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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, Display and Classified Advertising,

Business Office: P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Lisa Prieto (FWEA) Prieto Environmental LLC Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.


Salute to Veterans in the Water and Wastewater Industry 12 Happy Veterans Day 12 Veteran Profiles

16 Work for Water Website Spotlights “Great Careers for a Great Cause” for Veterans and Other Job Seekers


News and Features


4 Operations Challenge at WEFTEC Breaks Participation Record 26 FWPCOA Awards 40 AWWA Offers Resources for Operators 43 Corrections 61 News Beat

Technical Articles 6 How the Sawgrass Water Treatment Plant Gained Five Benefits With One Project—Les Santiso, Timothy A. Welch, and Chris Reinbold 28 Magnetic Ion Exchange as a Pretreatment Step at a Surface Water Treatment Plant With Seasonally Variable Water Quality—Tyler Smith Semago, Michael Gerdjikian, Seung Park, Larry Elliott, Vincent Hart, Chuck Weber, and Dawn Lei 44 Increase Safety and Reliability by Making the Ammonia Source Switch—Pamela Kerns, Christophe Robert, Weston Haggen, Mark Burgess, Steve Soltau, and Royce Rarick 54 Looking Ahead: Selecting Membranes With Water Quality Degradation in Mind—Lance Littrell, Mark Miller, Rhea Dorris, Nick Black, Gina Parra, Ali Bayat, and Krystin Berntsen

18 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Michael F. Bailey 34 FWEA Focus—Michael W. Sweeney 36 Contractors Roundup: Job Order Contracting and Continuing Services: How to Address Your Infrastructure Needs Now!—Jonathan Fernald 38 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 42 C Factor—Mike Darrow 52 Let’s Talk Safety: Powerful Protection From Personal Protective Equipment 60 Reader Profile—Scott Ruland

Departments 63 Classifieds 66 Display Advertiser Index

Education and Training 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 39 51 59 62

FSAWWA Fall Conference Calendar of Events FSAWWA Fall Conference Registration Form FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview FSAWWA Fall Conference Incoming Chair's Reception and BBQ Challenge FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker Night, Happy Hour, and Golf Tournament FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions AWWA Membership FWPCOA Online Training Institute TREEO Center Training FWPCOA Training Calendar CEU Challenge

Volume 70

ON THE COVER: The American flag flies against a Florida sunset to commemorate Veterans Day. Starting on page 12 is a salute to veterans in the water and wastewater industry. (photo: Google Images)

November 2019

Number 11

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


Operations Challenge at WEFTEC Breaks Participation Record

Operations Challenge team photos.

Positive Influents team members.

Members of the Fecal Matters team.

The 32nd annual Operations Challenge at the 2019 Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC), which was held September 21-25 in Chicago, had a record-breaking 46 teams participating. Each team is sponsored by a WEF member association or recognized operator association. Winners are determined by a weighted point system for five events (collection systems, laboratory, process control, maintenance, and safety), each designed to test the diverse skills required for the operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment facilities, their collection systems, and laboratories. This year’s winners included: Division 1 S First Place: Elevated Ops - Rocky Mountain Water Environment Association S Second Place: TRA CReWSers - Texas Water Environment Association S Third Place: LA Wrecking Crew California Water Environment Association Divison 2 S First Place: South Mesquite Rangers Texas Water Environment Association S Second Place: Double Duty - Rocky Mountain Water Environment Association S Third Place: Lethal Concentration - South Carolina Water Environment Association The two teams from the Florida Water Environment Association, Positive Influents with Destin Water Users and Fecal Matters with JEA, which came in first and second, respectively, at the local Operations Challenge that was held at the Florida Water Resources Conference in April of this year, also participated in the contest. S

Brad Hayes, with Woodard and Curran, served as a volunteer judge for the competition.


Logan Law, an alternate with the Destin team, cheered his teammates on.

November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Eric Johnson, an exhibitor at WEFTEC and at the Florida Water Resources Conference, attended the competition.


How the Sawgrass Water Treatment Plant Gained Five Benefits With One Project Les Santiso, Timothy A. Welch, and Chris Reinbold he Sawgrass Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in the City of Sunrise (city) is a 24-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) nanofiltration (NF) facility. It was originally constructed in 2000 to treat Biscayne surficial aquifer water and was expanded in 2003 with the addition of two membrane trains. The water from the WTP blends in the distribution system with water from the city's other two lime softening plants. This creates a need to increase the pH of the finished water from the WTP so that the water is consistent with the other two plants. An existing facilities overall process flow diagram of the WTP is presented in Figure 1. As a result of treating the water with NF membrane technology, the product water meets all regulatory requirements, but has less minerals and alkalinity than currently desired. Higher mineral content in the finished water will result in more-stable distribution system conditions in terms of minimizing red water occurrences, corrosion, nitrification potential, and associated system flushing. It would also be expected to improve overall aesthetics, such as taste. Adding minerals, referred to as remineralization, would


allow for certain treatment process modifications, such as those associated with the elimination or reduction of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) use.

Membrane Element Replacement Evaluation The type of municipal drinking water membranes utilized at the WTP have a typical useful life span of five to 10 years, depending on the type of service (i.e., source water treated, etc.) and their maintenance program. Due to the fact that both sets of membranes (those from the original construction, as well as those from the expansion) are older than the upper end of the typical life span, and as operations staff has reported some membrane performance degradation, it was prudent that a replacement program be developed and initiated. Except for the parameters of iron and color, all reported raw water quality parameters meet primary and secondary drinking water standards, other than disinfection considerations and pH adjustment in the raw source water. The total hardness of the raw water averages 265

Figure 1. Existing process flow diagram of the Sawgrass Water Treatment Plant.


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Les Santiso, M.A., is chief operator at the Sawgrass Membrane Treatment Plant in Sunrise. Timothy A. Welch, P.E., is utilities director with City of Sunrise. Chris Reinbold, P.E., is project manager with Carollo Engineers Inc. in West Palm Beach.

mg/L as calcium carbonate, which is considered “very hard” for human use and consumption. The total organic content of the water is also considered very high, averaging approximately 18 mg/L. It’s this organic content that results in the color level, which exceeds secondary standards. The NF process was chosen for the effective removal of both the hardness and organics. The other parameter not meeting standards in the raw water is iron, and although the NF process effectively removes iron to a level below the regulatory standard, it remains a concern to operations staff due to its potential to stain at levels well below the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Because of this concern, the proposed replacement membranes were evaluated to remove iron to levels below that currently being achieved. Table 1 summarizes the raw water quality from both the Arena and Flamingo park wellfields, which represent the source water to the WTP. Table 2 summarizes the finished water quality goals identified for the membrane replacement activity. These goals were developed in meetings with city staff to achieve a finished water quality that would address challenges that had resulted in prior flushing activities and/or complaints. Software packages from the different membrane manufacturers are available for simulation of the operating characteristics of membrane elements. Input information, such as raw water chemistry, infrastructure characteristics, and system design parameters, allows for simulations of available elements to be developed to project performance conditions. Due to the advent of new and improved materials and advanced manufacturing technologies, membranes have evolved to the extent that they Continued on page 8

Table 1. Raw Water Quality Analysis

Continued from page 6 can remove a wider range of contaminants (at varying rates) with less fouling, and require less energy. The latest NF and low-energy reverse osmosis (RO) technologies were investigated from the available manufacturers. Due to the nature of NF membrane elements to reject divalent cations (such as calcium), the evaluation became a balancing act. Because the raw water iron from the raw water wells is relatively high, hybrid membrane arrangements became less attractive to consider. Hybrid arrays were found to be less attractive because, when lower rejection membranes were considered in the tail end of the second stage, it had the effect of increasing permeate hardness and alkalinity, while having the side effect of increasing the iron concentrations as well. It was soon decided to select membrane elements for the replacement effort that met the iron rejection goal, while considering additional treatment to meet the desired hardness and alkalinity goals.

Remineralization Cost Evaluation

Table 2. Proposed Finished Water Quality Goals

Since the finished water alkalinity and hardness goals were not able to be met with membrane treatment alone, the city considered additional treatment options. A remineralization cost evaluation was performed to determine the present worth of two potential remineralization options. These options included the addition of carbon dioxide and liquid lime (hydrated calcium hydroxide solution) feed systems, and the blending of water treated with the processes of oxidation, filtration, and ion exchange (IX). The finished water goals were further refined from the membrane element replacement evaluation in terms of alkalinity, hardness, and iron. The values identified were consistent with recommendations by industry-recognized sources, such as the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Water Research Foundation. The goals that were set are summarized in Table 3. The resulting lowest-net and present-worth cost of remineralization, when considering both capital costs and operational and maintenance costs, was the alternative to implement a sidestream treatment process of oxidation, prefiltration, and IX. This treatment system was selected for full-scale implementation by the city.

Design of Oxidation, Prefiltration, and Ion Exchange Treatment as a Sidestream Process The selected treatment system at the WTP


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

to complement the existing NF treatment system consists of oxidation, prefiltration, and IX. The proposed facilities overall process flow diagram is presented in Figure 2. The primary mechanism desired for iron control is oxidation of dissolved iron to form filterable particulate iron. It was determined through bench-scale testing that oxidation with sodium permanganate yielded effective results and relatively low residuals production, while operating at a cost deemed to be reasonable. The prefiltration system removes particulates, such as oxidized iron and turbidity, from the raw water flow stream to prevent excessive downstream IX fouling. A conservative loading rate was utilized to maximize iron and other particulate removal efficiency. Filtered water will be conveyed to the IX system under pressure without the need for additional pumping. The IX process is to be operated in a continuous mode where water passes through pressure vessels containing anion resin in a plug flow manner. This process is used to selectively remove anions, such as organics that are negatively charged, while allowing most of the alkalinity and hardness to be conserved, in accordance with the treatment goals. Treated water from the IX process will be blended with the degasified NF permeate at the inlet to the chlorine contact tank. Four-log inactivation of viruses is then achieved in the contact tank, followed by transfer pumping, finished water storage, and high-service pumping into the distribution system.

Implementation of Selected Alternative The process that was evaluated in the remineralization cost evaluation included consideration of accommodating the rated treatment plant capacity with a combination of IX and NF treatment. Table 4 summarizes the blended water characteristics of these two flow streams with varying amounts of IX treatment. Projections of the resulting blended finished water quality to meet the goals resulted in 18.5-mgd treatment through the existing NF process and blended with 5.5 mgd of the IX process. Each of the blending ratios met the desired water quality goals, but had increasing capital costs associated with new IX infrastructure. Following review of the results of the remineralization cost evaluation, the city was eager to implement the selected process. Since the WTP is one of three treatment plants within the city's service area, there was a desire to implement this treatment scheme, while managing capital expenditures. As a result, the

Table 3. Finished Water (Post-Treatment) Goals

Figure 2. Proposed process flow diagram of the Sawgrass Water Treatment Plant.

Table 4. Projected Blend Characteristics of Nanofiltration- and Ion Exchange-Treated Finished Water

Continued on page 10 Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


Continued from page 9 city elected to proceed with the first half of the established capacity in Phase I. Then, as the water production rates increase at the WTP, which at the time averaged 12 mgd, the city would implement Phase II of the project and construct the additional identified IX treatment features. During the design process for Phase I, the capacity of the system was optimized, and updated blended water projections were performed. Based on maximizing the availability of existing treatment systems, the capacity for Phase I was increased to 3 mgd. Table 5 summarizes the updated water blend characteristics. These projects compared the 3-mgd IX system to the amount of NF treatment to achieve the average treated water flow, as well as the total rated plant capacity flow rate.

Waste Disposal Considerations Waste from the prefilter and IX system is received in the waste equalization tanks from the prefilter backwashes and IX regenerations. An air gap is provided for all streams entering the waste equalization tank to ensure that there is no cross connection. Waste will be disposed via waste equalization pumps and directed into the existing deep industrial injection well. The availability of an existing onsite industrial injection well facilitated waste disposal, while minimizing capital costs.

Project Benefits As a result of implementing the oxidation, prefiltration, and IX system in parallel with the

existing NF treatment system, the city is anticipating five primary benefits:

ment system. This represents a significant water savings.

Benefit 1 Water quality will be improved. This is realized through the increase in hardness and alkalinity in the finished water, with iron levels within the established goal (in which iron will be less than the preproject values, and at a level that is projected to not cause red water events in the distribution system).

Benefit 4 Distribution system maintenance will be reduced. Sending water into the distribution system with higher alkalinity will result in a more-buffered and stable water. This water will resist pH change that may be present due to biofilm bacteria. This resistance to pH change will minimize distribution system corrosion, as well as help minimize the potential for nitrification, and both conditions typically trigger required maintenance flushing activities. Since these two conditions will be reduced, so will the maintenance associated with flushing, as will the corresponding loss of product water.

Benefit 2 The cost of operation will be lower than with NF treatment alone. The only pumps necessary to convey water through the prefilter and IX treatment system is the existing well pumps. This saves the pumping energy by not sending the water through feed pumps, interstage boost pumps, and concentrate disposal pumps, as is necessary with the NF system. Further, the only chemicals utilized in IX treatment is 1 to 2 mg/L of sodium permanganate and salt for IX resin regeneration. A significant amount of sulfuric acid and NaOH are saved by not treating the water through NF. A cost evaluation performed in 2015 estimated the savings, based on the nominal 3mgd IX system operating in parallel to the NF system, to be approximately $600,000 per year.

Conclusions Benefit 3 There will be less water loss. For every gal of water that is treated through the IX system, it represents a savings in water usage. Of the total raw water conveyed to the existing NF system, 15 percent is disposed to the deep injection well as a concentrate byproduct. Only 1 to 3 percent of the water will be lost through the IX treat-

Table 5. Projected Water Blend Characteristics


Benefit 5 Customer experience will be improved. Water that is balanced with calcium hardness and alkalinity, as well as low in other ions, such as iron, tastes better to customers. The reduction in staining due to iron levels below 0.15 mg/L will also contribute to an improved customer experience, as clothes will come out cleaner from the laundry and there will be less staining at homes that irrigate with potable water.

November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The city undertook a membrane element replacement project concurrently with a water quality optimization upgrade, which included implementation of an oxidation, prefiltration, and IX system. These projects were implemented to provide improvements to maintain current satisfactory operations, improve treatment reliability and water quality, and lower water production and system flushing/maintenance costs. At the present time, the membrane element replacement effort has been successfully completed and is in operation. The prefiltration, oxidation, and IX system construction is complete, with commissioning and closeout activities occurring at the time this article was written. Once placed into service, the city can begin realizing the benefits of this new treatment system. The total cost for the membrane element replacement project was approximately $1,600,000, which included removal and disposal of the existing elements, vessel cleaning, disinfection, new element loading, and start-up and testing. The total construction cost for the prefiltration, oxidation, and IX system is $6,696,000. The city looks forward to the successful completion of the project so that the benefits and savings may be realized by both the city and its customers. S




Happy Veterans Day! Welcome to the magazine’s second annual celebration of military veterans who work in the water industry. We’re honored to highlight these brave men and women who proudly served their country, both here and abroad, and who are again serving American citizens by working as water professionals. Along with medical personnel, police officers and firefighters, and first responders, those who work in the water industry provide a vital service and help to protect the health and well-being of the

community. Water really is a precious resource—one we can’t live without—and all water workers play a vital role in ensuring that everyone has all of the clean, safe water they need every day. This section includes profiles of veterans currently working for utilities and other water-related companies, and information about bringing more veterans into the workforce. To those selfless veterans who are now our colleagues: we thank you and salute you!

How did your military service help your water career? The extensive training in the engineer department aboard several classes of ships has helped me in my career. I dealt with a lot of equipment and operations similar to the water treatment facility. On ship we processed water for the ship boiler equipment, as well as water supply for the ship personnel, which included water parameters, chemical balancing, and laboratory testing. EDGARDO (EDDIE) R. AMAR Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Navy (21 years): Orlando, Fla., for Boot Camp; Willington, Tenn., for “A” School. Stationed in San Diego, Calif.; Ingleside, Texas; and Norfolk, Va. Rank and any service recognition: Retired as E-6 Petty Officer First Class. Navy Achievement Medal, 5-Bronze Good Conduct Medals, Expeditionary Medal, National Defense Medal, Joint Armed Service Expeditionary Medal, Southeast Asia Medal: Three Tours, Armed Forces Service Medal, Humanitarian Medal (Haiti), NATO Medal and the Kuwait Liberation Medal, Multiple Commendation Medals, and Sailor of the Quarter Award.

