Florida Water Resources Journal - November 2021

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1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Mish Clark

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Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Salute to Veterans in the Water and Wastewater Industry

10 Happy Veterans Day! 10 Duval County Veterans Memorial Wall: A Tribute to Fallen War Heroes 12 Governor’s and Mayor’s Challenges to Prevent Suicide Among Service Members, Veterans, and Their Families 15 Meet Christopher Isaiah Moss: Operations Group Shift Lead at Tampa Bay Water, Iraq and Afghanistan War Veteran, and Recipient of 2021 A.P. Black Award—Marta Madigan and Jay Madigan

News and Features


4 Connecting the Biosolids Community—

8 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 24 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Fred Bloetscher 34 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 38 Let’s Talk Safety: Cutting Water Pipe Safely With Power Saws 40 Reader Profile—Nigel Noone 48 FWEA Focus—Ronald R. Cavalieri

Justin Jacques

6 Students Receive $24,000 in Scholarships for 2021 18 International Public Works Study Tour Opportunity for Public Works Professionals 20 Solar Farms, Power Stations, and Water Treatment Plants: Attractions Instead of Eyesores—Margaret Birney Vickery 46 News Beat

Technical Articles

Departments 51 Classifieds 54 Display Advertiser Index

42 Investigating Bromide Leakage During Anion Exchange Regeneration—Daniel A. Whalen and Steven J. Duranceau

Education and Training 23 CEU Challenge 28 FSAWWA Fall Conference Calendar of Events 29 FSAWWA Fall Conference Registration 30 FSAWWA Fall Conference Incomng Chair's Reception and BBQ Challenge 31 FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker Night and Happy Hour 32 FSAWWA Fall Conference Golf Tournament 33 AWWA Member Appreciation 39 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference Call for Papers 41 TREEO Center Training 47 FWPCOA Training Calendar 50 AWWA Water Industry Scholarship

Volume 72

ON THE COVER: The American flag, a patriotic symbol that helps to commemorate Veterans Day. (photo: Jim Peters)

November 2021 Number 11

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Connecting the Biosolids Community New talent and resources affirm WEF’s commitment to sustainable biosolids management Justin Jacques Water resource recovery professionals have long understood that when processed correctly, fertilizers made by repurposing wastewater biosolids can often represent a safer, cheaper, and more sustainable soil amendment compared to manure or chemical-based fertilizers. While biosolids reuse in the United States has become more common in recent decades, its adoption has been sluggish because of inconsistent regulatory guidelines, gaps in research, and the social stigma of recycling human waste. The Water Environment Federation (WEF) is taking several new steps to help overcome these obstacles. It recently released a new communications toolkit to help utilities and biosolids managers build support for biosolids recycling using simple, science-backed messaging. The organization also established a new staff position, hiring Maile Lono-Batura, former executive director of Northwest Biosolids in Gig Harbor, Wash., as its first director of sustainable biosolids programs. “Biosolids is a central product of the wastewater treatment process, a vital part of

resource recovery and the circular economy, and beneficial for communities in many ways,” said Lynn Broaddus, WEF president. “We are increasing our investment in biosolids programs and are thrilled to add Maile’s expertise and experience to our team.”

A Unified Voice With more than 20 years of experience leading a multistate biosolids association, LonoBatura is uniquely suited for her new role, which will involve unifying biosolids recycling practices and regulations that vary by region and state. In a February 16 “Words on Water” podcast interview, Lono-Batura described her goal to create a “collective platform” for biosolids research, advocacy, and knowledge-sharing at the national level. Much of her work will center on sharing resources among biosolids-management groups to reduce redundancies and amplify messaging, she said. “For those of us in the field of biosolids, we know how important it is to have a unified voice around biosolids so that we’re all singing from the same song sheet,” Lono-Batura said. “It’s going to be a challenge, for sure, but it’s such a worthy challenge to me.” The new WEF Biosolids Communications

Toolkit, accessible at bit.ly/WEF-biosolids, will help jumpstart Lono-Batura’s work by providing customizable bill inserts, fact sheets, social media infographics, and other materials that convey key messages about biosolids in simple, accessible terms. Each resource available in the free toolkit works from cited, peer-reviewed sources and aims to reach different stakeholder groups, including those both inside and outside the wastewater sector. For example, some resources cover strategies for managing media coverage of biosolids programs, while others tout the benefits of biosolids-based fertilizers for farmers. “We ‘geek out,’ and that’s not a bad thing within our circle,” Lono-Batura said, “but we lose people pretty quickly if we cannot relay the importance of what the research has found, whether it be favorable or unfavorable.” Although much of WEF’s existing activity in sustainable biosolids has been technical in nature, Lono-Batura’s new role indicates a growing focus on the social and logistical aspects of the biosolids challenge. She will not only work alongside biosolids professionals among WEF’s membership, but also with regulators, environmentalists, the media, and others. “There is a whole team of people, not just within WEF, but within and beyond the biosolids community that we can be aligning with—that part is what really excites me,” Lono-Batura said. “We need to speak beyond our sector and connect with people we normally don’t to see what common ground we have and how we can join forces on soil building, climate change, and producer responsibility.”

Regulation and Research

Maile Lono-Batura

4 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The new director position and communications toolkit promise to advance national coordination on biosolids recycling, but they are only the latest actions. In November 2019, for example, WEF invited leading biosolids experts from across North America to its headquarters in Alexandria, Va., for a strategic conversation that identified ways to improve biosolids programs and better promote their adoption. Among other recommendations, meeting attendees described needs for better risk assessment methods for contaminants of emerging concern, new training and certification programs, and more-robust communication among producers, farmers, and researchers. Continued on page 6

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16 Students Receive $24,000 in Scholarships for 2021 Goulds Water Technology, a Xylem brand, has announced this year’s recipients of the Goulds Professional Deal Association (GPDA) scholarships. Sixteen students will each receive a $1,500 scholarship, totaling $24,000. Recipients were chosen based on academic standing, volunteerism, and leadership skills. As a resource for GPDA members, the scholarship emphasizes the company’s support and commitment to independent dealers. The scholarships will help students obtain higher education at a college or technical school. Taylor Newman, a resident of Lithia,

Taylor Newman

Continued from page 4 Experts also called for an update to federal government guidance on biosolids use, as most states currently implement their own biosolids regulations. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Part 503 Rule, established in 1993, remains the only federal regulation governing land application of biosolids. Despite advancements in treatment technology that result in cleaner, safer, and more-viable biosolids, the Part 503 Rule has never undergone a substantial update. Read more about the meeting’s outcomes at http://bit.ly/ WEF-biosolids-report.

is one of 16 students being awarded a scholarship. The scholarship program is open to students in the United States and Canada. “Every year, we have the opportunity and privilege of supporting 16 young students in pursuit of their dreams in higher education,” said Susan O’Grady, director of marketing– building services and agriculture at Xylem Inc. “Financial uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic still lingers for many families. Through these scholarships, we are honored to support our dealers’ families and contribute to the future success and professional development of these students.” The GPDA is a network of independent water system professionals established in 1969 and is the industry’s oldest and largest dealers association. The professional network provides independent dealers with extensive technical and product training and has graduated more than 20,000 dealers and distributors from its education center. The GPDA scholarship recipients are family members of GPDA members. Since its inception, the annual scholarship program has awarded more than $348,000 to 304 recipients. The full list of the 2021 GPDA scholarship recipients is as follows: S Grayson Wiggins: San Angelo, Texas – Water Logistics S Christopher Nagle: Hermitage, Penn. – Parker Brothers Well Drilling Inc. S Erin Saunders: Westminster, Md. – Legacy Septic and Excavation S Ashley Maggiora: Hollister, Calif. – Maggiora Bros Drilling Inc.

Five new technical resources were published by WEF in 2020 that deal exclusively with biosolids management. Covered topics include the financial costs of managing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), measuring and managing greenhouse-gas emissions during the synthesis process, bioenergy-focused publicprivate partnerships, and more. These technical resources can be accessed at https://www.wef.org/ biosolids. From May 11-13, 2021, WEF hosted its annual Residuals and Biosolids Conference in a virtual format, which provided access to the latest

6 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S C layton Royall: Luling, Texas – Royall’s Windmill & Pump LLC S A bbey Herendeen: Clifton Springs, N.Y. – Herendeen Brother Corporation S Th omas Palermo: Monroe, Conn. – A & A Systems Control Inc. S H annah Wheeler: Odessa, Texas – Wheeler Drilling S D avid Hartley: Chocorua, N.H. – Hartley Well Drilling S J ason Neidigh: Shippensburg, Penn. – Rosenberry Septic Services S C alvin Christensen: Hartington, Neb. – Christensen Well and Irrigation S T aylor Newman: Lithia, Fla. – Kens Well Drilling S J axson Cadwallader: Atkinson, Neb. – Schrunk Well Service Inc. S L ukas Adamek: Yoakum, Texas – Chandler Drilling Inc. S C aroline Hilliard: West End, N.C. – Jack’s Supply Inc. S E velyn McKenny: Baldwin, Md. – Sweet Air Plumbing Inc. To learn more about GPDA and its scholarship program visit https://info. xyleminc.com/gpda-program.html. To learn more about Goulds Water Technology go to www.goulds.com. Listen to “In the Field with Goulds Water Technology,” a series dedicated to the residential water and irrigation industries on the Xylem podcast "Solving Water" on Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, Spotify, or anywhere podcasts are available. S

research in biosolids management, perspectives from biosolids-sector changemakers, and one-ofa-kind networking opportunities. This article originally appeared in the April 2021 issue of Water Environment & Technology. Reprinted with permission from the Water Environment Federation. All rights reserved. ________________________________________ Justin Jacques is the Water Environment & Technology departments editor. He can be reached at jjacques@wef.org.


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Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Backflow Prevention and Cross Connections? Donna Kaluzniak

1. P er Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-550, Drinking Water Standards, Monitoring, and Reporting, what would be considered a cross connection?

a. A connection between a water main and a potable water service to a house. b. A temporary connection between a private water well and a potable water main or service. c. A connection between a storm drain and a sanitary sewer service. d. A potable water main and a sanitary sewer main located 6 feet apart. 2. P er the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) website, Cross Connection Control and Backflow Prevention Program (Cross Connection website), backflow is the undesirable reversal of flow of nonpotable water or other substances through a cross connection and into the piping of a public water system or a consumer’s potable water system. What are the two types of backflow? a. b. c. d.

B ackpressure and backsiphonage C ommercial and industrial H igh-risk and low-risk R educed pressure and extreme pressure

3. P er FAC 62-555, Permitting, Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Public Water Systems, each community water system (CWS) must establish and implement a cross connection control (CCC) program and written plan utilizing backflow protection to protect the CWS from contamination caused by cross connections on a customer’s premises. Which CWSs must prepare and submit cross connection control program annual reports?

a. b. c. d.

9. P er FAC 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application, for Part III Public Access Reuse Systems, except as specifically allowed, where must hose bibbs be located?

4. P er FAC 62-555, what is a minimum component that each CWS must include in its written CCC plan?

a. b. c. d.

udget amount for the CCC program B Contracts for CCC program execution Legal authority for the CCC program Number of dedicated staff for the CCC program

5. P er FDEP’s Cross Connection website, which mechanical backflow preventer is effective against backpressure backflow and backsiphonage and may be used to isolate health or nonhealth hazards?

a. b. c. d.

ouble check valve assembly (DC) D Pressure vacuum breaker assembly (PVB) Reduced-pressure principle assembly (RP) Residential dual check valve (rdc)

6. Per FDEP’s Cross Connection website, an air gap is a vertical, physical separation between the end of a water supply outlet and the flood-level rim of a receiving vessel. This separation must be at least twice the diameter of the water supply outlet and never less than 1 inch. An air gap is considered to provide the maximum protection available against backpressure backflow or backsiphonage, but why is this form of backflow prevention not always used? a. Difficult to inspect b. I nstallation cost too high c. M ay be easily bypassed d. P rocess in nonmechanical

7. Per FAC 62-555, how often must backflow preventer assemblies required for nonresidential services be tested?

a. b. c. d.

Annually Biannually Every six months Every three years

8. P er Table 62-555.360-2: Categories of Customers for Which Each Community Water System (CWS) Shall Ensure Minimum Backflow Protection is Provided at or for the Service Connection from the CWS to the Customer, what type of backflow prevention assembly is required for a car wash?

ll CWSs A C WSs serving more than 3,000 persons C WSs serving more than 5,000 persons C WSs serving more than 10,000 persons

a. D C c. RP

8 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

b. P VB d. rdc

a. b. c. d.

bove ground for easy inspection A In locked and labeled vaults or service boxes No hose bibbs are allowed in reuse systems On private property only

10. P er FAC 62-610, all reclaimed water valves and outlets shall be appropriately tagged or labeled bearing what words in English and Spanish?

a. D o Not Drink c. Reclaimed Water

b. N onpotable Water d. Reuse Water

Answers on page 54 References used for this quiz: • Florida Administrative Code 62-550, Drinking Water Standards, Monitoring and Reporting, https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter=62-550 • Florida Administrative Code 62-555, Permitting, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Public Water Systems, https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ ChapterHome.asp?Chapter=62-555 • Florida Administrative Code 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application, https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter=62-610 • Florida Department of Environmental Protection Cross Connection Control and Backflow Prevention Program website: https://floridadep.gov/water/ source-drinking-water/content/cross-connectioncontrol-and-backflow-prevention-program

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com


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HAPPY VETERAa NS DAY! Welcome to the magazine’s fourth annual celebration of military veterans who work in the water industry. We’re honored to acknowledge these brave men and women who proudly served their country, both here and abroad, and who are again serving American citizens by working as water professionals. Along with medical personnel, police officers and firefighters, and first responders, those who work in the water industry provide a vital service and help to protect the health and well-being of the community. Water is a precious resource—one we can’t live without—






and all water workers play a vital role in ensuring that everyone has all of the clean, safe water they need every day. This section includes information on the governor’s and mayor’s challenges program to prevent suicide among service members, veterans, and their families; an interview with a veteran who now works in the water industry; and a story about a Florida veterans memorial. To those selfless veterans who are our colleagues: we thank you and salute you!






Duval County Veterans Memorial Wall: A Tribute to Fallen War Heroes The City of Jacksonville is home to the nation’s second largest veterans memorial wall, second only to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial In Washington, D.C. The quarter-million dollar monument was dedicated in November 1995 and serves as a tribute to more than 1,600 Jacksonville-area American war heroes. The outdoor memorial is promoted as the largest of its kind and the only wall that honors veterans from all six service branches (Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Merchant Marine). The 65-foot-long black granite monument contains the names of servicemen and women from World War I through the War on Terror. In front of the wall stands a torch with an eternal flame.

The wall is outside of the Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena. The original Jacksonville Coliseum that was on the site was imploded on June 26, 2003, and replaced with the $130 million arena building. Extreme care was taken not to damage the black granite memorial wall located just 8 feet from the east wall of the building. After the debris was cleared, a 2-acre walking park was added to the area around the memorial.

