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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, Display and Classified Advertising,

Business Office:

P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 How to Make Quality Pipe Repairs Quickly—Ed Nunes 6 Happy Veterans Day! 6 Veterans Memorial Island Sanctuary: A Place for Reflection and Meditation 8 Recruiting, Hiring, and Retaining Veterans 15 City to Rename Sewage Plant for Comedian 24 From AWWA: AWWA Minnesota Section Wins 2020 Section Education Award 28 AMWA Recognizes Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority for Utility Management Achievement 54 In Memoriam 54 News Beat

Technical Articles 12 Operation and Maintenance Comparative Assessment of Colocated Nanofiltration, Lime Softening, and Low-Pressure Reverse Osmosis Systems at the Norwood Water Treatment Plant—Veronica

55 FWPCOA Training Calendar 57 FWPCOA Online Training Institute

Columns 22 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kowalski 26 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 30 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 32 FWEA Focus—James J. Wallace 42 Reader Profile—Darin Bishop 50 Let’s Talk Safety: Identify, Treat, and Prevent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 52 Legal Briefs—Round and Round Florida (and Georgia) Go: An Update on the Florida-Georgia Water Wars—Kyle Robisch

Departments 54 New Products 59 Classifieds 62 Display Advertiser Index

Llaneza, Jafeth Baez, Samuel Zamacona, Cristina Ortega-Castineiras, Moises Sierra Ortiz, and Carlos Carrazana

34 The Role of Corrosion Indices in Establishing Effective Corrosion Control Treatment—Christopher P. Hill 44 Lime Softening—the Forgotten Technology: Optimization Case Studies From South Florida—Tyler Smith, Vinnie

Hart, Jennifer Stokke Nyfennegger, Joseph Paterniti, Michael Low, and Juan Guevarez

Education and Training 16 CEU Challenge 17 AWWA Water Professionals Appreciation 18 FSAWWA Fall Conference is Now Virtual 19 FSAWWA Fall Conference Technical Sessions 20 FSAWWA Fall Conference Regional Sponsors Thank You 21 AWWA Government Affairs Office 47 TREEO Center Training

Volume 71

ON THE COVER: A collage of photos commemorates Veterans Day. The main photo is of the Veterans Memorial Island Sanctuary. For more information, see page 6. (main photo: City of Vero Beach)

November 2020

Number 11

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida FloridaWater WaterResources ResourcesJournal Journal••November November 2020


How to Make Quality Pipe Repairs Quickly Ed Nunes You would think that if a pipe repair is made quickly, it probably won’t be done properly. It is possible, however, to make repairs quickly without compromising on quality. There are several other benefits to making repairs quickly. Workers are less at risk due to reduced time in the ditch, labor costs are minimized, and workers can get home faster. This is especially important at night when repairs are more complicated and riskier to make, and installers are more tired than during the day.

Methods for Timely Pipe Repair Here are three ways to make repairs quickly, while also ensuring quality. Maintain a Properly Resourced Inventory Many times, making quick repairs is about having the right product on hand when you need it. There is nothing worse than not having the right parts during an emergency repair. Poor planning can result in the job taking longer to complete, delays in returning water service to normal, and disgruntled customers. Properly maintaining your inventory is fundamental to good planning and avoiding an emergency order. Taking this on, while minimizing costs, can be a challenge, particularly for smaller utilities that might not have the space or budget to maintain a wide range of repair products. Before deciding on how much inventory you need, carefully look at the demand for repair products and when they are used most frequently. Look at your orders over the course of the last three or four years and try to identify trends. See if there are periods when the demand for certain clamps or couplings is high, and other periods when it’s low. This will help you decide which

products should be in high supply and which ones can be lower. Knowing the size and types of pipes that are in the ground can also help predict what kind of products and repair tools to store. Weather can also play a key role in determining which repair supplies will be in high demand and how fast you can obtain them. Repairs are often required when the ground shifts during the spring thaw, and at other times of the year when the weather is harsh (e.g., hurricane season). Keep in mind when ordering products that orders will also be harder to fill when weather conditions will get in the way of quick deliveries. Use Clamps and Couplings That Can Work With a Range of Outside Diameters and Pipe Materials There are several coupling products that offer full transition that will fit pipes of varying types and sizes within your water or wastewater infrastructure. There are also products that have the versatility to either join or repair pipes, offering a high degree of flexibility to make repairs as required. These kinds of clamps and couplings can take the place of up to three traditional products— on the shelf or in the truck—given their capacity to be used on a variety of pipes and repair situations. Use High-Quality Products That are Easy to Install Couplings and clamps that are easy to

4 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

install can make repair jobs more efficient, save time, and help eliminate installation errors. There are a variety of repair couplings that are quick and easy to install, which are particularly useful for night conditions. Couplings with topfacing bolts, for example, are simpler to tighten, and drastically cut installers’ repair time. Products that don’t have to be disassembled can also make a big difference in making a quick installation—there is nothing more aggravating for an operator than losing a bolt in a waterfilled ditch at night. Avoid purchasing cheap products that will fail early and lead to another repair. It pays to use high-quality products that are exceptionally durable in harsh conditions and designed to prevent future pipe damage.

Planning Makes the Difference Making quality repairs quickly is in large part about preparation and making sure you have what you need before the break happens. Ensure your inventory includes the products you will most likely need based on past experience and by keeping track of existing pipes in the ground. Clamps and couplings that can work with a wide range of materials and outside diameters will help to fix pipes, regardless of what is uncovered under the ground. Finally, there’s no substitute for highquality products that can prevent breaks in the future, and easy-to-install products that don’t have to be disassembled. If you follow these strategies, you can help ensure pipe repairs are made quickly and securely to save money and time, and ensure that your crews get home safely and as soon as possible. Ed Nunes is HYMAX product manager for Mueller Water Products in Ocala. 

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H a p p y Ve t e r a n s D a y ! Welcome to the magazine’s third annual celebration of military veterans who work in the water industry. We’re honored to acknowledge these brave men and women who proudly served their country, both here and abroad, and who are again serving American citizens by working as water professionals. Along with medical personnel, police officers and firefighters, and first responders, those who work in the water industry provide a vital service and help to protect the health and well-being of the community. Water really is a

precious resource—one we can’t live without—and all water workers play a vital role in ensuring that everyone has all of the clean, safe water they need every day. This section includes the American Water Works Association (AWWA) Veterans Toolkit on recruiting, hiring, and retaining veterans for utilities and other water-related companies. It also highlights a Florida veterans memorial. To those selfless veterans who are our colleagues: we thank you and salute you!

Veterans Memorial Island Sanctuary: A Place for Reflection and Meditation Location Veterans Memorial Island Sanctuary is located adjacent to Riverside Park on the Barrier Island, south of the Merrill Barber Bridge.

History After World War II, the Intracoastal Waterway was slated for dredging and Alex MacWilliam Sr., a veteran and member of the Florida Legislature, persuaded the federal government to realign the existing Vero Beach channel to make way for a modern drawbridge and to create a Memorial Island with the surplus dredging material. This island was purchased by the City of Vero Beach on May 5, 1947, and it was dedicated in the early 1960s as Memorial Island Park. On Aug. 19, 2003, a Veterans Memorial Island Sanctuary Advisory Committee was formed to assist the city council and the veterans council with reviewing

documentation for proposed memorials to be constructed on the island. On July 6, 2004, the name was changed to Veterans Memorial Island Sanctuary.

The Memorial Veterans Memorial Island Sanctuary is now a quiet haven for reflection on the sacrifices made

6 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

by the men and women in the Armed Forces of the United States. It contains memorials to the men and women of Indian River County who died in combat while defending the nation. It has been said that this is one of the most beautiful veteran sanctuaries in the country.

A Place of Quiet Contemplation This island was created for quiet contemplation. All uses must be in keeping with the purpose and intent of a veterans sanctuary, and therefore, general recreational activities are not permitted.

Need More Information? For information on the allowed uses on the island, please contact the Vero Beach Recreation Department at 772-567-2144.  (photos: City of Vero Beach)

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Recruiting, Hiring, And Retaining Veterans American Water Works Association

Why Should I Hire A Veteran? Veterans have many skills necessary to thrive in the water sector. They have experience working in a highly regulated environment, they have shown a commitment to public service, and they handle stress well in crisis situations. Veterans are returning to homes in rural and urban locations and looking for employment. You need skilled employees and Veterans need jobs. It’s a perfect fit.

S Guide to Recruiting and Hiring Veterans, National Guard Members, and Reservists, Small and Large Employer Guide – Center for America: In-depth detailed guide for making small and large workplaces more open to Veterans, tips for recruiting Veterans, and educating staff about the military. S Guide to Hiring Veterans – Dept. of Veterans Affairs and Hiring Our Heroes – In-depth detailed guide to the ins and outs of hiring Veterans.

What Resources Are Available To Help Me Hire Veterans?

How Can I Effectively Recruit Veterans?

The following guides will be beneficial to your utility when hiring Veterans. These documents will be referenced throughout this toolkit. S Employer Guide to Hire Veterans – U.S. Dept. of Labor: Concise document detailing the benefits of hiring Veterans, Veteran demographics, and an allencompassing employer resource guide.

Though Veterans often make excellent employees, many employers have difficulty recruiting and supporting them. This section will provide you with tools for recruitment and interviewing Veterans. S Checklist for Recruiting Veterans – Employer Roadmap – USAA, U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation

8 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

What Organizations Can Help Me Connect to Veterans? Knowing where to find eligible Veterans can be difficult. This section highlights multiple job search sites for both employers and Veterans. S Career One Stop – U.S. Dept. of Labor Veteran and Military Transition website aids Veterans in finding jobs, and utilities and organizations in posting jobs for Veterans. S Hiring Our Heroes – U.S. Chamber Foundation - Hiring our Heroes website aids Veterans and employers in finding jobs or employees. S Hire a Veteran - Dept. of Labor - Website aids Veterans and employers in finding jobs or employees. S Veterans Hiring Guide – U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs – PDF version of the 2014 Hiring Guide. S A for Vets – Dept. of Veterans Affairs – Website of resources for employers when hiring Veterans.

How Do I Appeal to Veterans? S Veterans are often driven by purpose and having a mission; highlighting key components of your utility or organization will appeal to this mindset of Veterans. S Human resources (HR) staff, recruiters, and hiring managers should be trained on how to recruit, select, and onboard Veterans. Without training, good intentions fail because the HR team may continue to follow past procedures and systems that might unintentionally screen out qualified Veterans. S I ncluding a Veteran on your HR team can greatly aid in the translation of military jargon on resumés. Veterans in HR could also assist in interviews. S Market Veteran recruitment on websites, social media, etc. This will make it easier for Veterans seeking a job to better understand how they would fit in to your utility. S Create a Veteran Affinity or Employee Resource Group (ERG) - A voluntary, employee-led group that fosters a diverse, inclusive workplace aligned with organizational mission,values, goals, business practices, and objectives. (Employer Guide to Hire Veterans – Dept. of Labor, page 14). For in-depth details on appealing and recruiting, visit Section 2 of Guide to Recruiting and Hiring Veterans, National Guard Members and Reservists, Small Employer Guide, or Section 2 of Guide to Recruiting and Hiring Veterans, National Guard Members, and Reservists, Large Employer Guide.

How Do I Draft a VeteranFriendly Job Description? S M  ake your job descriptions competencybased versus listing required years of experience. (Employer Guide to Hire Veterans – Dept. of Labor). S Recruit Veteran employees to assist in the writing or review of job descriptions and skills required. For in-depth details on drafting Veteranfriendly job descriptions, visit Section 1 of Guide to Recruiting and Hiring Veterans, National Guard Members, and Reservists, Small Employer Guide, or Section 1 of Guide to Recruiting, and Hiring Veterans, National Guard Members, and Reservists, Large Employer Guide. How Do I Successfully Interview Veterans? The Dos and Don’ts of Interviewing

Below are general skill sets, experience, and education for different military populations.

Veterans – Employer Roadmap – USAA, U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation. General Tips for Interviewing S The most effective interview styles for Veterans are behavioral and situational. S Clearly describe the job role and its responsibilities, defining expectations upfront. S Avoid closed-ended questions by asking about an individual’s service experience and responsibilities. S Focus on transferrable skills. S Ask – it’s okay to ask Veterans what military terms mean. For in-depth details on interviewing, visit Section 2 of the Guide to Recruiting and Hiring Veterans, National Guard Members, and Reservists, Small Employer Guide, or Section 2 of the Guide to Recruiting and Hiring Veterans, National Guard Members, and Reservists, Large Employer Guide.

What Are Military Rank Structures And Responsibilities? Because many Veterans have trouble writing resumés and relating their military responsibilities to civilian job responsibilities, knowing what an MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) is and its associated duties can aid your utility in understanding the skills of each Veteran.

S F  rom MOS to J-O-B – United States EPA: Details of Military Occupational Specialties that translate to water and wastewater operations. S C  ivilian-to-Military Occupation Translator: Career One Stop, U.S. Dept. of Labor S M  ilitary-to-Civilian Occupation Translator: O*NET

How Do I Establish A VeteranFriendly Apprenticeship Program? Military apprenticeship programs can train and build Veterans’ skills in specific job duties, making them skilled workers for your utility and organization! The following resources can assist you in establishing an apprenticeship program that can meet Veterans’ needs. S On-the-Job Training and Apprenticeships Dept. of Veterans Affairs resource outlining the process of approval for employers wishing to establish on-the-job training and apprenticeship programs for Veterans. S R  egistered Apprenticeship Sponsors - Dept. of Labor resource on how to receive GI Bill® approval for registered apprenticeship programs. S D  oD Skillbridge - Connects transitioning Service members to career job-training opportunities. Employers can tap into the

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


expertise of transiting Service members by sponsoring internship and preapprenticeship opportunities.

How Do I Maintain A Veteran-Friendly Workplace? Before hiring new Veteran employees, consider surveying current employees and asking Veterans to voluntarily self-identify. Current Veteran employees could serve as mentors to new Veteran employees and help with Veteran recruitment. Examine these aspects of your organization to determine if it’s a Veteranfriendly environment: S Culture of company S Engaging opportunities S C  learly stated expectations S Known pathway for advancement S Availability of Veteran mentors S C  lear and open communication S E  ncouraging self-direction S Employees are given increasing levels of responsibility S The impact the Veteran will have on the organization S U  nderstanding Veteran Retention and Performance in the Workforce – Center for a New American Security: In-depth document that details the data of hiring and retention of Veterans and provides recommendations for retention of Veterans. S The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) Foundation offers a free Veterans-at-Work Certificate Program that is open to all. This training teaches the value Veterans bring to the workplace, and how to showcase your employer to attract, hire, and retain Veteran employees. What About Employees in the Reserve and National Guard? S Supporting Your Employees in the Reserve

and National Guard - This employment toolkit from the Dept. of Veterans Affairs provides resources for supporting reserve and national guard members. S Planning for Military Leave for Employees in the Reserve or National Guard Guidelines - Creating company policies regarding military leave and understanding employer rights and responsibilities. How Can I Make Accommodations for Veterans with Disabilities? These links will provide tips for assisting and supporting Veterans with disabilities: S Veterans Hiring Toolkit – Step-by-step guide to hiring qualified Veterans and accommodating Veterans with disabilities. S Job Accommodation Network – Free consulting services about all aspects of job accommodations processes. S Veterans Employment Toolkit – Dept. of Veterans Affairs – Challenges and ways to help your Veteran through the accommodation process. S Education and Employment Initiative (E2I) – Department of Defense – Program that assists wounded, ill, and injured Service members early in their recovery process to identify their skills and match them with education and career opportunities.

How Does My Organization Get Recognition For Excellence In Hiring Veterans? S HIRE Vets Medallion Program - U.S. Dept. of Labor - Program that recognizes and shines a light on employers who exhibit excellence in recruiting, hiring, and retaining Veterans. There are multiple tiers of awards based on the percentages of veterans hired and retained and efforts by your employer to provide Veteran assistance.