SERAFIN (SAM) AYALA Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Army: Fort Knox, Ky. (20 years). Rank and any service recognition: Staff Sergeant

Rank and any service recognition: E-5 Sergeant

Water industry employer(s) and positions: City of Orlando - property supervisor

Water industry employer(s) and positions: Broward County, Florida Department of Environmental Protection - environmental scientist Pasco County - senior environmental scientist

Years in the water industry: 15 years

Years in the water industry: 15 years

How did your military service help your water career? Being a supply sergeant in the Army prepared me for the jobs I’ve had since.

How did your military service help your water career? Serving for nearly a decade in the United States Navy instilled the importance of paying attention to detail. The technical requirements of the industry and my role as an environmental scientist require a precision that was developed during my time in the military. Serving during a time of war also provided a personal sense of purpose. Commitment to the

Commendation medal, good conduct medal.

Water industry employer(s) and positions: City of Boca Raton - operator Years in the water industry: 15 years


JEFF HARRIS Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Navy: Naval Air Station, Cecil Field; Naval Air Station, Jacksonville; USS John F. Kennedy, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower.

November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal


H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H objective and that sense of purpose was a catalyst in the advancements that we’ve been able to accomplish with reclaimed water and water resource management here in Florida. The leadership skills that I learned and refined during that time gave me the ability to motivate and inspire teams to tackle industry issues. That can-do spirit and adherence to the Navy’s core values of honor, courage, and commitment provided a strong foundation for my career and enabled me to provide value to the organizations that I have worked for and communities I’ve served.

GERALD MASON Branch, location(s), and years of service: Army: served in Germany and Vietnam (three years). Rank and any service recognition: Specialist 5 Water industry employer(s) and positions: City of Orlando Years in the water industry: 25 years

KEVIN MAXWELL Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Army (4 years): Stationed at Fort Hood from 2005-2010. Deployed to Iraq from October 2007 to February 2009. Rank and any service recognition: Specialist Combat action badge, Army commendation medal, warrior leaders course. Water industry employer(s) and positions: Bay County Utilities water plant operator

How did your military service help your water career? It taught me attention to detail and how to be proactive instead of reactive.

DORIAN MODJESKI, P.E., BCEE, F. ASCE Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Army: Active duty (1964-1966), standby reserve (1966-1970). I’m a Vietnam War veteran. My military occupation specialty (MOS) was field artillery, operation, and intelligence. In Vietnam, as part of the U.S. Military Assistance Command (MACV), I served with the 2nd Battalion, 32nd Artillery, in the Fire Direction Control Group in support of the III Corps Area. Artillery operations during this time occurred near Bien Hoa and Cu Chi in South Vietnam. Rank and any service recognition: Specialist 4th Class Good Conduct Medal, Vietnam Service Medal, National Defense Service Medal. Water industry employer(s) and positions: Greeley and Hansen, Chicago - project engineer, senior engineer CDM, Clearwater, Fla. - senior project engineer, associate Cardno (Tampa Bay Engineering), Clearwater, Fla. - director of water and wastewater Modjeski Engineering LLC, Palm Harbor owner

How did your military service help your water career? Military service has made me better understand the problems facing the world, the country, and my own community. This service has also prepared me to carry out leadership responsibilities throughout my career. Through the G.I. Bill, I received financial assistance from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in pursuit of an undergraduate degree in civil engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago.

JUDD MOOSO Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Army Reserve (28 years): Army Reserve Aviation Command, Fort Knox, Ky. Rank and any service recognition: Command Sergeant Major Bronze Star Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Army Commendation Medal (5), Army Achievement Medal (6), Joint Meritorious Unit Award, Army Good Conduct Medal, Army Reserve Components Achievement Medal (6), National Defense Service Medal (2), Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, Iraq Campaign Medal with Bronze Star device, Global War on Terrorism Service Medal, Humanitarian Service Medal, Armed Forces Reserve Medal with Bronze Hourglass and “M” device, NCO Professional Development Ribbon (5), Army Service Ribbon, Overseas Service Ribbon (2), Army Reserve Components Overseas Training Ribbon (2), Combat Infantryman Badge, Expert Infantryman Badge, Air Assault Badge, Drill Sergeant Badge.

Years in the water industry: I’m a life member of both the Water Environment Federation and the American Water Works Association and have been a member of both state organizations since 1985.

Years in the water industry: Seven years Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019




H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H How did your military service help your water career? Military service did a lot more for me than help me in my career. The military provides excellent training, many opportunities, unparalleled discipline techniques, leadership skills, and life education.

Water industry employer(s) and positions: Destin Water Users Inc. - water operations superintendent/safety program coordinator Years in the water industry: 22 years How did your military service help your water career? The military instilled a strong work ethic in me at a young age. I joined active duty when I was 17. It taught me how to work as a member of a team, how to remain calm and make sound decisions under pressure, the importance of organization, and how to be a leader. All of these are qualities most employers in this industry are seeking. As a reservist, the experience and training the Army continues to provide me with continues to enhance my ability to perform as a supervisor and as part of the Destin Water Users team.

SHAWN POWERS Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Air Force (six years): Stationed at Sheppard AFB; McDill AFB; and San Vito, Italy AS. Rank and any service recognition: E-5 Staff Sergeant

Years in the water industry: Four years How did your military service help your water career? The employer practices of the military helped me enter into a career in the water industry.

JOHN PURLAND Branch, location(s), and years of service: Tour of Duty: Germany (1985-1987).

Rank and any service recognition: Sergeant First Class

Rank and any service recognition: Airman First Class

Water industry employer(s) and positions: City of Orlando, Conserv I Plant, Water Reclamation Facility

Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business program. Water industry employer(s) and positions: Plastic Composites Inc. (manhole and lift station liners and coatings) - president Years in the water industry: More than 10 years.


Rank and any service recognition: E-6 Boiler Technician Meritorious Service Award

Water industry employer(s) and positions: North Port Utilities - utility locate technician

SEAN MULLENS Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Marine Corps: 15 years active, 6 years reserve.

Years in the water industry: Three years with City of Orlando and seven years with Lake City.

STEVE SCHWAB Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Navy (eight years): Stationed in Greece; Philadelphia; and Norfolk, Va.

November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water industry employer(s) and positions: Three years in the Navy operating boiler feed water testing and potable systems. Seven years at Invensys Pharmaceuticals as a utilities mechanic operating the water production equipment. One year at Colonial Plaza Hotel operating the wastewater plant. 20 years as a subcontractor for water and package wastewater plants. One year at Apopka as a wastewater trainee. 29 years at Water Conserv II Reclaim Water Distributions Center. Years in the water industry: 30 years wastewater, 29 years water. How did your military service help your water career? Managing the boiler feed water laboratory, performing the sampling, and operating the evaporators for potable and boiler feed water really showed me that I had an affinity for working in the water field. I’ve enjoyed all parts of it and it eventually led me to becoming a dual-licensed operator.


H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H FRANKLIN SORRELLS JR. Branch, location(s), and years of service: Air Force (20 years): The two bases I was assigned to were Fort George Meade, Md., and RAF Mildenhall, U.K. As an airborne cryptologic language analyst, I deployed to several locations around the world. ROY-KEITH SMITH, Ph.D. Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Army: Fort Dix, N.J., and Vietnam (19691973). Rank and any service recognition: E-5 Sergeant ArCom with Cluster, Vietnam Service, Vietnam Campaign, Drill Sergeant Water industry employer(s) and positions: I’m a Floridian on my mother's side. My great grandfather, Albert Keller, built the Saint Augustine water system, and his grandfather, Sir Keith Keller, built the pipeline from the mainland to Key West, as well as the Clearwater water system. The S.K. Keller pumping plant in Pinelas County is named after my grandfather. Southern College of Technology - associate professor for environmental science Analytical Services Inc., Atlanta - analytical methods manager and quality assurance manager Standard Methods Committee Part 4000 and Part 5000 – coordinator Author of 11 books on environmental chemistry, including Third Century of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (with Rodger Baird; published by WEF), Handbook of Environmental Analysis (four editions) and Water and Wastewater Laboratory Techniques (two editions published by WEF). I’ve served as an expert witness for Environmental Analytical Chemistry Quality Control. Years in the water industry: 40 years How did your military service help your water career? The G.I. Bill paid me to go to college and obtain my bachelor of science degree in chemistry from Georgia Tech and my Ph.D. in chemistry from Colorado State University.

How did your military service help your water career? My military service help in this career field by instilling a code of ethics; for example: dedication, be committed, finish the task you start. It taught me to have integrity and work the same way whether someone is looking or not.

Rank and any service recognition: E-7 Master Sergeant Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Air Medal with six oak leaf clusters, Aerial Achievement Medal with six oak leaf clusters, Joint Service Commendation Medal, Air Force Commendation Medal with two oak leave clusters, and Joint Service Achievement Medal. Water industry employer(s) and positions: Broward County - senior administrative officer, water and wastewater engineering division Years in the water industry: Five years How did your military service help your water career? My military service prepared me to work well under pressure and to be able to lead and manage diverse groups of people to a common goal. In addition, I developed an understanding of mission essentials, especially during emergency activations.

REUBEN THOMPSON Branch, location(s), and years of service: U.S. Air Force (22 years): Trained and stationed at bases in Japan, Germany, New Mexico, Korea, Alaska and Florida, where I retired. Rank and any service recognition: Master Sergeant Water industry employer(s) and positions: Bay County Board of County Commissioners water treatment operator trainee and water treatment operator Years in the water industry: Five years

ROBERT (BOB) WILLIAMS Branch, location(s), and years of service: United States Air Force (25 years): Selfridge AFB, Mich., Sheppard AFB, Texas; Udorn RTAFB, Thailand; Ankara AB, Turkey; Hill AFB, Utah; Plattsburgh AFB, N.Y.; Tyndall AFB, Fla.; and Osan AB, Korea. Rank and any service recognition: E-8 Senior Master Sergeant Water industry employer(s) and positions: City of Orlando, Water Conserv II - wastewater plant operator supervisor Years in the water industry: 54 years How did your military service help your water career? For my entire career in the military I worked in water and wastewater, which prepared me for my civilian career in the field. The Air Force trained me in all facets of the industry.


Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019





Work for Water Website Spotlights “Great Careers for a Great Cause” for Veterans and Other Job Seekers A newly revamped website ( invites job seekers to discover “great careers for a great cause” in the water sector. Created by the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and American Water Works Association (AWWA), the site is a valuable resource for students, veterans, and other job seekers to find resources to pursue or further careers in the water industry. A 2018 Brookings Institution study, “Renewing the Water Workforce: Improving Water Infrastructure and Creating a Pipeline to Opportunity,” noted that the water workforce includes more than 200 occupations and offers competitive pay and benefits. The AWWA 2019 State of the Water Industry report shows that the water industry continues to provide opportunities for prospective water career seekers as seasoned workers retire and water utilities look to recruit new talent.


An essential part of the website is the “Get Started” section, which guides users through the education, training, certification requirements, and resources that vary by state for those launching or continuing a career in the industry. The section also features a state-by-state listing of AWWA sections and WEF member associations, allowing job seekers the opportunity to connect with local industry contacts. The site also has a dedicated section for veterans, who can bring valuable skills to the water industry. Through the site, veterans can connect with local veteran liaisons who can introduce them to other veterans in the industry. “We must have a strong and steady pipeline of talent entering the water workforce to successfully continue our mission to protect public health and the environment,” said Eileen O’Neill, WEF executive director. “It was vital to build a modern online portal to

November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

promote water professions and provide resources for people to enter the workforce.” “The water industry desperately needs an infusion of new talent,” said David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer. “The water workforce is aging, and a large percentage of it will be retiring in the coming years. Launching this website will go a long way toward attracting the sharpest minds to work for water.”

Water Industry is a Great Fit for Veterans At the website, veterans and other can learn what it takes to work in water and start a great career. Jobs With a Mission With a career in the water sector, veterans can continue their public service by working to


H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H provide and ensure safe, sanitary water for their communities. They can go to work each day knowing that they’re making a positive impact through serving others and ensuring public health. Good Pay, High Job Security Careers in water are stable, with good salaries and benefits, and are found all over the United States. Due to retirements in the industry, many positions are now available for people new to the industry, or for experienced water professionals. Everyone needs water, and water and wastewater professionals serve the smallest and largest communities.

will make sure they fulfill their mission of providing safe water to the community. The water sector is dedicated to finding new and innovative ways to recover and recycle renewable resources, like clean water, energy, and fuel, to benefit every community and help shape a sustainable future for all, and veterans can help the industry fulfill its mission. S

Build on Current Skills The water sector prizes the skills that veterans bring to their careers, whether they working are in personnel and utility management, or as a water/wastewater operator or engineer. Former service members have initiative, are excellent at teamwork, are natural leaders and communicators, work well under stress, and

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019



FSAWWA Invests in the Future Michael F. Bailey, P.E. Chair, FSAWWA

ike many other industries in the United States, succession planning in the water industry can be crucial. There is a whole lot of institutional knowledge that has left our workforce, and experts say this will continue for the next several years. Filling those gaps with educated, trained, and experienced personnel may be a significant challenge. Your FSAWWA has recognized this issue and developed several programs and incentives to help fill some of those gaps. For young people entering, or just starting to consider, careers in our industry, the section offers several resources, including: S Roy W. Likins scholarship program for college students S High Schools Academy started in 2011 to help students learn the science of water treatment plant operation and prepare for the state exam S Young Professionals Committee


The section just recently was able to help another high school with its own water plant operators training course, and I’m very proud to tell you about it here! Region IV of FSAWWA started working with Hillsborough County schools two years ago to develop a water treatment plant operations course at one of their high schools. This was a group effort spearheaded by Pam London-Exner, Technical and Education Council chair, using her contacts within the school system and patterned after the section’s High

Schools Academy program that blossomed under the leadership of Steve Soltau, chair of the section's High School Initiative Committee. With the help of Mark Lehigh, general policy director; Emilie Moore, section treasurer; Steve Soltau; Dan Glaser, Region IV chair; and Katherine Williams, Hillsborough County started the program this year at A.P. Leto High School. As a fledgling program, however, there wasn’t much funding for it, and those involved needed help obtaining text books for the students. In accordance with our mission to promote and support our industry, as appropriate, the section’s Executive Committee agreed to purchase thirty water treatment plant operations manuals from California State University at Sacramento and loan them to these students, and hopefully, to future ones. The students were very grateful, along with their teacher, Sean Murray, and Brent League, science department director. Hopefully, this is the start of the story for this kind of program and, with the continued help of our awesome FSAWWA volunteers and staff, we can help keep this going and expand it to more high schools in the future.

Get Ready for the FSAWWA Fall Conference! Have you registered yet for the Fall Conference? I sure hope so, because this year’s event

A school mural.


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

at the Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate, December 8-12, is filling up fast and looks to be outstanding! The technical programs are set, with a slate of excellent speakers sharing their experience and knowledge on a wide range of current and relevant topics. Similarly, the exhibition hall will have 165 booths and 17 tabletop exhibits filled with the newest products and services that you definitely don’t want to miss. And who’s up for a little friendly competition with the following contests: S Backhoe Rodeo S Ductile Iron Tap S Fun Tap S Top Ops Brainstorming S Meter Madness S Hydrant Hysteria (women's team competing this year!) S Thursday Golf Tournament Last but not least is the BBQ Challenge and Incoming Chair’s Reception, which is the perfect opportunity to welcome Kim Kowalski as the section’s incoming chair and enjoy some tasty BBQ! The opening general session will be held Monday at the conference at 2:30 p.m., and this year’s keynote speaker is sure to be interesting and enlightening. So come on out and take advantage of everything the Fall Conference has to offer—I’ll see you there! S A.P. Leto High School students with Emilie Moore, FSAWWA treasurer (far left), and Pamela London-Exner, FSAWWA Technical and Education Council chair, and teacher Sean Murray (far right).

Pamela London-Exner (standing at back, center right) speaks to the students.

A school banner.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019



November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019



November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019



November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019



Awardees Honored at Fall State Short School Dr. A.P. Black Awards

Water Plant Operator Award of Excellence Tom Spencer City of Punta Gorda

Water Plant Operator Award of Excellence Theresa Hughes Hillsborough County

Wastewater Plant Operator Award of Excellence Katherine Kinloch FWPCOA Region X

The Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association recognized several outstanding water/wastewater professionals, utilities, and facilities during its Fall State Short School for operational excellence, service to the association, and outstanding safety records. The school and the awards ceremony were held in August at the Indian River State College in Fort Pierce.


Utility of the Year Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. Accepted by Allen Perry and Andy Koebel.

Water Plant A City of Stuart Water Treatment Facility Accepted by Janine Wilde and Mike Woodside.

Water Plant B Island Water Association Water Treatment Plant Accepted by Brandon Henke.

