Florida Water Resources Journal - September 2021

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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office:

1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Mish Clark

Mish Agency

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features

4 Small System Public Communications: How to Do More With Less—or Nothing—Darcy Burke and Bruce Macler

10 Florida Department of Environmental Protection: Preserving the State’s Water Resources 14 Florida Water Utilities Among Those Recognized for Innovation in Their Operations and Communities 24 What Can a Water System Do to Prepare For a Power Outage?—Yvonne Heaney, Jim Wollbrinck, and Bruce A. Macler

28 T echnology Spotlight: RieberLok Gaskets: Faster, Easier, and Less Expensive 51 Georgia Wins Ruling in Case With Alabama and Florida

Technical Articles

36 Miami Forever: Stormwater and Coastal Resilience for a Changing Climate—Michael Schmidt, Christopher Bennett, Alan Dodd, Jonathan Goldman, and Thomas Nye

Education and Training

16 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview 17 FSAWWA Fall Conference Students and Young Professionals Activities 18 FSAWWA Fall Conference Water Distribution System Awards 19 FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions 20 FSAWWA Water Conservation Awards for Excellence 21 AWWA Membership 35 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference Call for Papers 45 TREEO Center Training 47 FWPCOA Training Calendar 49 AWWA Water Equation


22 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Fred Bloetscher 30 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 32 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 42 Let’s Talk Safety: Planning and Setting Up a Safe Traffic Control Zone 46 FWEA Chapter Corner: FWEA Southwest Chapter is Off to a Great Start!—Dustin Chisum


50 New Products 52 Classifieds 54 Display Advertiser Index

Volume 72

ON THE COVER: Effective and sustainable water resources management will protect the habitat for these roseate spoonbills. (photo: Randy Brown)

September 2021

Number 9

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


Small System Public Communications: How to Do More With Less—or Nothing By prioritizing goals and tapping into your creativity effective public communication strategies don’t have to cost your utility dearly Darcy Burke and Bruce Macler For smaller utilities, often any proactive public outreach and communication activities are budgeted with leftover funds from other programs—literally almost nothing in many cases. Yet smaller utilities are no different than the big utilities in that they have to get their messages out to their customers, community, and elected officials. You may need to promote a rate increase to address capital replacement needs, encourage water conservation because of a drought, or issue warnings for a power outage. Maybe you’d like to just build up public trust and respect. You may want and need to do these things, but may lack even staff time. A lot can be done, even with little money and time. You already know how to be efficient with your time and resources for your operations and maintenance. Communications efficiency is no different.

Setting Priorities Figuring out your communication goals is the obvious first step. What do you need, and who do you have to convince? Then you have to apply your goals to achieve practical objectives.

Goals What is it that you want to get done in terms of communicating with your customers and others? If you don’t have goals, you won’t get anywhere and will waste your time and resources, which are what you don’t have. Goals are strategic. For example, you could say, “By the end of 2022, our agency will have delivered water conservation programs to reduce use by 5 percent.” Such goals don’t have to be major, elaborate, or multiyear efforts, but they do need to be realistic and achievable. Goals provide four common organizational benefits: S Guidance and direction (An added benefit for public agencies is that they also improve transparency by clearly telling your customers what you’re doing and when they can expect it to be done.) S Facilitate planning S Motivate and inspire employees S Help evaluate performance and effectiveness Objectives In terms of communicating with your customers and others, what is it you want to get done? The best goals are specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-based (SMART). In other words, a SMART goal is clear and easily understood.

Laguna Beach Water District (Calif.) sponsors the Roll Out the Rain Barrel Art Contest. The contest focuses attention on rain barrels, which collect and store rainwater from roofs that would otherwise be lost to runoff and diverted to storm drains, streams, and the ocean. (photo: Laguna Beach Water District)

4 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Be Specific The goal must clearly state what is to be achieved, by whom, where, and by when. Sometimes it may even state why that goal is important. Be Measurable Measurability applies to the end result and the milestones along the way to attaining a goal. It answers the question of quantity—how much, how often, and how many. The milestones are signs along the way that will tell you that you’re on the right track to achieving your goal. Be Attainable You should ensure that the goals you set are achievable. You must believe that you can manage to do what you’re setting out to do. If you set goals that are unbelievable (even to you), it’s unlikely you’ll achieve them. Be Relevant Your goals must be relevant to what you want to achieve in the short term and the long term. Understanding the vision, mission, and purpose is critical in this respect. Be Time-Based This sometimes overlaps with the goal of being specific, but it aims to ensure that you put a time frame to your goals. When crafting your goal statement, consider the following: S I ntention: What is it that you want to do? S S pecific: What exactly will you accomplish? SM easurable: How will you know when you have reached this goal? SA chievable: Is achieving this goal realistic? Do you have the resources to achieve this goal? If not, are they readily available? SR elevant: Why is this goal significant? ST imely: When will you achieve this goal? When you have your SMART goals defined and you move to execution, here are some other considerations: SH ow are you going to stay on track? Are you going to use a project management tool or spreadsheet? SH ow often will you share your progress? SW hat are some potential obstacles? Continued on page 6

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Continued from page 4 SW hat are some potential solutions? SW hat steps do you need to take to get to your goal? SA nd most importantly for you and your team, how are you going to celebrate the wins?

Guerrilla Marketing

A water conservation mural was designed and painted by students at College Park Elementary School in Costa Mesa, Calif., after Mesa Water District held an assembly about using water efficiently. (photo: Mesa Water District)

The next thing is the “doing” part. Effective communication is about delivering the right message to the right audience at the right time on the right channel. Although large outreach budgets make that easier, many times using what is known as “guerrilla marketing” efforts can be just as effective at significantly less expense. It all comes down to determining your goals, establishing objectives, and using guerrilla marketing to meet your goals. Once you have your goals defined, there are a number of communication and outreach strategies and related tactics that are widely used to help you get there. Although large outreach budgets make that easier, essentially this approach enables you to do more with less. What is guerrilla marketing, and how does it work? Back in the early 1980s, Jay Conrad Levinson coined the phrase in his book of the same name, Guerrilla Marketing. This type of strategy maximizes the unexpected and generally has the element of surprise. Although not as combative as the strategy would imply, it is disruptive, which is usual for surprises. It's characterized by unconventional methods. There are five types of guerrilla marketing strategies: outdoor, indoor, events, experiential, and digital. Outdoor This is something you place outside that has your messaging or ties in with a campaign. Some examples include the following: S You ask a local school to paint students’ artwork on your water tank, the wall of one of your facilities, or in a prominent area of the community. A theme might be, for example, “Saving Water.” S You place a banner or sign on a hay trailer parked on a major thoroughfare. S You place yard signs, similar to those used during an election, that highlight a message, communicate a call to action, or recognize a good water steward.

Rancho California Water District worked with local restaurants in Temecula, Calif., to provide children’s menus. (photos: Rancho California Water District)

6 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Indoor Similar to outdoor efforts, indoor strategies focus on locations like train stations, parks, shops, or even public restrooms. Examples include the following: S Place a one-page flyer on the back of public restroom stall doors throughout your Continued on page 8

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Continued from page 6 community and truly target a “captive” audience. S Work with local restaurants to provide children’s menus. Each restaurant provides its children’s menu selection that can be printed on 17- x 24-inch paper. Your key messages are also printed on these menus, allowing space for coloring. Along with an inexpensive box of crayons, menus are distributed. Children can either take their artwork home, or you collect them regularly so they can be featured on other outreach materials. Events Leverage the audience of an in-progress event, such as a concert or a sporting event, to promote a product or service in a noticeable way. In the corporate world, this type of activity generally occurs without permission, but in the public arena, such efforts are far more effective when you partner with the event sponsors. Examples include the following: S I magine a local high school football game when, during the cheerleader’s halftime show with the band, water messaging, music, and dance are included! S Sign up for a local parade, showcasing your equipment and staff. If it’s during Christmas, be sure to add lights. SP articipate in a community cleanup day. S Provide trash bags, refreshments, and staff to help. Experiential These strategies can include all of those previously mentioned, but they’re executed in a way that requires public interaction. This is easier than you might think. Consider the following options: SH ost a digital contest/campaign where participants must make a themed video or take a photo as part of a water-focused scavenger

hunt and post to their social media pages, tagging your utility. S Host a student art contest. Provide the paper and the theme to schools. Invite community leaders to judge. Host a recognition event for the winners, their parents and teachers, and the judges. S Feature a garden of the week. Invite community leaders and master gardeners to judge. Provide a small prize and yard sign to the winners. S Host a lunch-and-learn activity at your facility. Provide a tour of your facility and invite a staff member to share more about operations, waterwise gardening, etc. Digital These efforts including anything online: website, social media channels, video, etc. Some examples include the following: S Ask students and residents to take waterinspired photos/videos and send them to you. You can use these images on your website and social media. S Develop content through your own efforts or community engagement initiatives. They say, “Content is king,” and it’s absolutely true. As more information is disseminated through digital channels, content needs to be both visual and creative.





Other Ideas Water agencies, both big and small, also have benefited from the following guerrilla marketing ideas: S Create art on sidewalks using chalk. Whether it’s a conservation tagline or art contest, sidewalk messages are unexpected and memorable. S If you have a Facebook page, livestream an event. The event can be a board meeting, hydrant flushing, or a lunch-and-learn. It doesn’t have to be fancy, but whatever you choose will need to be promoted. Mention the


online event on your social media postings, partnering pages from your city or county, and your newsletters and bill inserts. P repare themes from your campaign for bloggers and vloggers, who are always looking for content ideas. Share themes with reputable bloggers and vloggers throughout your campaign and then link to the content these authors create. Not only will it provide good information from another voice, this type of linking improves your search engine optimization (SEO). Add a call to action to staff email signatures. The call to action can be a pledge to save water on your website or be a prompt to sign up for your monthly email newsletter. You can even pair this with a water-efficient giveaway, such as a sprinkler nozzle or water-efficient shower head. F ind others online who have similar content or campaigns and link to their postings. There are many third-party influencers who write about water, water-related issues, gardening, and more. Use a search engine tool to identify content related to your theme/campaign and then link that information on your website and social media postings. This is another way to improve your SEO. P artner with a supplier. Your water system does business with many vendors; reach out to them to see if they will partner with your campaign. The partnering could include your messaging in their email distribution or social media postings. It can also mean they sponsor giveaway items or local events that showcase both organizations. Many large corporations have resources for this type of effort in their sustainability budgets. Make a list of your vendors with similar goals and ask! H ost a pop-up event. Take your collateral information and giveaway items and set up an information booth in an unexpected spot. You might even consider making it a lemonade stand or Girl Scout cookie stop and partner the effort with a local nonprofit.

The best part of guerrilla marketing tactics is that none of them necessarily take a lot of time and money, and they don’t have to be elaborate. Whether you use one, two, or all five strategies, what really helps a smaller utility is that they are all fairly inexpensive by nature. The real investment is in the creativity. How clever are you and your colleagues, friends, and children? The implementation doesn’t have to be, nor should it be, expensive—just unexpected! 2021© American Water Works Association

Rancho California Water District participated in a local holiday parade in Temecula, Calif. (photo: Rancho California Water District)

8 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Darcy Burke is chief executive officer of Watermark Associates, in Temecula, Calif., and Bruce Macler is a trustee with the AWWA Small Systems Division. S


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Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


Florida Department of Environmental Protection: Preserving the State’s Water Resources The Division of Water Resource Management (DWRM) of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) is responsible for implementing state laws providing for the protection of the quality of Florida’s drinking water, groundwater, rivers, lakes, estuaries, and wetlands, and the reclamation of mined lands. It’s comprised of several programs that perform water facilities regulation and operational support services and functions. The majority of division staff is located in Tallahassee; however, its mining and mitigation, and oil and gas, programs have staff operating in satellite offices throughout the state. The division also serves as Florida’s central point of contact for federally delegated water

programs, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), Underground Injection Control (UIC), and state assumption of the 404 program, and has regulatory oversight of certain functions of water and wastewater facilities throughout Florida. These include but are not limited to: S Industrial and domestic wastewater S NPDES stormwater S Power plants S Municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) S Public drinking water systems Additionally, the division regulates the environmental resource permitting of mines and

mitigation banks. It continues to work toward safeguarding Florida’s water resources and enhancing natural systems through partnering with local communities, and providing a morecertain, consistent, and effective regulatory process.

Water Resource Management Programs Aquifer Protection Program The FDEP Aquifer Protection Program (APP) consists of a team of dedicated employees, including geologists and engineers, who implement the federal UIC program in Florida. Subsurface injection, which is the practice of emplacing fluids in a permeable underground aquifer by gravity flow or under pressure through an injection well, is one of a variety of wastewater disposal or reuse methods used in Florida. The APP/UIC program permits the lawful option of disposal of appropriately treated fluids via underground injection wells, while protecting Florida’s underground sources of drinking water (USDW). A USDW is an aquifer that supplies drinking water for human consumption and has a total dissolved solids concentration of less than 10,000 milligrams per liter. The construction, operation, permitting, and closure activities for injection wells are administered in accordance with Chapter 62-528, Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.), which contains stringent requirements to prevent the degradation of the existing water quality of the aquifers adjacent to the injection zone. Operator Certification Program The Operator Certification Program (OCP) is responsible for overseeing a professional licensure program for all water and wastewater treatment plant operators, along with water distribution system operators in Florida. This is done through mandatory training, including developing and administering professional licensure examinations used to determine minimal competencies, and through the implementation and monitoring of continuing education. Licenses are issued in three separate categories: S Water treatment plant operators S Wastewater treatment plant operators S Water distribution system operators

10 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Each licensure category contains four classes of licensure: treatment plant classes are A, B, C, and D, with class A being the highest; and distribution levels are 1, 2, 3, and 4, with level 1 being the highest. Licensure in Florida is a linear process in that an operator must obtain a lower-level license prior to becoming eligible to receive a higherlevel license. For each level of licensure each applicant must also demonstrate the applicable number of years of experience. Licenses are issued for a two-year period, with an expiration date of April 30 of every odd-numbered year. In order for individuals to renew their licenses they must complete a specified amount of continuing education units (CEUs). Without the appropriate CEUs, the license will not be renewed.

to protect and conserve water resources, while meeting the basic public health need for effective wastewater treatment. The FDEP is responsible for permitting and compliance activities for over 2,000 domestic wastewater treatment facilities in the state. These activities are part of FDEP’s coordinated efforts to promote safe, efficient, and environmentally sound management of Florida’s domestic wastewater. The wastewater management program in Tallahassee is responsible for the development and administration of rules and policy for proper treatment of wastewater from domestic facilities. Other responsibilities include such activities as industrial pretreatment, biosolids management, reuse of reclaimed water, and wastewater to wetlands.