10 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Local Resources AWWA sections are developing guides with local resources that will assist in connecting employers with Veterans. Please check with your AWWA section for available resources. Job Fairs The following are resources that will connect you to local resources: Many Veterans use military placement firms (headhunters) to find a position. Consider connecting with national or local firms that fit with your organization’s needs. S Service Academy Career Conference – National job fair exclusively for service academy alumni. S Hire and Recruit - Career One Stop – Multiple resources for posting jobs, job fairs, and training programs at a local level. S Local Hiring Fairs – Hire Our Heroes, U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation – List of hiring fairs by location. S Local Job Fairs – Recruit Military – List of Veterans-only career fairs by location. Local Contacts The AWWA Volunteer liaison network is made of volunteers from each AWWA section who serve as the critical connector between local water industry employers and separating military members interested in the water industry. To reach your local section contact Email

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020



Operation and Maintenance Comparative Assessment of Colocated Nanofiltration, Lime Softening, and Low-Pressure Reverse Osmosis Systems at the Norwood Water Treatment Plant Veronica Llaneza, Jafeth Baez, Samuel Zamacona, Cristina Ortega-Castineiras, Moises Sierra Ortiz, and Carlos Carrazana The Norwood Water Treatment Plant (WTP), owned by NMB Water, is located in southeast Florida and provides potable water service to more than 180,000 residents. The plant has a permitted capacity of 32 mil gal per day (mgd), which includes a 15-mgd lime softening system, a 10.5-mgd nanofiltration (NF) system, and a 6.5mgd low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO) system. All three treatment processes are simultaneously operated at various production flow rates, including variations to their integral bypass/ blend systems, in order to meet water demands of approximately 20 mgd average daily demand (ADD). Production rates also must comply with the South Florida Water Management District consumptive use permit, which requires a minimum utilization of the RO system. The WTP currently uses the following chemicals as part of the treatment process: S Sulfuric acid, for NF and RO pretreatment. S S cale inhibitor, for RO pretreatment. S S odium hypochlorite, for disinfection of treated water and also for the scrubber.

S Ammonia, to form chloramines for disinfection. S Polymer, a flocculant aid for lime softening. S Lime, for softening. S Carbon dioxide, for pH adjustment on the lime softening system. S Ortho/polyphosphate blend, a sequestrant for filter media protection and a corrosion inhibitor. S Fluoride, for dental health. S Sodium hydroxide, for pH adjustment of the NF and RO degasified water and also for the scrubber. The membrane process building, which contains both NF and RO, completed an expansion in early 2020, increasing its capacity by 9 mgd and resulting in the plant’s total capacity increase from 32 to 41 mgd. The scope of the work included the addition of the following components: S Interstage booster pump and expansion of three existing NF skids from 3 to 3.5 mgd.

Combining knowledge and imagination, we are working to find creative and innovative solutions to address some of the most complex water management challenges around the globe. From planning and implementing One Water strategies that Jacobs mitigate climate change impacts, to tackling emerging contaminants like PFAS, to addressing unforeseen challenges such as COVID-19, we’re delivering resilience solutions to recover, adapt and thrive in our changing world. Follow us @JacobsConnects

12 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Veronica Llaneza, Ph.D., is a process engineer; Cristina Ortega-Castineiras, P.E., is a project manager and process engineer; Moises Sierra Ortiz, is plant manager; and Carlos Carrazana, is operations supervisor, with Jacobs in North Miami Beach. Jafeth Baez, P.E., MSCE, is director, and Samuel Zamacona, E.I., BSCE, is deputy director, with NMB Water in North Miami Beach.

S A  fourth 3.5-mgd NF membrane skid within the existing building. S O  ne new NF feed pump and sand separator for increased redundancy. S 1 8 new pressure vessels on each existing RO skid and upgrades to the existing turbochargers to expand permeate production capacity from 2 to 3 mgd for each skid.

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The method used to assess economic and operational feasibility focused on chemical use, energy consumption, cost of expendables, and disposal of waste streams, such as wet lime sludge, evaluation of operator personnel utilization, and maintenance efforts. The study focused on a nine-month evaluation of economic, operational, and water quality impact trends—from December 2018 to August 2019. Maintenance and personnel work efforts were quantified by analyzing work order requests for various treatment processes within the plant and comparing corrective and preventative maintenance work schedules at each treatment unit system. Water quality parameters were also monitored, and any treatment process flow anomaly events were documented. Chemical cost was determined twofold: the chemical used during each month was calculated by tank fill levels and deliveries, as well as calculated pounds used per month based on average monthly dose and flow per the monthly operational reports (MORs), as viewed in Equation 1. Chemical cost was expressed either by total cost per chemical per month, and by chemical cost per 1,000 gal, normalized by production flow, for all three treatment systems (NF, RO, and lime softening).



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Due to this expansion project and historical cost increases to the various components of the water treatment plant operations, a comparative study on cost, efficiency, maintenance, and water quality was carried out. Results from this study will help the utility in identifying best operation and maintenance (O&M) practices and plantwide system operation strategy optimization. This study will also help facilitate in projecting O&M budgets, recognizing plantwide process cost differentiators, and prioritizing capital improvement projects.

Figure 1: Average Daily Finished Water Production per Treatment System 14.0


S R  eplacement of all NF and RO membrane elements. S F  low meters and interconnection between the NF and RO blends to the degasifiers for increased degasifier system flexibility. S Th  e RO and NF membrane bypass-rated capacity increased accordingly with the permeate production increase.

Figure 3. Cost per Power Meter

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


Continued from page 13 Energy cost was calculated by analyzing the power load of water pumps and air blowers associated with each treatment system. This analysis excluded power loads that were assumed to be applied equally to all three treatment systems, including power use associated with air conditioning/ventilation, chemical pumps, lighting, and other miscellaneous smaller loads. Equation 2 illustrates how the power load was calculated. Furthermore, the monthly electrical bill for the plant was used for comparison and confirmation of calculation results. Any monthly operational variations that contributed to energy fluxes were documented.

financial resources. Finished water quality parameters were also tracked to ensure ongoing compliance and to identify any improvements due to system utilization variations.

Results and Discussion

Average daily finished water production for each treatment system during each month of this study is presented in Figure 1 and monthly total cost for each chemical is presented in Figure 2. As expected, pebble lime for the softening process in clarifiers contributed to an average of 37 percent of the total chemical budget cost due to large quantities needed to maintain a pH of 10.2 in the clarifiers. Pebble lime cost consumption is responsible for the Equation 2: high operation cost in the lime side. Sulfuric acid use in both NF and RO 0.7457 ∗ đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š (đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘€) ∗ đ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇ đ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ť(đ?‘“đ?‘“đ?‘“đ?‘“) pretreatment was the second most costly chemical, đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸ 2: = đ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒ đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż (đ?‘˜đ?‘˜đ?‘˜đ?‘˜ − â„Ž) 3960 ∗ đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸ (%, đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘) making up 20 percent of the total cost, on average, followed by sodium hypochlorite (16 percent) and đ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ť(đ?‘“đ?‘“đ?‘“đ?‘“) = đ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒ đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż (đ?‘˜đ?‘˜đ?‘˜đ?‘˜ − â„Ž) hydroxide (14 percent). Polymer and phosphate đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘) had insignificant cost impact to the total chemical Preventative and corrective maintenance expenses of the plant. efforts of the lime treatment system and membrane Cost deviations contributed to flow treatment systems (NF and RO combined) were fluctuations between treatment unit processes; evaluated. A maintenance management software for example, the RO treatment unit was out of (Maintenance Connection, utilized at the WTP) service for a month during the trial, or lime flow tracks and schedules regular plant maintenance, production was reduced and NF flow increased equipment failures, allocated personnel, and from historical operations practices. Additionally,

14 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

equipment failure or malfunctions also supported monthly cost differences. These events provided useful insight in comparing membrane technology cost versus conventional lime treatment cost. When comparing normalized chemical cost between treatment systems, as displayed in Table 1, it was concluded that the RO had the least chemical expenses, followed by NF. A key differentiator between NF and RO chemical use is the amount of sulfuric acid added as pretreatment for both, with RO requiring a significantly lower dosage. As previously mentioned, due to the high cost of the pebble lime required, the lime softening treatment system had the highest chemical cost per 1,000 gal. The WTP has several electrical power meters that monitor power use for different sections of the plant. The monthly cost per each power meter provided by the electrical bill is presented in Figure 3. Both Figure 3 and the calculated individual pump/blower power use by the system show the membrane-related items yielding the highest energy cost. The difference can be attributed to the relatively higher pressure boost required to feed the membranes. Furthermore, membrane wells also had a higher power requirement than the lime side wells due to their higher discharge head. Table 2 concludes that, with respect to energy consumption and cost, the lime softening treatment system is the most economical, with 0.116 cent per 1,000 gal. As predicted, RO had the highest energy cost due to its higher feed pressure of approximately 200 pounds per sq in. (psi), as compared to about 110 psi for NF. It’s important to highlight that only the power load of water pumps and air blowers associated with each treatment system were considered. This analysis excluded power loads that were assumed to be applied equally to all three treatment systems, including power use associated with air conditioning/ ventilation, chemical pumps, lighting, and other miscellaneous smaller loads. Table 3 presents a comparison of the overall production cost of the treatment systems, including the sum of chemical, energy (with exclusions previously noted), and expendables, and waste disposal costs. Results indicate that the water production costs associated with the NF and lime softening systems are the lowest, with insignificant differences between them. The cost for disposal of wet sludge associated with the lime softening system had a significant impact in the results of this analysis. Norwood currently has a contractor that hauls wet sludge (total suspended solids [TSS] of approximately 20 to 25 percent). The costs for sludge disposal are projected to continue to rise for this utility. Some chemical and energy cost reductions are anticipated after completion of the membrane expansion and improvement project. Preventative and corrective maintenance are essential to the effective operation of the plant.

When comparing the daily efforts and personnel utilization on the membrane systems versus the lime system, Norwood maintenance staff spent 10 percent more labor and material cost on servicing the lime system. The highest contributors on the lime side include gravity filters, lime slaker and clarifiers pumps, and motors failure and/or routine maintenance. It’s important to point out that the lime side was constructed during the 1960s, while the membrane systems were constructed in 2008 and are currently being upgraded. No significant water quality variation was noted from varying production flow rates in all three treatment processes, as shown in Table 4.

Conclusion and Recommendations This article presents results on the treatment process and production costs, focusing on chemical use, energy consumption, cost of expendables, labor, and material maintenance efforts. Furthermore, the information presented aims at providing further insight to the industry’s debate over the performance and cost of lime softening compared to NF and low-pressure RO technologies. Overall, at the WTP, NF and lime softening production costs were about the same, and lowpressure RO was approximately 17 percent more expensive to operate. During the nine months of this study, the water marginal production cost— including chemicals, energy, and expendables— was estimated and ranked as follows: 1. NF: $0.40 per 1000 gal 2. Lime softening: $0.41 per 1000 gal 3. Low-pressure RO: $0.47 per 1000 gal The results obtained from this study will give NMB Water a better understanding of how to optimize utilization of its treatment systems. A few areas of improvement that have been identified due to the evaluation are the potential reduction/ optimization of sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acids doses, thus reducing the chemical cost of the membranes. Additionally, some reduction of sludge disposal cost may be obtained by further increasing the efficiency of the sludge thickener. This study provided other benefits, such as identifying ways to reduce O&M costs and accurately predict O&M plant budgets. This information will also aid in decision making for resource allocation and for future capital expenditures, such as whether to further invest in lime softening compared to expanding membrane systems within the plant. The WTP plans to continue tracking and evaluating comparative assessment of all three treatment systems, especially considering the recent expansion of the membrane systems and planned rehabilitation of the lime softening system. 

City to Rename Sewage Plant for Comedian The Danbury (Conn.) City Council recently voted 18-1 to rename its sewage plant the John Oliver Memorial Sewer Plant after the comedian, who began a tongue-in-cheek battle with Danbury when he went on an expletive-filled rant against the city on HBO’s “Last Week Tonight with John Oliver” in August. Mayor Mark Boughton quickly responded on social media. He posted a video of himself at the sewage plant saying the city was going to name it after Oliver. “Why?” the Republican mayor asked. “Because it’s full of crap just like you, John.” That drew a delighted response from Oliver, but he went off against the city again because Boughton later said he was just joking. Oliver upped the stakes on his August 30th show by offering to donate $55,000 to local charities if Danbury actually followed through with renaming the plant. “I didn’t know that I wanted my name on your (expletive) factory but now that you floated it as an option, it is all that I want,” Oliver said. “Congratulations, Mr. Oliver,” Mayor Mark Boughton said after the council approved the resolution. “You now have a poop plant named after you.” Boughton said that Oliver’s promised donations have helped spur

local fundraising efforts for area food banks that could end up collecting a few hundred thousand dollars to feed needy families. He added that he will be offering tours of the sewer plant for 500 dollars for donations to local food pantries. Oliver has offered to provide the new sign for the plant that includes his name, as well as attend the ribbon-cutting, Boughton said. A timeline has not been finalized. It’s not clear why Oliver singled out Danbury for a tongue-lashing. He first brought up the city during an August segment of his show on racial disparities in the jury selection process, citing problems in a few Connecticut towns from decades ago. He noted Danbury’s “charming railway museum” and its “historic Hearthstone Castle.” “I know exactly three things about Danbury,” he said. “USA Today ranked it the second-best city in which to live in 2015, it was once the center of the American hat industry, and if you’re from there, you have a standing invite to come get a thrashing from John Oliver.” The renaming was largely popular among residents, with the council receiving about 100 letters in support. Many said the back-and-forth between the city and Oliver brought them joy during the coronavirus pandemic.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Water Treatment. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators ( DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

Operation and Maintenance Comparative Assessment of Colocated Nanofiltration, Lime Softening, and Low-Pressure Reverse Osmosis Systems at the Norwood Water Treatment Plant Veronica Llaneza, Jafeth Baez, Samual Zamacona, Cristina Ortega-Castineiras, Moises Sierra Ortiz, and Carlos Carrazana (Article 1: CEU = 0.1DS/DW02015374) 1. For what purpose is carbon dioxide added in the Norwood treatment process? a. Restore alkalinity after membrane treatment b. Assist in degasification c. pH adjustment in lime treatment process d. A  ssist in hydrogen sulfide reduction 2. Which of the facility’s treatment processes had the lowest normalized chemical expense? a. Lime softening b. Nanofiltration c. Reverse osmosis d. Combined lime softening and reverse osmosis 3. City records reveal that personnel utilization costs ____ percent more for the lime system than for the membrane system. a. 5 b. 10 c. 15 d. 20 4. The study has revealed the opportunity for optimization of __________ utilization to reduce membrane system operation cost. a. calcium hydroxide b. sulfuric acid c. carbon dioxide d. antiscalant 5. Higher membrane system electrical costs are attributed, in part, to which of the following? a. More porous membranes b. Need for a climate controlled operating environment c. Higher pump operating speeds d. H  igher discharge heads for membrane supply wells

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 3 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Lime Softening–the Forgotten Technology: Optimization Case Studies From South Florida

The Role of Corrosion Indices in Establishing Effective Corrosion Control Treatment

Tyler Smith Semago, Vinnie Hart, Jennifer Stokke Nyfennegger, and Juan Guevarez (Article 2: CEU = 0.1DS/DW02015375)

Christopher P. Hill (Article 3: CEU = 0.1DS/DW02015376)

1. The lime softening process raises pH high enough to convert bicarbonate to a) carbon dioxide. b) calcium. c) carbonate. d) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2. The target solids inventory for most solids contact clarifiers is ___ percent. a) 3 to 5 b) 6 to 12 c) 13 to 15 d) 20 3. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) recommends that no more than ____ mg/l of hardness be removed across the filters. a) 5 b) 10 c) 15 d) 20 4. Which of the following is not listed as an important factor in the lime slaking process? a) Temperature b) Time c) Percent calcium d) Particle size 5. Decoupling the lime softening process from _______________ allows better targeting of finished water hardness. a) color removal b) stabilization c) pH optimization for disinfection d) turbidity reduction

16 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. Which of the following original U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Lead and Copper Rule treatment guideline alternatives was subsequently removed from the approved EPA list? a) Carbonate precipitation b) Zinc passivation c) Corrosion inhibitor addition d) pH and alkalinity adjustment 2. ______________ is not a factor in determining dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. a) Ionic strength b) Temperature c) Alkalinity d) Hardness 3. The control method for pitting corrosion is a) p  H and dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC) control. b) carbonate passivation. c) reduce water age. d) orthophosphate inhibitor addition. 4. Which of the following is truly a corrosion index? a) Ryznar Stability Index b) Larson-Skold Index c) Calcium carbonate precipitation potential d) Langelier Saturation Index 5. F  orthcoming revisions to the Lead and Copper Rule include a new standard identified as a) action level. b) maximum contaminant level. c) maximum recommended contaminant goal. d) threshold level.