Water Plant C City of Leesburg Main Water Treatment Plant Accepted by Helga Bundy.

(no photo)

Distribution System City of Pompano Beach Accepted by Ben Bray.


Reuse Plant A Woodard & Curran Water Conserv II Accepted by Megan Bethea.

November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Reuse Plant B Southeast Regional Wastewater Facility Accepted by Todd Potter.

Reuse Plant C Pine Island Water Reclamation Facility

Emory Dawkins Award

Robert Heilman Award

Nathan Pope Award

Joseph V. Towry Award

Ed Clark, Editor FWPCOA Region X Accepted by Charles Nichols Sr.

Jeff Odoms City of West Palm Beach

Jason Spann City of Tavares

Charles Nichols Sr. Polk County Reclaim Water

Outstanding Website Award Clay County Utility Authority (no photo)

Wastewater Plant A Valrico Advanced Wastewater Plant Accepted by Peter Stryker.

Collection System City of Stuart Wastewater Accepted by Corky Kossen.

Wastewater Plant B Palm Coast Wastewater Treatment Facility #1 Accepted by Daniel Niemann.

Multiple Water System Town of Davie Water Treatment Facilities III and V Accepted by Isabella Slagle and Stanley Ebanks.

Raymond Bordner Award Jerry Baker Broward County (no photo)

Wastewater Plant C Burnt Store Water Reclamation Facility Accepted by John Thompson.

Stormwater System City of Pompano Beach Accepted by Ben Bray.

Multiple Wastewater System Polk County Utilities Wastewater Package Plants Accepted by Todd Potter.

Combined Distribution and Collection City of Rockledge Accepted by Kevin Shropshire.

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019



Magnetic Ion Exchange as a Pretreatment Step at a Surface Water Treatment Plant With Seasonally Variable Water Quality Tyler Smith Semago, Michael Gerdjikian, Seung Park, Larry Elliott, Vincent Hart, Chuck Weber, and Dawn Lei he City of Tampa Water Department (city) currently owns and operates the David L. Tippin Water Treatment Facility (DLTWTF), which is permitted to withdraw an annual average quantity of 82 mil gal per day (mgd) and a maximum daily quantity of 120 mgd from the Hillsborough River. The overall goals of the DLTWTF are to provide safe drinking water by removing the vast majority of total organic carbon (TOC) in order to reduce formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), improve the aesthetic quality of the water by eliminating color, and reduce taste- and odor-causing compounds. Due to the DLTWTF’s raw water supplies, there is significant seasonal variability in water quality, specifically in regard to TOC, which has historically been as high as the low 30s (measured as mg/L). Figure 1 depicts the existing process flow diagram for the DLTWTF. Water withdrawn from the Hillsborough River is screened through a grass bar rack and mechanical screens downstream for debris removal. The raw water is then pumped to the four conventional (coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation) treatment trains: Trains 5, 6, 7, and 8. Together, these trains receive approximately 70


to 80 percent of the total plant flow. The remaining flow is treated in parallel through the Actiflo™ Trains 1 and 2. Both systems (conventional and Actiflo) use ferric sulfate as a coagulant. Before the Actiflo and conventional treatment trains, coagulant is added, which depresses the pH of the raw water. The pH is further adjusted using sulfuric acid in order to achieve a target pH to about 3.8 to 4.5 to maximize the efficiency of the enhanced coagulation process, specifically for TOC adsorption onto the floc. After sedimentation, pH adjustment is required before ozonation. Lime is added to the conventional treatment trains at the combined Trains 5 and 6 and Trains 7 and 8 effluent flumes. Additional pH adjustment occurs at the low lift intermediate pump station before ozonation using caustic soda when the target pH (6.3 to 7) cannot be achieved using lime alone (due to lime-induced high turbidity). The flow is then directed to the ozonation process for primary disinfection. After primary disinfection, the flow is treated with caustic soda to achieve a prefiltration pH of between 6.5 and 7.3 and then conveyed to the biological activated filtration (BAF) process, which

Tyler Smith Semago is project engineer and Larry Elliott is senior vice president with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Tampa. Vincent Hart is executive vice president with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Denver. Michael Gerdjikian is water treatment researcher, Seung Park is chief engineer, Chuck Weber is water director, and Dawn Lei is water quality assurance officer with City of Tampa.

consists of 30 gravity filters. The filters' design maximum hydraulic loading rate is 3.5 gal per minute/sq ft (gpm/ft ), and all filters have 12 in. of sand and 22 in. of granular activated carbon (GAC). The water is then chloraminated and the finished water is stored in the clearwells before high-service pumping into the distribution system. The city requested that Carollo Engineers Inc. conduct a six-month pilot study on the magnetic ion exchange process in conjunction with efforts for finalizing a comprehensive master plan for the DLTWTF. The process was tested as a pretreatment option for the facility’s existing conventional and Actiflo processes, with the purpose of removing the bulk of the TOC in order to reduce operational expenses (OPEX) and extend the infrastructure life for the basins. This article details the pilot plant design, goals, operations, and results of the study conducted from September 2017 to March 2018, specifically with respect to TOC removal. Due to the DLTWTF's source of raw water, dissolved organic carbon and TOC vary seasonally, which is typically dependent on rainy and dry seasons. 2

Historical Raw Water Quality and Chemical Usage

Figure 1. David L. Tippin Water Treatment Facility Existing Process Flow Diagram


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Historical raw water TOC for the DLTWTF (herein referred to as a full-scale plant) and for the pilot plant is shown in Figure 2. Raw water TOC ranged from 2.8 to 26 mg/L from December 2015 to April 2018, which is a typical seasonal trend seen by the plant. For purposes of this study, high

TOC (above 15 mg/L) season is assumed to occur every year from June 15 to December 1, and low TOC (below 15 mg/L) season from December 1 to June 15. Figure 2 also shows the raw water TOC for the full-scale and pilot-scale systems for the duration of the pilot study to illustrate the similar influent water quality, which allows for TOC removal comparisons discussed later. Currently, the enhanced coagulation process requires coagulant doses that can range from 50 to 266 mg/L as ferric sulfate (along with pH adjustment chemicals) in order to remove the amount of TOC needed through the existing treatment processes. This magnitude of TOC reduction allows the full-scale plant to consistently meet the finished water TOC goal (with minor exceedances during exceptionally high TOC periods) regardless of the season, albeit with significant chemical costs. City staff has noted that enhanced coagulation treatment becomes difficult during low TOC season. Even when TOC is low (again, considered to be below 15 mg/L for this plant), a large amount of coagulant is still required and the enhanced coagulation process is less efficient. Based on historical data, the average TOC removal during high TOC season ranged from 78 to 87 percent, with an average of 83.2 percent, while during low TOC seasons, removal ranged from 67 to 82 percent, with an average removal of 75.5 percent. It’s suspected this is due to changes in the type of organics between high and low TOC seasons. In regard to chemical usage, a significant amount of sulfuric acid, lime, and caustic are required. During high TOC season, little or no acid addition is required because the coagulant dose is generally capable of lowering the pH adequately without the need for acid. During low TOC season, acid addition is required and subsequently results in the need for additional caustic and/or lime to raise the pH to the desired range before ozonation. Lime use over caustic use is preferential in terms of chemical cost, but due to the high alkalinity and hardness of this water, lime alone cannot be used for pH adjustment during this season. This is because the required dose of lime needed would result in increased turbidity and calcium carbonate precipitation. From March 2017 through March 2018, the addition of coagulant, acid, lime, caustic, and polymer cost the city over $6.7 million. Although the city’s finished water goals are consistently achieved with current operations, it comes at a significant cost stemming from high chemical use, resulting in accelerated wear/corrosion on the exposed surfaces (concrete and equipment), and high volumes of solids/residuals that require processing and disposal. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this study was to determine if, with magnetic ion exchange as a pretreatment step, OPEX within the conventional and Actiflo

Figure 2. Full-Scale and Pilot-Scale Raw Water Total Organic Carbon

Figure 3. Pilot Plant Process Flow Diagram

treatment systems could be reduced without compromising overall TOC removal efficiency (and finished water quality goals), even with highly seasonal variations in water quality.

Pilot Plant Configuration and Design The study consisted of four pilot treatment skids: magnetic ion exchange system, flocculation/sedimentation (further referred to as floc/sed unit for brevity), intermediate ozone, and filtration. Figure 3 details the process flow for the pilot study. The raw water was supplied at a rate of 10 gpm by an existing air-operated double-displacement pump and feed piping system, which is pulled from the Hillsborough River and services other areas in the plant. During times when magnetic ion exchange was tested, after pumping, the raw water would flow up through the resin-filled contactor,

through a set of inclined plate settlers (to separate any remaining resin), and through the collection launder pipes before flowing to the break tank and being pumped to the floc/sed unit. After pumping, ferric sulfate and sulfuric acid would be added prior to rapid mixing. Floc aid polymer addition (when magnetic ion exchange was off) occurred between the first and second stages of flocculation, and caustic was used to adjust the pH after settling and prior to ozonation. The settled water was then treated through the ozone unit, followed by filtration in each of the four filters. The filters were operated in biologically active mode to mimic full-scale operations. During times when enhanced coagulation was piloted, the raw water flow was processed through the magnetic ion exchange contactor, which would be void of resin, so no organic treatment occurred through the unit. Continued on page 30

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


Continued from page 29

Pilot Plant Operation The pilot units were typically staffed Monday through Friday from 6:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. Remote access and online data logging for the skids were utilized to help facilitate continuous operation, including overnight and weekends, without the presence of an operator. Operations were conducted in a manner to fully test a number of treatment scenarios across the entire pilot treatment train through-

out seasonal water quality variations, as illustrated in Figure 4. In summary, the magnetic ion exchange system was operated as a pretreatment step to the coagulation process and was operated during times of high and low TOC as follows: S Oct. 7 to Nov. 24, 2017 • 600 bed volume (BV) • Chlorine (started November 1), ferric sulfate • High TOC season S Nov. 27, 2017, to Jan. 5, 2018 • Magnetic ion exchange system off • Ferric sulfate, sulfuric acid, caustic

Figure 4. Pilot Plant Operations Summary

• Mid to low TOC season S Jan. 8-21, 2018 • 600 BV • Chlorine, ferric sulfate • Low TOC season S Jan. 22 to March 8, 2018 • 1000 BV • Chlorine, ferric sulfate • Low TOC season S March 9-31, 2018 • Magnetic ion exchange system off • Ferric sulfate, sulfuric acid, caustic • Low TOC season In order to confirm the scalability of the pilot plant results when the magnetic ion exchange system was not in operation, enhanced coagulation within the floc/sed unit was employed through the use of ferric sulfate, sulfuric acid, and caustic addition to mimic full-scale operations. A number of water quality parameters were monitored continuously on the pilot skids, and grab samples were collected and used in the data analysis for this study; however, TOC was the primary parameter of interest. Considering process control needs in regard to TOC removal performance, the city implemented an online ultraviolet (UV)254 analyzer to monitor settled water UV254 (floc/sed effluent). For the city’s source water, there is a strong correlation between UV254 and TOC, allowing this method to help forecast expected TOC removal and implement, on a daily basis, any needed process modifications. The city also conducted periodic jar testing to help determine appropriate dosing schemes based on changing influent water quality throughout the study, much like it does for full-scale operations.


Figure 5. Pilot-Scale Total Organic Carbon Removal Through Magnetic Ion Exchange Pretreatment


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Magnetic Ion Exchange System Performance Although many other water quality parameters were monitored and considered when evaluating the viability of the magnetic ion exchange process as a pretreatment for the DLTWTF, the primary interest was on organics removal, and it’s the focus of the discussion in this article. The magnetic ion exchange system was operated during the high TOC period from Oct. 10 to Nov. 27, 2017. During this time frame, the pilot plant operated at a bed volume treatment rate (BVTR) of 600 BV. Figure 5 shows the raw and magnetic ion exchange-treated TOC values and percent removal throughout the study. The raw water TOC ranged from 13.8 to 23.8 mg/L during the high TOC period and declined steadily into low TOC season. Despite this decline in raw water TOC, the magnetic ion exchange unit achieved steady TOC removal, with an average removal of 58.1 percent during this time.

Table 1. Total Organic Carbon Removal Through Pilot Plant Flocculation/Sedimentation With Magnetic Ion Exchange Pretreatment

Figure 6. Pilot Plant Flocculation/Sedimentation Unit Total Organic Carbon Removal

During the low TOC period, magnetic ion exchange was operated from Jan. 8 through March 9, 2018. Initially, the unit was operated at 600 BV; however, multiple load jar testing was conducted and showed that there was limited benefit in terms of organics removal operating at 600 BV compared to 1000 BV. Therefore, on January 22, the pilot plant BVTR was changed to 1000 BV. During this time frame, the raw TOC ranged from 6.4 to 13.8 mg/L. Despite the change in BVTR, the removal was higher (average 65.7 percent removal) and more consistent across the lower range of raw water TOC concentrations. Although limited testing was performed during this period, the results consistently show that when the raw water TOC is below 7 mg/L, the magnetic ion exchange effluent TOC fell below 3 mg/L, meeting the current finished water goal prior to the downstream coagulation and filtration processes. These results demonstrate that the magnetic ion exchange process is capable of producing low TOC effluent under dynamic conditions of widely varying and quickly changing influent water quality. The improvement in performance during low TOC season is likely due to the difference in the type of organics. The magnetic ion exchange treatment process is known to remove smaller (low-molecularweight humic substances and humic acids) nonaromatic-type organics, while the enhanced coagulation process removes larger, aromatictype organics. During low TOC seasons, it’s likely the former type of organics are more predominant, and during high TOC seasons, the latter.

Coagulation, Flocculation, and Sedimentation System Performance Figure 6 shows the influent TOC concentrations to the floc/sed skid, as well as the settled water TOC (floc/sed effluent prior to ozonation). An overlay of the operations on this figure is provided for reference. As shown, and as expected, the influent TOC to the floc/sed unit was greater during times when magnetic ion exchange pretreatment was not employed (since the influent would be the same as the raw water supply). There is little difference in settled water TOC concentration when comparing magnetic ion exchange pretreatment versus no pretreatment; however, when observing high TOC season versus low TOC season, the enhanced coagulation process (following magnetic ion exchange) is more efficient in TOC removal in high season, and significantly less efficient in low season. In fact, the average TOC removal through coagulation during magnetic ion exchange operation and high TOC season was 3.8 mg/L (48 percent), compared to only 0.5 mg/L (15 percent) removal in low TOC season (Table 1).

