Florida Water Resources Journal - October 2021

Page 1

Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office:

1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Mish Clark

Mish Agency

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 First Florida, Then Nationals: Winners of FWEA High School Video Contest Triumph at WEF Competition—Shea Dunifon 6 Florida Water Resources Conference Welcomes New Executive Manager 32 Contractors Roundup: A Contractor’s Perspective on Florida’s Shift to Increase Beneficial Reuse—Michael Rood and Courtney Dantone

33 Leadership Awards Nominations Being Accepted 48 Meet Morgan Barnes, Florida’s 2021 Stockholm Junior Water Prize Winner— Shea Dunifon

52 APWA Selects New Members for Board of Directors 58 News Beat

Technical Articles

21 FSAWWA Water Conservation Awards for Excellence 47 TREEO Center Training 51 FWPCOA Online Training

Columns 22 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Fred Bloetscher 26 Let’s Talk Safety: Climb Into ConfinedSpace Safety 28 Committee Profile: FSAWWA Contaminants Committee—Rae Hafer 30 FWEA Focus—Ronald R. Cavalieri 34 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 35 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 54 Reader Profile—Bartt Booz

Departments 59 Classifieds 62 Display Advertiser Index

8 Guidelines for Use of Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of High-Density Polyethylene Pipe for Water Applications—Lawrence M. Slavin 40 Developing Effective Funding Strategies for Compliance With the Lead and Copper Rule Revisions—Christopher Hill, Quirien Muylwyk, and John Konkus

55 Realizing the Benefits of Process Advisory Digital Twins for Water, Wastewater, and Reuse—Benjamin D.

Stanford, Ryan Nagel, and James MacDonald

Education and Training 14 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference Call for Papers 15 CEU Challenge 16 FSAWWA Fall Conference Calendar of Events 17 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview 18 FSAWWA Fall Conference Students and Young Professionals Activities 19 FSAWWA Fall Conference Water Distribution System Awards 20 FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions

Volume 72

ON THE COVER: If you know the name of the facility pictured on the cover, email it (along with your name and email) to the FWRJ editor at ricklharmon@comcast.net by October 31, 2021, and your name will be entered in a drawing for a complimentary registration to the 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference being held April 24-27 in Daytona Beach!

October 2021

Number 10

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


First Florida, Then Nationals: Winners of FWEA High School Video Contest Triumph at WEF Competition This past summer, the inaugural 2021 Water Environment Federation (WEF) Water Palooza video contest was hosted by the WEF Students and Young Professionals Committee (SYPC). Student entries, open to all ages, were received from the Illinois Water Environment Association (IWEA) and Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), WEF member associations that each host their own respective video contests. With an entry “so far above the rest” the grand prize went to none other than FWEA’s own 2021 first-place high school video contest winners!

caught! For winning first place, Leo and Hubert were awarded a $700 cash prize. As winners of the WEF Water Palooza video contest, Leo and Hubert will also receive gift cards from United By Blue, a company that promotes sustainable materials and ethical manufacturing to lead the charge toward better business practices. The company pledges that, for every product purchased, one pound of trash is removed from the ocean or waterways. To learn more about the company and shop its products, visit www.unitedbyblue.com.

Winning Entry

Water Palooza

The FWEA Public Communications and Outreach Committee (PCOC) hosts an annual high school video contest and this past spring awarded first place to Leo Meng and Hubert Pilichowski of Strawberry Crest High School in Hillsborough County for their mock news skit titled, “Toilets Tonight.” The 45-second video features host, Lav A. Tory, and lead reporter, Latrine Larry, in a breaking-news segment: the culprits of clogged toilets and sewers have been

For those curious about WEF’s Water Palooza, it’s an annual daylong educational event that’s organized by SYPC with support from WEF PCOC. Water Palooza takes place the Friday before the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) at a local elementary school where students visit multiple stations to learn about the value of water and initiatives in their community, and how to conserve water

Water Palooza logo.

while protecting the environment at home. To learn more about Water Palooza, visit https:// www.wef.org/membership/students-andyoung-professionals2/waterpalooza/. While the WEF Water Palooza video contest was a first this year, WEF and its SYPC hope to sponsor the contest again in the future and get more member associations involved.

Thanks to Staff and Members A special thanks goes to all the WEF members and staff who helped make this inaugural contest possible: S Brandon Friedland, InnovaTreat S Stephanie Schramm, Jacobs S Allison Fore, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District S Natalie Cook, Donahue and Associates S Tim Moran, Rogue Water S Megan Livak, WEF Don’t forget to check out the WEF YouTube channel this fall to see all the video entries. To view the winning Florida (and now national) video on the FWEA YouTube channel, click on the “High School Video Contest 2021” playlist and then select the video titled, “Toilets Tonight.”

WEF’s mascot, Niles the Crocodile,interacting with students at a Water Palooza event.

4 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Shea Dunifon is the education coordinator at Pinellas County Utilities South Cross Bayou Advanced Water Reclamation Facility in St. Petersburg. She is chair of the FWEA Public Communications and Outreach Committee (PCOC) and co-vice chair of the WEF PCOC. S

Settled Solids Management

WWTP Tank Cleaning Florida’s Original On-Line Tank Cleaning Service Since 1982

Inventors of Sand Dragon Technology

State Funding Available to Pay for Cleaning - Contact us for Details!

WE REMOVE GRIT WHILE YOUR PLANT REMAINS IN SERVICE & FULL OF WATER Eliminate Your Grit: visit SSM.Hydro-int.com or call 407.322.0330 or email SSM@Hydro-int.com

Florida Water Resources Conference Welcomes New Executive Manager Michelle (Mish) Clark, president and founder of The Mish Agency LLC, has been hired as the executive manager for the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC), overseeing and managing all details to ensure a successful yearly event. She will also provide general administrative and executive services, and conference-related content, to the Florida Water Resources Journal. Mish has had a successful career of more than 27 years in the theme park/hospitality industry. She has been credited with the ability to analyze numerous components of a project and communicating them to others in a very simple, relevant manner. She has found great reward in developing initiatives to strengthen an organization’s strategic plans, then executing them efficiently and flawlessly. Mish is a skilled business leader and has built relationships with such dynamic clients as SeaWorld Entertainment, Cirrus Aviation, J.M. Smucker, Baha Mar Resort, and Advent Health. She graduated from the University of Central Florida with two bachelor’s degrees, in advertising/public relations and business/ marketing, and received a master’s degree in human resource management from Troy State University. Mish is currently a member of the University of Central Florida Alumni Board and is on the board of advisors for Nona Volleyball Academy. “Within the first couple of weeks on the job, I was incredibly impressed by the hospitality, teamwork, and sense of family within the various water organizations and the FWRC board,” says Mish. She has four teenagers and they love boating the Florida lakes and hiking the Georgia S mountains together.

6 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

SIMPLE. EFFI C I E NT. I NT E LLI GE NT. Generate Revenue with Raptor ® Septage Acceptance Plants

Cleaner Water for a Brighter Future® and Raptor® are registered trademarks owned by Lakeside Equipment Corporation. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. © 2021 Lakeside Equipment Corporation.

Grow your septage, FOG, and sludge receiving business with a Raptor Septage Acceptance or Complete Plant. REPRESENTED LOCALLY BY: Trippensee Shaw, Inc. Eustis and Sebring, FL www.TrippenseeShaw.com T. 863.382.2101 Florida Panhandle Only T: 205.424.7570 www.eshelmancompany.com

NOT YOUR ORDINARY RECEIVING SYSTEM R a p t o r S e p t a g e A c ce p t a n ce P l a n t Removes debris and inorganic solids from municipal and industrial septage, FOG, and sludge. This heavy-duty machine incorporates the Raptor Fine Screen for screening, dewatering and compaction. Accessories include security access and automated accounting systems. Raptor Septage Complete Plant With the addition of aerated grit removal, the Septage Acceptance Plant is offered as the Raptor Septage Complete Plant.

Cleaner Water for a Brighter Future® Speak to an expert at 630.837.5640 or visit www.lakeside-equipment.com for more information.

Visit us at BOOTH #1826 October 18 - 20, 2021 Chicago, IL


Guidelines for Use of Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of High-Density Polyethylene Pipe for Water Applications Lawrence M. Slavin


ser-friendly guidelines for the placement of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe with mini-horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment have been developed by the Municipal Advisory Board (MAB) of the Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI). Previously available as Technical Report TR-46 and published in 2009, “MAB Guidelines for Use of Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of HDPE (PE4710) Pipe in Municipal Applications” emphasizes the applications for potable water and sewer projects and provides detailed information for both iron pipe size (IPS) and ductile iron pipe size (DIPS) constructed of the latest PE4710 material. The MAB-7 provides information analogous to that provided in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F1962, “Standard Guide for Use of MaxiHorizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings,” but at a level appropriate for the less-complex mini-HDD technology and typical project characteristics.

The MAB-7 includes the following 10 main sections, as well as six supporting appendices: S Scope S Referenced Standards and Specifications S Terminology S Preliminary Site Investigation S Safety and Environmental Considerations S Regulations and Damage Prevention S Pipe Design and Selection Considerations S Bore Path Planning and Drill Rig Setup S Implementation S Completion The document is readily available to the public via the website of PPI at http://plasticpipe. org/pdf/mab-7-mini-hdd-guide.pdf.

Background Figures 1 and 2 illustrate typical mini-HDD equipment, and pilot boring and back-reaming operations, including placement (pullback) of the product pipe, such as for water distribution applications. Mini-HDD is typically employed for

Figure 1. Typical Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling Equipment and Pilot Boring Process

8 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Lawrence M. Slavin, Ph.D., is principal of Outside Plant Consulting Services Inc. in Rockaway, N..J.

boring segments less than 600 ft in length, at depths up to 15 ft, and placing pipes up to 12 in. in diameter. In contrast, maxi-HDD technology is capable of accurately boring holes thousands of ft in length, and placing pipes of 48 in. or greater at depths up to 200 ft. Maxi-HDD machines may weigh as much as 30 tons (or greater) and are appropriate for placing pipes under large rivers or other major obstacles. The ASTM F1962 provides recommended procedures for the placement of HDPE pipe using maxi-HDD. The ASTM document provides overall guidelines, addressing preliminary site investigation, safety and environmental considerations, regulations and damage prevention, bore path layout and design, implementation, and inspection and site cleanup. One of the significant contributions of ASTM F1962 is the provision of a rational, analytical method for selecting the polyethylene pipe strength based on the estimated installation and postinstallation (operational) loads on the polyethylene pipe. The ASTM F1962 therefore provides a means of determining project feasibility, as well as initial design information. While the ASTM F1962 guidelines are convenient and practical to apply by experienced engineers for a maxi-HDD operation, the corresponding equations and procedures represent relatively complicated formulas (and an extensive tedious methodology) when considering smaller, lower-cost operations associated with typical mini-HDD applications, including placing a new water or sewer distribution line. Some mini-HDD installations may be considered to be relatively critical or approach Continued on page 10


US 10,478,755 B2 US 10,688,454 B2



cum ∙ Cl /C ar i en t fied rifu Un Lim ge der F eS ee d flo lur w ∙W ry ∙ A Lim S∙ R eS AS lu d ge


0 0


0 0

DISCFLO Pumps with their unique principle of Boundary Layer & Viscous Drag keeps all your processes up and running.

UpTime Service

As opposed to downtime which costs time and money for our end users

Extremely Long Life Expectancy

Typically 20 years in the municipal market, as opposed to 6-36 months between rebuilds with the competitive pumps

The P6 Difference:

Zero Maintenance 10-Year Wear Warranty Reduce Polymer Consumption


Eliminates downtime for cleaning out (unplugging) the competitive pumps that plug up.

Life Cycle Costs (LCC)

Are the lowest for the abrasive and abrasive/viscous pumping application typical of water and wastewater pumping applications.

Increase Cake Solids Gentle Mixing Optimize System





Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


Continued from page 8 limits with respect to the capability of the available drill rig and/or the strength of the product pipe being installed, and for which a relatively convenient, although possibly less precise, design procedure would be desirable. Any construction procedure must address basic safety rules, avoid damage to existing facilities, adhere to applicable government regulations, and consider environmental issues. The MAB-7 was therefore developed to serve as an inclusive document, providing practices for placement of HDPE (PE4710) pipe for municipal applications using mini-HDD. In particular, MAB-7 includes easy-tounderstand guidelines for proper drill rig positioning, consistent with meeting required placement depths and drill rod capabilities, as well as for estimating the relevant forces and effects present during installation, allowing proper selection of the pipe strength.

Description The MAB-7 contains 10 main chapters, or sections, as briefly described, supplemented by several appendices. Scope, Related Industry Standards, and Terminology (Sections 1, 2, and 3) The MAB-7 addresses planning, design, drill rig setup, and installation practices for the placement of polyethylene pipe using miniHDD equipment. The primary focus is on commonly used HDPE pipe with a material designation code of PE4710. Depending on the diameter, polyethylene pipe may be supplied in continuous lengths on reel or discrete segments,

which would typically be fused together in the field. Preliminary Site Investigation (Section 4) The general feasibility of utilizing miniHDD technology for placing the proposed pipeline(s) must be determined prior to any proposed construction activities. Such a preliminary investigation is required to gain an understanding of the local characteristics in order to help ensure a cost-effective, efficient, and above all, safe operation. Of particular importance, and as addressed in other sections of the guidelines, is the awareness of existing utilities in the vicinity of the proposed pipeline and the need to maintain minimum specified clearances during the construction process. Safety and Environmental Considerations (Section 5) Safety is a primary concern during any activity, including construction utilizing mini-HDD equipment and procedures. Potential safety issues fall into two general categories: those directly related to the setup and operation of the mini-HDD equipment; and those associated with the proper location, identification, and marking procedures intended to avoid contacting and damaging existing utilities. Section 5 of MAB-7 addresses the first category, providing practices to avoid or minimize equipment-related risks during miniHDD operations. Employees must be trained to prevent injuries to themselves and others during the operation of the equipment and be prepared to mitigate the effects of accidents. Electric power

and gas-line strikes are specifically addressed. Although not considered to be hazardous materials, the proper handling and disposal of drilling fluid is also discussed to avoid possible environmental issues. Regulations and Damage Prevention (Section 6) Section 6 of MAB-7 addresses the second category of potential safety issues, focusing on procedures to eliminate or reduce hazards associated with damaging existing utilities, including during the initial boring or backreaming operations. Recommended practices include: S “Call before you dig” (811). S Properly locating and marking existing utilities, as well as exposing such utilities at anticipated crossings with the bore path. S Avoiding mechanized digging within the required tolerance zone. S Use of subsurface utility engineering, as described in the Construction Institute/ American Society of Civil Engineers (CI/ ASCE) 38, “Standard Guidelines for the Collection and Depiction of Existing Subsurface Utility Data.” Pipe Design and Selection Considerations (Section 7) and Bore Path Planning and Drill Rig Setup (Section 8) Sections 7 and 8 contain particularly useful information, provided in a convenient format, as discussed in greater detail. Implementation (Section 9) It’s beyond the scope of the MAB-7 guidelines to provide detailed operational procedures for the various mini-HDD and auxiliary equipment, which are generally available from the manufacturers or other sources. Proper procedures, however, are described for pilot boring, tracking, steering, reaming, and pullback operations, as well as pipe handling/connection and recordkeeping. Completion (Section 10) Following installation of the pipe, it’s necessary to confirm the viability of the new facility, provide a permanent record of the actual placement location, and ensure final site cleanup. The integrity of the pipes should be appropriately verified, depending on the application and the owner’s specifications. Any mud or debris that may have entered the pipe must be expelled and the pipeline flushed, and the system then pressurized and checked for leakage.

Figure 2. Typical Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling Back-Reaming and Pipe Pullback Process

10 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued on page 12


DPD Chlorine Analyzer

Simple. Accurate. Reliable. © 2021 Xylem, Inc.

Accurate & Reliable Uses EPA- approved DPD methodology

Compliance Monitoring Suitable for drinking water reporting in the U.S.

Easy to Operate Factory-calibrated with low maintenance requirements

Onboard Display See your data anytime without extra equipment or data subscriptions

• +1.937.767.7241 • 800.765.4974 (US) • info@ysi.com


Table 1. Safe Pull Tension (lb), High-Density Polyethylene (PE4710) Pipe, 1-Hour Iron Pipe Size

Pipe Diameter-to-Thickness Ratio (DR)

Nominal Size















Table 2. Safe Pull Tension (lb), High-Density Polyethylene (PE4710) Pipe, 1-Hour Ductile Iron Pipe Size

Pipe Diameter-to-Thickness Ratio (DR)


Nominal Size








































































Continued from page 10 Appendices (A - F) The 10 main sections outlined are intended to provide user-friendly guidelines for the installation of HDPE (PE4710) pipe in municipal applications using mini-HDD. These sections are supported by six appendices that provide examples of the application of the information described in Sections 7 and 8, as well as the theoretical basis for their development.

