which is affected by weather and tidal forces. S Physical age of the plant, being the oldest of all in Hillsborough County. S Pre-existing knowledge that the plant was scheduled to be demolished and a super station was to be built in its place to transfer the flows to the Northwest Regional Advanced Treatment Facility (NWRATF) in late 2019. S Expansion of NWRATF to accommodate all of the River Oaks and Dale Mabry sewer basin flows.
The RO-AWTF has experienced swings of daily average flows from 8.6 mil gal per day (mgd) to peaks of 19.4 mgd during significant wet weather events (some named and others not). A recent comparison of the River Oaks preand post-I/I rates indicate an increase of 33 percent greater rainfall from 2017 to 2018, yet with the changes incorporated due to the study, the I/I rate remained the same. There were approximately 2,500 defects identified via the I/I contract and in-house staff as a result of this study. As the I/I study in the RO-AWTF service area was concluding, HCPUD initiated a similar study for the Dale Mabry AWTF service area. This was recently demolished and a new super station built in its place, with flows being transferred in 2018 to the NWRATF. Since that occurred, there have been two unnamed events that caused a spike in flow rate to nearly 12 mgd, up from a normal 3 to 5 mgd average daily flow. The Dale Mabry AWTF service area includes approximately 198 mi of 6- to 21-in. gravity sewer pipes consisting of various pipe materials and 111 pumping stations. The study is moving into its second phase soon, which is anticipated to be completed in early 2020. Figure 1 provides the locations of the HCPUD sewer basins. The HCPUD is continuing its I/I work with the Falkenburg ATF sewer basin scheduled in 2019-2020 and the remaining sewer basins to folContinued on page 42
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Continued from page 41 low in due course. The HCPUD is committed to reducing rainwater-derived I/I and diminishing overall SSO rates as well. Since 2010, HCPUD has lowered the SSO rate each year, with an approximate 26 percent reduction from 2017 to 2018, while at the same time experiencing unparalleled growth during this same period. Both JEA and HCPUD identified the need to thoroughly investigate these major service areas to identify the sources of I/I and to develop an R&R plan to address issues found as part of the I/I investigations. The plans included flow monitoring and field investigative techniques to locate significant sources and quantities of I/I and develop an R&R plan to reduce I/I, delay treatment plant expansions due to excessive I/I, and incorporate costsaving measures to magnify overall benefits.
Elements of a Standard Infiltration/Inflow Control Plan When it comes to developing an effective I/I control plan, it’s important to understand each community’s issues and goals. Contrary to some opinions, they are often not the same from area to area (i.e., city to city, basin to basin), and therefore require a tailored approach to studying the problem and mapping out solutions. In general, the first step in a comprehensive I/I project includes capturing and analyzing system flow data. This can be done using existing pump station data (if available) or through a flow monitoring program (flow meters, rain gauges, and groundwater gauges included) to “narrow the playing field.” Flow monitors are typically placed every 20,000 lin ft, or in smaller sewer networks (often referred to as basins or subsewersheds) for best results. In basins with less than 5,000 lin ft, a series of instantaneous flow measurements (dry, wet) can be used in lieu of a permanent flow meter. Flow metering periods generally range from 12 weeks and up to a year. Either way, it’s advantageous to consider
performing an interim evaluation of the flow data to discover where there are opportunities to potentially relocate a flow meter, maximizing the use of any one flow meter, and further closing in on the real problem areas. Once data are analyzed to understand which basins are impacted by high I/I, an areaspecific and cost-effective field investigation plan can be defined. It’s not necessary to perform closed-circuit television (CCTV) inspections, manhole inspections, smoke testing, and flow isolations systemwide if an effective flow monitoring plan is completed. The data will help reduce these quantities. For high-infiltration basins, a good first step may include performing night flow isolations in small (~2,000 lin ft) sections to again narrow the portions of the larger metered basin that would be identified for CCTV pipe inspections and comprehensive manhole inspections (top down). For high-inflow basins, performing smoke testing first will help identify areas for additional manhole inspections (focused from chimney up) and any dye testing needed to locate direct sources. After completion of these field activities, all data are compiled and analyzed to specifically identify each potential source of I/I. Identified sources are assigned an estimated rate of I/I and compared to calculated I/I from the flow meters. The I/I reduction plan is then developed based on cost-effective removal methods (repair, replace, rehabilitate) as compared to the current cost to continue to treat and transport the extraneous flows. It’s always important to prepare a rehabilitation plan tied directly to affordability within the community’s and owner’s goals.
Site-Specific Inflow and Infiltration Control Plan The flow monitoring study for JEA was begun to identify potential sources of I/I and remediation methods within the Southwest and
Arlington service areas of Jacksonville as previously described. There are 25 sub-basins within these service areas, totaling approximately 91 mi of sewer pipe. Phase I, completed in 2018, consisted of performing a hydraulic condition assessment that included eight months of flow monitoring and the following estimated quantities of fieldwork: S 190,000 lin ft of smoke testing S 100,000 lin ft of CCTV inspections S 900 manhole inspections plus preparation of a comprehensive I/I reduction plan report Flow monitoring consisted of installing 28 flow meters, eight rain gauges, and 18 groundwater piezometers. The comprehensive I/I reduction report consisted of analyzing the data, identify high I/I areas, and outlining alternatives and costs to reduce I/I and recommendations that will bring the project into the second phase. The Phase II source investigation commenced in March 2019 and consists of CCTV inspections, manhole inspections, smoke testing, and night flow isolations. Due to the high peak flows described earlier, HCPUD also chose to conduct an I/I study within the Dale Mabry AWTF service area to monitor flow and identify I/I sources. Phase I, completed in 2018, consists of quantifying I/I through flow, rainfall, and groundwater monitoring and assessment. Flow monitoring consisted of installing 55 flow meters, 25 groundwater piezometers, and nine rain gauges in 55 sub-basin areas of the service area. Field results and data analysis were included in the Phase I flow monitoring report. This report documents the I/I rate in each drainage area, with recommendations for conducting the Phase II I/I source investigation study, which consists of dye testing, CCTV inspections, manhole inspections, and other tools or assessments, as necessary to identify I/I sources. Phase II source investigations commenced in June 2019.
Wright-Pierce employs best safety practices when conducting field work.
Brian Pavao, field service manager, enters a manhole to install a flow meter.
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The JEA I/I investigation portion was conducted in two phases. Phase I consisted of performing a hydraulic condition assessment that anticipated flow monitoring, smoke testing, CCTV inspections, manhole inspections, and preparation of a comprehensive I/I reduction plan report. The flow monitoring network was deployed ahead of the 2018 wet season (June to August). Meter locations for JEA were scattered throughout the southeast area of Jacksonville in pump station basins previously determined to have I/I issues and consequently named as priority areas for I/I reduction. Continued on page 44
Continued from page 42 Flow meters were maintained and a preliminary I/I analysis was performed in July 2018 that provided the backing needed to recommend five meters that could be relocated, and an early, area-specific â€œRound 1â€? field investigation start. Round 1 fieldwork began in October 2018 with CCTV inspections, manhole inspections, and smoke testing. Based on the preliminary I/I analysis, weekly data review, and data quality collected through October 2018, flow meters were recommended for removal in December 2018, ahead of schedule, allowing for the final I/I analysis to take place in January 2019. While the final I/I analysis confirmed work previously recommended for the Round 1 field investigative plan, it also revealed some additional basins that warranted field investigations due to high infiltration, high inflow, or both. As a cost savings measure for this project, flow isolations were performed at night and during wet weather to supplement the flow monitoring program in areas where flow meters were not warranted due to basin size, and ultimately, to reduce the amount of CCTV inspection work needed. The comprehensive I/I reduction plan report for JEA will be prepared following Phase II field investigative work and will include identified sources of I/I, estimated I/I rates, and a costeffective analysis for rehabilitating compared to a continued treat-and-transport approach. Phase II source investigation work will include two rounds of daytime and nighttime instantaneous
flow measurements, 100,000 lin ft smoke testing, and 600 manhole inspections. Phase III will consist of the design and construction of the selected recommended I/I reduction projects. Similar to JEA, the HCPUD I/I study is being conducted in two phases. Phase I consisted of quantifying I/I through three months of flow, rainfall, and groundwater monitoring and assessment during June to September 2018. The flow monitoring program consisted of installing 55 flow meters, 24 in-manhole groundwater piezometers, and nine rain gauges in the service area. Flow meter locations for the HCPUD project were deployed in one contiguous sewershed in the Dale Mabry area. The driver for reducing I/I in this case was to reduce peaking factors to a new pump station before flows are transported to a new regional wastewater treatment facility. Phase I also included performing two rounds of daytime and nighttime instantaneous flow measurements within specific subareas that supplemented the flow meter data and identified I/I quantities. Field results and data analysis were included in the Phase I flow monitoring report. This report documented the I/I rate in each metered sewer basin with recommendations for conducting the Phase II I/I source investigation study. Phase II will consist of additional night flow isolations (specifically to reduce the required amount of CCTV footage needed), pipe and manhole inspections, smoke testing, and other tools typically used to identify I/I sources.