Finished Water and Full-Scale Performance Comparison An important consideration and driver for this study was the ability of magnetic ion exchange pretreatment in conjunction with coagulation to provide similar or better overall TOC removal and finished water TOC concentrations at less than 3 mg/L. Figure 7 shows the pilot plant TOC effluent per unit process. Overall, TOC removal was greater during times of magnetic ion exchange pretreatment for both low and high TOC seasons. Of sig-

nificance is also the fact that the magnetic ion exchange system removed the vast majority of TOC during low TOC season. The magnetic ion exchange system removed 65.7 percent of the TOC, with only an additional 15 percent removed through coagulation. This percent reduction related to a less than 1 mg/L of TOC removal through the coagulation system, which is significantly different than high TOC seasons where coagulation removed an average of 48 percent (an additional 3 to 4 mg/L TOC removal). The filters consistently removed about 1 mg/L of TOC in both high and low seasons. The TOC removal via magnetic ion exchange was not as originally expected with this source water. Initially, it was thought that the magnetic ion exchange system would be most beneficial during high TOC season; however, the pilot study results indicated the opposite to be true. The magnetic ion exchange as a pretreatment to the existing downstream processes was found to be more effective overall in the low TOC season with respect to reducing chemical demand, while meeting finished water TOC goals. When comparing to existing full-scale treatment, Figure 8 shows the percent TOC removal for full-scale and pilot-scale plants over the duration of the study. As depicted, finished TOC concentrations were similar in the full-scale and pilot-scale systems, with the pilot plant performing slightly better, especially during low TOC periods when the magnetic ion exchange system was in operation. During periods of high TOC, the pilot plant was capable of removing over 85 percent of the influent TOC, and consistently removed more TOC than the full-scale plant when the magnetic ion exchange was in operation. Considering full-scale flow rates and TOC removal in mg/L, an approximate pounds of TOC removed per day was calculated. The results showed a high correlation (R2=0.90) between pilot-scale and full-scale performance. These findings suggest that the pilot plant produced the same or better finished water TOC as the full-scale system. Thereby, it would be expected that full-scale implementation of magnetic ion exchange could warrant similar results. Continued on page 32

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


Continued from page 31

Chemical Usage The chemical dosing scheme within the floc/sed unit varied according to raw water quality and whether magnetic ion exchange pretreatment was in use. Throughout the study, chemical dosing was adjusted based on online UV monitoring results and full-scale plant chemical doses. The required coagulation pH was much lower when magnetic ion exchange pretreatment was offline (for enhanced coagula-

tion treatment), thereby requiring higher coagulant, acid, and caustic doses for pH control. Figure 9 shows box plots for comparison of each chemical between full-scale and pilot-scale operations to illustrate the distribution and variability of chemical additions over the course of a year. As shown, there was a significant reduction in chemical usage when magnetic ion exchange pretreatment was in use at the pilot scale. When magnetic ion exchange was not in use (shown as Pilot Scale – Enhanced Coag), ferric sulfate dosages closely mimicked full scale. Sulfuric acid dosage was higher than full scale when using en-

Figure 7. Pilot Plant Total Organic Carbon Removal

hanced coagulation only. This could have been due to overdosing because of issues with process control at the pilot scale. Additionally, caustic usage was also higher in this mode of operation, but that is due to the fact that caustic alone was used, whereas the full-scale facility utilizes lime and caustic for pH adjustment. When magnetic ion exchange pretreatment was in use, caustic alone was capable of adequately adjusting the pH before ozonation and at dosages less than the full-scale plant. This was especially the case during the low TOC season when, in full scale, sulfuric acid is needed to lower the pH in conjunction with ferric sulfate, thereby requiring the use of both lime and caustic for pH control. Although caustic is more costly than lime, there would still be cost savings due to the decrease in caustic usage and elimination of lime usage with magnetic ion exchange pretreatment. Additionally, sulfuric acid was not required during times of magnetic ion exchange pretreatment due to the shift away from enhanced coagulation. The pilot-scale polymer dose (not shown) averaged 0.25 parts per mil (ppm) to match full-scale operation during times of enhanced coagulation. When magnetic ion exchange pretreatment was in use, polymer was turned off. Biological growth on the resin was witnessed early in the study and required prechlorination to prevent resin fouling, ineffectiveness, and carryover. With prechlorination of the raw water there is the risk of formation of regulated DBPs, specifically total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The DBPs were not monitored during the study; however, due to the raw water TOC levels (up to 25 mg/L) and required chlorine dose (average 2.9 mg/L), it can be assumed that DBPs could be a significant issue. Overall savings in chemicals with the magnetic ion exchange pretreatment process is estimated to be approximately $2.5 million per year. While chemical dosing was significantly reduced during low TOC season with magnetic ion exchange pretreatment, the additional 0.5 mg/L removal offered by the enhanced coagulation process comes at a significantly higher cost when considering the dollars spent per pound of TOC removed. Therefore, if chemical dosing could be modified to focus on producing a settleable and filterable floc, as opposed to removing as much TOC as possible, then additional cost savings could be realized.


Figure 8. Pilot Plant Versus Full-Scale Plant Total Organic Carbon Removal


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

It was confirmed that the magnetic ion exchange process was capable of producing low TOC effluent under dynamic conditions of widely varying and quickly changing source water quality. The results of the pilot study found that magnetic ion exchange pretreatment could produce the same or better finished water

TOC as the full-scale DLTWTF (average values less than 3 mg/L), thereby meeting the city’s finished water quality goals. Due to the efficiency of the ion exchange pretreatment process, downstream chemical demand was significantly reduced, lowering the ferric sulfate dose by an average of 70 mg/L and eliminating the need for sulfuric acid and lime (75 mg/L and 33 mg/L average reductions, respectively), which could result in combined chemical cost savings of over $2.5 million annually at average annual flows. Surprisingly, the magnetic ion exchange pretreatment process was most effective and valuable during relatively low TOC season (< 15 mg/L), which has historically been a time where the DLTWTF struggles to efficiently treat the water, and is likely due to the seasonal change in the type of organic compounds present in the source water. Research has shown that the magnetic ion exchange process is effective in removing low-molecular-weight and nonaromatic hydrophilic-type organics, while the enhanced coagulation (currently employed at the DLTWTF) process removes larger, aromatic hydrophobic-type organics. There is the possibility that the DLTWTF may be required to process and treat up to 50 mgd of alternative water supply as part of the

Tampa Augmentation Project (TAP), which will utilize a source water with significantly lower effluent TOC concentrations than the Hillsborough River. Therefore, there is potential that the duration of the low TOC season could be greatly extended in the future. Based on the type of organic compounds in the new water supply, magnetic ion exchange pretreatment could become even more effective, providing the additional cost savings and water quality benefits determined from this pilot study.

Acknowledgments It’s essential to acknowledge the work, commitment, and endless hours of many of the city's staff, operators, and equipment suppliers put forth for this effort. The success of this study would not have been possible without the city's dedication to the pilot's mechanical and process operations, extensive water quality testing, and optimization of varying treatment scenarios. S

Figure 9. Pilot-Scale and Full-Scale Chemical Dosing Box Plots

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019



Never Take Water and Veterans for Granted Michael W. Sweeney, Ph.D. President, FWEA

his month’s column is a personal one and a tribute to all veterans and active military men and women, starting with a focus on my family veterans. Like so many families, I had relatives who served in the military, including my father and two uncles who served during World War II. They were all Navy vets and served aboard combat ships. My oldest uncle was assigned to a destroyer, sailing away from Pearl Harbor a day or two before the attack on Dec. 7, 1941, and my dad was consigned to a small submarine chaser. My youngest uncle was a pilot (like my son, who has served two tours in Afghanistan). I remember my father recounting stories of being on a cramped sub chaser known as the Patrol Craft (PC) 1177 and nicknamed “The Lucky” for the better part of two years, with 60 shipmates sailing the steamy waters of the South Pacific. His stories included



many patrols, escorting convoys, and being fortunate enough to duck kamikazes overhead. Depth charges were launched on submarine targets, and then the real things. Counting on each other and living each precious day, one day at a time, was part of the recipe for endurance. Only veterans, especially in combat, know this grind and stress so well. Sub chasers belonged to a class of PC and were produced in large numbers by 16 shipyards. The goal in WWII was to build everything quickly; in this case, as fast as ninety-one days! Dozens of PC ships were built in the same time it took to build one destroyer. They were designed with sufficient armament, speed, and maneuverability to make them an effective antisubmarine vessel. Diesel was the power plant of choice. They were given the navy’s best sonar and radar equipment at the time and their size presented a small target for enemy subs and planes. Of the various other systems integral for ship operations, the water systems applicable to the 1940s were not what one finds today (you can guess that wastewater disposal was not a problem). Surprisingly, having a consistently adequate and reliable water pro-

November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

duction and supply tended toward being considered a luxury. As engineers tend to do, my father recounted in detail the design advantages and flaws of these mass-produced ships that included water systems. In those days, small ships stored a limited supply of fresh water for essential use (drinking and limited cooking). Even though they were seaworthy, with their shallow draft (hull depth) they pitched, bounced, and rolled in the waves like few others, causing the crew to endure a lot of discomfort and seasickness, even in moderately rough seas. Besides making sailors woozy, the violent pitching caused the onboard distillation plant used to replenish the potable water to rarely work. Consequently, these small ships were continuously plagued by a shortage of potable water—not a good thing with dehydration resulting from seasickness. Because of this resource scarcity, saltwater showers were used as an attempt at water conservation and to maintain a hygienic lifestyle. The lukewarm gritty feeling of the water, if the shower worked at all, was unpleasant to say the least. Sharks and naval regulations generally discouraged diving overboard for a refreshing change of pace, and the same briny water awaited anyway. He knew that the discomfort experienced was a very small sacrifice to endure, but the scarcity sometimes rose to a level of being a commodity of trade between the larger ships while out at sea. The value of water is always high when you don’t have it—the law of supply and demand once again prevails. Nowadays, reverse osmosis or evaporators are methods used onboard for generating fresh water. Physicalchemistry systems oxidize and disinfect domestic wastewater prior to discharge. The intent of this column is to add to the deserved commemoration of Veterans Day this month (not to impart any new major insights to learn) and to share a personal and sincere appreciation to you FWEA vets, veteran families, and all the courageous men and women past and present for your sacrifice—large and small—toward preserving our freedom. Never take that or anything else—including water—for granted. S


Job Order Contracting and Continuing Services: How to Address Your Infrastructure Needs Now! Jonathan Fernald s the water and wastewater construction market continues to be in full swing, the upcoming FSAWWA Fall Conference is a great opportunity for all of us to get together to share lessons learned and discuss best practices. The FSAWWA Contractors Council is always looking for ways to contribute to the industry and assist the owners we work with. At this year’s conference, we will be hosting a panel discussion geared to delivering solutions on immediate infrastructure needs, “Job Order Contracting and Continuing Services: How to Address Your Infrastructure Needs Now!” The workshop forum will consist of a panel of multiple owners who are industry experts and have successfully addressed their infrastructure needs by utilizing various delivery methods. We will



have an open discussion on procurement, dos and don’ts, project experiences, the right fit for a project, and many other aspects to help you decide which is the correct procurement method for your infrastructure needs. On behalf of the Contractors Council I invite everyone, and in particular, any owners curious about utilizing these methods, to attend the conference and join us on Tuesday, December 10, from 1:30 to 3:00 p.m., for this exciting and informative session. As the industry is growing and existing infrastructure is aging we are continually seeing an evolution of projects and delivery methods across the state. Likewise, municipalities now have a breadth of experience throughout Florida and can utilize each other as resources when evaluating options; specifically, job order contracting (JOC) or the continuing services methods. At the conference session, experts from across our state, and a special guest from the Ari-

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zona JOC market, will discuss several aspects necessary to consider when evaluating these methods, including: 1. Versatility of application 2. Speed 3. Cost 4. Keys to Success

Versatility of Application One of the more prominent benefits of both the JOC and continuing services methods are that they can be utilized across disciplines. A single procurement program can service water, wastewater, stormwater, utilities, distribution, streetscapes, and many other needs. Owners can preselect a pool of contractors to be part of the JOC/continuing services program who each have different strengths and areas of expertise. As projects are identified, the right fit can be determined for each, thus ensuring the expertise to deliver.

There are several ways to select the pool of contractors who will be utilized for the procurement method: S One option is to create a set list of unit needs to which bidders apply unit pricing. S Another is to request markup multipliers and use the eGordian system, which allows buyers to rapidly solicit and manage product and service deliverables online, for project pricing. S A third option can include a qualification component. With each of these, or a combination of pricing and qualifications, the owner will be able to select the top contractors within the evaluation metrics for use in the pool of contractors. These procurement methods can also be utilized for a design-build approach. This allows for cost and quality certainty on smaller scopes of work where both design and construction are needed.

Speed Of all procurement method options, including design-bid-build, design-build, progressive design-build, and construction management at risk (CMAR), the JOC/continuing services methods are the fastest at getting a shovel in the ground for a specific scope of work. This is primarily due to reduction in procurement time and scope definition. Given that the procurement is carried out prior to any specific scope, by selecting a pool of contractors up front, the typical bid timeframe is eliminated. A project can go from needs identification, to contractor pricing, to award very quickly. The speed of completion is also enhanced as detailed project scopes are typically defined during project review walks and pricing, thus eliminating the requirement to create a detailed scope prior to requesting pricing. Lastly, this speed can be applied to emergency situations. This allows for not only more typical repair, rehabilitation, and upgrade scopes, but the same procurement system can be used for emergency services for line breaks, equipment failures, and other on-call needs.

Cost The JOC/continuing services methods typically are best-suited to projects that are smaller in size and budget, usually between $1,000 and $2 million, depending on the project. This is primarily due to smaller scopes and also procurement limitations. It’s common to have an overall contract duration and maximum value defined when selecting contractors. Owners can establish how long the program will last before rebid-

ding and the maximum amount that each contractor can be awarded within that period. It’s also common for caps to be placed on the amount of each individual work order. Owners may choose to stipulate a tiered approach that requires additional approvals based on higher values. It’s important to note that while a contractor may be selected for a JOC/continuing services program, costs are not incurred until individual work orders are authorized. This is similar to cash allowances often found in the very common design-bid-build approach.

Keys to Success The upcoming conference panel of owner experts will also discuss several keys to success for both contractors and owners to abide by. These include: 1. Strong leadership is required from the owner’s project management in order to move projects from scoping to completion. 2. Given that projects are often scoped by the contractor, it’s important that the contractor’s estimating team has strong construction knowledge and a detailed understanding of the owner’s needs. 3. Projects are best suited to “replace in kind” and maintenance work. 4. Typically, no engineering is required. If necessary, the program can be set up to include design-build or the owner can utilize an engineering firm from existing engineering contracts. Contractors need to be well-suited to provide the resources necessary to perform, as there are often peaks and valleys of work. 5. It’s important that individual work orders have good closure. At any particular time, one

program may have 20 or more ongoing JOCs and efficient closeout is important for allowing management resources to focus on other projects. 6. At the end of each project, it’s important to provide feedback to the contractor. Given the high potential for multiple projects with the same contractor, this helps a qualified contractor to continually improve and work to exceed owner needs. 7. A successful program will build a network of trusted contractors and contacts. This network provides each municipality with additional knowledge and resources, which can assist with a multitude of needs outside of just the JOC/continuing services. These are just a few of the items to be discussed at the council’s upcoming FSAWWA Fall Conference session and we hope to see you there.

Contractors Council is Here to Help The Contractors Council wants to be a resource to the water industry. Should you have questions regarding JOC/continuing services or feel you could benefit from a builder’s perspective, please feel free to engage members of the council for expertise and advice. The council is looking forward to a successful 2020, so stay tuned for more informative and exciting workshops and articles to help build your success. Jonathan Fernald is project manager in the water infrastructure group at PCL Construction Inc. in St. Petersburg and is cochair of the FSAWWA Contractors Council. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


Test Yourself What Do You Know About America’s Water Infrastructure Act? Donna Kaluzniak

1. The America’s Water Infrastructure Act (AWIA) was signed into law on Oct. 23, 2018. Per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water resilience website, the law requires which water systems to develop or update risk assessments and emergency response plans? a. All water systems. b. Community water systems serving more than 3,300 people. c. Only large community water systems serving more than 100,000 people. d. Noncommunity and nontransient noncommunity systems. 2. Per the AWIA Risk Assessment and Emergency Response Plan Requirements Fact Sheet (AWIA Fact Sheet), utilities serving 100,000 people or more must conduct a risk and resilience assessment and submit certification of its completion to EPA by what date? a. March 31, 2020 b. Dec. 31, 2020 c. June 30, 2021 d. Dec. 31, 2021 3. Per the AWIA Fact Sheet, a utility must prepare or update an emergency response plan and certify completion to EPA within what time period after its risk and resilience assessment certification? a. 30 days b. Three months c. Six months d. One year 4. Per the AWIA Fact Sheet, how often must the risk and resilience assessments and emergency response plans be reviewed, revised if necessary, and recertified to EPA? a. Quarterly b. Annually c. Every three years d. Every five years 5. Per the EPA water resilience website, which standards, methods, or tools are required to conduct the risk and resilience assessments and emergency response plans?


a. Any standards, methods, or tools that help the system meet the AWIA requirements. b. Only those methods and tools that have prior EPA approval. c. State-certified online tools and templates. 6. Per the EPA water resilience website, certification of completion of the risk and resilience assessments and emergency response plans can be done by electronic submission, email, or regular mail. Which method is strongly recommended by EPA? a. All three methods, to ensure receipt by EPA. b. Electronic submission c. Email d. Regular mail 7. Per EPA’s America’s Water Infrastructure Act Section 2018, Amendments to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) – A Guide for Community Water Systems and State Drinking Water Primacy Agencies (AWIA Section 2018 Fact Sheet), the AWIA amended EPCRA to require notification to the state drinking water primacy agency and community water system of any hazardous chemical spills into a system’s source water protection area or a. any surface waters. b. areas adjacent to the source water protection area. c. groundwater protection areas. d. upstream of the system’s intake. 8. The EPA has designed a tool that can be used by water and wastewater systems to conduct its risk and resilience assessments. The vulnerability self-assessment tool (VSAT Web 2.0) is a. costly, but ensures the utility will meet the AWIA requirements. b. designed to help water systems comply with AWIA. c. a comprehensive list of every possible hazard and potential risk. d. required by EPA to meet AWIA certification. 9. Per EPA’s Baseline Information on Malevolent Acts for Community Water Systems, the AWIA requires water

November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

systems to assess risks from both natural hazards and malevolent acts. This constitutes what type of approach to risk and resilience assessment? a. All-hazards approach b. Baseline approach c. Total vulnerability assessment d. Two-pronged approach 10. Per EPA’s Baseline Information on Malevolent Acts for Community Water Systems, a physical feature or operational attribute that renders an entity open to exploitation or susceptible to a given hazard is a a. consequence. b. risk. c. threat. d. vulnerability. Answers on page 61 References used for this quiz: • U.S. EPA Water Resilience Website • America’s Water Infrastructure Act Section 2018, Amendments to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act – A Guide for Community Water Systems and State Drinking Water Primacy Agencies (AWIA Section 2018 Fact Sheet) files/2019-05/documents/awia_sec_2018_ factsheet_for_water_sector_final.pdf and available on the EPA Water Resilience website • U.S. EPA Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool Website • U.S. EPA Baseline Information on Malevolent Acts for Community Water Systems – Available on the EPA Water Resilience Website or 2019-07/documents/baseline_information_ malevolent_acts_508_072519.pdf

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to:

AWWA Offers Resources for Operators The American Water Works Association (AWWA) is partnering with water industry veteran Steve Hernandez to create resources that support the challenges and struggles of prospective operators. The newly available resources focus on motivation, inspiration, and professional development, covering topics such as studying for an exam, setting career goals, and being an efficient team member. “AWWA is committed to helping operators succeed in their careers by providing helpful resources that they can use to study for exams and advance in their organizations,” said Tony Petrites, AWWA product manager. “These free resources are an extension of that commitment.” The association’s Water Systems Operator (WSO) brand, established in 1984, leads the industry in operator certification and training materials.