Pipe Design and Selection Considerations (Section 7) The MAB-7 contains a convenient calculation method for the selection of the HDPE (PE4710) pipe strength. The procedure is presented in an easy-to-understand format,

appropriate for users with various backgrounds. The procedure provides a means of selecting the pipe strength to avoid collapse due to hydrostatic pressure at the desired placement depth, as well as to withstand the required pulling loads during installation. Minimum Wall Thickness Based on Depth The pipe strength is directly related to the wall thickness, as specified by its dimension ratio (DR), which is defined as the pipe outer diameter by the wall thickness. The MAB-7 guidelines indicate that essentially all the commonly used wall thicknesses for PE4710 pipe, with the possible exception of DR 17 pipe, would be sufficiently strong for depths to approximately 15 ft, the typical limit for mini-HDD installations. A DR 17 pipe should generally be limited to

Figure 3. Unplanned Curvature (n2)

12 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

17 ---

less than a 10-ft depth, although 15 ft may also be acceptable in some cases. For depths greater than 15 ft, thin-walled pipe, or special situations, the adequacy of the product for the application should be verified using the supplementary information provided in the document. In some cases, such as thinwalled pipe and/or relatively large depths, special practices or precautions not typically employed during mini-HDD installations may be required. For example, filling the pipe with water during pullback simultaneously reduces the net external hydrostatic pressure during (and following) installation and the buoyant weight of the pipe, resulting in reduced pull loads. Minimum Wall Thickness Based on Pulling Load Table 1 provides the “safe pull tension” for HDPE (PE4710) pipe as a function of pipe (nominal) diameter and wall thickness (DR value) for IPS pipe sizes, while Table 2 provides the strengths for DIPS pipe sizes. These values are intended to account for the cumulative load duration on the pipe, and avoid nonrecoverable viscoelastic deformation. The indicated strengths are based on the minimal required wall thickness, as opposed to that of the actual manufactured product, and therefore underestimate the average safe pull tension by approximately 6 percent. The following simplified equation has been developed for the purpose of estimating the pull load during mini-HDD installations of polyethylene pipe: Tension (lb) = [Bore Length (ft) x Buoyant Weight (lb/ft) x (1/3)] x (1.6)n

The buoyant weight may be conveniently determined as follows: Buoyant Weight (lb/ft) = ½ [Pipe Outer Diameter (in.)]2 – Pipe Weight (lb/ft) The term “n” is equal to the number (including fractions) of effective 90-degree bends due to cumulative route curvature where n = n1 + n2. The quantity n1 is the number of planned (deliberate) 90-degree route bends, and n2 is the number of effective route bends resulting from typical path corrections and route curvature during the pilot boring operation for which the following guideline is suggested: n2 = [Bore Length (ft)/500 ft] x [2-in./ Rod Diameter (in.)] The quantity n2 is shown in Figure 3 for various rod diameters. For a specified pipe diameter, the procedure for selecting an appropriate pipe strength (DR value) consists of comparing the estimated pull load to the strengths in Table 1 or 2. This procedure is similar to, but much less complicated than, that incorporated in ASTM F1962 for the more-sophisticated maxi-HDD installations. The present miniHDD calculations will generally result in considerably shorter placement distances than those corresponding to the design methodology provided in ASTM F1962, which may result in possible pullback distances of several thousands of ft. Mini-HDD installations suffer relative to those performed using typical maxi-HDD technology due to the lesser degree of control (e.g., greater cumulative route curvature) and the desire to forego the use of antibuoyancy techniques, such as inserting water into the pipe during pullback to reduce buoyant weight and significantly reduce required pull loads. In general, the preceding formulas and methodology are recommended for estimating pull loads for mini-HDD installations. Other methods for determining pulling loads are typically based on well-controlled maxi-HDD installations and are not representative of actual mini-HDD applications with respect to anticipated pull loads.

Bore Path Planning and Drill Rig Setup (Section 8) In comparison to maxi-HDD installations, for which the design of the bore path is typically performed by experienced engineers or organizations, the mini-HDD contractor

Figure 4. Drill Rig Setup and Related Distances

Figure 5. Drill Rig Minimum Setback Distance Drill Rods: 10 Ft Long, 100-Ft Radius of Curvature

is generally responsible for cost-effectively accomplishing this task. Thus, MAB-7 provides user-friendly drill rig setup and bore path planning information that is consistent with meeting the requirements of the project owner, including geographic constraints and placement depth. The ability to satisfy the overall requirements depends on the bending characteristics of the steel drill rods and the drill rig setup parameters. Figure 4 illustrates a typical mini-HDD bore vertical profile trajectory, including occasional pits along the route. These pits may be required for pipe splicing, completing lateral connections, or to expose existing utilities. The pits may also be useful for collecting drilling fluid from the boring or reaming operations. The bending capability and length of the drill

rods, and their entry angle to ground surface, will determine the minimum depth achievable at the beginning of the bore path. In order to achieve a specified depth at a particular point toward the beginning of a pilot bore operation, the front of the drill rig must be located at an appropriate distance rearward from the point of interest. Knowledge of such minimum setback requirements is important with respect to verifying that there is sufficient space available to properly perform the miniHDD operation. For example, point 1 (Figure 4) is located directly along the entry path of the drill rod, where the resulting bore path is inclined at the entry angle and for which the setback distance corresponding to reaching the depth (d1) is designated as S1. The S1 Continued on page 14

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


Continued from page 13 represents the minimal setback distance for achieving a specified depth, independent of the orientation of the bore path, which is not level at that point. Beyond point 1, the drill rods are steered, such that the bore path trajectory becomes level at point 2, corresponding to a depth (d2) and S2. For the same depth of interest, S2 is significantly greater than S1. The greater distance is required to allow

the drill rods to establish an upward curvature consistent with achieving a horizontal orientation. The S2 depends on both the entry angle and rod characteristics. Due to the limited bending capability of the rods, as well as the recommendation that the first drill rod be placed in the ground without any curvature or steering (see Figure 1), there is a minimum depth, designated as (d2)min, at which the trajectory is able to become level.

The S1 and S2 are a function of the depth (d1 or d2), respectively (Figure 5), for a representative 10-ft-long drill rod, with a minimum bend radius of curvature of 100 ft. (d2)min identified by the minimum depth plotted for the S2 curves. As an example, for an entry angle of 15 degrees, a depth (d1) of 72 in. will be achieved at a setback distance S1 of approximately 22 ft. In comparison, an S2 of at least 35 ft is required to reach the same depth (d2) at a level trajectory. Figure 5 also indicates that this entry angle and drill rod combination is not consistent with achieving a level trajectory at depths shallower than approximately 72 in. If it’s necessary to become level at a shallower depth, a lower-entry angle and/or drill rod with a smaller allowable bend radius would be required. Information regarding other significant dimensions, including the required horizontal distance to rise to the surface and for drill rods for different characteristics, is also provided in a similar format.

Summary The MAB-7, “MAB Guidelines for Use of Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of HDPE (PE4710) Pipe in Municipal Applications,” has recently been published by the MAB of PPI, representing a comprehensive set of information supporting the placement of HDPE (PE4710) pipe by mini-HDD equipment for potable water and sewer applications. The new document, previously available as Technical Report TR-46, is intended to provide information analogous to that provided in ASTM F1962 for maxi-HDD projects, but at a level appropriate for the less complex mini-HDD technology and typical project characteristics. Although the MAB-7 guidelines are primarily described with respect to mini-HDD operations, guidelines for the use of midi-HDD machines and associated practices may be obtained from the present MAB-7 document, and/or ASTM F1962, depending on the particular application and the judgment of the contractor or engineer.

References • A STM F1962, “Standard Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings.” American Society for Testing and Materials. • CI/ASCE 38, “Standard Guidelines for the Collection and Depiction of Existing Subsurface Utility Data.” American Society of Civil Engineers. S

14 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Developing Effective Funding Strategies for Compliance With the Lead and Copper Rule Revisions Christopher Hill, Quirien Muylwyk, and John Konkus (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS02015391) 1. W hich of the following is not one of the five ways listed by which service lines are replaced? a. I ndividual replacements by third parties b. E mergency replacement due to water main or service line repairs c. C ustomer request d. R eplacement as part of planned water main rehabilitation or replacement project 2. Th e revised rule requires water systems to conduct a materials inventory of all service lines by a. O ct. 16, 2024. b. D ec. 31, 2023. c. A ug. 15, 2022. d. J une 30, 2023.

3. Th e revised rule establishes 10 µg/l as a. t he action level concentration for copper. b. t he action level concentration for lead. c. t he trigger level concentration for copper. d. t he trigger level concentration for lead.

4. I f a sufficient number of qualifying sites exist, the revised rule requires that ____ percent of lead and copper sample sites be taken from single-family sites with lead service lines. a. 2 0 b. 2 5 c. 5 0 d. 1 00 5. W ater systems must conduct sampling upon request at ______________ for the first five years following the revised rule’s effective date. a. h ospitals b. s econdary schools c. e lementary schools d. c hildcare facilities

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021



November 28 to December 2, 2021 Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress

Sunday, November 28, 2021 10:00 AM - 12:00 PM 12:00 PM - 5:00 PM 1:00 PM - 5:00 PM

Executive Committee Meeting Registration Board of Governors Meeting

Windsong 1-3 Grand Cypress Foyer Windsong 1-3

Monday, November 29, 2021 7:00 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 9:00 AM 9:30 AM 10:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 PM 12:00 PM 12:00 PM 11:30 AM 2:30 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM 9:00 PM

- 6:00 PM - 11:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 5:00 PM - 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 10:30 AM - 11:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM - 2:30 PM - 2:30 PM - 2:30 PM - 2:30 PM - 1:00 PM - 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM - 9:00 PM - 12:30 AM

Registration Workshop 1A: Looking Down the Road- What to Expect in the Regulatory Future Workshop 1B: Automation and SCADA Technology Workshop Workshop 1C: Cybersecurity 2021 Workshop 1D: Utility Systems Symposium Top Ops & Operators / Maintenance Council Meeting Member Engagement & Development Council Meeting Finance and Rates Committee Meeting Distribution Division Meeting Public Affairs Council Meeting Water Equation Committee Meeting Workshop 2A: Get Your Research On Workshop 2B: From High School to Hired Workshop 2C: Financing the Utility Workshop 2D: Water Conservation Symposium Regions / Council Chairs Lunch Meeting Opening General Session Exhibit Hall Meet & Greet BBQ Challenge & Incoming Chair's Reception Poker Tournament

Grand Cypress Foyer

Grand Cypress Portico Patio La Coquina & Alcove

Tuesday, November 30, 2021 7:00 AM 8:15 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 9:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 10:00 AM 9:30 AM 11:00 AM 11:30 AM 11:30 AM 1:00 PM 1:00 PM 1:00 PM 1:30 PM 1:30 PM 1:30 PM 1:30 PM 2:00 PM 2:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 4:00 PM 4:00 PM 4:00 PM

- 6:00 PM - 9:15 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:00 AM - 4:00 PM - 11:00 AM - 11:00 AM - 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM - 1:00 PM - 1:00 PM - 2:00 PM - 2:00 PM - 2:30 PM - 4:30 PM - 4:30 PM - 4:30 PM - 4:30 PM - 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM - 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM - 5:00 PM - 5:00 PM - 5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Registration Continental Breakfast Session 1A: Potable Reuse Session 1B: SEDA/Membranes Session 1C: Navigating the New Normal Session 1D: Lead & Copper FWRC/FWRJ Board Meeting Full STEAM Ahead Youth Program Young Professionals Meeting Backhoe Rodeo Water Equation Committee Meeting Ductile Iron Tap Competition High School Academy Students Session Students / Young Professionals Lunch Contaminants Committee Meeting Technical & Educational Council Meeting Fun Tap Competition Session 2A: Asset Management Session 2B: Addressing Water Treatment Process Improvements Session 2C: Collaboration, Communication, and Protecting Critical Knowledge Session 2D: PFAS/PFOS Young Professionals Water Bowl Automation Committee Meeting Water Utility Council Meeting Young Professionals Poster Session FL2040 Committee Meeting Meter Madness Water Quality & Resources Division Meeting Meet & Greet

Grand Cypress Foyer Grand Cypress

7:00 AM 8:00 AM 8:15 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 8:30 AM 9:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 PM 2:00 PM

- 12:00 PM - 12:00 PM - 9:15 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:30 AM - 11:00 AM - 2:00 PM - 8:00 PM - 4:00 P M

Registration Exhibits Continental Breakfast Session 3A: GIS, SCADA, and Asset Management Session 3B: Alternative Water Supplies Session 3C: Water Treatment – Disinfection By-products Session 3D: Water Treatment - Disinfection By-Products Hydrant Hysteria Competition Annual Business Lunch & Awards Ceremony Tear Down / Move Out Water Use Efficiency Division Meeting

Grand Cypress Foyer Grand Cypress Grand Cypress

Wednesday, December 1, 2021

Self-Parking Lot Self-Parking Lot

Self-Parking Lot

Grand Cypress Grand Cypress Foyer Grand Cypress Grand Cypress

Grand Cypress Windsong 1-6 Grand Cypress *Other Rooms TBA

The FSAWWA Fall Conference brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, and students. Register and learn from the industry’s best through technical session, workshops, and exhibits. Network with water industry professionals. Over 160 exhibitors will give you first-hand information on the latest developments to help your utility take actions to implement Florida’s future.

Exhibitor Registration: Booths SOLD OUT! Attendee Registration:


Technical Sessions

• Potable Reuse • Alternative Water Supply Options • Utility Finances in Challenging Times • Strategies to Communicate Your Message in the Changed World

• Increasing Optimization of Utility

For more information: fsawwa.org/2021fallconference

• •

Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2021hotel

Host hotel is Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress CHEER for Meter Madness!

Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!

Let loose at the RODEO!

Join the Tapping FUN!

Systems (Pipes, SCADA, Sewer Systems) Asset Management PFAS, PFOS, Lead and Copper, and Other Regulatory Strategies What’s New with Covid-19? And How Does it Affect our Workplace? The New Workplace Normal – Zoom, Remote, Home and Office Challenges for Utilities Water Conservation

Conference Highlights

• BBQ Challenge &

Incoming Chair’s Reception

• Operator Events:



Meter Madness Backhoe Rodeo Hydrant Hysteria Tapping Competition


• Young Professionals Events:

Luncheon Water Bowl Fresh Ideas Poster Session

• Water for People’s Fundraising Events: Exhibitor’s Raffle Fundraiser


Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

Poker Tournament Monday, November 29, 2021 Starts at 9:00 pm Golf Tournament Thursday, December 2, 2021 8:00 am Shotgun start

Event Highlights

Students & Young Professionals Conference Activities Tuesday, November 30, 2021

YP Committee Meeting

10:00 - 11:00am | Locations: TBA

Students/YP Lunch

11:30am - 1:00pm | Location: TBA

Please submit Water Bowl Registration form to Michael Stanley by e-mail at Michael.Stanley@kimley-horn.com by November 8, 2021.

Water Bowl Competition

FREE Student Registration | Lunch is $25

Fresh Ideas Poster Session

Must register for a badge >> fsawwa.org/2021fallregistration

2:00 - 3:00pm | Location: Exhibit Hall

3:00 - 6:00pm | Location: TBA

Water Bowl Team Registration Water Bowl is a jeopardy-like competition for students from Florida universities. Teams compete against each other to see who can answer the most questions correctly in the least amount of time. All questions are related to the drinking water industry. Universities can have more than one team.

Sign up your team today! Team University | College ____________________________________________ Team Member #1 ____________________________________________________ Team Member #2 ____________________________________________________ Team Member #3 ____________________________________________________

Fresh Ideas Poster Competition The “Fresh Ideas” Poster Session is an effort of the Young Professionals Committee to encourage YP participation in the technical program at the conference through presentation of a poster. Posters will be judged and the winner will receive airfare, hotel, and conference registration to attend the AWWA Annual Conference & Exposition ( ACE22 ) in June 2022, in San Antonio, TX to compete against other “Fresh Ideas” AWWA Section winners. Competition is open to any student or YP with less than three years of work experience. Any poster topic related to the water industry is encouraged. Poster Presenter: _________________________________________ Poster Title: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Divisions based on the Number of Water Services

2021 Water Distribution System Awards

Division 1 = 1 - 5,999 Division 2 = 6,000 - 12,999 Division 3 = 13,000 - 19,999

The FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards are presented to utilities whose outstanding performance during the preceding year deserves special recognition by the section.

Division 4 = 20,000 - 29,999

The Award Criteria is based upon the following:

Division 7 = 70,000 - 129,999

Water Quality Operational Records Maintenance Professionalism Safety Emergency Prepardness Cross Connection Control Program Must be an AWWA member (Organizational or Individual) Actively supports the activities of the FSAWWA Demonstrates high standards and integrity The selection committee is under the Manufacturers/Associates Council.

Division 8 = 130,000+

• • •

Division 6 = 46,000 - 69,999

Send applications to: Mike George 10482 Dunkirk Road Spring Hill, FL 34608 tapitflorida@att.net


2020 Winners: Division 1: Division 2: Division 3: Division 4: Division 5: Division 6: Division 7: Division 8:

Division 5 = 30,000 - 45,999

Ozello Water Association, Inc. Destin Water Users, Inc. City of Tamarac Village of Wellington Not Awarded Charlotte County Utilities Not Awarded Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department

Friday, October 22, 2021 Download the application form:

www.fsawwa.org/ distributionawards

E W Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Join the Competition

2021 Competitions

Tuesday & Wednesday November 30 - December 1, 2021

Let loose at the RODEO!

fsawwa.org/2021fallconference FSAWWA hosts fun and lively competitions between municipalities to find the most skilled person or team in the Meter Madness, Tapping, and Back Hoe Rodeo contests. Please join us as a spectator or visit our website to download the application to complete. Join the Tapping FUN!

Back Hoe Rodeo: Tuesday | 10:00 am - 12:00 pm

Backhoe operators show off their expertise by executing several challenging lifts and drops of various objects in the fastest time.

Tapping Contests: Tuesday | 11:00 am - 2:30 pm

In a contest of skill and dexterity as well as speed, teams of four compete for the fastest time while they perform a quality drill and tap of pipe under available pressure. Penalties are assessed in seconds for infractions of rules such as leaking connections or safety violations. Only two taps are allowed per team.

CHEER for Meter Madness!

Ductile Iron Tap: 11:00 am - 12:00 pm Fun Tap: 1:00 - 2:30 pm

Meter Madness: Tuesday | 4:00 - 5:00 pm

Contestants are challenged to put together a completely disassembled meter against the clock. To make the contest more interesting, three to six miscellaneous parts are included in the bucket of meter components. Once the meter is assembled, it must operate correctly and not leak.

Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!

Hydrant Hysteria: Wednesday | 9:00 - 11:00 am

Hydrant Hysteria is a fast paced two person competition as to who can assembly a fire hydrant quickly, totally, and accurately. Two or more teams go head to head while assembling the hydrant. All parts will be assembled in proper manner and reassembled hydrant shall be tested by the judges for ability to operate correctly.