Figure 2. JEA-Measured Groundwater (Water Depth in Piezometers)
December 2019 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
Results For both projects, flow monitoring data were exported from the flow meters, uploaded to a flow data portal for review of trends and anomalies and compared to periodic manual depth/velocity measurements, and then imported into Sliicer, an online data analysis tool developed by ADS Environmental Services, to perform the I/I analysis. Raw data were used to summarize the following flow parameters at all meter basin sites: hourly average, hourly peak, hourly minimum, daily average, daily peak, daily minimum, and monthly volumes. Using Sliicer, a comprehensive analysis of rainfall, dry weather, and wet weather was performed.
Rainfall and Groundwater Results Seventy-four rain events were captured during the JEA flow monitoring period. The largest storm was 3.82 in. of total rainfall on Dec. 3, 2018, which equates to a 1.6-year storm. In comparison, a typical one-year, six-hour storm for Jacksonville, as predicted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is 2.99 in. Of course, groundwater conditions can impact resulting levels of I/I, and for the JEA project, groundwater monitoring results indicate that levels were the highest in August 2018 and lowest during September to October 2018. Figure 2 provides an overview of the groundwater measurements recorded during the monitoring period. Fifty-one rain events were captured during the HCPUD flow monitoring period. The largest storm was 3.81 in. of total rainfall on July 5, 2018. This equates to a five-year storm. In comparison, a typical one-year, six-hour storm for Tampa, as predicted by NOAA, is 2.94 in. For the HCPUD project, in-manhole groundwater gauge measurements were compared to data obtained from three United States Geological Survey (USGS) spring discharge data monitoring sites in Hillsborough County. Review of the USGS data during the flow monitoring period indicates that groundwater levels were highest in June 2018 and decreased in October 2018. Figure 3 provides an overview of the groundwater measurements recorded during the flow monitoring period. Based on information observed on the United States Drought Monitor (https://droughtmonitor.unl.edu), drought was not present within the months of June to midOctober 2018, leading to the assumption that groundwater levels were at their highest in June 2018 and generally decreased throughout the summer months into October 2018, which is the typical pattern for Florida.
Base Infiltration Results Dry weather flow is defined as base sanitary flow (BSF) and base infiltration (BI). The BSF includes domestic, commercial, institutional, and industrial wastewater, whereas BI is permanent infiltration that always occurs in the system, regardless of groundwater conditions. Dry weather flow does not include peak infiltration or wet weather flow. For these analyses, dry weather days for the I/I evaluation were selected using Sliicer default settings. These default settings automatically chose daily flow data that met the following criteria: 1. Days that do not have rainfall. 2. Days that do not have preceding rainfall up to five days prior based on: o Cumulative rainfall is not equal to or greater than 0.10 in. up to one day prior. o Cumulative rainfall is not equal to or greater than 0.40 in. up to three days prior. o Cumulative rainfall is not equal to or greater than 1 in. up to five days prior. 3. Average daily flows are within 85 percent and 115 percent of the cumulative dry day average flow for the entire flow monitoring period. The BI enters the sewer collection system through pipe joints, pipe defects (including main sewer lines and service laterals), and defective manhole walls, benches, and pipe seals, typically from groundwater conditions. Raininduced infiltration enters similarly to BI, but during rain events. The BI for the project area was based on analysis of the flow meter data and calculated using the Stevens-Schutzbach method, which uses the average dry day flows and minimum night flows to estimate BI. During the flow monitoring period for each of the JEA meter basins, 1.69 mgd of BSF was calculated and 3.60 mgd of BI was identified in the project area based on analysis of the flow monitoring data. For the HCPUD flow monitoring period, 3.89 mgd of BSF was calculated and 4.43 mgd of BI was identified in the project area. Following this analysis, infiltration rates were normalized based on sewer collection system size (sewer pipe length and diameter) for a comparison across each project area. The relative size of each meter basin was calculated by multiplying the diameter of each pipe size by its relative length and converting to in.-diametermi (IDM). The pipe lengths and diameters were obtained from each agency’s geographic information system (GIS) data. It’s an industry standard that further investigation and/or rehabilitation may be cost-effective if BI flows
Figure 3. Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department-Measured In-Manhole Groundwater Levels
equal or exceed 4,000 gal per day (gpd)/IDM. Therefore, any meter basin with a net BI unit rate equal to or greater than 4,000 gpd/IDM was recommended as a priority basin for infiltration removal. Table 1 summarizes the BI results for each project area. From Table 1, nearly 75 percent of the total BI identified as priority for further investigations exists in one-third of the total footage studied in the JEA project area, while nearly 60 percent of the total BI for the HCPUD project was found in a quarter of the system studied. The benefit of performing flow metering in the manner described allows these agencies to narrow the playing field and target the most significant problems first, as opposed to performing fieldwork, such as CCTV inspections, in all basins.
Rain-Derived Inflow and Infiltration Inflow is expected to occur during wet weather and is reported as the peak inflow rate and the total inflow volume for the duration of a rain event; inflow can further be separated into direct and delayed inflow. Direct inflow occurs immediately at the start of rainfall and finishes after the rainfall ends. Delayed inflow occurs after the rainfall ends and finishes after the system has stopped responding to the rainfall entirely. Direct inflow can be referred to as rain-derived I/I and delayed inflow can be referred to as rainfall-induced infiltration. Direct inflow can also be described as the period in
which there is a rapid response to rainfall; therefore, delayed inflow is the more gradual response to rainfall. For the JEA and HCPUD projects, only direct inflow results are reported. This is due to the short duration of the rain events common to Florida, as well as the events overlapping throughout the metering period. Inflow volumes calculated in both cases were also based on the one-year, six-hour design storm, specific to each geographic location. Inflow in a wastewater collection system is defined as water other than sanitary flow that enters a sewer system. Inflow is a direct result of stormwater runoff and can enter the wastewater collection system through numerous sources, such as downspouts, area drains, and service lateral cleanouts. In the public sector, inflow enters the wastewater collection system through sources, such as cross connections between sanitary and storm sewers, catch basins, and storm ditches, and sources, such as manhole defects at the cover, frame, frame seal, and chimney area. Large breaks or collapses in pipes may also become sources of inflow into the system. For the JEA project area, a total of 5.54 MG of inflow were estimated based on the analysis of the flow monitoring data, and for HCPUD, the total inflow was 5.97 MG. Like the process used for infiltration, inflow per metered basin was normalized based on its size (sewer pipe length and diameter) for a comparison with other meter basins. Although there is not a deContinued on page 46
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Continued from page 45 finitive industry standard for addressing inflow, it’s often agreed that most inflow from direct sources would be cost-effective to remove and should not enter the sanitary sewer system for treatment at a wastewater treatment facility. For these projects, overall inflow rates were reviewed relative to each project area, and a natural division between the most excessive meter basins was determined. For JEA, meter basins resulting in more than 5,000 gal/IDM were recommended for additional inflow field investigative work, whereas meter basins with more than 7,500 gal/IDM were recommended in the HCPUD project area. This results in performing inflow related fieldwork, such as smoke testing, in 14 basins for JEA and eight basins for HCPUD. Table 2 summarizes the results of the direct inflow volumes for each project area. For the JEA project, more than 80 percent of the inflow was identified in 44 percent of the basin footage, while more than 60 percent was identified in less than one quarter of the basin footage for the HCPUD project.
Next Steps The typical next steps that result from a flow monitoring program include area-specific
field investigations in basins with high infiltration, high inflow, or both. The goal of this follow-up fieldwork is to identify defects or locations associated with the high I/I numbers reported by the flow meters. Common techniques used to identify infiltration defects include pipeline inspection, such as CCTV or other screening technologies that identify leaks, and manhole inspections (top down). It’s also common to perform night flow isolations to break up a larger meter basin into smaller subbasins to reduce the quantities of CCTV inspections. For inflow, the most common field techniques include smoke and dye testing to locate direct connections or defective laterals, in addition to performing manhole inspections focused on the top portion of the structure, such as the cover, frame, frame seal, and chimney. For JEA, follow-up fieldwork began immediately following a preliminary review of the flow monitoring data and interim I/I analysis using Sliicer in fall 2018. The preliminary round of fieldwork consisted of 190,000 lin ft of smoke testing, 95,000 lin ft of CCTV inspections, and nearly 700 manhole inspections. Data have been reviewed for quality, but analysis of the results will be performed following the final round of fieldwork that began in April 2019. The final round of fieldwork in the JEA project area will include 37 night flow isolations
Table 1. Summary of Base Infiltration Results
Table 2. Summary of Inflow Results
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
to reduce CCTV quantities, an estimated 100,000 lin ft (or less pending night flow isolations) of CCTV inspections, 591 manhole inspections, and 103,000 lin ft of smoke testing. The flow monitoring program for HCPUD was only three months in duration; therefore, an interim I/I analysis was not performed. The I/I analysis for HCPUD also used Sliicer, but was only performed once following the removal of all equipment. Area-specific fieldwork for the HCPUD Phase II source investigation program was recommended in 27 out of the 55 basins metered due to high infiltration, high inflow, or in some cases, both. Phase II work includes 106 night flow isolations, up to 130,000 lin ft of pipe inspections/leak detection testing, 1,800 manhole inspections, review of previously performed HCPUD smoke testing results, and potential dye testing. Upon completion of the fieldwork in both project areas, estimated I/I quantities will be calculated and a cost-effective analysis will be performed to determine if rehabilitation is warranted over continuing to treat and transport I/I. An I/I reduction implementation plan for any rehabilitation and repair recommendations will be developed for future planning and design purposes.