Domestic Wastewater Program Proper treatment and reuse or disposal of domestic wastewater is essential for protecting the state’s most vital resource—water. Water is vital to Florida’s environment, economy, and future. It’s the essence of this unique state and forms the basis for almost all of Florida’s ecosystems. Each person in Florida generates about 100 gallons of domestic wastewater each day. This wastewater must be managed to protect public health, water quality, recreation, fish and wildlife, and the aesthetic appeal of waterways. Domestic wastewater in Florida is treated either by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (i.e., onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems [OSTDS] or septic tanks) or by centralized domestic (municipal) wastewater treatment facilities. The majority of the state’s domestic wastewater is treated by larger centralized treatment facilities, which are the regulatory responsibility of the FDEP wastewater management program. The FDEP onsite sewage program has responsibility for regulating OSTDS, which treat approximately 30 percent of domestic wastewater from other states. The FDEP, through its district offices, works with wastewater utilities and Florida residents

Industrial Wastewater Program In Florida, all wastewater that is not defined as domestic wastewater is considered industrial wastewater. Since Florida is among the most populous and fastest-growing states in the United States, industrial wastewater permitting is increasingly important for protection of its water resources. Sources of industrial wastewater include manufacturing, commercial businesses, mining, agricultural production and processing, and wastewater from cleanup of petroleum- and chemical-contaminated sites. Industrial wastewater discharged under NPDES permits may be subject to federal effluent limitations guidelines (ELG). In addition, all industrial wastewater discharges in Florida must provide reasonable assurance of meeting Florida’s water quality standards for surface water or groundwater to receive a discharge permit. The FDEP’s industrial wastewater program issues permits to facilities and activities that discharge to surface waters and groundwaters of the state. Industrial wastewater that discharges to domestic wastewater treatment facilities, however, is regulated under the industrial pretreatment

component of the department’s domestic wastewater. The FDEP is authorized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue permits for discharge to surface waters under NPDES. Permits for discharge to groundwaters are issued by FDEP under state statutes and rules. Industrial wastewater permits are issued by the district offices, with two exceptions: S NPDES permits for steam electric power plants are issued by the industrial wastewater program in the Tallahassee office. S Industrial wastewater permitting for the phosphate industry is handled by the phosphogypsum management program located in Tampa. Nonmandatory Land Reclamation Program Funding for the reclamation of old abandoned phosphate mine sites is managed by the nonmandatory land reclamation program. The program was created as a result of public concerns over the thousands of acres that had been mined for phosphate before reclamation was required by law. Identified parcels dated as far back as 1888. The program was created to provide a cost reimbursement grant for landowners for reclamation to eliminate health, safety, and environmental issues existing on the abandoned mine sites. The grant program was deemed necessary because the cost of reclamation was more than the value of those properties, even after reclamation. The program provides funds for reclamation of property mined for phosphate prior to the 1975 introduction of regulatory requirements for reclamation. The grant program reimburses landowners for approved costs of reclamation work to improve environmental and economic utility of lands by removing safety hazards and improving water quality and quantity in affected watersheds. Lands disturbed by removal of phosphate rock prior to July 1, 1975, have already been Continued on page 12

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


Continued from page 11 identified (149,130 acres) and reported in “Phosphate Land Reclamation Study Commission Report on Phosphate Mining and Reclamation, 1978.” The identified lands were divided into 748 parcels, and each parcel was classified into one of five land forms: S Mined out S Clay settling area S Sand tailings S Hydraulically mined S Other A total of 222 parcels were omitted from the comprehensive evaluation, according to the following: S Land was previously reclaimed. S L and was to be utilized by the industry in the future.

S L and was currently in some form of economic use. S Owner declined participation.

are inspected by oil and gas staff located in the two field offices near Florida’s productive oil fields in Jay (northwest) and Fort Myers (south).

Oil and Gas Program The oil and gas program (Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and Rules 62C-25 through 30, F.A.C.) is the permitting authority for oil and gas activity within FDEP. Companies interested in exploration or production of hydrocarbons in Florida are regulated by the oil and gas program. Primary responsibilities of the program include conservation of oil and gas resources, correlative rights protection, maintenance of health and human safety, and environmental protection. These concerns are addressed through a system of permits and field inspections to ensure compliance. Key activities include the permitting and oversight of drilling and operating wells, as well as geophysical operations. All permitted activities

Engineering, Hydrology, and Geology Program The engineering, hydrology, and geology program staff practices in multiple areas. Staff provides technical support to the division of water resource management programs, other FDEP regulatory divisions, and district offices in the planning, design, permitting, and monitoring of mining projects and mine reclamation, mitigation banks, stormwater/surface water management systems, dam safety, and other in-water activities and works of the district. Staff also provides technical training to other staff members within FDEP, the five water management districts, industry specialists, and facility owners. The following subgroups represent the core responsibilities of the engineering, hydrology, and geology program staff. Florida Dam Safety Program The safety program staff coordinates statewide dam safety activities in Florida and provides technical support for the permitting, evaluation, condition assessment, and emergency action planning for dams. Hydrology and Hydraulics Support The support staff reviews hydrographic assessments submitted in support of an environmental resource permit. The FDEP requires a hydrographic study when new inwater works or modifications to existing ones are proposed to ensure that they will not create adverse impacts to water quality conditions. Staff also provides assistance for projects related to hydrological and hydraulic engineering. Mining and Mitigation Technical Support The technical support staff assists the mining and mitigation program and other programs within the division of water resources management. Staff provides completeness reviews regarding the technical aspects of stormwater management systems proposed for mine and reclamation projects to ensure that water quality and quantity meet state statutes and rules. Stormwater Support The support staff serves as a reference for statewide consistency in review of the stormwater portion of environmental resource permits and provides stormwater and engineering expertise for rulemaking efforts, basin management action plans, the NPDES group, and the Nonpoint Source Section 319(h) and total maximum daily load grant selections. The staff assists the district offices on complex projects seeking environmental resource

12 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

permit authorizations. The staff also monitors and comments on research for innovating and improving best management practices for nutrient control. Mining and Mitigation Program The mining and mitigation program regulates mining in Florida. Mining program staff reviews environmental resource permit (ERP) applications, State 404 (dredge and fill) permit applications, and reclamation plans for mines. Staff is responsible for permitting, compliance, inspection, and enforcement at mine sites. This program processes ERPs for most mines, with the exception of some borrow pits, which include sand, shell, and clay mines that have no onsite material grading or sorting facilities. The ERPs for borrow pits that have no onsite sorting, washing, or grading are issued by the water management districts; the ERPs for borrow pits, with onsite sorting, washing, or grading, are also processed by this program. It also administers the mandatory reclamation program under Chapter 378, Florida Statutes, for all mines, including borrow pits. Mines and borrow pits are subject to mandatory reclamation requirements. As of Dec. 22, 2020, the program began processing State 404 (dredge and fill) permit applications for mining projects in state-assumed waters. The state 404 program is a federally delegated program under the Clean Water Act. Florida utilizes a joint application for ERPs and the 404 program. Resources mined in Florida include phosphate, limestone, dolomite, shell, heavy minerals, fuller’s earth, peat, clay, gravel, and sand. Formal Delineations of Wetlands and Other Surface Waters The program also includes staff that does formal delineations of wetlands and other surface waters for mining projects. Homeland Field Office The program is responsible for managing land and restoration projects, such as the Upper Peace River/Saddle Creek Restoration Project at Tenoroc and Integrated Habitat Network (IHN) areas on previously mined lands deeded to the state; these lands were mined prior to the requirement to reclaim. Land management is conducted by the homeland field office and its staff is also responsible for permitting, compliance, inspection, and enforcement at mine sites.

mining contractors. This program is conducted through the Florida Public Safety Institute (FPSI) at Tallahassee Community College. Phosphate Management – This program regulates the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of phosphogypsum stack systems associated with chemical plants that process phosphate into fertilizer products. Nonmandatory Land Reclamation – This program provides funding for the reclamation of eligible phosphate lands mined before July 1975. Oil and Gas – This program regulates oil and gas exploration and production within the state of Florida. Stormwater Regulation Program The NPDES stormwater program regulates point source discharges from three potential sources: MS4s, construction activities, and industrial activities. This program, in Tallahassee, is responsible for the development, administration, and compliance of rules and policy to minimize and prevent pollutants in stormwater discharges. Operators of these sources may be required to obtain an NPDES permit before they can discharge stormwater. Stormwater runoff is generated from rain events that flow over land or impervious surfaces, such as paved streets, parking lots, and building rooftops, and do not soak into the ground. The runoff picks up pollutants, like trash, chemicals, oils, and dirt/sediment, that can harm rivers, streams, and lakes. To protect these resources, representatives from municipalities, construction, industry, and other groups use stormwater controls, known as best management practices (BMPs), to manage their runoff. The implementation of these practices, which include BMP design, performance, and adaptive management requirements, prevent pollution by controlling it at its source. Onsite Sewage Program The OSTDS, commonly referred to as septic systems, are currently used for wastewater

disposal by approximately 30 percent of Florida’s population. With an estimated 2.6 million systems in operation, Florida represents 12 percent of the septic systems in the U.S. Proper design, construction, and maintenance of these systems are important to help protect Florida’s groundwater, which provides 90 percent of the state’s drinking water. Permitting and inspection of OSTDS is handled by the environmental health section of the Florida Department of Health in each county. Program Transfer Effective July 1, 2021, FDEP is responsible for implementing the Florida Statutes and regulations applicable to OSTDS. Under the Florida’s Clean Waterways Act of 2020, the county health department offices will continue to do the permitting and inspection for septic tanks.

How the Department Can Help You Compliance Assistance The FDEP helps residents and businesses comply with environmental regulations through site visits and technical support. Its six regulatory district offices review permit applications, inspect permitted facilities, respond to reports of environmental damage, and conduct compliance assistance and enforcement. Education and information You can sign up for a variety of digital newsletters, updates, and announcements about the department’s programs, activities, and events. Recognizing Environmental Stewardship The FDEP encourages sound environmental practices through its sustainable initiatives programs, including clean marinas, green lodging, and recycling recognition. For more information, www.floridadep.gov.


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Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


Other Mining-Related Activities Mine Safety – This provides federally mandated Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) safety and health training throughout the state, as requested by mine operators and

Florida Water Utilities Among Those Recognized for Innovation in Their Operations and Communities The forward-thinking initiatives of 39 water utilities are being recognized as they reimagine partnering and engagement, watershed stewardship, and recovery of resources, such as water, energy, and nutrients. The Utility of the Future Today recognition program celebrates the achievements of water utilities that transform from a traditional wastewater treatment system to a resource recovery center and are leaders in the overall sustainability and resilience of the communities they serve. Since its inception in 2016, the program has recognized 183 utilities across the United States.

A Network of Partners Utility of the Future Today was launched by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA), Water Environment Federation (WEF), Water Research Foundation (WRF) and WateReuse Association, with input from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The concept of the program is being promoted by water systems around the world that are transforming operations through innovation and technology. The 39 utilities recognized this year are recovering resources from wastewater, leading community

14 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

engagement, forming unique partnerships, and building an internal culture of innovation. “The transformational approach to utility management that the Utility of the Future Today honorees have shown benefits communities and water in several significant ways,” said Lynn Broaddus, WEF president. “We are delighted to celebrate the impact of these utilities and proud to recognize their leadership in water-sector innovation.”

About the Program The sponsoring organizations for this recognition program understand that substantial excellence in the operations of wastewater treatment systems exists today. Many utilities optimize and continually improve their operations; consistently meet or exceed their regulatory requirements; plan and invest effectively for the maintenance, repair, and replacement of their infrastructure; and engage their employees and communities in meaningful and productive ways. The program seeks to reach deeply into the water sector to form and motivate a community of like-minded water utilities engaged in advancing resource efficiency and recovery; developing proactive relationships with stakeholders; and establishing resilient, sustainable, and livable communities. The program, through the aggregation and sharing of utility advancements and experiences, will enable participants across a broad continuum of capacities and capabilities to advance the concept of the Utility of the Future. Utilities receiving recognition through this program are expected to share their experiences to create a community of practice and enable other utilities to continually learn from each other and evolve as a sector.

Eligibility Public and private water-sector utilities of all sizes are eligible that can demonstrate achievement of the application requirements. Applicants must have had no major violations of their National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for the previous year from the date of application.

2021 Honorees These utilities are being recognized for the first time: S Village of Wellington Water Reclamation Facility - Boca Raton, Fla. S C ity of Vancouver, Marine Park and Westside Wastewater Treatment Facilities - Vancouver, Wash. S D erry Township Municipal Authority Hershey, Pa. S D odge City South Reclamation Facility Dodge City, Kan. S S aco Water Resource Recovery Department Saco, Maine S Y ork Sewer District - York, Maine S T own and Country Utilities - Babcock Ranch, Fla. S L incoln Wastewater System - Lincoln, Neb. S C olorado Springs Utilities - Colorado Springs, Colo.

S Town of Cary Utilities – Cary, N.C. S Carlsbad Municipal Water District – Carlsbad, Calif.

S M cAllen Public Utility – McAllen, Texas S C entral Arkansas Water – Little Rock, Ark. S S outh Platte Renew – Englewood, Colo.

These utilities are being recognized for a second year, but for a new area of performance: S Upper Occoquan Service Authority – Centreville, Va. S Scottsdale Water – Scottsdale, Ariz. S New York City Department of Environmental Protection – Flushing, N.Y. S Monterey One Water – Monterey, Calif. S Chesterfield County Department of Utilities – Chesterfield, Va. S Hanover Sewerage Authority – Whippany, N.J. S Brunswick Regional Water and Sewer H2GO – Leland, N.C. S Lafayette Renew – Lafayette, Ind. S City of Cape Coral – Cape Coral, Fla. S Loudoun Water – Ashburn, Va. S Napa Sanitation District – Napa, Calif. S Metro Wastewater Reclamation District – Denver, Colo. S City of Pompano Beach Utilities – Pompano Beach, Fla. S Oakland County Water Resources – Waterford, Mich. S Eastern Municipal Water District – Perris, Calif. S Holland Area Water Reclamation Facility – Holland, Mich.