Dedication from President George H.W. Bush.

The Memorial Wall.

10 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

An additional 2,500-pound base and 5,000-pound panel were added to the wall area in 2005 to provide space for those killed in Iraq and Afghanistan, but it became clear that the single panel would not be sufficient, based on the course of the war, so one more was added prior to the Memorial Day ceremony in 2010, the 15th anniversary of the monument. Ten names were added in 2010, four of which are on the most recent panel, which brings the total number to over 1,600. Four more names were added in 2014. The wall was rededicated on its 20-year anniversary in November 2015. Each year, on Memorial Day, thousands of Gold Star families, veterans, local military leadership, elected officials, and citizens honor the fallen heroes whose names are permanently inscribed on the wall. The names of those who

The eternal flame.

The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena.

have fallen in the defense of freedom over the previous year are also added. All those named on the wall perished during a time of declared war and listed Jacksonville as their home of record. Members of the public are permitted to nominate veterans for inclusion on the Veterans Memorial Wall subject to confirmation by the Military Affairs and Veterans Department. To

The original Jacksonville Coliseum.

be eligible for nomination and consideration, the veteran being nominated must meet the following criteria: S Th e deceased was on active military duty at the time of death. S D uval County was the legal residence of the deceased, using the same criteria as the supervisor of elections, highway safety and motor vehicles department, or a tax

collector, or the deceased attended a Duval County high school. S The death of the deceased occurred while the United States was involved in a declared war. S The cause of death for the individual to be added to the wall cannot have occurred during the commission of a felony.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Governor’s and Mayor’s Challenges to Prevent Suicide Among Service Members, Veterans, and Their Families The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA) has partnered with the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to bring the program, Governor’s and Mayor’s Challenges to Prevent Suicide Among Service Members, Veterans, and Their Families, to states, cities, and communities across the United States. Thirty-five states are taking part in the challenge and are working to develop and implement statewide suicide prevention best practices for service members, veterans, and their families (SMVF), using a public-health approach. Twenty-two communities were originally engaged as part of the challenge. Currently, 19 challenge teams are actively participating; seventeen of the communities are within participating Governor’s Challenge states and one was added in 2021. The SAMHSA’s SMVF

TA (Technical Assistance) Center is providing technical assistance for both of these initiatives.


Challenge Objectives The objectives of the program include the following: S Convene a state (Governor’s Challenge) or city/community (Mayor’s Challenge) interagency military and civilian team of leaders to develop an implementation plan to prevent suicide among SMVF that will advance the VA’s “National Strategy for Preventing Veteran Suicide,” and incorporate evidence-based strategies from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) program, “Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices.” S Implement promising, best, and evidence-



based practices to prevent and reduce suicide at the national level. Engage with city, county, and state stakeholders to enhance and align local and statewide suicide prevention efforts. Understand the issues surrounding suicide prevention for SMVF. Increase knowledge about the challenges and lessons learned in implementing best policies and practices by using state-to-state and community-to-community sharing. Employ promising, best, and evidencebased practices to prevent and reduce suicide at the local level. Define and measure success, including defining assignments, deadlines, and measurable outcomes to be reported.

Participating Governor’s Challenge States The following states are currently participating in the Governor’s Challenge:

Suicide Prevention Model

12 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Governor’s Challenge Teams S Alabama S S Arkansas S S Florida S S Illinois S S Kentucky S S Maryland S S Michigan S S Mississippi S S Montana S S New Hampshire S S New York S S Ohio S S Pennsylvania S S South Carolina S S Texas S S Virginia S S West Virginia S S Wyoming

A rizona C olorado G eorgia K ansas L ouisiana M assachusetts M innesota M issouri N evada N ew Jersey North Carolina Oklahoma Rhode Island T ennessee U tah W ashington W isconsin

Participating Mayor’s Challenge Communities Some Mayor’s Challenge teams are city-based, some are county-based, and some are based in a local geographic region that crosses county lines. Mayor’s Challenge Teams S A lbuquerque, N.M. S A ustin, Texas S B illings, Mont. S M ontgomery County, Tenn. S H elena, Mont. S H illsborough County, Fla. S H ouston, Texas S J acksonville, Fla. S K ansas City, Mo. S L as Vegas, Nev. S L awton, Okla. S L os Angeles, Calif. S M ecklenburg County, N.C. S O klahoma City, Okla. S P hoenix, Ariz. Continued on page 14

Program Phases and Actions

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Continued from page 13 S R ichmond, Va. S S uffolk County, N.Y. S T ruckee Meadows, Nev. S T ulsa, Okla.

Team Composition Governors, mayors, or county commissioners appoint team leaders to serve as the point of contact and coordinator for the challenge process. Team leaders then receive technical assistance to design a strategic interagency team composed of individuals with the ability and authority to advance and implement statewide policy and practice changes. Teams are encouraged to include both military and civilian representatives as described. Perhaps most critically, teams are encouraged to include suicide prevention coordinators representing the state public/behavioral health agency, VA, and National Guard. S S enior-level representatives/policy makers are included from the following: • G overnor’s/mayor’s/commissioner’s office representative • G overnor’s Challenge • Suicide prevention coordinators from state, VA, and National Guard • State agencies responsible for mental health, substance use, and VA • National Guard • Reserve Affairs • Medicaid and/or Social Security Administration • VA’s Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) serving the state • Veterans Experience Office • M ayor’s Challenge • MyVA community veterans engagement board • VA local suicide prevention coordinator • National Guard suicide prevention coordinator • State public health suicide prevention coordinator • State SMVF team leader

S A service member or veteran and/or a family member of a service member or veteran Teams are also asked to consider including other members, such as: S SMVF peer support leaders S Veterans service organizations S Military and veteran caregivers S State and/or local legislators S State/local training leadership S Leadership from federally recognized tribes S Private-sector leadership from innovative programs serving the needs of SMVF, such as community mental health clinics, community service boards, and crisis service systems S Individuals with expertise in labor/ employment, criminal justice, housing/ homelessness, primary care, substance use and mental health services (including suicide prevention), and child/family issues S Individuals representing advocacy groups, social/public health organizations or coalitions, and the faith-based community This cross section of military and civilian agencies allows the teams to effectively plan for increased coordination of efforts and integration of SMVF into their existing state/local suicide prevention plans. Creating a representative team is a critical phase of the work as it builds collaborative working relationships across sectors that are too often isolated. This process also allows for initiatives to be championed, coordinated, and disseminated across many sectors.

Framework for Planning: Ensuring a Comprehensive Approach The VA program, “National Strategy for Preventing Veteran Suicide,” provides a framework for integrating and coordinating suicide prevention activities across multiple sectors. The Governor’s and Mayor’s Challenges advance the principles of the national strategy by facilitating policy-topractice implementation plans. These plans will serve as instruments of change, providing a best-

14 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

practice public health model that demonstrates meaningful results in suicide prevention. The four interconnected strategic directions of the VA national strategy are as follows: 1. Healthy and Empowered Veterans, Families, and Communities 2. Clinical and Community Preventive Services 3. Treatment and Support Services 4. Surveillance, Research, and Evaluation In addition, the CDC program, “Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices,” is used to help teams incorporate evidence-based strategies and best practices into their planning. The Governor’s Challenge is an intensive process that takes each state team through the stages of both a policy academy model and an implementation academy model. These models offer a proven process and foundation for bringing policy-to-practice change in state behavioral health care systems.

Key Efforts and Accomplishments Key accomplishments for the Governor’s and Mayor’s Challenge teams include the following: S Reducing suicide among service members, veterans, and their families. S Increasing access to services and support. S Expanding statewide capacity to engage SMVF in public and private services. S Enhancing provider and SMVF peer practices. S Forming cross-system military and civilian consensus on priorities and plans for action. S Identifying critical data elements to measure impact and quality of care. S Strengthening the continuum of care. S Transferring knowledge on evidence-based practices, policies, and strategies that are effective across teams. For more information about the program go to www.samhsa.gov.

Christopher I. Moss.

Marta Madigan and Jay Madigan Celebrating National Veterans and Military Families Month, we sat down with Christopher I. Moss, 39, whose family members served in the military fighting in every war since the Revolutionary War. Before settling in Florida, Moss traveled the world, from New Jersey to Germany, Iraq, Afghanistan, and 20 other countries. Water meandered through each stop on his path, which began in Paterson, N.J., famous for its roaring Great Falls of the Passaic River. After joining the military in 2000, he became an Army water treatment specialist conducting water operations in Europe and Asia. Moss transitioned to his civilian career in water in 2016, the same year he retired from the Army. This year, he received a bachelor’s degree in water resources management from Florida Gateway College. On November 30, he will present his first paper, “Turn the Tide: Veterans and the Future of Water," at the FSAWWA Fall Conference in Orlando.

Meet Christopher Isaiah Moss: Operations Group Shift Lead at Tampa Bay Water, Iraq and Afghanistan War Veteran, and Recipient of 2021 A.P. Black Award You sit in front of two large computer screens. Is all of your work computerized? As the operations lead the bulk of my daily duties requires me work on the computer. Ordering chemicals, monitoring supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), completing daily reports, purchasing equipment, supervising operators, checking water quality, approving payments to vendors—the list goes on. Plus, every operator does some type of manual labor. Some days, it can be light; other days are heavier. Let’s go back in time. You are from Paterson, New Jersey. Tell us about your hometown. Growing up in Paterson, I learned that my city was known for a lot of history. Paterson is the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution here

in the United States, promoted by Alexander Hamilton. His use of the Great Falls, one of the largest waterfalls in the country, is why they called Patterson “Silk City.” It’s also home to the boxer Rubin “Hurricane” Carter. In short, there is a lot of water and history in this town. When did your adventure with water begin, professionally? My water career began when I received orders to change my profession in the Army and to report to training in Fort Lee, Virginia, in 2004. A year later, I was in Iraq for a 12-month tour, then again in 2008 to 2009. Just a few months after I returned from Iraq, I went to Afghanistan. Germany was my home station for 12 years of my military career. Continued on page 16

Marta and Jay: You wear a cuff bracelet on your left wrist. Is there a story behind it? Christopher: I wear this band to honor one of my sisters in arms, Staff Sgt. LaQuita Shree Robinson, who passed away while in service. She was also a water treatment operator. Throughout my time in the service, I have lost several brothers and sisters. I try every day to provide the best quality water to honor them. You are a water operator. Where do you work? I have been employed at Tampa Bay Water since 2018. I have been an operations group shift lead there since October 2020.

Christopher I. Moss with Lt. Gen. Jack Stultz, Commander of U.S. Reserves Forces in Afghanistan. (photo: courtesy of Chris Moss)

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Water Falls By Jim Jarmusch, from his 2016 movie “Paterson.”

Chris with his wife, Monica, and daughter, Rosa.

Continued from page 15 You were an Army water treatment specialist working alongside and training soldiers from other countries. What did you learn in the Army and how did it help you to transition to civilian life? I have conducted water operations in Germany, Poland, Iraq, and Afghanistan. The Army gave me many skills, including team building, conflict resolution, personnel management, ways on improvising to complete a task, and leadership. I learned how to successfully multitask. Are there many veteran operators? I have worked with several operators who are veterans in our industry. I would like to see more veterans working in water in the future. What does it take to transition from an Army water operator to a civilian water operator? The path of transition is not a direct route. People will generally consider military experience; however, there are specific requirements for each state certification. To become a licensed operator, 2080 hours of contact time or work experience are required. There is no policy yet in place in Florida that will help veterans with this process. As an American Water Works Association (AWWA) veteran liaison for the Tampa Bay area, I am working together with a team from every Florida Section AWWA region in the state to move forward with

Water falls from bright air It falls like hair Falling across a young girl’s shoulders Water falls Making pools in the asphalt Dirty mirrors with clouds and buildings inside It falls on the roof of my house It falls on my mother and on my hair Most people call it rain.

Chris with his daughter, Rosa.

an initiative that will bring veterans and hiring managers on the same page.

a vet reading this, please show up. Let’s fill that room. You too can help tell our story.

Has anything changed in Tampa Bay Water since COVID-19? We adapted quickly to COVID changes. As a result, we were able to keep supplying water to our valued customers. One change was to keep social distancing.

You have a 3-year-old daughter. What can you do to make sure she has an abundance of clean water when she grows up? Her name is Rosa or, as I like to call her, Lady Moss. This is one of the reasons I have elected to pursue a master’s degree in water resources policy and management at East Central University. Throughout the country there is a challenge in sustaining water and making sure we will be able to meet future water demands. I hope to contribute to improving water efficiency and quality for the future.

Thinking about the future, how can we protect utilities from hacking? Operation security, or OPSSEC, which is the military term, is crucial to the water industry. With the innovation of technology, preventing hacking is very important to providing safe drinking water to protect public health. I believe a closer partnership with information technology (IT) departments will help prevent hacking, as IT is no longer just the division that fixes computer issues and resets your password. It’s a critical part of how we defend against terrorist attacks. Educating those in the water industry of this will help prevent hacking; not being complacent is another way. Congratulations on receiving the 2021 A.P. Black Award in the water treatment operator category. What’s next? The FSAWWA Fall Conference. On November 30, at 9:40 a.m., I will present a paper on veterans and the future of water. It will outline how the experience of a veteran’s return to civilian life can both benefit from and serve the urgent needs of the water industry. If you are

16 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Thank you Chris and your brothers and sisters in arms for your service! Marta Madigan pens articles about local and ethnic foods. She’s contributed words and photos to Edible Orlando magazine for nearly a decade, previously working for the Polish edition of National Geographic. Jay Madigan serves as chair of the FSAWWA Membership Engagement and Development Council. He volunteers as executive director of the Lake Cane Restoration Society, a nonprofit dedicated to protecting Florida’s raw water resources. He owns the forprofit JJMadigan LLC facilitating excellence of local and international, and public and private, water organizations. Three photos of Moss and his family by Richard Lowe (evodesignphoto.com) S


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International Public Works Study Tour Opportunity for Public Works Professionals

John Milne

Public works professionals looking to expand their knowledge and further technology exchange may apply now for the coveted Jennings Randolph International Fellowship, which is annually sponsored by the American Public Works Association (APWA) and provides up to $2,500 for travel and related costs to the winning fellow or fellows. The deadline for applications for 2022 is Nov. 15. The fellowship program is a unique international study and professional exchange opportunity that promotes collaboration and sharing of public works best practices, knowledge, and innovation, both internationally and with public works colleagues in North America. `“This is an amazing opportunity for already skilled professionals to learn how public works professionals in other countries are helping their communities, with particular focus on one of APWA’s top five technologies,” said Scott Grayson, APWA chief executive officer. “What our 2022 fellows will learn on their study tours will help their communities back home and that new knowledge will be shared widely with APWA’s 30,000 members.” The APWA’s top five technologies are: S Geographic information systems (GIS) and asset management S Integration S Small cell/5G S Virtual public engagement S Technology for field crews The two Jennings Randolph International fellows for 2021 are: S John Milne, Clark County, Wash.; public works design engineer

Yuejiao Liu

18 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Y uejiao Liu, Austin, Texas; public works project manager supervisor The 2021 fellows work study tour was postponed due to COVID-19 travel restrictions; therefore, the 2021 fellows plan to travel this fall. Liu’s public works study tour will be in Denmark, where she will present at the Association of Technical Directors in Danish Local Authorities (KTC) Annual Conference. Milne’s study tour will take him to Adelaide, Australia, where he will present at an upcoming Institute of Public Works Engineering Australasia (IPWEA) International Public Works Conference. Through the program, APWA strives to further these international principles: S To provide an opportunity for individuals to broaden their knowledge and exchange experiences and information on technologies and advances in public works through contact with APWA’s international partners. S To promote friendship and understanding among public works professionals on an international basis. S To provide a venue for the exchange of information between APWA and its international partner countries. The Jennings Randolph International Fellowship Program is named after former West Virginia U.S. Rep. and Sen. Jennings Randolph, who was chair of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works from 1966 through 1981 and was known as the “Dean of Public Works.” The fellowship was established in 1987 and the program is administered by the APWA International Affairs Committee. S


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Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Solar Farms, Power Stations, and Water Treatment Plants: Attractions Instead of Eyesores Margaret Birney Vickery Amid the economic and social fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, many people see the process of restarting society as a chance to do things differently. Some organizations are calling for big investments in infrastructure, both to generate jobs and to promote green economic growth. Projects that sound worthy in the abstract can meet stiff resistance when it’s time to break ground locally. For example, in 2012 I served on a committee tasked with choosing an energy provider to build a solar farm on an old landfill in the town of Amherst, Mass. Neighbors, who were not consulted, fought to preserve a bucolic meadow that had grown up on the landfill site. After several lawsuits, the project died an unhappy death. This debacle got me thinking. As an architectural historian, I knew that Americans had not always been so disconnected from facilities that produced necessities like food, energy, and clean water. My new book, “Landscape and Infrastructure: Re-Imagining the Pastoral Paradigm for the 21st Century,” explores how Western views of the systems that sustain society have evolved. It also highlights contemporary projects that successfully marry infrastructure and community into places where people want to be.