Conclusion A comprehensive and strategic flow monitoring program is essential to pinpointing I/I issues, and more importantly, narrowing the (I/I source) playing field. There are many strategies available for implementing a flow monitoring program that can be customized to meet any Florida community’s goals for I/I reduction, while being affordable and getting to the root (locations) of the extraneous water problems. The methods described for JEA and HCPUD did just that. Each program varied in approach, but ultimately led to finding, on average, two-thirds of the I/I reported by flow meters in just one-third of the pipe network in the study areas. In actual numbers, this equates to identifying 5 mgd of base infiltration that warrants additional field investigative work across 72 mi of pipe and 8 MG of inflow across just 70 mi of pipe, rather than all 241 mi of pipe in the combined (JEA and HCPUD) study areas. This critical phase provides the basis for establishing a methodical approach to identifying actual I/I sources and a cost-effective R&R program focused on getting the most significant sources out first. The key to examining the success of this approach will be a postrehabilitation monitoring program to compare with prerehabilitation conditions. S
Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Distribution and Collection. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!
Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!
Leisha L. Pica, Katie Bolmer, and Michelle Collins (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW02015357)
1. The results of the model stress test indicated that the total number of overflowing manholes and miles of surcharging sewer ___________ for each rainfall variation. a. is the same b. nearly doubles c. decreases d. nearly triples 2. For the purposes of this exercise, “surcharging sewers” was defined as which of the following conditions? a. Manhole fluid level above the lowest point of entry b. 2 in. or more of standing storm water above the manhole rim c. Fluid in manhole within 2 ft of ground surface d. Gravity sewer pipeline running more than half full 3. When prioritizing areas where improvements were needed based on the model results, which of the following criteria determined ranking? a. Number of flooding manholes b. Footage of backed-up gravity sewer c. Force main pressure d. Manholes surcharged, but not overflowing
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From Coast to Coast, What Florida’s Largest Utilities are Doing About Inflow and Infiltration Robert Cadle, Laurie Perkins, Dennis Davis, Steve Hallowell, and Richard Cummings (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW02015356)
1. It’s not necessary to perform systemwide closed-circuit television (CCTV) or manhole inspections if _________ program is in place. a. a comprehensive pump station maintenance b. a smoke testing c. a flow isolation system d. an effective flow monitoring 2. The definition of dry weather flow includes a. peak infiltration. b. infiltration resulting from rainfall events of less than 2 in. c. instantaneous peak flow. d. base infiltration. 3. ____________ inflow can be referred to as rainfall-induced infiltration. a. Gross b. Delayed c. Short duration d. Direct
4. For planning purposes, the city selected the ___ -in. rain event to determine necessary capital improvement. a. 3 b. 4 c. 5 d. 7
4. Meter basins with more than __________ gal/in.-diameter-mi (IDM) were recommended for additional inflow field investigation work at the Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department. a. 2,500 b. 5,000 c. 7,500 d. 10,000
5. Which of the following was not a recommendation emerging from the Phase 1 Wet Weather Overflow Mitigation Program (WWOMP)? a. Increase lift station pumping capacity b. Expand implementation of manhole inserts c. Construct additional injection well capacity d. Perform inflow/infiltration wet weather field reconnaissance
5. The studies revealed that, on average, two-thirds of the inflow/nfiltration reported by flow meters occurred in ____ of the study area pipe network. a. one-third b. one-half c. three-fourths d. 80 percent Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
WEF Announces Fifth Year of Storm System Award Winners Twenty-two high-performing municipalities and one university received recognition in the fifth annual National Municipal Stormwater and Green Infrastructure Awards program earlier this year on September 23 at WEFTEC 2019 in Chicago. These awards, which were presented during the annual Stormwater Congress Luncheon, celebrate administrators of municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) that perform beyond regulatory requirements. The awards program, developed and introduced in 2015 by the Water Environment Federation (WEF) through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was established to recognize high-performing regulated MS4s. Award winners meet and exceed regulatory
S Phase I, which encompasses cities with more than 100,000 customers. S Phase II, which encompasses smaller storm sewer systems and public universities, departments of transportation, hospitals, and prisons. requirements in innovative ways that are effective and cost-efficient. The awards recognize performance in the categories of innovation and program management, as well combined high scores in both categories. Applications for the awards are reviewed by a broad work team of water sector experts. The MS4s are separated into two classifications based on the population of the communities they serve:
The winners of the 2019 awards are: Phase I Winners S Metropolitan Nashville (Tenn.) Water Services - Overall Winner S Anne Arundel County, Md. - Program Management S Louisville and Jefferson County (Ky.) Metropolitan Sewer District - Innovation Phase II Winners S City of Alexandria, Va. - Overall Winner S Capitol Region (Minn.) Watershed District - Innovation S Rogue Valley (Ore.) Sewer Services Program Management In addition to these winners, the other applicants were categorized into levels signifying their status among other MS4 communities across the United States. Each MS4 received a certificate indicating gold, silver, or bronze status in both program management and innovation. Gold Recognition in Innovation Phase I S Louisville and Jefferson County (Ky.) Metropolitan Sewer District S Metro Nashville (Tenn.) Water Services Stormwater Division Silver Recognition in Innovation Phase I S Albuquerque (N.M.) Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority S Anne Arundel County, Md. S Baltimore City (Md.) Department of Public Works S City of Atlanta Department of Watershed Management S City of Lincoln (Neb.) Watershed Management Division S City of Roswell (Ga.) Stormwater Utility S Fairfax County (Va.) Government S New York City Department of Environmental Protection S Sewerage and Water Board of New Orleans
December 2019 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
Phase II S Capitol Region Watershed District (Minn.) S City of Alexandria (Va.) S City of Denton (Texas) S City of Pensacola (Fla.) S City of Port St. Lucie (Fla.) S City of Westlake (Ohio) S Hobart (Ind.) Sanitary/Stormwater District S Roanoke City (Va.) Stormwater Utility S Rogue Valley (Ore.) Sewer Services S Pennsylvania State University (University Park, Pa.) S Town of Queen Creek (Ariz.) Bronze Recognition in Innovation Phase I S Harris County (Texas) Engineering Department Gold Recognition in Program Management Phase I S Albuquerque (N.M.) Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority S Anne Arundel County, Md. S Baltimore City (Md.) Department of Public Works S City of Lincoln (Neb.) Watershed Management Division S City of Roswell (Ga.) Stormwater Utility S Fairfax County (Va.) Government S Louisville and Jefferson County (Ky.) Metropolitan Sewer District S Metro Nashville (Tenn.) Water Services Stormwater Division S New York City Department of Environmental Protection S Sewerage and Water Board of New Orleans Phase II S Capitol Region Watershed District (Minn.) S City of Alexandria (Va.) S City of Denton (Texas) S City of Pensacola (Fla.) S City of Port St. Lucie (Fla.) S City of Westlake (Ohio) S Hobart (Ind.) Sanitary/Stormwater District S Roanoke City (Va.) Stormwater Utility S Rogue Valley (Ore.) Sewer Services S Pennsylvania State University (University Park, Pa.) S Town of Queen Creek (Ariz.) Silver Recognition in Program Management Phase I S City of Atlanta Department of Watershed Management S Harris County (Texas) Engineering Department
2019 WEF Fellows Named The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has announced that 15 distinguished members were selected as the 2019 WEF Fellows recipients, including two from Florida. This prestigious designation recognizes member achievements, stature, and contributions in the water profession. The WEF Fellows Recognition Program underscores WEF’s role as a valuable water quality resource, which is due in large part to the expertise of its diverse membership. WEF Fellows are recognized in various areas of expertise, including, but not limited to, design, education, operations, regulation, research, utility management, and leadership. “These outstanding individuals have made a profound impact on the global water environment, and we are proud to recognize and honor their efforts,” said Eileen O’Neill, WEF executive director. “The accomplishments of the 2019 WEF Fellows are a testament to the remarkable dedication and passion of our members.”