Sponsorship Opportunities Please Contact: Mike George tapitflorida@att.net (352) 200-9631

Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on 2021 November 28 to December 2, 2021.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

FSAWWA Water Use Efficiency Division

2021 Water Conservation Awards for Excellence This annual awards program of the FSAWWA Water Use Efficiency Division (WUED) recognizes innovative and outstanding achievements in water efficiency throughout Florida.

Award Categories:

• Comprehensive Water Conservation Programming • Program Element- Single Program Highlight Agencies will be awarded one of the following awards: Best in Class or Show of Excellence.

To Apply: fsawwa.org/2021wcawards Entries must be submitted by: Friday, October 15, 2021


For additional information, please contact: Keeli Carlton Water Use Efficiency Division (WUED) Chair kcarlton@mywinterhaven.com

Looking forward seeing you at November 29 totoDecember 3,the 2020 Hyatt Regency Cypress on Omni OrlandoGrand Resort at ChampionsGate November 28 to December 2, 2021.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.


Everyone Has Challenges With Water

Photo 1. Kawuneeche Valley in 2005 when the trees were green.

Fred Bloetscher, P.E., Ph.D. Chair, FSAWWA


he utility industry is one industry—we are all bound together by water. As an old friend Tom Lane once said, “There is only one water.” The problem is that we tend to see only our own issues, as opposed to the bigger picture that may affect others and that hurts all

of us. We need to see that bigger picture and the interrelated concepts among utilities. For example, we are in the midst of hurricane season here in Florida. We know what challenges weather can bring and we know many of the impacts—just look at Louisiana and the Northeast. Florida’s utilities have worked together to create the Florida Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN) and are willing to help with materials, equipment, and people when problems occur. Our goal is to keep everyone—and everything—operating. Because Florida gets the majority of its water from groundwater, we think little of the

Photo 2. Kawuneeche Valley in 2018, with lots of beetle-killed trees.

22 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

many utilities that rely on surface water for their supply. Nationally, over half of the 91 percent of people served by a water utility are served by a surface water system, which has a host of potential impacts that are generally different, but no less consequential, than ours. Let’s take a look at an example.

A Changing Landscape Many of you know that over the past 15 years or so I have spent time in Colorado and other places in the West. My goal is to hike over 100 miles at elevations over 8,000 feet. Many

Photo 3. Kawuneeche Valley in 2021 after the East Troublesome Fire.

Photo 4. Another view after the fire.

years I have gotten into the middle to upper 90s. I have over 100 miles in many years if the bar is 6,500 feet—144 in 2017 when I went to Yellowstone National Park. With the exception of a few desert locations, the vast majority of places I hike are forested. Forested land makes up 766 million acres, or 33 percent, of the total land in the United States. Over 53 percent of U.S. surface water supplies have their beginnings in these forested areas. Rocky Mountain National Park is my most-frequent visit, and it’s heavily forested between 7,500 and 10,500 feet. When I went out in 2007 with my wife (her first trip to the Rockies), the mountains were generally covered with green lodgepole pines (see photos 1 and 5). Two years later, it was the mountain pine beetle that killed millions of acres of pine trees because the temperatures never got low enough to kill them (see photos 2 and 6). Millions of acres in the West, from Canada to Mexico, have been hit hard by beetle infestations that occur because the trees are old and the temperatures do not get cold enough in the winter. I recall telling my wife that all the dead trees were a huge fire hazard. Then 2020 happened. A lack of precipitation (increasing fire risk), low humidity, wind, higher temperatures, and human activity caused the East Troublesome Fire in Grand County, Colo., which grew by 100,000 acres in 24 hours, barely skirting Grand Lake by virtue of heroic efforts by firefighters, and nearly reaching Estes Park on the other side of the park to the east. Two people died, hundreds of structures were lost, and well, there was a lot of burned forest. The next set of photos (3, 4, 7, and 8) tells you much of what you want to know (or not). Temperatures were reported as high as 3800 degrees via satellite. I cannot fathom that kind of heat.

Photo 5. Hills adjacent to the Kawuneeche Valley in 2005 when the trees were green.

Grand Lake got lucky, as did Estes Park, but today, there are millions of acres at risk, and the fires have created a serious threat to many rural communities. We lost Paradise, Calif., (not a small town by the way) a couple years back when high temperatures caused power lines to sag, and the failure of people and power companies to clear debris below the power lines ignited a fire. We also lost historic Greenville, Calif., in 2021.

Solutions Won’t Be Easy A published study by the Ecological Society of America found that “protected forests—those that had not been thinned—had lower levels of burn severity despite having higher amounts of biomass and fuels” (Bradley

et al., 2016). So, thinning and clear-cutting are not solutions. Clearing under power lines helps, but we will need more power lines to deal with increased population dispersion and power demands. Across the U.S., the average number of wildfires has been 64,000 per year (fewer than in 1990), but the average acreage burned has increased (CRS, 2021). Summer heat, less rainfall, less snow, and impacted trees create the risk. Of more concern, however, is that most of the fires have been caused by people as opposed to nature (Where is Smokey the Bear when we need him?). The situation has not been helped by the millions of acres of trees killed by pine bark beetles, which has increased the potential for Continued on page 24

Photo 6. Hills adjacent to the Kawuneeche Valley in 2018 with tree damage.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


Photo 7. Hills adjacent to the Kawuneeche Valley in 2021.

Continued from page 23 fires (see the comparative photos from 2007 to 2021). The beetle damage is something that anyone who has hiked the Rockies has noted, with miles of dead trees. The beetles thrive when temperatures are not really cold, in drought conditions, and when trees are stressed. Sounds like the West today. Cutting all these trees quickly has been impossible to manage without severe damage to the land, although the Grand County (Colo.) newspaper notes that much of the accessible beetle trees have been harvested and the lumber industry is looking in a new direction. Aside from the remaining trees, changes in summer heat intensity and less rainfall in the summer and early fall increase the risk of fires. Clearly, this is a long-term climatic issue that has changed the forest paradigm. Loss of forest increases runoff, creating flooding and water quality concerns. The loss of trees and habitat is only the obvious impacts. From a water supply perspective (Ball et al., 2016) it’s been found that “wildfire activity is one of the largest drivers of aquatic impairment, though it is not routinely reported by regulatory agencies.” The obvious water quality impacts relate to ash, which can pass into the lungs, exacerbating asthma and a host of other health impacts. After a rain occurs, the ash runs into the rivers and downstream to water intakes— and fish gills. Downstream, the damage to ecosystems due to ash and silt runoff and the impacts to fish and water supplies will continue for years. The lack of tree cover increases water temperatures, which endangers native fish that adapt to cold waters. Temperatures in the Rocky Mountain waters climb into the high 70s in the summer in Fraser, Colo., which is

Photo 8. Hills adjacent to the Kawuneeche Valley in 2021.

way too warm for stressed mountain cutthroat trout (so daytime fishing is suspended regularly). Warm water is prone to algae and is more difficult to treat. The National Climate Assessment indicates a substantial increase in temperatures by 2070, and California, Nevada, and Arizona are all areas that will be challenged. Fire in the mountains will increase and we have all seen the crisis that unfolded with fires this summer.

Water Supply Challenges Ash is a huge issue for water purveyors. The fire-retardant materials that firefighters wear may be toxic and they can leach into water supplies. Firefighters require protective equipment that creates toxic compounds that may endanger their lives. Some question if aerial firefighting has value, given the number of times the target may be missed (reportedly up to 80 percent of runs are misses). The fire danger to water systems also includes volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) and semi-VOCs that occur as a result of the heat and the attraction of plastics for organic compounds. Precursors for disinfection byproducts are a major issue for water suppliers. The fire in Paradise two years ago, which burned over 18,000 structures and killed 85 people, also revealed the ugly truth that the intense heat may impact high-density polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride plastic pipes. The plastic pipe melts under intense heat, and benzene, toluene, styrene, and dichloromethane are among the compounds detected above the drinking water standards. Testing after a fire is critical, and the burial depth of pipe may be an issue as well.

24 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

We’re All in This Together So we all agree that fires are bad, but what is my point here in Florida? Summer and fall are the height of hurricanes in Florida and it’s also the height of fire season in the Rockies. Much of our focus here is protecting our water systems and keeping the water flowing to our customers; that is the goal of utilities in the mountains as well. Why should people in Florida care about fires in the West? Because we all have challenges, albeit they may be different. One-size-fits-all solutions never work—there is always nuance. We focus our attention on our own issues, but many others have different challenges that they face. We need to listen to each other, even within Florida, where the length of the state makes a huge difference in some of the issues we face. We are not alone, and in many cases, we can learn from each other. Just because the situation seems different does not mean we should not pay attention.

References • G . Ball, Peter Regier, Ricardo GonzálezPinzón, Justin Reale, and David Van Horn, 221. “Wildfires Increasingly Impact Western U.S. Fluvial Networks.” Nature Communications | (2021) 12:2484 | https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41467-021-22747-3. • Bradley, C.M.; Hanson, C.T.; and DellaSala, D.A. 2016. “Does Increased Forest Protection Correspond to Higher Fire Severity in Frequent Fire Forests in the Western United States?” Ecosphere 7(10); e01492. 101002/ ecs2.1492. • Congressional Research Services, 2021. Wildfire Statistics, CRS, Washington, D.C. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/IF10244.pdf. S

Get a New Unit for the Cost of a Repair Facing an expensive repair or replacement bill on your current grinder? We’ll match that quote and give you a brand new XRipper grinder that plugs into your existing panel. > Contact PSI for details.


Vogelsang XRipper® Twin-Shaft Grinder •

Monolithic Ripper Rotors

• • •

Wider High-Torque Cutting System Easy Onsite Maintenance Drop-In Replacement Design

• •

Optimized for Wipes & Rags 2-Year Warranty, Parts & Labor, Including Wear Parts

Vogelsang Distribution, Sales & Support

Riviera Beach, FL (305) 998-1371 eric@psi-techinc.com www.psi-techinc.com

sales@vogelsangusa.com (330) 296-3820 vogelsangusa.com

L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.


Climb Into Confined-Space Safety

confined space is any area with limited entry and exit that contains known or potential hazards and is not intended for continuous human occupancy. In the water industry, these spaces include manholes, trenches, storage tanks, wells, vaults, and tunnels. Hazards within a confined space include: S Oxygen deficiency by displacement with other gases and the introduction of nitrogen from cable pressurization S Toxic gases from decomposing soil, chemical spills, and engine combustion exhaust (from vehicles and equipment) S Combustible or flammable vapors and gases from underground storage or piping facilities S Moving equipment parts, structural hazards, entanglement, slips, and falls

S T emperature extremes, including atmospheric and surface S Shifting or collapse of bulk material S Barrier failure resulting in a flood or release of free-flowing solids S Uncontrolled energy, including electrical shock or water pressure S Visibility S Biological hazards The buildup of gases, including carbon monoxide and radon, poses one of the mostcommon and lethal dangers in confined spaces. If an oxygen deficiency or hazardous atmosphere may exist in the work area, the air must be tested before employees enter and also while the work is being conducted. If necessary, ventilation must be provided and continued as long as the manhole or vault is open. If the confined space is vacated for any

period of time, such as a lunch break, the atmosphere should be retested before re-entry is allowed.

Safety Equipment Several pieces of equipment are required for safe entry into a confined space: S Work-area protection devices, such as traffic (reflective) vests, traffic cones, manhole guards, work-area protection signs S Manhole cover lifter and manhole hook S Atmospheric tester for combustible gas, oxygen deficiency, and other toxics S Power ventilator (blower) S Pump to remove water S First aid kit S Portable fire extinguisher (dry chemical)

The 2020 Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the 2020 Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

26 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Atmospheric Conditions The air within the confined space must be tested prior to entry into the space. Atmospheric conditions are considered unacceptable if oxygen levels are less than 19.5 percent or greater than 22 percent. The following levels of other hazards are unacceptable: S A flammable gas, vapor, or mist greater than 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL). The LFL means the minimum concentration of the flammable material that will ignite if an ignition source is present. S A irborne combustible dust at a concentration that obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet or less. S A n atmospheric concentration of a substance greater than the allowed limit in the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for that substance.

Testing Procedures After all work-area protection devices are in place and the atmospheric test equipment has been tested as operational, you can do the following: S L ower the sampling hose approximately 6 inches through the hold in the manhole cover to make the first pre-entry test. If no combustible gas is found, remove the cover and proceed. If the flammable gas concentration is above 60 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL), suspend operations and follow company procedures. S After the manhole cover is removed, continue to test for combustible gas by lowering the sampling tube within 12 inches of the manhole or vault floor. If no flammable gas is found, purge the manhole with the power blower for the period of time based on the blower capacity and manhole configuration, following company procedures.

Ventilation If flammable gas is detected and above 10 percent (but below 60 percent) LEL, purge and ventilate the manhole for a minimum of 10 minutes, depending on the manhole or vault size. If combustible gas was detected, but subsequently cleared, continue to monitor and ventilate to maintain the flammable gas level below 10 percent LEL. When ventilating a manhole, insert the blower hose in the manhole opening, positioning the blower hose to direct the flow of air horizontally, midway between the

manhole’s floor and roof toward an end wall and away from the work area, if possible. To minimize the intake of exhaust fumes from passing vehicles, the blower intake should be positioned away from the flow of traffic. Wind direction must also be considered. Ventilation of the manhole must continue as long as the manhole is open to avoid the possible development of a hazardous atmosphere. If the confined space is vacated for any

period of time, the atmosphere of the confined space should be retested before re-entry is permitted. Further testing should be conducted with ventilation systems turned on to ensure that contaminants are removed and the ventilation system is not causing a hazardous condition. For more information go to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) website at www.osha.gov/SLTC/ S confinedspaces.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

Contaminants Committee Affiliation: FSAWWA Current chair: Rae Hafer, utility engineer, Gainesville Regional Utilities Year group was formed: Early 2000s

Scope of work: The committee provides information for water professionals on water quality. The original scope was on biological contaminants, but it has expanded to include biological, chemical, and best practices on

multiple aspects of water quality. Topics include opportunities and challenges with drinking water, wastewater, and reclaimed water treatment and distribution. I love what I do as chair because of the connections I make with the dedicated and talented professionals in our industry. These individuals make me feel like I am part of an extended water industry family. It’s a small world after all. Recent accomplishments: We provided webinars throughout the pandemic with no interruptions! We also created a dedicated website for our archived webinars and offered timely topics to viewers, including cybersecurity, flushing buildings after lockdown, monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, impacts of flushable wipes, and microbial-induced corrosion. The committee members also organized and successfully delivered virtual conference sessions on wastewater virus monitoring and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Current projects: We continue to seek topics of interest to our audience for webinars and conferences. Future work: Provide additional information on our website to enhance interactive features in our webinars and continue hosting two PFASrelated webinars per year. Group members: S Rae Hafer, P.E., Gainesville Regional Utilities (chair) S Amber Kiger, Hach S Iulia Siemen, P.E., Orange County Utilities S Ashlee Hollifield, P.E., Southwest Florida Water Management District S Melanie Lasch, Veolia Water S Bina Nayak, Ph.D., (past chair, Technical and Education Council chair), Pinellas S County Utilities

FloridaSection 28 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Maintenance & Repair Service Available

Water & Wastewater Process Treatment & Pumping Equipment RELIASOURCE® AUTO-START LIFT STATIONS

Made in USA

Delivers Affordable Protection from Power Failures Standard and Custom Designs Available for New and Existing Installations

3524 Craftsman Blvd. Lakeland, FL 33803


Copyright ©2021 Tencarva Machinery Company. All Rights Reserved.

100% Guaranteed Warranty

Ph: (863) 665-7867 Fax: (863) 667-2951 TM.FL.FWRA.MU.5.12.2021

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021



All Water is One Water Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE President, FWEA


y the year 2040, Florida will need an additional 1 billion gallons per day of potable water supply to meet the projected demands. The rich quality of life that we enjoy here, and across the United States, is dependent on ensuring that sufficient clean water is available for all reasonable and beneficial uses within our community, while protecting natural systems and the environment. Water is the life of a community. The development of an integrated (One Water) management approach is critical to meet projected water needs, as well as to support Florida’s future economic success.

Florida’s Population Growth According to the University of Florida’s Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR), Florida’s population is expected to grow from its current 21.6 million (Bulletin 190, June 2021) to 26.4 million by 2040. Florida represents about 6.5 percent of the U.S. population (estimated at 331.4 million in 2020) and is ranked third behind California and Texas. According to the U.S. Census, Florida’s population grew by 14.9 percent from 18.8 million in 2010 to its current population.

What Florida’s Population Increase Means Florida’s increasing population has important implications for planning and public policy.

The population growth affects the demands for education, healthcare, housing, recreation, and transportation, with impacts to the environment and potable water supply. The Florida Office of Economic and Demographic Research (EDR) projects that the state’s potable water demand will increase by more than 15 percent between 2020 and 2040, reaching 7.4 billion gallons daily. The increased demand is having a significant impact on the state’s water utilities to supply the projected demands and has brought about both new legislation and innovative water supply approaches. According to the regional water supply plans and water supply assessments developed by Florida’s water management districts (WMDs), the water needs of the state can be met through the 2040 planning horizon by a combination of traditional and alternative water sources. This, however, assumes that appropriate management, continuing conservation efforts, and necessary investments are made. These efforts are related to alternative water supply projects identified in the regional water supply plans. Because none of the WMDs can meet future demands solely with existing source capacity, these extra efforts are critical, beginning now and continuing through 2040.

Focus on Water Quality and Protecting the Environment Water quality has continued to be considered a high-profile issue in Florida by the governor, the Legislature, news media, and the public at large. Several environmental bills have been passed by the Legislature, including the Clean Waterways Act (SB 712) in 2020 and the Reclaimed Water Bill (SB 64) in 2021. The Clean Waterways Act addresses several environmental issues, including provisions specifically related to water quality improvement. Provisions related to wastewater are as follows: S R equires local governments to create wastewater treatment plans for certain best management action plans (BMAPs), but authorizes different cost options for projects that meet pollution reduction requirements. S P rohibits, beginning July 1, 2025, wastewater treatment facilities from discharging into the Indian River Lagoon without providing advanced waste treatment. The bill imposes new requirements on wastewater facilities and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) to prevent sanitary sewer overflows and underground pipe leaks.