Water Professionals: We Appreciate Your Service AWWA wants to thank water professionals around the world for their hard work, sacrifice, and dedication in providing safe and clean water during the Coronavirus pandemic. Thank you for all that you do, now and always.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


For more information:

The FSAWWA Virtual Fall Conference brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, young professionals, and students. Register and learn from the industry’s best through technical sessions, workshops, and exhibits. Connect with water industry professionals. Exhibitors will give you first-hand information on the latest products to help your utility take actions to implement Florida’s future.

Accepting Attendee Registration: Virtual Exhibit Hall:

• Exhibitors will showcase their company’s exciting products

Technical Sessions

• Laws and Ethics Workshop • PFAS Workshop • Potable Reuse • Improving our Piping Systems • Innovations in Water Treatment • Role of Membranes for the Future • Tools for Assessing our Assets • Financing the Future • Water Systems Resilience • Water Conservation Conference Highlights

and services for the 3 days of the show. Visit virtual booths for 1 additional month after the conference ends!

• Workshops and Technical Sessions

Booths are brought to life through images, brochures, data sheets, and video.

• •

• Booths are loaded with features that visitors can interact with.

Visiting Officer “AWWA Perspective and Update” Chi Ho Sham, President-Elect, American Water Works Association

For more information: We look forward to “seeing” you at our 2020 FSAWWA Virtual Fall Conference!

18 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

for 3 days! Plant tours Access for 30 days! - On-Demand Sessions - Re-Watch Real-Time Sessions

Virtual Fun Contests

Leaderboard Prizes will be awarded to attendees who interact the most during this virtual conference. The more points you earn, the more chances you have of winning cool prizes! Examples of participation include attending the OGS and chatting with an exhibitor.

Scavenger Hunt Attendees will maximize interactions through cleverly hidden objects and corresponding prizes.

Going Virtual PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL SESSIONS December 1-2, 2020

Tuesday Morning Sessions:

Tuesday Afternoon Sessions:

Total Water Solutions

Potable Reuse

Roadmap to Modeling a Source Water System • A30-Year CUP Using 100% Alternative Water Supply • Addressing Alternative Water Supply Needs with • Innovative Approaches Through Cost Barriers Associated with • Breaking Developing an Alternative Water Supply by Integrating

with an Existing Treatment System Integrated Water Supply Planning and Total Water Solutions: Cherry Hill Water Production Facility

Innovations in Water Treatment

Irradiation Combined with Chlorine Dioxide • Ultraviolet Pre-Oxidation for Disinfection By-Product Control Studies to Improve Lime Softening Treatment to • Case Reduce Disinfection By-Product Formation Evaluation of Advanced Oxidation Process for the • An Removal of 1,4-Dioxane in Drinking Water of Microbial Communities Colonizing a • Identification Granular Activated Carbon Biofilter Treating Upper Floridan Groundwater

and Refining of a Plasma Arc Venturi • Development System for Water Treatment and Nutrient Abatement

Pipe Design

Renewal Technologies for Pressurized Pipelines • Emerging of Pipeline Corrosion and Protections for Ductile Iron Pipe • Basic You Grounded? Lessons Learned from an Electrical • Are Grounding and Cathodic Protection System Evaluation in Water Facilities

the Consequences of Failure by Assessing and • Reduce Rehabilitating Critical Valves

the Stage for Innovative Potable Reuse Testing in • Setting Hillsborough County, Florida Reuse Implementation in Northeast Florida • Potable of Enhanced Soil Aquifer Treatment for Indirect • Investigation Potable Reuse in Florida - Utilizing Rapid Infiltration Basins to Our Benefit

as a Tool for Revitalizing Brackish Groundwater • DPR Desalination: WQ, Operations


Critical Pipelines Using Inline Leak Detection • Mapping Inspection Platforms More with Less: Benefits of Artificial Intelligence • Doing for Water Treatment Plant Operations the Potential of IT-OT Convergence • Unlock Water and Sewer Department Develops a • Miami-Dade New Approach to Address Regulatory Ordinances and O&M Constraints Through Wastewater AMI

Machine Learning and a Monetized Quantification • Using Approach for Pipeline Risk Management

Piping 2

the Hidden Costs of Pipeline Sediment Deposition • Mitigating Emergency: Replacing Daytona Beach's Most Critical • Proactive Water Pipe the Trouble - Crossing the SunRail Corridor with a • Double 72-inch Stacked Jack and Bore of the Fix and Assess Approach for Asset • Deployment Management of Water Distribution Pipes the Unknown - Evaluating Water Main Inspection • Know Technologies

Wednesday Morning Sessions: Resiliency

Resiliency by Strengthening the Critical Linkages • Building Across Your Utility and Predicting Lake Levels Using Multivariate • Explaining Statistical Modeling of Temporally-Weighted Rainfall and Spatially Explicit Groundwater Production

Change and Groundwater - State of Adaptation in • Climate Florida for an Uncertain Future Surface Water to Groundwater...What Does it Take to • From Refill the Aquifer? Pete Beach, Florida Sea Level Rise Adaptation Alternatives: • St. A Case Study

Innovations in Water Treatment

Renewal Technologies for Pressurized Pipelines • Emerging Currents, Corrosive Soil and Wall Loss, Oh My! Harnessing • Stray Advanced Inspection Technologies to Prevent Main Failures County's Innovative Pipe Inspection Adds • Hillsborough Efficiency and Accuracy

Financing the Future

Rate, Fee, and Charge Increases: Important • Automatic Considerations the Future: Polk Regional Water Cooperative • Financing Funding Plan Funding - An Ever-Changing Mission for Delivering • Utility Essential Services at the Lowest Customer Cost Performance Contracting as an Alternative Utility • Using Project Funding Strategy & Fix" LOOK AHEAD! A Budgetary Forecast for Water • "Find System Utilities Related to the LSL Inventory and Corrosion

Control Treatment (CCT) Evaluation & Study Guidelines Under the New Lead and Copper Rule (LRC) Revisions

Water Conservation Symposium

For more information:

We look forward to “seeing” you at our 2020 FSAWWA Virtual Fall Conference!

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


We Make Water Policy A Priority Together We Protect Public Health Through AWWA members’ collective knowledge, our Government Affairs office informs decision makers on legislative and regulatory issues. We support effective measures that protect public health by advocating for sensible laws, regulations, programs and policies.

Join AWWA today and let’s work together on the critical issues facing our industry.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020



Cheer Up—FSAWWA’s Virtual Fall Conference is This Month Kim Kowalski Chair, FSAWWA


he professional ties that nurture our success in providing essential water services to our customers can be sustained, even during the COVID-19

pandemic. We can demonstrate our strength as the premier water industry organization by participating in the virtual FSAWWA Fall Conference, which will be held Monday, November 30, to Wednesday, December 2. While this event will not replace the in-person camaraderie that we used to take for granted, we can still talk with and learn from each other. All activities, including the technical sessions, will be interactive, with the same question-and-answer opportunities of our normal in-person conferences. And, as always, the conference

The opening general session always includes a thought-provoking speaker to help us navigate through our professional life. This picture shows our audience at the 2019 session.

The best opportunity to learn about our vendors, educators, and consultants is to visit the conference exhibit hall. This year the exhibit hall will be virtual and interactive.

22 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

will offer professional development hours (PDHs) and continuing education units (CEUs). All information and registration for this pioneering conference are provided at

Seminars, Sessions, and Presentations Student poster presentations, and seminars on laws and ethics, addressing perand polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and asset management are the focus of Monday’s activities. Tuesday morning’s sessions will focus on developing alternative water supplies, utility management under the COVID-19 pandemic, state-of-the-art water treatment, need-to-know pipe design, and management strategies. Tuesday’s afternoon sessions include Florida’s experiences with potable reuse, using technology to support pipe resiliency, Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) membranes, and improvements and experiences in pipeline management. Wednesday morning’s sessions will focus on building resiliency in water supply and utility management, new ideas for utility financing, and more pipeline management experiences.

I thank Mike Bailey, 2019 chair, and Peggy Guingona, FSAWWA executive director (at right), for making me feel like a queen at last year’s conference luncheon.

Exhibit Hall The conference features a 3-D exhibit hall where attendees can view new technologies and have two-way conversations with vendors, educators, and consultants. Exhibitors can choose from ready-made booth templates or customize their own. Each booth supports the dissemination of brochures and the presentation of videos. Attendees will be able to chat “one-on-one” with each exhibitor. This is as close as you can get to these experts without physically standing in front of them.

who interact the most during this virtual conference. A leaderboard will post the hourby-hour status of participants, and prizes will be awarded to the end-of-day leaders. The more points you earn, the more chances you have of winning cool prizes! Examples of participation include attending the OGS and chatting with an exhibitor. Scavenger Hunt Our virtual conference will award prizes to those who can find hidden objects online during the conference.

Reminiscing I used to take our Fall Conference for granted, but not anymore. I have included several pictures to help us reminisce about the great times we’ve had together and to look forward to our future conferences postpandemic. My prayer is that this pandemic will be behind us by next year when we can all be together again in person. I look forward to speaking with all of you during our virtual Fall Conference. God bless you and stay safe!

Opening General Session and Awards The opening general session (OGS) takes place on Monday afternoon. To thank the many FSAWWA volunteers who have donated their time and talents to the Florida Section, our awards for outstanding achievement and service will be presented at specific times throughout the program, including the OGS. Please check the website to obtain the awards schedule.

Contests and Prizes While it’s not possible to support, online, our usual excellent Backhoe Rodeo, Iron Ductile Tap and Fun Tap competitions, Hydrant Hysteria, and Meter Madness, the virtual conference will be conducting fun contests, where everyone can participate. Leaderboard Prizes will be awarded to attendees

Our conference barbecue contest is always a fun time. This shows the fun last year.

We are proud of our officers who work hard to keep the section focused on its mission. Here is the 2020 officers installation ceremony at last year’s conference luncheon.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


AWWA Section Services provides sections with content for their publications. These articles contain brand new information and will cover a variety of topics.

AWWA Minnesota Section Wins 2020 Section Education Award Section wins for its water utilities treatment and technology education program Pandemic and Pancakes! What a unique set of word choices. It certainly was unique back in March 2020, but today? Not so much! March 2020 is when the world began to turn upside down with the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the cancellation of several annual workshops and schools (i.e., collections/ treatment and local Minnesota district water operator schools), a gap in information sharing was identified. Approximately 400 to 500 utility professionals lost the opportunity to learn about important water and wastewater initiatives, case studies, new products,

and legislative updates. They also lost the opportunity to “connect” and remain engaged with their peers during this time of social distancing.

Webinar Created Several members of the AWWA Minnesota Section got together to discuss the consequences of these cancellations, and an idea was formed: design and host a series of live webinars that would provide a brief (30 minutes), topical, and informative forum for members to remain connected with each other. The webinar series was titled “Virtual

The first Virtual Water Break announcement.

24 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water Break” (VWB). The hope was to have an experience similar to meeting someone at the workplace water cooler for conversation. The inaugural VWB was called “Pandemic and Pancakes!” The content focused on communicating during a pandemic. The webinar showcased a variety of communication tools, such as Zoom, Webex and GoToMeeting. Most city staff had very limited experience with these and many other computer peripherals, such as web cameras and microphones. For many, this was their first opportunity to telework. There had been very little time for users to learn which tool to use, how to use it, and how to configure it. This first webinar was focused on helping people with those needs. Each VWB uses a live poll question to engage members, and we’ve tried to have a discussion question or topic each time to get attendees to talk to us and share their input, ideas, and concerns. Why “pancakes”? To reach as many members as possible, understanding the member’s very hectic work schedule (due to COVID-19 changes and precautionary adjustments being made in the workplace), the VWBs were scheduled early in the morning to be as convenient as possible. In addition, the section decided to make them free to everyone. The VWB series kicked off with more than 90 attendees and was well-received. As of August 1, twelve VWBs have been offered. Several more were scheduled, leading up to the section’s virtual annual conference, which took place in September. The weekly VWB attendance has remained consistently high since March. The topics have focused on COVID-19 and have included Michigan Department of Health updates, COVID-19 and tap water, project design and bidding in COVID-19

times, managing and leading during COVID-19, city aid and assistance (among cities, and including the Minnesota Water and Wastewater Agency Response Network [MN WARN]), emergency and risk planning, and virtual technologies to consider as cities limited access to facilities. We even did a session on celebrating “Drinking Water Week” while observing social distancing guidelines. Some of the feedback received from the attendees include: S “ The presentations help me feel more connected to friends and colleagues.” S “ The timing suits my schedule.” S “ The presentations are short.” S “It’s nice that the webinars are free.”

Commitment to Training At this time, there is no accurate prediction of when life will return to “normal.” For now, this is the environment, the workplace, the home life, the times that we’re in, and the section is dedicated and committed to providing ongoing opportunities for members to remain connected to the section, as well as to their friends and colleagues. A special thank you goes to the members of the VWB team: S Bill Schluenz, chair S Eric Volk, past chair S Dave Lemke, Technical and Education Council chair S Carol Kaszynski, STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) chair S Members: Pat Shea, George Kraynick, Jacqueline Strait, and Adam Markos S Mona Cavalcoli, Minnesota Section manager

Project: Mid Florida Materials Location: Apopka, Florida Customer: Hubbard Construction Owner: Apopka Landfill

For more information regarding the VWB webinars, please contact Carol Kaszynski, STEM chair for the AWWA Minnesota Section, at carol.kaszynski@

Project: FPL Indiantown Warehouse Location: Indiantown, Florida Customer: Ahrens Companies Owner: FPL


Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


Test Yourself What Do You Know About Above Ground and Underground Storage Tanks? Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62761, Underground Storage Tank Systems, the purpose of this rule is to provide requirements for underground storage tank systems that store regulated substances to minimize the occurrence and environmental risks of releases and discharges. The rule pertains to underground storage tank systems having individual storage tank capacities greater than

a. b. c. d.

50 gallons. 110 gallons. 500 gallons. 1,000 gallons.

5. P  er FAC 62-761, if an incident occurs at a facility, how soon after the incident is discovered must an investigation be conducted to determine if a discharge has occurred?

a. b. c. d.

Class A Class B Class C Class D

3. P  er FAC 62-761, what type of training is required for Class A and B storage tank operators? a. C ompletion of a Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP)-approved operator training course. b.  Completion of any online course on underground storage tank systems. c. In-house training by the local fire department. d.  Online training from the department of emergency management.

a. A  t the office or kiosk where the underground storage tank is located. b. D  irectly above the storage tank. c. At the facility’s main office, even if remote. d.  There are no requirements to display the placard, only to have it filed and available.

a. b. c. d.

Two hours Eight hours 24 hours 72 hours

10. P er FAC 62-762, if a regulated substance is released into secondary containment, what is the required schedule for the substance to be removed?

a. b. c. d.

110 gallons. 300 gallons. 550 gallons. 1,000 gallons.

7. P  er FAC 62-762, the word “county” is defined as a locally administered governmental program under contract with the department to perform compliance verification activities at facilities with storage tank systems within the boundaries stipulated in the applicable contract. Unless the county allows otherwise, how many days in advance must it be notified about the installation, closure, or change of service status of an above ground storage tank?

a. b. c. d.