“Operators need to know they are supported in the challenges they face in becoming a better, more valuable operator,” Hernandez said. “Our goal with these resources is to support operators on their journey, encourage them, and keep them focused on meeting their goals, while providing value to their communities and organizations.” Hernandez has been in the water industry for nearly 20 years, including 11 years as a water division manager in California. He is secretary of the Education Committee for the AWWA California-Nevada Section and a director of the Monterey Bay Water Works Association. Hernandez founded WaterWisePro Training nearly three years ago

November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and has successfully helped thousands of operators pass certification exams. The six downloadable free resources currently available are: S Have a Goal: Setting and Achieving Shortand Long-Term Goals S Back to School: Choosing the Best Education Path for You S Study Tactics: How to Get Motivated and Where to Spend Your Time S Win the Day: Make the Most of Your Workday S Team Player: How to Work Well with Others S Career Booster: Steps to Advance Your Career For more information and to download the resources go to New resources will be added as they become available to continue to support operators in their professional development. S

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2019



Silos—Not Just for Corn Mike Darrow President, FWPCOA

rowing up in the Midwest we would see large grain tanks on most family farms. The flatlands would allow you to see these tanks for a few miles in most directions. They store corn or soybeans to feed the cows and other livestock, or they are used to store grain for selling to the market at the right time. Having been in a few silos myself, the corn dust is brutal and can suffocate you without proper ventilation. The scary part is getting caught in one as it’s emptying and the vacuum of multiple little solids moving downward gives you no traction and the suction pulls you down. The inside of one these silos is really not a good place to be. There’s another meaning of the word silo, and it’s not a good place to be as well.


silo: a system, process, department, etc., that operates in isolation from others. I have seen this practice of working in isolation at some water and wastewater facilities. This isolation occurs when staff members or an

entire department within an organization do not want to work together, and do their own thing. Sometimes they do not have the adequate means to share information, but mainly they want to keep knowledge for themselves. Siloed teams can often lead to a whole lot of internal and external problems for employees, their leaders, and especially, customers. In my opinion, it's vital that team members step out of their silos and start working together. Silos lead to duplicate work, inefficiency, bad customer service, and bad morale for employees at a core level. When communication and transparency between departments breaks down, it becomes problematic; people develop tunnel vision and are solely focused on their own areas of work, which can become dysfunctional. They often lose sight of the big picture of the utility or organization and the goal of serving the community. Signs of an organizational silo are: S Poor Customer Service – This could be the worst thing for your utility or company. We are in the customer service business! Ultimately, it’s our primary mission. Serving our customers with clean potable drinking water or the removal and treatment of waste streams for a clean and healthy environment is what they expect. Responding to our customers and solving their issues is the goal. S “Us Versus Them” Mentality – Not a good place to be! I have seen disregard for cooperation at various utility departments or at train-

ing classes where there is some sort of friction among departmental areas, or even shifts. People think they're rivals: water versus wastewater—wait, what?! Some of this in done in humor, but when it‘s real, it does not do any good for the employees, the utility, or its customers. When the departments for water and wastewater do not work directly together in the same facility or shift, problems will occur. They need to see the importance of each role, and water and wastewater working together solves some common issues. Remember, we are doing the same functions at different ends of the cycle. We need all employees to do their tasks to accomplish the mission of continued operation of service to our customers. So I encourage you to work alongside your brothers and sisters and be professional operators and technicians to accomplish this goal! S Internal Unfamiliarity – Larger operations often may have this issue, when workers don’t know who is responsible or what process is used for accomplishing tasks internally. To remedy this, break down the barriers and have processes documented for all to know the proper methods and forms for accomplishing internal tasks. Another good thing is to know the people in your organization by their first names. Familiarity of team members will help things move more efficiently and improve morale. S Disenfranchised or Protectionist Employees – When employees are caught up in other things unrelated to the mission and are distracted from the core goals of the utility, problems will occur. Some employees protect their area of responsibility (mostly out of fear), which can make an organization much less efficient. Some employees totally disengage from their duties by using avoidance methods, which can also be damaging. These must be avoided! Togetherness should be practiced and being on the same page at all times should be a goal for all employees. By doing this, work production and satisfaction will increase. The main thing to do to avoid silos is to keep communicating a positive and unified message of the goals and ideas of your organization. The leaders should create a vision that shows how each team member fits into the overall structure. In our industry, we work for the public, and servicing our customers is our primary mission. Our task of producing water, treating wastewater, and maintaining the systems necessary to provide these functions is a secondary


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

goal to the overall mission. In each of our teams, the primary focus is keeping things operational, flowing, and in compliance, which in turn serves the customers of our community! Bringing teams together and communicating at all times will promote concepts that support togetherness and cooperation and not allow silos to exist; working together on projects or operational challenges will also help to avoid them. Cross-departmental meetings and teambuilding events will help in this area, too. Sharing a situation where teams go through difficult situations, but by all members working together come out of it stronger, will encourage others to emulate the behavior. Or simply sharing a meal or providing food to the team goes a long way to help in the common experience and lead to a stronger team. So eat up! Common training activities and goals will also help. Train all of your employees to support teamwork instead of avoiding it. Staff members helping each other to learn their tasks and jobs better will be a powerful tool in supporting the team. Getting leaders for each department to be on the same page of the organization and share the overall vison is important, too. This can be done by bringing them together to show how important teamwork really is. When cooperation is exhibited by team leaders, the team members will learn to work better together—with those inside and outside their departments. As you can see, silos are not just for corn. They stand in the way of innovation and growth. They should be avoided and are a source of an internal contention that can lead a team astray and in the wrong direction. Who really wants to operate in a negative environment? So keep on communicating and leading yourself in the right direction for your team!

Happy Veterans Day! The membership of FWPCOA is now over 5400 statewide. Many of these members are United States military veterans and I thank you all! Many are highly involved leaders of FWPCOA. Some members I know of who are veterans and work very hard for the association include Tom King (Army), Walt Smyser (Navy), Ken Enlow (Air Force), Ray Bordner (Marines), Phil Donovan (Army), and Brad Hayes (Army). I’m sure there are many others members (who I’m not aware of as I write this) who also selflessly served our country. I thank you for your service to FWPCOA as well. Many involved members have carried this same spirit and poured it into the association and our industry, which is commendable. The veteran spirit of public service, duty, and honor is a great core principle. Many water

and wastewater professionals share some of these same principles by serving the public again for their postmilitary service careers by treating and delivering water and treating and collecting wastewater for their communities. These “silent sentinels” on watch over many phases of our industry operate, repair, rebuild, analysis, coordinate, and manage water, wastewater, and stormwater systems day and night in their professional roles. For many Americans, Veterans Day is a great way to remember the hard work and the service of these men and women to keep our country free, and it’s also a great way to thank them. I’m proud that many of the members of our operators association have served to defend freedom! I thank each and every one of you for your service to our country and to the water/wastewater industry. God Bless America! S

Corrections In the article,“The Environmentally Sensitive Force Main Replacement for Boca Ciega Bay: Taming Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology,” which was published in the October 2019 issue, page 53 had the incorrect photo above Figure 5. The correct photo is shown here. In News Beat, on page 58 of the October 2019 issue, the first item has the wrong city for the company. Raynetta Marshall was appointed as general manager for the Tallahassee Underground Utilities and Public Infrastructure Department. On pages 15 and 30 in the July 2019 issue, it's stated that Chris Fasnacht and Ada Levy are with City of St. Cloud. They are now with Orange County Utilities. The magazine regrets the errors. Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019



Increase Safety and Reliability by Making the Ammonia Source Switch Pamela Kerns, Christophe Robert, Weston Haggen, Mark Burgess, Steve Soltau, and Royce Rarick ow more than ever, utilities are seeking ways to introduce safer and more reliable alternative chemicals into the water treatment process. A past example of this was the transition from chlorine gas to liquid hypochlorite, which was considered an important safety innovation in water treatment processes. More-recent studies have confirmed the safety benefits of switching from ammonium hydroxide (aqua ammonia) to ammonium sulfate for monochloramine residual formation in the water treatment disinfection process for those utilities that elect to use chloramine disinfection. Multiple utilities have already benefited from this next generation of process safety and reliability enhancement, including facilities operated by Tampa Bay Water, which is Florida’s largest wholesale water provider. Following Tampa Bay Water’s ammonium sulfate implementation, other utilities in the region are ready to make the ammonia source switch, including Pinellas County (county), which supplies potable water to more than 700,000 residents and visitors and is responsible for the treatment and distribution of approximately 50 to


55 mil gal per day (mgd). The county operates the Keller Water Treatment Facility (WTF) and the nearby Regional Treatment Facility (RTF), which is maintained for emergency purposes. The WTF receives high-quality water from Tampa Bay Water and is a major component of the county’s water supply. The county currently uses ammonium hydroxide for monochloramine residual formation; however, key issues related to operational reliability, maintenance, reporting, and safety have required ongoing and active management by the operations and maintenance (O&M) staff. Examples of these issues include frequent clogging of pipes and ammonia injectors, which requires aggressive cleanings due to precipitation and scale buildup. Additionally, ammonium hydroxide can affect health or cause serious injuries during periods of short exposure, so staff members are trained to handle this hazardous chemical and are required to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) due to the potential release of hazardous off-gas. In order to improve system reliability and mitigate risks and costs, an evaluation was completed

Figure 1. Bulk Tanks and Metering Pump Building


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Pamela Kerns, E.I., is project engineer and Weston Haggen, P.E., is project manager with Reiss Engineering in Tampa. Christophe Robert, Ph.D., P.E., is process engineer and Mark Burgess, P.E., is client services manager and vice president with Reiss Engineering in Winter Springs. Steve Soltau is operations and engineering division director and Royce Rarick is water plant chief and operator with Pinellas County Utilities in Clearwater.

for the use of an alternative ammonia source chemical. Similar to Tampa Bay Water, it was anticipated that the county would benefit from this conversion, since ammonium sulfate is a much safer alternative to ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium sulfate will not contribute to scaling/precipitation issues due to its slightly acidic nature; therefore, the frequency of cleaning pipes and injectors will significantly decrease. As a result, both safety and operational reliability will increase, which will po-

Figure 2. Metering Pump Skid

tentially lead to lower maintenance costs and reduced staff chemical exposure. This article summarizes the ammonia conversion evaluation at the WTF, including: S A pilot study to investigate how the switch would impact water quality S Assessment of the existing equipment sizing and material compatibility (corrosion) S Health and safety considerations for plant staff S Conversion plan procedures S Costs associated with the chemical conversion

Figure 3. Clogged Injector Pipe due to Ammonium Hydroxide Precipitation

The ammonia switch is the next big step in protecting WTF operators and reducing tedious paperwork.

Existing Ammonia Feed System The existing ammonia storage system consists of two parallel 6,000-gal storage tanks that were installed in 2002. The tanks are horizontal and cylindrical in shape and made of carbon steel laid on saddles, as shown in Figure 1. The tank interior and exterior shells were primed and finished with a baked phenolic coating. The tank nozzles are made of schedule 80 steel. The tank piping and flanges are made of stainless steel. The gaskets are rubber and the bolts and nuts are made of 316 stainless steel. The tank saddle is steel (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] A36) and the nameplate material is 316 stainless steel, as is the tank level indicator. The secondary containment area was last coated in 1998. Three chemical feed pumps on one metering pump skid were installed, as shown in Figure 2. Each pump has a capacity of 19 gal per hour (gph). The chemical feed pumps head material is 316 stainless steel. Each pump has its own pulsation dampener; the bladder is ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) and the housing is polypropylene. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/Teflon material is used for the pressure gauges and PVC is used for the back pressure valves. The chemical feed pump building has an ammonia gas detector. There are a few types of materials used for the chemical pipe system at the WTF. The tanks discharge piping and valves are 316 stainless steel. There is a double-contained piping section outside the secondary containment of the chemical storage tanks area, which continues to the chemical feed pump building where the double containment ends inside the building. The 316 stainless steel piping connects to PVC schedule 80 piping, which is painted white. Both the suction and the discharge piping material for the chemical feed pumps are PVC schedule 80. There is an additional doublecontained discharge piping section inside and outside of the chemical feed pump building. Continuing piping and chemical injectors are PVC,

schedule 80, and 316 stainless steel. The injector discharges into the 36-in. effluent water pipe.

Existing Operations and Maintenance Challenges The O&M issues currently experienced at the WTF include, but are not limited to, impacts to reliability from precipitation and clogging of ammonia injectors and pipe cleaning, as well as training and safety procedures related to chemical deliveries, handling, and system maintenance. The use of ammonium hydroxide results in precipitate clogging the ammonia injectors (see Figure 3), which are cleaned every 90 days to maintain proper chemical feeding. Cleaning of the injectors is approximately a two-hour-and-fifteen-minute task for an operations staff person. Precipitate and scaling also build up and cause clogging of the pipes, requiring a cleaning approximately every two to four months. The O&M staff members conduct the pipe cleanings, and they are responsible for preparing the piping, conducting the bacteriological testing, flushing, and returning the pipeline into service. The entire process can take up to 34 hours. The staff receives hazardous chemicals training annually. The training is provided to 17 staff members for about 20 hours every year. Handling ammonium hydroxide currently requires O&M staff to wear PPE, including gloves, goggles, and self-contained respirators. Operators bring a respirator with canisters to every ammonium hydroxide chemical delivery. There is significant effort associated with the respirator program. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommends that respiratory programs include equipment selection; an evaluation of the workerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to perform work while wearing a respirator; the regular training of personnel; fit testing; periodic workplace monitoring; and regular respirator maintenance,

inspection, and cleaning (OSHA, 1992). Medical monitoring requirements include medical evaluations before employees start work, periodically (every three to five years, or more often, if deemed necessary), and when an employee is transferred or terminated. Additionally, transport of aqua ammonia requires a hazardous materials certification for the delivery vehicle driver. Staff does not typically transport ammonia. On rare occasions when facilities are shut down for prolonged periods, or in the event of a small spill, there may be need for staff transport. Ammonium hydroxide is a chemical that falls under the Supefund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Under CERCLA, ammonium hydroxide spills of 1,000 lbs or more outside of containment units must be reported immediately to both state and national response centers. Failure to report spills can result in fines. Spills that are not contained and cleaned within 30 days trigger Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.) 62780, Contaminate Site Cleanup Criteria requirements, which requires a significant level of effort and funding.

Conversion Evaluation Chemistry Currently, the county is adding ammonium hydroxide in the finished water, following sodium hypochlorite (chlorine) addition, to form monochloramine. Ammonium hydroxide is a basic solution, which raises the pH of the water. If ammonium sulfate is used instead of ammonium hydroxide, the pH of the water will decrease, as ammonium sulfate is an acidic solution. In addition, the ammonium strength of the ammonium sulfate solution is lower than the ammonium hyContinued on page 46

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2019


Table 1. Dose and Consumption for Ammonium Hydroxide and Ammonium Sulfate

Table 2. Theoretical pH After Ammonium Hydroxide or Ammonium Sulfate Addition

Continued from page 45 droxide; therefore, more ammonium sulfate is required for the same dose of ammonium. Typically, 40 percent more ammonium sulfate volume is required compared to ammonium hydroxide. The differences are shown in Table 1. The impact of switching to ammonium sulfate was evaluated to assess the changes in pH. Theoretical pH changes at the WTF were calculated using either ammonium hydroxide or ammonium sulfate, and the results are presented in Table 2. As shown in Table 2, caustic will not need to be added for monochloramine stability; however, the county still has the capability to add caustic if needed. A pilot study was completed to confirm the impacts on water quality by switching to ammonium sulfate.