30 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Directs FDEP to develop requirements for the establishment of asset management programs and associated reporting for domestic wastewater collection systems. The emphasis of the reclaimed water bill is on elimination of wastewater treatment effluent surface discharges and incentivizes the beneficial reuse of reclaimed water. The bill requires domestic wastewater utilities that dispose of effluent, reclaimed water, or reuse water by surface water discharge to: S Submit a plan to FDEP to eliminate nonbeneficial surface water discharges by Nov. 1, 2021. S Fully implement the plan to eliminate discharges by Jan. 1, 2032. S If no plan is submitted or approved, it must eliminate discharges by Jan. 1, 2028. The reclaimed water bill also: S Specifies that potable reuse is an alternative water supply for purposes of making reuse projects eligible for alternative water supply funding. S Incentivizes the development of potable reuse projects. S Incentivizes residential developments that use graywater technologies. S Specifies the total dissolved solids allowable in aquifer storage and recovery in certain circumstances.

One Water Approach The concept of One Water (integrated water management) has been around in Florida for many years. The state is a recognized nationwide leader in reclaimed water/reuse and currently reuses approximately 884 million gallons per day (nearly 50 percent) of its reclaimed water for various beneficial uses. Water recycling is an integral part of Florida’s wastewater, water resource, and ecosystem management. The FDEP is currently engaged in rulemaking for implementation of potable reuse programs; however, the stress of increased population demands and an emphasis on protecting the environment has brought about a heightened awareness on the value of water and the need for a One Water approach. According to the Water Research Foundation, One Water is defined as: “An integrated planning and implementation approach to managing

finite water resources for long-term resilience and reliability, meeting both community and ecosystem needs.” The term One Water describes a comprehensive and long-term approach to community-based water management. The One Water approach considers “the urban water cycle as a single integrated system” and recognizes all urban water supplies as resources, including surface water, groundwater (fresh and brackish), seawater, stormwater, wastewater/reclaimed water, and improved storage opportunities. These interconnected resources are managed for their combined impacts on water supply, water quality, and the environment. This integrated management of all water supplies, considering multiple end uses, improves the overall quality of life in a community by benefitting both the environment and the economy.

References 1. F lorida Population Studies, Bulletin 190. University of Florida, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Bureau of Economic and Business Research. June 2021. 2. Office of Economic and Demographic Research, Annual Assessment of Florida’s Water Resources and Conservation Lands. 2021 Edition.

3. F lorida Water Environment Association Utility Council, 2021 Annual Report. 4. U.S. Water Alliance, “One Water Roadmap: The Sustainable Management of Life’s Most Essential Resource.” 5. “Framework for the Implementation of Potable Reuse in Florida.” Potable Reuse Commission. January 2020. 6. One Water LA 2040 Plan, Volume 1 Summary S Report. Final Draft, April 2018.


One Water – Water Cycle The One Water approach also considers the needs of multiple stakeholders and addresses climate change and long-term resilience and reliability to meet both community and ecosystem needs. One Water emphasizes that all water has value, encouraging those in the water industry to work together to solve Florida’s complex water supply challenges.


Conclusion Water is vital to our health, environment, prosperity, and future. Florida’s needs have grown, and due to the conservation of limited resources, there has been as increased awareness for the need of a One Water approach to water supply planning. This water evolution has resulted in recognition that water should not be labeled by its source—stormwater, groundwater, reclaimed water, etc.—but should be managed as simply One Water.

- Port Orange - Tampa - Tallahassee



Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021



A Contractor’s Perspective on Florida’s Shift to Increase Beneficial Reuse

Michael Rood and Courtney Dantone


ll water is recycled—there is no new supply of water. With enough time and space, nature can and will clean even the dirtiest water to acceptable drinking standards. Of course, it has been quite a while since nature had the time to run its course. In fact, it’s becoming more and more apparent across the United States that there is a need to further accelerate the transformation of wastewater to potable water.

Many Methods of Reuse The term potable reuse (PR) is the process of taking highly treated wastewater and processing it into drinking water. A system that uses indirect potable reuse (IPR) takes the highly treated wastewater to an aquifer, well, or other environmental barrier for storage prior to

additional treatment at a drinking water plant before it’s available to consumers. A system that uses direct potable reuse (DPR) takes the highly treated wastewater straight through the treatment at a drinking water plant and then to distribution for consumers. Regardless of the process, the water quality is closely monitored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) to ensure that safe, reliable drinking water is delivered to the public. Next year will mark 50 years since the first potable reuse project was built in the U.S. when the Sanitation District of Los Angeles County constructed the Montebello Forebay Groundwater Recharge Project. Today, the Montebello Forebay has expanded to include several water reclamation plants and spreading basins covering nearly 800 acres. Reclaimed water used for aquifer recharge can exceed 50 million gallons per day (mgd). Along with the recently constructed Albert Robles Center for Water Recycling and Environmental Learning, also in California, the need for importing water to recharge the groundwater basin has been eliminated. Florida is the nation’s leader in water reuse. According to the FDEP website, of the state’s

Figure 1. Florida’s Reuse Growth (source: https://floridadep.gov/water/domestic-wastewater/content/floridas-reuse-activities)

32 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1.5 billion gallons used per day, approximately 48 percent was returned for beneficial uses in 2015. One would think it could be due to all the golf courses in Florida, but in reality, Figure 1, which is from the FDEP website, shows that recycled water was used to irrigate a lot more than just golf courses. The interesting part about this graphic is the flattening of the capacity to produce, and the use of, reclaimed water over the last decade.

Increasing Florida’s Source of Water The Floridan aquifer system is in a predicament. In addition to providing water flows to springs for environmental preservation, the aquifer is the major source for Florida’s drinking water. A 2018 study revealed that spring flows had reduced by 32 percent between 1950 and 2010. The state is using and reducing the supply more than users— or Mother Nature—can put back. Obviously, conservation efforts will and should be the first option to extend potable water supplies, but clearly there is capacity in the existing systems for the beneficial use of wastewater effluent. The Florida state government recognized this need and approved the Clean Waterways Act in 2020, which will further allow FDEP to update its reuse regulations, prompting more utilities to implement IPR and/or DPR into their overall water portfolios. Senate Bill 64 was also enacted in 2021 requiring wastewater utilities to eliminate nonbeneficial surface water discharges by Jan. 1, 2032. Whether effluent is directed to recharge wells, rivers, reservoirs, or the potable water system, the level of treatment must increase for Florida to maintain its status as the nation’s leader in water reuse. The design and construction of potable reuse facilities will be a wise investment in Florida’s water infrastructure. In order to meet the legislative requirements, utilities will need to analyze the alternatives for IPR versus DPR. There may be space constraints, access to distribution facilities, energy-consumption calculations, or local geology that ultimately determines one technology over the other. In the long run, either process is only marginally more expensive than pumping directly from the aquifer or a surface water feature, and neither the aquifer nor a surface water feature will keep up with the demands of today—or the future.

There are several pilot studies for potable reuse currently underway in Florida. Clearwater, Altamonte Springs, Daytona Beach, and the Jacksonville Electric Authority have all conducted pilot programs for potable reuse with much success. In 2021, FDEP formed One Water Florida as an initiative to promote the benefits of recycled water and how it will safely supply Florida’s future. One Water conducted an online survey of Floridians to gauge the public’s perception of recycled water and potable reuse. In the survey, people were asked about their feelings concerning the use of direct or indirect potable water for all purposes, including drinking. The results from the survey showed that, after some education, support rose from 40 to 65 percent and opposition decreased from 30 to 6 percent. It’s therefore apparent that Floridians know the critical need for action. As active members in Florida communities, utility owners, engineers, contractors, and suppliers should be vocal supporters of potable reuse strategies and projects. It’s essential that the water and wastewater community continues constructing quality projects that consistently perform as designed. Effective treatment technologies, the long history of success, and the economic benefits of potable reuse must be stressed to the public and should involve craft workforce personnel. The women and men who physically build the infrastructure should absolutely have a clear understanding of the impact of their efforts on the water supply in the state. They would then become multipliers by advocating potable reuse to the public. Working together, the timeline can be shortened to generate potable water, thereby restoring and sustaining Florida’s water resources and the environment.

Leadership Awards Nominations Being Accepted Winners introduced at Water Quality Association convention in 2022 Nominations and applications are open for the Water Quality Association (WQA) annual leadership awards, which recognize individuals and companies excelling in their service to the water quality improvement industry. Members of WQA, as well as their peers and colleagues within the water industry, are encouraged to submit a nomination for one of the following awards: S Hall of Fame S Lifetime Membership S Key S Ray Cross S Regents S Award of Merit S International Award of Merit S Honorary Membership S Next Gen Award Applications are also being taken for the WQA Excellence Award, established in 2017 to honor member companies that

demonstrate excellence in customer service, business operations, community service, and innovation in two categories: S Manufacturer/Supplier S Dealer Companies apply for this honor, rather than being nominated. At a minimum, the applicant must have been a WQA member for three years, sell or manufacture certified products, and have at least one certified professional on staff. The deadline for nominations and applications is October 15. Nominations are evaluated against individual award criteria, and winners are chosen by the WQA board of governors. Not all awards are necessarily given each year. Winners will be introduced during the 2022 WQA Convention and Exposition being held April 6-8, 2022, in Orlando. To learn more and see past award recipients visit www.wqa.org/awards. S

References • h ttps://www.nationalgeographic.com/ science/article/partner-content-worriedabout-water-floridan-aquifer • h ttps://floridadep.gov/sites/default/ files/Recycled%20Water%20Public%20 Sentiment%20Presentation.pdf Michael Rood is the west/central Florida area sponsor and Courtney Dantone is the business development manager for the municipal water market in Florida for Kiewit. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Sanitary Surveys? Donna Kaluzniak

1. P er the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Sanitary Survey Program website, a sanitary survey is a review of the water source, facilities, equipment, operation, and maintenance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy for producing and distributing safe drinking water. Sanitary surveys are conducted a. in a meeting at FDEP’s district office with a thorough review of all reports and documents. b. by telephone interview between FDEP and the water system manager. c. through an online survey form completed by the utility director and submitted to FDEP. d. with an onsite visit to work and communicate with water systems in a preventative mode. 2. Per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, Sanitary Surveys, sanitary surveys are conducted at community water systems a. annually. b. biannually. c. every three years. d. only when deemed necessary due to noncompliance with permit limits. 3. P er FDEP’s Sanitary Survey Program website, how many elements comprise a sanitary survey? a. Three b. Five c. Eight d. 10 4. P er EPA’s Sanitary Surveys website, the description of the operator compliance element of a sanitary survey a. ensures treatment plants are staffed 24 hours a day. b. ensures water systems have qualified professionals that meet all applicable operator certification requirements. c. means the treatment plant operator ensures compliance with regulations. d. means the water system staff follows all safety regulations.

5. P er EPA’s guide, “How to Conduct a Sanitary Survey of Drinking Water Systems,” the elements of the sanitary survey address various measures that work together to prevent drinking water contamination. This is called a a. collaborative work approach. b. multiple-barrier approach. c. tiered safety mechanism. d. wide net approach. 6. Per EPA’s guide, “How to Conduct a Sanitary Survey of Drinking Water Systems,” serious sanitary deficiencies in water systems, such as defects in design, operation, or maintenance, or a failure or malfunction of the sources, treatment, storage, or distribution system that could cause the introduction of contamination into drinking water, are defined as a. penalty-related deficiencies. b. reportable deficiencies. c. serious deficiencies. d. significant deficiencies. 7. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-550, Drinking Water Standards, Monitoring, and Reporting, what type of plan must be available for review and possible revision during a sanitary survey? a. Capital improvement plan b. Microbiological sampling plan c. Process safety management plan d. Risk management plan 8. Per the EPA Region 8 presentation on significant deficiencies, what is a common significant deficiency found on water storage tanks? a. Lack of #24 mesh screen on the air vent. b. Lack of #36 mesh screen on the overflow. c. Overflow is piped to an elevation between 12 and 24 inches above the ground surface. d. Tank needs painting. 9. Per the EPA Region 8 presentation on sanitary surveys and significant deficiencies, what constitutes a significant deficiency in the area of management? a. A flooded meter vault. b. Cross connection in the distribution system. c. Lack of an emergency response plan. d. Source water contamination.

34 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

10. P er EPA’s guide, “How to Conduct a Sanitary Survey of Drinking Water Systems,” records of sanitary surveys must be kept on file by the state for how long? a. Three years b. F ive years c. 10 years d. 1 2 years Answers on page 62 References used for this quiz: • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-550, Drinking Water Standards, Monitoring, and Reporting: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ ChapterHome.asp?Chapter=62-550 • Florida Department of Environmental Protection Sanitary Survey Program website: https://floridadep.gov/water/source-drinkingwater/content/sanitary-survey-program • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Sanitary Surveys website: https://www.epa.gov/dwreginfo/sanitary-surveys • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2019, “How to Conduct a Sanitary Survey of Drinking Water Systems”: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2019-08/ documents/s anitary_survey_learners_ guide_508_8.27.19.pdf • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 presentation on significant deficiencies: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2021-03/ documents/sanitary_surveys_significant_ deficiencies_surface_water_systems.pdf • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 presentation on sanitary surveys and significant deficiencies: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2021-03/ documents/sanitary_surveys_significant_ deficiencies_transient_systems.pdf

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com


Training Programs, State Short School, and Awards: Educating and Recognizing Industry Members

One of the ways FWPCOA provides training is through short school programs. State short schools are held twice a year: one

in the spring and one in the fall. Also, many of the 13 FWPCOA regions offer regional short schools. These are in-class courses designed to provide the needed requirements for operators to understand the technical aspects of their disciplines and prepare them for their certification exams. I’ve listed a more detailed description of each program. S Water Distribution Level 3, 2, and 1 – Our water distribution residency courses provide the requisite training required by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) for a water distribution system operator to take the Florida operator licensing exam. These courses are also available for water plant and water distribution operator continuing education. S Wastewater Collection C, B, and A – Our voluntary certification program is developed for the wastewater collection system operator. These courses are also available for wastewater plant operator continuing education. S Stormwater C, B, and A – Our voluntary certification program is developed for the stormwater management operator. These courses are also available for water and wastewater plant operator continuing education. S Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B, and A – Our voluntary certification program is developed for the reclaimed water distribution

Pete Tyson (left) receives an appreciation award for service as Safety Committee chair from Renee Moticker, chair of the Awards Committee.

Isaiah Moss instructs the Water Distribution Level 3 and Reclaimed Water C class at the 2021 Fall State Short School.

Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA


reetings everyone. Here we are in October already, the last quarter of 2021. Many of you are working on the progress of your careers in the utility industry. The FWPCOA is your training center to provide the training and certification you need and the association has a comprehensive list of programs that provide training for its members and operators in Florida. We have also developed training manuals to use for many of these courses and provide a training manual with every registration that’s included in the course cost. Please refer to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org for the availability of all the courses, registration, and costs.

FWPCOA Short School Training Programs





system operator. These courses are also available for water and wastewater plant operator and water distribution operator continuing education. (Note: Persons who have successfully completed an FWPCOA water distribution course may take an abbreviated version of the reclaimed water course.) Utility Customer Relations Level III, II, and I – Our voluntary certification program is developed for utility customer service representatives. These courses are also available for water and wastewater plant operator and water distribution operator continuing education. Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester – Our certification program is developed for backflow prevention assembly testers. This course is also available for water and wastewater plant operator and water distribution operator continuing education. Backflow Prevention Assembly Repair – Our certification program is developed for backflow prevention assembly repairers. Applicants must possess an FWPCOA backflow tester certification. This course is also available for water and wastewater plant operator and water distribution operator continuing education. Backflow Tester Recertification – Our exam is provided to recertify backflow prevention assembly testers. Continued on page 36

President Enlow (left), with instructor David Pachuki (seated right), addresses the Wastewater Collection B class at the 2021 Fall State Short School.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


Continued from page 35 S F acility Management Module I – A prerequisite course for the Florida Class A water and wastewater treatment plant operator exam. This course is also available for water plant operator, wastewater plant operator, and distribution system operator continuing education. S U tilities Maintenance III and II – These courses are designed for utility maintenance personnel, such as plant and pump station mechanics and electricians. The level III course covers pumps, motors, basic electrical, backflow and cross connection control, types of maintenance, valves, and safety. The level II course covers pumping and hydraulics, electrical systems, lubrication, math, crane and hoist safety, and confined space awareness. These courses are also available for water, water distribution, and wastewater plant operator continuing education. S W astewater Process Control – This is a 30-hour continuing education course focusing on

wastewater treatment process control concepts. The course topics include pretreatment, rules and regulations, disinfection and odor control, wastewater process math, activated sludge process, biological nutrient removal, and biosolids handling. The course is also available for wastewater plant operator continuing education. S Wastewater Troubleshooting – This is a 30-hour continuing education course emphasizing wastewater treatment process troubleshooting. The course topics include activated sludge troubleshooting, laboratory procedures, optimizing process instrumentation, wastewater process math, disinfection and odor control, plant design, and rules and regulations. The course is also available for wastewater plant operator continuing education. S Basic Electrical and Instrumentation – This is a 30-hour continuing education course designed to teach students the basic concepts of electricity and plant process instrumentation.

President Enlow (right) speaks with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection instructors in the Wastewater Treatment Operators class at the 2021 Fall State Short School.

President Enlow (standing at back) speaks with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection instructors in the Wastewater Treatment Operators class at the 2021 Fall State Short School.

President Enlow, with instructor Bob Case (right), addresses the Utilities Maintenance II class.

President Enlow, with instructor Russ Carson (left), addresses the Stormwater B class.