Infrastructure as art: Jacob van Ruisdael, “Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede.” (photo: from the collection at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam)

The ha-ha in front of Heaton Hall, Heaton Park, Manchester, U.K.

20 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Art Objects and Tourist Attractions In European landscape paintings from the 17th and 18th centuries, such as Jacob van Ruisdael’s Dutch landscapes, windmills compete with church spires for prominence on the skyline. This wasn’t just an aesthetic choice: painters focused on windmills because they generated wealth and prosperity. Classic English landscape gardens include a feature called a ha-ha, which is a grassy trench running across a lawn and reinforced by a sunken wall that was invisible from the main house. This created a view of what looked like unbroken lawn, grazed by sheep and cattle— key sources of wealth and prosperity—while separating visitors from the animals and their waste. In the 19th and 20th centuries a handful

of architects and artists wrangled with weaving infrastructure and nature together. Frederick Graff ’s 1823 Fairmount Water Works protected Philadelphia’s water supply and drew hordes of visitors to admire its NeoPalladian architecture and landscape park along the Schuylkill River. In the 1930s Frank Lloyd Wright envisioned a utopian community called Broadacre City, which was his Depressionera answer to urban planning. This project, which was never built, wove together gardens, industry, and residences into what he called a Usonian society—one that offered Americans deeper connections with nature and productivity.

Going Industrial Yet as societies industrialized, artists and landscape architects began to downplay or separate industry and infrastructure from their views of nature. People came to understand nature as something unspoiled and separate from modern communities—a view that still dominates today. As cities and suburbs expanded in the 19th and 20th centuries, so did power stations, water treatment plants, and wastewater facilities. Increasingly, these structures were built on the industrial fringes of metropolitan areas, out of sight and out of mind. Often they were located in underserved communities that lacked the political clout to object. Even renewable energy systems, for all of their green cachet, often perpetuate this destructive tradition. Many solar farms across the United States are lifeless slabs encircled by chain link fences, taking up land and habitat. For most of us, the idea that infrastructure can be inviting and aesthetic seems contradictory.

Thomas Doughty, “View of the Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, from the West Bank of the Schuylkill River,” 1826. (photo: from the collection at the Philadelphia Museum of Art)

A solar farm in Hadley, Mass., that produces renewable electricity. (photo: Margaret Birney Vickery)

Productive and Attractive What’s the alternative? In my book I highlight recent infrastructure projects with creative teams that included artists, architects, or landscape architects, and invited community input. These facilities don’t just generate electricity or process waste; they also offer recreation and education, and connect visitors to the sources of their energy and drinking water. The water filtration plant in Hampden, Conn., completed in 2005, is one such ecological and aesthetic asset. The structure, which resembles an inverted silver teardrop, emerges from a landscape carefully designed to mimic the filtering processes that happen within the building. Paths and ponds around Continued on page 22

Lake Whitney Water Purification Plant, Hamden, Conn., 2005. Steven Holl Architects, Michael van Valkenburgh Landscape Architects. (photo: Elizabeth Felicella)

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


On the sloping roof of the Amager Bakke Waste-to-Energy Plant, Copenhagen, 2018 (artist’s rendition). © SLA Landscape Architects

Continued from page 21 the site provide recreation, education, and wildlife habitat. The Solar Strand at the University at Buffalo, N.Y., designed in 2012, is a dramatic contrast to fields of solar panels arranged in unbroken rows. Laid out like a strand of DNA, irregular placement of arrays creates breakout spaces for outdoor classrooms. Paths meander

through, wildflowers bloom, and rabbits graze. It’s a place of learning and recreation that showcases the school’s commitment to clean energy. Copenhagen’s Amager Bakke waste-toenergy plant, completed in 2019, converts trash to electricity and provides an artificial ski slope and climbing walls for visitors. The ski track on the plant’s sloping roof is bordered

Hillerød Renseanlaeg Water Treatment Plant, 2019. © Henning Larsen Architects

22 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

by green plantings that spread seeds across the surrounding landscape. Waste-to-energy plants are highly unpopular in many places, but developers built a new apartment complex near Amager Bakke to take advantage of the recreational opportunities it offers. The Solrøgård Energy, Climate, and Environmental Park, opened in 2019 in Hillerød, Denmark, is home to a recycling center, geothermal energy system, and stateof-the-art wastewater treatment plant. The plant features two buildings, bifurcated by rainwater gardens and flowering trees, tucked within the landscape. Paths lead over their grassy roofs, and large windows offer views of the treatment processes taking place inside. All of these facilities involve the surrounding community, educate the public, and include nature and the landscape. Such creative approaches could have avoided the bitter dispute Amherst experienced in 2012. Projects like these demonstrate that infrastructure can do more than provide energy and water—it can also create aesthetically welcoming spaces for society. As U.S. leaders consider how to restart the economy, I believe they should consider investing in projects that are not only productive, but enhance and revitalize the communities around them. Margaret Birney Vickery is a lecturer in art history at the University of Massachusetts. Amherst. She receives funding from the university for research. S

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Water Treatment. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Investigating Bromide Leakage During Anion Exchange Regeneration Daniel A. Whalen and Steven J. Duranceau (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS02015392) 1. Th e city initiated this pilot study targeting which of the following feed water contaminants?

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onochloramine. m p er- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). p olyphenols. b romide.

a. b. c. d.

1 0 percent salt 2 0 percent salt P otassium bicarbonate F iltered sea water

4. Th e removal of positively charged ions in an ion exchange system is known as a. b. c. d.

c ation exchange (CIX). i on exchange (IX). a nion exchange (AIX). P IX.

5. W hen blended with a 33 percent bypass of the city’s ion exchange system feed water, the total trihalomethane concentration of ion exchange treated water

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a. b. c. d.

3. W hich of the following resin regeneration sources provided the best results in this program?


LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

hloride C S ulfate O rganics T rihalomethane

2. F ive of the currently regulated disinfection byproducts contain

Article 1 ____________________________________

a. b. c. d.

a. b. c. d.

i ncreased. d ecreased. r emained unchanged. i ncreased in some samples, decreased in others.

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021



Everyone Has Challenges With Water Fred Bloetscher, P.E., Ph.D. Chair, FSAWWA


appy November! The FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference will be held at the end of the month, and we are planning to be live! Vendor booths and tabletops sold out in September and a full lineup of technical sessions is planned for Monday through Wednesday morning. The conference will have COVID-19 protocols in place because we just can’t shake the ‘vid. It’s part of the “new normal,” which is our conference theme for this year.

What’s the New Normal for Society? So, let’s talk about what the new normal means. Let’s start with the economy and work our way to those looming threats we may have to deal with in the coming year. I will use COVID as the start of the new normal, but I doubt it will be the entire answer. Those of you who have read my blogs, or my infrastructure management book, know that I believe that those in our industry need to understand how the economy works, and how local and national trends impact our livelihood, as we saw after the financial system meltdown in 2008. Our revenues and expenditures were impacted, capital projects got delayed, deferred maintenance needs increased (and are still not resolved), new building construction stopped, growth halted (and contraction set in), and people lost jobs. To make matters worse, our water and sewer funds became the “solution” for lost tax revenues.

Economic disruption on the national (and world) stage impacts what we do, yet we are expected to keep on doing it (i.e., provide safe water and wastewater services to our customers). We also had elected officials trying to “help” residents by lowering water rates, which further eroded needed revenues. Some utilities were still in recovery mode after 2008—trying to get the general fund out of the utility (and maybe pay it back!) when 2020 hit. A new economic challenge was presented by COVID. In many states the economy shut down and schools closed in an attempt to slow the spread of the virus, while we endeavored to develop vaccines and figure out the best way to address those who became critically ill. There were lessons learned during the flu epidemic in 1918 and subsequent pandemics that were mostly controlled, like Ebola and H1N1, through masks, social distancing, rapid vaccine production, and keeping kids home from school. When COVID hit, many changes happened: S Restaurants moved from in-room dining to takeout, so they no longer needed wait staff and dishwashers. S Online shopping became the norm for many people and retail service staff was not retained. S Technology meant there was no need to travel for so many meetings. We realized that travel creates a huge amount of unproductive time, keeping us from getting things done, but airlines, hotels, in-person restaurants, bars, and other services withered due to lack of business traveling. S Whole industries, like banking, engineering, legal, accounting, and similar professions, were done remotely, which means you don’t need offices or the office staff. S Availability of people increased as a result of changes in cellphone and online meeting patterns, which meant, in some cases, productivity soared, while in other cases

The next generation of water employees.

24 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

people could not escape the interruptions to be productive. S Remote learning for children became common, which altered work patterns and the need for accommodations for parents. S H ome offices were built and houses were fixed up, so construction costs increased due to competition for products and supply-chain challenges. The upside to all of this is that many companies stayed in business and many people kept on working, but there was a downside. Many of the support-staff positions may never return—many stores in retail malls are vacant, restaurants have fewer seats, business travel may remain depressed, and childcare needs may prevent workers from returning to their old jobs. Many of these lost jobs are lower-wage positions, compounding the economic challenges for many. This new age of uncertainty will fundamentally change some communities, creating a need to retrain workers to do new jobs—but what are the new jobs? For those jobs that did return, workers are sending a message that they will go back to work when they feel safe and better-compensated. Kossek and Perrigino (2016) identified a series of job-security challenges affecting many workers: S The rise of job insecurity and precarious work. S The intensification of work. S The increased use of technology and its impact on currency of skills, how work gets completed, when it gets completed, etc. S The blurring of work/nonwork boundaries. S Work/life conflicts. Being available around the clock exacerbated the immediate-gratification challenge that had been growing in the working world, increasing work stress. The challenges associated with not interacting with other people have created a host of mental and emotional challenges: loneliness,

isolation, focus issues, and depression, among others. During the pandemic, Panchal et al. (2021) noted that four in 10 adults in the United States have reported symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorder, a share that has been largely consistent, up from one in 10 adults who reported these symptoms before the pandemic. Kearney et al. (2021) found that over 40 percent of adults say the coronavirus has had a negative impact on their mental health and that “school closures and lack of childcare had an even larger impact on parents with children.” Negative impacts on workers’ mental health and well-being include “difficulty sleeping (36 percent) or eating (32 percent), increases in alcohol consumption or substance abuse (12 percent), and worsening chronic conditions (12 percent) due to worry and stress over the coronavirus.” Because emotional trauma, like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), normally lasts longer than the event, these mental and emotional challenges will impact us over the next few years, creating a whole host of stress-induced syndromes. Added to this is an increase in attention deficit disorder in kids (too little supervision and too many distractions), and many kids seem to have lost most of a year of school. Economic disruption extends far beyond just money—it can

fundamentally change society. But other issues were exposed as well.

What’s the New Normal for the Water Industry? So how does all of this affect utilities? First, there’s the economics. More remote work and shopping could mean less commercial building, which impacts the tax base. Less demand for commercial office space and retail space may cause current commercial values to fall, compounding the tax-base issue, which means politicians will look to water and sewer funds to balance generalfund budgets, just like they did after 2008. Demands will be altered, affecting treatment, supply, and revenues. The commercial sector often drives per capita water use, so less commercial activity could cause reductions in water use by current employment sectors (meaning less revenue). Bedroom communities may have higher demands, since people are home more, creating a need to find more water and wastewater treatment capacity there. Both will impact spending on deferred maintenance needs and may alter the current distribution of services. Work will change. Many employees will ask for and expect remote work options. Demands for flexible hours, accommodations for home

childcare, benefits, and less stress on the job may be required to secure these workers as well. These will be job benefits that will need to be available going forward to attract and retain workers. Yet, while some jobs can be done remotely with little disruption, those done by field workers and operators cannot. Like construction, those jobs require people to be at the worksite. Since the economy requires safe water and sewer services, we should consider reclassifying our operators and field staff as essential workers, just like police and firefighters, because we, like they, provide public health, safety, and welfare services to the community. The competition for products that have supply-chain challenges is apparent. Disruptions exposed the fact that the supply chain for products is far weaker than we thought. Getting simple things, like medicine, toilet paper, disinfectants, etc., could easily be disrupted by world economic events. Because American industries outsource so much to other countries to take advantage of low labor costs and keep prices down, the economy is subject to more disruptions. The differences across the world with COVID, business openings and closings, and transportation have slowed the economic recovery because components are not readily available in Continued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Continued from page 25 some sectors. For example, the lack of computer chips from Taiwan and China has impacted automobile manufacturing in the U.S. Those F150s (and others as well) are sitting in Detroit waiting of chips, increasing costs and delaying arrival. Many utilities rely on work trucks for their operations. Supply chains affect chemical use as well. Utilities have shut down ozone systems because the oxygen is needed for hospital ventilators. Other chemical costs have increased due to supply-chain and demand factors. The ability to react to price

changes in current budgets demonstrates the lack of “nimbleness” the elected officials have in reacting to these challenges, something we all knew. That needs to change if we are to secure the products and services we need. Lumber costs went up by a factor of five, and the price of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials doubled in three months. Both have retreated recently, but not to pre-COVID levels. As we have already seen, some workers, fed up with the stress on the job, may figure they have invested well enough to leave the job market permanently—there may be as many as 11 million