These utilities are being recognized for a third year and in a new area of performance: S C olumbus Water Works – Columbus, Ga. S F ort Wayne City Utilities – Fort Wayne, Ind. S B roward County Water and Wastewater Operations, North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant – Pompano Beach, Fla. These utilities are being recognized for a fourth year and in a new area of performance: S G reat Lakes Water Authority – Detroit, Mich. S D elta Diablo – Antioch, Calif. S T oho Water Authority – Kissimee, Fla. S H ouston Public Works – Houston, Texas This utility is being recognized for a fifth year, but in a new area of performance: S C lean Water Services – Hillsboro, Ore. Honorees will be recognized during a ceremony at the 2021 Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) on October 19 in Chicago. To learn more about the program, visit https://www.wef.org/utility-of-the-future or UtilityRecognition@wef.org. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


The FSAWWA Fall Conference brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, and students. Register and learn from the industry’s best through technical session, workshops, and exhibits. Network with water industry professionals. Over 160 exhibitors will give you first-hand information on the latest developments to help your utility take actions to implement Florida’s future.

Exhibitor Registration: Booths SOLD OUT! Attendee Registration:


Technical Sessions

• Potable Reuse • Alternative Water Supply Options • Utility Finances in Challenging Times • Strategies to Communicate Your Message in the Changed World

• Increasing Optimization of Utility

For more information: fsawwa.org/2021fallconference

• •

Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2021hotel

Host hotel is Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress CHEER for Meter Madness!

Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!

Let loose at the RODEO!

Join the Tapping FUN!

Systems (Pipes, SCADA, Sewer Systems) Asset Management PFAS, PFOS, Lead and Copper, and Other Regulatory Strategies What’s New with Covid-19? And How Does it Affect our Workplace? The New Workplace Normal – Zoom, Remote, Home and Office Challenges for Utilities Water Conservation

Conference Highlights

• BBQ Challenge &

Incoming Chair’s Reception

• Operator Events:



Meter Madness Backhoe Rodeo Hydrant Hysteria Tapping Competition


• Young Professionals Events:

Luncheon Water Bowl Fresh Ideas Poster Session

• Water for People’s Fundraising Events: Exhibitor’s Raffle Fundraiser


Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

16 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Poker Tournament Monday, November 29, 2021 Starts at 9:00 pm Golf Tournament Thursday, December 2, 2021 8:00 am Shotgun start

Event Highlights

Students & Young Professionals Conference Activities Tuesday, November 30, 2021

YP Committee Meeting

10:00 - 11:00am | Locations: TBA

Students/YP Lunch

11:30am - 1:00pm | Location: TBA

Please submit Water Bowl Registration form to Michael Stanley by e-mail at Michael.Stanley@kimley-horn.com by November 8, 2021.

Water Bowl Competition

FREE Student Registration | Lunch is $25

Fresh Ideas Poster Session

Must register for a badge >> fsawwa.org/2021fallregistration

2:00 - 3:00pm | Location: Exhibit Hall

3:00 - 6:00pm | Location: TBA

Water Bowl Team Registration Water Bowl is a jeopardy-like competition for students from Florida universities. Teams compete against each other to see who can answer the most questions correctly in the least amount of time. All questions are related to the drinking water industry. Universities can have more than one team.

Sign up your team today! Team University | College ____________________________________________ Team Member #1 ____________________________________________________ Team Member #2 ____________________________________________________ Team Member #3 ____________________________________________________

Fresh Ideas Poster Competition The “Fresh Ideas” Poster Session is an effort of the Young Professionals Committee to encourage YP participation in the technical program at the conference through presentation of a poster. Posters will be judged and the winner will receive airfare, hotel, and conference registration to attend the AWWA Annual Conference & Exposition ( ACE22 ) in June 2022, in San Antonio, TX to compete against other “Fresh Ideas” AWWA Section winners. Competition is open to any student or YP with less than three years of work experience. Any poster topic related to the water industry is encouraged. Poster Presenter: _________________________________________ Poster Title: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA. Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


Divisions based on the Number of Water Services

2021 Water Distribution System Awards

Division 1 = 1 - 5,999 Division 2 = 6,000 - 12,999 Division 3 = 13,000 - 19,999

The FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards are presented to utilities whose outstanding performance during the preceding year deserves special recognition by the section.

Division 4 = 20,000 - 29,999

The Award Criteria is based upon the following:

Division 7 = 70,000 - 129,999

Water Quality Operational Records Maintenance Professionalism Safety Emergency Prepardness Cross Connection Control Program Must be an AWWA member (Organizational or Individual) Actively supports the activities of the FSAWWA Demonstrates high standards and integrity The selection committee is under the Manufacturers/Associates Council.

Division 8 = 130,000+

• • •

Division 6 = 46,000 - 69,999

Send applications to: Mike George 10482 Dunkirk Road Spring Hill, FL 34608 tapitflorida@att.net


2020 Winners: Division 1: Division 2: Division 3: Division 4: Division 5: Division 6: Division 7: Division 8:

Division 5 = 30,000 - 45,999

Ozello Water Association, Inc. Destin Water Users, Inc. City of Tamarac Village of Wellington Not Awarded Charlotte County Utilities Not Awarded Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department

Friday, October 22, 2021 Download the application form:

www.fsawwa.org/ distributionawards

E W Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

18 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Join the Competition

2021 Competitions

Tuesday & Wednesday November 30 - December 1, 2021

Let loose at the RODEO!

fsawwa.org/2021fallconference FSAWWA hosts fun and lively competitions between municipalities to find the most skilled person or team in the Meter Madness, Tapping, and Back Hoe Rodeo contests. Please join us as a spectator or visit our website to download the application to complete. Join the Tapping FUN!

Back Hoe Rodeo: Tuesday | 10:00 am - 12:00 pm

Backhoe operators show off their expertise by executing several challenging lifts and drops of various objects in the fastest time.

Tapping Contests: Tuesday | 11:00 am - 2:30 pm

In a contest of skill and dexterity as well as speed, teams of four compete for the fastest time while they perform a quality drill and tap of pipe under available pressure. Penalties are assessed in seconds for infractions of rules such as leaking connections or safety violations. Only two taps are allowed per team.

CHEER for Meter Madness!

Ductile Iron Tap: 11:00 am - 12:00 pm Fun Tap: 1:00 - 2:30 pm

Meter Madness: Tuesday | 4:00 - 5:00 pm

Contestants are challenged to put together a completely disassembled meter against the clock. To make the contest more interesting, three to six miscellaneous parts are included in the bucket of meter components. Once the meter is assembled, it must operate correctly and not leak.

Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!

Hydrant Hysteria: Wednesday | 9:00 - 11:00 am

Hydrant Hysteria is a fast paced two person competition as to who can assembly a fire hydrant quickly, totally, and accurately. Two or more teams go head to head while assembling the hydrant. All parts will be assembled in proper manner and reassembled hydrant shall be tested by the judges for ability to operate correctly.

Sponsorship Opportunities Please Contact: Mike George tapitflorida@att.net (352) 200-9631

Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on 2021 November 28 to December 2, 2021.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA. Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


FSAWWA Water Use Efficiency Division

2021 Water Conservation Awards for Excellence This awards program recognizes innovative and outstanding achievements in water efficiency throughout Florida. For complete submittal requirements and online application, go to:


Please Contact: Keeli Carlton Water Use Efficiency Division (WUED) Chair kcarlton@mywinterhaven.com


Looking forward seeing you at November 29 totoDecember 3,the 2020 Hyatt Regency Cypress on Omni OrlandoGrand Resort at ChampionsGate November 28 to December 2, 2021.

20 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

We Make Water Policy A Priority Together We Protect Public Health Through AWWA members’ collective knowledge, our Government Affairs office informs decision makers on legislative and regulatory issues. We support effective measures that protect public health by advocating for sensible laws, regulations, programs and policies.

Join AWWA today and let’s work together on the critical issues facing our industry.


Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021



The Good, the Bad, and a Lesson for the Water Industry Fred Bloetscher, P.E., Ph.D. Chair, FSAWWA


here are three issues to talk about this month—one good, one bad, and one that leads to a larger concern we have with infrastructure. Let’s start with the good news.


2021 Virtual AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition We found out a couple of months ago that the 2021 AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE) could not be held in San

Diego for a variety of reasons, including the need to clean the facilities after use because of COVID-19. The conference, however, went on virtually and those who attended sessions were pretty happy with the results. I conducted three training sessions for public officials on how water systems work, something I have done for 14 years, although usually we have three full afternoons versus the 80 minutes we did this year. It’s always interesting to hear comments from elected officials outside Florida, realizing that most of the time the attendees already buy into their systems’ needs and the management that needs to occur to maintain and operate the systems. The other conference sessions and meetings were also virtual, and while we are all used to virtual meetings at this point, it’s a little hard to do four-day conferences this way. After canceling ACE in Orlando last year, it was good to have the conference back on track, if only virtually. At the end of the conference, my longtime friend and colleague, Dr. Chi Ho Sham, became the president of AWWA for the 2021-22 year. Congratulations to him; the

Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress Orlando

22 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

appointment is well deserved. He has been a very active member for over 20 years and has shown leadership all along the way, chairing a number of committees and divisions. He was our virtual guest last year for the Florida Section conference. I have always enjoyed serving with him. The plan for ACE is to be fully live in San Antonio in June 2022. If you have never been, plan a trip. Remember the Alamo! (It’s way smaller than you expect.) The missions are a great side trip also.

2021 FSAWWA Fall Conference: Live and In Person! This year the Florida Section AWWA conference will be live—that’s right—live! It’ll start the week after Thanksgiving as usual. Hit Orlando early—I will! Of course we will have public health in mind, so we will have all the notices about COVID protocols (social distancing, vaccines, and masks) as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in place, but we will be live!. That feels so good to say. This means we will have an exhibit hall, competitions, eight workshops on Monday, eight technical sessions all day Tuesday and four on Wednesday morning, the barbecue, and the Wednesday annual business meeting and awards luncheon. And now-President Chi Ho Sham will be our in-person guest! While AWWA is not paying for officers to attend meetings, we have worked it out so he can escape the late November weather in Boston and enjoy some Florida Section hospitality and warm weather. We will have the only in-person planned officer visit to an AWWA section this year. Very cool. The conference details are: When: Nov. 28 to Dec. 2, 2021 Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress Where: Orlando We’ve already sent the acceptance letters for papers for the technical program, which

were selected after reviewing over 80 abstracts. There will be lots of useful things to talk about, including potable reuse, lead in water, controlling disinfection byproducts, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and how COVID changed our world. We will also have best paper winners for the 17th year in a row! We sold out the showroom floor, so we should have a full exhibit hall! And don’t forget: there will be lots of friends to meet, both new and old. We are so looking forward to having the conference live and hope that you will be there! Make your reservations now! I did three months ago and rooms are going fast.

COVID is Still With Us The only thing that might impact us is a not-so-old enemy—COVID-19 and the Delta variant. As I’m writing this on August 1, Florida is number one for all the wrong reasons. We set a new record for daily positive tests—over 20,000. We also set a record with over 11,000 people hospitalized with the Delta variant,with 96 percent of those unvaccinated. The problem is that Florida has less than 50 percent of people vaccinated, and who knows about all the people visiting us. It seems like it’s those who are wearing masks and are vaccinated who are concerned about all those not wearing masks and often not vaccinated. The Delta variant is a more-easily transmitted form of COVID and the data indicate that those who are hospitalized are the unvaccinated, but those who are vaccinated can still get COVID—it just shouldn’t kill us. We live in a society with other human beings, which means we have a responsibility to each other and to protect one another. So, let’s get vaccinated. Hopefully by the time you read this we have made lots of progress to that end and the rates of infection will have gone way down.

Surfside Condominium Collapse: A Lesson for the Water Industry Finally, with respect to our responsibility to one another, we need to talk about the Surfside condo tragedy that happened here in late June. Half of a building collapsed on sleeping residents at 1:30 in the morning. Weeks were spent cleaning up the rubble, and unfortunately, digging out those who were crushed under the concrete. The last count was 98 dead. This is a very difficult moment for all of Florida, not just those directly affected. Over the next year we will hear a lot about this—with lots of finger-pointing and

lawsuits. Condo sales may slow down and values may drop due to uncertainty about building safety since the collapse. We all are affected, so let’s step back a minute and think about the parallels to what we in the utility industry face. A condo association is made up of the owners of units in the building. They elect a board, which manages the building. For the most part the board is made up of people who are retired, with time on their hands, who generally know little about building infrastructure or the needs to maintain it. The condo association owns and is responsible for the infrastructure (walls and floors), but not the interior property. The board hires experts to evaluate many things, like legal services, engineering, and accounting, plus in some cases, employees and management. In 2018, this condo association hired an engineer who found significant concerns with respect to structural damage to the building: the building was on the beach, the foundation was in salty groundwater; saltwater (tides) regularly entered the garage; the pool deck was flat, so water literally went through the concrete into the garage; construction on a building next door had been ongoing for a couple of years; the building was 40 years old and built to a different building code than required today, etc. In addition, the residents did not vote to establish cash reserves (required by law). The cost estimate to fix the infrastructure was more that $15 million, which created an average assessment on each unit of $120,000. Each unit had a value of around $600,000 and many of the owners were on fixed incomes. There was no way for the condo association to force approval of the assessments and three years after the last report, none of the fixes had been done. Does any of this sound familiar? Elected officials versus condo boards? Voting public versus voting residents? Deteriorating infrastructure? The parallels are a bit alarming considering that all of the issues that apply to the building apply to our water infrastructure (generally). As I noted in an earlier column, before 1980, the United States spent 3.4 to 3.6 percent of its gross domestic product on infrastructure; that number was reduced to about 1.3 percent post-1980. No one wants to pay more in taxes or fees, so it’s no wonder that our infrastructure went from a B to a D grade from the American Society of Civil Engineers in 40 years. Failure of our infrastructure system risks lives and prosperity and it’s our job to do what we can to avoid further failure on our utility systems (and we do a great job of

keeping things together despite the challenges, which may be part of the problem). We need to make our case to management, elected officials, and the public. Hard, unpopular decisions will have to be made. An elected official once told me at an ACE that “there are no statues for those who did not raise taxes or fees” and he is correct. We remember those who build for the future. The reality is that to maintain our infrastructure reliability, people will have to pay more and we need to help people understand that infrastructure investment equals jobs; therefore, our investments will keep people employed. No one builds a new factory or housing development where the water service is unreliable or the sewers do not work. Reliability is key. The design, maintenance, and operation of water and sewer systems is a profession. Professions require advanced or specialized expertise that’s not commonly available in the public realm. Professions are assumed to meet the tests of public interest, whereby their actions are focused on the public good. Thomas Hobbes, the 17th-century English philosopher, would call this a social contract. Our industry is a social contract with our customers that’s also enacted into law—our purpose is to protect the public health, safety, and welfare. Despite the challenges, we need to use the example of what went wrong in Surfside to help educate our leaders and customers about what could go wrong if investments are not made in the water industry. It’s part of our S professional and ethical responsibility.