Seven days 10 to 15 days 30 to 45 days 60 days

8. P  er FAC 62-762, owners or operators of petroleum or petroleum product above ground storage tanks must demonstrate financial responsibility for taking corrective action and for compensating third parties for bodily injury and property damage caused by accidental releases arising from the operation of these tanks. For a facility with a storage tank system, or systems with a cumulative capacity greater than 550 gallons and less than or equal to 10,000 gallons, the demonstration of financial responsibility must be how much per incident?

4. P  er FAC 62-761, where must the storage facility’s registration placard be displayed?

Within two hours Within eight hours Within 24 hours Within 72 hours

6. P  er FAC 62-762, Above Ground Storage Tank Systems, this rule provides requirements for above ground storage tank systems having individual storage tank capacities greater than

2. P er FAC 62-671, what class of storage tank operator typically has primary responsibility for ensuring the proper operation and maintenance of the storage tank systems?

a. b. c. d.

9. P  er FAC 62-762, if a new discharge from an above ground storage tank system is discovered, it must be reported to the county on a discharge report form within what time period?

a. b. c. d.

$100,000 $500,000 $1 million $2 million

26 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

a. R  emoval shall be initiated within 24 hours of discovery and completed within three days. b. Removal shall be initiated within three days of discovery and completed within 30 days. c. Removal shall be initiated within seven days of discovery and completed within 30 days. d. Removal shall be initiated within 30 days of discovery and completed within 60 days. Answers on page 62

References used for this quiz: • FAC 62-761, Underground Storage Tank Systems • FAC 62-762, Above Ground Storage Tank Systems

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to:

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Interested presenters should send the speaker bio/abstract form to Michele Miller at by November 12th, 2020 354 NW Alice Ave Stuart, FL 34994 P: 772-781-7698 F: 772-781-4240 Web: Email: Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


AMWA Recognizes Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority for Utility Management Achievement The Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA) presented its 2020 Sustainable Water Utility Management Award to the Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority on October 13 at its 2020 Executive Management Conference. The award represents the highest level of water utility management achievement and was presented to only nine public drinking water systems across the United States.

“In an unprecedented year for this nation, these systems are at the forefront of providing innovative solutions to the multiple challenges that a global pandemic, extreme weather events, and infrastructure gaps are creating,” said Steve Schneider, AMWA president, and general manager of Saint Paul Regional Water Services. “By supplying their communities with clean, safe, and affordable drinking water, these

Some of the staff members of the Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority display the award.

28 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

water utilities are helping to safeguard the nation’s health.” The AMWA awards recognize exceptional performance of public drinking water utilities where management vision and employee commitment create sustainable utilities producing ample supplies of clean, safe drinking water. This award spotlights efforts of water utilities implementing long-term and innovative economic, environmental, and social endeavors. In presenting the award, AMWA proclaimed that the authority has created a reliable, sustainable, and affordable water supply in southwest Florida and provides the infrastructure for business development and economic growth. Through partnerships, the authority invested in alternative water supply (AWS) and interconnecting major water supply systems. The utility is a model in AWS development, implementing surface water storage by off-stream reservoirs and aquifer storage and recovery systems. Limiting water withdrawal to occur only during high-flow periods provides the sustainability of the downstream estuary and Charlotte Harbor, while meeting demands for public water supply. “This award is a tribute to the dedication of our staff to provide a safe and reliable water supply to the region around the clock—especially during these unprecedented times of a pandemic,” stated Patrick Lehman, executive director of the authority, when accepting the award. “They have been frontline responders maintaining uninterrupted water service to our member counties essential to protecting the public health in our communities.” 

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Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020



Examine Your Test-Taking Skills Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA


reetings, everyone. I hope you all are doing well. Here we are, moving into November as we approach the end of 2020. This has been a trying and difficult year. There are many distractions associated with our work environment, and COVID-19 may have gotten in the way of your professional advancement. Locating training and exam refresher classes has been difficult, with restrictions on gathering in groups and concerns with protecting ourselves and our families. In this month’s column I would like to go over some tips on how to prepare to take certification exams. First of all, I must say there is no substitute for studying for your exam. If you are taking a Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) state exam, you can find all the approved texts and recommended study material listed in the FDEP operator certification program (OCP) handbook. The following link will take you directly there: handbook%20April%202020_0.pdf Copy this link into your computer internet browser. When taking an exam there are no absolute methods on how to succeed in

passing it, but there are some basic concepts that are commonly applied. This is what I am referring to as testmanship.

Testmanship Skills When taking an exam there are three methods you can use to analyze a question: read, remember, and reduce. Read Read the entire question to the very last word. Don’t just glance at the question; often the clue to the correct answer can be in a single word in the question. Read all of the answers completely. Again, a single word may be the clue to the correct answer. Remember Review the question! Read all parts of the question and then remember. After reading the question, ask yourself: S What/where did I read or study the material that will help me answer the question? S What do I remember from my studies? Reduce Reduce (eliminate) the obvious answers that are not correct. Often, two out of the four choices should be easily eliminated. This is where your studying pays off. Going into an exam with a good understanding of your study material will help you eliminate obviously incorrect answers. Once you have reduced your answer to two, you now have given yourself a 50 percent chance to select the right answer. Don’t dwell on a single question too

30 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

long. If you’re not sure of your answer, you can move on to the next question, but make sure you keep track of the ones you skipped so you can go back and answer them later. Never leave the answer to a question blank. Try these tips for the questions you are not sure about: S Turn back to the abandoned questions and answer them. You may get clues from other questions or you may just remember the answer. S Estimate the answer rather than leave it unanswered. When guessing an answer, use the A-C-E Technique: Avoid absolute words: never, always, none, not all, only, and every. Nonabsolute words are usually, seldom, some, most, sometimes, many, few, and often. Choose the longest and most detailed choice; three to four words. Eliminate similar choices. There can only be one correct answer; if two choices are the same or similar, eliminate both. Survey Finally, survey to ensure all questions are answered. Change an answer only if you are sure. When finished, ask yourself the following questions: S D  id I answer all the questions? S D  id I erase all stray marks if using answer sheets? S D  id I only change an answer if I marked it by mistake first or if I’m completely sure another choice is better?

Here are some final tips to help make your test-taking experience successful: S Be prepared. There is no substitute for studying. S Study the materials recommended in the OCP handbook and don’t forget to go over the Florida Administrative Code specific to your exam. S Don’t try to memorize formulas or constants. These are provided by the exam proctor. S Allow time to study—do not “cram.” Practice math calculations. Math questions are often the downfall of a successful exam; they usually take more time to answer and often cause the most anxiety during the exam. S Again, never leave a question blank. S Generally, the first answer that comes to mind is correct. S Be methodical and deliberate. S Stay calm and relaxed. S Arrive at the test site well ahead of the starting time. S Read each question carefully. S Answer all the easy questions first. S D  on’t waste valuable time on a question that has you stumped.

S Make sure your answer makes sense.

Best of luck to you with your exam!

FWPCOA Training Update We are still looking for venues that can and will accommodate our training classes. Since school has resumed, we do have some venues opening up, but we still need to follow social distancing and classroom limits. We will continue following the latest Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for conducting training and are willing to follow any guidelines required by the facility, including off hours, like nights and weekends. The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor please contact the training office at 321-383-9690. In the meantime, and as always, our online Training Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home

page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog for the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course.

Attention Stormwater System Operators! The FWPCOA is now offering a revised stormwater “C” online course for operators desiring to enter into the first level of the FWPCOA certification program. The course tuition fee is $275 and includes the online course, the new FWPCOA stormwater “C” coursebook, a proctored certification examination, and a 12-month membership in the association. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at or the FWPCOA training office at That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work! 

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020



A Time to be Thankful: Veterans Day, Essential Service, and Gratitude! James J. Wallace, P.E. President, FWEA


ovember is always an important month in the year. The observance of Veterans Day and Thanksgiving are important celebrations in our annual calendar. This year we also have one of the most anticipated elections that I can remember, as well as a COVID-19 pandemic that unfortunately is still very much in the forefront. My hope is that those last two items will not distract from some very important activities this month. Let’s show our appreciation for all who have served, our thankfulness for the essential nature of water and wastewater work, and our gratitude for all that we have in this life.

Veterans Day: Show Your Appreciation! Depending on when you read this FWEA Focus, you may still be feeling the effects of this year’s Election Day (November 3), which is the culmination of one of the more exhausting election cycles in recent memory. Or, maybe you are still feeling that sense of anxiousness that comes with the continued projections of a resurgence of COVID-19. There is certainly

no shortage of reasons to feel a little drained this year; however, I urge you to find that reserve of energy and join FWEA as we honor those who have served by providing them the appreciation they so deserve. On this Veteran’s Day (November 11), honor those who have sacrificed, putting the needs of others ahead of their own. Veterans Day is particularly important in our industry since we have so many professionals who serve the water and wastewater industry who also previously served in the military. These individuals represent every facet of our industry, performing jobs at all levels and from all representative organizations. The principles that were developed during their service (teamwork, responsibility, communication, sound and timely decision making, etc.) are directly applicable and so valuable to the water and wastewater industry. We are very lucky that these veterans have chosen to bring their talents to our field. On this Veterans Day, show your appreciation in one or more of the following ways: S Attend a Veterans Day event. S Visit a Veterans Administration hospital. S D  onate your time and/or money to support a worthy charity to benefit veterans. S A  sk veterans about their service and engage in a conversation about their experience. One final note: these acts of appreciation are not limited to Veterans Day, as November is also National Veterans and Military Families Month.

32 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Join FWEA and show your appreciation all month (and all year) long.

Thankfulness: We are Essential! November is also the month where we observe the Thanksgiving holiday. As I think back over this past year and contemplate the many things that I’m thankful for, one of my first thoughts is that I am thankful that we all work in an “essential” industry. Those of you reading this column already know the importance of your work; however, our industry is often one of the overlooked necessities of life. This past year should reinforce to each of you just how important and how valuable you are to the water and wastewater industry. Recent examples of where our work has become more visible and in the spotlight include cuttingedge COVID-19 detection in wastewater (using wastewater surveillance to detect outbreaks, nextgeneration data analytics, and groundbreaking work in microconstituents). As an industry, we continue to do great work and it seems that our visibility and respect for our essential work will continue to grow.

Gratitude: Life Is Good! To summarize my thoughts this month, let’s begin to move forward by first taking a moment to look back. First, let’s honor our military veterans for their service, both in the military and to our industry. Next, let’s give thanks to an industry that is “essential” and provides an endless well of rewarding opportunities to give back to our environment by providing essential life resources. Finally, I encourage each of you to head into this holiday season, as we wind down this calendar year with gratitude for the life we’ve been given. There is no question it has been one of the more challenging years on record, but we have built a firm foundation upon which to rise out of these challenging times. Life is good. Live it well. Utilize your optimism to serve this industry and lead all who surround you to a better 2021—and beyond. As we go forth in November to show our appreciation, thankfulness, and gratitude, these words of President John F. Kennedy ring true: “As we express our gratitude, we must never forget that the highest appreciation is not to utter words, but to live by them.”








The Role of Corrosion Indices in Establishing Effective Corrosion Control Treatment Christopher P. Hill


n November 2019, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revisions to the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR). It’s anticipated that EPA will issue the final rule in late 2020. Among the provisions of the proposed rule are actions aimed at strengthening drinking water treatment requirements. In addition to the current 15 µg/L action level (AL), the proposed rule establishes a threshold level (TL) of 10 µg/L for lead. Compliance status is based on the 90th percentile of lead samples compared to these levels. For those systems that previously established optimal corrosion control treatment (OCCT) with their primacy agency, an exceedance of the TL would require them to reoptimize corrosion control treatment (CCT). Systems that exceed the TL and have

not established OCCT would be required to conduct a corrosion control study to determine OCCT. Much emphasis has been placed on the value of standard “corrosion indices” in the control of lead and copper. In the years since the original LCR was implemented, corrosion indices have evolved from good rules of thumb for the prevention of internal corrosion to de facto guidelines for the control of lead and copper corrosion. As a result, a refresher is needed on the usefulness of these various indices and their value in controlling internal corrosion. This article discusses several of these indices and how they should be used to establish an effective corrosion control program.

Christopher P. Hill, P.E., BCEE, ENV SP, is drinking water market sector leader— water with AECOM in Tampa.

Background The LCR was originally published in 1991. Subsequent guidance from EPA identified three corrosion control treatment alternatives (EPA, 1992): S pH and alkalinity adjustment, which refers to the modification of pH and/or alkalinity (as a surrogate for dissolved inorganic carbonate) to induce the formation of less-soluble compounds with the targeted pipe materials

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Table 1. Types of Corrosion and Associated Corrosion Control Strategies

(hydroxyl-carbonate films). This method utilizes passivation as the mechanism of control. S Carbonate precipitation, which refers to the adjustment of the pH, alkalinity, and/or calcium carbonate system equilibrium, such that calcium carbonate precipitation results. This method of corrosion control depends upon precipitation as the means of protecting piping systems. S Corrosion inhibitor addition, which refers to the application of specially formulated chemicals characterized by their ability to form metal complexes and thereby reduce corrosion. This method promotes phosphate passivation of the metal surface as the means of corrosion control. The corrosion inhibitors utilized include various formulations of orthophosphates and blended ortho/ polyphosphates. In the years that followed, it was determined that carbonate precipitation is not an effective means of corrosion control because research has shown that calcium carbonate films only rarely form on lead and copper pipe and are not considered an effective form of corrosion control

Corrosion Type Uniform corrosion

Control Methods • Carbonate passivation • Orthophosphate inhibitor addition • pH and dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC) control • Limit nutrients • Maintain adequate residual • Reduce stagnation/water age • Eliminate contact between dissimilar metals (e.g., lead and dissolved inorganic phosphorus [DIP]) • Hydraulic controls • Maintain stable distribution water quality • Enhanced treatment

Pitting corrosion Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) Galvanic corrosion Erosion corrosion Other types: • Re-equilibration of scale • Adsorption and release

uniform corrosion; however, there are a number of different types of corrosion. When considering a corrosion control treatment method, the most appropriate corrosion control strategy will depend on the type of corrosion, as shown in Table 1.

(Schock and Lytle, 2011; Hill and Cantor, 2011). As a result, EPA removed carbonate precipitation as an effective corrosion control treatment from updated corrosion control treatment guidance (EPA, 2016). Calcium hardness is important, however, in evaluating the amount of pH adjustment that can be made without causing calcium carbonate precipitation and resultant scaling problems in the distribution system. It’s important to note that each of the corrosion control strategies mentioned focuses on

Uniform Corrosion Corrosion in drinking water systems refers to the electrochemical interaction between the Continued on page 36




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Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


Continued from page 35 pipe wall and the water with which it’s in contact. To occur, the interaction requires the following (Cantor, 2011): S Negative terminal called the “anode� S Positive terminal called the “cathode� S Medium to carry electrons from the anode to the cathode

S C  hemical that can accept the electrons at the cathode S Chemical that can pair with the metal ion released at the anode In uniform corrosion, the anode and cathode occur dynamically at random sites on the pipe wall (Figure 1). The electrons flow from the anodes to the cathodes through the

pipe wall. The water in contact with the cathode provides the chemicals to accept the electrons; for instance, oxygen in the water solution can accept an electron (a reduction reaction). In the meantime, metal atoms from the solid metal at the anode, having given up electrons, undergo an oxidation reaction. The oxidized metal is now soluble in the water, and this oxidation of the metal is termed “corrosion.� Based on Figure 1, it’s conceivable that, if a protective layer could be formed between the pipe wall and the water, then it would be possible to control corrosion; however, to be effective the film must be an insoluble, uniform, nonporous layer. It has also been reported that significant calcium carbonate scales do not form on lead, galvanized, or copper cold water pipes. When they do form, carbonate scales are coarse, nonuniform, and subject to dissolution under varying water quality conditions. It’s for these reasons that calcium carbonate is not an effective means of corrosion control (AwwaRF and DVGW, 1996).