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26 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

workers who made this choice. With them went a huge amount of institutional knowledge. Utilities are not immune to this worker shortage. Paying more to get field employees who will work onsite in an environment where they can be exposed to COVID will be an enduring challenge for us. And as for knowledge capture— well, we need to start using computer tools to collect that knowledge before it’s permanently lost. Utilities are among the most at risk to this knowledge loss. Geographic information systems (GIS) and other tools, when integrated with field staff, can provide engineers and managers with the data needed to make better decisions. Top-down approaches may be less valuable. So, the immediate challenges are many, but it takes little to see the next set of challenges. Other crises affect our industry, and our ability to meet the challenges presented is critical to our success. Climate change, for one, is going to alter the water balance. Too much, too little, wrong time, too much uncertainty—these factors are already driving change to our perceptions of water supplies (potable reuse is on the table now!). The sustainability of water supplies, and their reliability, are going to drive options like potable reuse when the population continues to grow and climate is a supply-disruption factor. Data continue to indicate that we are not spending enough to catch up with the deferred maintenance obligations. More problematic is the way to calculate these involved replacement values, which are climbing rapidly. So, another major challenge it to figure out your assets and how far behind you currently are. Then there is the need to prioritize infrastructure repairs and replacement to reduce risk (Bloetscher, 2019). I’m currently working on a model for this that is simple to implement, but some costs are staggering and will require major changes in rates and investments. With the need to build sustainable infrastructure is the need to be able to sustain finances, build strong reserves, bank money for large expenses, and perform ongoing replacement of pipelines. Bond issues create a need to raise rates, so paying as you go can help, but most rates are not what they need to be to create the sustainable finances, and elected officials pushing back to raising rates is significant in many communities. Finally, there’s that people problem. The lack of candidates for operations and field jobs is troubling. A major discussion point at our recent FSAWWA past chairs forum is that low local government pay scales may be a barrier to these jobs. Maybe of our operations people need to get paid like the essential frontline workers they are. Already local governments have been priced out of the engineering graduate market. The students are getting offers that average nearly $70,000 per year, plus benefits. Many government

pay scales for engineers start in the high $40,000s and low $50,000s, so there is no chance to get highquality candidates at these pay scales. Pay-scale adjustments indicate that costs will rise, which will require local entities to adjust and adapt, but costs for consultants will also increase in line with the laws of supply and demand for these employees. There are starting salaries of $25,000 per year for operators and field jobs, which is below the poverty level in many communities. Operator and field staff salaries are probably far off of what is needed, so people will only come to work “when they feel safe and better-compensated.” We may need to pay a lot more to attract and keep new people. Comparing ourselves to other utilities gives us bad feedback; we need to look at similar skills in other industries, like construction. Once people are found to do the work, there is a need to keep training them, retaining them, and creating a positive environment. We need to bring in more of the next generation of people to the industry, which means overcoming many barriers. While pay and flexibility are issues, they are not the only ones. A recent survey of the water industry noted that the biggest issue identified by both seasoned workers and young professionals (YPs) was the existence and perception of too much politics in the industry, from both local and

state governments. The YPs saw this as a bigger issue than the non-YPs (see Figure 1). People do not like to work in difficult environments. There are agencies where the environment is just too toxic, with lack of trust, authoritarianism, competition, favoritism, poor communication, too many politics, etc. Retaining good people is impossible in these situations (good people are the first to leave). It means we need to build good leadership across the industry that will improve the workplace and advocate for the public. It’s hard to define good leadership because it comes in many forms and is often specific to the approach to a situation. A football quarterback, who is a great leader on the field, might not be the best choice to lead the reorganization of a major corporation (Bloetscher, 2019). Both positions require leadership, but the skill sets required for the positions are situational. The same survey I mentioned indicated that the YPs saw leadership within professionals more than non-YPs. No other category more greatly differed between groups. Interestingly, neither group saw leadership at the executive or political level (see Figure 2). So, let’s consider COVID as a portent of the future challenges we will face—it was the trial run. It has identified certain issues that need to be dealt with now. It told us we are too slow to

react and too slow to communicate the correct message. Leadership, judgment, consideration, accommodations, and embracing our team are needed in the new normal. This is part of our public health, safety, and welfare obligations.

References • B loetscher, F. 2021. Engineering Ethics and Professionalism. JRoss, Plantation, Fla. • Bloetscher, F. 2019. Public Infrastructure Management. JRoss, Plantation, Fla. • Kearney, Audrey 2021. Mental Health Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Update. Published April 14, 2021, https://www.kff.org/coronaviruscovid-19/poll-finding/mental-health-impact-ofthe-covid-19-pandemic/. • Panchal, N.; Kamal, R.; Cox, C.; and Garfield, R. 2021. The Implications of COVID-19 for Mental Health and Substance Use. https://www. kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/theimplications-of-covid-19-for-mental-healthand-substance-use/. Published Feb. 10, 2021. • Shaukat, N.; Ali, D.M; and Razzak, J. Physical and Mental Health Impacts of COVID-19 on Healthcare Workers: A Scoping Review. Int J Emerg Med 13, 40 (2020). https://doi. org/10.1186/s12245-020-00299-5. S

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November 28 to December 1, 2021 Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress

Sunday, November 28, 2021 10:00 AM - 12:00 PM 12:00 PM - 5:00 PM 1:00 PM - 5:00 PM

Executive Committee Meeting Registration Board of Governors Meeting

Windsong 1-3 Grand Cypress Foyer Windsong 1-3

Monday, November 29, 2021

7:00 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 9:00 AM 9:30 AM 10:00 AM 10:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 PM 12:00 PM 12:00 PM 11:30 AM 2:30 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM 9:00 PM

- 6:00 PM - 11:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 5:00 PM - 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 10:30 AM - 11:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM - 2:30 PM - 2:30 PM - 2:30 PM - 2:30 PM - 1:00 PM - 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM - 9:00 PM - 12:30 AM

Registration Workshop 1A: Looking Down the Road- What to Expect in the Regulatory Future Workshop 1B: Automation and SCADA Technology Workshop Workshop 1C: Get Your Research On Workshop 1D: Utility Systems Symposium Top Ops & Operators / Maintenance Council Meeting Member Engagement & Development Council Meeting Finance and Rates Committee Meeting Distribution Division Meeting Public Affairs Council Meeting Water Use Efficiency Division Meeting Automation Committee Meeting Workshop 2A: CyberSecurity 2021 Workshop 2B: From High School to Hired Workshop 2C: Utility Finances in Challenging Times Workshop 2D: Water Conservation Symposium Regions / Council Chairs Lunch Meeting Opening General Session Exhibit Hall Meet & Greet BBQ Challenge & Incoming Chair's Reception Poker Tournament

Grand Cypress Foyer

7:00 AM 8:00 AM 8:15 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 9:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 10:00 AM 9:30 AM 11:00 AM 11:30 AM 11:30 AM 1:00 PM 1:00 PM 1:00 PM 1:30 PM 1:30 PM 1:30 PM 1:30 PM 1:30 PM 2:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 4:00 PM 4:00 PM 4:00 PM

- 6:00 PM - 6:00 PM - 9:15 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:00 AM - 4:00 PM - 11:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM - 1:00 PM - 1:00 PM - 2:00 PM - 2:00 PM - 2:30 PM - 3:30 PM - 4:30 PM - 4:30 PM - 4:30 PM - 4:30 PM - 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM - 5:00 PM - 5:00 PM - 5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Registration Exhibit Hall Open (closed 11:30 am – 1:30 pm) Continental Breakfast Session 1A: Potable Reuse Session 1B: SEDA/Membranes Session 1C: Navigating the New Normal Session 1D: Lead & Copper FWRC/FWRJ Board Meeting Full STEAM Ahead Youth Program Young Professionals Meeting Backhoe Rodeo Water Equation Committee Meeting Ductile Iron Tap Competition High School Academy Students Session Students / Young Professionals Lunch Contaminants Committee Meeting Technical & Educational Council Meeting Fun Tap Competition Workshop: Negotiating – The New Normal Session 2A: Asset Management Session 2B: Addressing Water Treatment Process Improvements Session 2C: Collaboration, Communication, and Protecting Critical Knowledge Session 2D: PFAS/PFOS Young Professionals Water Bowl Water Utility Council Meeting Young Professionals Poster Session FL2040 Committee Meeting Meter Madness Water Quality & Resources Division Meeting Meet & Greet

Grand Cypress Foyer

7:00 AM 8:00 AM 8:15 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 9:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 PM 5:00 PM

- 12:00 PM - 12:00 PM - 9:15 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:00 AM - 2:00 PM - 8:00 PM - 9:00 PM

Registration Exhibits Continental Breakfast Session 3A: GIS, SCADA, and Asset Management Session 3B: Alternative Water Supplies Session 3C: Alternative Water Supplies Session 3D: Water Treatment - Disinfection By-Products Hydrant Hysteria Competition Annual Business Lunch & Awards Ceremony Tear Down / Move Out Golf Tournament

Grand Cypress Foyer Grand Cypress Grand Cypress

Tuesday, November 30, 2021

Wednesday, December 1, 2021

Grand Cypress Portico Patio La Coquina & Alcove

Grand Cypress

Self-Parking Lot Self-Parking Lot

Self-Parking Lot

Grand Cypress Grand Cypress Foyer Grand Cypress Grand Cypress

Grand Cypress Windsong 1-6 Grand Cypress Top Golf Orlando *Other Rooms TBA

REGISTRATION Online Registration Deadline: November 15, 2021 fsawwa.org/2021fallregistration



Includes: Monday Workshops, Opening General Session, BBQ, Technical Sessions, Exhibits, Meet & Greet (Does not include Utility Systems Symposium, and Business & Awards Luncheon)


On-Site Registration

By Nov. 1

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Workshops, Technical Sessions and Exhibits Please select a day:

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0.8 CEU/8.0 PDH



Register online is strongly recommended at: www.fsawwa.org/2021 fallregistration Questions:

E-mail: peggy@fsawwa.org | Phone: (407) 979-4804 Note: A 30% service fee will be retained on any cancellation by Nov. 1. No refunds after Nov. 1, 2021.

Hotel Accommodations

Host hotel is Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress. The special rate is $159. Visit fsawwa.org/2021hotel


RECEPTION & CHALLENGE Monday, November 29, 2021 6:00pm | Hyatt Regency Portico Patio

Come join the festivities which include the BBQ, networking, entertainment and toast to Emile Moore, our 2022 Section Chair. BBQ is serious business! BBQ teams from utilities and firms from around the state compete in Culinary Abilities with beef brisket, chicken, pork ribs, and pork butt. 1st place trophies for each category, and of course, BRAGGING RIGHTS for Overall Champion! The FSAWWA Contractors Council is seeking your support by sponsoring the FSAWWA's Fall Conference Annual BBQ Competition and Incoming Chair's Reception.

Opportunities to Sponsor

To sponsor, please contact:

Bar Sponsor | $750 Company Logo on banner by the bars Food Sponsor | $500 Company Name on banner by the side items

Mike Alexakis malexakis@whartonsmith.com or use this link:

Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 1, 2021.

www.fsawwa.org/2021BBQ Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Poker Night & Happy Hour Monday, November 29, 2021 9:00 pm to midnight Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress

Register Today:

Opportunities to Sponsor Straight | $50

• One of four at a game table sponsors • Logo on a prominently displayed

sponsor board at the registration table

Registration will open August 2

fsawwa.org/2021poker It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Terry Gullet at tgullett@neptunetg.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.

Pre-Paid Buy-ins: Blackjack Buy in | $20.00 (2000 in chips) Poker Buy In | $40.00 (5000 in chips) At the Door Buy-ins: Blackjack Buy in | $30.00 (2000 in chips) Poker Buy In | $50.00 (5000 in chips) Grand Prize: 50” HDTV!

Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 1, 2021.

Full House | $150

• One of two at a game table sponsors • Logo on a prominently displayed •

sponsor board at the registration table 2 Blackjack or 2 Poker Buy-ins

Royal Flush | $250

• Sole game table sponsor • Logo on a prominently displayed •

sponsor board 4 Poker Buy Ins or 5 Blackjack Buy-ins

Any contribution of prizes is greatly appreciated for the worthwhile cause. Pre-purchase Buy-In and Table Sponsorships through Conference Registration. Buy-Ins may be purchased at the door during first hour of play with a credit card, personal check, or cash. Space is limited so pre-purchase to ensure that you have a chance to win. Entry tickets and chips have no cash value. Once they are purchased no refunds will be given. Only paid entries and sponsors will be allowed access to the hall.

Golf Tournament

Wednesday, December 1, 2021 Registration starts at 5:00 pm Event: 6:00 - 9:00 pm Come enjoy a fun golf experience and network with water industry professionals. Your participation will benefit Water Equation and Water For People. Register Today:

fsawwa.org/2021golf Location:

TopGolf Orlando 9295 Universal Blvd. Orlando, FL 32819 (407) 218-7714 | topgolf.com/us/orlando

Entry: Entry Fee includes: Entry into the tournament, buffet food, 2 drink tickets per person, and fellowship with Conference attendees Individual/Additional Registration | $125 Individuals will be placed into bays with other registrants Individual Utility Operator Registration | $50 Individuals will be placed into bays with other registrants Social Attendee | $50 Come mingle with friends and colleagues (Food and 1 Drink Ticket included)

Opportunities to Sponsor Eagle Sponsor | $850

• Your company’s logo streaming • • •

on all TVs of the tournament bays. Recognized with signage at bay. 1 bay with up to 6 entries. Recognition at the awards ceremony.

Birdie Sponsor | $750

• Recognized with signage at bay. • 1 bay with up to 6 entries. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. Par Sponsor | $200

• Recognized with signage. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. Food & Beverage Sponsor | $500

• Recognized with signage. • Recognized on rotating bay displays. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Chase Freeman at Cfreeman@spiritgroupinc.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.

Rain or shine, let’s play golf for a great cause.

Thanks to You, We Are



Together, we are: Innovative, Resilient Stewards of the Community, Champions of Diversity & Inclusion. We appreciate your participation. Thank you for your membership.

Enjoy 20% off in the AWWA store now through Dec. 31. Use promo code THANKYOU at checkout.* *Exclusions may apply.

32244_Member Appreciation.indd 1

10/4/2021 1:58:55 PM


Conventional Lime Softening: Another Water Treatment Method Explained Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA


reetings everyone. November is here and we are moving into the holiday season. I hope you all have a healthy and happy Thanksgiving with your family and loved ones. For this column, I would like to continue with the basic concepts of water treatment and talk about conventional lime softening.