Thomas Hobbes

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


What Can a Water System Do to Prepare For a Power Outage? As wildfires and other extreme weather events take their toll on water system security a public safety power shutoff program as part of an emergency response plan can keep your system running when it counts the most Yvonne Heaney, Jim Wollbrinck, and Bruce A. Macler Imagine it’s a hot, windy day. Suddenly, your utility building’s lights flicker and the power is off. The heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system sighs and goes quiet. The whine of your water system’s pumps and motors slows to an eerie silence. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) screens blink once and go dark. You think they’ll be back on in a minute or two, but the person on the radio (yes, you have a battery radio on your desk because you’re prepared) says there’s something’s wrong all over the region. Or maybe it’s a text message from the local power company advising that high winds are coming and electrical distribution has been cut for a few days to prevent wildfires. You have some generators in place, but most don’t have automatic transfer switches. And the fuel tanks are low.

Everyone will be looking for generators when an event is about to happen, so getting a head start could be the difference between having backup power or not. State water and wastewater agency response networks can make it easier to borrow a generator and other resources during a regional emergency. (photo: Rebecca Jane Call, shutterstock.com)

What are you going to do? After devastating wildfires in California in recent years, the state’s electric power companies began a public safety power shutoff (PSPS) program to help prevent fires caused by high winds damaging their transmission and distribution lines. At the beginning of summer 2019, the power utilities announced that they’d begin a preemptive PSPS whenever conditions warranted, such as high temperatures, low humidity, high winds, and low vegetation moisture content. In October 2019, the first large-scale PSPS event occurred—one of three in October and November 2019. Most service areas were shut off for one to three days, but some areas were shut off for up to five days.

Planning For Power Outages The actual number of customers affected by the PSPS events wasn’t calculated

by the power utilities, but more than 3 million service connections were cut off. The number of people affected could have been anywhere from 7 million on the low end to more than 10 million on the high end. Thousands of water systems were affected. What did the PSPS events mean for water utilities? With only a few months of notice, many water systems weren’t able to adequately prepare. Ultimately, those that couldn’t or didn’t fully prepare, and then experienced prolonged periods of power outages, had difficulty maintaining water in their systems and a host of other issues. Some unfortunate systems in California even lost all of their water, depressurized, and went on boil-water notices. Subsequently, the California Water/ Wastewater Agency Response Network (CalWARN), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water program, California Division of Drinking Water, American Water Works Association (AWWA)

Good relationships, information sharing, and collaboration between water and electric utilities and local emergency management agencies are critical to having power restored quickly after an outage. (Photo: EPA)

24 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

California–Nevada Section, and California power utilities began discussions to help water utilities prepare for possible outages. The EPA water security division held workshops and convened a workgroup to develop checklists (https://bit.ly/ 3iGENIK), California-specific guidance, and a standard operating procedure (SOP). These materials were used to help prepare the document, “Power Resilience Guide for Water and Wastewater Utilities,” available at https://bit. ly/2H4n7sp. To successfully handle a planned or unexpected power loss requires preplanning, preparation, and an appropriate emergency response plan. The PSPS events require an additional level of preparedness and a day or two to get things ready. That time shouldn’t be spent thinking about what to do, but doing what needs to get done. This article presents some of the necessary steps utilities must take to prepare for these events. For the most part, work can be done well ahead of a PSPS event, so when the lights do go out, your primary job will be to watch, monitor, and maintain the situation. Preparation for PSPS events has two components: “blue-sky” planning, which is done well before an anticipated shutoff, and “48-hour warning” activities to prepare for the impending event. The topics are basically the same, but the work is quite different for critical infrastructure, generators, fuel, SCADA, communications (internal, external, professional, and public/media), partnerships, staffing, access, and safety. The more blue-sky planning you do, the better off you’ll be when a 48-hour PSPS event notification occurs.

Blue-Sky Planning for Power Outages Critical Infrastructure Treatment plants, wells, and booster stations are all examples of critical system components, but perhaps they don’t all need to run at the same time. Figure out what needs to run and when, and keep those details in mind while obtaining equipment. The concept of backup power is wellknown, and many water systems already implement backup power at key stations. Typically, this takes the form of a generator; however, before the advent of a PSPS event, most systems wouldn’t have expected to go several days running on backup power, nor would they anticipate running an entire water system on backup power supply. What’s considered normal has changed, and many of the lessons learned during the 2019 PSPS

Planning, training, and exercises allow power and water utility staff to learn, practice, test, and improve emergency response plans and procedures. (photo:EPA)

Power assessments determine a utility’s emergency power requirements for critical equipment to maintain water and wastewater services. (photo:EPA)

events shed light on what it means to be resilient in a new age when having grid power isn’t a guarantee. Generators Once you know which of your facilities and equipment you need to provide power to, you’ll want to find a generator or appropriate power source. First, generators need to be sized based on the capacity of what they’re going to run. It typically takes a specialist to size these units properly. The sooner you get started on this, the better. Keep in mind that everyone will be looking for generators when an event is about to happen. Getting a head start could be the difference between having backup power or not, and that’s ultimately the difference between a wet or dry system. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Emergency Power Facility Assessment Tool (EPFAT) is a useful way to evaluate your needs (https://bit.ly/3hxS8S1). Is your generator fixed or portable? Portable generators provide versatility and can be moved around the water system if, when, and where they’re needed. Be clever. Are there ways you can operate properly with fewer generators?

Fuel Once you have a generator, remember it’s a machine that needs fuel. What type of fuel does it take—diesel, propane, natural gas? Be sure to know what you need and have a supplier ready if you need more. Determine how long each generator can run before it needs more fuel. This will help you determine how long you can operate equipment and plan fueling routes to ensure everything keeps running. Another important fuel consideration is keeping it clean. Be mindful of the containers used to store fuel. Some are fabricated of better material than others for long-term storage. Containers that aren’t airtight could allow bugs and debris to build up in the fuel, rendering it unusable. Take this seriously because dirty fuel will slow up or even stop a generator from operating. Like dirty oil in a car, tainted fuel will reduce the equipment’s life span. Testing fuel integrity is an option, and some systems do this type of check regularly. You can run smaller equipment on different types of backup power, including batteries and solar panels. Evaluate your options for small pumps, programmable logic Continued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


Continued from page 25 controllers, analyzers, and more. Determine power consumption for devices and obtain appropriate power accordingly. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Your SCADA system is just as important as having a reliable generator. Being able to see and run your system normally, likely without physically being present, is necessary to ensure adequate water flow. If your storage tanks can’t communicate with your source, the source can’t tell when the tank is draining or when it’s full. Things can quickly go awry if that happens. Don’t let SCADA technology be the weak link in your PSPS execution

Communications Internal parties in your organization, external emergency responders, and the public and media will require constant contact during a PSPS emergency. Keep cell phones charged and have backup options for long-term charging. Remember that cell towers also need electricity to function, and instances of cell service being unavailable during emergencies have been reported. Keep this in mind, and develop backup communication plans and options. You need to be able to direct staff, report to outside parties and ask them questions, and interact with the public and media. All will likely have many questions about job duties, status updates, and most importantly, water service availability.

Know what types of generators are required and where to get them during a power outage. (photo:EPA)

Transfer switches allow utilities to easily switch back and forth between grid power and onsite generator power sources. (photo:EPA)

26 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Take time to build out other communication methods. Can you use radio or walkie-talkies (handheld radio transceivers) for internal communication? Do you have a landline that can function if cell service goes out? In a pinch, good oldfashioned face-to-face communication— with appropriate social distancing measures in place given the pandemic—will get the job done. Get a list of important people and addresses, and develop meeting plans and locations if necessary. You’ll also need to consider what you’ll tell the public. Draft appropriate messages to your customers on what they can expect. Develop fill-in-the-blank press releases for later use. Partnerships As the saying goes, you’re only as strong as your team. The better connected you are in terms of mutual aid for supplies and staffing, the more successful you’re going to be when a PSPS event happens. This is where help comes in. Build a strong network. Have connections, backup connections, and backups to the backups! It can be helpful to reach out before an event to discuss options with your partners or even just to let them know you may need their services soon. State WARNs are an excellent resource to use in an emergency. The WARNs allow users to reach out quickly and on a large scale to water systems within the WARN and they can help coordinate all sorts of help, including staffing, supplies, equipment, and much more. The WARNs are also typically plugged into state emergency operation centers, which provide another level of support during an emergency. Sign up for your state WARN well before an emergency happens, which will ensure you can use the network to its fullest during times of need. For details, visit www. awwa.org/warn. Staffing Enduring a prolonged PSPS event entails coordinating staffing levels as shifts modify to run a system more manually. Your system may need increased monitoring to ensure water supply, yet you only have a fixed number of staff. Understanding what will need to be watched and determining how much extra time may be needed will help you establish an appropriate schedule. Divvy up staff time to ensure that key areas are covered and staff members get much-needed rest. Expect things to go wrong, so plan for some flexibility in your PSPS response. Consider these factors as you build schedules.

Access This may sound like a no-brainer, but issues can arise during PSPS events regarding facility access. Do all staff members have access to locked doors, gates, generator keys, etc.? Staff may need to access areas unexpectedly, so either set up accessibility for all staff or provide a mechanism to gain quick access during a PSPS event. Parties outside of your organization may need to gain access to the facilities as well. For example, fuel delivery trucks will need to reach the generator sites and there have been cases of the roads leading to facilities being blocked. Understanding where problems could arise and developing informed solutions ahead of time will save a lot of time and trouble. Safety As always, personal safety is of utmost importance. During moments of heightened activity, the propensity for shortcutting safety protocols increases the likelihood of making mistakes. Some mistakes can be lifethreatening, so extra care should be taken to mitigate potential hazards. For a PSPS event, some safety concerns include heavyequipment operation, fume inhalation, and staff exhaustion. Spend time brainstorming other safety concerns. Keep those in mind, and practice, practice, practice.

48-Hour Warning Activities Generators At 48 hours out, it’s time to do a last check of the generators and backup power options you’ve worked so hard to obtain. Do a physical inspection. Fire them up if possible. If your generator is on automatic start, can you simulate conditions and have it start and run under a full load? If you’re using batteries or solar cells, turn them on to ensure they function properly. Fuel Hopefully, you’ve maintained your fuel appropriately. Inspect it and check for any potential issues. Have backup suppliers ready to provide more fuel if and when necessary. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition At this point, you should have a backup power supply set up for your SCADA system. Because SCADA is such a vital part of running a water system, triple-check that it will work. If your SCADA system goes down, it will cost staff a lot more time and energy to maintain the water system. Avoid burnout by keeping your SCADA system functioning.

Consider the bare-minimum goals for meeting customer needs as fuel and treatment chemical supplies dwindle during an extended wide-area blackout. (photo:EPA)

Communications Now is the time to hand out radios, walkie-talkies, and any other communication devices you may have on hand. Check batteries, obtain spare batteries, check landlines, etc. Check with staff about charging capabilities for electronic communication devices. Charging devices in cars or with portable chargers is a great option. Remember that not only is the water system losing power, it’s also likely that staff members will lose power at their homes as well. Keep your devices fully charged as much as possible at this stage. Run a communications test to ensure that equipment is working and staff members understand its operation. It’s also time to provide information to your customers, civic leaders, and the media on what to expect and who to contact. If you expect pressure problems, water shortages, or outages, they need to know. Partnerships Have your list of contacts ready. It’s time to touch base with your professional emergency response colleagues at your local and state agencies. Share what you know and what you might expect. Staffing Look over and adjust schedules as appropriate. Give enough buffer between shifts to allow for ample breaks and be prepared for staff who may need to call out to attend to personal issues that arise from a PSPS event. Access Internally, double-check that all staff (even those who may not appear to need it) have avenues to access sites. Externally, be

available for outside parties to contact you with site-accessibility issues. Keep your list of partnerships available to help address accessibility. Safety Remind staff that no job is worth risking safety. Also, remind staff members of their training and implement any safety procedures that have been developed.

T Minus Zero and Onward At T minus zero, the lights flicker and the power is off. But you’re ready! Although this article addresses ways to prepare for this moment, be sure your PSPS SOP fully describes activities at T minus zero, as well as T plus 24 hours and beyond. Power loss can have devastating impacts on drinking water and wastewater utilities and the communities they serve. Act now to increase power resilience at drinking water and wastewater utilities. The views expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and don’t necessarily reflect their respective agencies or organizations. 2020© American Water Works Association _____________________________________ Yvonne Heaney is with the California State Water Resources Control Board in San Francisco. Jim Wollbrinck is with San Jose Water in San Jose, Calif. Bruce A. Macler is a trustee with the AWWA Small Systems Division. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021



RieberLok Gaskets: Faster, Easier, and Less Expensive More and more utilities and municipalities are turning to RieberLok® self-restraining gaskets as the fastest, easiest, and least-expensive way of field-restraining ANSI/AWWA C900 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe and fittings manufactured with a rieber gasket, and most C909 PVC pipe with an anger groove gasket. “Our product is the first-ever internal gasket that both seals and restrains PVC pipe,” says Kevin Stine, RieberLok eastern regional sales manager. While an external bell harness can take from 10 to 30 minutes to install, RieberLok installation can be completed in 30 to 60 seconds. Furthermore, it requires no specialty coating on nuts and bolts and no wrapping of joints in externally corrosive areas. A joint restraint field test on 6-inch C900 PVC pressure pipe performed by a central Florida municipality is a case in point. On Oct. 19th, 2020, a field crew assembled three sections of 6-inch DR18 C900 PVC pipe. One joint was restrained with an internal RieberLok gasket and the other with an external bell joint harness. Two mechanical joint caps with external wedge action joints were used on each end of the configuration as anchor points for the pulling devices. Using two 13-yard dump trucks, the crew attempted to separate the assembled joints. After

multiple attempts, the bell harness slid on the pipe and eventually one of the bell harness rings broke. “The RieberLok self-restrained gasket did not move; it stayed intact and on the home line,” says Stine. RieberLok is a division of McWane Inc., which was started in Birmingham, Ala., more than 100 years ago as a manufacturer of cast iron pipe. Today, the company remains privately owned by the McWane family and is one of the world’s premier manufacturers of waterworks products, including ductile iron pipe, valves, hydrants, fittings, and joint restraints. McWane also produces utility poles and plumbing, fire suppression, and pressure vessel products. The RieberLok division was started in 2016. Introduced at the American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Exposition in June 2017 (ACE17) in Philadelphia, the RieberLok gasket is designed and patented at one of McWane’s design and development centers. In a market where good ideas go to die, RieberLok has had a meteoric rise to success. Since its inception, RieberLok has focused on water district and engineering approvals, a focus that is producing substantial positive results. “The challenge has been to get in front of decision makers during these difficult pandemic times,” says Stine. By moving swiftly and efficiently, RieberLok

was able to go to virtual presentations and tailgate demonstrations to let people know about this new product, which has had tremendous success in the C900 and C909 PVC pipe markets. The gaskets are currently available in 4- to 16-inch sizes for cast iron outside diameter (CIOD) and 4- to 8-inch sizes for iron pipe size (IPS). Additional sizes and applications will be available soon. “We are currently testing a 24inch gasket for CIOD,” confirms Stine, adding that RieberLok has just developed 6- and 8-inch gaskets for C909 molecular-oriented PVC pipe with intent to complete the size range through 24 inches for C909. “The company is continuously developing products to respond to customers’ needs.” RieberLok gaskets are sold not only throughout the continental United States, but also in Canada, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Abu Dhabi. The gaskets are widely available throughout Florida, with installations in many areas, including projects in Manatee County, Ocala, Venice, Jacksonville, Tallahassee, Pensacola, Eglin Air Force Base, and the Florida Keys. “RieberLok gaskets are easily available, without long lead times,” notes Stine. “There is no need to use bolts, clamps, rods, thrust blocks, or other restraining devices when you can use an easy push-on restraining RieberLok gasket.” q

Technology Spotlight is a paid feature sponsored by the advertisement on the facing page. The Journal and its publisher do not endorse any product that appears in this column. If you would like to have your technology featured, contact Mike Delaney at 352-241-6006 or mike@fwrj.com.