Corrosion Indices

Figure 1. Uniform Corrosion Process (Cantor, 2011)

Despite its unsuitability as a corrosion control method, calcium carbonate scale formation is still regularly used as an indicator of corrosion potential. A number of corrosion indices are frequently used as a measure of the corrosivity of a particular water toward lead, copper, or other distribution system material, but the majority are not related to corrosion at all and are instead based on calcium carbonate saturation. The two most commonly cited when discussing corrosion control are the calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP) and the Langlier Saturation Index (LSI). The CCPP denotes the quantity of calcium carbonate that can theoretically be precipitated from oversaturated waters or dissolved by undersaturated waters in units of mg/L. A CCPP value of 4 to 10 mg/L is typically cited as protective without contributing to the excessive deposition within the distribution system. Another frequently utilized saturation index is the LSI, which can be determined based on the following equation: đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘† đ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??ź (đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż ) = đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? − đ?‘?đ?‘?đ??ťđ??ť7

Figure 2. Variation of Buffer Intensity WIth pH (Snoeyink and Wagner, 1996)

36 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

A negative LSI value indicates undersaturation and a positive LSI indicates oversaturation with regard to calcium carbonate. A slightly positive LSI (i.e., greater than 0 but less than 1) is typically cited as protective without contributing to the excessive deposition within the distribution system. A lesser known and lesser utilized carbonate saturation index is the Ryznar Stability Index (RI). The RI can be determined based on the following equation:

Figure 3. Relationship Between Akalinity and Dissolved Inorganic Carbonate for Various pH Levels (pH = 6-8, I = 0.005, T = 25 C) (Economic and Engineering Services, 1990)

đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘… đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘† đ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??ź (đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘… ) = 2 Ă— đ?‘?đ?‘?đ??ťđ??ť8 − đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?

Where pH is the actual pH and pHs is the pH at saturation for the actual calcium carbonate concentration. There are a number of recommendations relative to the RI and recommended ranges. Generally, however, the potential for calcium carbonate precipitation increases as the RI decreases, and the following ranges are generally accepted: S RI < 6 are considered scale-forming. S 6 < RI < 7 are thought to be in equilibrium. S RI > 7 are undersaturated and mildly aggressive to steel (Awatif, et al., 2014). Another regularly cited corrosion index is the Larson-Skold Index (LI), which can be calculated according to the following equation: đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020; đ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??ź (đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż ) =

[đ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122; 5 ] + [đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;9:5 ] [đ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;<5 ] + [đ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;&#x201A;đ?&#x2018;&#x201A;<:5 ]

Where each of the terms in the index is in units of eqivalents per mil (epm) of the respective ion. The LI results are typically interpreted as follows: S LI < 0.8: Chlorides and sulfate probably will not interfere with natural film formation. S 0.8 < LI < 1.2: Chlorides and sulfates may interfere with natural film formation. Higherthan-desired corrosion rates might be anticipated. S LI > 1.2: Tendency toward high corrosion rates of a local type should be expected as the index increases.

Figure 4. Effect of Dissolved Inorganic Carbonate (Measured as C) on Buffer Intensity (Schock, 1999)

Unlike the other indices mentioned, which are based solely on calcium carbonate saturation, the LI is truly a corrosion index rooted in carbonate film formation. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s based on evaluation of in-situ corrosion of mild steel lines transporting Great Lakes waters. Extrapolation to waters other than the Great Lakes, such as those of low alkalinity or extreme alkalinity, goes beyond the range of the original data (Larson and Skold, 1958). Further, the applicability to other metals, such as lead and copper, should be considered with caution.

The Role of Carbonate in Corrosion Control It has been established that calcium carbonate precipitation is not an effective means of corrosion control (EPA, 2016; Schock and Lytle, 2011; Hill and Cantor, 2011); however, carbonate and bicarbonate still play an important role in corrosion control. For example, the most common compounds found on lead pipe walls are cerussite (PbCO3) and hydrocerussite (Pb3[CO3]2

[OH]2) (Colling, Whincup, & Hayes, 1987). Therefore, a thorough understanding of the factors that influence the presence of carbonate and bicarbonate species in water, called the â&#x20AC;&#x153;carbonate balance,â&#x20AC;? is necessary to developing an effective corrosion control program. pH. Maintaining a consistent target pH throughout the distribution system is always critical to minimizing lead and copper levels at the tap, even if other corrosion control methods are employed. The pH also plays a significant role in the carbonate balance in that it impacts buffer capacity and DIC concentrations. Alkalinity. Alkalinity is the sum of carbonate (CO32-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and hydroxide (OH-) anions, and is typically reported as mg/L as calcium carbonate (mg/L as CaCO3). Waters with high alkalinities tend to have high buffering capacities, or a strong ability to resist changes in pH. Low alkalinity waters are less able to neutralize acids or resist changes in pH. Buffer intensity or buffer capacity. Buffer Continued on page 38

Table 2. Source Water Quality Characteristics

Alkalinity Source


(mg CaCO3/L)





Blended shallow groundwater and surface water






Deep groundwater






Surface water





Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2020


Continued from page 37 intensity is a measure of the resistance of water to upward or downward changes in pH, and is a function of pH and alkalinity. Bicarbonate and carbonate ions are the most important buffering species in most drinking water supplies. Buffering intensity from carbonate species is normally greatest at approximately pH 6.3 and above 9, and lowest in the range of pH 8 to 8.5 (Figure 2). Dissolved inorganic carbonate. The DIC is the sum of all dissolved inorganic carbonatecontaining species and is one of the most critical parameters to controlling internal corrosion. It includes dissolved aqueous carbon dioxide gas (CO2 or H2CO3), bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), and carbonate ion (CO32-) in a particular water, and is usually expressed as mg of carbon per liter (mg/L as C) or mg of calcium carbonate per liter (mg/L as

CaCO3). Although DIC and alkalinity are similar, they are not the same water quality parameter. The DIC varies according to water temperature, pH, ionic strength, and alkalinity. An example of this relationship is provided in Figure 3. The DIC also significantly impacts the buffer intensity of water. Figure 4 shows that, as the DIC concentration increases, the buffer capacity of the water also increases. Since DIC controls the buffer capacity in most water systems, sufficient DIC is required to maintain a stable pH throughout the distribution system for control of lead and copper (Schock and Lytle, 1995). Hardness. Hardness is a characteristic that primarily represents the presence of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water, and is reported as an equivalent quantity of calcium carbonate (mg/L as CaCO3). When sufficient calcium and alkalinity are present in waters with pH greater than the

Table 3. Corrosion Control Study Results

Source A

Source B

Source C

Pb (mg/L)

Cu (mg/L)

Pb (mg/L)

Cu (mg/L)

Pb (mg/L)

Cu (mg/L)

No treatment







Inhibitor A (1.5 mg/L)







Inhibitor A (3 mg/L)







Inhibitor B (1.5 mg/L)







Inhibitor B (3 mg/L)







Phosphoric acid (1.5 mg/L)







Phosphoric acid (3 mg/L)







pH adjustment1







Calcium adjustment2







Treatment Option

Inhibitor A, 1:3 orthophosphate to polyphosphate ratio Inhibitor B, 3:1 orthophosphate to polyphosphate ratio

Table 4. Corrosion Control Study Test Conditions



Local GW

Brackish GW

















2 mg/L






2 mg/L













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38 November 2020 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

saturation pH, calcium carbonate may precipitate distribution piping. As previously discussed, there are a number of saturation indices that can be used to predict calcium carbonate precipitation. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s important to note that the formation of carbonate scale can interfere with corrosion control when other methods, such as phosphate passivation, are employed. Hardness must also be taken into consideration when corrosion control is selected and implemented because it can create scaling problems within the treatment plant and distribution system infrastructure. In this regard, hardness is an important parameter to be considered in developing a corrosion control program, but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not a stand-alone indicator of the corrosive nature of a particular water.

Case Studies Case Study 1 Population growth in a community in the southwestern United States resulted in an increase in service population to more than 50,000 people. As a result, that community was required to conduct a corrosion control study to determine if changes to its current corrosion control strategy (carbonate passivation) were warranted. The community receives water from three sources: a blend of groundwater and surface water, shallow groundwater, and surface water. Table 2 provides a summary of water quality and corrosion indices for each of the sources. As previously mentioned, the original LCR guidance manual identifies three potential corrosion control treatment methods: calcium adjustment, carbonate passivation through pH/ alkalinity adjustment, and corrosion inhibitor addition. Coupon studies were conducted using lead solder and copper coupons to determine the most-effective corrosion control treatment for this system. The state regulatory agency did not require testing of calcium adjustment and pH/alkalinity adjustment for sources A and B because the CCPP and LSI were already in the recommended ranges. All three methods were tested for source C. Table 3 compares average lead and copper concentrations for each source and corrosion control method for the duration of the coupon studies. The results in Table 3 show that the average lead concentrations for all three sources were similar without any additional treatment, despite the fact that source C did not meet the traditional CCPP and LSI guidelines. On the other hand, copper concentrations for source A were significantly higher without treatment compared to sources B and C, though it too fell within recommended ranges for CCPP and LSI. This is also consistent with traditional copper corrosion theory, in that high alkalinity (> 200 mg/L as CaCO3) and low pH (< 7.5) waters can be aggressive to copper.

There are a couple of other interesting items regarding the effectiveness of treatment. For both source A and B, inhibitor A (which had a higher percentage of polyphosphate) was less effective than inhibitor B (low polyphosphate) for copper. In fact, in both cases copper corrosion increased as the inhibitor A dose increased. Similar results were seen for source B (lower alkalinity) lead concentrations, but there was little difference in inhibitor performance for source A regardless of polyphosphate percentage or dose, suggesting that perhaps carbonate passivation was able to minimize some of the impact of the polyphosphate at higher alkalinity conditions. Case Study 2 Another community in the southwestern U.S. is considering addition of a new source (potable reuse) to its current water supply portfolio, which consists of groundwater, brackish groundwater, and surface water. As a result, the community conducted an extensive pilot-scale evaluation of treatment alternatives, which included harvested pipe loop studies to determine what, if any, impact this new source might have on its current corrosion control treatment. Seven harvested pipe loops, each with two galvanized service lines and one copper service line, were constructed. This community does not have lead service lines. Testing was conducted in three phases: S Acclimation period, during which the loops were allowed to stabilize using plant tap water (blended groundwater and surface water). S Phase 1, with water from the advanced purified water treatment plant (APWTP) pilot using different corrosion control treatment methods to see which performed best (pH/alkalinity adjustment, plus two different inhibitors at two different pH and alkalinity conditions). S Phase 2, during which different blends of groundwater, brackish groundwater, and water from the APWTP were treated using the corrosion control methods that performed best during Phase 1. Table 4 summarizes phase 2 test conditions, including the percent of each source in the blended supply. The nanofiltration (NF) permeate refers to permeate from the APWTP pilot study without any alkalinity adjustment, and the calcite contactor refers to permeate from the APWTP after itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s passed through a calcite contactor for stabilization. In preparation of the testing plan, this community consulted with its state regulatory agency, which recommended that the treated water (phase 2) meet tradition corrosion control

indices to prevent lead and copper corrosion and meet the requirements of LCR. Table 5 summarizes these recommendations. Table 6 summarizes the results of the loop testing and presents average metals concentrations for each of the test loops over the duration of phase 2 of the study. The results show that loops 1 and 2, which were simply blends of the different sources without any alkalinity adjustment or inhibitor addition, had the lowest average metals concentrations of any of the test conditions,

despite being the only test conditions that failed to meet any of the recommended corrosion indices guidelines. Loops 3 and 5, which came the closest to meeting the recommended guidelines, were actually the worst-performing loops with respect to both lead and iron. Again, this highlights the importance of not putting too much credence in traditional corrosion indices when it comes to predicting metals release and the efficacy of corrosion control treatment. Continued on page 40


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Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2020


Continued from page 39

Conclusions and Recommendations The forthcoming revisions to the LCR will result in a number of public water systems having to re-evaluate their existing CCT. Historically, systems have attempted to provide water that is slightly, but not too, saturated, with respect to calcium carbonate. Such water is considered “stable” and nonaggressive to metals in the distribution system. Water with these characteristics is thought to “form just a little, but not too much” calcium carbonate to create scale-related issues in the system. At the same time, these waters may help to preserve cement mortar lining and concrete pipe walls, so while it’s good operational practice to provide finished water with such a characteristic, there should not be a false sense of security that such water is not, or cannot, be aggressive to lead or copper. Calcium carbonate saturation indices are not effective indicators of the corrosivity of a water toward lead and copper pipe, yet the carbonate balance plays a very important role in corrosion control. In fact, is it probable in systems that are utilizing “carbonate precipitation” as a corrosion

control method that the actual inhibition of corrosion is a result of high pH, alkalinity, DIC, and other factors, but not a result of a protective scale of CaCO3 forming on the interior of pipe walls? Thus, a good understanding of the carbonate balance and the role of carbonate and bicarbonate in scale formation and corrosion control is needed, but calcium carbonate precipitation is not an indicator of corrosion control effectiveness. An understanding of traditional lead solubility models and the role of other water quality parameters, such as oxidation-reduction potential, is truly needed to establish effective corrosion control treatment.

References • American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) & DVGW -Technologiezentrum Wasser. 1996a. Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems. 2nd Edition. Denver, Colo. pp. 8-10. • American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) & DVGW -Technologiezentrum Wasser. 1996b. Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems. 2nd Edition. Denver, Colo. pp. 233. • Awatif, S.; Alsaqqar, A.S.; Khudair, B.H.; and Ali,

Table 5. Recommended Corrosion Control Indices Values

Corrosion Index

Target Value

CCPP (mg/L)






Larson Ratio*


*Compared to a typical recommended value of <0.8 Table 6. Corrosion Control Study Test Results


Avg Pb (µg/L)

Avg Cu (mg/L)

Avg Fe (mg/L)

CCPP (mg/L)


Ryznar Index

Larson Ratio

















































1,2 – no inhibitor, no alkalinity adjustment 3,4 – inhibitor and alkalinity adjustment 5,6 – alkalinity adjustment only

40 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S.K. 2014. “Evaluating Water Stability Indices from Water Treatment Plants in Baghdad City.” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, No. 6, 1344-1351. • Cantor, A.F. 2011. Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Internal Corrosion and Metal Release. Internal Corrosion Control in Water Distribution Systems. AWWA Manual M58, First Edition. American Water Works Association. Denver, Colo. • Colling, J.H.; Whincup, P.A.E.; and Hayes, C.R. 1987. “The Measurement of Plumbosolvency Propensity to Guide the Control of Lead in Tapwaters.” J Inst. Water and Environmental Mngmt 1:3:263. • Economic and Engineering Services Inc. 1990. Lead Control Strategies, Report No. 90559, AwwaRF, Denver, Colo. • Hill, C.P. 2011. Monitoring and Assessment of Internal Corrosion. Annual Conference and Exposition of the American Water Works Association. June 14, 2011. Washington, D.C. • Hill, C.P., and Cantor, A.F. 2011. Internal Corrosion Control in Water Distribution Systems. AWWA Manual M58, First Edition. American Water Works Association. Denver, Colo. • Larson, T.E., and Skold, R.V. 1958. Laboratory Studies Relating Mineral Quality of Water to Corrosion of Steel and Cast Iron, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, Ill. pp. 43-46. • Schock, M.R. and Lytle, D.A. 1995. Control of Copper Corrosion of Household Plumbing Materials. Abstract Proceedings of the 21st Annual USEPA RREL Research Symposium, April 4-6, 1995 Cincinnati, Ohio. • Schock, M.R. 1999. Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control, Chapter 17, Water Quality and Treatment, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y. • Schock, M.R., and Lytle, D.A. 2011. Chapter 20: Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control. Water Quality and Treatment. 6th Edition. AWWA and McGraw-Hill Inc. • Snoeyink, V.L. and Wagner, I. 1996. Principles of Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems, Chapter 1, Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York. • Sontheimer, H., Kolle, W., and Rudek, R. 1979. Aufgaben und methoden der wasserchemie – dargestellt an der entwicklung eerkenntnisse zur bildung von korrosionsshutzschichten auf metallen, Vom Wasser, 52:1. • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment Evaluation Technical Recommendations for Primacy Agencies and Public Water Systems. March 2016. Washington, D.C. • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2019. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Proposed Lead and Copper Rule Revisions, 84 FR 61684-61774.