The treatment of water with high hardness in conventional treatment processes is still practiced in many locations, although membrane softening has become more popular with the advancement of low-pressure membrane options. Membranes do offer the advantage of removing dissolved inorganics, as well as organics in groundwater that are high in hardness, and natural organics, such as humic and fulvic acids. Conventional lime softening will usually treat this type of groundwater with a coagulant as part of the lime softening process where the organics are a concern. Conventional lime softening is usually accomplished in conventional solids contact treatment units of some design. Lime and/

Lime softening treatment unit

34 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

or soda ash, also known as sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), is introduced to the water supply entering the treatment unit reacting with the hardness in the water, forming a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitate that is removed as a solid. The treatment process is usually preceded by aeration to strip carbon dioxide (CO2) from the raw water as the lime will react with the CO2 to form CaCO3 precipitate. Hardness in water is caused primarily by calcium and magnesium ions in solution. Total hardness, for practical treatment purposes, is considered to equal the sum of the calcium hardness and magnesium hardness in both the carbonate and noncarbonate forms. Softening with lime is achieved by means of chemical precipitation. By adding a controlled dose of quick lime, which is calcium oxide (CaO), usually as a slurry in the form of calcium hydroxide, or Ca(OH)2, the pH of the treated water is raised to the point where calcium bicarbonate, or Ca(HCO3)2, and magnesium bicarbonate, or Mg(HCO3)2, are converted to CaCO3 and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). This reaction converts the Ca(HCO3)2 from a soluble state (in solution) to an insoluble state (out of solution) and settles out as a solid. The MgCO3 is still soluble, so a second reaction is needed to convert it to an insoluble form. More lime is added to the point where MgCO3 converts to an insoluble state forming magnesium hydroxide, or Mg(OH)2, which will precipitate as a solid. Optimum pH for calcium removal is 9.4 standard unit (SU) and optimum pH for magnesium removal is 10.5 SU. A typical softening range is 80 to 90 mg/L. Carbonate hardness is removed by the addition of hydrated lime, or Ca(OH)2, in the form of a slurry. S C alcium noncarbonate hardness is removed by Na2CO3. S Magnesium noncarbonate hardness is removed by Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3. Once the softening process is completed, the treated water will have a high pH, depending on the extent of the hardness removal process.

The water must be stabilized after the treatment process. Stabilization of softened water is usually accomplished by recarbonation. This method involves bubbling CO2 gas into the treated water in order to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), a weak acid that dissociates and releases hydrogen ions (H+), which then react with the excess Ca(CO)3 and Mg(OH)2 and converts them back to the soluble forms as Ca(HCO3)2 and Mg(HCO3)2. Another method used to stabilize softened water is referred to as split treatment. Only a portion of the raw water is softened and a bypass stream of raw water is blended with the treated water after softening. This method uses the CO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3) alkalinity of the raw water to stabilize the treated water.

What is Hardness? There are two kinds of hardness: carbonate (temporary) and noncarbonate (permanent). The carbonate hardness is caused by calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) carbonates (CO3) and HCO3. The noncarbonate hardness is due to Ca and Mg sulfates and chlorides. The total hardness in a water supply is composed of the carbonate hardness plus the noncarbonate hardness. The HCO3, CO3, and hydroxides (OH) that may occur are known as alkalinity and the forms of alkalinity present in the water are combined together under the term total alkalinity (TA). There are methods to determine the concentrations of alkalinity and hardness in the water. Knowing these concentrations, we can calculate the noncarbonate hardness. The relationship between the total, carbonate, and noncarbonate hardness, and the TA, can be expressed in the following equations: S T otal hardness = carbonate + noncarbonate hardness S T A = carbonate hardness S T otal hardness - TA = noncarbonate hardness

S HCO3 never appears where OH exists. The forms of alkalinity can be determined by volumetric titration, which utilizes a .02N (normal) sulfuric acid and the indicators methyl orange (M alkalinity) and phenolphthalein (P alkalinity). The methyl orange measures the TA (all forms) and the phenolphthalein measures all of the OH and half of the normal carbonates. Carbonates of Ca and Mg are the products of reaction of lime with Ca and Mg bicarbonates. To determine the three forms of alkalinity from the results of the TA and phenolphthalein alkalinity (PA) titration, the following set of rules applies to those waters in which the total hardness exceeds the TA: 1. Where there is no PA present all the alkalinity present is due to HCO3. 2 x PA = 0 2. Where phenolphthalein is present but 2 x PA is less than TA then 2 x PA equals normal

carbonates and the difference between 2 x PA and TA equals HCO3. 3. Where 2 x PA equals the TA all alkalinity present is due to normal carbonates. 2 x PA = TA. 4. Where 2 x PA is greater than the TA the difference is due to OH and the carbonates are equal to the TA minus the OH. From the following water analysis, we can apply the rules and determine the forms of alkalinity present. Sample: #1 #2 #3 #4 TA mg/L 40 40 40 40 PA mg/L 0 18 20 24 Sample #1. All the alkalinity is HCO3. When there is no PA present there are no carbonates or OH (Rule 1). Continued on page 36

Solids contact softening basin

Alkalinity Explained Alkalinity may exist as HCO3, CO3, or OH. All three of these compounds can never be found together, but certain combinations can coexist. If lime is added to water it will combine with HCO3 and convert it to CO3. If lime is added in excess to that required to convert HCO3 to CO3, the excess lime will appear as OH. Some truisms are as follows: S H CO3 and CO3 can coexist. S CO3 and OH can coexist.

Accelator lime softening treatment unit

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Continued from page 35 Sample #2. The PA is 18, which is half of the carbonates; therefore, 2 x 18 = 36, which is the carbonates present. The TA is equal to 40, which is all the forms. The 40 minus 36 equals 4, which is HCO3. So, 36 mg/L are carbonates and 4 mg/L are HCO3, which equals 40 mg/L and is the TA (Rule 2). Sample #3. The PA is 20, which is half of the carbonates; 2 X 20 = 40, which is equal to the TA, so all the alkalinity is carbonate (Rule 3). Sample #4. The PA is 24, which is half the carbonates; 2 X 24 = 48. In a previous paragraph it was stated that the PA measured half of the carbonates and all of the OH. In all of the samples up to now 2 x PA was less or equaled the TA. In this case, the 2 x PA is greater than the TA, so there is OH present (to calculate, the OH Rule 4 is applied). S 2 x PA = 48 (half carbonates + all OH) S 4 8 - 40 = 8 mg/L OH S 4 0 - 8 = 32 mg/L carbonates S 8 + 32 = 40 mg/L TA Always remember that the forms or combined forms of alkalinity must always equal the TA.

Explaining pH

Webster’s definition of pH is: p (potential) of H (hydrogen) = a measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. S A cids contain high concentrations of H+. S B ases contain high concentrations of hydroxyl (OH-) ions.

S N eutral (pH 7) is when there is an equal amount of H+ and OH- ions. The pH is a measurement of how acidic or basic a solution is. Because pH does not have a specific unit it’s often specified as an SU; an example is 7 SU. The pH scale is logarithmic, with each value being a 10-fold change in the solutions acidity/basicity. An acid releases (dissociates) H+ when mixed into water. S sulfuric acid (H2SO4) [ 2H+ + sulfate (SO4-2) Acids that dissociate readily are known as strong acids and acids that dissociate poorly are known as week acids. A base is any substance that produces hydroxyl ions (OH-) when it dissociates in water. S Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong base: NaOH [Na+ + OHS Ca(OH)2 is a weak base: Ca(OH)2 [ Ca+2 + 2OH-

Lime Explained Lime refers to either quicklime, the product that is produced by heating limestone to its dissociation temperature, or slaked lime Ca(OH)2, the product that is produced by the reaction of quicklime with water. Lime in the form of high-calcium quicklime (CaO3) readily reacts with water to form Ca(OH)2, which provides a pH of up to 12.454 SU when in an aqueous solution. The production of CaO3 requires a large amount of heat, which is generated in the kiln environment.

Types of alkalinity and pH

36 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The quarried and sized high-calcium limestone travels through a rotary kiln and is subjected to high temperatures where the CaCO3 begins to dissociate with the resultant formation of CaO3. The minimum temperature for the dissociation of CaCO3 is 1648oF (898oC). For practical production purposes, however, the kiln temperature range is from an initial temperature of about 1750oF (954oC) to a final temperature of about 1950oF (1066oC). These temperatures can vary depending on the nature of the limestone being calcined. The CaO3 readily reacts with water to form Ca(OH)2. The reaction is highly exothermic (creates heat) and the process is known as slaking. The reaction is usually carried out in a slaker (a specially designed mixer), which through a process of rigorous mixing, makes certain that all of the quicklime has come into intimate contact with water and no unreacted quicklime remains. This concludes my presentation on conventional softening. I hope this information will be of some value to you to help you advance in your certification levels and your careers.

FWPCOA Training Update The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor, please contact the training office at 321-383-9690. In the meantime, and as always, our online Training Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at OnlineTraining@ fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at training@fwpcoa.org. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care, and as usual, keep up the good work! S


L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.


Cutting Water Pipe Safely With Power Saws

as, hydraulic, and pneumatic saws are all used to cut utility water pipes. The main difference is the type of blade used. Depending on the situation and type of pipe, a specific blade may be required; some blades, such as diamond blades, will cut a variety of materials. Be sure to choose the proper saw and blade for the material being cut, following the manufacturer’s recommendations for the type of finish that is needed. Using a saw or blade not designed to efficiently cut through a material will usually damage the tool and create a safety hazard for its operator and those nearby. Forcing a saw that is not big enough for the job can cause a kickback, which could be another safety hazard. Employees should be provided with specific tool training and have read the entire operating manual and manufacturer’s guide for the specific saw used on the job.

Before Each Use Carefully examine the cutting equipment. Look for the following: S Worn bearings S Damaged power cords


Faulty on/off switches Loose bolts or nuts Lubricant leakage Evidence of excessive rust Broken or damaged housing or casing

Inspect the cutting blade or chain to ensure that it is: S Sharp S Not crooked, bent, cracked, or split S Rotating in the proper direction S Securely fastened or bolted into place and does not wiggle loosely if tapped or vibrated gently by hand. In addition, check the safety guards to make sure that they are in place and secure and that the machine warning placards and labels are in place and legible. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations on blade replacement and preventive maintenance. If the saw is damaged or if it needs servicing, put a tag on it indicating it should not be used. Mark on the tag what is wrong with the unit and arrange to either have the unit repaired, serviced, or disposed of.

Before Cutting When starting a job, do the following: SM ake sure the saw is in the off position prior to plugging it in. SW ear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), including: •H ead protection with safety glasses and/or a face shield •H earing protection •R espiratory protection if necessary • S teel-toed safety shoes •C lose-fitting clothing and long trousers or, for chainsaws, special ballistic nylon reinforced chaps, pants, gloves, and boots SP roperly support and chock the pipe to be cut so it won’t move or flex during the cut. SF uel the saw, as appropriate, with the proper oil/ gas mixture. Never gas, lubricate, or service a running machine. SC lear the immediate area of people, tools, debris, and other obstacles. S I f work is taking place near traffic areas, wear high-visibility clothing and ensure that appropriate traffic management procedures are in place.

The 2020 Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the 2020 Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

38 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

While Cutting To ensure safety throughout the job, adopt the following procedures: SM aintain good footing, with your feet shoulderwidth apart. S Keep the saw close to your body. S Position your body as close to the pipe as possible. SD on’t reach with the cutting tool. SW ork with slow, controlled movements. S Bend your knees if necessary. S Don’t rock the saw back and forth; allow the weight of the saw to help pace the cut. SN ever twist or turn the blade while cutting; make a straight, even cut. SW ork at a steady pace; never force the blade through the material. S Stay concentrated on the task of cutting.

S The use of gas-powered pipe saws within excavations requires the use of ventilation equipment to prevent carbon monoxide accumulation. S If a blade or saw appears to overheat, turn the tool off immediately and allow it to cool down. After it has cooled, check it carefully to make sure that neither the saw nor blade has been damaged.

Maintaining a safe environment in the entire work area vicinity is another important safety factor. Keep other people at least 100 feet away and make sure other workers who are close by have proper PPE. Saws are dangerous and maintaining control of the situation and focusing on the work goes a long way toward safe operation and a safe workplace. S

Other Safety Measures These tips are also important: SA lways allow the saw to turn off, power down, and stop moving before you take your attention away from it. Never leave the machine unattended while running. S Keep in mind that cutting and grinding is considered hot work. Never cut in the vicinity of flammable materials or in areas without proper ventilation. S Have first aid kits, fire extinguishers, and emergency call numbers in close proximity at all times. SD on’t exceed the maximum operating speed recommended by the manufacturer and never cut material not listed by the manufacturer of that saw and blade.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


FWRJ READER PROFILE the past 15 years where I began as a wastewater trainee in the start-up of an ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis (UF/RO) leachate treatment plant. Before getting into water treatment, I worked in the telecommunications field for more than 15 years doing mapping/survey/design services for major cable TV companies.

Nigel Noone

Reclaimed Water Production Facility, City of Marco Island Work title and years of service. I have been working in utilities for about 30 years. I am currently the chief operator at the City of Marco Island Reclaimed Water Production Facility and have been with the city for more than 10 years. I have been in the water industry for

What does your job entail? I am responsible for the day-to-day administrative and operational functions of the City of Marco Island Wastewater Treatment Plant. I oversee a team of seven operators to maintain compliance with permits, prepare reports, regulate process controls, and ensure the proper and consistent operations of the facility and the execution of special associated projects. What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor of science degree In zoology from the University of South Florida and

have had hands-on experience in the setup and decommissioning of wastewater plants. I have also set up the curriculum and attended many regional short schools. What do you like best about your job? I like the fact that I am directly helping many thousands of Marco Island residents by providing treatment of their wastewater and reuse of millions of gallons of water for irrigation. I feel that protecting public health, while helping the environment, is beyond compare in importance and makes for complete job satisfaction. What professional organizations do you belong to? I’m a member of FWPCOA and serve as the director of Region VIII. I also work with FSAWWA and FWEA as all three associations are involved in putting on an Annual Water/Wastewater Exposition in southwest Florida. How have the organizations helped your career? I had always wanted to be involved a waterrelated trade association, but was unable to attend member meetings as I was working on the night shift. After becoming a day-shift operator I attended a FWPCOA regional meeting and soon thereafter followed a lead and applied to work where I am currently employed. Had I never attended a meeting I don’t think that I would have been put into the direct career path to attain the experience needed to perform in my current position. I also believe that the networking possibilities are endless, and the flow of information and shared experience makes for many solutions and new ideas, making future job challenges that much easier to resolve. What do you like best about the industry? I like working with all the different people involved in water treatment, including collections and distribution personnel, operators, maintenance staff, laboratory technicians, instrument/supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) technicians, engineers, project managers, directors, vendors, and manufacturers, etc. There are just so many possibilities to line up to one’s interests, skills, and talents that I believe that anyone can find a place for themselves in the industry.

The Noone family on a boating trip.