President Enlow, with instructor William Anderson (left), addresses the Stormwater C class.

Brad Hays (standing) instructs the Stormwater B class.

36 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The course covers theory, instrumentation, programmable logic controller basics, digital multimeter fundamentals, controls troubleshooting, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), and radio telemetry fundamentals. It features classroom and handson demonstrations led by an experienced instructor and is also available for water and wastewater continuing education. Courses that are offered for short schools will be available if sufficient registrations are submitted. Class sizes can be limited and minimum student registration may apply.

Short School Instructors and Exam Proctors As an organization, FWPCOA’s primary purpose is to provide quality education and training to Florida utility professionals. It takes a lot of effort to develop short school courses and

find qualified instructors to teach these classes. Courses must be updated with advances in technology and as new issues in the industry arise. That being said, all training programs are developed and taught by volunteers. Many FWPCOA members have dedicated years making sure that quality training is available for association members and the operators of Florida. The FWPCOA has programs that are recognized by FDEP as approved prerequisites for water, wastewater, and water distribution state exams. Our certified programs are also recognized by utilities throughout the state as prerequisites for many operators to advance in their employment. To maintain this effort, we must have new volunteers willing to give their time to instruct classes and proctor exams. I have often said it’s no different to instruct a room filled with students than it is to train one employee on the job—it’s only the number of ears listening that changes. Please volunteer your time and knowledge to give those new operators coming up in their careers the benefit you were given by a volunteer when you were starting out. Feel free to contact the training office at training@fwpcoa.org and make a difference.

2021 Summer Short School: Ft. Pierce So, let’s look at the 2021 summer short school. From August 9 through August 13, FWPCOA held its annual summer short school at the Indian River State Collage in Ft. Pierce. I would like to highlight some of the features of yet another successful FWPCOA short school. There were 250 students who attended this short school to take certification classes. I have noted, in parentheses, the courses using the newly published FWPCOA manuals. S B ackflow Tester (FWPCOA backflow manual) S Facility Management S Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B, and A S SCADA S Stormwater C, B, and A (FWPCOA stormwater manual for C and B level) S Water Distribution 3, 2, and 1 S Utility Maintenance Level 3 and 2 (FWPCOA utility maintenance level 3 manual) S Utility Customer Relation Level 1 (FWPCOA utility customer relations manual) S Wastewater Collection C, B, and A (FWPCOA wastewater collection manual for C and B) S Wastewater Optimization

Social distancing was considered when determining each training room setup based on the class size, and the wearing of masks was encouraged. First-day check-in and registration were done in each classroom to avoid having a large gathering of students. Final exams were also done in the classroom. As the president of FWPCOA I visited many of the classrooms to greet the students and thank them for their service and dedication. I also took the opportunity to talk to them about the need for instructors and how they can help the training effort to pass their knowledge and life experiences on to the new operators advancing in their careers.

2021 FWPCOA Awards The traditional awards banquet that is normally held with the summer short school was cancelled as a result of the Covid-19 variant. I want to recognize the award recipients here and thank them for their dedicated service and excellence of operation. The awards are for 2021 unless otherwise noted. I want to recognize Tim McVeigh for his Continued on page 38

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


William Anderson (standing) instructs the Stormwater C class.

President Enlow, with instructor Tom King (standing left), addresses the Supervision class.

2021 FWPCOA Awards Dr. A.P. Black Award Isaiah Moss Tampa Bay Water Water Clifford “Kip” Dollar Polk County Utilities Reclaim Victor Kelley Polk County Utilities Wastewater Raymond Bordner Award Steve Stanton U.S. Water Corp. Water William Finch Polk County Utilities Wastewater/Water Tim Vanasdale City of Port St. Lucie Honorable Mention Walt Smyser Award City of Port St. Lucie Robert Heilman Award Kevin Palmer City of Port St. Lucie

Utilities Maintenance Award City of Jacksonville Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant Eric McGill Water Conserv II Joseph V. Towry Award Stephen Arnold Schwab Water Conserv II Emory Dawkins Award Region 10 Edward Clark Editor Region 7 Deborah T. Wallace Editor Honorable Mention David B. Lee Award Nathan Silveira Polk County Utilities Northeast/Northwest Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility Pat Flanagan Award John Curls Sr. Barney’s Pump Inc. (2020) Richard P. Vogh Award Region 7 Deborah T. Wallace (2020)

38 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Duke Hawkins (standing at chart) instructs math for the Water Distribution Level 2 and Reclaimed Water B class.

Continued from page 37 dedicated service as the Online Institute chair. Tim was instrumental in developing the institute and administering the program. Through his effort the institute has become a resounding success. Tim is stepping down and turning his chair duties over to Darin Bishop. I also want to take time to honor Pete Tyson for his longtime service as the chair of the Safety Awards Committee. He will be stepping down and turning over his duties to Chuck Nichols. Pete also served as a math instructor for many years, demonstrating his dedication and service to FWPCOA training. Both of these people are an example to all about what dedication and professionalism are and we cannot thank them enough.

FWPCOA Training Update The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor, please contact the training office at 321-383-9690. In the meantime, and as always, our Online Training Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at onlinetraining@ fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at: training@fwpcoa.org. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care, and as usual, keep up the good work! S



Developing Effective Funding Strategies for Compliance With the Lead and Copper Rule Revisions Christopher Hill, Quirien Muylwyk, and John Konkus The Lead and Copper Rule Revisions (LCRR) were finalized in January 2021. In June, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) affirmed the rule requirements and extended the effective date of the LCRR to Dec. 16, 2021, and the compliance date to Oct. 16, 2024. The LCRR includes a number of key provisions that will impact water systems, including changes in compliance monitoring, service line inventories, and lead service line replacement (LSLR) plans. Understanding the potential impacts of the LCRR to a particular water system and having an effective compliance and funding strategy in place to address the impacts of the rule are critical to meeting the LCRR requirements.

Overview of the Lead and Copper Rule Revisions The copper requirements under the rule remain unchanged; however, it’s not the case for lead. Though EPA opted not to lower the lead action level (AL) from its current value of 15 µg/L, the revisions establish a new lead trigger level (TL) of 10 µg/L. Compliance and associated actions by a water system are based on the 90th percentile of lead monitoring results in comparison to the AL and TL. The revised compliance monitoring requirements increase the focus on singlefamily structures (SFS) with lead service lines (LSL). Under the current rule, SFS with LSL only comprise up to 50 percent of a system’s sampling pool, with the remaining samples coming from SFS with copper service lines and lead solder installed before 1982. The revised rule requires that all sampling be conducted at SFS with LSL if enough sites exist. In addition, the current rule requires collection of a first liter sample after 6 hours stagnation. Under the revisions, an additional fifth liter sample will be collected at homes served by LSL with the intention of collecting water from the LSL.

Compliance with the copper requirements, and for those systems that do not have LSL, will be based on first liter samples. In those systems that have LSL, compliance with the lead requirements will be based on the fifth liter sample at homes that have LSL. The rule includes “find-and-fix” provisions for locations where individual samples exceed the AL. When an individual sample exceeds 15 µg/L, water systems are required to collect follow-up samples at the monitoring location and in the distribution system in the vicinity of the AL exceedance. The purpose of the sampling is to determine the source of the elevated lead concentration. Based on the determination of the cause of the elevated lead concentration, water system requirements will range from “no action” by distribution system management to replacement of sources of lead in the home (e.g., a plumbing fixture) and adjustment of corrosion control treatment (CCT). Based on a system’s size and current CCT status, exceeding the AL or TL triggers certain actions. Generally, if a system has previously established optimal corrosion control treatment (OCCT) with the state and exceeds the TL or AL, it must reoptimize CCT; however, if a system exceeds the TL and has not previously established CCT, it must conduct a study to evaluate options and recommend OCCT. The OCCT would be required to be implemented if that water system exceeds the AL in subsequent sampling. The revisions also require targeted sampling at elementary schools and childcare facilities on a regular basis as a part of the increased focus on public education. Water systems must conduct sampling at 20 percent of elementary schools per year, 20 percent of childcare facilities per year, and at secondary schools on request for five years. After the first five years, water systems must conduct sampling at schools and childcare facilities on request.

40 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Christopher Hill is drinking water market sector leader with AECOM Technical Services in Tampa. Quirien Muylwyk is water quality technical director with AECOM Technical Services in Toronto, Ontario. John Konkus is senior manager of government affairs with AECOM Technical Services in Tallahassee, Fla.

The LCRR contain several public education elements, including customer notifications “as soon as practicable but no later than three days” following a TL exceedance at a sampling site and providing public education at schools and childcare facilities on the risks of lead in drinking water. While the water system is responsible for conducting the sampling at these facilities, the results are not considered in the water system’s compliance determination. Further, the water system is only required to provide the sampling results and remediation information to the facility within 30 days of receipt of the sampling results. Neither the water system, nor a school or childcare facility, is required to act if results exceed the TL or AL. The requirements to sample these facilities can be waived if a state or local program to sample these facilities already exists. Finally, water systems are required to conduct a materials inventory of all service lines by Oct. 16, 2024, and make that information publicly available (via a website or other means). In addition, all water systems with LSL will be required to develop an LSLR plan. The rule does not require mandatory LSL replacement unless a system exceeds the AL or TL; however, replacement of the publicly owned portion at an individual property is required when replacement of the privately owned portion is initiated by a customer. A water system that exceeds the AL must implement its LSLR at a rate of 3 percent per year; a water system that exceeds the TL must implement LSLR at an annual rate approved

Machine learning can be an effective means of identifying lead service line locations and prioritizing replacement.

by the state. In both scenarios, LSLR can be discontinued after two consecutive years of monitoring below the TL.

Developing a Service Line Inventory As stated, all water systems, including those that do not have LSL, are required to create a publicly accessible service line inventory by Oct. 16, 2024. Service lines will be given one of four possible designations: S Known LSL will be labeled as “lead service lines.” S Galvanized service lines that are or were previously downstream of LSL will be designated “galvanized requiring replacement.” S Service lines of unknown material are to be labeled “lead-status-unknown service lines.” S Those known to be “nonlead” can be designated as such. A “nonlead” designation does not require the water system to identify the exact material of a service line, such as plastic or copper, if it’s not LSL or galvanized and requiring a replacement service line. It’s also worth mentioning that the LCRR does not require water systems to investigate or inventory lead connectors (i.e., goosenecks or pigtails) because records identifying their location are anticipated to be very poor and investigation is expected to be difficult due to their location (under pavement). Further, the replacement of lead connectors is expected

Lead service line replacement plans are due by October 2024. Though replacement may not be required, the availability of funding should make lead service line replacement a priority.

to be undertaken opportunistically, as part of LSL work or water main renewal. The inventory must be updated over time to reflect changes, such as verification of lead-status-unknown service line material compositions or LSL that have been replaced. Water systems with only nonlead service lines are required to conduct an initial inventory, but they are not required to provide inventory updates and they may fulfill the requirement to make the inventory publicly accessible with a statement that there are no LSL, along with a general description of the methods used to make that determination. Developing an inventory will be an iterative process due to the availability of records that may be incomplete or erroneous, the presence of lead-status-unknown service lines, and the need to update the inventory over time. Helping multiple utilities find and document lead services has allowed deployment of a range of techniques, such as: S Desktop reviews of historical data (city building codes and ordinances, housing build dates, water main tap dates, property cards, etc.), maintenance records, staff knowledge, and other sources of asset data, such as geographical information systems (GIS) and asset management data. Experience has shown that the rules used to assign an initial material designation can change as better information is developed, and that conflicts in the data will exist and logical prioritization of record types is necessary to designate the material.

S F ield investigations, such as interior observations at the meter and pothole investigations. Experience has shown a single pothole may not be sufficient to confirm a nonlead service line. Multiple pothole excavations on each side of the curb stop and/or near the meter may be necessary, particularly where there is a history of partial LSL replacement or where there is evidence of a service line repair. S I ndicators of lead based on water quality sampling. When considering the use of water quality data to identify possible LSL locations, it’s important to consider any CCT employed and its potential impacts on water quality. For example, a water quality profile can be used to observe changes in lead concentrations from the tap to the water main. An increase in lead concentrations in samples from the water main can be indicative of the presence of LSL; however, a system utilizing an orthophosphate inhibitor might see little variation in lead and should be cautious about assuming a service line is nonlead based solely on water quality. When using water quality sampling, the lead concentration used to indicate LSL must be calibrated for each water system.

Confirmation of Nonlead Status One of the most-challenging things about the LCRR may be confirming nonlead status for an individual site or water system. Continued on page 42

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


Continued from page 41 As EPA has not yet released guidance related to conducting a service line inventory, a recommended first step is to meet with the state or primacy agency to establish expectations for the LSL inventory. An important part of this discussion will be confirmation of what is required to demonstrate that a service line is nonlead or the lead status is unknown. While there is no deadline to investigate the material composition of all lead-statusunknown service lines, water systems must create a strategy in their LSLR plans for investigating lead-status-unknown service lines in their inventory. This strategy, coupled with the incentive to investigate unknowns to ease future LSLR burden, will encourage water systems to verify all unknown service line materials in a timely manner. In the LCRR it’s stated by EPA that service lines installed after a state or federal ban on the use of lead may be designated as nonlead, but provides no real guidance beyond that. In the absence of additional guidance, a pragmatic approach is to balance the risk of lead exposure and the cost to conclusively determine that there is no lead (e.g., conduct water quality sampling, perform interior and pothole inspections, etc.), and prioritize service line material confirmation based on that risk. For example, a household childcare facility located in an area where LSL are known to exist might be a high priority for confirmation of service line material. On the other hand, a service line at a home near an area where a water main was recently replaced and all of the homes were observed to have copper service lines might be of lower priority (or even be designated nonlead based on discussions with the state or primacy agency).

Lead Service Line Replacement Planning to Manage the Risk of Lead Exposure Water systems with LSL are required to submit an LSLR plan by Oct. 16, 2024. The rule does not require mandatory LSL replacement unless a system exceeds the AL or TL; however, replacement of the publicly owned portion of the service line is required when replacement of the privately owned portion is initiated by a customer. As such, water systems should develop service line replacement policies and procedures, inclusive of construction materials and methods, customer guidance, and funding strategy before October 2024. A water system that exceeds the AL must implement its LSLR at a rate of 3 percent per year; a water system that exceeds the TL must implement LSLR at an annual rate approved by the state. In both scenarios, LSLR can be discontinued after two consecutive years of monitoring below the TL. Service lines are typically replaced in one of five ways, the combination of which determines the overall cost and efficiency of the program: S Emergency replacements due to water main or service line repairs. S Replacements as part of planned water main rehabilitation or replacement project. S Individual replacements to address a property where high lead levels are measured (i.e., find-and-fix) or when the occupants are at high risk of lead exposure (i.e., household with young children or a private childcare facility). S Individual replacements by third parties (i.e., a property owner or developer). S Groupings of replacements, whereby an

Table 1. Lead and Copper Rule Revisions Sample Site Tiering Criteria

Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Tier 5


Definition SFS served by LSL Buildings, including multifamily residences served by LSL SFS served by galvanized service lines that are/were downstream of an LSL SFS service by copper service line with lead solder Representative sites

42 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

area of the water system is targeted for replacement. The most-appropriate approach to LSL replacement will be system-specific. Preparation of the LSLR plan will include consideration of the following: S G eographic distribution of LSL in the water system. S P roportion of properties in the system or an area of the system at risk of or exceeding the TL or AL. S A ge of the occupants (for example, neighborhoods with many young families). S A bility of the water system to complete the replacements with its own staff or the need for outside (e.g., contractor) assistance. S C ashflow projections to complete the replacement and funding commitments. All LSL replacement should be prioritized based on risk; however, risk is relative. A water system with relatively few LSL may prioritize individual replacements based on lead levels at a particular home and/or based on the age of the occupants. On the other hand, a system with a significant number of replacements may take a slightly different approach, prioritizing both individual sites and geographic areas based on risk. In all cases, it’s recommended that water systems have policies and procedures in place to replace LSL when there is a known risk at a particular site; for example, a single-family residence where lead levels exceed the TL (or AL) on a recurring basis and it can be determined that the lead is the result of LSL. The LSLR plan must describe how replacement is prioritized. It’s recommended that the following factors be considered to prioritize replacements: 1. Location, distribution, and density of LSL to help plan the work. 2. Sociodemographic factors that reflect the likelihood and consequence of lead exposure from drinking water. 3. Construction constraints and construction opportunities to manage community disruption. When all three are considered, a delicate balance between public health protection and construction efficiencies can be realized. Experience suggests that LSL occurrence often coincides with household income, and therefore, sociodemographic indicators for poverty, education, and other factors specific to the water system can be used with the Continued on page 44

Get the lead out The Lead and Copper Rule Revisions (LCRR) will impact every

community water system across the U.S. To bring clean water to

everyone, we are helping large cities and small towns develop LCRR compliance and funding strategies tailored to their unique needs. Whether you are looking to see how the LCRR might impact

your community or will need funding for potential service line replacements, AECOM can help you develop a cost-effective

compliance and funding strategy that will benefit your community. As one of the most trusted firms in the water industry, we have offices throughout the state of Florida. Contact:

Chris Hill christopher.hill@aecom.com

Figure 1. Comparison of Lead Statistics Under Current and Lead and Copper Rule Revisions Monitoring Protocols (Data from 50 percent LSL sites and 50 percent copper with lead solder sites indicated by “50:50” data from only SFS served by an LSL indicated by “LSL only.”)