2019 WEF Fellows The Fellows for 2019 are: S Bradley Fix, Indiana Water Environment Association S Adel Hagekhalil, California Water Environment Association S Jerome Iltis, Water Environment Association of Texas S Dr. Chih-Ming (Jimmy) Kao, Taiwan Environmental Engineering Association
S Dr. Eakalak Khan, Nevada Water Environment Association S Dr. Richard Kuchenrither, Rocky Mountain Water Environment Association S Garry Macdonald, Water New Zealand S Dr. Johannes (J.B.) Neethling, California Water Environment Association S Daniel F. Riney, Iowa Water Environment Association and Kansas Water Environment Association S Dr. Leonard Ripley, Water Environment Association of Texas S Kenneth Schnaars, Clean Water Professionals of Kentucky and Tennessee S Dr. Robert Sharp, New York Water Environment Association S Patrick Stevens, Indiana Water Environment Association The 2019 Fellows from the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) are: S Jose Jimenez, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, senior process engineer with Brown and Caldwell in Maitland S Berrin Tansel, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, F.ASCE, with Miami-Dade County This year’s recipients were recognized during WEFTEC 2019, WEF’s 92st annual technical exhibition and conference, which was held September 21-25 in Chicago. For more information about the program, visit http://www.wef.org/weffellows program/. S
For more information about the MS4 recognition program, visit www.wef.org/MS4awards. S Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
FWRJ READER PROFILE public outreach. I am engaged in rulemaking and legislative efforts at the state and national levels. What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor of science degree in chemistry from Juniata College in Huntingdon, Penn., and am a licensed Level 1 water distribution operator.
Lisa M. Wilson-Davis
City of Boca Raton Utility Services Department Work title and years of service. My current title is operations and regulatory compliance manager and I have been with the city for eighteen and a half years (I was a child prodigy and began working for the city right out of Kindergarten. . .at least that’s my story!). What does your job entail? I am responsible for managing three field operations divisions, including sewer collections, water distribution, and lift stations; the meter reading division; and the program compliance division, which includes the fats, oils, and grease (FOG) and cross connection control programs, water and wastewater permitting, planning, and
Steele and Sox.
What do you like best about your job? Each day presents a new set of challenges and opportunities and there is never a dull moment. I enjoy working with my team members, networking, and learning something new each day. I also like that I am able to participate in organizations that are at the forefront of establishing statewide policies and regulations relating to water and wastewater treatment. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to FSAWWA and am the current chair of its Water Utility Council (WUC), and am past president of the FWEA Utility Council. I’m a participant in the Potable Reuse Commission, Southeast Florida Utility Council, National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA), and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA). How have the organizations helped your career? Through belonging to these organizations, I have met many amazing people and created life-
long friendships. Participating in the various functions and activities of the professional organizations, as well as having access to training and many other resources, has provided me with several networking and personal growth opportunities. What do you like best about the industry? I enjoy working in a complex industry where everyone takes pride in providing critical and essential water and wastewater services to customers each and every day. We do this all while protecting human health and the environment. What do you do when you’re not working? When I am away from work, I enjoy spending time with my husband, Tyler; son, Nicholas; daughter, Gabrielle; and my “second” daughter (Gabi’s best friend), Mikayla; two grand-dogs (Sox and Steele); and friends (too many to name). As my children were growing up, both my husband and I coached a number of their sports teams, and for a few years, all four of us refereed youth soccer games together. My husband and I still referee youth soccer. I also enjoy growing my own vegetables and herbs, and then creating unique dishes using the fresh ingredients (some think it’s the chemist in me). Lastly, I have been bitten by the do-it-yourself (DIY) bug and recently completed several house renovation projects, with more on the horizon. S
Mikayla, Nicholas, and Gabrielle.
These guys rock! They are part of a team that went to Mexico Beach to help restore water and sewer services after Hurricane Michael. I caught my husband working hard on one of our DIY projects.
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Test Yourself What Do You Know About Stormwater, Erosion, and Sediment Control? Donna Kaluzniak
1. Per the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) webpage on Stormwater, Erosion, and Sediment Control Inspector Training and Certification (FSESCI webpage), FDEP wants to better educate installers and inspectors on proper best management practice (BMP) selection, installation, layering, and maintenance so that impacts from uncontrolled erosion and sedimentation on construction sites are minimized. The FDEP awards FSESCI qualification certificates to people who complete a two-day class and pass an exam with a minimum grade of a. 60 percent. b. 70 percent. c. 75 percent. d. 80 percent. 2. Per the FDEP FSESCI webpage, the FSESCI classes teach how to properly manage impacts from total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity (NTUs) and a. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). b. harmful algal blooms. c. heavy metals. d. nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). 3. Per the Florida Stormwater, Erosion, and Sediment Control Inspectors Manual, Tier 1: Manual for Best Management Practice (BMP) Installers (FSESCI Tier I Manual), what is caused by rain drops or flowing water that cuts gullies into the soil, adding to the sediment load? a. Geologic erosion b. Sedimentation c. Soil erosion d. Water erosion 4. Per the FSESCI Tier I Manual, the four principle factors that determine the inherent erosion potential of an area are climate (rainfall), soil characteristics, vegetative cover, and a. construction. b. development. c. topography. d. watershed. 5. Per the FSESCI Tier I Manual, Chapter 3: Temporary BMPs for Erosion and Sedimentation Control, the last line of defense and one of the most visible and maintenance-intensive BMPs to intercept
and detain sediments on an active construction site is a. construction sequencing. b. dust control. c. perimeter controls. d. stabilized construction entrance and exit. 6. Per the FSESCI Tier I Manual, Chapter 5: BMPs for Dewatering, four principle types of control technologies for dewatering are sediment traps and basins, weir tanks and dewatering tanks, filters, and a. chemical treatment. b. construction sequencing. c. floating turbidity barriers. d. vegetation. 7. Per the Florida Stormwater, Erosion, and Sediment Control Inspectors Manual, Tier II: Manual for Best Management Practice Inspectors (FSESCI Tier II Manual), Chapter 6: Regulations and Statutory Requirements, a construction general permit (CGP) is required to discharge stormwater to surface waters of the state for any construction activities that disturb what area of land? a. Any and all construction activities, regardless of size. b. One or more acres of land c. Five or more acres of land d. Ten or more acres of land 8. Per the FSESCI Tier II Manual, Chapter 7: The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan, the stormwater pollution prevention plan (SWPPP) documents how to comply with a a. best management practice (BMP). b. construction general permit (CGP). c. environmental resource permit (ERP). d. notice of intent (NOI). 9. Per the FSESCI Tier II Manual, Chapter 7, when must inspections of construction sites be completed? a. Every day and after every storm event that is 1 inch or greater. b. Every seven calendar days and after every storm event that is one-half inch or greater. c. Every seven workdays and after every storm event that is one-half inch or greater. d. Once per month and after every storm event that is 2 inches or greater.
10. Per the FSESCI Tier II Manual, Chapter 7, after construction activities are complete, the site has achieved final stabilization, and all discharges authorized by the CGP are eliminated or are authorized under a separate National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, what must be done to terminate the permit? a. Cancel the stormwater pollution protection plan (SWPPP) within 14 calendar days. b. Submit a completed notice of intent (NOI) form to FDEP within 14 calendar days. c. Submit a completed notice of termination (NOT) form to FDEP within 14 calendar days. d. Submit a completed NOT form within 30 calendar days. Answers on page 66 References used for this quiz: • Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Florida Stormwater, Erosion, and Sedimentation Control Inspector Training and Certification Program webpage https://floridadep.gov/dear/florida-stormwatererosion. • Florida Stormwater Erosion and Sedimentation Control Inspectors Manual, Tier I: Manual for Best Management Practice (BMP) Installers, FDEP, July 2018 (available from the Florida Stormwater, Erosion, and Sediment Control Inspector Training and Certification webpage, https://floridadep.gov/dear/florida-stormwatererosion). • Florida Stormwater Erosion and Sedimentation Control Inspectors Manual, Tier II: Manual for Best Management Practice (BMP) Inspectors, FDEP, July 2018 (available from the Florida Stormwater, Erosion, and Sediment Control Inspector Training and Certification webpage, https://floridadep.gov/dear/florida-stormwatererosion).
Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT
2019 Was Great—2020 Will Be Even Better! Michael F. Bailey, P.E. Chair, FSAWWA
Wow, has it been a year already?! The truth of the colloquialism, “Time flies when you’re having fun,” has never been as apparent to me as it has during the last year as your Florida Section chair. I’ve decided to be brief with this column, and instead of rehashing the copious and impressive events and accomplishments already discussed in previous months, I’d like to share some of my more general thoughts from this year. First, this past year just reaffirms for me the dedication and overall excellent quality of the people who work in our industry. Yes, we do this for a living, but it’s so apparent that everyone realizes the importance of reliably supplying safe drinking water to entire communities of
people who depend on us. It makes me proud to be part of that! Second, FSAWWA plays a significant role in helping our industry achieve its mission. I’ve been a member for over 30 years and spent quite a bit of time as region chair, but I really had no idea of the breadth of services and resources that are available from the section until this past year. I’m more convinced than ever that it’s well worth the cost of membership. Just one excellent example is the Water Utility Council (WUC). It’s extremely impressive to see how much influence the WUC has in matters of interest to utilities, particularly with regulatory issues, and how much effort goes into working with state and federal legislators. I strongly encourage each utility to be involved with, and become a member of, the WUC. Third, our volunteers are awesome! The amount of time and effort that you folks put into your roles with the section is truly amazing. And to think that most of you are doing this while maintaining your day job is a testament to your dedication to our industry and the section. Thank you so much for that!
