Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, firstname.lastname@example.org Display and Classified Advertising, email@example.com
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Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing
Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando
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For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – email@example.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318
Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.
News and Features
4 August is National Water Quality Month! 8 AWWA Document Aims to Better Address Affordability in Safe Drinking Water Act Rulemaking 10 Two on FWRC Executive Team Retire 12 WEF Stormwater Institute: Providing Leadership and Advocacy 14 WEF Stormwater Institute: Project Highlights 20 Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers Announces New Inductees— Patrick Murphy 22 “To Flush or Not to Flush” High School Video Contest Winners Announced—Shea Dunifon 27 New eBook on Ultraviolet Disinfection Available 28 Process Page: Wastewater Treatment Facility Basis of Design Fundamentals—Bartt Booz 52 Florida Section AWWA Student Member Receives Scholarship 54 2020 Survey Highlights Stormwater Funding Needs—Justin Jacques 56 Recommendations to Improve the Stormwater Program in the U.S. 64 Automatic Self-Cleaning Scraper Strainers Filter Smallest Particles to Largest Debris— Robert Presser 66 News Beat
18 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Fred Bloetscher 32 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 34 FWEA Chapter Corner: Central Florida Chapter: Creating an Inspired Virtual Program—Megan L. Nelson 40 FWEA Focus—Ronald R. Cavalieri 42 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 48 Let’s Talk Safety: CPR and AEDs Can Save Lives 50 Legal Briefs: Climate Cases Crest Into Florida: Reynolds v. Florida and What’s Next— Kyle Robisch 60 Reader Profile—Tonya Sonier
Departments 68 Classifieds 70 Display Advertiser Index
Technical Articles 24 Hillsborough County’s Innovative Pipe Inspection Program Adds Efficiency and Accuracy—Richard Cummings and Michael Condran
Education and Training
21 CEU Challenge 33 FWPCOA State Short School 35 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview 36 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibits 37 FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker Night, Happy Hour, and Golf 38 FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards 39 FSAWWA Fall Conference Competitions 47 TREEO Center Training 52 AWWA Membership 63 FWPCOA Training Calendar 66 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference Call for Papers
ON THE COVER: The stormwater and drainage division of the City of Port Orange is responsible for stormwater management, planning, and engineering, including flood control and mitigation, drainage concerns, and improving surface water quality. (photo: City of Port Orange)
Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.
POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
August is National Water Quality Month! Water is used every day in a variety of ways: for drinking, recreating, irrigating, transporting, and in industry and manufacturing, to name a few. Just try to imagine what life would be like for your utility customers without easy access to clean water. There would be no drinking fountains to quench their thirst when out on a hot day; no more swimming pools, and no lakes and rivers clean enough for recreational activities; and no more showers at home, or any running water for their businesses. National Water Quality Month reminds us to take a moment to consider how important our water sources are to humans and all of the other inhabitants of the ecosystem. By thinking about the little things that your customers do on a daily basis that could have a negative impact on water quality, and getting them to change their habits, you’ll be a step closer to improving water quality—for everyone. August is designated as National Water Quality Month by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but how is the quality of water in the United States determined? Water quality is based on a set of standards and criteria that describe the
desired conditions or level of protection, or how the required conditions will be established in waters of the U.S. in the future. These standards and criteria are provisions of the state, territorial, authorized tribal, or federal law approved by EPA.
The Standards of Water Quality Water quality standards must include the following items: S Designated uses of the water body. This requires states, territories, and authorized tribes to specify the goals and objectives about how each water body will be used, including fishing, recreating, drinking, agricultural irrigation, industrial uses, and navigation. S Criteria for protection of designated uses. States, territories, and authorized tribes must adopt criteria that protect the designated uses. These criteria can be numeric or narrative and most entities typically adopt both types. S Antidegradation requirements. These provide the framework of water quality protection by maintaining the current uses
4 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
of the water and protecting the quality that has already been achieved. S General policies for implementation. Based on EPA approval, states, territories, and authorized tribes are allowed to adopt policies and provisions for implementation of water quality standards. Water quality standards are developed by states, territories, and authorized tribes using federal guidelines of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Each of these entities adopts its own legal and administrative procedures for the adoption of standards. Generally, they use the following steps: S Work groups or informal public meetings are held to develop the standards. The proposed standards are then publicized for public comment. S Public hearings are scheduled to gather input from the public. S Water quality criteria must be included to provide sufficient coverage and be stringent enough to protect the designated uses.
Continued on page 6
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Continued from page 4 The water quality standards for each entity must be approved by EPA prior to implementation. If the standards are approved, they become applicable. After approval, entities must do a review of their standards at least once every three years. If all or part of an entity’s standards are not approved based on the requirement in the CWA, then EPA will outline necessary changes to meet the requirements.