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FWRJ READER PROFILE What does your job entail? My job includes the following: S Coordinate and maintain communications with association memberships. S General administration duties. S Coordinate and implement marketing strategies. S Provide support to FWPCOA training officers. S Administrate the FWPCOA membership program.

Darin Bishop

Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, Palm Beach Gardens Work title and years of service: I’ve been an administrator in the industry for 24 years.

What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor’s degree from Florida Atlantic University and a master’s in business administration from Colorado Technical University. What do you like best about your job? I like working behind the scenes, figuring out what is and isn’t working, and then moving on it. The FWPCOA has given

Darin (right) and his dad.

42 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

me great latitude to work with every part of our organization to help ensure a smooth operation. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to FWPCOA. How has the organization helped your career? The FWPCOA is my career (and a huge part of my life). My first short school was in 1979, when I was three. My dad (Rim Bishop) let me tag along to a water treatment plant operator course he was teaching at Palm Beach Technical College, now Palm Beach State College. A few years later, I was hired to help convert the association’s old paper files to a computerized database. In the decades since, my role expanded to its current state. What do you like best about the industry? I have a long, unusual relationship with the industry. When I was born I lived in a trailer at the water plant at the Village of Wellington (called Alme at the time). I learned to walk the plant and I went through my first hurricane (David) there. Although I’ve spent my entire adult life working for FWPCOA, I’ve never worked for a utility. In fact, for about 15 years I swore Van Halen was going to ask me to join the band. But as the call was slow to come in, life happened. I got older, cut my hair, and decided that jumping off of amplifiers wasn’t for me. I wanted to help people in some fashion. After searching for a bit, I saw what was directly in front of me: the water/wastewater industry. It’s the single most important industry on the planet. If we don’t perform as a collective, then moms waking up at 3 a.m. to give their babies a bottle don’t have what they need. I love being a spoke in the wheel that makes that happen. What do you do when you’re not working? I have three girls, and their lives occupy most of my spare time. Shuttling them around the universe is my hobby. However, in those seven to eight minutes a week where they aren’t in my face, I enjoy music— concerts, collecting records, and exploring new musicians.

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Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020



Lime Softening—the Forgotten Technology: Optimization Case Studies From South Florida Tyler Smith, Vinnie Hart, Jennifer Stokke Nyfennegger, Joseph Paterniti, Michael Low, and Juan Guevarez


any water treatment plants (WTPs) throughout the state of Florida have been using lime softening, primarily for the removal of color, calcium hardness, and, to a lesser extent, magnesium hardness for decades. Many of these facilities are experiencing challenges with controlling the lime softening process due to aging infrastructure, loss of engineering/operational expertise, a shift in water quality goals, and solids handling challenges. This article includes findings and recommendations from multiple case studies across south Florida, including the City of Boynton Beach (city), related to the

optimization of the lime softening process leading to a reduction in chemicals and solids generation, as well as tools to help operators meet finished water quality goals and maintain a consistent water quality.

Lime Softening Chemistry The primary purpose of lime softening is to reduce levels of calcium and magnesium from water. Typically, effluent total hardness goals range from 80 to 120 mg/L as CaCO₃. The softening process requires raising the pH high enough (≥9.5) that the conversion of bicarbonate to carbonate occurs and facilitates

Figure 1. Typical Cross Section of a Solids Contact Clarifier (modified from Suez Environmental)

Tyler Smith, P.E., is a project engineer with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Phoenix. Vinnie Hart, P.E., is a project engineer with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Sarasota. Jennifer Stokke Nyfennegger, Ph.D., P.E., is a project engineer with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Denver. Joseph Paterniti, P.E., is utility director; Michael Low, C.Eng. M.I.Chem.E., is technical services manager; and Juan Guevarez, P.E., is water quality manager, with City of Boynton Beach.

the precipitation of calcium carbonate. The process of removing magnesium must occur at a higher pH (≥10.6) and is typically referred to as enhanced softening. Magnesium removal is not typically required in Florida due to the limited amount of magnesium in most source water and is therefore not extensively reviewed herein. Softening for precipitation and removal of calcium requires elevated pH, which is typically accomplished by the addition of lime (Equation 1). The softened water can then be stabilized through recarbonation (the process of adding carbon dioxide) to form, then convert, carbonate to bicarbonate and minimize excessive calcium carbonate precipitation in downstream processes. Equation 1: Ca(HCO3 )2 + Ca(OH)2 → 2CaCO3 pH≥9.5 i (solid) + H2O

Figure 2. Typical Cross Section of a Solids Contact Clarifier (WesTech)

44 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

As shown, this process relies heavily on the presence of carbonate, which is one of the species that composes alkalinity. If the amount of calcium exceeds the amount of alkalinity in a water source (this can be compared easily when everything is reported as CaCO₃), the softening reaction will run out of carbonate before complete calcium removal and can lead to low finished water alkalinity. This is undesirable due to the lack of buffering capacity and the potential for nitrification to depress pH in the distribution system and resulting corrosive water.

Solids Contact Clarifier Operation Configuration and operation of the solids contact clarifier (SCC) have a significant impact on overall plant performance. Figures 1 and 2 show a typical cross section of a SCC for two different manufacturers. In general, influent raw water flow is introduced into the center cone (area under the hood) where it’s mixed by a mechanical mixer with lime and previously formed recirculated solids, which allows for the primary mixing and a surface for the softening reaction to occur. The mixer keeps the solids in suspension and resuspends the solids that settle in the return flow zone and where the rake (if included) can transport them back into the center cone, where they can be resuspended. Polymer can be added in the primary or secondary mixing zone to encourage solids agglomeration via bridging. The upflow rate (also called rise rate) and the solids recirculation capacity are of primary importance to a well-functioning SCC. The 2012 Ten States Standards recommend a maximum upflow rate for SCCs used for softening of 1.75 gal per minute (gpm)/ft2; however, historically, many WTPs in Florida can operate at higher upflow rates (Figure 3), which provides an opportunity to increase process capacity. Higher rates are acceptable because these installations, like most in Florida, only remove calcium carbonate and are not influenced by magnesium hydroxide, which requires lower rise rates. (For example, the steel industry precipitates magnesium hydroxide only and utilizes rise rates of 0.2 gpm/ft2. This demonstrates the poor settleability of magnesium hydroxide.) The recirculation of solids, which is the single most important factor, and a high inventory of solids should be maintained to provide a large surface area for the precipitation of calcium carbonate (the calcium carbonate reaction has a preference for precipitation on surfaces). Increasing the recirculation ratio (via increasing mixing speed and corresponding pumping capacity) lifts solids off the bottom of the SCC, promotes the formation of larger and more-uniformly-sized particles that settle rapidly, and prevents precipitation of fine calcium carbonate particles in the bulk liquid, which results in poor settled water turbidity and carryover to downstream processes. Figure 4 shows the center cone solids for two mixing speeds. In this case, 100 percent speed resulted in improved settled water quality, less torque on the rake, and provided good mixing for the representative center sampling. One misconception with SCC operation is that elevated rake torque levels should be

Figure 3. Upflow Rates for Solids Contact Clarifiers Across Florida

Figure 4. Center Cone Solids at Varying Mixer Speeds (Recirculation Ratios)

mitigated by wasting solids. This can lead to excessive wasting and a reduction in the solids inventory, which will subsequently reduce the settleability of the solids and increase the settled water turbidity. Instead, utilities should consider increasing the speed of the turbine or center cone mixer. By increasing the speed, the solids are lifted off the rake and the torque is significantly reduced, without losing the solids inventory. Part of the key to minimizing rake torque is to build larger solids, which will settle out more quickly in the clarification portion of the basin. Solids that settle out closer to the center of the rake will result in less torque (torque is the load times the moment arm—better settling decreases the moment arm).

Water Quality Considerations and Lime Dose An SCC is a unit process specially designed for the softening reaction and works on the theory of maintaining a solids inventory to provide a surface area for the softening reaction to occur. Influent water quality and target pH of the lime softening process influence the operational approach of an SCC. The SCC operation historically needed to consider the desired finished water hardness, amount of magnesium hydroxide precipitation, and color removal goals. Many Florida utilities have installed color removal technologies, which allow a “decoupling” of hardness removal from color removal and also allow for reconsideration of overall goals of the SCC. Continued on page 46

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020


Continued from page 45 For example, the city installed a magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) system as a pretreatment to its lime softening process at its East WTP. The MIEX system removes organic compounds and the corresponding color from the raw water (from an average color of 27 color units reduced to an average of four color units) before softening. This allows the city the ability to dial in a finished water hardness (instead of softening the entire flow stream to achieve color removal) and potentially bypass a portion of the flow around the softening

process without sacrificing finished water color goals. The city retained Carollo to help optimize the lime softening process to minimize chemical and residuals disposal costs. Benchscale testing was completed using a standard jar test apparatus with six square, 2-liter jars for a number of testing conditions. Figure 5 shows the water quality of existing (full-scale) operations of the city’s East WTP with no blend, compared to bench-scale results for two potential blends of 8.3 and 25 percent (meaning that 8.3 to 25 percent of the raw [MIEX-treated]

Figure 5. Blended Water Quality Results From East Water Treatment Plant (City of Boynton Beach)

Figure 6. Settled Water Quality Results From East Water Treatment Plant at Varying Lime Doses

46 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

water would be bypassed around the SCCs and blended with lime-softened water). As shown, higher alkalinity and total hardness goals can be achieved with blends up to 25 percent, with minimal inpact on finished water total organic carbon (TOC). Due to concerns with the Langlier Saturation Index (LSI)/calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP) of the 25 percent blend, the city felt most comfortable wth the 8.3 percent blend. The percent bypass of the softening system directly correlates to reduction in lime use and solids production/handling costs. The pH range results were within the acceptable range for this facility. Some utilities in Florida have witnessed continued softening through the processes downstream of SCCs, including filtration, which can limit filter run times, reduce overall water efficiency, change media characteristics, and cause damage to underdrains. A utility located in south Florida has experienced this since it currently adjusts pH with carbon dioxide after filtration. It was determined that the filter influent and effluent pH before carbon dioxide addition were relatively high. Since the process water pH is not adjusted before filtration, it’s likely that the softening reaction is still occurring, resulting in calcium carbonate deposition onto the filters. This theory was substantiated by the fact that filter influent pH is ~10.6 and effluent pH is ~8.9-9.3, thereby showing that the softening reaction is still occurring through the filters since the pH decreases (e.g., due to precipitation of calcium carbonate and resulting in a reduction in dissolved carbonate and pH shift). Utility staff suspected that there was significant underdrain clogging due to calcification, resulting in ineffective backwashing. As calcium carbonate precipitates in the filter, the headloss through the media and underdrain increases, thereby reducing filter run times. It was recommended that the location of the carbon dioxide injection be moved to just before filtration to lower the influent filter pH, stop the softening reaction, and prevent calcium carbonate deposition onto the filters and in the underdrain system. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) recommends that filters remove no more than 10 mg/L as CaCO₃ of hardness across the filters, as this is indicative of detrimental calcium carbonate precipitation in the filters. It’s also the experience of the authors that a filter that has experienced severe precipitation of calcium carbonate can be remediated by processing settled water that is aggressive, allowing for a slow redissolution of Continued on page 48

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2020


Continued from page 46 calcium carbonate. Trying to do this by treating the filters with acids or proprietary cleaning chemicals is largely unsuccessful and can cause damage to the filters. A lime dose directly relates to lime softening pH and overall solids production (adding calcium when adding lime, which also needs to be removed with the influent calcium). Figure 6 shows water quality results of four lime doses (expressed as CaO) tested at the bench scale for the city. The East WTPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current average lime dose is 127.5 mg/L as CaO. (Note: water quality results from bench-scale testing of the 127.5 mg/L dose were similar to grab samples collected from the full-scale plant.) As expected, as the dose increased to 136.6 mg/L as CaO, settled water pH increased and hardness decreased; however, no significant improvement in hardness reduction was achieved compared to the current average dose. The corresponding CCPP and LSI were also considered and are shown for each dose. A CCPP from 4 to 10 mg/L is preferred for settled water stability, and at lower lime doses this value decreases below this range. For this WTP, these results indicated that a settled water pH of 9.5 should be targeted to provide a stable settled water, which can be achieved at lime doses around 127.5 mg/L, depending on raw water quality. For these reasons, it was not recommended that the lime dose be lowered. It also should be noted that the lower the hardness of the softened water, the more bypass that can be allowed, which yields greater cost savings than an overall lime dose reduction. Bypassing should also consider CCPP, LSI, and alkalinity of the

finished water to confirm slightly precipitating conditions and a well-buffered, noncorrosive water to protect the distribution system. As mentioned, the softening process relies on the presence of alkalinity. In cases where alkalinity in the source water is limited, increased lime doses above what is needed for the reaction can actually lead to increased hardness (since lime is Ca[OH]2), as shown in Figure 7. Therefore, it may be prudent to determine if a utility is inadvertently on the uptick of the chart (starting at 160 mg/L) and overdosing lime. The actual lime dose that this could occur at is unique to each utility, and finished water goals can be achieved by lowering the lime dose or adding soda ash (more carbonate) or caustic soda (no calcium addition) if the higher pH is necessary.

Solids Handling The lime softening process generates calcium carbonate solids in the SCCs that need to be removed intermittently to maintain a desired concentration of solids within the softeners. The management of the percent solids in the center cone of an SCC is the key to producing excellent settled water quality. A common misconception about SCC operation is that the solids level needs to be above the outlet of the center cone (solids blanket mode of operation); however, this is not required and can be detrimental to settled water quality. Solids (residuals) blowdown frequency has a direct impact on the solids inventory. Insufficient blowdown frequency leads to solids buildup within the SCC and places an increased strain on the internal equipment (such as

Figure 7. Water Quality for Increasing Lime in an Alkalinity Limited Water

48 November 2020 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

the rake), which can potentially plug up the solids blowdown lines. Contrarily, if solids blowdown is too frequent, then valuable surface area provided by the solids are lost, which can contribute to compromised settled water quality because smaller particles form and carry over. A utility in south Florida previously monitored percent solids from the primary mixing zone instead of the center cone, which did not provide valuable information on the solids inventory. Measuring the percent solids by volume within the center cone can help determine if the correct solids inventory is occurring, with 6 to 12 percent solids (by volume) being the target for most SCCs. If not in the ideal range, then modifying operations, including blowdown frequency and mixing speed, could improve the solids inventory and settled water quality. It should be noted that there are many SCCs in Florida that cannot handle the desired solids inventory due to poor mixer performance or limitations of the rake. Utilities should realize that some SCCs will not work correctly due to these limitations.

Lime Slaking and Handling Effective and efficient lime softening relies on proper activation (assuming that the utility needs to slake the lime) of the lime. This is a process where pebble lime reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide and generates heat. Controlling this reaction (high heat without boiling) is important because the reactivity of slaked lime is dependent on surface area (more area for reaction) and maintaining a small particle size (small particles stay in suspension longer). Both higher surface area and smaller particle size are facilitated by high slaking temperatures. Faster-reacting lime raises the pH and generates calcium carbonate more quickly, which results in limiting undesirable precipitation (in locations such as downstream piping, filters, etc.) and maximizing lime efficiency. Inefficient slaking can actually lead to higher lime usage and increased solids. Properly controlled slaking temperature provides optimum lime reaction conditions with small particles that have high surface areas and results in adequate surface area for reaction and slow settling lime particles. Newly affordable infrared cameras provide a cost-effective tool that can be used to safely check the slaking temperature. The ideal slaking temperature range is between 190 and 200°F (although the slaking temperature should be based on the efficiency of the slaking and eliminating localized boiling). Operating temperatures below this range result in inefficient lime use, which is shown in Figure 8.