Pilot Study: Water Quality and Corrosion A pilot study was performed on different waters at WTF to evaluate the impact on the water quality and corrosion rates by switching from ammonium hydroxide to ammonium sulfate. As part of the pilot, multiple monochloraminated source waters were compared. The following waters were tested, and are shown in Figure 4. 1. Existing monochloraminated water at WTF (Water A). 2. Existing chlorinated water at WTF with addition of ammonium sulfate (Water B)

Results Two waters were tested in parallel to assess potential changes in water quality by switching to ammonium sulfate from ammonium hydroxide. Three tests were performed on each water to determine water quality and corrosion rates. The corrosion rates were measured using an analytical instrument with three different electrodes that represent most distribution system piping: S Test 1 – Lead electrodes S Test 2 – Copper electrodes S Test 3 – Iron electrodes

Figure 4. Keller Water Treatment Facility Process Flow Diagram


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water A was taken from the monochloraminated water line at WTF just downstream of the ammonium hydroxide injection. Water B is chlorinated water in which ammonium sulfate was added (1 mg/L) just after sampling to best represent full-scale operation. Water quality analyses were performed during the three tests to ensure that the monochloramine residuals and free ammonia concentrations were similar in both waters. The results are presented in Table 3 for each of the three tests. Total chlorine and monochloramine residuals were similar in both waters A and B. Free ammonia was lower in Water B than in Water A, which

may suggest a better reaction with ammonium sulfate. As expected, the pH was slightly lower in Water B than in Water A since ammonium sulfate is an acidic solution, even though the difference was not as significant as the theory predicts. A similar pilot evaluation was completed at the RTF, which included blending waters from Tampa Bay Water that had similar positive results to the WTF. The corrosion rates for the three different electrodes are presented in Figure 5. The corrosion rates using either ammonium hydroxide (Water A) or ammonium sulfate (Water B) are similar and there are no significant differences between corrosion rates for the three electrodes tested. Each test was run around two hours with corrosion rate measurements made every 10 minutes.

Table 3. Monochloramination Water Quality at Keller Water Treatment Facility

Conversion Implementation Equipment Sizing The existing chemical storage and feed systems were assessed at each facility in terms of capacity to handle the additional volumes of ammonium sulfate required, as presented in Table 4. To determine the quantity of storage that would be sufficient, the bulk storage tank was designed to store 30 days of chemicals at average daily flow. The pump size was based on maximum dose at maximum flow. The design assumptions and design criteria are also presented in Table 4. The current size of the bulk tanks and feed pumps are adequate for conversion to ammonium sulfate.

Figure 5. Corrosion Rates at Keller Water Treatment Facility

Table 4. Ammonium Sulfate Feed System Sizing at Keller Water Treatment Facility

Material Compatibility Table 5 presents a summary of the material compatibility. Health and Safety The benefits of switching from ammonium hydroxide to ammonium sulfate were evaluated in terms of health and safety for O&M staff. Considerations include spill prevention and reporting, PPE, hazardous chemical training, fit testing, chemical monitoring, and gas detection equipment. Spill prevention and reporting is required for the release of 1,000 lbs or more of ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium sulfate is not included in the list of hazardous substances, but is identified under the determination of reportable quantities (40 U.S. Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 117.3). This list sorts the chemical into five categories that range from medium toxicity (A and B) to low toxicity (C and D). Ammonium sulfate falls into the D category, which requires only substance spills over 5,000 lbs to be reported to the National Response Center. Additionally, any personnel responsible for the cleanup must be properly trained, so itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recommended that the O&M staff is trained for handling ammonium sulfate.

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) rating system is used to identify and rank the hazards of a chemical. The rating system presents valuable information under normal and emergency operating conditions. Chemical substances are rated for degree of health risks (blue diamond), flammability (red diamond), reactivity (yellow diamond), and special hazards (white diamond). The scale is

from 0 to 4, meaning that the higher the number the higher the hazard. The hazard ratings for ammonium hydroxide (current tanks label) and ammonium sulfate are shown in Figure 6. When comparing both chemicals, ammonium hydroxide presents a higher hazard in the health and flammability categories. For instance, ammonium hydroxide presents a level-three Continued on page 48

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2019


Continued from page 47 health risk and can affect health or cause serious injuries during periods of short exposure, despite medical treatment. Ammonium sulfate is considered a level zero, which indicates that the material does not pose serious health hazards. By switching to ammonium sulfate, potential health impacts to workers will be reduced or eliminated. Based on information on the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for ammonium sulfate, the use of PPE is recommended when handling ammonium sulfate; however, practical experiences with other entities, including neighboring utilities, indicate that the use of PPE may not be necessary in normal operational practices. By switching from ammonium hydroxide to ammonium sulfate, the county has the option to remove the gas detection equipment and

therefore not have to maintain it, which will result in labor and equipment cost savings, as presented in the cost section. Tier 2 Changes Toxic release inventory (TRI) reports are required for chemicals listed in Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-toKnow Act (EPCRA) toxic chemical list. Any chemical listed under EPCRA as toxic requires annual reporting. Ammonium hydroxide does require reporting and a fee for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to track the facilities that contain these hazardous chemicals. Ammonium sulfate will not require this level of reporting since the chemical is not toxic, which will provide additional cost savings due to not having to maintain and submit a report to EPA.

Table 5. Material Compatibility

Operation Reliability The precipitation in piping and clogging of injectors associated with ammonium hydroxide injection decreases the overall reliability of operations. It’s expected that by switching from ammonium hydroxide to ammonium sulfate, there would be very little or no precipitation in piping or clogging of injectors, resulting in a higher reliability of the chemical feed systems. Additionally, the frequency of cleaning of pipes and injectors would be reduced; therefore, the risk of damage to the facility’s infrastructure will decrease, and most importantly, the worker’s frequent exposure to chemicals will also decrease, which is potentially a significant health benefit that cannot be quantified.

Costs Capital and Maintenance Capital cost includes costs that may be necessary for switching to ammonium sulfate. Preliminary capital costs to implement ammonia conversion at the WTF are estimated to be $12,900. This cost includes disposal of ammonium hydroxide by a specialized firm, but does not include cleaning and flushing of the system. The cost to replace aged infrastructure, including secondary containment coating, tank flange repairs, tank inspection, testing of tanks, and installation of a new tank liner are estimated to be $38,400 and are summarized in Table 6. These infrastructure maintenance repairs would be deemed an applicable cost to both chemical types. Chemical Costs The chemical costs to supply the required doses of ammonium hydroxide and ammonium sulfate were calculated using the annual average daily flow for each facility from January 2016 through March 2017. This allows for a comparison of the annual chemical solution costs. Ammonium sulfate has a higher feed rate an,d consumption to obtain the same monochloramine residual as ammonium hydroxide. Table 7 summarizes the approximate costs of the chemicals.

Figure 6. National Fire Protection Association Hazard Rating


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operation and Maintenance Costs The O&M costs were narrowed to include only the differential costs between the ammonia chemicals. For instance, maintenance associated with chemical feed pumps would be required, regardless of the type of ammonia being used. Based on discussions and information obtained from county staff, the following O&M costs were selected for inclusion in this analysis: injector rodding, pipe cleaning, gas detector maintenance, expendable PPE (respirator canisters for ammonia off-gas), training, and the cost associ-

ated with the Tier 2 report. Table 8 summarizes the costs. By switching from ammonium hydroxide to ammonium sulfate, the county will potentially save approximately $51,350 per year.

Table 6. Recommended Maintenance Costs

Conversion Implementation The following recommendations were made for the ammonium sulfate conversion implementation: 1. Obtain all necessary permits required for the ammonium sulfate conversion. 2. When switching ammonia source, install a temporary feed system in place for ammonium sulfate. 3. Bulk tanks, piping, pumps, injectors, and appurtenances should be taken offline for draining, flushing, and cleaning to prevent any possible reactions between the two chemicals. 4. Perform bulk tank inspections and testing. Replace the tank interior liner(s), as required. 5. Perform an air pressure test to identify any system leaks.

Table 7. Chemical Costs

Conclusions The following summarizes the conclusions from the pilot evaluation: 1. Under full-scale representative chemical additions at the WTF, the pilot results show that pH was slightly lower with ammonium sulfate addition compared to ammonium hydroxide addition. This will benefit the water quality with a slightly reduced pH. 2. The pilot study results show that iron, copper, and lead corrosion rates on the WTF monochloraminated waters are similar using either ammonium hydroxide or ammonium sulfate. 3. The corrosion rates were mostly below 10 mi per year (mpy), with 1 mi equaling 1/1000 of an in., and therefore within accepted industry guidelines. 4. The monochloramine decay using ammonium sulfate was evaluated during the pilot study. The results show that the monochloramine residual was maintained around 2.5 mg/L after 72 hours. Therefore, switching to ammonium sulfate should still result in maintaining an acceptable level of monochloramine residual in the distribution system. The following summarizes the conclusions related to health, safety, and reporting improvements: 1. By switching to ammonium sulfate, potential health impacts to workers will be reduced or eliminated. 2. Based on the NFPA rating system, ammonium hydroxide presents a higher hazard in the health risks (blue diamond) and flamma-

Table 8. Operations and Maintenance Summary Costs

bility (red diamond) categories. Ammonium hydroxide presents a level-three health risk and can affect health or cause serious injuries during periods of short exposure, despite medical treatment. Ammonium sulfate is considered a level zero, which indicates the material has no serious health hazards. 3. Ammonium sulfate will not require reporting to EPA, which will provide the county with additional cost savings due to not having to maintain and submit a report to EPA. The following summarizes the conclusions related to the facility conversion evaluation:

1. Typically, 40 percent more ammonium sulfate is required compared to ammonium hydroxide for the same dose of ammonium. The chemical feed rate will increase from 5.7 to 8 mgd. 2. The sizing calculation results indicate that the existing storage tanks and pumps have adequate capacity to accommodate the conversion. 3. Existing plastic materials are compatible with ammonium sulfate. The stainless steel isolation valves and piping, which are not ideal for ammonium sulfate, still have â&#x20AC;&#x153;goodâ&#x20AC;? compatibility and may remain until signs of corrosion occur. Continued on page 50

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Continued from page 49 4. Some unions between the 316 stainless steel and the storage tank carbon steel are rusting. Based on field investigations, the gaskets have worn out and the carbon steel may be suffering from galvanic corrosion attack. The stainless steel is also showing discoloration. 5. The existing tank liners are 15 years old and may be near the end of their useful life. 6. By switching from ammonium hydroxide to ammonium sulfate, the county has the option to remove the gas detection equipment, and therefore would not have to maintain it, which will result in labor and equipment cost savings and increased worker safety. 7. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s expected that the precipitation in piping and clogging of injectors will be significantly reduced or eliminated, resulting in a higher reliability of the chemical feed systems. 8. Multiple facilities have already benefited from the conversion from ammonium hydroxide to ammonium sulfate, including several facilities operated by Tampa Bay Water and Pasco County. It will be beneficial to standardize this chemical and potentially reduce the chemical cost over the years, as neighboring utilities are converting to ammonium sulfate.


The following summarizes the conclusions of the cost evaluation: 1. The conversion from ammonium hydroxide to ammonium sulfate would cost approximately $12,900, including offsite chemical removal and disposal. 2. The cost to replace aging infrastructure, including the secondary containment coating, tank flange repairs, tank inspection, testing of tanks, and installation of new tank liners would cost approximately $38,400. These maintenance costs are recommended with or without the conversion. 3. The 40 percent increase in chemical volume would increase the chemical cost by approximately 10 dollars per mil gal treated. 4. By making the switch, the county will dramatically reduce rodding, pipe cleaning, and gas detector maintenance, and expendable PPE, Tier 2 report, and training, which were estimated to cost approximately $51,350 per year.

Results of Chemical Conversion to Date Based on the results from the study and pilot, the county has implemented the conver-

November 2019 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

sion from ammonium hydroxide to ammonium sulfate at both the WTF and RTF to improve system reliability and operator safety. More specifically, the following was completed: 1. Replacement of the corroded carbon steel flanges at the tank penetrations and new rubber gaskets between the flange faces. 2. Replacement of the tank liners with an epoxy-based coating compatible with ammonium sulfate service. 3. Replacement of the secondary containment coating at the WTF with an epoxy-based coating compatible with ammonium sulfate service. 4. Evaluation of existing stainless steel piping and isolation valves. The existing piping and valves were found to be in acceptable condition for continued operation and did not require replacement. 5. Conversion approval by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Pinellas County is now using ammonium sulfate at both the WTF and RTF. The county has seen the benefit from the new chemical, including improved reliability, reduced preventive maintenance, reduced reporting, and improved safety for O&M staff. S

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2019


LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Powerful Protection From Personal Protective Equipment ou wouldn’t think of wearing a parka to waterski or a tuxedo to install a sump pump. If you think these are examples of extreme fashion gaffes, think again. A far more serious misstep is tackling a job without wearing the right personal protective equipment (PPE). All PPE is clothing, helmets, goggles, shoes or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by PPE include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. The equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks, and others.


has the serious limitation that it does not eliminate the hazard at the source and may result in employees being exposed to the hazard if the equipment fails. Any item of PPE imposes a barrier between the wearer/user and the working environment, but this can create additional strains on the wearer by impairing the ability to carry out the work and create significant levels of discomfort. These can discourage wearers from using PPE correctly, therefore placing them at risk of injury, ill health or, under extreme circumstances, death. Good ergonomic design can help to minimize these barriers and ensure safe and healthy working conditions through the correct use of PPE.

What Personal Protective Equipment Does—and Doesn’t Do The purpose of PPE in the workplace is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering controls and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels. Therefore, PPE is needed when there are hazards present, but it

Practices of occupational safety and health can include hazard controls and interventions to mitigate workplace hazards, which pose a threat to the safety and quality of life of workers. The hierarchy of hazard controls provides a policy framework that ranks the types of hazard controls in terms of absolute risk reduction. At the top of the hierarchy are elimination and substitution, which remove the hazard entirely or replace the hazard with a safer alternative. If elimination or substitution measures cannot apply, the engineering controls and administrative controls, which seek to design safer mechanisms and encourage safer human behavior, are implemented. The PPE ranks last on the hierarchy of controls, as the workers are still exposed to the hazard, but with a barrier of protection. The hierarchy of controls is important in acknowledging that, while PPE has tremendous utility, it is not the optimum mechanism of control in terms of worker safety.

The Equipment is Only the First Step: Training is Crucial Making the workplace safe includes not only providing the PPE, but offering instructions,

The 2018 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2018 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

procedures, training, and supervision to encourage people to use the equipment and work safely and responsibly. Even where engineering controls and safe systems of work have been applied, some hazards might remain. These include injuries to: S The lungs, from breathing in contaminated air S The head, feet, and hands, from falling materials S The eyes, from flying particles or splashes of corrosive liquids S The skin, from contact with corrosive materials S The body, from extremes of heat or cold The PPE is designed to protect the eyes, face, head, respiratory tract, skin, and body extremities from potentially hazardous conditions. It includes such items as goggles, face shields, hard hats, respirators, dust masks, gloves, protective clothing, welding aprons, and safety shoes.

Assessment of Equipment Use The workplace (or jobsite) must be assessed to determine if hazards are, or may be, present that will require PPE use. Listed are some of the most common PPE. Eye and Face Protection Eye and face protection is necessary when there is potential exposure to flying particles and dust (wood, glass, metal), molten metal (welding spatter), potentially injurious light radiation (welding glare), or chemicals in any form (liquid, vapor, or gas). Eye and face PPE can include safety glasses with side shields, chemical goggles, or a full-face respirator. All devices must comply with strict federal standards. Not all eye or face protection will protect from all hazards. Protective glasses with side shields are fine for particulates, but provide no

protection from hazardous chemical vapors. Remember, the PPE must fit the hazard! Respiratory Protection The first step in controlling potentially hazardous dusts, mists, fumes, smoke, or gases in the workplace is the installation of engineering controls such as mechanical ventilation systems. If such measures are not fully effective (or infeasible, such as at a field worksite), respiratory PPE must be used. The two basic categories of respirators are air-purifying and atmosphere-supplying. The first device simply filters the ambient air by using an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister; the second type actually provides breathing air to the user from an independent source. The category of respirator, whether half- or full-face, and type of filter or canister, must be carefully selected. Employees must be properly fitted for PPE and trained in when and how to use it. A medical evaluation of a person’s ability to effectively wear and use a respirator must also be conducted. Head Protection When working in an area where the potential exists for head injuries resulting from falling objects or impact hazards, employees must wear head protection, which usually comes in the form of hard hats. Again, as with other forms of PPE, hard hats must be manufactured to federal standards and worn properly to afford proper head protection. Foot Protection Just as with the head, when there are potential hazards to the feet from falling or rolling materials, sharp objects that can pierce the sole, or electrical shock, employees must wear appropriate protective footwear. This footwear commonly takes the form of steel-toe safety shoes, often equipped with steel shanks and heavy-duty soles.