28 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Test Yourself

What Do You Know About the Revised Biosolids Rule Florida Administrative Code 62-640? 4. Per the FDEP Biosolids Public Meeting Presentation, unless the permittee provides reasonable assurance that land application will not cause or contribute to surface or groundwater quality, violations permits shall not allow application on soils with a seasonal high water table (SHWT) within how many inches of soil surface or depth of biosolids placement?

Donna Kaluzniak

1. P er Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-640, Biosolids, new or renewed facility or biosolids land application site permits issued after July 1, 2020, shall meet the requirements of that chapter no later than a. b. c. d.

June 21, 2022. June 21, 2023. Dec. 31, 2022. Dec. 31, 2023.

2. P er the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) May 21, 2021 PowerPoint Presentation, Chapter 62-640, FAC Public Meeting May 27, 2021 (Biosolids Public Meeting Presentation), by the effective date of the rule, site permits for biosolids land application will require enrollment in what type of program?

a. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) best management practices (BMP) program b. FDEP Best Biosolids Management (BBM) program c. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Biosolids Management Program (BMP) d. EPA Part 503 Surface Water Improvement Program (SWIM) 3. P er the FDEP Biosolids Public Meeting Presentation, at the effective date of the rule, what is the minimum allowable depth of unsaturated soil from the depth of biosolids placement?

a. b. c. d.

a. 2 inches c. 6 inches

b. 4 inches d. 8 inches

5. Per FAC 62-640, a measure of the capacity of soil to store phosphorus is defined as the

a. b. c. d.

biophosphorus capacity. capacity index. phosphorus capacity. soil storage index.

6. Per FAC 62-640, what type of site-specific plan must be submitted to FDEP with a permit application for biosolids application on an agricultural site? a. b. c. d.

Basin Management Action Plan (BMAP) Best management practices (BMP) plan Nutrient Management Plan (NMP) S tormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP)

7. Per FAC 62-640, when determining biosolids land application rates, the crop nutrient demand phosphorus may be adjusted based on the soil phosphorus storage capacity index and the PWEP, which is the

a. b. c. d.

a. b. c. d.

0. 5. 10. 15.

10. Per FAC 62-640, distributed and marketed Class AA biosolids or biosolids products shall be distributed and marketed as a(n)

a. b. c. d.

biosolids enhancement product. fertilizer. organic soil. recycled wastewater product. Answers on page 54

References used for this quiz: Florida Administrative Code 62-640 Biosolids: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter=62-640 Florida Department of Environmental Protection PowerPoint Presentation, Chapter 62-640 FAC, Public Meeting May 27, 2021: https://floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/Biosolids RulePublicMeeting_052721-Final.pdf

percent water extractable phosphorus. phosphorus warning and extension plan. potential water extent of pollution. produced water with extra phosphorus.

8. Per FAC 62-640, after what date must all domestic wastewater treatment facilities and biosolids treatment facilities permitted to land-apply biosolids start monitoring for water-extractable phosphorus during routine biosolids monitoring events?

1 foot 2 feet 3 feet 4 feet

9. Per FAC 62-640, a groundwater monitoring program shall be established by the site permittee and approved by FDEP for land application sites when the application rate in the NMP exceeds more than 160 lbs/acre/year of total nitrogen, or 40 lbs/acre/year of total P2O5, or when the soil capacity index is less than

a. J une 21, 2021 c. Jan. 1, 2022

30 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

b. July 30, 2021 d. June 21, 2022

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com



Surface Water: Characteristics and Treatment Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA


reetings everyone. I hope all of you are having a good summer so far. Florida is well into the rainy season, which can bring some heavy rain and runoff, and it’s a challenging time for those of us who treat surface water. Many surface water sources see changing water quality characteristics that result in higher color and total organic carbon (TOC). Often this water can have high turbidity and low alkalinity. This month’s C Factor will take a look at surface water treatment.

What is Surface Water? Surface water can be described as any body of water that is above ground and exposed to the atmosphere. These include rivers, lakes, streams, reservoirs, etc. Some groundwater that has been exposed to surface water from infiltration through the aquifer is described as groundwater under the influence of surface water. In this case, for regulatory purposes, this water must be considered surface water, which is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as

Subpart H systems. This means a public water system that is using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water as a source is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 141, Subpart H, and Rule 62-550.817, F.A.C. Characteristics Surface water has a characteristic of containing natural organic matter (NOM), which is the colloidal and dissolved organics found in some natural waters, particularly in Florida and the eastern coast of the United States. They are the end products of decayed vegetable matter. Generally, natural waters with high organic compounds are low in turbidity. The main constituents of these natural occurring organic compounds have been defined as organic acids called humic acids (tannic and fulvic). The tannic acid is a high-molecularweight, complex macromolecule made up of thousands of covalently bonded atoms that, because of their size, are less soluble and are hydrophobic (doesn't like to mix with water). The smaller faction of this color is fulvic acid, a low-molecular molecule that is hydrophilic (has a tendency to dissolve or mix in water). Both acids exhibit polyanionic characteristics (having many negative charges) and impart a yellowish-brown color to the water. The acids are commonly referred to as “color.” Color Color may be determined by visual

comparison, as with Nessler tubes, or by a spectrophotometer. When determining color visually with Nessler tubes, a series of matched 50-mL glass tubes are made up with a standard of varing ranges of color. The filtered sample is poured into a blank 50-mL matched Nessler tube and compared to the color standards to determine the color. Regardless of the method used, the sample must be filtered to determine “true color.” Color determination that has not been filtered is termed “apparent color.” Color determinations are extremely pH-dependent and will inevitably increase as the pH of the water increases. Due to this pH dependency, color determinations should be specified with pH values.

Surface Water Treatment One of the primary methods of treating surface water is with the coagulation/ flocculation sedimentation process (Figure 1). Coagulation is a physical and chemical reaction occurring between the alkalinity in the water and the coagulant. Flocculation is a physical and mechanical process where the probability of collision between the floc particles is increased by a process of gentle mixing. As the floc agglomerates to a density greater than water it will start to settle. (Figure 2). Some common coagulants are: S A luminum sulfate S F erric sulfate S F erric chloride S P olyaluminum chloride Polymers are used to aid in coagulation or enhance settling. Polymers commonly used are listed here by category, although the net charge can vary with formulation: S C ationic polymer (coagulant aid) S N onionic polymer (settling aid) S A nionic polymer (settling aid)

Figure 1. Water treatment process.

32 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The primary factors coagulation are: S p H S A lkalinity S T urbidity S T emperature S T ype of coagulant S C olor



pH The pH of water is a significant factor in the coagulation process. Different coagulants work better at specific pH ranges. The effect of turbidity, color, and TOC removal can vary significantly with different pH ranges. The optimum pH ranges for turbidity removal with different coagulants are: S Aluminum sulfate – 6 to 7.5 S Ferric sulfate – 5.8 to 6.5 S Ferric chloride – 5.8 To 6.5 The ranges may vary from water to water depending on alkalinity, color, and turbidity. The optimum pH ranges for organic removal with different coagulants are: S Aluminum sulfate – 5 to 6 S Ferric sulfate – 4.5 to 5.5 S Ferric chloride – 5 To 6 S Polyaluminum chloride – 5 to 6 The ranges for the iron salts will shift to the lower end as the organic loading increases. There is an optimum pH for every water treatment process and coagulation is no different. When the optimum pH is achieved by overdosing the coagulant the process is called “sweep coagulation.” When the optimum pH is adjusted with an acid or alkaline chemical to remove the optimum amount of natural organic matter at the optimum dose the process is called “enhanced coagulation.” Alkalinity When the metal coagulants are added to water, they form positively charged hydroxide species. Aluminum hydroxide Al2(SO4)3 + 14H2O + 3Ca (HCO3)2 > 2Al(OH)3 + 3CaSO4 + 6CO2 + 14H2O Ferric hydroxide Fe2(SO4)3 + 12H2O + 3Ca (HCO3)2 > 2Fe(OH)3 + 3CaSO4 + 6CO2 + 12H2O Without natural alkalinity the reactions will not be complete. Alkalinity can be increased by adding an alkaline solution, such as sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide (lime). Turbidity Settleable solids are large-sized particles of heavy silt and sand and will settle easily, depending on the flow. Nonsettleable solids, or colloidal matter, are smaller-sized particles, such as color, bacteria, and fine clays and silts. These particles will not settle and require treatment to produce larger particles that are settleable.

Figure 2. Settling basins.

Temperature Coagulation efficiency decreases with decreasing water temperature. With colder water, higher residual turbidities can be expected. Suggested reasons for this are: S Increased water viscosity and its effect on sedimentation. S Change in the structure to smaller aggregates at lower temperatures. S Decreases in the rates of hydrolysis and precipitation. Type of Coagulant As mentioned previously, the type of coagulant used to optimize the coagulation process can vary with different raw water qualities. All waters are not equal and they are all unique. In one water sample a coagulant may work excellently and be totally wrong for another. The factors that will affect the type of coagulant are: S Colloid stability S Color S Total organic carbon S Ions in solution S Type and quantity of turbidity S Primary end results or goals that are to be accomplished Other factors to consider are an increase in sulfates from coagulants and solids disposal. Color Colloid particles in water have electrically negative charged surfaces referred to as the “zeta potential.” This is the difference of the charge on the surface of the particle and the charge of

the suspended fluid surrounding the particle measured in millivolts. It’s this negative charge to which the particles owe their stability. The process in water treatment is to transform this stable system into an unstable one. An unstable colloid is an irreversible colloid that coagulates rapidly.

Process Control Management Process control monitoring is essential to optimizing the treatment process. Certain parameters must be accurately measured to assure that the process is working properly. Online instruments are important for controlling coagulants and other treatment chemicals, and proper calibration is essential. Also, instrument probes must be kept clean to work properly. Grab samples should be taken at least every two hours to compare results in the laboratory with online instruments and to verify other treatment parameters. At a minimum the following parameters should be monitored: S R aw water analyses (pH, alkalinity, turbidity, color, temperature) S R apid mix effluent (pH) S F locculation effluent (turbidity, alkalinity, pH, color) S S edimentation effluent (turbidity, color) Jar Tests The primary reason for performing jar tests is to optimize plant performance. Other benefits from jar testing include at least the following: Continued on page 34

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


Continued from page 33 S Better understanding of the treatment capabilities S Control and reduce chemical cost S Reduce sludge production and disposal cost S Improve water quality S Identification of treatment deficiencies S Increased filtration efficiency To prepare for a jar test, you first must prepare a coagulant or polymer stock solution. Prepare a coagulant stock solution of 2 percent by adding 20 mL of coagulant (neat) to 1 liter of distilled water; mix for five to 10 minutes or until well-mixed in a flask with a mechanical mixer. Each mL of coagulant stock solution will equal 10 mg/L in a 2-liter gator jar. Prepare a polymer stock solution of 0.1 percent concentration. Very slowly, add 1 gram of dry coagulation polymer to 1 liter of distilled water in a flask under vigorous mixing with a mechanical mixer; continue mixing for another 30 to 60 minutes until the dry polymer is completely dissolved. A new polymer solution should be mixed every six to eight hours. Each mL of stock polymer solution will equal a dose of 0.05 mg/L in a 2-liter gator jar. When conducting a jar test, you should first establish the test sequence. The comparison in jars should be kept to one variable; keep the other treatment chemicals constant, like polymer dose and pH. Once a primary coagulant dose is established a second variable can be evaluated. Variables to consider are dosage, pH, polymer type, and polymer dosage. The next step in the jar testing process is to interpret the results.

Floc Formation Initially, floc should form very quickly, but should be small (pinfloc). The floc should grow as the flocculation process continues. The water between the floc particles should be clear and not hazy or milky in appearance. The floc should start to settle as soon as the mixer stops. About 80 to 90 percent of the floc should be settled after about 15 minutes. If the floc settles before mixing is completed, or if 80 percent has settled in the first two to three minutes after the mixer has stopped, the floc is too heavy and overdosing may be the problem. If a jar is hazy or cloudy, indications may be polymer overdosing and/or underdosing of the primary coagulant. Turbidity and color should be analyzed in the laboratory for settled water from the treatment unit and filtered water from the filter effluent. These are parameters that establish the efficiency of the treatment. An additional laboratory analysis that can assist in determining the best treatment scheme is a filterability test. Pass 100 mL of sample from the jar through a filter paper and measure the time required for the sample to pass through the filter. Compare this to the time 100 mL of distilled water takes to pass through the filter. Divide the time it took the sample to flow through the filter by the time for the distilled water to pass through the filter to determine the filterability. A filterability index should be in a range of 1 to 1.4. Other helpful analyses are: UV254 – The UV254 percent transmittance is best when it’s in the 90 to 100 percent range. TOC – A concentration of <2.0mg/L should be the target for TOC.