Fourth (but really first), is the exceptional professional staff that makes the whole thing work. I really had no idea of everything that Peggy Guingona, our executive director, and her team do to keep this organization running as well as it does (herding cats is even harder than it sounds!). They are the envy of the other AWWA sections and we are so fortunate to have them. Peggy, Donna, Casey, and Jenny—thank you so much for everything you do! Finally, I want to thank the members of FSAWWA for giving me the opportunity to give back to an organization that has meant so much to me. I also want to thank the members of the section’s Executive Committee for its support and fellowship, and particularly Bill Young, the section’s past chair, whose calm and thoughtful demeanor was a model for me. I consider this last year to be a very special time in my career, but now it’s time to hand over the gavel to 2020 section chair Kim Kowalski! Thank you, Kim, for your support this year and I know you will excel in your new role. S
Kim Kowalski to Lead FSAWWA in 2020 On December 11, Kim Kowalski became the 94th chair of the Florida Section American Water Works Association at the section’s annual Fall Conference. She succeeds Mike Bailey. Kim is the operations manager for Wager Company of Florida Inc., which is a manufacturers representative firm. In 1994, after graduating from the University of Florida with a bachelor of science degree from the College of Agriculture, Kim started her career working in outside sales for Wager. In 2001 she took the position as operations manager and has never looked back. Kim joined AWWA in 2001. She credits her father, Kent Wager, for encouraging her to get involved with the association. Kent took her to her first Manufacturers/Associates Council (MAC) meeting in 2001, which started her involvement in AWWA. She credits past FSAWWA chairs Jeff Nash, Richard Anderson, and Rick Ratcliffe for
encouraging her to expand her volunteer opportunities outside of MAC. Kim has volunteered on various committees within MAC, which organizes the FSAWWA Fall Conference. She served as MAC chair from 2009 until 2013; she then joined the Executive Committee as treasurer. She has been honored with the MAC Daddy award in 2009, the Allen B. Roberts Award in 2012, and the Robert B. Claudy Award in 2018. Kim says that “FSAWWA has been very valuable to me personally and professionally, and I value this experience and ‘family’ for enriching my life.” When asked about leading FSAWWA in 2020, Kim answered, “This organization does so much good in so many aspects of the water industry and I am honored to be able to continue all of the great work and progress of the past chairs.” Kim lives in Sanford with her husband, Scott, and daughter Regan. S
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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Odor and Corrosion Mitigation Strategies for a Complex Large-Diameter Interceptor System Richard J. Pope, Ryan McKenna, Neepa Shah, Philip Spitzer, Jenna Covington, and Scott Hoelzle any municipalities in Florida utilize liquid-phase chemical treatment for collection system odor and corrosion control. These strategies aim to addresses odor, corrosion, and potential health and safety issues associated with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by seeking to either prevent H2S from forming or from being released into the vapor phase. Many municipalities also contract with a vendor to provide turnkey services for the liquid-phase dosing, including providing and maintaining equipment, managing chemical inventories, and monitoring treatment performance. While these turnkey dosing services can be advantageous for municipalities, there can often be room for liquid-phase treatment optimization. Taking a comprehensive and holistic view of the collection system can result in: 1) identifying key
“hot-spot” target areas, 2) identifying the most desirable (cost-effective) chemical to be used for each specific location, and 3) selecting the appropriate dose for varying seasonal conditions. The North Texas Municipal Water District (NTMWD) Upper East Fork Interceptor System (UEFIS) is a complex network of gravity sewers, force mains, and lift stations collecting wastewater from connection points with the cities of Allen, Frisco, McKinney, Plano, Princeton, Prosper, Richardson, Anna, Fairview, Lucas, Melisa, and Parker, as shown in Figure 1. The majority of UEFIS pipes are owned by NTMWD, with some owned by customer and member cities. Wastewater from UEFIS is treated by the Wilson Creek and Rowlett Creek Regional Wastewater Treatment Plants (RWWTPs), both operated by NTMWD.
Richard J. Pope is vice president—odor services leader with Hazen and Sawyer in New York, N.Y. Ryan McKenna is senior principal engineer—odor services practice group with Hazen and Sawyer in Tampa. Neepa Shah is an associate with Hazen and Sawyer in Dallas. Philip Spitzer is wastewater system engineer, Jenna Covington is associate deputy—wastewater, and Scott Hoelzle is wastewater conveyance manager with Hazen and Sawyer in Wylie, Texas.
Like many municipalities in Florida, NTMWD currently implements a combination of vapor- and liquid-phase (ferrous salts, hydrogen peroxide, calcium hydroxide, and calcium nitrate) odor control in its collection system. The NTMWD is experiencing rapid growth in infrastructure and community encroachment, which necessitated a review of odor control strategies to determine if they were efficiently addressing current needs and what changes were required to proactively address emerging needs. As a part of this process, Hazen and Sawyer developed an odor control road map that included the following tasks: 1. Existing-system data collection and evaluation 2. Field sampling of odor parameters 3. Development of a liquid H2S model 4. Odor control alternatives development and evaluation 5. Potential odor control recommendations
Existing System Data Collection and Evaluation
Figure 1. North Texas Municipal Water District Upper East Fork Interceptor System
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Data Collection The following existing system data were collected and evaluated: S Existing and future collection system information, including pipe attributes and junction structure locations, from NTMWD’s geographic information system (GIS) database. S Hydraulic conditions according to NTMWD’s InfoSWMM (stormwater model-
ing and management) hydraulic collection system model for UEFIS: The 2020 scenario in the NTMWD hydraulic model was used for development of a sulfide model. S Historical odor complaints received by NTMWD from 2012 to 2017. A total of 60 complaints were received for the UEFIS area during this period and were geocoded on a map showing their location. S Information on existing vapor- and liquidphase odor control systems and strategies. The NTMWD operates 83 vapor-phase odor control units throughout UEFIS that include active and passive carbon cans, biological trickling filters, chemical scrubbers, and ionization systems. For liquid-phase treatment, chemicals are dosed at 10 lift stations, including the use of calcium nitrate and calcium hydroxide, as well as a combination strategy of ferrous chloride and hydrogen peroxide. S Odor sampling data collected by NTMWD, odor control vendors, and data collected as part of the 2013 odor control master plan.
Figure 2. North Texas Municipal Water District Odor Complaints from 2012 to 2017
Odor Complaint Analysis A total of 60 odor complaints were received for UEFIS from 2012-2017, as shown in Figure 2. Concerted odor control efforts helped NTMWD decrease the number of odor complaints received on an annual basis in 2016 and 2017. The NTMWD looks to maintain the recent low number of nuisance odor complaints and continues to be a “good neighbor.” Identification of Hot Spots and Sampling Locations Several data sources were utilized to identify hot spots in the system and develop a field sampling plan. The following existing system data were evaluated: S Odor complaint spatial data S Current vapor- and liquid-phase odor control S Pipe characteristics: materials of construction, diameter (criticality), slope, and type (force main versus gravity) S Hydraulic conditions: manhole drops, force main discharges, hydraulic jumps, average dry weather flows, average flow depths, and dry weather flow velocities As an example, Figure 3 shows the evaluation of odor complaints and force main discharge locations.
Field Sampling of Odor Parameters Field Sampling Plan The results of the existing system evaluation were used to develop a field sampling plan. Continued on page 56
Figure 3. North Texas Municipal Water District Odor Complaints and Force Main Discharge Locations
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Continued from page 55 Sampling locations were selected to capture critical points for odor generation and control, determine the effectiveness and/or optimization of current odor control strategies, and allow for calibration and validation of the odor and corrosion model. Site selection was also based on accessibility for field sampling activities.
Field sampling parameters included pH (liquid and surface), nitrates, total and dissolved sulfides, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), soluble biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), vaporphase H2S, reduced sulfur speciation (evaluation of up to 20 reduced sulfur compounds common to wastewater conditions, at limited sites), and
Figure 4. North Texas Municipal Water District Field Sampling Locations
differential pressure. Figure 4 shows the field sampling locations. Differential pressure and H2S were recorded with continuous data logging monitors. The diurnal H2S results were reviewed to identify the time of day when the peak concentrations occurred. Field Sampling Results Recognizing the seasonal variability of collection system odors, the field sampling was broken down into two phases: early spring and summer. The first two weeks of sample collection occurred during early spring 2018, and additional sampling occurred during summer 2018. Both spring and summer sampling consisted of two weeks. Week 1 sampling represented normal baseline chemical feed conditions; chemical feed rates were then reduced by approximately 50 percent for Week 2 sampling during each phase (elimination of chemical feed was not feasible due to the potential for offsite nuisance odor impacts). Field sampling included the following: S Two liquid grab samples were collected at each site for each week of sampling. S Odalogs were deployed at each site to measure vapor-phase H2S concentration continuously during the week of sampling. S Differential pressure loggers were also deployed at selected sites for several days during both weeks of sampling. The data represent the tendency of the collection system to push odors out (positive air pressure) or pull outside air in (negative air pressure) the sewer pipes through any air passageway, such as manhole cover pick holes, laterals, vents, etc. Since itâ€™s typical for odor and corrosion potential to increase with an increase in ambient temperature, sampling results for the summer were used to calibrate the sulfide model for the collection system and to understand the worstcase scenario for UEFIS. The collected sampling data were used to calibrate the H2S model and to develop and evaluate alternatives for odor and corrosion mitigation within UEFIS. As an example, Figure 5 shows the H2S vapor and dissolved sulfides for one of the sampling sites (and the differences between full- and half-chemical feed).