Body Protection Workers should protect their full arms, legs, and torso with thick, flexible work pants and shirts. They should fit closely and never be baggy, and allow for maximum movement and flexibility. Hearing Protection Hearing is a precious gift. Continual exposure to elevated noise levels can seriously damage hearing. If noise levels are too high, employees must be supplied with hearing protection, which can be provided by simple disposable earplugs or high-tech earmuffs. The protection needed depends on the nature of the hazard and job. High-Visibility Protection Brightly colored and reflective jackets, vests, or other upper-body clothing improves worker visibility. It’s advisable to wear them on all jobsites, but it’s especially crucial along active roadways, in low lighting, and for dusk and nighttime work.

Other Worker Equipment Other PPE can take the form of gloves, welding aprons, chemical protective suits, coveralls, and back-support braces. All are designed to protect a very important person— you—from potential hazards that might be encountered on the job. But remember, no PPE will protect your vision, your lungs, your head, or any other part of your body unless you wear it and use it correctly. You may not be fashionable—but you’ll be safe! For additional information on PPE go to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) website at SLTC/personalprotectiveequipment. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019



Looking Ahead: Selecting Membranes With Water Quality Degradation in Mind Lance Littrell, Mark Miller, Rhea Dorris, Nick Black, Gina Parra, Ali Bayat, and Krystin Berntsen ncreased salinity in groundwater is of growing concern to utilities aiming to maximize the value of the drinking water treatment process, while ensuring longevity for future operation. Increased salinity can occur through the migration of higher-salinity groundwater within the aquifer or from hydraulically connected aquifers. Salinity increases will impart challenges on utilities to treat the high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the water supply with membranes that will physically outlast their current treatment capabilities. Identifying membrane elements that can serve their useful life for both current and future water quality can allow the Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department (PBCWUD) to get the maximum value of its investment, despite a water quality downturn. The PBCWUD is currently experiencing this rise in salinity in the raw water at Water Treatment Plant No. 11 (WTP 11). To circumvent the current and projected rising salinity level, PBCWUD sought to select the best possible membrane elements and develop a pilot to test the current and future performance. This article presents the methodology in comparing different criteria of the selection


process, as well as the steps to develop a multicriteria membrane element selection tool leading up to the pilot.

Background The WTP 11 has been in operation since 2007 and has experienced significant raw water quality changes since its original start-up. The WTP 11 utilizes reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to treat brackish water from the Floridan aquifer. Normally, this aquifer is typically a reliable water source with minimal variations in water quality, such that the raw water for WTP 11 has been historically high in TDS, which mainly consists of sodium, sulfate, and chloride. Since the facilityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s start-up in 2007, the raw water quality has rapidly degraded. An example of this degradation is seen with one of the facilityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recently installed wells, PW-9. As shown in Figure 1, the TDS concentration of PW-9 has increased from approximately 4,800 mg/L in 2015 to nearly 8,000 mg/L in 2018. The overall raw water TDS concentration for WTP 11, however, represents the blended water quality of various combinations of the 10 wells that cur-

Lance Littrell, P.E., is a shareholder, Rhea Dorris, P.E., is a project engineer, and Nick Black, P.E., is a project engineer with KimleyHorn Inc. in Orlando. Mark Miller, P.E., is senior vice president and Gina Parra, E.I., is a project engineer with Kimley-Horn Inc. in West Palm Beach. Ali Bayat, P.E., is director of operations and Krystin Berntsen, P.E., is director of engineering with Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department.

rently supply the facility. The current blended raw water TDS levels for the facility have risen to approximately 7,300 mg/L. Raw water TDS increase has led to several operating challenges, including elimination of raw water blend, increased feed pressures, and reduction in recovery. A combined raw water quality trend for the entire wellfield is shown in Figure 2, which includes all 10 wells in production at the time of this study.


Figure 1. Well PW-9 Total Dissolve Solids Increase


November 2019 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

With the increased salinity characteristic of brackish water, WTP 11 began to experience operational challenges, with the pumps reaching maximum capacity, which led to lowered recovery rates. These challenges have led PBCWUD to implement an interstage boost at WTP 11 to maintain recovery. The interstage boost was achieved by retrofitting the existing RO train with energy recovery devices. Installation of these devices produced an interstage boost that restored the recovery rate back to 80 percent and allowed for increased capacity, while reducing first-stage feed pressures. As water quality continues to decline, PBCWUD has identified the need to seek out alternate solutions and carefully select membrane elements for the upcoming replacement. While the current membranes and retrofit efforts have mitigated short-term challenges and performed successfully at current water quality levels, the membranes are nearing the end of

their useful service life and are due for replacement. Furthermore, water quality from the WTP 11 wellfields is anticipated to continue to degrade in the future. Based on historical water quality trends and future groundwater modeling, projected water quality values were developed in partnership with JLA Geosciences Inc. and PBCWUD. As shown in Table 1, the raw water TDS is expected to increase by 30 percent over the next 10 years. Waters with TDS concentrations over 10,000 mg/L are considered saline and push the upper limit of traditional brackish water membrane elements. The 10year (2028) predicted TDS concentration of 10,385 mg/L exceeds this range, presenting a unique challenge for the selection of membranes over the physical element’s anticipated 10-year life cycle. Establishment of projected raw water quality values was the first step in planning for the future and served as a foundation for selection of replacement membranes.

Membrane Selection Criteria

Figure 2. Cumulative Wells Total Dissolve Solids Incline

Table 1. 5-Year and 10-Year Predicted Water Quality Parameters

The membrane selection criteria were developed with the goal to identify all the parameters that PBCWUD considers important in its membrane selection and simplify the selection process for assessing each parameter. The selection criteria also offered the flexibility to manufacturers by providing the criteria prior to projecting their element array for piloting and ultimate bidding and selection. This allowed the manufacturers to understand the drivers for selection as they prepared their best possible element selection. The PBCWUD staff and engineers developed the criteria based on qualitative and quantitative parameters. All qualitative data would be ranked on impact to cost and thus provide a numerical value of performance for each manufacturer. By setting these goals prior to piloting, PBCWUD could expect that the best-performing membrane element will be the most cost-effective solution throughout the membrane life. The criteria developed would need to incorporate the potential upgrades necessary to the plant for each membrane tested based on a minimum 77 percent recovery rate. The current pilot will allow PBCWUD to plan aggressively, while predicting and preparing for future water quality degradation. Selection Parameters The selection parameters were discussed with PBCWUD staff members and ranking was determined in collaboration with them based on the impacts to the system during the shortand long-term water quality of the system. First, parameters specific to performance were con-

sidered, followed by criteria specific to cost. Water Quality Performance The parameters for water quality performance were based on the membrane performance meeting the anticipated water quality goals. These goals included lowering sodium and chlo-

ride, which are secondary contaminants as regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), to 42 and 175 mg/L, respectively. Additional water quality parameters included in the performance criteria are HS ion rejection, pH in the permeate and concentrate, and calContinued on page 56 ––

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


Continued from page 55 cium hardness. These levels will determine the impacts to post-treatment stabilization and concentrate disposal. The pH level of the concentrate was used to evaluate disposal feasibility to determine if the concentrate can be blended with bioscrubber waste and injected into the onsite deep well. When considering disposal, the water quality would need to be evaluated to consider blending and pH impacts to the deep well. For calcium hardness, a higher level is preferred in the permeate, as it will require less post-treatment stabilization. Production Capabilities When PBCWUD evaluated the performance of the membranes, the potential for flexible capacity capabilities was considered and incorporated into the membrane criteria. The membrane production goals were determined to be 2 mil gal per day (mgd) at low flow, up to a maximum capacity of 2.5 mgd at high flow,

and at 80 percent recovery. The production goals will be measured at both the current raw water quality TDS and simulated future increased TDS levels representing end-of-life water quality. The membrane pilot was constructed to allow for internal recycle of concentrate to the feed water to simulate increased TDS and is described in the Membrane Pilot heading that follows. The production goal for the selected membrane is to maximize recovery, while meeting water quality parameters. Fouling Performance and Membrane Autopsies Another important membrane performance criterion is fouling, and its performance will be analyzed for each membrane option through continuous monitoring of pilot performance data, including pressure differential and conductivity. Fouling is identified when the values begin to deviate from the normalized data established at pilot start-up. Furthermore, through autopsies conducted on each membrane at the Table 2. Performance Selection Criteria


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

end of the pilot, the fouling on each membrane would be observed and ranked from “good,” “better,” and “best,” based on quantity of foulant compared to other manufacturers’ elements. Irreversible fouling, meaning noncleanable or permanent damage to the membrane elements, will be ranked as either “pass” or “fail,” as it’s anticipated that no element should show signs of irreversible fouling at the end of the pilot. Procurement It’s important for PBCWUD to select the most cost-feasible membrane, in addition to meeting performance criteria. The estimated membrane capital costs will be compared for each manufacturer, and the cost analysis will incorporate several additional annual expenses to understand long-term financial impacts. Operational expenses will be based on net present value over a 10-year operational period and this parameter would be ranked based on lowest cost. Additional parameters evaluated included any equipment upgrades required to meet the

Figure 3. Pilot Unit Instrumentation

Figure 4. Pilot Unit Pumping and Power

feed pressure and the interstage boost pressure needed for each membrane evaluated. Anticipated cleaning cycles were also incorporated into evaluation of cost, as the predicted frequency of cleaning has a direct impact to PBCWUD at approximately $40,000 per event. Each manufacturer’s projected energy and power use based on actual pump and projected train performance data were also incorporated into the membrane criteria evaluation. Table 2 shows the membrane performance selection criteria used for the membrane selection. The rows in gray are related to membrane performance, while the parameters in white are related to cost evaluation.

Membrane Pilot After developing the selection criteria, membranes from three different manufacturers will be compared side by side in a pilot study for a duration of 10 weeks. The pilot study has been started and is in progress at the time of this article’s writing. The first phase of the pilot study will evaluate the three membrane options against the selection criteria. The three manufacturers were provided with the current and predicted raw water quality shown in Table 1, as well as the selection criteria table. The pilot will use raw feed water prior to acid injection, since PBCWUD is interested in eliminating acid injection at this facility. The raw water will be dosed with the existing scale inhibitor prior to the pilot unit’s cartridge filter. For the first eight weeks of the pilot, the membranes will be operated using the current feed water to the plant. For weeks nine and 10, a portion of the membrane concentrate will be recycled back to the raw water stream to simulate the 2028-projected TDS concentration of approximately 10,385 mg/L. The physical pilot unit

Figure 5. Pilot Process Flow Diagram

consists of three parallel trains, as shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, while the process flow diagram for the pilot is shown in Figure 5. A key component of the pilot’s success is obtaining and analyzing membrane performance and water quality data. During the pilot, PBCWUD staff will be recording data twice per day in a daily monitoring log. The pilot skid is also equipped with data loggers that continuously record several important parameters, such as feed pressures, permeate pressures, pH levels, flows, and conductivities at several points within the treatment process. The data will be used to develop “normalized” data values of the clean mem-

branes during start-up. Operational data will be compared using normalized data to track membrane performance. The important parameters to be normalized and monitored include salt passage, permeate flow, and feed-to-concentrate differential pressure. If the pilot operational data for the selected parameters deviate more than 10 percent from the normalized start-up values, this indicates membrane fouling, which will be confirmed through the membrane autopsies for each element manufacturer’s lead and lag elements. Furthermore, several water quality Continued on page 58

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


Continued from page 57 parameters will be tested in a laboratory for the raw water feed and pilot skid permeate during the second half of the pilot. The laboratory analysis will address specific water quality performance criteria, including TDS, sodium, chloride, calcium hardness, and hydrogen sulfide ion removal. Following the completion of the first phase, a sample of each of the manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mem-

branes will be autopsied to further identify any fouling. The data from the first phase of the pilot will be analyzed to determine the membrane or membranes that best met the performance criteria by taking the life cycle costs and operational impacts into consideration. One of the three membrane manufacturer options will then be selected for performance testing of scale inhibitors in phase 2 of the pilot project.

Conclusion and Next Steps The daily data collected from the membrane pilot study will be analyzed to track and compare membrane performance against the identified parameters. The membrane performance data, as well as the life cycle costs, will help PBCWUD make a decision that will best prepare it to meet future water quality challenges. Development of the selection criteria prior to the pilot testing made the piloting process more efficient because it established clear goals and provided the manufacturers a level playing field to offer their best option for testing. The cost criteria are beneficial because they include operational expenses, such as cleaning and energy consumption, and also anticipate future upgrades at increased TDS levels, such as interstate boost, vessel upgrades, and feed pressure increases. This allows PBCWUD to plan for future cost expenditures and actively implement phased improvements as raw TDS levels increase. The deliberate development of selection criteria will provide a clear path for selection of a membrane system that will continue to provide high-quality potable water to PBCWUD customers. For utilities facing deteriorating raw water quality in their membrane water supply, a similar pilot testing analysis can offer solace in selecting membrane elements for replacement of aged units. The performance criteria can and should be used to provide an open and transparent membrane selection process for membrane replacement. Moreover, pushing the membrane performance during the pilot testing to the future TDS limits will demonstrate the stepwise improvements necessary to sustain production capacity for the utility under the raw water quality conditions. Finally, budgetary capital improvement planning based on TDS degradation allows utilities to accurately predict and continually evaluate budget expenditures using real-time data, rather than a rough time estimate derived from the linear digression of water quality. Proper planning with science-based decision trees will help ensure long-term operation of membrane treatment facilities anticipating a decline in water quality.

Acknowledgments Special thanks to those who made this project possible: Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department leadership for its forethought to plan for deteriorating water quality rather than react to the consequences; and the PBCWUD operations team members who supported the dayto-day operations of the pilot testing, including extensive hands-on monitoring and data collection for the study. S


November 2019 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

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February 3-7 ......Water Distribution Level3 ..........................Osteen..................$225/255 3-7 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ................Osteen..................$225/255 10-14 ......Utility Maintenance Level 3 ......................Osteen..................$260/290 28 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ........................Osteen..................$85/115

Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ November 2019



Scott Ruland Woodard & Curran Winter Garden

Scott (far left) and his kids at his oldest sonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s graduation from the University of Florida.

Scottâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wife, Charlotte, and their kids at Universal Studios.

A little putt-putt with the kids.

Ellie May and the chicken.


November 2019 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Work title and years of service. I work at Woodard & Curran, a consulting engineering, science, and operations services company. Currently, and for the last three years, I have served as the project manager for Water Conserv II. Previously, I was with an area municipality for fourteen years. What does your job entail? I oversee the operations and maintenance of Water Conserv II. The project is jointly owned by the City of Orlando and Orange County and is the largest water reclamation project of its kind in the world that combines irrigation and rapid infiltration basins (RIBs). The operations component for a facility with a 100-mgd design capacity is extensive. The groundwater monitoring alone requires daily readings from 353 monitoring wells and piezometers from across 30 square miles. The maintenance requirements for a system like Water Conserv II are just as demanding. The infrastructure includes over 70 miles of various pipes ranging from 54 to 6 inches, a project-owned 15kV high-voltage electric distribution network, and 135 RIB cells residing in two separate counties. What education and training have you had? I started in the industry as a trainee at a small private utility, which included attending resident training programs to qualify for licensing as a drinking water and wastewater operator. My training over the years has included FWPCOA courses, California State University (CSU) courses, Federal Emergency

Test Yourself Answer Key Management Agency (FEMA) courses, seminars, and lectures, etc. In this industry I don’t know if you ever stop learning; my education and training are ongoing to address an ever-changing industry. What do you like best about your job? The longer you are involved in our profession the more you come to understand that it really is a small community. So, I would have to say I really enjoy the people I have had the opportunity to meet and know over the years; some great relationships have developed. Beyond that I really enjoy working with a great team of professionals in addressing the opportunities that present themselves, such as maintaining regulatory compliance, solving operational problems, and developing strategies to address future conditions. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to FWPCOA and FSAWWA. How have the organizations helped your career? The professional organizations provide ample opportunities for your professional growth. When you consider that our industry includes areas such as facility operations for drinking water, wastewater, reclamation, distribution, collections, stormwater, maintenance, and electrical (the list goes on), there are opportunities if you only pursue them. The FWPCOA has been the cornerstone of my exposure and learning for all the different facets contained within this industry. I have no doubt that being involved and increasing my knowledge has advanced my professional career. What do you like best about the industry? It’s a great industry, and more than that, it’s a great career. If you seek out the knowledge and training this industry provides, it will reward you with an extremely satisfying career. So, I guess opportunity is what I like best about our industry: the opportunity to help the environment, solve problems, help others in their professional development, and be part of a community of professionals who are making a difference through our industry. What do you do when you’re not working? I enjoy spending time with my family. With six children and some farm animals, we stay pretty busy. S

From page 38

1. B) Community water systems serving more than 3,300 people. Per EPA’s water resilience web page, “On Oct. 23, 2018, America's Water Infrastructure Act (AWIA) was signed into law. AWIA Section 2013 requires community (drinking) water systems serving more than 3,300 people to develop or update risk assessments and emergency response plans (ERPs).”