Sol-Fe mg/L

2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 3.7








pH Figure 3. Effects on solubility as a function of pH.

34 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal




Coagulant metal analysis – Total iron for ferric salts and aluminum for alum salts; total trihalomethane (TTHM) and haloacetic acid (HAA5) disinfectant byproducts. Depending on the water quality goals other lab tests may be included. One of the primary tools for the operator when treating surface water is observation. Being familiar with what is right about the appearance of the treatment process helps to give insight into conditions that are developing that may indicate a problem. Observe the floc as it enters the flocculators. The floc should be small and well-dispersed throughout the flow. If this is not the case, the mixer may not be providing sufficient energy or the chemical dose or feed rate is too low. A pinpoint floc that does not grow during flocculation is an indication that the coagulant dose is too low. A milky or bluish tint to the water is an indication that alum is being overdosed; a cloudy appearance to the water may be an indication of a polymer overdose. The floc should continue to grow as it moves through the flocculator basins. If the floc starts to break up or diminish in size there may be too much mixing energy being applied by the downstream flocculators. Try reducing the mixing intensity or increase the polymer dose. The appearance of a small fine floc particle washing over the effluent weirs could be an indication of too much alum or ferric, and the dose should be reduced; the floc should then settle out in the settling basin. If there is floc carrying over the laundering weirs the floc is too light for the detention time. An increase in coagulant or polymer dose may produce a heavier floc. A quick but effective control is to grab 1000-mL beaker samples of treated water from the exit of the mixing basin and at the exit of each flocculation compartment and return them to the lab. Set the samples under the jar tester at flocculator speeds and observe the floc size and floc settling, and confirm the target coagulation pH. The practice of collecting a grab sample, especially when enhanced coagulation is the process, will provide an early warning of failure of the chemical feed for pH adjustment, or coagulant or polymer feed problems. The performance of the filters is also an indication of how efficient the treatment process is. Before making a change to the dose of a treatment chemical, make sure that the chemical feed pump is feeding properly. Perform a drawdown on the chemical feed pump and compare the pump output to the desired dose. If

the pump is pumping under or over the desired set point, a pump calibration may be necessary. Only change one treatment chemical at a time and wait a minimum of one hydraulic retention time (detention time) to see the effect of the change before making another chemical adjustment. The detention time should be determined for each treatment segment, rapid mix, flocculation basins, and settling basins. The sum of these is the total detention time:

to be a proctor, please contact the training office at 321-383-9690. In the meantime, and as always, our Online Training Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click

on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at OnlineTraining@ fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at training@fwpcoa.org. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work! S

Detention Time (minutes) = (Volume of segment, gal) (1440 min/day) Flow, gal/day

Enhanced Coagulation As mentions previously, enhanced coagulation is the process of reducing the pH of the raw water to a lower range for the purpose of removing organics, specifically TOC. By reducing the TOC, the potential for forming disinfection byproducts is reduced. The raw water pH is reduced by adding acid, usually sulfuric acid, to a pH that is optimal for the reduction of TOC. This could be a pH as low as 4.5 to 5 for some coagulants, such as ferric sulfate. One caution that must be considered with using iron-based salts is if the pH drops too low (below 4.2) the solubility of iron will be increased significantly, which can overload filters with iron precipitates once the pH is increased again. Figure 3 shows the effects on solubility as a function of pH. This concludes the examination of the coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation process utilized when treating surface water. As I noted, each raw water source has characteristics unique to that body of water. Also, conditions change seasonally between the dry season and wet season. The dry season usually will bring lower color and higher alkalinity due to less runoff and more influence from springs from groundwater sources. Algae blooms are more likely to occur during the dry season when the water color is at its lowest. The first rains of the season will bring higher color and turbidity as the water shed flows increase flushing out to the lowlands and swamps that have been dormant during the dry season. Alkalinity will drop, sometimes so low that you may need to add alkalis to have sufficient alkalinity for coagulation.

FWPCOA Training Update The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021



Miami Forever: Stormwater and Coastal Resilience for a Changing Climate Michael Schmidt, Christopher Bennett, Alan Dodd, Jonathan Goldman, and Thomas Nye Key Words, Terms, and Acronyms Adaptation, ARPA grants, aquifer recharge, backflow preventers, B/C analyses, Biscayne Aquifer, Biscayne Bay, CIP, coastal resilience, exfiltration, FEMA BRIC/HMGP/Hazus tool, FDOT, king tides, LOS, OFW, prioritization, recharge wells, resiliency, retrofit, saltwater intrusion barrier, sea level rise, seawalls, SFWMD, SRF loans, stillwater elevation, stormwater management, SWMP, SWMM, sustainability, and tidal surge. Miami faces challenges with built-out urban conditions being impacted by sea level rise, tidal surge events, and varying precipitation. The stormwater master plan (SWMP) is a comprehensive program to manage stormwater, with changes in sea levels and tidal surge, groundwater, and rainfall patterns, to manage flooding while protecting and enhancing water quality and aquifer recharge. The holistic approach to modeling current and future conditions allows the city to plan for current and future climate stormwater and coastal resilience needs.

This article presents the challenges, opportunities, methodology, and levels of service (LOS) for the stormwater system, benefit-cost (B/C) analyses, and considerations for implementation.

Background The SWMP for the City of Miami (city) has been developed as a comprehensive effort to define resilient, adaptable, and sustainable stormwater flood mitigation, water quality, and aquifer recharge capital investments—for now and the foreseeable future. The plan includes modeling joint rainfall and tidal flood events, effects of sea level rise and rising groundwater tables, and increased rainfall intensities. The plan also considers anticipated development growth and climate change data, while providing the tools necessary to allow the city to develop an adaptable and resilient capital improvement program (CIP) that anticipates and prioritizes funding and infrastructure needs to help protect public safety, public and environmental health, and Florida’s largest urban economy. Program goals were established to create a

Michael Schmidt, P.E., BCEE, D.WRE, is senior vice president with CDM Smith in Jacksonville. Christopher Bennett, P.E., is assistant director/ deputy chief resilience officer, and Alan Dodd, P.E., is chief resilience officer/ director, with City of Miami, Department of Resilience and Public Works. Jonathan Goldman, P.E., is an associate, and Thomas Nye, Ph.D., P.E, is senior water resources engineer, with CDM Smith in Boca Raton.

vision and metrics for today and for the future, including considerations for: S Flood mitigation S Water quality protection S Aquifer recharge S Enhanced operation and maintenance S Community acceptance S Sea level rise and storm surge S Stormwater harvesting S Permitability and constructability S Long-term financing The city encompasses approximately 56 sq mi (Figure 1); approximately 36 sq mi of this region are located in upland areas, while the remaining 20 sq mi are found within coastal basins and Biscayne Bay, which is an Outstanding Florida Water (OFW) with special water quality protection. The stormwater service area is naturally divided by elevation, topography, and infrastructure into eight major basins that interact with Miami-Dade County, Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) stormwater management systems.


Figure 3. Flood Inundation Map

36 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Stormwater Models The hydrologic and hydraulic stormwater models were developed in the public domain of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) stormwater management model (SWMM) for the city’s primary stormwater management system (PSMS), which is generally defined by pipes and channels greater than 24 in. in size. The PSMS was defined by a combination of digitized historic Continued on page 38


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Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


Continued from page 36 paper records and a field survey. Eight watershed SWMMs were developed and combined to facilitate evaluation of interconnected system LOS performance and alternative mitigative measures to increase LOS to the desired goals. Problem Areas and Citizen Input A series of public meetings were conducted across the city, and citizens provided locations of reported problems. This was combined with the Miami-Dade County 311 stormwater complaint system records and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood insurance rate maps to define flooding problem locations and connectivity between systems (Figure 2). Stormwater System Inventory and Geodatabase The data inventory included the digitization of more than 30,000 pages of existing as-built drawings, along with extensive data collection from the field, to update the city’s existing stormwater atlas, populate an asset management database, and develop a citywide stormwater model that considers pervious and impervious areas of the urban landscape. The data collection effort includes a survey of stormwater structures and the development of a digital elevation model based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR) topographic data. The data were validated with the city’s existing infrastructure and bathymetric data (and an extensive field survey) to develop a citywide model for the major watersheds that account for varying rainfall events, tidal and groundwater influences, and future sea level rise impacts in

coordination with Miami-Dade County and SFWMD stormwater systems. Modeling inputs and parameters required extensive manipulation and analyses using geographic information system (GIS) tools, such as geographic watershed information system schema and ArcHydro. The modeling provides a comprehensive neighborhood-level and basinscale analysis of the flood control LOS for both existing and proposed stormwater systems, including the effects of projected climate conditions. Design Storms and Tidal Boundary Conditions The five-year 24-hour, and 10-year, 25year, and 100-year 72-hour design storms were simulated using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14 rainfall estimates and SFWMD rainfall distribution, with a one-year tidal stillwater elevation of 2 ft referenced to the North American Vertical Datum (ft-NAVD) of 1988. The one-year stillwater is approximately equal to a local king tide condition. The project team used SWMM to estimate flood stages at locations across the city, along with flood inundation maps (Figure 3) to evaluate the flow rates and volumes for storage, conveyance, exfiltration, recharge wells, and potential pumping. Water Quality and Aquifer Recharge The city discharges stormwater to the sensitive Biscayne Bay, which is an OFW, so retrofit treatment must be provided and overall discharge volume must be managed. This

requires the use of options, such as exfiltration and recharge wells to provide storage, treatment, and infiltration/recharge prior to discharge. These systems provide recharge of the Biscayne Aquifer, which is highly conductive. The recharge also reduces saltwater intrusion for this drinking water supply source. Levels of Service The city’s goal for flood control LOS is to manage flooding below road crowns for the 10-year 72-hour event, and below homes and buildings as practicable. For the SWMP analysis, two alternative LOS goals were analyzed to provide a range of potentially achievable LOS and the associated implementation costs: LOS Alternative 1 The primary LOS goal chosen by the city was zero flooding over the crown of all roads in the 10-year recurrence interval design storm event. This also includes keeping inundation out of buildings for the 100-year design storm where practicable. LOS Alternative 2 The secondary LOS goal achieves the same roadway and building criteria, but for a smaller five-year recurrence interval design storm event. This allows for temporary flooding of a safe and predictable depth, for short durations of time in known areas, and for a more affordable solution for comparison purposes. The conceptual solutions for individual neighborhood capital improvement projects were tailored specifically in areas found to be most susceptible to flooding. Several hundred mi of exfiltration systems have been evaluated, along with more than 800 gravity and 1,500 pumped recharge wells to meet flood control LOS, while providing treatment and volume control. Seawall height extensions are also being considered by ordinance for the city’s 93 mi of shoreline, along with backflow prevention for the city’s 486 outfalls.


Figure 2. Flooding Problem Areas

38 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The SWMM hydrologic and hydraulic models were validated using reported flooding from the 311 database, public meetings for problem areas, FEMA repetitive loss locations, and photographs of eyewitness accounts at 36 locations across the city. Using the validated models, predicted flood stage and inundation maps of the city were developed for the five-, 10-, 25-, and 100-year design storms. The maps depict the extent and depth of flooding under the storm conditions for comparison and for the identification of floodprone areas.

These maps are used as follows: S The five-year design storm provides information for the secondary LOS goal flood areas for a more-frequently recurring storm. The Alternative 2 CIP is subsequently run with the 10-year storm as well, in order to determine the location, depth, and duration of ponding for this LOS. S The 10-year design storm provides information for the city’s primary LOS goal and for major roadway flooding analyses. S The 25-year design storm provides the information required for regulatory permitting to the SFWMD for flows and levels in the major canal systems and their impact to Biscayne Bay for pre- and postCIP implementation. S The 100-year design storm provides information for the recommended finished floor elevations and for critical structure elevation versus predicted flood stages. It’s rerun with sea level rise conditions to demonstrate the future impact to structures.

Figure 3. Flood Inundation Map

For the CIP alternatives analyses, the delineated neighborhood-size sub-basins were combined logically into 78 discrete “CIP areas,” which considered common topography and PSMS elements of adjoining neighborhoods. Capital improvements to the stormwater management system were systematically added citywide, and iterative simulations were run to test the proposed infrastructure until the city’s desired LOS for each alternative was achieved. Stormwater Master Plan Capital Improvement Plan Components Opportunities and considerations for rainfall and tidal flood mitigation components included the following elements that were implemented to improve flood control, water quality, aquifer recharge, and saltwater intrusion reduction. Exfiltration Systems The most-cost-effective stormwater management components for the Miami area are exfiltration systems, due to the high flow capacity (conductivity) of the Biscayne Aquifer, their modular implementation flexibility, and delivery of multiple benefits. These systems are perforated pipes in rock trenches wrapped with filter fabric. They collect, store, infiltrate, treat, and convey stormwater in the city’s available rights-of-way (ROW) and easements, generally for the lowest cost. They are comparatively straightforward and modular to design, permit, and construct. They can also be phased in as needed or as opportunities arise (i.e., as street, water, sewer, park, and landscape improvements are implemented).