Figure 5. Vapor Hydrogen Sulfide and Liquid Dissolved Sulfides
December 2019 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
Bench-Scale Test Results At certain critical hot-spot locations that were identified from a review of the field sampling results, wastewater samples were collected at predetermined times to coincide with the elevated sulfide/H2S period of the day and brought back to a WWTP site, where bench-scale tests were performed. This effort was undertaken to determine an initial chemical dose that could re-
duce the wastewater sulfide concentrations to the target (less than 0.5 mg/l in this case), or the amount of chemical needed to raise the pH of the wastewater to above 8 (the level where ~92 percent of sulfide species are in ionic form and are not able to escape the liquid phase as H2S). The chemicals that were evaluated included ferrous chloride, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and a proprietary chemical blend of calcium hydroxide and calcium nitrate (AE25). The doses determined by the bench testing were used to assess initial costs for chemical application comparisons.
Development of Liquid Hydrogen Sulfide Model A UEFIS sulfide model was developed using NTMWD’s existing InfoSWMM hydraulic model, in conjunction with a sulfide water quality model module that simulates dissolved sulfide generation and transport in the collection system. Prior to incorporating the sulfide module, the 2015 dry weather flow scenario in NTMWD’s existing hydraulic model was updated to match flows and lift station operations during the field sampling events. The sulfide module was then added and calibrated to match field sampling results. After calibration, the sulfide model was run with 2020 flows and planned capital improvement projects (CIPs) to predict future sulfide generation in UEFIS. Vapor-phase H2S concentrations were estimated from the liquid-phase sulfide concentrations predicted by the model and the liquid-to-vapor sulfide ratios observed at each site during field sampling. Figure 6 shows the comparison of model and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) flows at various lift stations in UEFIS for Week 1 of the summer sampling. The modeling results were used to develop and evaluate alternatives for odor and corrosion mitigation within UEFIS.
Figure 6. Comparison of Model and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Lift Station Flows
Figure 7. Alternatives Analysis Approach
Odor Control Alternatives Development and Evaluation Alternatives Evaluation The hot spots identified in Tasks 1 and 2 and the calibrated H2S model developed in Task 3 were used to evaluate alternatives for UEFIS. The existing treatment and potential alternatives were analyzed by breaking UEFIS into subsystems so that treatment approaches could be developed for the unique characteristics of each subsystem, rather than applying a generic approach for the entire UEFIS. Once the subsystems were identified and calibrated, various strategies were evaluated to determine the optimal liquid-phase treatment.
The 2020 dry weather flow scenario in NTMWD’s existing hydraulic model was used to develop alternatives. The approach for each subsystem depended on whether the existing treatment meets the desired odor and corrosion control goals of < 0.5 mg/L dissolved sulfide in the liquid phase and < 20 ppm H2S in the vapor phase. If the subsystem met the treatment goals (Figure 7), analysis for that subsystem consisted of evaluating whether an existing chemical dose or treatment technique could be optimized to
continue to meet treatment goals, but at a lower cost. If the subsystem did not meet the treatment goals (Figure 7), then multiple liquidphase treatment techniques were considered and an approach was developed to meet the treatment goals. Odor Control Strategies/Options For individual subsystems, both vapor- and liquid-phase treatment options were considered. Continued on page 58
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Continued on page 57 The liquid-phase treatment options evaluated are shown in Figure 8. The chemicals evaluated under these categories included:
S S S S S
Ferrous chloride Ferrous chloride and hydrogen peroxide Calcium nitrate Magnesium hydroxide Dissolved oxygen
The vapor-phase treatment alternatives included: S Activated carbon adsorbers (existing practice) S Biological trickling filters (existing practice) S Ex situ electro-ionization systems (existing practice) S In-site hydroxyl radical ionization (potential supplemental treatment)
Potential Odor Control Recommendations A final long-term plan for each of the subsystems is in the process of being completed as ongoing and planned modifications to the collection system are considered. When complete, estimated costs will be developed for each alternative for each subsystem. Based on the estimated costs, the treatment effectiveness, and the criticality of the location, recommendations will be implemented for each subsystem.
Figure 8: Liquid Phase Treatment Options
This article was originally presented at and published in the proceedings for WEFTEC 2019. S
Register Now for the 2020 Florida Water Resources Conference Contests! Participants are encouraged to sign up for the Operations Challenge and Top Ops Competition, which will be held at the Florida Water Resources Conference in Palm Beach on April 26-29, 2020, at the Palm Beach County Convention Center.
Operations Challenge Treatment plant operators from across Florida will compete in the 31st annual Operations Challenge. Participants will be timed in five separate operational competitions to determine the state’s representative for the national Operations Challenge at WEFTEC 2020 in New Orleans. The contest promotes team building, leadership, education, and pride within a utility. Any utility that didn’t have a team in the 2019 contest is especially encouraged to participate in next year’s event. For information and entry forms, contact Chris Fasnacht, Operations Challenge chair, at 407-254-7224.
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Top Ops Competition The annual statewide Top Ops contest will also be held at the 2020 conference. Top Ops is the “College Bowl” of the water industry. Teams of one, two, or three water operators or laboratory personnel from the FSAWWA regions compete against each other in a fast-paced question-andanswer tournament at the conference. A moderator poses a wide range of technical questions and math problems, and the team scoring the most points in the final round is awarded the Florida Section AWWA Top Ops championship. The winning team will earn a trip to ACE20 in Orlando, where it will compete with teams from other American Water Works Association sections in the national Top Ops contest. Utilities throughout the state are encouraged to enter. Teams do not have to consist of employees of the same utility, and multiple utilities can sponsor a team. No video, audio, or digital recordings will be allowed during the competition. For registration forms, more details, and to receive the competition rules, contact the Top Ops Committee chair, Thomas Tackman, at 239-560-4149 or email@example.com., or visit www.fsawwa.org/topops. S
Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ December 2019
LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.
An Open and Shut Case (and the Ups and Downs) for Gate Valve Safety f you've ever had to install, repair, or replace a gate valve, you know how heavy, bulky, and awkward they can be to reach and move effectively. Adding insult to injury, water utility employees often work in wet conditions, making the gate valve slippery and hard to grip. To avoid accidents that can cost your company in terms of damaged materials,
employee morale, worker compensation claims, and legal problems, it's important to use precautions when working with gate valves. Water service must often be turned off temporarily while emergency repairs or routine maintenance are performed on a gate valve. Sometimes a gate valve must be manually operated and it’s necessary to isolate the area
where the work is being conducted. Because of the system’s location, such work often requires traffic control measures to be conducted safely. Manually operating gate valves can also cause a variety of bodily injuries, including sprains and strains of the back, knee, shoulder, elbow, and wrist. It’s important for employees to always follow safety procedures before, during, and after gate valve work.
Turning a Gate Valve On and Off In Traffic S Use warning lights and flashers if you stop your service vehicle in traffic. S If the valve is located in the middle of the road, park your vehicle between the valve and oncoming traffic. S Use traffic cones to mark your vehicle and work area to help protect you from oncoming traffic. S Wear appropriate protective equipment, which may include a hard hat, steel-toe safety shoes, work gloves, and a reflective safety vest. Operating the Valve S Remove the gate lid with a pry bar or other appropriate tool. S Use a valve key that is the correct size and length. You may have to use a key extension to get the proper length. S Make sure the key fits tightly on the valve nut. Watch out for rounded or spalled nuts. S When operating the valve, the key should be at chest level. Do not use a key that is too long (above your shoulders) or too short (below your waist). S Know the proper direction for opening and closing the valve. Some valves are left-hand turn. S Grip the valve key firmly with both hands when turning it. The 2018 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2018 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
S When operating the valve, maintain good footing, with your feet at least shoulderwidth apart. S Position your body as close to the valve key as possible. S Turn the valve key with slow, controlled movements. Bend your knees if necessary. S If the valve becomes too difficult to turn, ask another worker to help you, or use a valve operating machine. S Don’t leave the key on the valve unattended or leave it behind because it may present a hazard for vehicles or pedestrians, or provide unwarranted access to the water system. S Secure the gate lid when service is completed.