40 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

What do you do when you’re not working? I enjoy spending time with my family. Most of my free time during the week is spent running my children around to activities, plus catching them up on homework. My son is involved in scouting, so many weekends are spent hiking, canoeing, camping, and doing other related activities. S


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Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021



Investigating Bromide Leakage During Anion Exchange Regeneration Daniel A. Whalen and Steven J. Duranceau


he City of Sarasota (city) produces up to 12 mil gal per day (mgd) of potable water using cation exchange (CIX), reverse osmosis (RO), and tray aeration processes to serve its nearly 57,000 residents. Saving on salt import costs, the city currently regenerates its CIX system using filtered Sarasota Bay seawater in lieu of a high-strength brine (salt) solution. In efforts to reduce sulfate, the city has investigated the use of anion exchange (AIX) as an additional technology to its treatment portfolio. Moreover, the city would like to evaluate the viability of using filtered Sarasota Bay seawater to regenerate the proposed AIX process. An AIX pilot unit was constructed onsite at the city’s water treatment facility (WTF) and operated to evaluate the performance of two strong base chloride-form anion resins. Purolite A600E-9149 and Thermax A-32 resins were fed the city’s sulfate-laden ion exchange (IX) feed water and run to exhaustion. Regeneration of the resin media included a manufacturer-recommended solution of 10 percent salt and the city’s filtered Sarasota Bay seawater (seawater). Distilled water was used for rinse cycles postregeneration and samples were collected at periodic time intervals to determine resin performance and investigate the leakage of competing anions. Results indicate that AIX performance in both resins decreases when seawater is used to

regenerate compared to a traditional 10 percent salt solution. Bromide leakage was also observed in the treated AIX effluent of both resins under seawater regeneration conditions. Total trihalomethane (TTHM) formation potential of the bromide-containing effluent was analyzed and found to range from 134µg/L to 197µg/L after 168 hours (seven days) of formation. The main component of the TTHM concentrations at the 168-hour time period consisted primarily of bromoform, indicating that increased bromide concentrations in the treated pilot effluent contribute to the increase in formed disinfection byproducts (DBPs)

Introduction and Background Ion Exchange Process The IX is a process used in water treatment applications to remove aqueous ionic constituents by exchanging them with solid-phase ions of a similar charge. This is accomplished by synthesizing media with organic functional groups to obtain a charge at the media’s surface. The IX process used for the removal of negatively charged ions is known as AIX, whereas the removal of positively charged ions is accomplished with CIX. In addition to water treatment, IX is used in the production of deionized water, industrial purposes, purification of organic and

Figure 1. Ion Exchange Breakthrough/ Exhaustion Curve

42 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Daniel A. Whalen, Ph.D., P.E., is a project engineer with Globaltech Inc. in Boca Raton. Steven J. Duranceau, Ph.D., P.E., is a professor with the department of civil, environmental, and construction engineering (CECE) at the University of Central Florida in Orlando.

inorganic chemicals, analytical chemistry uses, and ion mixture separation processes (Schubert & Nachod, 1956). Generally in the form of spherical resin beads, IX media are configured in a fixed or fluidized bed fashion and housed in a vessel during operation. Water is passed through the media bed and aqueous ionic constituents are removed as they exchange with the resin media’s solidphase presaturant ion. As operation continues, the resin bed begins to saturate with the targeted constituent(s) and the treated effluent water begins to increase in the targeted constituent(s) concentration, known as breakthrough. Once the resin bed is fully saturated with the targeted constituent(s), the bed is considered exhausted and must be regenerated prior to subsequent operational use. Figure 1 displays a graph illustrating breakthrough and exhaustion of an IX process, where operational run time is on the x-axis and effluent concentration of the targeted constituent(s) is on the y-axis. Regeneration Methods Regeneration of an IX process involves the replacement of the original presaturant ion back onto the resin media, eluting the saturated targeted constituent(s) that have accumulated during operational use. This is achieved by running a solution comprised of a high concentration of the presaturant ion through the resin bed. In water treatment, the presaturant ion is typically chloride or sodium, allowing a high-strength sodium chloride (i.e., salt) solution to be used for regeneration purposes. Common regeneration methods involve the use of a 10 percent strength salt solution that is run counter-current through the resin bed for a period of time, followed by a short rinse cycle of feed or treated water prior to completion. The spent salt solution and rinse

water are typically considered waste streams, requiring disposal. Because the regeneration process comprises a large portion of the overall cost and maintenance of IX, alternative regeneration methods have been researched and investigated. Medina et al. (2018) recently compared efficiencies of a fresh salt solution, a reused salt solution, and a treated reused salt solution for additional brine management options. Studies have also been performed on regenerating IX resin through multiple stages using different-strength brine solutions (Korak et al., 2017). The comparison of different salts, such as potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium bicarbonate, were evaluated by Maul et al. (2014) to measure regeneration efficiencies and their overall life cycle environmental impacts; however, less research is available on the use of alternative brine streams, such as seawater. Wilf et al. (1980) tested the use of seawater from the red sea as a regenerate solution for a CIX process, resulting in a viable implementation of the process. Coastal water utilities could benefit from seawater regeneration of IX systems, but more research is needed to evaluate the impacts associated with competing ions in seawater, such as bromide. Additionally, the lower ionic strength of seawater, when compared to a solution of 10 percent salt, leads to a lower regeneration efficiency and subsequent leakage of previously removed ions during succeeding operational runs. Brominated Disinfection Byproducts It is known that chemical disinfectants and oxidants added to water form byproducts when in contact with natural organic matter and other inorganic material, like bromide. Among the many DBPs that can be formed, only a small amount is currently regulated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Five of the current regulated DBPs contain bromide, making it an important parameter in DBP formation (Heeb et al., 2014). Ding et al. (2012) demonstrated that the specific removal of bromide from water prior to disinfection is a desired treatment objective in reducing DBPs. Recently, Szczuka et al. (2017) and Liu et al. (2018) identified increased DBP formation from a saline water source due to elevated levels of bromide. Considering that certain seawater matrices contain high concentrations of bromide, AIX processes using seawater regeneration may experience bromide leakage due to ion’s propensity to act as a competing anion to chloride.

Existing Treatment Conditions The city’s utilities department operates a potable water facility in the state of Florida, spanning a service area of 25 sq mi. Utilizing

Table 1. City of Sarasota Average Ion Exchange and Reverse Osmosis Feed Water Quality Parameter pH Temperature Conductivity Turbidity Alkalinity TDS Sulfate Chloride Bromide Fluoride Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Strontium Silica

Units s.u. ºC µS/cm NTU mg/L as CaCO3 mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L

two main water sources, the city pumps water out of the Upper Floridan aquifer through 51 groundwater wells to produce 12 mgd of finished water. The city’s treated water consists of a blend of RO permeate, CIX product water, and raw aerated bypass water prior to chlorination and distribution. The existing CIX process is currently regenerated using filtered Sarasota Bay seawater, saving on salt import and operations costs. Table 1 displays the average water quality parameters of the IX and RO feed water.   Cation Exchange Treatment At a capacity of 7.9 mgd, groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer is pretreated through tray aeration and chlorination at the Verna well field, approximately 22 mi from the city’s WTF. Approximately 2.3 mgd of the pretreated raw water is bypassed and blended with the WTF’s finished water, while the remaining 5.6 mgd is fed to the city’s CIX process for hardness removal. The existing CIX process consists of four softening vessels, three of which are in operation at full production, with the fourth in regeneration. A strong acid cation (SAC) resin in the sodiumform operating in a fixed bed configuration is utilized for the selective removal of calcium and magnesium. Regeneration of the resin beds are accomplished using chlorinated Sarasota Bay seawater that is pumped directly from the Sarasota Bay and filtered at the WTF prior to use as a regenerate solution for the SAC resin. Sulfur dioxide is added to the used IX regeneration waste stream to remove residual chlorine prior to deep well injection disposal. Reverse Osmosis Treatment Brackish groundwater from the city’s downtown well field is pretreated at the WTF with the addition of an antiscalant (Aquafeed 1025®) to suppress the formation of sparingly soluble salts

IX Feed 7.64 29.1 1,090 0.18 171 830 396 25.2 <0.20 0.49 126 60.2 13.5 2.46 21.8 25.7

RO Feed 7.13 26.9 3,330 0.12 136 2,400 858 588 2.48 1.17 279 135 294 6.60 26.5 21.9

and fed through one-micron cartridge filters prior to membrane treatment. It is then delivered as feed water to the city’s RO process consisting of three two-stage process trains in a 28x14 pressure vessel configuration, housing six low-pressure RO membrane elements per vessel. Hydranautics CPA3 membrane elements are used in stage 1 and Hydranautics ESPA 2 elements are utilized in stage 2. Operating at 75 percent recovery, the RO process produces 4.5 mgd of permeate water, which is then post-treated through degasification and sodium hydroxide addition. The treated RO permeate water is blended with the CIX product water and raw bypass water prior to chlorination and onsite storage before distribution. The rejected concentrate water, approximately 1.5 mgd, is degasified and disposed of via deep well injection.

Materials and Methods Anion Exchange Pilot Unit A four-column, AIX pilot system was installed at the city’s WTF on behalf of Tonka WaterTM, a U.S. Water Brand. The pilot system is operated in a four-column design, where two columns combined is analogous to a full-length column. In this configuration, the effluent of the first column represents half-bed values and the effluent of the second column represents full-bed values. With the four-column arrangement, two full-bed anion resins can be operated in parallel for performance comparison and can be seen in Figure 2. Purolite A600E-9149 and Thermax A-32 strong base chloride-form anion resins were provided to the University of Central Florida (UCF) by the manufacturers and were tested for the targeted removal of sulfate under the operating parameters, displayed in Table 2. Continued on page 44

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Continued from page 43 Each column maintained a filter screen, housed at the effluent orifice, and an 8-in. gravel bed below the resin media for support. Anion resin was added, in the form of resin slurries to reduce air pocket formation, until a resin bed depth of 3.1 ft was met in each column. Given that each

Figure PilotUnit Unit Figure2.2.Anion Anion Exchange Pilot

column measured 3 in. in diameter, the achieved media bed depths allowed for a similar surface and volumetric loading rate to that of the city’s full-scale CIX system. Each column was also equipped with a pressure gauge at the influent and effluent orifices to monitor pressure drop changes throughout operations. Influent water to the pilot unit was supplied from the city’s onsite IX feed water storage tank and effluenttreated water was discharged to a 30-gal storage tank prior to disposal. Regeneration procedures were accomplished through the use of a 60-Hz centrifugal pump and an additional 30-gal storage tank to contain regenerate solutions. To determine the efficiency and impacts of using seawater to regenerate an AIX process, the columns were operated over 78 hours and 279 bed volumes until sulfate exhaustion was reached using the city’s IX feed water. The columns were then regenerated using filtered Sarasota Bay seawater in a counter-current flow configuration until effluent conductivity values matched that of the seawater, approximately 53,300µS/cm, and rinsed using distilled water in a co-current flow configuration until effluent conductivity values matched that of the city’s IX feed water, around 1,000µS/cm. Table 3 outlines the water quality characteristics of the filtered Sarasota Bay seawater.   Once regenerated, the columns were operated again over 78 hours, until sulfate exhaustion was reached. Samples from each column were

Table 2. Anion Exchange Pilot-Scale Operating Parameter Surface Loading Rate Volume Loading Rate Empty Bed Contact Time Media Volume Media Height Bed Diameter Flow Rate

Units gpm/SF gpm/CF min CF ft in gph

Pilot-Scale 2.80 0.446 16.8 0.308 6.20 3.00 8.24

Table 3. Filtered Sarasota Bay Seawater Quality Characteristics Parameter pH Temperature Conductivity Turbidity Alkalinity TDS Sulfate Chloride Bromide Fluoride Calcium Magnesium Sodium

Units s.u. ºC µS/cm NTU mg/L as CaCO3 mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L

Filtered Sarasota Bay Seawater 8.02 24.5 53,300 3.37 111 33,100 2,640 18,200 80.5 <0.10 399 1,270 10,900

44 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

collected in 125-mL plastic bottles at the start of operation, 18 hours into operation, and every four hours up to 78 hours of use. The same operationregeneration-rinse process was repeated using a 10 percent salt solution during regeneration procedures for comparison to seawater. Saturation loading curves were determined and competing anions were analyzed to identify the elution of any additional anions, which may have exchanged onto the anion resin during operational runs. It was found that during seawater regeneration conditions, bromide concentrations in the treated water samples exceeded that of the city’s IX feed water entering the pilot unit, indicating the occurrence of bromide leakage. Disinfection Byproduct Formation Potential Evaluation Upon determination of bromide as a competing anion, the operation-regenerationrinse process was repeated using only the Thermax A-32 resin, collecting bulk water samples in fivegal tote containers at periodic time intervals. Bromide concentrations were measured for each time interval to identify the time period at which the highest level of bromide was found. The bulk water sample containing the highest amount of bromide was retained for use in determining DBP formation potential of the treated water. To accurately evaluate brominated DBP formation potential of the treated AIX water, chlorine demand was first determined. This was accomplished by dosing several concentrations of chlorine and measuring the residual concentration over time, up to seven days. Chlorine dosage was identified as the dosage that obtained a chlorine residual between 0.2 and 1 mg/L after seven days of incubation at 30⁰C, resulting in a determined dosage of 2 mg/L. Using the determined chlorine dose, DBP formation potentials of the bulk water sample containing the highest amount of bromide were performed. The bulk water sample was split into two different sets: one sample with no alterations (no bypass) and one sample comprised of 33 percent IX feed water (33 percent bypass) to simulate the city’s current bypass configuration. The 33 percent bypass sample did not include blend additions of the city’s RO permeate and was not representative of the city’s final product water. The TTHM formation potentials were evaluated over a seven-day time period, while incubated at 30⁰C.