Continued from page 42 lead inventory to determine which areas of a water system would benefit the most from replacements early in a multiyear lead replacement program. Consideration should also be given to construction constraints and opportunities (e.g., water main rehabilitation projects) to realize cost efficiencies. A prioritization framework that is transparent can be shared with the public and city leaders so that customers know when the lead in their neighborhood will be replaced and why. The success of any replacement program depends on the participation by property owners. No credit is given for partial LSL replacement that results in lead remaining in the ground, and partial LSL replacement should be avoided if possible. Customer participation is promoted when the barriers to participation are reduced, which includes both financial and communication barriers. Financial barriers can be addressed through grants or loans to cover the cost of privateside replacement and are discussed in the “funding strategies” section presented later. Communication barriers can be addressed by targeted and well-thoughtout public outreach, communication, and education programs. Sometimes providing “proof ” of LSL is necessary for owner engagement, and traditional “scratch tests,” water quality sampling, and in-home inspections by utility staff or contractors can help address this. The communications strategy must address every interaction customers have, from finding out the material of their service lines to post-LSLR sampling and filter use. The Lead Service Line Replacement Collaborative (https://www.lslr-collaborative.org/) provides information of experiences from other water systems that can be leveraged when developing an LSLR plan and communications strategy.

Using the Lead Service Line Inventory: Impacts of Changes in Monitoring Requirements

Figure 2. Typical Water Quality Profile for a Home With a Lead Service Line

44 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Sample site selection under the LCRR will be in accordance with a new set of tiering criteria (Table 1) that prioritize structures at locations served by LSL. For LSL sites, a first liter and a fifth liter must be collected and analyzed; the first liter will be analyzed for copper and the fifth liter for lead. For water systems without LSL sites, a first-draw 1-liter sample will be collected and analyzed for lead and copper. Galvanized service lines that are/were downstream of an LSL are not

considered LSL from a sampling perspective and only first liter samples are required at those sites. The prioritization of sampling at sites served by LSL could result in significant increases in the statistics used to analyze lead sampling results. Figure 1 compares lead statistics for a system that collects 100 samples twice per year under the current Lead and Copper Rule (i.e., minimum of 50 percent SFS served by LSL and 50 percent SFS served by copper service line with lead solder installed prior to 1982) and LCRR (SFS served by LSL only). The results show quite significant increases in lead statistics when only homes served by LSL are considered. Under the current sampling protocol (see columns labeled “50:50” in Figure 1), the 90th percentile lead concentration in this system is well below the AL and would appear to be comfortably below the TL; however, exclusion of the copper service line sites (see columns labeled “LSL only” in Figure 1) results in a 90th percentile lead concentration that exceeds the TL in each of the first two years of data evaluated and a 90th percentile value approaching the TL in the third year. When additional LSL sites are added (i.e., new LSL sites are substituted for the copper service line sites), it’s possible that this system may be at even more risk of exceeding the TL, and perhaps the AL. Figure 1 only considers the impacts of the change in the selection of sample sites

based on the revised tiering of Table 1 and does not include the impact of collecting a fifth liter sample on lead concentrations at homes served by LSL. The impact on the lead concentration due to the fifth liter sample in homes with LSL can be seen in Figure 2. In this particular instance, the increase in total lead concentration was not significant (maybe 20 to 30 percent), but it was sufficient to push the value at this home over the TL. When considered together, the focus on locations with LSL and the shift to a fifth liter sample could significantly impact a water system’s compliance status, resulting in the need to optimize or study corrosion control treatment and/or initiate LSL replacement.

Funding Strategies: How to Pay for Lead Service Line Replacement Planning and Lead Service Line Replacement The EPA estimates that the average cost to replace a single service line is approximately $4,700, resulting in costs of between $28 and $47 billion to replace all LSL in the United States. (2019); however, costs can vary significantly from system to system and could be as high as $10,000 to $15,000 or more per service line when all costs (public outreach, household filters, etc.) are considered. For those communities with a significant number of LSL, the financial burden of replacement could be quite significant. Further,

disadvantaged homeowners may be unable to afford LSL replacement if the water system is unable to pay for the full cost of replacement. Fortunately, state and federal funds may be available to assist with LSL replacement. There are a number of existing grant and loan programs available and a number of agencies that may fund LSL replacement, including the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF), Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA), U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development, as well as state and federal earmarks and other programs. The federal government is currently negotiating a U.S. infrastructure plan. Though the details continue to emerge, one priority remains a center of any future bill—funding for LSL replacement. Most iterations of the draft bill have included funds “. . .to replace every lead service line in the nation.” While the details regarding funding distribution are still unclear, DWSRF, WIFIA, and federal earmarks are likely to be used as vehicles to provide funding to water systems. It’s important to understand how these programs work and what it will take to apply for and administer funds received under those programs. For example, securing of DWSRF funds typically requires submission of a facility plan (i.e., an LSLR plan) and other commitments by the water system. It’s worth Continued on page 46

Figure 3. Recommended Funding and Compliance Timeline

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


Continued from page 45 noting that the cost of plan preparation can be recovered under DWSRF. Similarly, the first gate for WIFIA funding is the submission of a letter of interest, and although there is no deposit required with the submission of the letter (other than the costs associated with any pre-engineering work to support the application), the owner will need to provide a deposit of $100,000 with the application approximately one year after submitting the letter. Further, the financing side for EPA requires an additional fee that is determined for each successfully funded project, and the amount may range up to $250,000, which may be waived by EPA if conditions warrant. The WIFIA may also require the water system to fund 50 percent or more of the replacement as a condition for further money. If and how DWSRF or WIFIA requirements may change when it comes to funding LSL replacement is unclear, but water systems should begin developing a strategy to apply for and administer federal funds for LSL replacement. Understanding current DWSRF and WIFIA requirements is an important first step to determining which funding model is best suited for a particular water system. For example, DWSRF might be a better option for smaller systems due to the priority given to small systems with the greatest funding needs. Once made available, there are likely to be deadlines to apply for, and perhaps, more importantly, use funds to replace LSL. Having an answer to the question “How and what will it take for a system to replace all lead service lines in my system as quickly as possible?” will be key to preparing a LSLR plan and determining the most-appropriate funding strategy for the system.

Compliance Timeline The LCRR are complex, and the revisions are the most-significant change to drinking water regulations in the U.S. in more than a decade. Water systems will be required to meet the requirements of the LCRR by December 2024. Changes in sampling requirements have the potential to significantly impact systems with LSL. For systems without LSL, demonstration of their nonlead status may be their most-significant challenge. Figure 3 provides a suggested timeline to assure that systems meet the requirements of the LCRR by the compliance deadline and have a funding strategy in place for LSL replacement. A few key elements of the proposed timeline are:

S B egin reviewing historical data now to determine how changes in monitoring requirements could impact future compliance. In the absence of fifth liter samples at homes with LSL, collect some samples to trial performance. S Meet with a state or primacy agency as soon as possible to understand the service line inventory expectations and what they will require for designation of nonlead status. S B egin preparation of the service line inventory and have a plan for implementation of the public interfaces. S Review current funding program requirements (e.g., DWSRF or WIFIA) and identify which funding model is best suited for the system. Monitor federal legislation to understand how funding for LSL replacement will be distributed to water systems and what the associated administration and utility-provided funding commitments will be. S Assess funding program eligibility to cover the cost of service line inventory and LSLR plan preparation. For example, DWSRF can be used for engineering design fees after submittal of the facilities plan. Preparing the facilities plan in such a way that it identifies the steps that will be taken to prepare the LSL replacement plan, including field verification and additional testing, may make those costs eligible for funding. Similarly, the WIFIA funding may be used for “[d]evelopment-phase activities, including planning, preliminary engineering, design, environmental review, revenue forecasting, and other preconstruction activities.” The WIFIA funds can be used to reimburse the cost of these activities if they are carried out under certain federal guidelines. Utilities can align previously incurred costs with federal guidelines to ensure that eligible activities can be submitted for funding, and continue to monitor federal legislation to assess the eligibility of service line inventory and LSLR planning for funding assistance. S Prepare funding applications and other required program documents in 2022 (e.g., DWSRF facilities plan or WIFIA letter of interest). S Use the time available between now and December 2024 to collect additional data to assess the potential impacts of changes in monitoring the system to avoid surprises when the first round of new compliance data is gathered in 2025. S Verify service lines of unknown status now. The requirements for nonlead sites

46 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and systems are substantially less than those with LSL or lead-status-unknowns. Use the time between now and December 2024 to verify service line materials in accordance with state or primacy agency expectations and reduce the number of lead-status-unknown service lines in the system. This can have significant financial impact on a water system. For example, if a system has a thousand known LSL and 4000 lead-status-unknown LSL, and is required to implement LSL replacement, the required 3 percent per year is 150 LSL. The number of required replacements could be reduced significantly by verifying that those unknown-status services are nonlead. Further, the cost of verifying service line materials will be lower than the cost of replacement. S R eview data from previous sampling efforts at schools and daycare facilities, if available. It’s important that schools and childcare facilities not be caught off guard by the monitoring or public education requirements of the rule and that they have a plan to communicate with their customers about the risks of lead in drinking water. Water systems should initiate discussions with school districts and childcare facilities in their service areas as soon as possible.

Summary The LCRR will be challenging for many water systems for a variety of reasons. Understanding how the rule might impact a utility and how it develops an effective funding strategy for LSL replacement will be the key to achieving compliance with the new rule. Water systems should begin an evaluation of their compliance and potential financial risk and exposure and then formulate a strategy to address those risks immediately. The suggestions presented can serve as a road map to initiate that assessment. S

EXCELLENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Register online at treeo.ufl.edu

Asbestos Abatement Courses

Backflow Prevention Courses

Solid and Hazardous Waste Courses

Water and Wastewater Courses


Water Class B Certification Review Virtual | $705

26 OCT

DEP SOPs For Water Sampling & Meter Testing

27 OCT

Intro to DEP SOP’s for Groundwater

2-4 NOV

Microbiology of Activated Sludge


Undirectional Flushing Workshop


Gainesville, FL | $260 CEUs 0.8 DS DW WW

Gainesville, FL | $50 Prerequisite DEP SOPs For Water Sampling Meter Testing CEUs 0.4 DS DW WW

Gainesville, FL | $699 CEUs 2.2 WW

Gainesville, FL & Virtual | $270 CEUs 0.8 DS DW

Introduction to Life Station Maintenance Virtual | $325 CEUs 0.8 DS WW

15-19 NOV

Wastewater Class B Certification Review

6-10 DEC

Wastewater Class C Certification Review

13-15 DEC

Gainesville, FL | $720

Gainesville, FL | $720

Introuction to Electrical Maintenance Gainesville, FL | $605 CEUs 2.0 DS DW WW

Visit www.treeo.ufl.edu for a full schedule of courses including: Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Assembly Repair and Maintenance Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Recertification

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


Meet Morgan Barnes, Florida’s 2021 Stockholm Junior Water Prize Winner Shea Dunifon On August 24 during World Water Week, the Stockholm International Water Institute announced the 2021 recipient of the Stockholm Junior Water Prize (SJWP), Eshani Jha of California. Thirty-two countries and 44 participants from around the globe competed for the coveted international title and a chance to be recognized as an innovator in the water sector. In the United States, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) received 235 entries, including Morgan Barnes, a student at the Canterbury School in Fort Myers. Morgan, a junior, won the Florida Stockholm Junior Water Prize for her research titled, “Analyzing In-Situ Environmental Impacts on Long-Term Durability, Cohesivity, and Viability Sodium

Alginate Immobilized Chlorella vulgaris Bioremediation Units.” As both an innovator and an inspiration (and a rare native Floridian), I decided to interview her and share her story. Shea: What is one interesting fact or thing that you would like to share about yourself? Morgan: Although this is not research-related, I would say the most interesting thing about me is that I rodeo. I started competing when I was 7 years old and now I have been fortunate enough to travel across the United States and compete at some of the largest rodeos in the nation. Although this sport requires a lot of hard work and dedication, it’s something that I truly enjoy doing and is really rewarding. As someone who got into gardening at a young

age because my mom and my grandmother were both really into it, I’m just curious what got you started in rodeo? Both my parents grew up in the city; our family friends, however, had a farm and their son used to bull ride. They invited us to watch one of his competitions and I remember seeing all these cowgirls and cowboys on horses and I just looked at my mom and said “I really want to do this one day!” My mom kind of laughed and said “Okay.” She took me out to our family friends’ farm and I got on a horse and I fell in love with the sport. My mom was like “Well, this is going to be quite an expensive hobby, but we’ll do it.” It honestly was such a great opportunity that I was given, merely by chance. That’s very cool. Do you plan to do rodeo after high school? I’m in high school right now and I am able to compete at that level, but I want to go to an elite university so I will not be able to do it in college because of studying and research. These are two things I take seriously in a career option, but maybe later in life I would like to pick it back up again. Have you chosen a university and what are you thinking about in terms of a career? There are a couple of universities in Florida that I would like to attend; for example, the University of Florida for research. I would also really like to attend an elite university, like an Ivy League school. I want to continue pursuing a career in research and develop my invention that I am focusing on right now in this study.

Above: Morgan conducting research at the Canterbury Independent Science Research Laboratory. At right: Displaying her medal as the 2021 Florida state winner of the Stockholm Junior Water Prize competition.

48 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Other than rodeo, do you have any other interesting or relevant factoids you’d like to share with our readers? Besides rodeo I also play in my school’s jazz band and wind ensemble. I play a variety of instruments, but my favorites are clarinet and bass so that’s another thing I do in my free time. You sound really busy; what’s your secret? It’s definitely a challenge balancing everything. I had to narrow my focus to three things, which are research, rodeo, and music.

I like that. I almost feel like that’s your bumper sticker: Research, Rodeo, and. . . too bad music doesn’t start with an “r” (to be continued). I know (laughter). Enough alliteration. Let’s talk a little bit about your research project. How did that start? I’ve been doing research since 5th grade; however, I didn’t start doing water-related studies until 8th grade. I’ve always been fond of recreation, and especially fishing, since I grew up in Florida—there are beaches everywhere. In 2018, harmful algal blooms began to plague Florida’s waterways and there were a lot of externalities that came from these harmful algal blooms. I wasn’t able to do my activities, so out of curiosity, I started researching ways to help return Florida’s water back to natural nutrient levels where there were no harmful algal blooms. Upon my research, I didn’t find any cost-effective or long-term solutions; in fact, there weren’t any readily available solutions at the time. In 8th grade I started working on a project where I could focus on bioremediation and help control nutrient runoff in Florida’s waterways. Before we move on, should we add fishing to your list of things you do? Yes! Oh, that’s another thing I like to do (laughing); I do go fishing a lot. My dad really liked it, so growing up I always went out on the boat and went fishing with him. It’s another hobby of mine. Reading the title of your research, it’s impressive. Are you doing your research in collaboration with a university? I’m not. I’m currently working with the research department at my school and I’m working with the head of the department, Kelly Percivall. I have not been affiliated with any other universities for research. It’s a very impressive title. My sister and I have a competition between us every year to see who can come up with the longest-sounding titles for science fairs. (Laughing) Did you do a science fair project this year? I did! I competed at my school fair and I was selected to go to the regional competition. From there I got invited to compete at both the state and then the international levels. I was extremely fortunate to receive fourth place at the International Science and Engineering Fair, which was quite a shock to me because the sheer volume at that fair is absolutely huge! It was a great experience to go and meet people from all across the country.

Standing in a freshwater retention pond while testing her invention in in-situ environments.

Congratulations! Did you hear about SJWP from participating in any of those fairs? Last year at my regional fair, I was awarded an invitation to participate in SJWP and at the time I wasn’t too familiar with the award, but I did research it when I got home. It was quite an honor to receive that award and I wish that more people knew about it; at my school, I try to inform people about SJWP in general because it’s not something a lot of people are aware of. People should know about SJWP—look at the water movement and how it’s progressed over the years! Because I received an award at SJWP, I was able to submit my project to compete at the state level and I was selected as the 2021 winner.

else is doing. Those would be my two main pieces of advice to younger generations.

To all the aspiring middle school and/or high school scientists out there, what advice would you like to give them? My first piece of advice would be to persevere when things go awry. There are a lot of times, in my own personal experience of research, where things do not always go as planned. It can be really frustrating at times when you’ve worked a lot of hours on a project and the data is just not coming together in order to find what you’re looking for. Through my time at research, I’ve learned that it’s important to always take every disaster as an opportunity to learn from it. I would say my second piece of advice is to get out of your comfort zone when it comes to research. It’s okay to go in a different direction that other scientists hadn’t necessarily thought of before—that’s what makes your project novel and exciting to learn about. It’s okay to do something that’s different than what everyone

I can’t resist—is she also doing rodeo? She also does rodeo (laughing). Yes, it’s great to have someone there every step of the way. We both have our own things. For example, mine is music and she’s a really amazing artist and athlete. She’s won a couple of medals at the state track and field championship so it’s very cool that we both have our own outlets, too.

I’m just curious—you mentioned that you and your sister like to create long research titles; is your sister doing similar research? Yes; she’s my twin sister, which is totally fun. It’s not only fun to compete against each other, but also against ourselves, so it’s great to have someone there pushing you. She also competes in research, but she does not do earth and environmental sciences—she likes to focus on biomedical sciences. She works with trying to help paraplegics walk again and regenerate the spinal cord, which is really interesting research.

Back to your research. With the research that you submitted for SJWP this year, what is the next step? Are you going to continue with this? Are there any new questions or are you going to move on to something else? I’ve been working on this project for three years now, but I want to stick with this project until I graduate high school. Next year I am going to work on an apparatus in which to put the finalized bioremediation units I’ve constructed, and in my senior year I am going to work on Continued on page 50

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


Continued from page 49 reincorporating those bioremediation units I created in the soil back into the environment. To incorporate a soil additive without utilizing fertilizers is where I am going with this in the future. My long-term goal is, I would love to not only get this invention patented, but also see it on a large-scale application. I’d like to put the immobilized media I created in the different outflow centers of Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee River. I definitely want to continue working on this project and see it through because I always like to finish what I start. I feel like you’re already a part of the water sector, like you work here. I would love to continue working on this in the future because water is something that I am very interested in. I think that a lot more people, especially young people in our generation, need to start focusing on a way to fix and reverse the ecological footprints that we’ve introduced. I feel like we have the opportunity to make a difference, so I would definitely love to continue pursuing a career in water sciences, even if later in life, I would be working on patenting my invention on the side. I have to admit, I had no idea what I wanted to be in high school, so I think you’re admirable. I also think you have a really bright future in the environmental sciences and a natural curiosity that is beneficial to the water sector. Whatever you decide to do, there are a lot of options if you do decide to stay in water and do research. It’s always evolving!