Figure 4. Capital Improvement Program Components

The multiple benefits of these systems include flood mitigation, water quality treatment credits, and aquifer recharge for reduction of saltwater intrusion and protection of groundwater supplies. Exfiltration systems collect, store, treat, infiltrate, and convey stormwater runoff within the city’s ROW for the lowest costs and are modular and flexible for implementation as opportunities arise with water, sewer, transportation, parks, and other programs. These systems rely on the hydraulic grade of the water collected at the land surface to infiltrate

stormwater into the porous, surficial aquifer. These systems will not work everywhere due to the variable groundwater table elevation in the city just below the ground surface in many of the lower-lying areas. These systems, therefore, are recommended in areas with topographic elevations greater than 5.5 ft-NAVD. These systems will also be impacted by sea level rise in the future, but will be effective through the 50year SWMP planning horizon (and beyond) for higher areas. Continued on page 40

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


Continued from page 39 Recharge Wells These wells can be used to discharge stormwater to surficial aquifer zones east of the salinity line, which is generally in the eastern portion of the city. They can be retrofitted into existing stormwater management system manholes to augment the exfiltration systems. Pretreatment is provided for oil, grease, trash, and debris. These systems provide discharge capacity and treatment credits, since dissolved nutrients that would be harmful to Biscayne Bay are discharged into the brackish surficial aquifer. This also assists with creating a saltwater intrusion barrier for current and future sea level conditions. In some cases, these wells can be augmented by pumps to increase the recharge flow rate, as well as reduce flows, volumes, and pollutant loads to the bay, canals, and rivers. Green Infrastructure Green infrastructure is the use of natural planted systems to collect, store, treat, and infiltrate stormwater. These systems can be implemented on individual sites or for capital improvement projects along streets and buildings, and in parks. They can include rain gardens and/or landscape planter swales. Additionally, these systems can reduce precious potable water use for irrigation since they are watered by both rainfall and runoff and receive some of their nutrient requirements from the stormwater. The synergistic effect of

the installation of many green infrastructure systems spread throughout the city can mitigate chronic flooding areas and allow residents to participate in the flood solutions on their own sites. Backflow Preventers The city has more than 480 stormwater outfalls that can backflow during high tides and tidal surge events. Outfalls will require backflow preventers to keep the rising seas out of the system and provisions for the increased head loss to open them, which must be considered in the CIP implementation. Pump Stations The SWMP included a focus on the maximum amount of exfiltration and recharge wells possible; however, due to the limitations of these systems and the locations of where they work, the need for new stormwater pump stations still remains to provide flood protection in many low-lying areas. More than 90 systems are proposed. Seawall There are approximately 93 mi of bay and river coastline in the city that will need seawall upgrades for current tidal surge, and for future sea level rise and associated tidal surges. The SWMP has included these seawalls along the entire coastal perimeter to demonstrate the extent, benefits, and costs for these systems. These seawalls are largely privately owned and

Figure 5. Federal Emerency Management Agency Hazus Benefit-Cost Analysis Results

40 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

must be upgraded in a consistent manner. The city has drafted an ordinance to address seawall standards. and criteria. The CIP for Alternative 1 is shown in Figure 4 and ranges from $5.4 to $3.8 billion for Alternatives 1 and 2, respectively. The CIP can be additive by implementing the lower cost of Alternative 2, and then adding more Alternative 1 components as necessary over time, as climate change effects grow and additional funding allows. Both alternative CIPs include more than: S 200 mi of exfiltration S 800 gravity recharge wells S 1,500 pumped recharge wells S 90 pump stations S 80 backflow preventers S 90 mi of seawalls Sea Level Rise and Resiliency The sea level rise and resiliency analysis in the SWMP focused on three primary areas: S Simulating two future sea level rise conditions of 18 and 30 in., with the associated higher tides and groundwater levels, to predict the impact on effectiveness of the proposed CIP alternatives in the future. S Simulating coastal armoring and seawall protection at different storm surge heights. S Resiliency planning simulation for a “worst case” storm (500-year) occurring coincidently with a peak high tide and storm surge event. The sea level rise predictions used for the analyses were in accordance with the city-adopted 2019 report, “Unified Sea Level Rise Projection and Guidance,” produced by the Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact. The results are used to aid in understanding the vulnerabilities of the city and its stormwater management system with relation to surge and sea level rise, and to provide a basis for adaptation strategies, policies, and infrastructure design. If sea levels and groundwater levels continue to rise as projected, eventually the shallow aquifer disposal and recharge CIP elements, which rely on a minimum hydraulic depth to the water surface elevation, will become less effective over time. Benefit-Cost Analyses The B/C analyses were performed using the FEMA Hazus program, which maintains models for estimating the risk of damage from earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and tsunamis, to establish B/C ratios and documentation for potential grant and loan funding. These were performed for existing base conditions for a 50year planning horizon and compared to flood damage reduction for the two alternatives and for the two sea level rise conditions. In all cases, B/C ratios ranged from 2.8 to 3.8, indicating

considerable value for the infrastructure investment. Figure 5 shows a bar-chart representation comparing the flood damages for existing conditions versus the two alternatives, indicting significant flood damage reduction.

Discussion These opportunities to store, treat, and discharge stormwater underground can reduce costs in a sustainable manner, within city ROW. Exfiltration and recharge wells provide treatment and aquifer recharge to reduce adverse water quality impacts to sensitive receiving waters, while providing aquifer recharge to reduce saltwater intrusion and protect drinking water supplies. More than 1.1 in. of equivalent treatment is provided by CIP. The existing condition discharge volume for the 25-year 72-hour storm is matched in alternative CIP conditions to avoid moving flooding problems downstream, and flood protection is provided across the city. Pump stations are evaluated after collection, treatment, storage, exfiltration, and well recharge to provide the minimum amount of pumping necessary. The city is currently defining priorities for implementation based on B/C metrics, as well

as public and city commission input gathered from a series of public meetings. These will be refined and coordinated with water, sewer, transportation, and parks projects. There will also be coordination with adjacent stakeholders, including Miami-Dade County, FDOT, and SFWMD for joint project and cost-sharing opportunities. Grant and loan programs are being considered to leverage the Miami Forever bond funding, including FEMA Building Resilient Infrastructure and Communities (BRIC) and Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) grants, American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) grants, State Revolving Fund (SRF) loans, and others.

Conclusions This article presents the results of the comprehensive SWMP for coastal stormwater resilience, an approach for dynamic hydrologic and hydraulic models, tidal surge evaluations for historic storms (e.g., Hurricane Irma, May 2019), LOS evaluations, two sea level rise conditions, alternatives evaluations for cost-effectiveness, CIP, and Hazus B/C analyses, with summary discussion on the coordination with stakeholders and prioritization.

These methods for dynamic SWMM modeling with higher tidal boundary conditions for joint rainfall and tidal events can be used for coastal communities to address existing LOS deficiencies and to plan for and address sea level rise in a phased and adaptable manner for resiliency. The CIP components provide costeffective grey and green solutions for sustainable and enduring flood mitigation benefits that will provide public safety and health, water quality treatment to protect Biscayne Bay, and Biscayne Aquifer recharge to reduce saltwater intrusion in drinking water supplies. The B/C ratio indicates significant value for the investment and establishes the foundation for successful grant and loan opportunities as the city works to implement the program.

References 1. C DM Smith, City of Miami Stormwater Drainage Master Plan, 1986. 2. FEMA Hazus Tool and Manual, Update 2021. 3. SFWMD, Environmental Resource Permit Information Manual, 2014. 4. U.S. EPA SWMM Model and Users Manual, Update 2020. S

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L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Planning and Setting Up a Safe Traffic Control Zone


ore than a thousand people are killed each year in work-zone traffic accidents in the United States, and 80 percent of those fatalities are drivers and their passengers. Speed and driver inattention are the leading causes of these preventable accidents. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the employees in these highway work zones have one of the most dangerous occupations in the country and account for many of the other fatalities. Employees who work in the water industry are often required to work closely with traffic. Job sites that are in close proximity to fast-moving vehicles are always prone to higher workplace risks. The best practices presented here could save the lives of water industry workers who are required to work in traffic zones.




Conduct a Safety Tailgate


A safety tailgate will get all of the employees on board concerning safety rules before they travel to the jobsite. S Discuss potential hazards and special precautions the work requires. S Discuss the job’s processes, procedures, and


tasks and the order in which they will be performed. Review appropriate safety procedures and personal protective equipment (PPE) considerations. Inspect tools and ensure that all PPE meets safety standards. Discuss work assignments. All employees must know their jobs and the jobs of their coworkers. Establish a buddy system where coworkers watch out for each other. Ensure that those with new job assignments, new tools, or new equipment are properly and completely trained concerning safety processes, procedures, and tool/equipment operation. Everyone should regroup and discuss potential safety issues when new substances, processes, procedures, tools, or equipment are introduced to the worksite. Report hazards and unsafe equipment to the supervisor before work begins. Discuss unusual and nonroutine situations. Discuss emergency procedures. Determine ahead of time who’s in charge in an emergency situation and who is the backup. Know where all emergency resources are located: emergency plan, fire extinguisher,

first aid and burn kits, and communication devices.

Evaluate the Potential Hazards Before entering a remote work location, all team members should identify and discuss potential safety issues. S Plan for weather conditions—both forecast and unexpected. S Determine potential emergencies, such as flooding, electrical contact, running out of fuel, and so on. S Know how to handle serious injuries or illnesses that might occur far from medical facilities. S Guard against animal attacks, snakes, and insects. S Have contact information for emergency agencies. S Have the tools required to complete the job safely. Team members should also assess the risks and review work-related documentation, such as a job hazard analysis, to ensure that all mitigation and control measures have been addressed.

Safety Tips Here are a few simple tips for setting up a safe work zone: S Expect the unexpected and never assume drivers see you. S Understand that drivers may be confused, angry, or distracted when entering a work zone and may have difficulty negotiating the detours. S When you set up a detour, try to avoid requiring drivers to make sudden lane changes or encounter unexpected road conditions. S Always pay attention to the traffic. Beware of complacency. Continued on page 44

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42 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Continued from page 42 S Never turn your back to oncoming traffic. If you do need to work with your back to the traffic, use a spotter. Have a communications plan between you and that spotter. S All roadside workers must wear bright and highly reflective American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Class 3 protective garments. These garments are recommended for both day and night use, and they must meet the requirement to be visible from 1,000 feet at night.

Flagger Safety Traffic flaggers manage the safe flow of vehicles, equipment, and pedestrians in temporary traffic control zones. Their responsibilities are critical to the safety and welfare of their fellow workers, passing drivers, and pedestrians. S Flaggers need to stand on the shoulder and focus on approaching vehicles. Avoid standing in the lane unless visibility is an

44 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

issue. Once traffic is stopped, flaggers should move back to the shoulder of the road. S Im case of an injury, after ensuring that medical attention has been provided, the responsible supervisor shall ensure that the appropriate incident/injury reporting process is initiated. For additional information and ideas go to www.gs.gov.nl.ca/ohs/safety_info/si_working_ alone.html S

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FWEA C H A P TE R CO R N E R Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water EnvironmentvAssociation hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Melody Gonzalez at gonzalezm@bv.com.

Melody Gonzalez

FWEA Southwest Chapter is Off to a Great Start! Our chapter has also taken the initiative to ensure that our website is current and serves as a valuable resource for our members to stay informed on our events and activities. If you haven’t visited the site in a while, we encourage you to take a quick look at https://fwea.org/ southwest_chapter.php.

Dustin Chisum

Student Activities

fter a difficult year for everyone, the Southwest Chapter is committed to bouncing back stronger than ever. Our steering committee met early and developed the schedule of events for the year, which kicked off with our Annual Chapter Gold Sponsor drive. With an initial goal of 12 sponsors, we have received support from 26 companies to date, which is a record for the chapter! We appreciate the generous support for our chapter and are committed to furthering our mission of uniting our members and the public through public awareness and outreach, providing professional development and networking opportunities, and creating alliances to promote sound science-based public policy.

One of our chapter’s goals is to support the Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU) Student Chapter. We are extremely proud of the student group of Josie Wiederkehr, Gabrielle Hastings, and Yosvany Medina-Pinera, who won in the wastewater category in the annual Student Design Competition! The team will be representing Florida in the national competition at the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) this year in Chicago, with their design, “Is Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) a Viable Option for the City of Fort Myers, Florida?” Our chapter also continues to make annual contributions to our endowed scholarship at FGCU, which is now up to $50,000!


Students and young professionals attend the networking social.

46 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Our first event this year was a students and young professionals networking social on July 15 at Riptide Brewing Company in Bonita Springs. The social was a huge success, with over thirty people in attendance!

Professional, Networking, and Funding Events Planned Our next event is the Southwest Florida (SWFL) FWEA Water and Wastewater EXPO on August 26 at the Charlotte Harbor Convention Center in Punta Gorda. This event is cohosted with FSAWWA Region V and FWPCOA Region 8 and registration is currently open for both exhibitors and the technical sessions. Check out the FWEA website at www.fwea.org for links to register. We will also be hosting a networking social after the EXPO to wrap up a great day. We hope to see you there! Following the EXPO, we are planning our next quarterly dinner meeting on Thursday, September 16. The topic for this quarterly meeting is southwest Florida regional water Continued on page 48



for the latest updates on classes September

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6-9....... Backflow Tester.................................................Deltona............. $375/405 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

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Continued from page 46 quality issues and will include a panel discussion focused on this topic and solutions from different perspectives. We will discuss the past, present, and future of managing southwest Florida water quality through the lens of governance, research, and education. Stay tuned for more details! Next, our 20th Annual Charity Golf Tournament is scheduled for Friday, October 8, at River Hall Country Club in Alva. Registration will open soon! Finally, we will be planning our yearly Member Appreciation Holiday Social, our next dinner meeting, networking socials, and our 7th Annual Sporting Clays Charity Tournament. We hope you will keep an eye on our website for details on these upcoming events. If you have any questions or would like to get involved please contact me at dustin.chisum@ aecom.com, or our chair, Bryan Thaggard, at ThaggardBB@bv.com. Dustin Chisum, P.E., is municipal infrastructure engineering manager at AECOM and an FWEA director at large. S

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Safe Water Projects 7 AWWA Sections are currently Volunteering on Community Engineering Corps projects in their hometowns.