2. A) March 31, 2020 Per the AWIA Risk Assessment and Emergency Response Plan Requirements Fact Sheet (AWIA Fact Sheet), “Your utility must conduct a risk and resilience assessment and submit certification of its completion to EPA by the following dates: - March 31, 2020, if serving more than 100,000 people - Dec. 31, 2020, if serving 50,000 to 99,999 people - June 30, 2021, if serving 3,301 to 49,999 people.”

3. C) Six months Per the AWIA Fact Sheet, “Your utility must develop or update an emergency response plan and certify completion to EPA no later than six months after risk and resilience assessment certification.”

4. D) Every five years Per the AWIA Fact Sheet, “Every five years, your utility must review the risk and resilience assessment and submit a recertification to EPA that the assessment has been reviewed and, if necessary, revised. Within six months of submitting the recertification for the risk and resilience assessment, your utility must certify that it has reviewed and, if necessary, revised, its emergency response plan.”

5. A) Any standards, methods, or tools that help the system meet the AWIA requirements. Per the EPA water resilience website, “The EPA does not require water systems to use any designated standards, methods. or tools to conduct the risk and resilience assessments or to prepare the emergency response plans required under AWIA Section 2013. Rather, community water systems must conduct risk and resilience assessments and prepare emergency response plans that meet the specific requirements outlined under AWIA Section 2013.”

6. B) Electronic submission Per the EPA water resilience website, “EPA strongly recommends you electronically submit your community water system’s certification statements. This will be the only reporting method where EPA will be able to provide an acknowledgement of receipt of your certification statement, as well as providing a simple process to address the return or destruction of the vulnerability assessment your community water system likely submitted to EPA under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002.”

7. D) upstream of the system’s intake.

subsection requires SERCs [State Emergency Response Commissions] and TERCs [Tribal Emergency Response Commissions] to promptly notify the applicable state agency (i.e., state drinking water primacy agency) of any reported release and provide this agency with: The information collected under section 304(b)(2) from the initial release notification; and the follow-up written report received under section 304(c). The state drinking water primacy agency is then required to promptly provide all the information regarding the release to any community water systems whose source water is potentially affected by the release. The source water for a community water system is potentially affected if the release occurs in that system’s source water area (also known as a source water protection area) or upstream of the system’s water intake.”

8. B) designed to help water systems comply with AWIA. Per EPA’s vulnerability self-assessment tool website, “VSAT is a tool for assessing risk and resilience at drinking water and wastewater systems. It can be used to estimate risks from malevolent threats and natural hazards and to evaluate improvements for increased security and resilience. The EPA designed VSAT Web 2.0 to help water systems comply with America’s Water Infrastructure Act . . . AWIA has a list of water system components that the risk assessment must include, but AWIA does not require the use of a specific method to conduct the assessment.”

9. A) All-hazards approach Per EPA’s Baseline Information on Malevolent Acts for Community Water Systems, “Dependable and safe water infrastructure is essential to human health and the nation’s economy. Water systems, like other utilities, can face an array of threats from both natural hazards (e.g., floods, hurricanes) and malevolent acts (e.g., cyber-attacks, contamination). By using this document, systems can identify malevolent acts and take steps to reduce the risk that a specific system will experience if one occurs or potentially deter a threat from occurring. By assessing threats, systems across the country can identify, prepare for, and manage any risks they may have by adopting an “all-hazards” approach that: • Identifies, deters, detects, and prepares for these threats. • Reduces vulnerabilities of critical assets. • Mitigates the potential consequences of incidents that do occur.”

10. D) vulnerability. Per EPA’s Baseline Information on Malevolent Acts for Community Water Systems, “Under the 2013 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP), Critical Infrastructure Risk Management Framework, three critical infrastructure risks can be assessed in terms of the following: • Threat – natural or manmade occurrence, individual, entity, or action that has or indicates the potential to harm life, information, operations, the environment, and/or property. • Vulnerability – physical feature or operational attribute that renders an entity open to exploitation or susceptible to a given hazard. • Consequence – effect of an event, incident, or occurrence.”

Per the AWIA Section 2018 Fact Sheet, “AWIA section 2018(a) amends EPCRA section 304 to add a new subsection, section 304(e), Addressing Source Water used for Drinking Water. This new

Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Water Treatment. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

How the Sawgrass Water Treatment Plant Gained Five Benefits With One Project

Magnetic Ion Exchange as a Pretreatment Step at a Surface Water Treatment Plant With Seasonally Variable Water Quality

Les Santiso, Timothy Welch, and Chris Reinbold

Tyler Smith Semago, Michael Gerdjikian, Seung Park, Larry Elliott, Vincent Hart, Chuck Weber, and Dawn Lei

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW02015355)

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW02015354)

1. Among the anions removed by the ion exchange (IX) process is/are a. sodium. b. calcium. c. organics. d. iron. 2. Which of the following is not listed as a benefit of higher mineral content in the finished water? a. Improved taste b. Reduced hardness c. Reduced system nitrification d. Reduced system corrosion 3. Waste from the IX process will be a. recycled. b. deep well injected. c. disposed of through percolation and evaporation. d. blended with incoming raw water for treatment. 4. Bench testing revealed that IX raw water iron would be oxidized using a. chlorine. b. ozone. c. hydrogen peroxide. d. sodium permanganate. 5. The type of membranes used at the Sawgrass Water Treatment Plant has a typical useful life span of ____ years. a. 3 to 5 b. 5 to 10 c. 10 to15 d. 15 to 20


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. Both existing David L. Tippin Water Treatment Facility (DLTWTF) treatment trains use __________ as a coagulant. a. ferric sulfate b. aluminum hydroxide c. ferric chloride d. aluminum sulfate 2. Research has shown that magnetic ion exchange is effective in removing ________ type organics. a. hydrophobic b. larger c. aromatic d. low molecular weight 3. During high total organic carbon (TOC) season, little or no acid treatment is required because a. the molecular composition of TOC changes. b. finished water pH is intentionally maintained at a higher level. c. the higher water temperature accelerates chemical reactions. d. higher coagulant dose lowers pH sufficiently. 4. The city implemented an online _____ analyzer since there is such a strong correlation with TOC. a. color b. ultraviolet (UV)254 c. turbidity d. ozone 5. In both high and low TOC seasons, which of the following treatment processes consistently removed about 1 mg/L of TOC? a. Filters b. Flocculation/sedimentation c. Magnetic ion exchange d. Ozone

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.

POSITIONS AVAILABLE CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater

WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS Water Treatment Operator Rock Star Water Treatment Operator needed to join our awesome team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $35,000 - $37,000yr – 10% more if you have a dual license. Applications online or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Melissa Tuck. EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

Compliance Coordinator $49,348 - $69,437/yr. Utilities Maintenance Supervisor $60,594 - $82,261/yr. Utilities Electrician $54,406 - $76,555/yr. Utilities Foreman (Water & Storm Water) $49,348 - $69,436/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $40,598 - $57,127 / $42,628 - $66,130/yr. Apply Online At: Open until filled.

U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $47,675. - $90,281. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at EEO, VPE, ADA Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


The Coral Springs Improvement District – A GREAT place to further your career and enhance your life!

Journeyman Electrician City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available Senior Utility Engineer, Network Analyst SCADA, Industrial Electrician, Meter Technician, Plant Operator, Maintenance Mechanic, Equipment Operator, Service Worker. Apply at

Lead - Sewer Collections City of Gulf Breeze, FL. Lead worker to perform full range of maintenance and repair activities involved in sewer collections conveyance systems, lift stations, control panels, remote monitoring and alarm systems for both gravity and pressure systems, and implement strategic initiatives, responsible for supervision and training of service workers. Pay Range $18.98-22.00 DOQ. Full time, permanent position. Requires background check and drug screening. Requires active driver’s license. See city website for complete job listing at, email resumes to

Class “C” Water Plant Operator City of Gulf Breeze, FL Class C or higher Water Plant Operator to assist Water Plant Supervisor in performing full range of O&M requirements, regulatory compliance monitoring, sampling, reporting and record keeping for two Class C Water Plants and distribution systems. Pay Range $15.6124.98 DOQ. Full time, permanent position. Requires background check and drug screening. Requires active driver’s license. See city website for complete job listing at, email resumes to

CSID offers: Salary levels are at the top of the industry Health Insurance that is unmatched when compared to like sized Districts

The Coral Springs Improvement District is currently accepting applications for the position of a Journeyman Electrician. Qualified applicant must have a high school diploma or GED equivalent and have a Journeyman Electrical Certificate of Competency as recognized by Broward County or the State of Florida and pass the Masters Electrician license within 3 years of employment. Must have a valid Florida drivers license, satisfactory background check and pass a pre-employment drug screening test. To perform this job successfully, the individual must be able to perform each essential duty satisfactorily. General knowledge of methods, tools, equipment and necessary safety precautions used in electrical repair and maintenance work, in three phase systems in any low voltage. Performs routine maintenance and assists with any electrical or mechanical complex installations, calibrations, diagnostics, repairs, and replacement of instrumentation and control systems equipment and components for Water, Wastewater, and Drainage facilities, such as treatment plants, pump stations and lift stations. The minimum starting salary for this position is $48,006. Salaries to commensurate relative to level of license and years of experience in the field.

The District has excellent company paid benefits including a 6% noncontributory investment money purchase pension plan, and voluntary 457 plan with match up to 6%. EOE. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at and fax resume to 954753-6329 or submit to attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Positions Available Wastewater Plant Operator A License Operator: $45,715 - $69,226 B License Operator: $41,797 - $62,695 C License Operator: $38,314 - $57,471 Conservation and Sustainability Specialist $51,375 - $77,063 Please visit to learn more about the available opportunities and view full job descriptions.


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Wastewater Compliance Supervisor Manatee County Utilities Manatee County Government is seeking a Wastewater Quality Compliance Supervisor to become part of our Wastewater Compliance Section. This position assumes principal responsibility for assuring a high level of wastewater quality and facility compliance with local, state and federal regulations and/or permits. Join our team and earn a comprehensive benefits package including generous time off, pension and career development training.

Water or Wastewater Treatment Operator Woodard & Curran has an opening for a ‘C’ licensed Operator In either water or wastewater, preferably dual certified, in Groveland, FL. Background check and drug screen required.  Please email resumes directly to: See full posting at Indian River County Department of Utility Services

AECOM - Client Services Manager Project Manager and Water Wastewater Project Engineer - Fort Myers, FL Does this sound like you? - You’re an innovative problem solver who likes a challenge - You’re looking to work with the best and the brightest AECOM has exciting opportunities available in our Fort Myers, FL office for a Client Service Manager/Project Manager, and a Water/Wastewater Project Engineer. CSM position requires a BSCE or BSEnv.Eng. PE/PM and 8+ years of experience. Proven project management experience and managing deliver of consulting engineering services for municipal and county water/wastewater stormwater utilities. Water/Wastewater Project Engineer requires BSCE or BSEnv. Eng and 5+ years of experience in municipal water/wastewater conveyance and pumping engineering and design. PE or ability to obtain within 6 months. If you would like to be part of a team that is developing high-quality tailored solutions that meet our clients’ goals, contact or apply by clicking visiting our website at We welcome you to join the team and be a part of some of the best and brightest in our industry! What We Offer When you join AECOM, you become part of a company that is pioneering the future . Our teams around the world are involved in some of the most cutting-edge and innovative projects and programs of our time, addressing the big challenges of today and shaping the built environment for generations to come. We ensure a workplace that encourages growth, flexibility and creativity, as well as a company culture that champions inclusion, diversity and overall employee wellbeing through programs supported by company leadership. Our core values define who we are, how we act and what we aspire to, which comes down to not only delivering a better world , but working to “make amazing happen” in each neighborhood, community and city we touch. As an Equal Opportunity Employer, we believe in each person’s potential, and we’ll help you reach yours.

SCADA Coordinator If you are looking for a challenge to utilize your expertise and experience in Wonderware and VTScada with a growing utility, please visit our website at

INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICIAN – WATER AND WASTEWATER OPERATIONS (FULL-TIME) The Broward County Water and Wastewater Services – Operations Division (WWOD) is seeking highly qualified candidates for: SALARY: $23.9421 - $38.2118 LOCATION: Water and Wastewater Operations Division, 2555 Copans Road, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 DEPARTMENT: Public Works To view and apply for this position, please visit:

In an effort to support our rapidly growing community, Sarasota County Government’s Public Utilities department has been granted new positions for fiscal year 2020. Join this exceptional, dedicated and high-performing team and be a part of our exciting new programs including the Heavy Construction Team & FOG Program. Enjoy great benefits including Health, Dental, Vision, and Life Insurance, Short-Term and Long-Term Disability, Flexible Spending Accounts, free gyms and classes, EAP, Florida Retirement System (FRS) and many, many more! Open Positions Water/Wastewater Senior Manager Skilled Trades Worker II & Equipment Operator III Utilities Field Technicians & Crew Leader Utility Professional Engineer Utility Project Manager Compliance Maintenance Specialist II & III Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator And many more!

The City of Tarpon Springs Public Services Department is accepting applications for the following positions:

Apply online today at

Wastewater Treatment Operator C Apply online at: Open until filled.

Classified continued on page 66 Florida Water Resources Journal • November 2019


CLASSIFIEDS Continued from page 65 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January ........Wastewater Treatment February ..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ................Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ............Disinfection; Water Quality September ......Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ............New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ........Water Treatment December ........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index AWWA Membership..................................................................................25 Blue Planet ..............................................................................................67 Carollo ......................................................................................................33 CEU Challenge ..........................................................................................62 Data Flow..................................................................................................50 Engineered Pumps ..................................................................................58 FSAWWA Conference Calendar of Events................................................19 FSAWWA Conference Registration ..........................................................20 FSAWWA Conference Overview ..............................................................21 FSAWWA Conference Incoming Chair’s Reception and BBQ ..................22 FSAWWA Conference Poker, Happy Hour, and Golf Tournament ............23 FSAWWA Conference Competitions ........................................................24 FWPCOA Online Training Institute............................................................39 FWPCOA Training Calendar ......................................................................59 Grundfos ..................................................................................................11 Hudson Pump & Equipment ....................................................................41 Hydro International ....................................................................................5 J&S Valve..................................................................................................35 Lakeside Construction ..............................................................................7 Pollard Water ............................................................................................17 Stacon ........................................................................................................2 UF Treeo ....................................................................................................51 Xylem ........................................................................................................68


November 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. We provide water and wastewater services to a population of over 500,000 citizens and 72 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work. We are seeking highly qualified individuals to fill positions for Chief Engineer and Project Manager. The Chief Engineer performs advanced professional, administrative and supervisory engineering work. The Project Manager is responsible for advanced professional engineering work including the plan review process, coordinating with developers and engineers, and providing final review and approval for hydraulic analysis and utility plans for water, wastewater, and reclaimed water master utility infrastructure. Chief Engineer, Utilities Engineering Annual Salary $92,498 Min, $113,152 Mid, $133,806 Max Project Manager, Utilities Engineering Annual Salary $79,310 Min, $97,261 Mid, $115,190 Max Starting salary of external candidates is customarily below the midpoint based on qualifications. Apply online at: Positions are open until filled.

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Profile for Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal - November 2019  

A Salute to Veterans in the Water and Wastewater Industry. Water Treatment

Florida Water Resources Journal - November 2019  

A Salute to Veterans in the Water and Wastewater Industry. Water Treatment

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