That’s what why I’m so in love with the science, because there’s so many ways you can go with each experiment, like this one for example. I’ve been working on it for three years and I’m still not done with it, yet I just keep finding more and more things to incorporate into the design of it, which is what is really awesome. That is probably one of the things I like the most about research. How did research work out for you during COVID-19? Were you able to go to the school at certain times or were you doing everything remotely? I wanted to go work in a research laboratory; however, due to the pandemic I wasn’t able to work there. My school did allow for in-person learning if you socially distanced and wore a mask at all times, so I was able to go into my school’s research facility. Luckily for me, I did most of my project outside in the fresh water retention pond at my school, so I was able to go outside, not wear a mask, and do my research with everything being pretty much normal. When I was working in the laboratory, however, there were a lot of restrictions and guidelines we had to follow due to the pandemic, so it affected my research slightly. And online research competitions? I can’t say I’ve ever participated in one; what was that like? It was a challenging year for sure. Research competitions were quite tough to do online. The regional- and state-level competitions were definitely challenging to do because they were on Zoom, but it was still a great experience either way.

Time for my last question. As someone who has participated in science fairs, would you say that it’s been a positive experience and have you ever received good research or career advice at a fair? Yes, some of the judges I have had the pleasure of talking to in the past were generous with giving me certain tips and tricks here and there. A couple of them have even given me advice like “Have you considered this option?” and others gave the general skepticism of science. Having others question your research definitely helps you understand the process a lot better. Talking to people and networking has really influenced me as a researcher and it’s made my project a lot better because I was able to answer the judges’ questions and see what I needed to improve on in my research. And with that, Morgan Barnes: Research, Rodeo, and Rhythm. Welcome to the water family!

Runners-Up and Judges The FWEA Public Communications and Outreach Committee (PCOC) would also like to recognize the 2021 SJWP runners-up: S A iden Vance, Second place S O livia Williams, Third place And last but not least, a special thank-you to all of our 2021 judges: S J ulie Karleskint, Hazen and Sawyer S T im Madhanagopal, Constantine Engineering S Z achary Loeb, Clay County Utilities S B ina Nayak, Pinellas County Utilities S M araida Balaguer-Barbosa, Arcadis S S tephanie Paredes, AECOM S M ichael Demko, Wade Trim S J ulianne LaRock, South Florida Water Management District S C ristina Gauthier, South Florida Water Management District The PCOC would like to thank Arpita Meher of Arcadis for serving as the SJWP Florida state coordinator for the past two years. Next year, we look forward to welcoming Zachary Loeb (Florida SJWP 2013 and 2014 winner) as our new coordinator and Arpita as the incoming chair of PCOC. Shea Dunifon is the education coordinator at Pinellas County Utilities South Cross Bayou Advanced Water Reclamation Facility in St. Petersburg and is chair of the FWEA Public Communications and Outreach Committee. S

Competing in a local rodeo on her horse, T.

50 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal



for the latest updates on classes


18-20.... Backflow Repair.......................................... Deltona............... $275/305


15-18.... Backflow Tester.......................................... St. Petersburg..... $375/405 15-19.... Water Distribution Level II.......................... Deltona............... $325


6-9..... Backflow Tester.......................................... Deltona............... $375/405



10-14.... Water Distribution Level I........................... Deltona............... $325 10-14.... Wastewater Collection A............................ Deltona............... $325

24-27.... Backflow Tester.......................................... Deltona............... $375/406 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. *B ackflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


APWA Selects New Members to Board of Directors The membership of the American Public Works Association (APWA) has affirmed the selection of three members to the board of directors. Dan Hartman, PWLF, will serve as president-elect and will join the APWA Executive Committee; Joubin Pakpour, P.E., will serve as director of Region VIII; and Tina Nelson, P.E., will serve as director of Region IX. All three assumed their office on the 18-member board of directors on Aug. 29, 2021, during APWA’s annual Public Works Expo in St. Louis, Mo. The APWA voting process begins with the appointment of a national nominating committee (one member from each region appointed by the APWA president) and regional nominating committees (one member from each chapter where the term of office for a board member expires in 2021). The nominating committees accept candidates for positions on the board of directors, review nomination packets, and conduct interviews of the candidates. The process culminates in the affirmation vote of the entire membership once the candidates are selected by the nominating committees. The voting process affirms the diligent process undertaken by APWA to identify the mostqualified candidates to represent the association.

New Members Dan Hartman Dan Hartman, PWLF, joins the board of directors as president-elect. He has been the director of public works for the City of

Dan Hartman

Golden (Colo.), since 1988. He is responsible for engineering, streets, water supply treatment and distribution, wastewater collection, environmental services, stormwater, capital construction, traffic engineering, fleet, and the city’s building department. Prior to working for the City of Golden, he held director positions for the City of Tustin, Calif., and the City of Steamboat Springs, Colo. Joubin Pakpour Joubin Pakpour, P.E., joins the board as director of Region VIII. He serves as principal engineer with Pakpour Consulting Group in Pleasanton, Calif. Pakpour began his career at the Contra Costa County Public Works Department as an assistant engineer and rotated through various divisions, including flood control, design, and construction. He left the county as a project engineer, and after a pitstop at a consulting firm, he started the municipal consulting firm of Pakpour Consulting Group with three colleagues in 2004. The firm works exclusively with a handful of public agencies and has grown to 15 professionals. During the past 17 years Pakpour has served as the president of the firm and is a vocal supporter of APWA and public works as a whole.

a program for the capital delivery team that has produced aligned engagement of all stakeholders. Nelson served as project manager for the Bucklin Hill Bridge and Estuary Enhancement Project, the largest roads project in the history of Kitsap County Public Works. The project constructed a 240-foot, multispan, four-lane bridge, and installed new bike lanes, wider sidewalks, and two scenic overlooks. The result was increased traffic capacity, enhanced tidal exchange, and improved fish migration. The project was an APWA Project of the Year winner.

Tina Nelson Tina Nelson, P.E., joins the board as director of Region IX. She serves as the senior program manager for the public works department at Kitsap County, Wash. She has successfully implemented

For the past 83 years, APWA, a not-forprofit, international organization of more than 30,000 members involved in the field of public works, has focused on supporting those who operate, improve, and maintain public works and infrastructure through advocacy, education, and member engagement, which is APWA’s mission, in the United States and Canada to help them serve their communities. The entire association continues to implement the strategic plan for 2020-2023, which includes four strategic goals: S Value — Promote the value of public works and enhance its visibility and awareness. S Voice — Be the voice of public works to government, the public, and media. S Education and Credentialing — Provide excellence in education and credentialing. S Membership and Chapters — Deliver an outstanding and valuable membership experience in collaboration with APWA chapters.

Joubin Pakpour

Tina Nelson

52 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

2020-2021 APWA Board of Directors

Top row (from left): Mary Joyce Ivers, Stan Brown, Bill Spearman, Gary Losier, Dominick Top row (from left): Mary Joyce Ivers, Stan Brown, Bill Spearman, Gary Losier, Dominick Longobardi, Keith Pugh, Doug Layton, Sean O’Dell, and Joe Johnson. Bottom row: David Fabiano, Shahnawaz Dan Hartman, LauraO'Dell, Kroeger, Helena Allison, Jim Neal, Lisa Rapp, VicBottom Bianes, and Scott Grayson. Longobardi, Keith Pugh, DougAhmad, Layton, Sean and Joe Johnson. row: David Fabiano, Shahnawaz Ahmad, Dan Hartman, Laura Kroeger, Helena Allison, Jim Neal, Lisa 2020-21 APWA Board of Directors Rapp, Vic Bianes, and Scott Grayson. President Mary Joyce Ivers, CPFP, PWLF Deputy Public Works Director City of Ventura Public Works Ventura, Calif.

Director, Region V Sean Edward O’Dell, P.E. Vice President Baxter & Woodman Inc. Mokena, Ill.

Technical Director, Engineering and Technology James R. Neal, P.E., PWLF Strategic Business Development Coordinator Mattern & Craig Summerville, S.C.

President-Elect Stan Brown, P.E. Member Services Consultant Georgia Municipal Association Franklinville, N.C.

Director, Region VI Joe C. Johnson, P.E. Senior Business Consultant Olsson Overland Park, Kan. Director, Region VII David S. Fabiano, P.E. Town Engineer Town of Gilbert Gilbert, Ariz.

Technical Director, Fleet and Facilities Vic Bianes, P.E. Client Manager Kleinfelder Engineering Bonita, Calif.

Director, Region VIII Shahnawaz Ahmad, P.E., PWLF President SA Associates Arcadia, Calif. Director, Region IX Dan J. Hartman Director of Public Works City of Golden Golden, Colo.

Technical Director, Transportation Helena K. Allison, PWLF Ghirardelli Associates Inc. Davis, Calif.


Past President William E. Spearman III, P.E. WE3 Consultants LLC Saluda, S.C. Director, Region I W. Gary Losier, P Eng Director of Engineering and Works Town of Quispamsis Quispamsis, N.B. Director, Region II Dominick Longobardi Deputy Comptroller Town of Hempstead Hempstead, N.Y. Director, Region III Keith Pugh, P.E., PWLF Client Success Manager WithersRavenel Greeneville, Tenn. Director, Region IV Douglas E. Layton, P.E., PWLF (retired) APWA Florida Chapter Jacksonville, Fla.

Technical Director, Leadership and Management Laura A. Kroeger, P.E. Engineering Director Mile High Flood District Denver, Colo.

Technical Director, Environmental Management Lisa Ann Rapp, PWLF Director of Public Works City of Lakewood Lakewood, Calif.

Member Scott Grayson, CAE Chief Executive Officer American Public Works Association Hopkins, Minn. Staff Liaison Teresa Hon Senior Manager of Board Operations and Governance American Public Works Association Kansas City, Mo.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021



FWRJ READER PROFILE brainstorming on projects, and developing and improving our engineering standards. I love what I do and there’s never a dull moment.

Bartt Booz

Wright-Pierce, Maitland Work title and years of service. I’m currently a senior project manager with Wright-Pierce and have been with the company for a total of approximately 18 years, first in New England and now in Florida. I took about a threeyear hiatus from the company when I moved to Florida in 2013, but the company opened an office here in Winter Park in 2015 and I came back in 2016. What does your job entail? All of my 18 years with Wright-Pierce have been within the wastewater engineering group, executing study, design, and construction administration projects, including collection systems, lift stations, wastewater treatment and reuse, and biosolids handling. I wear a number of hats with the company, and my role depends on the project and the client. As a senior project manager, I’m responsible for leading our project teams, coordinating with the client and subconsultants, and meeting the schedule and financial performance of the project. I also act as a lead project engineer on some projects where I’m responsible for the technical aspects and coordinating with the building services engineers. Recently, I’ve also taken on a wastewater process engineering manager role where I’m responsible for quality control reviews, technical

What education and training have you had? I hold a bachelor of science degree in bioresource engineering from Rutgers University in New Jersey (my home state). Much of what I know has been from on-the-job training, working with some very talented people along the way, and self-study. I’ve tried to maximize every learning opportunity to provide value both to our clients and Wright-Pierce. Currently, I’m participating in the Water Environment Federation (WEF) integrated leadership webcast series to hone my leadership skills. What do you like best about your job? First, it’s the opportunity to build relationships, both with clients and the staff at Wright-Pierce. To realize that I’ve been working with some of them for almost 20 years really blows me away sometimes. Some of the clients that I started working with back in 2001 have conducted major upgrades to their plants two or three times over the years, and I’ve had the chance to be a trusted advisor throughout the process. The relationships that are built are personally rewarding. It’s great when you’re invited to participate in fun activities, like playing racquetball with their staff or just enjoying a meal together. Second, it’s the variety of the work. No two days are the same and no two projects are the same. Some days, you’re in the field conducting pump drawdown tests or the start-up and testing of new equipment. Some days, you’re entirely in the office developing or reviewing project deliverables or coordinating with clients and internal staff. I can always look forward to a new challenge. Lastly, it’s the opportunity to use creativity in engineering to solve problems. When you’ve been to a couple of hundred treatment plants and you’ve

The Booz family at the oldest son’s baccalaureate/graduation service. Back row from left to right are Micah, Bartt, Gabriel, Rhonda, and Ethan. Front row, Jesse.

54 54 October October 2021 2021 •• Florida Florida Water Water Resources Resources Journal Journal

talked to the talented operator staff members who run them, you put tools in your toolbox that you can use in other situations to bring value to the discussion. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to WEF and the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA). I’m currently the chair of the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee. How have the organizations helped your career? The most important aspect of my involvement with FWEA has been building relationships. It’s a great opportunity to network in the industry with utilities, other consultants, and manufacturer’s representatives. Consulting is a relationship business—the more people you can get to know, the better. Being on the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee has helped me build relationships among industry professionals, as well as hone my leadership skills. What do you like best about the industry? To me, the water and wastewater utilities industry seems to be one of the few places left in society where we’re able to work together toward a common goal: provide sustainable solutions that protect public health and preserve the environment. To have a career that has worthy goals like these is very rewarding. What do you do when you’re not working? I’m married to my wonderful wife, Rhonda, and we have four boys: Gabriel, 19; Ethan, 17; Micah, 14; and Jesse, 12. Keeping up with them is my current hobby, although I like to stay active and go to the gym to stay in shape. Exercise is my stress relief and helps preserve my sanity. We’re also very active in our church and I currently teach the college and career life group at First Baptist S Mount Dora.

Tubing on the Taccoa River in Georgia. From left to right are Jesse, Bartt, and Micah.


Realizing the Benefits of Process Advisory Digital Twins for Water, Wastewater, and Reuse Benjamin D. Stanford, Ryan Nagel, and James MacDonald


apid advancements in technology have changed many aspects of the water industry in the last two decades and the pace of change shows no sign of slowing. One of the most exciting (and most discussed) advancements in our industry has been the proliferation of “digital twins.” Digital twins is a broad term used to describe the virtual representation of physical assets and systems that enables users to simulate decisions and analyze results. Digital twins can vary widely in complexity and scale and are typically developed to deliver specific benefits to the user, such as adding greater certainty to capital planning decisions, planning for potential disruptions to operations, and providing training to operators of a new or upgraded facility. Digital twins can be as simple as basic models to predict the formation of

disinfection byproducts or estimating chemical dosing, to more-complex models that provide 3D models of a facility (e.g., 3D building information modeling [BIM]) and even fully interactive process, collection, or distribution system simulators. Most importantly, they provide a way for operators, supervisors, managers, and others at the utility to test decisions in a safe, secure environment. With such a wide variety of configurations, the term digital twins can seem overwhelming to utility personnel; however, by looking at the digital assets already in use at a utility, it might be surprising to see how far along the digital twins spectrum it already is.

Finding Your Digital Twins

With mobile devices and computers

Benjamin D. Stanford, Ph.D., is associate vice president at Hazen and Sawyer in Denver. Ryan Nagel, P.E., ENV SP, is an associate vice president at Hazen and Sawyer in Virginia Beach, Va. James MacDonald is technology application leader with Hazen and Sawyer in Boston.

able to store more information and handle more-complex calculations than ever before, there has been a quantum leap in the ability to leverage digital twins for all aspects of utility asset planning, design, operation, and maintenance. These leaps in technology have made digital twins a solution that can encompass a wide spectrum of tools, depending on their intended use. One popular example of digital twins is a physical Continued on page 56

A single pane of glass was developed using existing licenses at the utility to link information together for viewing of asset information, interactive 3D models, 360-degree photos, geographic information systems, and data analytics and visualization across the organization.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


An example dashboard and a photo of staff using the process advisory digital twins for evaluating treatment decisions and testing various operational scenarios.

Continued from page 55 representation used to inform asset planning, design, construction, or maintenance, such as a geographic information systems (GIS) utility network representing a water distribution system or a BIM to represent facility assets. Another popular version is a process representation to support system operational planning, training, and even real-time control. These process digital twins can be hydraulic, biological, and/or physiochemical process models. They may be empirical or mechanistic—or both— and may use machine learning tools for model development and implementation. Physical and process representations can

even be combined for highly sophisticated digital twins to support powerful real-world models and visualizations. The digital twins continuum demonstrates their range of complexity and how they can be leveraged to support the entire spectrum of utility needs, from longterm planning to fully automated real-time operation. Digital twins can also grow over time to encompass more assets, systems, and capabilities.

Digital Twins for Creating Visibility and Insights Across the Organization

Hazen and the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission (PVSC) in New Jersey recently embarked on a data management strategy to integrate BIM, GIS, and business intelligence systems into a single pane of glass. This digital strategy was deployed to enable secure and scalable data sharing between business groups and different enterprise information technology (IT) systems, minimizing repetitive information and maximizing the usefulness of the data that PVSC receives and creates. The team worked with the IT department and GIS personnel at PVSC, and also Microsoft and Esri, to outline and implement a new Esri Enterprise ArcGIS Portal in its Microsoft Azure Cloud, creating a single pane of glass for viewing building information data, geodata, operation data, and more. This initial phase also created the necessary cloud infrastructure to develop, test, and host digital twins technology that represents near real-time information in 3D-model view, 2D plans and maps, and buiding information (BI) visuals. This seamless integration has allowed PVSC staff to analyze and visualize GIS data alongside other data sources.