The History of National Water Quality Month The United Nations declared 2005-2015 as the International Decade for Action “Water for Life” in order to emphasize the importance of water quality as it relates to sanitation, human rights, geography, urbanization, and sustainability.
Emphasizing how interlinked water systems are, the Audubon Society points to the dangers of runoff from agriculture, forestry, construction, and people’s personal yards: “Each individual household or business may not produce enough pollution to force a beach closing or cause a fish kill, but the combined output of all the homes and businesses in a community can be severe, considering that about half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coastline where runoff flows quickly to the ocean. This is why watershed protection, with attention not only to the body of water, but the area that drains into it, is important.”
How to Celebrate National Water Quality Month reminds us to take a long, hard look at what households, businesses, and communities are doing to protect sources of fresh water, which is important to everyone in myriad ways. Research done by the American Chemical Society, for instance, demonstrates that showering leads to greater exposure to toxic chemicals in tap water than drinking the water does. A person can absorb up to eight glasses of water through the skin during a quick 10-minute shower. Due to this fact, it’s imperative that all of the water that enters homes and businesses is safe and free from contaminants. What can your utility recommend that individuals, families, and businesses do to prevent water pollution from entering their homes, stores, and offices, especially during National Water Quality Month? Here’s a short list of things that can be done to help: S Not using antibacterial soaps or cleaning products. Regular soap and water will do the trick. Much of the antibacterial soaps contain a registered pesticide that is known to harm marine life. S Not flushing unwanted or out-of-date medications down the toilet or drain. S Not putting anything but water down storm drains because they carry water to local waterways. S Fixing leaks that drop from cars, vans, and trucks and putting liners in driveways and garages to collect oil and other materials. S Avoid using pesticides or chemical fertilizers. S Choose nontoxic cleaning products when possible. S Pick up after pets. S Not paving properties. S Have a private well tested and cleaned regularly. There can be bacteria build up in wells. S Encourage customers to read local water quality reports so that they know what the water quality is in their area. Another option for your customers could be for them to gather a group of family, friends, coworkers, or neighbors and volunteer to clean a local water source. They could bring a picnic and hold a contest to see who can clean up the most trash and debris, offering a prize to the winning team. It’s a great way to get everyone in a community together and enjoy an outdoor day full of fun and doing something that’s good for the environment. Together we can all make a large impact. Spread the word to your customers, the media, and the public, that all of August is National Water Quality Month! S
6 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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AWWA Document Aims to Better Address Affordability in Safe Drinking Water Act Rulemaking The American Water Works Association (AWWA) has announced the availability of a new document, “Improving the Evaluation of Household-Level Affordability in SDWA Rulemaking: New Approaches,” to help facilitate discussion of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of household-level affordability when making regulatory decisions. A panel of experts was convened by AWWA, led by cochairs John Graham and Cary Coglianese. Graham, a professor at the University of Indiana, was administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs at the Office of Management and Budget under President George W. Bush. Coglianese is a law and political science professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he also serves as the director of the Penn Program on Regulation. The expert panel concluded that regulatory
actions should simultaneously account for vulnerable people’s access to affordable water service and the need to protect their health. This conclusion is important because when cost-benefit analyses are conducted under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), it may be assumed all households are willing and able to afford safer drinking water, even though households vary in their ability to pay. The expert panel recommended that EPA expand its analysis of household-level affordability when performing economic analyses supporting future primary regulatory development under SDWA. Among the suggested changes is to move away from using median household income as the sole metric in assessing the impacts of the regulatory structure on affordability and focus more on impacts to households in the lowest 20 percent of income (lowest quintile). Moreover, EPA should seek to
8 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
use analysis of affordability impacts to inform SDWA policy development (including but certainly not limited to regulatory standard setting) so that it can enhance public health protections, while also ensuring affordability. “This report offers a roadmap toward improved analysis of a growing water affordability crisis in the United States,” Coglianese said. “Meaningful universal access to safe, life-sustaining water is increasingly put at risk by infrastructure demands and other factors driving up the costs of basic water services. With better analysis of the scope and causes of these trends, policy decision makers at the local, state, and federal levels will be better able to take the actions needed to ensure that everyone has access to a safe and affordable supply of water, no matter their level of income.” “Most people will think we don’t need an affordability analysis because EPA does cost-benefit analysis,” said Graham. “I want to emphasize that cost-benefit analysis, as currently practiced under SDWA, does not address affordability for low-income households. This report will help ensure lowincome customers are considered in future rulemaking.” David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer, noted that, “In bringing these experts together, our goal was to spotlight the growing importance of addressing affordability as a component of sound water policy decisions, including regulatory rulemaking. Ultimately, customers pay to maintain their water systems and services, including drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater. Decision makers need to consider all customers—particularly lower-income customers—in their regulatory policy discussions.” The document is available as a free download on AWWA’s affordability resource page at www.awwa.org. S
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Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Two on FWRC Executive Team Retire Two members of the team that produces the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) have retired from their positions. Scott Kelly was president of the board of directors and Holly Hanson was the executive director for FWRC. Those who remain on the board, and the staff of FWRJ, wish them well as they pursue other interests.