Operational modifications to control slaking include modifying the water-to-lime ratio to help control temperature. Slaking temperature, reaction time, and lime-to-water ratio also depend on the quality of lime and the starting water temperature; therefore, slaking temperature should be checked with each new load of lime (laboratory test procedures are available). The dilution water that is used to slake the lime typically has carbonate, which will react with the calcium in the lime and result in deposition. Utilities could also consider use of a lime slurry condition agent if the plugging of lime equipment is frequent, or, if severe enough, could consider an air stripping unit that converts the carbonate to carbon dioxide and then strips out the carbonate from the dilution water, resulting in no precipitation in the lime systems. There are also polyphosphate-based chemicals that can be added to the lime slurry to reduce deposition and maintenance of feed lines.

Figure 8. Potential Lime Savings Based on Potential Slaking Temperature Versus Current Slaking Temperature

Conclusion Many utilities throughout the state of Florida use the lime softening process to reduce hardness and color. Due to the complexity of the softening process, a majority of the fundamental knowledge and control aspects of the process have been forgotten; however, there are many operational modifications that these utilities can employ to optimize their lime softening treatment process (Figure 9). Softening via the solids contact process is like a light switchâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s either on or off, and control of the hardness from the process is limited, unless bypassing is an option. Utilities should consider the addition of color removal technology, which would decouple the lime softening process from color removal (that requires softening of 100 percent of the flow) and allow for the targeting of finished water hardness goals. In these cases, there would be an opportunity to bypass a portion of the flow around the softening process to help control finished water hardness and alkalinity, and reduce operating costs. An optimizing dose considering raw water alkalinity, finished water hardness, and alkalinity goals could help avoid overdosing of lime. Finished water corrosion indices like CCPP and LSI should be confirmed prior to any bypass or lime dose changes. There is an opportunity to review currently installed SCCs in Florida to see if increases in upflow rates could be achieved that could provide an overall increase in process capacity. Additionally, utilities should consider adjusting the recirculation ratio (via mixing speed) to encourage a high volume and quality of solids within the center cone to improved settled

Figure 9. Summary of Lime Softening Optimization Strategies

water quality. Optimizing the mixing speed in the SCC could also provide for reduced operating torque, resulting in extended life of SCC equipment. Actively managing solids blowdown provides the opportunity to improve the solids inventory within the SCC, and a target of 6 to 12 percent solids (by volume) within the center cone is ideal. If solids are out of this range, then modifying operations, including blowdown frequency and mixing speed, could help achieve inventory, and ultimately, finished water goals. If the SCC cannot achieve these goals due to mixer or rake limtations, then the utility should consider replacing the equipment. Finally, confirming the proper lime activation and slaking can help reduce overall

lime usage. Utilities can modify the waterto-lime ratio (or utilize equipment with this inherent design feature) to control slaking temperature to the ideal range. By re-examining the goals of the lime softening process to leverage existing SCCs, lime slaking, slurry systems, solids handling, and instrumentation, and implementing them in a cost-effective manner, allows for opportunities to re-align the process to achieve current-day goals and address legacy challenges. Utilizing these various techniques allows utilities to revive the lime softening process and also allows them to serve their needs, while reducing operating costs and improving finished water quality. 

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2020


LET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Identify, Treat, and Prevent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome That tingling or numbness you’ve ignored for months in your hands and wrists (especially if you’ve been working at home at a makeshift, not-so-ergonomic work station) suddenly becomes a sharp, piercing lightning bolt that shoots through your wrists and up your arms. Is it just a passing cramp? More likely, you could have carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which is a painful, progressive condition that affects roughly one out of 20 people. Its cause is compression of a key nerve in the wrist. Carpal tunnel results in the highest number of days lost in the corporate workplace of all other work-related injuries. About 50 percent of all carpal tunnel cases result in 31 days or more of work loss. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) conducted a survey and reports that repetitive-strain injuries are the most common and costly occupational health problem in the United States. The condition affects hundreds of thousands of American workers and costs an estimated $20 billion per year in workers compensation.

On average, about 260,000 carpal tunnel operations are performed each year, with 47 percent of these cases being work-related.

What Is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? It occurs when the median nerve in your forearm gets squeezed as it passes through a narrow opening in the wrist called the carpal tunnel. Frequently, the pressure comes from the swelling of irritated tendons in the wrist area (due to overactivity) or an injury, such as a sprain or fracture. But, just as likely, the disorder can result from a congenital predisposition—the carpal tunnel is simply too small for the size of the median nerve. Other contributing factors may include mechanical problems in the wrist joint and work stress.

What Are the Symptoms? The following symptoms typically start gradually and can be present in one or both hands:

S A  tingling sensation or numbness in the thumb, palm, or fingers. S Fingers that feel as if they’re swollen, even with no visible swelling. S Pain that affects one or both hands or wrists. S Difficulty moving the fingers. S Symptoms that first appear at night, then during the day. S A weak grasp or grip.

Who Is at Risk? The affliction usually occurs only in adults, and women are three times more likely than men to develop it, perhaps because the carpal tunnel itself may be smaller in women than in men. The dominant hand is usually affected first and produces the most severe pain. The risk of developing CTS is not confined to people in a single industry or job, but the syndrome is especially common in those performing work involving repetitive motion. Little evidence supports extensive computer use as a risk factor for CTS, although computer use may cause a different form of hand pain. Other risk factors for CTS include: S Pregnancy S Wrist injury S Family history of CTS S Repetitive movements of the hand S Repeated use of percussive or vibrating tools S Health conditions such as arthritis and diabetes S An underactive thyroid gland

How Can It Be Prevented? In the workplace, employees can do on-thejob conditioning, perform stretching exercises, take frequent rest breaks, and wear splints to keep wrists straight. A complete ergonomic evaluation of the workstation, tasks, and tools can promote changes that adapt the workplace conditions and job demands to alleviate the potential for CTS. Research has not conclusively

The 2019 Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY19. The code is good for the 2019 Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

50 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

shown, however, that these workplace changes prevent the occurrence of CTS.

What Are the Treatments? Once diagnosed, treatments for CTS should begin as early as possible. Initial treatment generally involves resting the affected hand and wrist for at least two weeks, avoiding activities that may worsen symptoms, and immobilizing the wrist in a splint to avoid further damage from twisting or bending. Other treatments include the following: S Drugs: In special circumstances, various drugs can ease the pain and swelling associated with CTS. S Exercise: Stretching and strengthening exercises under the supervision of a professional physical therapist can be helpful in people whose symptoms have abated. S Alternative Therapies: Acupuncture and chiropractic care have benefited some patients, but their effectiveness remains unproved. Yoga, however, has been shown to reduce pain and improve grip strength. S Surgery: Carpal tunnel release is one of the most common surgical procedures in the U.S. Surgery involves cutting the band

of tissue around the wrist to reduce the pressure on the median nerve. Surgery is typically done under local anesthesia and does not require an overnight hospital stay. Many patients require surgery on both wrists. Although symptoms may be relieved immediately after surgery, full recovery from carpal tunnel surgery can take months. Recovery typically includes physical therapy.

Some patients may need to adjust job duties or even change jobs after recovery. For more information go to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website on ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders at, or the Mayo Clinic webpage on the topic at 

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Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020



Round and Round Florida (and Georgia) Go: An Update on the Florida-Georgia Water Wars

Kyle Robisch


or most of the last three decades, Florida, Georgia, and Alabama have waged a multifront water war, filing cases in federal courts across the United States. This war, and these cases, turn on apportionment of two river basins: the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin and the Alabama-CoosaTallapoosa (ACT) River Basin. At the heart of this legal tug of war lie competing uses—and visions—for the basins. On one side sits Georgia and six million thirsty Atlantans. Atlanta relies on Lake Lanier (part of the ACF Basin) and Lake Allatoona (part of the ACT Basin) for most of its drinking water. Sitting on the other side are Florida

and Alabama, which depend on adequate downstream flows for multiple competing uses. Florida’s oyster industry, in particular, needs enough ACF Basin freshwater supply to support and sustain it. These disputes came to a head in the 1990s and 2000s. During those decades, more than a half-dozen cases floated around federal courts in Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Washington, D.C., each challenging different aspects of the management by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) of the Lanier and Allatoona lakes. Fast forward to 2011 and 2012 when the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals resolved these by-then-consolidated suits, mostly in Georgia’s favor. The Eleventh Circuit dismissed several of Florida’s and Alabama’s claims as premature; because the Corps hadn’t yet made a final water supply decision as those claims came too early. On top of that, the Eleventh Circuit further held that Congress explicitly authorized the Corps to funnel drinking water from at least Lake Lanier to metropolitan Atlanta. It remanded the case to the Corps to figure out how much drinking water it should

supply to Atlanta. In short, Georgia won round one.1 Florida opened round two in 2013, asking the U.S. Supreme Court to equitably apportion the ACF Basin’s waters. By seeking to sue Georgia directly, Florida triggered the Supreme Court’s “original jurisdiction.” In other words, Florida and Georgia started at the Supreme Court, rather than ending there. Unlike the earlier blizzard of cases, Florida v. Georgia (the case, not the cocktail party), asked the Court to “equitably apportion” the ACF Basin. That is, rather than suing the Corps—a roundabout way to get a similar result—Florida sued Georgia directly, asking the Court to limit Georgia’s consumptive use to 1992 levels. Florida argues, in essence, that Georgia overconsumes ACF Basin waters. In Florida’s telling, Georgia’s overuse triggers negative environmental effects, including the collapse of Northwest Florida’s oyster population. Georgia, in response, contends that Lake Lanier is a linchpin of Atlanta’s drinking water supply and that Florida’s injuries are attributable to climate change, fishery mismanagement, and other causes.

The Tallapoosa River, part of the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River Basin.

52 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

As it often does in cases like this, the Supreme Court appointed a “special master” to oversee the case and issue a report and recommendation. After several years of discovery and a five-week trial, the special master recommended that the Court deny Florida’s requested apportionment. Yet, this represented the end of the beginning, not the beginning of the end. Florida filed “exceptions” to the special master’s report, functionally asking the Court to overrule the special master. Florida prevailed—on a technicality. Because the special master held Florida to too high a burden of proof, the Court held, Florida and Georgia had to try again, but this time in front of a new special master. So they did. Following supplemental briefings and additional oral arguments, the new special master submitted his own report, reaching largely the same result: Florida should not be entitled to equitable apportionment. In so finding, the special master decided that Florida didn’t provide enough evidence that Georgia caused its injury, that Georgia’s consumptive use was “not unreasonable or inequitable,” and that Florida failed to prove that the benefits of apportionment substantially outweigh the status quo’s harm (i.e., the “proper” standard). Still, there’s more ground to tread. Florida filed another round of exceptions, which the Court should rule on in the coming year. If Florida wins again, the process could repeat itself, but after two special master losses, Florida faces an uphill climb. Equitable apportionment—either capping Georgia’s Lake Lanier consumption at 1992 levels, or something less—is moving further out of reach. Yet, whatever happens in Florida v. Georgia, there will be plenty of legal options left for Florida and its in-state interests. Florida could, for example, file its own challenge to the ACF Manual or FEIS. It could also seek to enter Alabama’s ongoing case, as amici or intervenors. Or, it could get creative, and file its own lawsuit. As Georgia’s consumption increases, so too, in theory, does Florida’s injury. Put differently, we might be in for round three in the coming decades. Any interested party in Florida can file an amicus “friend of the court” brief in any of the ongoing or future federal cases. The short-term upshot: expect more of the same. The status quo is likely to control for a while. Floridians shouldn’t expect increased flows down the Apalachicola River or Apalachicola Bay—at least through judicial intervention—anytime soon, if ever. Simply put, it's going to be tough, practically speaking, to overcome Georgia's ace in the hole: six million thirsty Atlantans. But expect Florida and Floridians to keep fighting hard.

Kyle Robisch is an environmental, regulatory, and business attorney based out of the Bradley Arant Boult Cummings LLP Tampa office. He assists clients with a wide range of legal issues, including infrastructure development, federal and state environmental permitting, and all manners of litigation (environmental and otherwise). Kyle is especially experienced


with the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. He recently chaired the American Bar Association's Water Resources Committee and is a proud second-generation Florida Gator. You can reach Kyle at 813-5595595 or He welcomes your ideas for future article topics.

 r, perhaps more accurately, round 1.0. In March 2017, the Corps adopted a Final Environmental O Impact Statement (FEIS), new ACF manual, and Water Supply Storage Assessment, as directed by the Eleventh Circuit in 2011. Within days, Alabama challenged these decisions. That case—round 1.5, if you will—is now pending in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia.

The Chattahoochee River, part of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin.

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Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020



Kent Wager 1941 – 2020 The Florida Section AWWA lost a family member when Kent Wager passed away on September 5. He was the father of FSAWWA’s current chair, Kim Kowalski, and was the one who encouraged her to become an active member of the section, for which it’s grateful. Kent Kinsey Wager, 79, passed away at his residence in Marble, N.C. He was a native of Davenport, Iowa, but moved to Phoenix at a young age, which he considered home. Kent joined the U.S. Navy, where he became a radar operator. He was a Vietnam-era veteran, stationed in the Philippines and Japan. Kent began his career as a polyvinyl chloride pipe salesman before establishing his own manufacturer’s representative firm, Wager Company of Florida Inc., while living in Lake Mary. He had been an active member of FSAWWA for 31 years. Kent was highly regarded among others in the industry. He took so many people under

his wing and was thought of as an icon in the waterworks industry. He was a standing member of both the Florida and North Carolina AWWA sections and a member of the FSAWWA Manufacturers/Associates Council (MAC). The section echoes the words of Bob Claudy, FSAWWA past chair, who stated, “Kent was truly a gentleman and a great human being. He was a true friend of the waterworks industry and AWWA. It was a privilege to have known him and I know he loved Kim with all his heart.” Another past section chair, Rick Ratcliffe, said, “I had the pleasure of knowing Kent for 41 years. He was a great family man and incredibly involved in FSAWWA. When the Florida MAC was formed 24 years ago, Kent was one of the founding members and he served on several of its committees. He was always the first one to volunteer his service. It didn’t matter what the task might be, you could always count on Kent participating. He believed in the section’s mission statement. He was also very involved in the MAC New Products Technology Council, and shared

his knowledge by discussing new products with a class in order to help the registrants receive their continuing education unit credits for the course from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. During one assignment, he taught for three straight days. I thank Kent for his service; his dedication made MAC and the section better.” He was the son of the Jack Kinsey and Evelyn Mae Boldt Wager. In addition to his parents, he was preceded in death by a brother, Steve Wager. Kent is survived by his loving wife of 54 years, Marilyn, of Marble; two daughters: Marilyn Golden (Danny) of Clearlake, Calif., and Kim Kowalski (Scott) of Sanford; three sons: Frank Hill (Jamie) of Groveland; Kurt Wager (Maryann) of Yuba, Calif.; and Rusty Hill (Olivia) of Altamonte Springs; one sister: Shari Farley of Nevada City, Calif.; 14 grandchildren; and four great-grandchildren. A celebration of life will be held on December 5 at the Omni Championsgate Resort.

Kent (left) at his company’s booth at an FSAWWA conference.

NEWS BEAT The City of Melbourne has hired David Wilkison, P.E., to serve as its new city engineer. Wilkison has more than 37 years of civil engineering and management experience. David Wilkison Prior to coming to the city, he was an engineering manager with DRMP. Previously, he served as Collier County’s growth management department head and has held management positions at several consulting firms in Florida. He has a strong background in civil

engineering, capital improvement budgeting, and staff management. He holds a bachelor of science degree in environmental engineering from University of Florida and is a Florida registered professional engineer. As city engineer he will oversee all aspects of the city’s engineering department, including construction plan review, stormwater utility billing, capital improvement projects, traffic engineering, abandon and vacate requests, addressing right-of-way use permits and agreements, water authorization, impact fee calculations, and maintenance of traffic for special events. The department is also responsible for the city’s transportation, intersection and

54 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

signalization, stormwater utility, and sidewalks and bikeways programs.