Lifting and Installing a Gate Valve The best way to safely lift a gate valve is to use mechanical assistance, in the form of a backhoe, forklift, or similar device to move the valve straight up or down into position. But how do you ensure that the valve will remain attached to the chain? A small slip can damage the valve, costing your company money for repair or replacement materials, in addition to any injury done to workers in the process. Some may use a chain or strap to lift a gate valve, which leaves the installer to deal with awkward angles and the risk of slippage or broken straps. One solution is to use a valve setter, which is attached at the valve nut and has a bar for lifting the valve safely and securely, minimizing the risk of damage or injury. Many municipalities will use a valve setter to safely lift the gate valve into position. The valve setter securely slides and locks under the operating nut. It has a loop handle design to attach a lifting chain to easily lift and lower the valve with a minimum of tilting and turning. Make sure any lifting device you use is tested and tagged with lifting capacity. If there is no alternative but to manually lift the gate valve, due to tight surroundings, lack of access, or other concerns, make sure that workers are doing so safely. Dry off the valve as much as possible first, to help improve grip; heavy-duty gloves can be used to help prevent slipping or dropping the valve by improving grip further. If possible, use a valve setter with a chain to a lifting bar or post to keep people out of the excavation area and on solid, dry ground, where multiple people can help lift the valve out, distributing its weight. Make sure that workers know to lift with their knees instead of their backs, and provide back braces where needed to provide extra support and prevent injuries. For more information, go to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) at www.osha.gov. S
News Beat The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) has joined with Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and several local governments to form a working group to address a crucial component of restoring America's Everglades. The SFWMD has also initiated a water quality study, which will evaluate the most technically feasible and cost-effective methods to reduce the discharge of harmful nutrients from the Caloosahatchee (C-43) West Basin Storage Reservoir, which is currently under construction. Reducing the discharge of nutrients will improve the quality of water released from that reservoir when it’s completed. The water quality study is one of two dozen Everglades restoration projects that Gov. Ron DeSantis has made a key priority for SFWMD. The study will evaluate alternatives to reduce discharge of nutrients from the C-43 reservoir, which will be evaluated using a costbenefit and trade-off analysis. The study will examine how cost-effective, available, and technically feasible chemical and physical treatment technologies for water quality improvement may be when applied to inflow, outflow, and/or in-reservoir water to reduce nutrient discharge. In addition to FDEP, local partners in the working group include the city of Sanibel and Lee County. "Any water that is discharged to the Caloosahatchee River should be clean and not add to the pollution that fuels harmful algae blooms," said Brian Hamman, Lee County commissioner. "The C-43 reservoir is key to solving our water issues during the dry winter months and storing some excess flows from Lake Okeechobee during the wet summer months. We're grateful that the district is taking steps to protect our water quality as this new water management tool is constructed." Said James Evans, director of natural resources for the city of Sanibel, "Water quality is fundamentally linked to the health and vitality of our local communities, and this project is a critical step towards restoring the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. We thank Gov. DeSantis for his leadership and commitment to restoring America's Everglades and our coastal estuaries." To learn more about the water quality study and all the key priority environmental restoration projects SFWMD is advancing, go to www.sfwmd.gov.
Raftelis, a water and wastewater rates consultancy, announced that it has acquired Public Resources Management Group Inc.
(PRMG), located in Maitland. It’s a similar firm, with a particularly strong presence in Florida and throughout the Southeast. The group brings to Raftelis’ portfolio in the water and wastewater sectors additional expertise in the electric, natural gas, and solid waste markets. It also has expertise in providing services for general government functions, such as recreation, police, fire, building, planning and zoning, and other governmental activities. “Over the past 25 years, our two firms have followed similar paths, and we have always had great respect for PRMG’s work and the reputation it has built in the Florida market,” said Peiffer Brandt, president and chief executive officer of Raftelis. “I’m excited to combine the staff expertise of both firms to provide added value and additional capabilities for our clients.” The acquisition adds 12 consultants to the Raftelis team, to be located in Maitland, and brings the Raftelis staff count to more than 100 consultants across the United States, with financial, management, and strategic communications expertise in the water and wastewater fields.
U.S. Sugar, a Florida farming powerhouse, has filed a lawsuit in federal court against the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, saying that the Corps is violating its own regulations and the National Environmental Policy Act. “Since November of 2018, the Corps has released unprecedented volumes of water from Lake Okeechobee, and as a result, it has recently driven the lake into the water shortage band, which requires the South Florida Water Management District to implement water shortage policies, during the rainy season,” said U.S. Sugar spokeswoman Judy Sanchez in a press release. The Corps manages Lake Okeechobee levels and has in recent years kept the surface of the lake between 12.5 and 15.5 feet above sea level in order to protect the lives, businesses, and properties around the lake, and to provide water for farming, drinking, and natural habitats. In its press release, U.S. Sugar suggests that it's aligned with environmental interests that filed a similar lawsuit against the Corps earlier this year. Those environmental groups, though, were asking the Corps to deviate from what's called the Lake Okeechobee Regulations Schedule (LORS), which sets the 12.5- to 15.5-foot requirement. The company, on the other hand, filed its lawsuit because the Army Corps did deviate from LORS. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! December 9-11 ......Backflow Repair*....................................St. Petersburg ......$275/305
Upcoming 2020 Classes January 13-17 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ..Orlando..............$350/380 13-17 ......Stormwater C ..........................................Osteen................$260/290 31 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen................$85/115
February 3-7 ......Water Distribution Level3 ....................Osteen................$225/255 3-7 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ..........Osteen................$225/255 10-14 ......Utility Maintenance Level 3 ..................Osteen................$260/290 28 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen................$85/115
Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or firstname.lastname@example.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also
December 2019 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.
CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. email@example.com
POSITIONS AVAILABLE WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!
U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d
Available Positions Include: Business Development Leader – Tampa Area Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings, 0-15 yrs. exp.) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com
MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d
CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.
Water Distribution Field Operator The North Springs Improvement District is seeking a water distribution and wastewater collection field operator. Applicant must obtain a level 3 water distribution license within 24 months or already be licensed by the Florida Environmental Protection Agency. You may obtain an application at https://nsidfl.gov/employment-opportunities.php and email your application and resume to MireyaO@NSIDFL.Gov. Excellent benefit package and FRS pension plan. https://nsidfl.gov/employment-opportunities.php
Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $47,675. - $90,281. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Industrial Pretreatment Technician Ace Industrial Pretreatment Technician needed to join our awesome wastewater team. Responsible for overseeing the City’s Industrial Pretreatment Program. Must hold at least a Class “C” wastewater license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $36,000 $42,000yr. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Melissa Tuck. EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.
Compliance Coordinator $49,348 - $69,437/yr. Utilities Electrician $54,406 - $76,555/yr. Utilities Foreman (Water & Storm Water) $49,348 - $69,436/yr.
Utilities System Operator II & III $40,598 - $57,127 / $42,628 - $66,130/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.
City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available Senior Utility Engineer, Project Engineer, Network Analyst SCADA, Industrial Electrician, Sr. Maintenance Mechanic, Maintenance Mechanic, Equipment Operator, Service Worker. Apply at www.titusville.com
Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. We provide water and wastewater services to a population of over 500,000 citizens and 72 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are seeking highly qualified individuals to fill positions for Senior Engineer and Section Manager. The Senior Engineer is responsible for advanced professional engineering work including the plan review process; coordinating with developers and engineers; and providing final review and approval for hydraulic analysis and utility plans for water, wastewater, and reclaimed water master utility infrastructure. The Section Manager manages the daily operations and maintenance of a 56 MGD Water Reclamation Facility; assists the Engineering Division in developing Capital Improvement Projects; prepares and manages the facility budget; oversees process control and lab data; and approves compliance reports. Senior Engineer, Utilities Engineering Annual Salary $79,310 Min, $97,261 Mid, $115,190 Max Section Manager, Water Reclamation Annual Salary $73,445 Min, $92,102 Mid, $110,760 Max Starting salary of external candidates is customarily below the midpoint based on qualifications. Apply online at: http://www.ocfl.net/careers Positions are open until filled.