Results and Discussion

Subsequent operation-regeneration-rinse cycles of the AIX pilot unit were performed using seawater and 10 percent salt regenerate solutions. Columns were fed the city’s IX feed water during

operational runs. Saturation loading curves were prepared and reviewed for performance and efficiency of sulfate removal. Figure 3 presents the results of both runs, identifying breakthrough and exhaustion values. During seawater regeneration conditions, full-bed sulfate exhaustion was observed at 212 bed volumes for the Purolite A600E-9149 resin and 210 bed volumes for the Thermax A-32 resin. During 10 percent salt regeneration conditions, full-bed sulfate exhaustion was observed at 225 and 220 bed volumes for the Purolite and Thermax resins, respectively Treated effluent water samples were analyzed for the presence of additional anionic constituents. Concentrations of additional anions found in the treated effluent samples were compared to the city’s IX feed water characteristics in efforts to identify the occurrence of anion leakage from seawater. Bromide values in the treated effluent samples under seawater regeneration conditions were observed above the city’s IX feed water bromide concentration of <0.2 mg/L, seen in Figure 4a. In comparison, bromide values in the treated effluent samples under 10 percent salt solution regeneration conditions stayed below the city’s IX feed water bromide concentration for the majority of operation, as shown in Figure 4b. To further investigate the extent of bromide leakage under normal operating conditions, columns containing Thermax A-32 resin were regenerated with seawater and run until sulfate exhaustion was reached, collecting bulk water samples of the treated effluent at periodic time intervals. At 60 hours of operation, 215 bed volumes, a bromide concentration of 4.50 mg/L was observed in the treated effluent. Bulk water taken at this time was retained for use in determining DBP formation potentials. Figure 5 illustrates TTHM concentrations of the bromide-

containing effluent water reaching 134µg/L at 168 hours (seven days). When blended with a 33 percent bypass of the city’s IX feed water, TTHM concentration increased to 197µg/L at 168 hours. The TTHM formation is comprised of four regulated DBPs that include chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. The compositions of TTHM were evaluated to determine the impacts of increased

bromide concentration on brominated DBP formation. As observed in Figure 6, the major component of TTHM concentrations came from bromoform, a brominated DBP. At 168 hours, 85.7 percent of the bromide-containing effluent sample and 87.1 percent of the blended 33 percent bypass sample were comprised of bromoform. Continued on page 46



Figure 3. Sulfate Saturation Loading Curves Under (a) Filtered Sarasota Bay Seawater Regeneration Conditions and (b) 10 Percent Salt Solution Regeneration Conditions



Figure 4. Bromide Elution Concentrations Under (a) Filtered Sarasota Bay Seawater Regeneration Conditions and (b) 10 Percent Salt Solution Regeneration Conditions

Figure 5. Total Trihalomethane Formation Curves (x: value exponentially interpolated)

Figure 6. Total Trihalomethane Formation Composition

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Continued from page 45

Conclusion During this study, two strong base chlorideform anion resins were tested at the pilot scale for their performance in removing sulfate, and were evaluated for the leakage of competing anions when alternative regenerate solutions were used. A manufacturer-recommended solution of 10 percent salt and filtered Sarasota Bay seawater was utilized to regenerate Purolite A600E-9149 and Thermax A-32 anion resins. Pilot column procedures involved operational runs of the anion resins until sulfate exhaustion was reached, regeneration of the resin media with different solutions, and a rinse cycle of distilled water. Samples were collected at periodic time intervals and analyzed to determine resin performance and anion leakage. Sulfate exhaustion decreased from 221 to 212 bed volumes in the Purolite resin under seawater regeneration conditions when compared with 10 percent salt. Similarly, sulfate exhaustion in the Thermax resin decreased from 220 to 210 bed volumes. Bromide leakage was identified in both anion resins when seawater was used for regeneration. The resulting bromide concentration at 60 hours of operation, 215 bed volumes, in the treated effluent of the Thermax resin was 4.50 mg/L. The TTHM formation of the bromidecontaining effluent sample reached 134 µg/L after 168 hours of incubation. When blended with 33 percent of the city’s IX feed water, the TTHM formation increased to 197 µg/L after 168 hours.

The TTHM concentrations were comprised primarily of bromoform, 85.7 and 87.1 percent, respectively, after 168 hours.

Acknowledgments The work reported herein was funded by UCF agreement number 16208213 with the City of Sarasota, Fla. The authors wish to acknowledge the City of Sarasota Utilities staff, specifically Verne Hall, Peter Perez, and Katherine Gusie, for their assistance and support; without them this work would not have been possible. Equipment and technical advice provided by Tonka Water, a U.S. Water Brand, and its representative EnviroSales of Florida Inc. were greatly appreciated and valued. The contributions of students in the UCF water quality engineering laboratories who assisted in field and laboratory work are also greatly appreciated. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of UCF, its Research Foundation. or board of governors, nor serve as an endorsement of any company, product, equipment, or material identified herein.

References • H eeb, M. B.; Criquet, J.; Zimmermann-Steffens, S. G.; & Von Gunten, U. (2014). Oxidative treatment of bromide-containing waters: Formation of bromine and its reactions with inorganic and organic compounds—A critical review. Water Research, 48, 15-42. • Korak, J. A.; Huggins, R.; & Arias-Paic, M.

(2017). Regeneration of pilot-scale ion exchange columns for hexavalent chromium removal. Water Research, 118, 141-151. Liu, Z.; Shah, A. D.; Salhi, E.; Bolotin, J.; & Von Gunten, U. (2018). Formation of brominated trihalomethanes during chlorination or ozonation of natural organic matter extracts and model compounds in saline water. Water Research, 143, 492-502. Maul, G. A.; Kim, Y.; Amini, A.; Zhang, Q.; & Boyer, T. H. (2014). Efficiency and life cycle environmental impacts of ion-exchange regeneration using sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate salts. Chemical Engineering Journal, 254, 198-209. Medina, B. B.; Boyer, T.; & Indarawis, K. (2018). Evaluating options for regenerant brine reuse in magnetic ion exchange systems. JournalAmerican Water Works Association, 110(5), E2E10. Schubert, J., & Nachod, C. F. (1956). Introduction. In J. Schubert, & C. F. Nachod (Eds.), Ion exchage technology (pp. 1-6). 111 Fifth Avenue, New York 10003: ACADEMIC PRESS INC. Szczuka, A.; Parker, K. M.; Harvey, C.; Hayes, E.; Vengosh, A.; & Mitch, W. A. (2017). Regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection byproduct formation from chlorination of saline groundwater. Water Research, 122, 633644. Wilf, M.; Konstantin, M.; & Chencinsky, A. (1980). Evaluation of an ion exchange system regenerated with seawater for the increase of product recovery of reverse osmosis brackish water plant. Desalination, 34(3), 189-197. S

NEWS BEAT The Florida Coastal Management Program (FCMP) has announced the availability of federal funds for projects related to coastal resource protection. Priorities include water quality improvements encompassing research, monitoring, or restoration, and protection of vulnerable coastlines. The proposed projects should be able to be completed within 12 months. They should be designed to generate and provide information, plans, or meet needs for protection, coordination. and response to hazards along Florida’s coast. Financial assistance is available in the form of reimbursement grants ranging from $15,000 to $74,000, depending upon availability of federal coastal management funds received from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The FCMP anticipates that grant recipients will not be required to provide nonfederal matching funds or services. Rule subsections 62S-5.002(4) and .003, F.A.C, describe the procedures for submitting applications and the procedures and criteria by which applications will be evaluated, respectively. A copy of the rule may be obtained at: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ ChapterHome.asp?Chapter=6 2S-5. There is no specific application form; however, proposals must not exceed 10 pages in length (excluding the title page, project location map, and budget page). For projects involving construction, exotic species removal, and/or habitat restoration, applicants must submit a completed 306A Questionnaire with the application. The Questionnaire is not counted as part of the application page limit. The Questionnaire

46 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

may be obtained at: https://floridadep.gov/ sites/default/files/questionnaire306a.pdf. Applications must be received no later than 4:00 pm (ET), Nov. 30, 2021. Applications shall be submitted in accordance with subsection 62S-5.002(4), F.A.C., or may be emailed to FCMPMail@ FloridaDEP.gov. Mailed applications may be sent to: Florida Coastal Management Program, ATTN: Partner Agency Grants, Department of Environmental Protection, 2600 Blair Stone Road, MS 235, Tallahassee, Fla. 32399-2400. For questions or to request a copy of Chapter 62S-5, F.A.C., and/or the 306A Questionnaire, contact Mrs. Holly Edmond at the previous address, call (850)2452181, or send an email to Holly.Edmond@ FloridaDEP.gov. in accordance with Section S 120.74, F.S.



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You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021



Biosolids: Regulations and Innovations Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE President, FWEA


Coauthor: Terry Goss, P.E.

iosolids legislation and regulation continue to be a high priority for the state of Florida. In March 2020 the Florida State Legislature passed Senate Bill 712 and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) initiated rulemaking for compliance with the new legislation. The Clean Waterways Act (Senate Bill 712) addresses several environmental issues, including provisions specifically related to water quality improvement and biosolids. The SB 712 and new rules under Chapter 62-640 Biosolids primarily affects land application for biosolids disposal and potential beneficial use. The bill requires new site

permits and permit renewals after July 1, 2020, to comply with the following provisions: S M eet a minimum unsaturated soil depth of 2 feet from the depth of biosolids placement when biosolids are applied. S N ot allow application on soils with a seasonal high water table (SHWT) within 6 inches of the soil surface or depth of biosolids placement unless the permittee provides reasonable assurance through the site nutrient management plan and water quality monitoring plan that land application will not cause or contribute to surface water quality violations or groundwater violations. S R equire enrollment in a Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) best management practices (BMPs) program. S A ll site permits will have to comply with the DACS BMPs enrollment requirement and the SHWT provision by July 1, 2022. S N ew and renewed permits after July 1, 2020, must include a permit reopener condition to add a compliance date of no later than one year after the effective date of new biosolids rules.

S A ll permits must comply with the new rules no later than two years after the effective date of the new biosolids rule. S A municipality or county may enforce or extend a local ordinance, regulation, resolution, rule, moratorium, or policy adopted before Nov. 1, 2019, relating to the application of Class A or Class B biosolids until the regulation, resolution, etc., is repealed by the municipality or county. The proposed amendments to Chapter 62640, F.A.C., became effective on June 21, 2021. House Bill 1309 was signed into law on June 21, 2021, ratifying the proposed biosolids rule (see Chapter 2021-153, Laws of Florida). Based on Section 403.0855, F.S., and the deliberations of the biosolids technical advisory committee, the rule revisions were developed to minimize the migration of nutrients, specifically phosphorus, to prevent impairment to waterbodies.

Impact on Existing Biosolids Management The new rules could have a significant impact on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) owners/operators (utilities) that choose land application for biosolids disposal. There are approximately 130 permitted land application sites in Florida. Haulers are the most common site permittees and utilities typically contract with the haulers/appliers instead of applying the biosolids themselves. A likely consequence of the new rules is that existing permitted land application sites will not meet the requirements for permit renewals and/or new site permits. The WWTP owners/ operators with existing hauler contracts will be forced to consider other options for disposal or potential beneficial use, including transfer to another facility, landfilling, incineration, or other innovative technologies. Based on the FDEP Statement of Estimated Regulatory Costs (SERC), the new rules under 62-640 will cause an estimated 75 percent reduction in land application rates.

Innovative Technologies

Existing Permitted Land Application Sites

48 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The new Florida regulations add further challenges and complexity to biosolids management, on top of existing challenges, which include odor, public perception, enduse reliability, rising tipping fees, emerging contaminants, and economic concerns

associated with aging infrastructure. With decreasing availability for land application, more biosolids will ultimately require additional outlets, and using landfill to make up this difference is not sustainable. With the change in regulations there will be further drivers to move to Class A biosolids products (or better) and reduce the mass and volume of solids leaving WWTPs. The move to Class A may be ushered in with additional Class A digestion facilities (such as thermophilic digester or thermal hydrolysis), but these processes will still produce a cake product that requires a reliable outlet. Further investment into additional drying or composting facilities may also be warranted, as they produce higher-quality and moremarketable products, but these facilities are expensive and require significant marketing efforts to maintain reliable uses. Furthermore, even Class A biosolids will be subject to nutrient limits and the market will likely become saturated as more utilities choose this option. Currently there are technology innovations and opportunities that are available or in development that may augment current biosolids management disposal/beneficial use options and allow utilities to avoid landfilling or land application of dewatered biosolids. The innovations include thermal technologies that go beyond drying or traditional incineration. These processes include gasification, pyrolysis, hydrothermal, and supercritical processing options, which are still new and not well-established in the biosolids market, but there is great interest in the next generation of development. These processes are being considered to significantly reduce the mass and volume of biosolids generated and produce potentially useful byproducts, such as biochar, oil, or other nutrient- and mineral-rich byproducts. Thermal technologies with combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis applied to biosolids are still innovative for the biosolids market, but they are not necessarily new to it. Veolia/ Kruger has BioCon™ and an energy recovery system that uses dried biosolids as the fuel source for a biosolids belt dryer, which has been in operation in Buffalo, Minn., for over a decade. Further research is currently ongoing to see if this could be used to manage perand polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)-laden biosolids. Locally, a fluid bed gasification system was operated for several years in Sanford, Fla., before being decommissioned; however, this technology is being revived by Aries Clean Energy and a new installation in Linden, N.J., is scheduled to be commissioned this year.

Aries Clean Energy in Linden, N.J., under construction. (photo: ariescleantech.com)

Ecoremedy installation in Morrisville, Pa., and the biochar product. (photo: ecoremedyllc.com)

Bioforcetech and Ecoremedy are other manufacturers that offer biosolids gasification and pyrolysis systems and there are now operational facilities in California and Pennsylvania. Additional pyrolysis systems are being commissioned by Biowaste Pyrolysis Solutions and Anaergia in both New York and California. This new wave of development in the industry shows that there is a driver and a need for alternative biosolids management solutions. There are more innovative hightemperature/high-pressure processes that are currently in early development. Unlike the gasification and pyrolysis process, these do not require thermal drying and the feedstock to the reactors is dewatered sludge. These processes, including supercritical water oxidation and hydrothermal liquefaction, are also not necessarily new and have been tested in the past. New technology companies are working to overcome previous challenges for development of these applications. The next generation of supercritical water oxidation is currently being developed by 374Water and a demonstration facility is located at Duke University in Durham, N.C., for testing various waste feedstocks. Hydrothermal liquefaction is currently being pioneered by Genifuel, and the process developed in collaboration with Northwest Pacific Laboratories is looking to use biosolids and other feedstock, like algae, for conversion to a biocrude product.

Bioforcetech pyrolysis unit and biochar product. (photo: bioforcetech.com)

Genifuel pilot skid and biorude. (photo: genifuel.com)

Conclusion This is a challenging time for biosolids management, but with challenges come great opportunities. Changing regulations will lead to further innovations, with upcycling biosolids that can help address Florida’s environmental issues and improve water quality and continue to move biosolids management into a circular economy. The circular economy employs a system where there are no waste products and all byproducts are reused or recycled. This resilient approach contrasts with a take/make/waste linear economy.

About the Coauthor Terry Goss is a biosolids practice leader for AECOM Technical Services Inc.  He has 17 years of hands-on experience with biosolids process design, equipment integration, project delivery, and plant commissioning. Goss has the unique experience of introducing and developing new biosolids technologies to the North American market.