Hach announced that it has partnered with 120Water to offer its customers an end-to-end solution for lead and copper compliance testing. A digital water platform, 120Water is in use at more than 180,000 locations across the United States, which simplifies in-home drinking water program management. This partnership enables Hach to offer the 120Water digital water platform as an additional service to its existing and new customers. The platform consists of water sample and filter kits, cloud-based software, and services used to Continued on page 56


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You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2020


News Beat

Continued from page 54 manage and execute drinking water programs at scale. “Hach is the original pioneer of expert solutions for water analysis around the globe. Together we can bring an end-to-end drinking water compliance platform to our mutual utility customers,” said Megan Glover, chief executive officer of 120Water. “This is especially important as many utilities face ongoing resource constraints, in addition to the new challenges based on proposed changes to the Lead and Copper Rule, which is already one of the most complex requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act.” The turnkey platform was built specifically for the water industry and can be used across a broad scope of drinking water programs, such as lead service line replacement, and can be applied to multiple contaminants, including lead and arsenic. The solution will integrate with Claros™, the water intelligence system from Hach, extending its ability to apply data management and process management to drinking water compliance. “We’re excited about our partnership with 120Water and how it extends our ability to help our customers provide the highest quality water to their consumers,” said Jeff Stock, vice president of marketing at Hach. “With this partnership, as well as the recent announcement of the acquisition of Aquatic Informatics into Danaher’s water quality platform, Hach is better positioned than ever before to support customers in their ambitions to ensure water quality, optimize their processes, and overcome budget constraints.”


In anticipation of harmful discharges released from Lake Okeechobee to the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) are preparing for the use of innovative technology to mitigate blue-green algae, if needed, following a recent announcement by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). Although algal bloom conditions on Lake Okeechobee have improved in recent weeks and there is no concerning presence of an algal bloom on the lake near discharge structures, Gov. Ron DeSantis has directed FDEP and SFWMD to be ready to respond to protect south Florida estuaries and communities. “Harmful algal blooms have a debilitating effect on our ecosystems and our communities,” said Gov. DeSantis. “That is why, for the first time, I made it a priority to secure dedicated

funding to deploy innovative technology to mitigate blue-green algae blooms. I will continue to advocate for better management of Lake Okeechobee and the resources needed to bolster our natural resource protection efforts. Our economy and way of life depend on it.” Approximately $10 million was appropriated in Fiscal Year 2019-20 specifically for innovative technologies to combat and clean up harmful algal blooms. The FDEP’s Innovative Grant Program (IGP) facilitated the allocation of this funding following recommendations made by FDEP’s Blue-Green Algae Task Force. The recommendations included an investment in a diverse portfolio of technologies to prevent, detect, and address harmful algal blooms in a cost-effective, environmentally safe, and scalable fashion. To continue this investment, another $10 million was appropriated for additional projects in the FY2020-21 budget. One of grants that has been awarded through the IGP is for $1.7 million to St. Johns River Water Management District to evaluate the application of a hydrogen peroxide-based algicide to prevent algal bloom formation in Lake Minneola. This is a proprietary innovative algicide developed by BlueGreen US Waters Technology Inc. and was demonstrated during the governor’s trade mission to Israel in 2019. This will be the first of its kind to be tested in Florida. It will be used to illustrate how hydrogen peroxide can repress harmful algal growth and induce the succession of phytoplankton communities from a harmful to nonharmful state. This technology could be deployed along the C-44 Canal, if algae mitigation is needed to protect the St. Lucie Estuary as a result of harmful discharges from Lake Okeechobee. “The decision by the Corps to begin discharges is disappointing, but the state remains committed to leveraging every possible resource toward studying and understanding algal blooms so we can prevent harmful algal blooms from disrupting our ecosystems and communities,” said Noah Valenstein, FDEP secretary. “Innovative technologies are a component of our multifaceted approach to protecting water quality in Florida.” “I’m grateful that we can improve water quality across Florida and reduce harmful discharges from Lake Okeechobee to the northern estuaries,” said Chauncey Goss, SFWMD chair. “Our partnership with FDEP is ready to bring innovative technologies and other immediate solutions to protecting our water resources in South Florida, while we expedite critical restoration projects, like the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) Reservoir Project.” “This action is a direct result of recommendations made by the Blue-Green Algae Task Force. Although the task force emphasized the importance of preventative

56 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

measures, it recommended clearly that FDEP invest in a broad suite of technologies, including those capable of reducing the abundance of algae and toxins they produce,” said Dr. Tom Frazer, chief science officer. “The application of the proprietary algaecide to release water coming from Lake Okeechobee holds a great deal of promise and we’re prepared to evaluate the efficacy of the technology to help guide future mitigation efforts around the state.” Over the past two years, there has been focus on promoting water management that improves water quality, supports beneficial vegetation growth and ecosystem responses, and provides flood protection and water supply. Specifically with regard to Everglades restoration, the state has been leading the effort to expedite critical Everglades restoration infrastructure, including work on the Central Everglades Planning Project and EAA Reservoir, the Caloosahatchee and C-44 Reservoirs, and raising the Tamiami Trail. Historic federal funding for Everglades restoration by President Trump, combined with more than $625 million per year in state funding secured for Everglades restoration and statewide water quality investments, have provided unprecedented momentum for important water projects. All of these efforts, however, cannot guarantee an end to devastating releases from Lake Okeechobee. More flexible water management policies by the Corps and significant increases in large-scale water infrastructure and storage are critical elements to minimizing the risk of future detrimental discharges.


The former superintendent of the wastewater treatment plant in Sioux City, Iowa, has pleaded guilty to manipulating water sample test results to show that plant discharges into the Missouri River met federal requirements. Jay Niday, 63, entered his pleas in U.S. District Court in Sioux City to charges of conspiracy and falsifying or providing inaccurate information. He faces a maximum sentence of seven years in prison and fines of up to $260,000, although Assistant U.S. Attorney Timothy Vavricek said he did not expect Niday’s sentence to be close to the maximum levels. A sentencing date will be set once the U.S. Probation Office has completed a presentence investigation. Niday admitted that, from 2012 through June 2015, he and at least one other person at the treatment plant manipulated chlorine levels to make it appear that the city was meeting federal E. coli standards when wastewater samples were tested. Niday is the second former plant official to be charged. Patrick Schwarte, who was a shift Continued on page 61

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Simplicity by Design, Reliability by Experience 58 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Bay Laurel Center CDD is now accepting applications for a State certified treatment plant operator, seeking full time employment to join our team. All applicants must hold at least a minimum “C” operator’s license in water and wastewater treatment. Must be able to work rotating weekends. Valid FL driver’s license is required. Salary is based on experience. Job description and applications is available on our website. Posting will remain open until the position is filled. DFWP/EOE

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The City of Clearwater is seeking a Utilities Maintenance Foreman - $41,182 annually The Utilities Maintenance Foreman performs advanced mechanical and supervisory work in the operation, maintenance, and repair of municipal sewage lift stations, booster stations, wastewater treatment plants, water treatment plants, storage tanks and wells. Provides technical advice and direction for maintenance activities within the treatment plants. MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS:  A valid State driver›s license is required. This position requires a Class «B» Commercial Driver›s License and candidates must obtain and maintain Class A CDL within 1 year of hire date.  Education and Experience: High School Diploma, High School Equivalency Diploma, or G.E.D. Certificate AND four (4) years of experience to include one (1) year in a supervisory or lead capacity, in the installation, modification, maintenance and repair of electrical equipment, mechanical equipment, and related apparatus; OR an equivalent combination of education, training, and experience may be considered. Position open until filled. Please apply online @


Salary $20.44 - $28.07 Hourly FULL-TIME Department/Division: W&S -WASTEWATER TREATMENT Depending on qualifications, this position will be filled as a Wastewater Plant Operator Trainee, I, II or III. APPLY: Online at and review complete job descriptions. City of Vero Beach, FL 772 978-4900 EOE/DFWP

Manatee County, FL Deputy Director Utilities Water

Manatee County Florida is looking for a Deputy Director Of Utilities (water). Responsible for all operations of the Water Division. Apply at: Salary $95,492.80 - $158,496.00 Annually

60 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

News Beat

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $51,112. - $96,050. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at EEO, VPE, ADA

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Laboratory Assistant, Foreman, Maintenance Mechanic, Equipment Operator, Treatment Plant Operator. Apply at

SEWAGE STATION REPAIRS & MAINTENANCE Well established private lift station maintenance repair company looking for 1 or 2 Level II LPSS system operators. Candidates will need one year experience with lift station mechanic, electrician, or municipal inspector. Either of the above from the private sector. Plumbing, electrical, underground inspection experience. Familiarity with tools of trade: electrical multimeters, gas hydraulic cut off saws, boom trucks, along with other items associated with the transmission of raw wastewater. Salary and compensation package will be based on level of experience. Must have a clean MVR and drug test. Serious candidates only. Email resume to

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help!

Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Continued from page 56 supervisor, pleaded guilty in January 2019 to the same two charges and is scheduled to be sentenced in November. The elevated chlorine level would produce test samples showing plant discharges met federal limits for levels of fecal coliform and E. coli. Once the samples were taken, chlorine added to the city’s wastewater was reduced to minimal levels that were unlikely to disinfect discharged water enough to meet those limits. The fraudulent procedures violated the city’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits and the federal Clean Water Act. They also deceived the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, which administers the city’s permits, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


The American Water Works Association (AWWA) received two EXCEL awards from Association Media and Publishing (AMP), a national organization representing print and digital publishers in nonprofit organizations. This is the 40th year for the annual AMP EXCEL awards, which recognize excellence and leadership in association media, publishing, marketing, and communications. The association received a silver award for its “Together, Let’s Get the Lead Out” video (educational) and a bronze award for its “2019 State of the Water Industry Report Executive Summary” brochure (educational brochure). “One of AWWA’s driving principles is to collect and share water-sector knowledge, and we work continuously to offer quality educational opportunities and materials to our members, consumers, and the total water community,” said David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer. “We are honored to receive these awards; more importantly, they reinforce that AWWA’s members are the leaders who ensure excellence in the management of water.” The awards were presented virtually.


The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has announced water releases from Lake Okeechobee into the Caloosahatchee River. About 4,000 cubic feet of freshwater will be released from the Moore Haven Lock into the river every second; that’s about 30,000 gallons of water per second. Because of the way the lake is rising, officials need to stabilize the rate of the rise by reducing the amount of water in the lake. As of mid-October, Lake Okeechobee was measured at about 16.2 feet. In an ideal situation, the lake’s water level should be between 12 to 15 feet. The releases will continue for the near future, and no end date has been set. Crews hope the releases will only last a month, but rain, heat, and storms can impact the schedule. Many business owners who depend on water activities or marine life are extremely sensitive to the releases because brown water from the lake dirties the pristine water of the Gulf of Mexico, even muddying some of the water in the Caloosahatchee River. Using satellite images from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, scientists can tell that algae is in the center of the lake, which is good for southwest Florida’s coastline and canals, but wind and storms could change the direction and location of the algae. The most recent samplings from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission show no signs of red tide off the coastlines of Charlotte, Lee, and Collier counties. 

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2020



Test Yourself Answer Key From page 26

Editorial Calendar

January 2016

January..........Wastewater Treatment February........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March.............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April...............Conservation and Reuse May.................Operations and Utilities Management June...............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August...........Disinfection; Water Quality September.....Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October..........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November......Water Treatment December......Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index ADS Environmental������������51 AWWA Water Professionals Appreciation���������������������17 AWWA Government Affairs�21 Blue Planet��������������������������63 Bradley��������������������������������53 CEU Challenge��������������������16 Data Flow Systems�������������31 Diversified Billing���������������34 Florida Aquastore���������������25 FSAWWA 2020 Fall Conference �����������������18-19 FSAWWA 2020 Fall Conference Sponsor Thank You �����������������������20 FWPCOA Online Training Institute�����������������������������57

FWPCOA Training Calendar���������������������������55 Grundfos�����������������������������29 Heyward���������������������������������2 HOMA�����������������������������������41 Hudson Pump���������������������43 Hydro International���������������5 Hymax����������������������������������35 Integrity Municipal Systems����������������������������58 J&S Valve����������������������������33 Jacobs���������������������������������12 Lakeside Equipment�������������7 Mead & Hunt������������������������39 UF Treeo Center������������������47 SEDA������������������������������������27 Xylem�����������������������������������64

62 November 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. B  ) 110 gallons.

Per FAC 62-761.100(1), Intent, “The purpose of this chapter is to provide requirements for underground storage tank systems that store regulated substances in order to minimize the occurrence and environmental risks of releases and discharges. This chapter provides requirements for underground storage tank systems having individual storage tank capacities greater than 110 gallons.”

2. A) Class A

Per FAC 62-761.350(2)(a)1., Operator Training and Certification, “Functions. A Class A operator of an underground storage tank system facility is an individual who typically has primary responsibility for ensuring the proper operation and maintenance of the storage tank systems, particularly in the capacity of managing resources and personnel necessary to achieve and maintain compliance with all storage tank system regulations.”

3. A  ) Completion of a Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP)-approved operator training course.

Per FAC 62-762.350(3)(a), Training, “Operator training must fulfill the training requirements described for each class of operator. The following is a list of acceptable approaches to meet the operator training requirements: (a) Acceptable training for Class A and Class B operators. Class A and Class B operators must complete a department-approved operator training course, which provides the information required by subparagraphs 62-761.350(2)(a)2. and 62-761.350(2)(b)2., F.A.C., respectively, and subparagraph 62-761.350(2)(c)2., F.A.C. Courses or processes may include in-person or online training performed by, contracted for, or approved, by the department, and must include an evaluation of operator knowledge through testing or practical demonstration.”

4. A  ) At the office or kiosk where the underground storage tank is located.

Per FAC 62-761.400(4)(f), Facility Registration, “Upon receipt of payment of all applicable initial registration fees and annual renewal fees, each facility shall receive a registration placard, pursuant to Section 376.3077, F.S. The placard shall be displayed in plain view in the office, kiosk, or at another suitable location at the facility where the storage tank system is located.”

5. C) Within 24 hours

Per FAC 62-761.430(2), Incidents, “If an incident occurs at a facility, actions shall be taken within 24 hours of discovery to investigate the incident to determine if a discharge has occurred.”

6. C) 550 gallons.

Per FAC-62-762.101(1), Intent, “The purpose of this chapter is to provide requirements for above ground storage tank systems that store regulated substances in order to minimize the occurrence and environmental risks of releases and discharges. This chapter provides requirements for above ground storage tank systems having individual storage tank capacities greater than 550 gallons.”

7. C) 30 to 45 days

Per FAC 62-762.411(1)(b) and (2)(a), Notification, “Notification shall be received by the county in writing or electronic format between 30 and 45 days before installation of a storage tank system or system component unless the county agrees to a shorter time period. . . Notification shall be received by the county in writing or electronic format between 30 and 45 days before the initiation of the work related to the change in service status or closure unless the county agrees to a shorter time period.”

8. B) $500,000

Per FAC 62-762.421(3)(d)1, Financial Responsibility, “Owners or operators of petroleum or petroleum product above ground storage tanks must demonstrate financial responsibility for taking corrective action and for compensating third parties for bodily injury and property damage caused by accidental releases arising from the operation of petroleum or petroleum product above ground storage tanks in at least the following per-occurrence and annual aggregate amounts: 1. For a facility with a storage tank system or systems with a cumulative capacity greater than 550 gallons and less than or equal to 10,000 gallons, the demonstration of financial responsibility for cleanup of a discharge and third-party liability shall be a minimum of $500,000.00 per incident, and $1 million annual aggregate.”

9. C) 24 hours

Per FAC 62-762.441(2), Discharges, “Upon discovery of a discharge, the owner or operator shall report the discharge to the county on a discharge reporting form (DRF) within 24 hours or before the close of the county’s next business day. If, however, this discovery is thought to be a previously reported discharge, the owner or operator will have 30 days to investigate and submit supporting documentation or a DRF.”

10. B  ) Removal shall be initiated within three days of discovery and completed within 30 days.

Per FAC 62-762.431(6), Incidents, “The removal of any release of regulated substances into secondary containment shall be initiated within three days of discovery and completed within 30 days of discovery.”

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Florida Water Resources Journal - November 2020  

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