Process Advisory Digital Twins Wastewater process models developed using commercial software (such as Biowin or GPS-X) are often employed for wastewater treatment facility design or process optimization planning. These models are complex and require detailed user training, frequently limiting the number of staff who can run or analyze simulations. Process advisory digital twins help overcome this operational barrier, expanding the number of staff who can

56 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

leverage model information for hands-on operator training or within an advisory mode. They act as a “flight simulator” to test the outcomes of potential process decisions. User-friendly interfaces and output visualizations empower facility operators to develop and test preset options and their own ideas for optimization without affecting actual facility operations. Enhanced versions of these same process advisory digital twins can leverage machine learning to identify difficult situations before they happen, allowing staff to proactively address (or even prevent) the situation, rather than just react to it. Data analytics and visualizations of machine learning information can identify surface connections and patterns in data automatically, making it easier and faster than conventional data review. The City of Greensboro, N.C., recently converted the T. Z. Osborne Water Reclamation Facility (TZO WRF) from a two-stage biological process to a five-stage biological process to address new effluent total nitrogen (TN) limits. During construction Hazen worked with Greensboro to create custom process

advisory digital twins to assist with startup. The goal of the twins was to train staff on the new TN removal process, familiarize them with all the flexibility that the new design provided, and empower them to continue to optimize the process after startup. This twin is based on a process model of the TZO WRF, calibrated on site-specific data to provide accurate solids production and effluent quality predictions. A custom dashboard was developed to sit “on top” of the process model, providing a userfriendly interface for training and process optimization. The twin provides a clickable aerial image of the plant, with a simplified set of inputs and outputs customized and based on feedback from plant staff. In addition to whole-plant inputs, this twin is focused on the new aeration basin configuration, providing the user with all the information needed on the flexibility of the operation. Overall, process advisory digital twins can be a great steppingstone for utilities considering an investment in digital twins technology, providing significant

operational benefits and a framework for expansion into a more-comprehensive tool.

Summary The work at Greensboro and Passaic Valley is just an example of how digital twins can be used to assist with various aspects of utility management and operation, from advisory twins to facilitating the asset management and risk management process. No matter the application, the goal is to create a time-saving view into the function of a utility in a cost-effective manner by utilizing assets and structures that are already paid for. By creating innovative, integrated dashboards through a single pane of glass and building process models that function as training and simulation tools, utilities can drive efficiency, improve the development of actionable insights, and save time, while also freeing up staff to work on important projects and creating connections between data and people. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


NEWS BEAT The American Public Works Association (APWA) has announced that Stan Brown, P.E., PWLF, member services consultant with Georgia Municipal Association (GMA) in Atlanta, has been sworn in as president Stan Brown of APWA effective Sept. 1. Affirmed by APWA’s more than 30,000 members, President Brown will lead the organization for the 2021-2022 term. He succeeds Mary Joyce Ivers, CPFP, PWLF, the previous APWA president. Brown has worked in local government for more than 34 years, holding various public works, engineering, and management positions in Georgia, Colorado, and Wyoming. He is a licensed professional engineer in Georgia, and a retired lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserve whose military service included deployments to Iraq, Kuwait, and Kyrgyzstan. He was awarded the U.S. Army’s Bronze Star for exceptional and meritorious service as a facility engineer commander during Operation Iraqi Freedom. He retired in 2020 as city manager for the City of Oakwood after 16 years, and also worked with the Carl Vinson Institute of Government at the University of Georgia providing instruction to local government elected officials and staff members on public works-related topics. He continues to serve local governments and public works agencies as a consultant with GMA. Brown served on the APWA board of directors for five years as technical director, leadership and management, and for the past year as APWA president-elect. In 2015, he was recognized by APWA as a Top Ten Public Works Leader of the Year. He has served as chair of the Lake Lanier Convention and Visitors Bureau, executive secretary for the Hall County Joint Municipal Association Executive Committee, chair of the APWA Small Cities/Rural Communities Committee, chair of the APWA Georgia Chapter Awards Committee, and president of the APWA Georgia Chapter, Northeast Georgia Branch. “I want to promote the profession of public works,” said Brown. “I’m proud of the services we provide and of every single public works servant, supplier, and support agency. It takes both public- and privatesector dedication to accomplish our task. The services we provide are so basic and so important, yet so overlooked. I hope to be a voice to promote our profession and

to recognize those who are in the trenches making it happen.” “I’m very much looking forward to working with Stan, who brings a wealth of knowledge and expertise, in not only city government, public works, and leadership, but also in association management,” said Scott D. Grayson, CAE, APWA chief executive officer. “Having worked with Stan for the past several years, on the board and on APWA’s strategic planning, I know that he will serve the members of APWA extremely well.” The APWA is a not-for-profit, international organization involved in the field of public works. APWA serves its members by promoting professional excellence and public awareness through education, advocacy, and the exchange of knowledge. The organization is headquartered in Kansas City, Mo., has an office in Washington, D.C., and 63 chapters and 97 branches throughout North America.


McKim & Creed has announced that Daniel Keck, P.E., will join the company as the new regional manager for the Tampa region. A native Floridian with nearly 30 years of experience, Keck brings Daniel Keck much technical expertise to this position, such as hydraulic evaluations and computer modeling, hydraulic control strategies, water and wastewater treatment, reclaimed water master planning, and creative financial plans for large capital projects. During his career he has served as a vice president of operations, business unit manager, project manager, and lead design engineer. He has served as the hydraulics and design lead for large pumping and treatment systems and the technical or quality control engineer for many critical water and wastewater projects throughout Florida and across the United States. In addition to his history of projects across the state, he has published technical papers for the Florida Water Resource Conference, Florida Water Environment Association, and Florida Section of the American Water Works Association. “Daniel is a prolific and well-respected manager and leader in the water treatment industry,” said Robert Garland, the regional director of water at McKim & Creed. “His performance in past positions demonstrates an exceptional ability to manage projects,

58 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

direct teams, and optimize water and wastewater operations. His expertise and leadership are an invaluable addition to our team.” In Florida, McKim & Creed provides water management services across the region from offices in Jacksonville, Boca Raton, Clearwater, Daytona Beach, Deland, Fort Myers, Jacksonville, Orlando, Pensacola, Tampa, and Sarasota.


Andra Johnson, Ph.D., an associate director of Penn State Extension, will be the next dean of the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Extension and director of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Johnson will assume his role Andra Johnson November 1. He will lead the UF/ IFAS statewide network of more than 650 faculty educators and scientists, whose programs and expertise support economic, environmental, and community health. These programs range from field days for new crops to youth leadership experiences. “Dr. Johnson brings energy and vitality to raising the profile of the organization. Our goal is to make an even greater impact on the millions of Floridians served by UF/IFAS outreach every year,” said J. Scott Angle, UF vice president for agriculture and natural resources and leader of UF/IFAS. “His experience in administration, teaching, and research at both large landgrant and historically black universities, his upbringing on a farm, and his engagement in so many national coalitions have contributed to his development as an emerging national leader who will take UF/IFAS to the next level,” Angle said. Elaine Turner, dean of the UF/IFAS College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, led the nationwide search for the new dean. “Dr. Johnson’s career has woven the three components of the land-grant mission— teaching, research, and extension—together. He brings a collaborative spirit and passion for service to UF/IFAS and our stakeholders across Florida,” Turner said. “In the college, we are especially excited about his ideas for engaging more undergraduate and graduate students and working together to meet the talent needs of Florida’s agriculture and natural resource industries.” On his family’s farm in rural Louisiana,

NEWS BEAT Johnson raised cattle and grew cotton, corn, and wheat, and his aunt worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service for more than 30 years. Those early experiences motivated him to pursue a career where he could bring the knowledge of the land-grant university to families like his that produce food, fuel, and fiber. “I’m extremely excited and humbled about the opportunity to work with the amazing faculty, staff, and administrators at UF/IFAS. This position is really about what we can do together to help improve the lives of all Floridians,” Johnson said. After earning a bachelor’s degree in urban forest management from Southern University and A&M College, and a master’s degree and doctorate in forest resources from Pennsylvania State University, Johnson worked his way up the ranks in academia to become a tenured associate professor of urban forestry at Southern University in Baton Rouge, La., where he conducted research and taught classes in urban forestry and natural resource management. After more than a decade at Southern University, Johnson took on roles in university leadership, first as the assistant

director of research and graduate research at Alcorn State University, then as Southern University’s vice chancellor for research and technology development, and finally at Penn State as an associate director. Johnson succeeds Nick Place, who served as UF/IFAS Extension dean from 2012 through 2020. Thomas Obreza has acted as interim dean and will return to his role as senior associate dean and associate director.


The mayor of Orlando has asked residents to stop watering their lawns and washing their cars, saying water usage needed to be cut back because of the recent surge of COVID-19 hospitalizations. The Orlando Utility Commission treats the city's water with liquid oxygen. and supplies that ordinarily go toward water treatment have been diverted to hospitals for patients suffering from the virus, Mayor Buddy Dyer said. "We acknowledge that the first priority for the liquid oxygen should be for hospitals," Dyer said at a news conference. The city-owned utility typically goes

through 10 trucks of liquid oxygen a week, but its supplier recently said that it would be cut back to five to seven trucks a week to accommodate hospitals. About 40 percent of the utility's potable water is used for irrigation so any strain on the water supply will be greatly reduced if residents stop watering their lawns, washing their cars, or using pressure washers on driveways and sidewalks. Since the 1990s, the utility has used liquid oxygen to remove the slight discoloration and rotten-egg smell that is found naturally in Florida's water supply. Officials at one of the Orlando area's largest health care systems, AdventHealth, said that they had 1,620 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, twice the level of what it was during last winter's peak high. S

800–826-7699 watertc@watertc.com

watertc.com Serving the Southeast since 1976

Gas Feed Systems Dry Chemical Feed Systems Peristaltic Pumps Fiberglass Enclosures

Metering Pump Skids Tablet Feeders Analyzers Scale Systems

Factory Trained Technicians - Emergency Repair Services - PM Service/Plans Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021


CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include:

Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator

On Top of the World residential community in Clearwater is currently recruiting for Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator. Full details at www.otowjobs.com – keyword wastewater.

60 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

UTILITY SYSTEM ENGINEER SANFORD, FL. As a Utility Systems Engineer, you will be under administrative direction, the purpose of the position is to conduct professional engineering work to plan, coordinate and implement Utilities engineering services, manage the Utility Inspector division to ensure all utility inspections conform to and meet City, State and Federal codes and standards. In this classification you will perform at senior professional level, and are accountable for managing Utility projects in compliance with all applicable City/State/federal codes and regulations, and according to all acceptable engineering practices. Work includes assisting the Public Works/Utilities Director with rate studies, public relations functions, and special projects. Works with considerable independence, however confers with the Public Works/ Utilities Director in unusual matters. MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering or closely related field; supplemented by five (5) years responsible technical experience in engineering, to include two (2) years project management experience in water and wastewater; and two (2) years’ experience with AutoCAD 2000 or higher and (GIS) ESRI ArcMap 9.X or higher or closely related experience. Must possess and maintain a valid Florida Driver’s License. Employee shall obtain the National Incident Management System ICS-100 Introduction to the Incident Command System and IS-700 National Incident Management System, An Introduction within six (6) months of employment. TO APPLY AND REVIEW THE FULL JOB DESCRIPTION: Visit our website at www.governmentjobs.com/careers/sanford

Brevard County - NOW HIRING Treatment Plant Operators and field personnel

Brevard County Utilities is seeking Treatment Plant Operators and field personnel to work in various locations throughout Brevard County, Florida. These positions are for a County-owned public water and sewer Utility. For more information and to apply, go to the employment website of the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners at https://career8.successfactors.com/career?company=brevardcou Brevard County is an Equal Opportunity/Veterans Preference Employer

GS Inima USA City of Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Plant

Salary / Benefits $65,000 to $85,000.00 (based on experience and qualifications) Health, Dental and 401K Accepting applications for a Chief Operator position. Must have experience with a Drinking Water Plant and Reverse Osmosis membrane. The Chief Operator shall possess a minimum of 15 years’ experience with operation of drinking water treatment facilities, including five years of management responsibility, five years’ experience with membrane treatment systems and shall hold a Class A (Category II) operators certificate issued by the State of Florida, valid drivers. Contact Jennifer.cruz@inima.com

Public Works Assistant Director for Solid Waste

The City of Coral Gables is seeking candidates with local government solid waste management experience. Please visit www.slavinweb. com for detailed job information including, requirements and application instructions. Open until filled, EOE

City of New Port Richey - Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator

The City of New Port Richey is seeking a WWTP Operator. Please visit https://www.cityofnewportrichey.org/jobs/ for full job description, salary, and to download an application. EOE/DFWP

Plant Operator II

Immediate available opening for a Plant Operator. Must be dual licensed with a minimum of an FDEP Class “C” Drinking Water Treatment Operators license and an FDEP Class “C” Wastewater Treatment Operators license. Valid drivers license and background screening required. Highly competitive salary, plus Health/Vision/Dental Insurance, prescription drug, 401(k) savings plan, and paid vacation/holiday. We are a drug-free (DFW) and an Equal Opportunity Employer (EOE). Please apply at: jobs.barroncollier.com

EQUIPMENT FOR SALE 2015 Ford F-450 Diesel


The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is accepting applications for a Temporary Construction Inspector. Responsibilities: Ensure that contracted work performed on FKAA water and wastewater systems meet all applicable minimum standards and contract requirements. 3 yrs experience in municipal contracting/construction field, specifically water and wastewater utility construction. Valid Florida driver’s license required. Location: Lower Florida Keys. Salary (depending on experience): $59,000. - $70,000. On-line application: www.fkaa.com. EEO/VPE/ADA

City of Largo Jobs!

The City of Largo is in search of skilled workers to join our awardwinning team as a Utilities Mechanic I, Wastewater Collections Technician Trainee, or Technical Equipment Operator Trainee. Visit www.largo.com/jobs for more information on each position, and to apply today to the Community of Choice in Tampa Bay…Naturally!

2015 Ford F-450 Diesel Cab Chassis 201” WB 16-ft. cargo box Ques CCTV inspection truck with 9,561 miles. Black 16-ft. Cargo box cab/chassis, fully equipped with 1500 ft. cable assembly, two inspection cameras, 19” TV, and all the accessories for pipe, lateral, and manhole inspection. In great condition and equipment all fully functional. Call 407-291-2341 ask for Larry for cost and additional information.

LOOKING FOR A JOB The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2021



Test Yourself Answer Key Continued from page 34

January 2016

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index AECOM ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43 Blue Planet Environmental Systems ������������������������������������������������� 63 CEU Challenge ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 15 Data Flow Systems ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 FSAWWA Fall Conference �������������������������������������������������������������16-20 FSAWWA 2021 Water Conservation Awards for Excellence ����������� 21 FWPCOA Training Calendar ��������������������������������������������������������������� 50 FWRC Call for Papers ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 Gerber Pumps ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Hazen and Sawyer ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56 Heyward ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump and Equipment ����������������������������������������������������������� 29 Hydro International ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Lakeside Equipment Corporation �������������������������������������������������������� 7 Mead & Hunt ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31 PolyProcessing ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57 Smith & Loveless �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 UF TREEO Center �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47 Vogelsand �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25 Water Treatment & Controls Technology ������������������������������������������ 59 Xylem ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64 Xylem YSI ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11

62 October 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. D ) with an onsite visit to work and communicate with water systems in a preventative mode.

Per FDEP’s Sanitary Survey Program website, “Sanitary survey means an onsite review of the water source, facilities, equipment, operation, and maintenance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of such source, facilities, equipment, operation, and maintenance for producing and distributing safe drinking water. . . Sanitary surveys are an opportunity to work and communicate with water systems in a preventative mode.”

2. C) every three years.

Per EPA’s website, Sanitary Surveys, “Frequency Requirements: • Community Water System (CWS) Every Three Years • Noncommunity Water System (NCWS) - Every Five Years • CWS with outstanding performance based on prior sanitary surveys Every Five Years.”

3. C) Eight

Per FDEP’s Sanitary Survey Program website, “The eight elements of a sanitary survey are: 1. Operator compliance with regulations 2. Source protection, physical components and condition 3. Treatment 4. Finished water storage 5. Distribution 6. Pumps/pump facility and controls 7. Monitoring, reporting and data verification 8. Water system management and operations.”

4. B) ensures water systems have qualified professionals that meet all applicable operator certification requirements. Per EPA’s Sanitary Surveys website, “Operator Compliance - Ensures water systems have qualified professionals that meet all applicable operator certification requirements.”

5. B) multiple-barrier approach.

Per EPA’s guide, “How to Conduct a Sanitary Survey of Drinking Water Systems,” in the introduction, “The Multiple-Barrier Approach - The elements of the sanitary survey address multiple barriers that work together to prevent drinking water contamination. If one of these barriers were to fail, as long as other barriers are still in place, the public water supply and public

health remain protected. Understanding this concept is vital, as a water system can be producing safe drinking water and still have one or more deficiencies that need to be corrected. It is important, however, for water systems to strive to have multiple barriers reliably in place to keep contaminants from reaching the public.”

6. D) significant deficiencies.

Per EPA’s guide, “How to Conduct a Sanitary Survey of Drinking Water Systems,” in the introduction, “Significant deficiencies are serious sanitary deficiencies identified in water systems that include, but are not limited to, defects in design, operation, or maintenance, or a failure or malfunction of the sources, treatment, storage, or distribution system that the primacy agency determines to be causing, or has potential to cause, the introduction of contamination into the water delivered to consumers.”

7. B) Microbiological sampling plan

Per FAC 62-550.518(1), Microbiological Monitoring Requirements, “Public water systems shall collect total coliform samples at sites that are representative of water throughout the distribution system and in accordance with a written sampling plan that addresses location, timing, frequency, and rotation period. These plans shall be available for review and possible revision on the occasion of a sanitary survey conducted by the department.”

8. A ) Lack of #24 mesh screen on the air vent.

Per EPA Region 8 presentation on significant deficiencies, “Storage Tank Significant Deficiencies – Lack of #24 mesh screen on the air vent.”

9. C ) Lack of an emergency response plan.

Per EPA Region 8 presentation on sanitary surveys and significant deficiencies, “Examples of Management Significant Deficiencies – Lack of an Emergency Response Plan.”

10. D) 12 years

Per EPA’s guide, “How to Conduct a Sanitary Survey of Drinking Water Systems,” Section 1.8 State Recordkeeping, Sanitary survey reports must be kept on file by the state for at least 12 years (40 CFR 142.14(d)(1)).”