References • D epartment of Environmental Protection Statement of Estimated Regulatory Costs (SERC). • Public Meeting for Chapter 62-640, F.A.C., FDEP Division of Water Resource Management, May 27, 2021. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


Apply for a 2022 Water Industry Scholarship! 2021 AWWA Scholarship Awardees

Alex Towfigh Neptune Technology Group Scholarship

Amanda Willis WRT Scholarship

Anushka Mishrra Abel Wolman Fellowship, AWWA

Benjamin Fennell, PE Stantec Scholarship

Cielo Sharkus HDR One Water Institute Scholarship

Cindy Weng Dr. Philip C. Singer Scholarship, AWWA

Duong Nguyen Larson Aquatics Research Support Scholarship for Doctoral Studies, AWWA

Eleanor Hasenbeck Raftelis Leadership Scholarship

Esperanza Soledad Garcia Denver Water Centennial Scholarship

J’Anna-Mare Lue Vernon D. Lucy III Scholarship, SUEZ

Jessica Cormier Holly A. Cornell Scholarship, Jacobs

Joseph Barnes Larson Aquatics Research Support Scholarship for Masters Studies, AWWA

Maia Ferris Woodard & Curran Scholarship

Maria C. Gontis Raftelis Leadership Scholarship

Meena Ejjada Dave Caldwell Scholarship, Brown and Caldwell

Michael Anthony Fleming, PE Arcadis Diversity Scholarship

Michael Hernandez CDM Smith Scholarship

Nadia Jorgenson AECOM Scholarship

Padam Neupane Charles “Chick” Roberts Scholarship, Roberts Filter Group

Parul Baranwal American Water Scholarship

Rajuan Nelson Bryant L. Bench Scholarship, Carollo Engineers

Stefani Rath Gannett Fleming Forces of Change Scholarship

Valerie Doebley Hazen and Sawyer Scholarship

Not pictured: Jennifer Farrell, Mueller Water Products

September 1–December 20, 2021 for Fall 2022 award. AWWA’s program includes scholarships for engineering, communications, IT, finance, legal studies, and policy in the water industry.

50 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include:

Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Wastewater Operators

The City of Eustis is seeking Wastewater Operators. Please visit eustis.org for full job description, salary, and online application. Background check/drug screen required. Open until filled. EOE, V/P, DFWP

Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Crew Leader, Equipment Operator, Water Quality Technician, Utility Field Technician. Apply at www.titusville.com

GS Inima USA City of Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Plant

Salary / Benefits $65,000 to $85,000.00 (based on experience and qualifications) Health, Dental and 401K Accepting applications for a Chief Operator position. Must have experience with a Drinking Water Plant and Reverse Osmosis membrane. The Chief Operator shall possess a minimum of 15 years’ experience with operation of drinking water treatment facilities, including five years of management responsibility, five years’ experience with membrane treatment systems and shall hold a Class A (Category II) operators certificate issued by the State of Florida, valid drivers. Contact Jennifer.cruz@inima.com

Are you a Utility Plant Mechanic?

Then come join our incredibly awesome team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must have a valid driver’s license and 1 year experience. Starting Pay Range: $34,000 - $36,000yr. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or at City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Marc Correnti. EEO/AA/V/H/ MF/DFWP.

NOW HIRING Treatment Plant Operators and Field Personnel

Brevard County Utilities is seeking Treatment Plant Operators and field personnel to work in various locations throughout Brevard County, Florida. These positions are for a County-owned public water and sewer Utility. For more information and to apply, go to the employment website of the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners at https://career8.successfactors.com/career?company=brevardcou Brevard County is an Equal Opportunity/Veterans Preference Employer

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021


City of Edgewater Wastewater Treatment Plant Manager

As a Utility Systems Engineer, you will be under administrative direction, the purpose of the position is to conduct professional engineering work to plan, coordinate and implement Utilities engineering services, manage the Utility Inspector division to ensure all utility inspections conform to and meet City, State and Federal codes and standards. MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS • Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering or a 4 year college degree with substantial water/ wastewater engineering experience. • 4 years or more of engineering experience in the water/ wastewater field. To include: • 2 years of work experience as a project manager or consulting engineer, preferably in the water/wastewater field. • 2 years of construction in the water/wastewater field. • Proficient with AutoCAD (2018 or higher) and ArcGIS Desktop (10.0 or higher) or Arc Pro, or hydraulic modeling. Employee shall obtain the National Incident Management System ICS-100 Introduction to the Incident Command System and IS-700 National Incident Management System, An Introduction within six (6) months of employment. The following courses are designed to provide a baseline, as they introduce basic NIMS and ICS concepts and provide the foundation for higher level Emergency Operations Center (EOC), MACS, and ICS related training.

Responsible for the 24-hour operation of a 2.75 mgd wastewater treatment facility ensuring compliance with all regulatory criteria. Position is responsible for the management of assigned personnel as well as planning, training, directing and maintaining operations of the wastewater treatment plant. Florida Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator “A” license required. Associates degree preferred. $53,809 - $81,369 Please visit www.cityofedgewater.org for complete job description and to apply. EOE/DFWP/VP

Water Treatment Plant Operator

The OKEECHOBEE UTILITY AUTHORITY has an immediate opening for a Water Treatment Plant Operator (Class C) or Trainee. Work schedule may require shift work, weekends, and holidays. Applicant must possess a valid FL Operator’s Driver’s License (requires a clean driving record for the past three years) and a high school diploma or equivalent. Please visit our office at 100 SW 5th Avenue, Okeechobee, Florida 34974 or www.ouafl.com to complete an application. Applications will be accepted until position filled. AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER AND DRUG-FREE WORK PLACE

The City of Orange City

is seeking a highly skilled and qualified Utility Resources Director to lead our Utilities Division of the City of Orange City Public Services Department under the direction of the Public Services Director. Applications can be submitted electronically to recruitment@ orangecityfl.gov, mailed, or dropped to our Human Resources Office. Applications are available at www.orangecityfl.gov/ employment. HIRING RANGE: $78,860 to $127,429; depending on qualifications.

TO APPLY AND REVIEW THE FULL JOB DESCRIPTION: Visit our website at www.governmentjobs.com/careers/sanford BENEFITS Medical Insurance, Dental Insurance, Vision Insurance, Health Reimbursement Account, FRS Retirement Plan, Paid Time Off, Bereavement Leave, Paid Military Leave, Employee Assistance Program, Short Term Disability Insurance, Paid Employee Life Insurance (1 x annual salary), Paid Holidays, Paid Jury Duty, Protective Safety Equipment, Fitness Center, Wellness Center for members of City’s Health Insurance program, Wellness Incentive Program, Bi-Weekly Pay Checks, Direct Deposit, Employee Recognition Events, Free Flu Shot, Free Parking, Bi-Lingual Pay, Safety Incentive program and Supplemental Benefits.

City of Largo Jobs!

The City of Largo is in search of skilled workers to join our awardwinning team as a Utilities Mechanic I, Wastewater Collections Technician Trainee, or Technical Equipment Operator Trainee. Visit www.largo.com/jobs for more information on each position, and to apply today to the Community of Choice in Tampa Bay…Naturally!

52 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

THE CITY OF DAYTONA BEACH “The World’s Most Famous Beach” EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES UTILITIES DEPARTMENT Utilities Engineering Manager For full job description, salary, online application and other Utilities vacancies go to: www.codb.us/jobs

Reverse Osmosis Water Facility Operators The City of Tarpon Springs Reverse Osmosis Water Facility is hiring for Operator A, B, and C positions. Please visit www.ctsfl.us for full job descriptions, salary, and application. Background check/drug screen required. www.ctsfl.us

The Coral Springs Improvement District – A GREAT place to further your career and enhance your life!

CSID offers… • Salary levels are at the top of the industry • Health Insurance that is unmatched when compared to like sized Districts • Promotions from within for qualified employees • Continuing education courses to develop your skills and further your growth • Retirement plans where an employee can earn 18% of their salary by contributing toward their future The Coral Springs Improvement District is seeking qualified employees in the following fields: Water Plant Operator Applicants must have a valid Class C or higher Drinking water license and experience in Reverse Osmosis/Nano Filtration treatment processes preferred however not required. Position requirements include knowledge of methods, tools and materials used in the controlling, servicing, and minor repairs of all related R.O. water treatment facilities machinery and equipment. Minimum starting salary - $47,008. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field. Trainees who have passed certification and only needing actual hours worked may be considered. Journeyman Electrician Applicants must have a Journeyman electrical certificate of competency as recognized by Broward County or the State of Florida. General knowledge of methods, tools, equipment and necessary safety precautions used in electrical repair and maintenance work in three phase systems in any low voltage. Performs routine maintenance and assists with any electrical or mechanical complex installations, calibrations, diagnostics, repairs, and replacement of instrumentation and control systems equipment and components for Water, Wastewater, and Drainage facilities, such as treatment plants, pump stations and lift stations. Benefits: Excellent benefits which include health, life, disability, dental, vison and a retirement plan which includes a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match up to 6%. EOE. All positions require a valid Florida Drivers license, high school diploma or GED equivalent, be COVID-19 vaccinated and must pass a pre-employment drug screen test Salaries for the above position based on level of licensing and years of experience. Please send resume to jzilmer@csidfl.org or fax resume to 954-7536328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Public Utilities Asst Manager Wastewater City of Clearwater - Public Utilities Department City of Clearwater Government is hiring now for the Public Utilities Asst Manager Wastewater! Under administrative direction, the Public Utilities Assistant Manager assists, supports in the supervision, oversight, direction, and coordination of activities related to the development, installation, operation, and maintenance of the City’s Public Utilities infrastructure, facilities, and systems. TARGET ENTRY SALARY: $62,062 - $65,165 annually APPLICATIONS SHOULD BE FILED ONLINE AT: http://www.myclearwater.com For Details about this position: See website


Department: PUBLIC SERVICES Annual Salary: $74,415 $115,051 D.O.Q. Closing Date: OPEN UNTIL FILLED The City of Tarpon Springs Springs is hiring a Public Services Assistant Director to perform highly responsible professional and technical work in the planning and directing of programs and projects within the Public Services Divisions. With an emphasis on water and sewer utilities and sustainability responsibilities, directs, coordinates, and oversees operational/administrative phases of the various divisions including utilities, golf-course, recreation, cemetery, customer service, capital planning, and environmental programs. For more information and to complete an application, please navigate to the following link: https://www.ctsfl.us/project/ employment-opportunities/

LOOKING FOR A JOB The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2021



Test Yourself Answer Key From page 8

January 2016

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index AWWA Member Appreciation ������������������������������������������������������������� 33 AWWA Water Equation - Water industry Scholarship ���������������������� 50 Blue Planet Environmental Systems ������������������������������������������������� 51 CEU Challenge ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 23 Data Flow Systems ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 FSAWWA Fall Conference BBQ/Incoming Chair ������������������������������ 30 FSAWWA Fall Conference Calendar of Events ��������������������������������� 28 FSAWWA Fall Conference Golf ���������������������������������������������������������� 32 FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker ������������������������������������������������������� 31 FSAWWA Fall Conference Registration �������������������������������������������� 29 Florida Aquastore ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 FWPCOA Training Calendar ��������������������������������������������������������������� 47 FWRC Call for Papers ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 Gerber Pumps ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Heyward ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump & Equipment ��������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Hydro International ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Lakeside Equipment ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 PolyProcessing ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25 Smith & Loveless �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 UF TREEO Center �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 Water Treatment & Controls Technology ������������������������������������������ 27 Xylem ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 52 Xylem YSI ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17

54 November 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. B ) A temporary connection between a private water well and a potable water main or service.

Per FAC 62-550.200(27), Definitions, “‘Cross Connection’” means any physical arrangement whereby a public water supply is connected, directly or indirectly, with any other water supply system, sewer, drain, conduit, pool, storage reservoir, plumbing fixture, or other device which contains or may contain contaminated water, sewage. or other waste, or liquid of unknown or unsafe quality which may be capable of imparting contamination to the public water supply as the result of backflow. Bypass arrangements, jumper connections, removable sections, swivel or changeable devices, and other temporary or permanent devices through which or because of which backflow could occur are considered to be cross connections.”

2. A ) Backpressure and backsiphonage

Per FDEP’s Cross Connection website, “Backflow is the undesirable reversal of flow of nonpotable water or other substances through a cross connection and into the piping of a public water system or a consumer’s potable water system. There are two types of backflow: backpressure backflow and backsiphonage.”

3. D ) CWSs serving more than 10,000 persons

Per FAC 62-555.360(2)(b), Cross Connection Control for Public Water Systems, “Each CWS serving more than 10,000 persons shall prepare and submit cross connection control program annual reports. The first annual report shall cover calendar year 2016 and subsequent annual reports shall cover each calendar year thereafter. These reports shall be prepared using Form 62-555.900(13), Cross Connection Control Program Annual Report.”

4. C ) Legal authority for the CCC program

Per FAC Table 62-555.360-1: Minimum Components that Each Community Water System (CWS) Shall Include in Its Written Cross Connection Control (CCC) Plan, item I: Legal authority for the CWS’s CCC program – i.e., an ordinance, bylaw or resolution, or water service rules and regulations.”

5. C ) Reduced-pressure principle assembly (RP)

Per FDEP’s Cross Connection website, “An RP is a mechanical backflow preventer that consists of two independently acting, spring-loaded check valves with a hydraulically operating, mechanically independent, spring-loaded pressure differential relief valve between the check valves and below the first check valve. It includes shutoff valves at each end of the assembly and is equipped with test cocks. An RP is effective against backpressure backflow and backsiphonage and may be used to isolate health or nonhealth hazards.”

6. C) May be easily bypassed

Per FDEP’s Cross Connection website, “An air gap is a vertical, physical separation between the end of a water supply outlet and the flood-level rim of a receiving vessel. This separation must be at least twice the diameter of the water supply outlet and never less than 1 inch. An air gap is considered the maximum protection available against backpressure backflow or backsiphonage but is not always practical and can easily be bypassed.”

7. A) Annually

Per Table 62-555.360-1, Item III.D, “This policy shall specify the frequency for testing backflow preventer assemblies being required at or for service connections, shall specify qualifications for persons testing such assemblies, and shall specify test procedures for such assemblies. Assemblies being required at or for nonresidential service connections pursuant to Table 62-555.360-2, which appears at the end of Rule 62-555.360, F.A.C., shall be tested after installation or repair and at least annually thereafter and shall be repaired if they fail to meet performance standards. Assemblies being required at or for residential service connections pursuant to Table 62-555.360-2 shall be tested after installation or repair and at least biennially thereafter and shall be repaired if they fail to meet performance standards.”

8. C) RP

Per Table 62-555.360-2: Categories of Customers for Which Each Community Water System (CWS) Shall Ensure Minimum Backflow Protection is Provided at or for the Service Connection from the CWS to the Customer, “Car wash – RP.”

9. B ) In locked and labeled vaults or service boxes

Per FAC 62-610.469(3), Application/ Distribution Systems and Cross Connection Control, “Except as specifically allowed in this paragraph, above ground hose bibbs (spigots or other hand-operated connections) shall not be present. Hose bibbs shall be located in locked vaults, service boxes, or compartments which shall be clearly labeled as being of nonpotable quality (bearing the words in English and Spanish “Do Not Drink” together with the equivalent standard international symbol). Hose bibbs which can only be operated by a special tool may be placed in nonlockable vaults, service boxes, or compartments clearly labeled as nonpotable water (bearing the words in English and Spanish “Do Not Drink” together with the equivalent standard international symbol).”

10. A) Do Not Drink

Per FAC 62-610.469(7)(f), Cross Connection Control, “All reclaimed water valves and outlets shall be appropriately tagged or labeled (bearing the words in English and Spanish “Do Not Drink” together with the equivalent standard international symbol) to warn the public and employees that the water is not intended for drinking.”