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


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SUEZ Water Technologies adds a new family of large-capacity ozone generators to its portfolio: the Ozonia L. The generators deliver large-scale ozone production on a compact footprint, with a new web-enabled interface and real-time system optimization for energy efficiency and low total cost of ownership. The Ozonia L family includes three new models to cover ozone production ranges up to 3,200 pounds per day and reduces energy consumption up to 25 percent over previous generations. The Ozonia second-generation Intelligent Gap System provides flexible ozone production in response to real-time conditions and produces ozone concentrations of up to 16 weight percent with a high tolerance for total hydrocarbon levels in the feed gas. (www. suezwatertechnologies.com)


The 900 Series multiparameter monitor/ controller from Myron L Co. includes a suite of signal inputs that can be configured to display a variety of measurement types, including conductivity, resistivity, salinity, total dissolved solids, pH, oxidation reduction potential, temperature, mVDC, flow, pulse, and percent rejection. It also includes a 4-20mA current loop, two-wire transmitter input that can be defined and scaled to display measurements. The instrument’s display can show from one to four of these inputs simultaneously or constantly cycle though a series of single measurements. The 900 Series combines accuracy, reliability, simplicity, and flexibility. The user-intuitive graphical user interface allows easy and complete programmability of the instrument, all from the LCD touch screen. These highly accurate instruments have the

ability for simultaneous monitoring and controlling of multiple inputs/outputs. The 900 Series outputs also provide flexibility. Standard outputs include a recorder output and a single alarmable relay output. An optional output card adds a 4-20mA current loop output, an RS-485 digital data output, and two additional alarmable relays. The alarm status is clearly displayed with attentiongetting alerts. Because no two applications are exactly the same, the 900 Series large suite of signal inputs can be configured for a variety of measurement types. The product is a high-level performer for applications where high-level performance is an absolute requirement and is designed for use in a wide range of water-related applications. It’s designed to be exactly what is needed, whether water is the end product, an ingredient, or a secondary but vital process component. The design includes a variety of inputs, measurement types, and several different types of control and data outputs, all of which can be combined and configured to operate in the most complex water quality applications. (www.myronl.com)


ReNu pump head technology from Watson-Marlow Fluid Technology Group offers accurate and repeatable flow for polymer dosing. The ReNu PU pump head, available on Qdos metering pumps, offers accurate and repeatable flow for chemicals, with a wideranging viscosity. Not only does it offer process chemical containment, it reduces operator risks during maintenance. The Qdos 20 offers repeatable flow of 7.3 gph at a pressure rating of up to 60 psi for fluids of wide-ranging viscosity, while metering accuracy is assured to ±1 percent. It‘s primarily designed for accurate polymer metering applications in the water and wastewater treatment sector. The Qdos 20 ReNu PU responds to a growing worldwide demand for polymer dosing systems in wastewater treatment. The majority of these systems use polymers to dewater sludge to minimize its bulk, thus reducing the cost associated with the disposal and storage of the cake by up to 75 percent. Users of the pump head can see significant process improvements for dosing polymers, when compared to diaphragm metering pumps. This pump solution accurately meters oilbased polymers with various levels of viscosity and contains the polymer upon tube failure, as polymer spills are difficult and time-consuming

50 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

to clean up. The pump is also extremely quick and easy to maintain. The ReNu PU pump head is designed to deliver maximum process uptime, which is facilitated by rapid, safe, and easy pump head removal and replacement. There is no need for special tools and no requirement for specially trained onsite maintenance technicians. The pump head offers integral leak detection and chemical containment, which is an important point, because not only can cleaning up polymer spillages be hazardous and timeconsuming for operators, the chemicals are also quite expensive, making waste control that much more important. (www.wmftg.com)


The Warren Controls ILEA 2900E Series of electrically actuated, industrial, globecontrol valves have a modulating, linear, industrial electric valve actuator and feature a rugged cast-iron body with a variety of trim materials. The equal percentages plugs in the two-way valves and the linear plugs in the three-way valves provide ideal modulating control of a wide variety of fluids. Valves are available in four styles: two-way balanced, twoway unbalanced, three-way mixing, and threeway diverting. Sizes range from 2.5 to 10 in. with ANSI Class II, III, and IV leakage. (www. warrencontrols.com)


Sensaphone 1400 and 1800 remote monitoring systems help operators of smaller water and wastewater facilities that do not staff the premises around the clock and offer two early warning systems. These remote monitoring systems notify personnel immediately of changes in environmental conditions that can indicate equipment malfunction. The systems let users remotely keep tabs on sensor reading fluctuations of pump status, tank level, and pump alarm outputs. The 1800 system can accommodate up to eight sensors to monitor conditions, such as temperature, humidity, air circulation, carbon dioxide, water pH, water leaks, fire, smoke, power failure, and unauthorized access. The 1400 system can accommodate up to four sensors. Both systems connect to any traditional telephone line and provide 24/7 monitoring. (www.sensaphone.com) S

Georgia Wins Ruling in Case With Alabama and Florida A judge has ruled that a federal agency doesn’t have to revise its plans for how it operates dams along the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, which is another win for Georgia in its struggles with Florida and Alabama over the water that flows into the Apalachicola River. Environmental groups and the state of Alabama had sued the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2017, saying the agency’s plans held too much water in reservoirs in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) basin and that it should release more for hydropower and wildlife. It’s the second win for Georgia, after the U.S. Supreme Court rejected Florida’s effort last spring to cap how much water Georgia could use. Lake Lanier, northeast of Atlanta, and the Chattahoochee River both supply drinking water for much of the Atlanta area. “For metropolitan Atlanta, what was at stake was really its ability to withdraw water from Lake Lanier,” said Katherine Zitsch,

Apalachicola River

manager of natural resources for the Atlanta Regional Commission. The commission intervened in the case, siding with the Corps, along with the state of Georgia and local Atlanta water agencies. U.S. District Court Judge Thomas Thrash dismissed the claims, ruling that the Corps had acted within its powers in making the water-use decisions on how reservoirs should be operated until 2050.

“The decision was not arbitrary or capricious,” Thrash wrote. “The plaintiffs have not met their burden of showing that this delicate balance should be upset.” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reports that the federal template gives metropolitan Atlanta virtually all the water it needs for the next 30 years from the ACF basin. “We will continue to be good stewards of our water resources, and we are proud to have obtained a positive resolution on behalf of all Georgians,” said Gov. Brian Kemp and Attorney General Chris Carr in a joint statement. Some or all of the plaintiffs could appeal to the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. After the ruling, Georgia Ackerman, executive director of the environmental group Apalachicola Riverkeeper, said, “The plan will further starve the Apalachicola ecosystem of vital freshwater flows, especially during the critical, breeding, spawning, and flowering seasons, for many species.” S

Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021


CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include:

Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

Water Treatment Plant Operator

Location: Florida City, FL Salary Range: $51,113 - $78,345 The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring a WTP Operator. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/ technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a water treatment plant according to local, state, and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery, and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment. htm EEO, VPE, ADA

52 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Orange County, Florida is an employer of choice, embracing innovation, collaboration and inclusion, and is perennially recognized on the Orlando Sentinel’s list of the Top 100 Companies for Working Families. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and year-round sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from world-famous tourist attractions. Orange County continues to build a thriving economy and a welcoming community that works for everyone. Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. We provide water and wastewater services, with the Water Division serving a population of over 720,000 citizens and 75 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, innovation, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are seeking a highly qualified individual to fill the position of Manager, Water Division. The Manager is an appointed position that serves at the pleasure of the County Mayor and oversees 21 facilities, including three regional water facilities, eight remote facilities, storage and repump facilities, a nationally certified lab and a staff of over 130 employees. The manager is responsible for protecting the health and safety of citizens through the production and distribution of reliable and safe drinking water, as well as operation of a laboratory certified by the Florida Department of Health under the National Laboratory Accreditation Program. Manager, Water Division Annual Salary $85,093 Min, $135,554 Max Starting salary of external candidates is customarily below the midpoint based on qualifications. Apply online at: http://www.ocfl.net/careers

Coral Springs Improvement District Multiple Positions Available:

CSID offers: Salary levels at the top of the industry District paid Health Insurance Water Plant Operator-Applicant must have a valid Class “C” or higher Drinking Water license and experience in Reverse Osmosis/ Nano Filtration treatment processes preferred however not required. The minimum starting salary for this position is $49,920.00 Salaries to commensurate relative to level of license and years of experience in. Wastewater Operator-Applicant have a valid Class “C” Wastewater treatment license and a minimum of 3 years experience. The minimum starting salary for this position is $49,920.00 Salaries to commensurate relative to level of license and years of experience. Field Technician- Applicants must have knowledge of various equipment including driving a truck, backhoe/loader and general hand tools. Involves participation in the repair and maintenance of water and wastewater distribution lines. Must obtain FDEP level “3” Water Distribution Operator license within 12 months of employment. The minimum starting salary for this position is $$39,520.00. Aquatic Weed Technician-Removes debris and plan materials from District waterways. Applies herbicides and other chemicals to the District waterways. Operates and maintains a variety of equipment such as boats, vehicles, trucks, trailers, spray machinery, hand tools, power tools, mechanical harvester. Must obtain an aquatic license within a period of two years from date of employment. The minimum starting salary for this position is $38,480.00. The District has excellent company paid benefits including a 6% noncontributory investment money purchase pension plan and voluntary 457 plan with a match up to 6%. EOE. Applicants must have a valid Florida driver’s license, satisfactory background check, pass a pre-employment drug screening test and be COVID-19 vaccinated. Submit applications and resumes directly to Jzilmer@csidfl.org or fax to 954-753-6328.

Water Plant Operator “C”

The City of Lake Mary is hiring a Water Plant Operator “C” with a min. of 2 years Water Treatment Operations exp., $39,457.60 $61,609.60 with benefits. Please visit www.lakemaryfl.com for the requirements, job description and to apply

GS Inima USA City of Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Plant

Salary / Benefits $65,000 to $85,000.00 (based on experience and qualifications) Health, Dental and 401K Accepting applications for a Chief Operator position. Must have experience with a Drinking Water Plant and Reverse Osmosis membrane. The Chief Operator shall possess a minimum of 15 years’ experience with operation of drinking water treatment facilities, including five years of management responsibility, five years’ experience with membrane treatment systems and shall hold a Class A (Category II) operators certificate issued by the State of Florida, valid drivers. Contact Jennifer.cruz@inima.com

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator

On Top of the World residential community in Clearwater is currently recruiting for Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator. Full details at www.otowjobs.com – keyword wastewater.

Wastewater Operators The City of Eustis is seeking Wastewater Operators. Please visit jobs.eustis.org for full job description, salary, and online application. Background check/drug screen required. Open until filled. EOE,V/ P,DFWP

NOW HIRING Treatment Plant Operators and field personnel Brevard County Utilities is seeking Treatment Plant Operators and field personnel to work in various locations throughout Brevard County, Florida. These positions are for a County-owned public water and sewer Utility. For more information and to apply, go to the employment website of the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners at https://career8.successfactors.com/ career?company=brevardcou Brevard County is an Equal Opportunity/Veterans Preference Employer

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Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2021



Test Yourself Answer Key Continued from page 30

January 2016

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

1. A) June 21, 2022.

Per FAC 62-640.100(5)(g) and (h) Scope, Intent, Purpose and Applicability, “(g) New or renewed facility or biosolids land application site permits issued after July 1, 2020, shall meet the requirements of this chapter no later than within one year of June 21, 2021. (h) All permits for facilities and biosolids land application sites shall meet the requirements of this chapter within two years of June 21, 2021.”

2. A ) Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) best management practices (BMP) program Per the Biosolids Public Meeting Presentation, “New site permits and site permit renewals after July 1, 2020, shall. . . require enrollment in a Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) best management pracxtices (BMP) program.”

3. B) 2 feet

Per the Biosolids Public Meeting Presentation, “New site permits and site permit renewals after July 1, 2020, shall meet a minimum unsaturated soil depth of 2 feet from the depth of biosolids placement when biosolids are applied. . . All permits must comply with the new rules no later than two years after the effective date of the new biosolids rule.”

4. C) 6 inches

Display Advertiser Index AWWA Membership ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 AWWA Water Equation ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 Blue Planet Environmental Systems ������������������������������������������������� 55 Data Flow Systems ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 44 FJ Nugent ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43 Florida Aquastore ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51 FSAWWA 2021 Conference �����������������������������������������������������������16-19 FSAWWA Water Conservation Awards ��������������������������������������������� 20 FWPCOA Training Calendar ��������������������������������������������������������������� 47 FWRC Call for Papers 2022 ���������������������������������������������������������������� 35 Gerber Pumps ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Heyward ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump & Equipment ��������������������������������������������������������������� 37 Hydro International ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Kamstrup ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 Lakeside Equipment Corporation �������������������������������������������������������� 7 PolyProcessing ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 RieberLok ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28-29 Smith & Loveless �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31 UF TREEO Center �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Water Treatment & Controls Technology ������������������������������������������ 48 Xylem ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56

54 September 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Per the Biosolids Public Meeting Presentation, “New site permits and site permit renewals after July 1, 2020, shall. . . not allow application on soils with a seasonal high water table (SHWT) within 6 inches of the soil surface or depth of biosolids placement unless the permittee provides reasonable assurance through the site nutrient management plan and water quality monitoring plan that land application will not cause or contribute to surface water quality violations or groundwater violations.”

5. B. capacity index.

Per FAC 62-640.200(9) Definitions, “‘Capacity index’ means a measure of the capacity of soil to store phosphorus that is determined using soil test Mehlich-3 extraction results for phosphorus, iron, and aluminum in the following equation (units for the capacity index (CI) and for soil test results are mg/kg).”

6. C) Nutrient Management Plan (NMP) Per FAC 62-640.500(1), Nutrient Management Plan (NMP), “A site-specific NMP shall be submitted to the department with the permit application for an agricultural site. For sites enrolled and participating in a Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) best

management practices (BMP) program, a conservation plan or NMP prepared for the purposes of the BMP can be submitted as the site-specific NMP if the plan meets the NMP requirements given in subsections (4) through (7).”

7. D) percent water extractable phosphorus.

Per FAC 62-640.500(5)(f)7 Nutrient Management Plan (NMP), “The crop nutrient demand phosphorus may be adjusted as given in a. and b. based on the soil phosphorus storage capacity index and the biosolids percent water extractable phosphorus (PWEP) when determining biosolids application rates. The adjustment to the crop nutrient demand phosphorus results in the amount of total phosphorus in lbs/acre that can be applied from biosolids (e.g., if doubling is allowed, a crop nutrient demand of 40 lbs P2O5/acre/year results in an allowed loading of 80 lbs total P2O5/acre/year).”

8. A) June 21, 2021

Per FAC 62-640.650(3)(a)1.c. Monitoring, Record Keeping, Reporting, and Notification, “Beginning after June 21, 2021, all domestic wastewater treatment facilities and biosolids treatment facilities permitted to land-apply biosolids shall start monitoring for waterextractable phosphorus during routine biosolids monitoring events in accordance with subparagraphs 62-640.650(3)(a)3. and 4., F.A.C.”

9. A) 0.

Per FAC 62-640.650(3)(c)1. Groundwater Monitoring, “A groundwater monitoring program shall be established by the site permittee, and approved by the department for land application sites when the application rate in the NMP exceeds more than 160 lbs/ acre/year of total nitrogen or 40 lbs/acre/year of total P2O5 (i.e., more than 17.4 lbs/acre/ year of total phosphorus), or when the soil capacity index is less than 0 mg/kg. When soil fertility testing indicates the soil capacity index has become less than 0 mg/kg, the permittee of a biosolids land application site shall establish a groundwater monitoring program in accordance with subparagraph 62-640.650(3)(c)2., F.A.C., within one year of the date of the sampling results.”

10. B) fertilizer.

Per FAC 62-640.850(2) Distribution and Marketing of Class AA Biosolids, “Distributed and marketed biosolids or biosolids products shall be distributed and marketed as a fertilizer in accordance with Chapter 576, F.S., and Chapter 5E-1, F.A.C., or distributed and marketed to a person or entity that will sell or give away the biosolids or biosolids products as a fertilizer or as a component of a fertilizer subject to Chapter 576, F.S., and Chapter 5E-1, F.A.C."




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