Positions Available Wastewater Plant Operator A License Operator: $45,715 - $69,226 B License Operator: $41,797 - $62,695 C License Operator: $38,314 - $57,471 Conservation and Sustainability Specialist $51,375 - $77,063 Please visit bsu.us/employment-opportunities to learn more about the available opportunities and view full job descriptions. https://bsu.us/employment-opportunities
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Class “C” Water Plant Operator City of Gulf Breeze, FL Class C or higher Water Plant Operator to assist Water Plant Supervisor in performing full range of O&M requirements, regulatory compliance monitoring, sampling, reporting and record keeping for two Class C Water Plants and distribution systems. Pay Range $15.6124.98 DOQ. Full time, permanent position. Requires background check and drug screening. Requires active driver’s license. See city website for complete job listing at https://cityofgulfbreezektmle.formstack.com/forms/job_application_copy, email resumes to firstname.lastname@example.org
Lead - Sewer Collections City of Gulf Breeze, FL. Lead worker to perform full range of maintenance and repair activities involved in sewer collections conveyance systems, lift stations, control panels, remote monitoring and alarm systems for both gravity and pressure systems, and implement strategic initiatives, responsible for supervision and training of service workers. Pay Range $18.98-22.00 DOQ. Full time, permanent position. Requires background check and drug screening. Requires active driver’s license. See city website for complete job listing at https://cityofgulfbreezektmle.formstack.com/forms/job_application_copy, email resumes to email@example.com
Join this exceptional, dedicated and high-performing team and be a part of our exciting new programs including the Heavy Construction Team & FOG Program. Enjoy great benefits including Health, Dental, Vision, and Life Insurance, Short-Term and Long-Term Disability, Flexible Spending Accounts, free gyms and classes, EAP, Florida Retirement System (FRS) and many, many more! Open Positions Water/Wastewater Senior Manager Liftstation Maintenance & Equipment Operators Utilities Field Technicians & Crew Leader Utility Professional Engineer Utility Project Manager Compliance Maintenance Specialist Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Billing Supervisor Apply online today at www.scgov.net/jobs
City of Lakeland - Wastewater Plant Supervisor The City of Lakeland Water Utilities Department is accepting applications for the following positions: Wastewater Plant Supervisor Apply online at: https://www.lakelandgov.net/departments/human-resources/job-opportunities/ Open until filled.
Water or Wastewater Treatment Operator Woodard & Curran has an opening for a ‘C’ licensed Operator In either water or wastewater, preferably dual certified, in Groveland, FL. Background check and drug screen required. Please email resumes directly to: firstname.lastname@example.org See full posting at www.woodardcurran.com
Southeast Southwest Regional Manager Airvac is the global leader in the Vacuum Technology System conveyance industry. The Regional Manager will identify and develop business opportunities with new and existing customers as well as work with engineering firms to promote Airvac technology. Candidate will utilize a Sales Force CRM tool to track opportunities and capture contacts and manage sales leads. Strong communication and responsiveness along with a team approach is essential to grow sales revenue in multiple vacuum technology markets - municipal, transportation, pharmaceutical, correctional, stadiums, etc. Extensive networking with industry and municipal related professional groups is required. Specific United States territory will be determined, current open areas include the Southeast, Southwest or a combination of both. Opportunity to expand into additional territories may be considered. Approximately 50% travel is to be expected to effectively manage territory. Visit our career page at www.aqseptence.com for more information and to apply.
Aquatic Weed Technician Storm Water Operator The North Springs Improvement District is seeking an Aquatic Weed Technician. Individual must be willing to obtain their aquatic license. Must possess a valid Florida driver’s license to drive our district vehicles and pass a pre-employment drug test. Individual needs to physically be able to operate boats, lawn equipment, apply herbicides, and other chemicals to the District waterways. You may obtain an application at https://nsidfl.gov/employment-opportunities.php and email your application and resume to MireyaO@NSIDFL.Gov . Excellent benefit package and FRS pension plan. https://nsidfl.gov/employment-opportunities.php
POSITIONS WANTED JAMES ROBERSON – Holds a Florida C & B Water license with 12 year’s experience. Seeking employment in the Tampa, Pinellas or Pasco areas. Contact at 5401 Rainbow Dr. Temple Terrace, Fl. 33517. 813-442-2301
LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.
Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2019
Test Yourself Answer Key From page 51 January 2016
Editorial Calendar January ........Wastewater Treatment February ..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ................Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ............Disinfection; Water Quality September ......Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ............New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ........Water Treatment December ........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.
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1. B) 70 percent. Per the FDEP Florida Stormwater, Erosion, and Sediment Control Inspector Certification Training and Certification webpage (FSESCI webpage), “This program is a two-day class that follows the curriculum provided in the Florida Stormwater, Erosion and Sedimentation Control Inspector’s Manual Tier I, and Tier II. Upon the completion of the class, a proctored examination is administered and approximately one hour is given to complete the exam. In order to obtain the FDEP qualification certificate, a minimum passing grade of 70 percent must be made on the exam.”
2. D) nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Per the FDEP FSESCI webpage, “The classes will help develop a better knowledge of how to properly manage the impacts from solids (TSS), turbidity (NTUs), and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and other surface water contaminates. Florida’s stormwater program is technologybased, using performance standards and BMP design criteria. The use of innovative techniques and specifically designed erosion control systems are encouraged in order to prevent or limit erosion and sedimentation problems during and after land disturbance and construction activities.”
3. D) Water erosion Per the FSESCI Tier I Manual, “Water erosion is generally caused when raindrops falling on bare or sparsely vegetated soil detach soil the particles, but it may also be caused directly by flowing water (e.g., uncontrolled dewatering discharges or stream flow). Water flowing over the ground picks up the particles and carries them. As the runoff gains velocity, it forms channels and detaches more soil particles. This action cuts rills and gullies into the soil, adding to the sediment load.”
4. C) topography. Per the FSESCI Tier I Manual, Section 1.4, Four Factors Influencing Erosion, “Four principal factors determine the inherent erosion potential of an area: 1. soil characteristics, 2. vegetative cover, 3. topography, and 4. climate (rainfall).”
5. C) perimeter controls. Per the FSESCI Tier I Manual, Section 3.4, Perimeter Controls, “Perimeter controls intercept and detain small amounts of sediment from disturbed areas during construction operations. These measures include silt fences, filter socks, temporary diversion berms, temporary fill diversions, temporary slope drains, and floating turbidity barriers. They are the last line of defense and one of the most visible and maintenance-intensive BMPs on an active construction site.”
6. A) chemical treatment. Per the FSESCI Tier I Manual, Chapter 5.1, “This chapter discusses four principal types of control technologies for dewatering: sediment traps and sediment basins, weir tanks and dewatering tanks, filters, and chemical treatment . . . These technologies and approaches provide options to remove sediment. The size of the particles in the sediment and the receiving water's limitations for sediment are key considerations for selecting sediment treatment option(s); in some cases, the use of multiple devices in a ‘treatment train’ may be appropriate.”
7. B) One or more acres of land AWWA ACE20 ............................................................................................30 AWWA Water Equation ............................................................................31 Blue Planet Environmental Services ......................................................67 CEU Challenge ..........................................................................................47 Data Flow Systems ..................................................................................38 Engineered Pump ....................................................................................10 Ferguson ..................................................................................................39 Florida Aquastore ....................................................................................21 FSAWWA Membership..............................................................................29 FSAWWA Membership Recognition ........................................................28 FWPCOA Online Training ..........................................................................53 FWPCOA Training Calendar ......................................................................62 FWRC Exhibitor Booth Layout ..................................................................13 FWRC Attendee Registration....................................................................15 FWRC Exhibitor Registration....................................................................14 FWRC Exhibitor Information ....................................................................12 Grundfos ..................................................................................................27 Hudson Pump & Equipment ....................................................................19 Hydro International ....................................................................................5 J&S Valve..................................................................................................35 Lakeside Construction ..............................................................................7 Stacon ........................................................................................................2 UF Treeo ....................................................................................................59 Wright-Pierce ..........................................................................................43 Xylem ........................................................................................................68
December 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Per the FSESCI Tier II Manual, Chapter 6.1, Introduction, “The construction general permit (CGP) is primarily required for construction activities disturbing over an acre or more that require the inspection and maintenance of best management practices (BMPs) to control erosion and sediment. These types of activities are regulated under the federal National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program in Florida. The CGP provides for the temporary control of stormwater impacts using temporary BMPs during the construction phase, when land disturbance activities are most significant.”
8. B) construction general permit (CGP). Per the FSESCI Tier II Manual, Chapter 7.1, Purpose of the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan, “The SWPPP documents how to comply with the requirements of the CGP. The SWPPP must be developed before an NOI is submitted to FDEP to use coverage under the CGP.”
9. B) Every seven calendar days and after every storm event that is one-half inch or greater. Per the FSESCI Tier II Manual, Chapter 7.1.1, What Must the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan Contain? “Inspections – Inspections must be carried out at least once every seven calendar days and within 24 hours of the end of a storm event that is one-half inch or greater (even if it rains on the weekend or a holiday).”
10. C) Complete a completed notice of termination (NOT) form to FDEP within 14 calendar days. Per the FSESCI Tier II Manual, Chapter 7.2, Submitting a NOT, “Within 14 calendar days after your site has achieved final stabilization and all discharges authorized by this permit are eliminated or are authorized under a separate NPDES permit, you must submit a completed NOT form. Additionally, the following items must be completed before submitting a NOT, according to the CGP, Part 7: • All dewatering discharges authorized by this permit have ceased. • All construction activity discharges authorized by this permit have ceased. • The elimination of stormwater discharges associated with construction activity means that all disturbed soils at the site have been finally stabilized, that temporary erosion and sediment control measures have been removed or will be removed at an appropriate time, and that all stormwater discharges associated with construction activity from the site that are authorized by the CGP have been eliminated.”
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