Holly Hanson Caps Over 20 Years as FWRC Executive Director It all began with me lying by the pool and being approached with, “You know Apple computers, right?” From that point on I was engaged in fixing registration computers and working the next two days at the 1998 FWRC in Ft. Lauderdale. The next year the board of directors of FWRC approached me about outsourcing the registration portion, the following year I became the executive director, and the rest is history. I was happy to apply my computer, graphics, and administrative talents to shape, organize, and grow FWRC from 700 attendees to over 4,000.
Evolution of the Conference According to Water Environment Federation statistics, FWRC is second in size for a joint water/wastewater event in the United States, trailing only a similar conference in California. “Leading the Nation in Water Innovation” wasn’t just a conference theme— it was a reality we made happen. The FWRC
went from t-shirt poker parties to state-of-theart educational sessions with recognized and published industry leaders. I am proud to say that in my more than 20-year career, we were able to distribute $2.5 million among the three member organizations that sponsor the conference—Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA), Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), and Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA)—for their educational and training purposes. The FWRC was instrumental in the continued growth of these three associations.
Conference Challenges and Rewards Some people thought my job was a “cake walk,” an easy job. The whole back of the house could be burning down, but by all appearances, it was normal at the registration desk, in the technical sessions, and on the exhibit floor. I’ve handled everything from stolen dentures to a zealot off the street arguing with me about water pollution and conservation. I’ve been spit on, cursed at, and called more inappropriate names then I care to recall. There were some other tough times, too. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina decimated New Orleans, and the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center became a shelter to house displaced residents, so other facilities in surrounding states were picking up their canceled events. Our contract was canceled in place of a bigger
show, and that took weeks of phone calls, emails, and threatening letters until we were issued $30,000 in punitive damages for being relocated. Another year, we were at a beautiful new hotel in Jacksonville, and had over 25 complaints, from eyeglasses being stolen to rooms being multiple-booked. Yes, conference attendees actually walked into their rooms and other people were already in bed there. The most rewarding part though, has been all the acquaintances I’ve made along the way—many now good friends, and some became excellent mentors. Here I would like to thank Tom Baber for mentoring me the first few years and providing a wealth of historical information. Scott Kelly, the FWRC immediate pastpresident of the board of directors of FWRC, was always available for guidance and advice, and never micromanaged me. I respected the responsibility given me, appreciated his and the board’s trust, and I nurtured FWRC with all the passion I could muster. Many, many good people—Don Maurer, Bill Heller, Sean Gucken to name a few—were always kind and helpful. Tim Madhanagopal, FWRC’s new president, and I worked together for many years fashioning the technical program computer application. When COVID-19 paralyzed the nation in 2020 and cancelled FWRC that year (and in 2021), I was sickened at the course of events because many of our exhibitors I’ve known for years—even their spouses and children. It was difficult to maneuver through those months, and I am thankful we are seeing the light at the end of this ordeal. Only successful events ahead!
Into the Sunset
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10 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Retirement looks like lots of traveling, especially a road trip with my granddaughter, and time spent with grandkids. I love to paint, ride motorcycles, anything involving auto racing, and golf. I crushed this job for many years, worked hard, and gave it my all. “Coming in hot” is a racing term, and I had great passion for the Ops Challenge, Top Ops, and Student Design Competition. My driving force is to “help the next person along.” I have always believed that “you will never know if you don’t try, so take that chance.” Be fearless!
Holly and Scott Kelly.
Scott Kelly Retires From City of West Palm Beach and as FWRC President In March of 2020 Scott Kelly, P.E., retired as assistant city administrator for the City of West Palm Beach, where he worked since 2013, and retired as president of the board of directors for FWRC earlier this year. He began his position on the board in 2003. Kelly is now president of Scott Kelly Consulting LLC providing consulting services for water resources, transportation, construction, and related disciplines. He began his career doing process engineering in the department of sanitary sewers for the City of Tampa in 1976. He was responsible for process operations for Tampa’s six wastewater treatment facilities and coordinated the plant start-up for the city’s state-of-the-art 60 million-gallon-per-day advanced wastewater treatment facility. He then worked as an environmental engineer with Flood Engineers Architects Planners Inc. in Jacksonville, working on several water and wastewater treatment facilities in Florida. He was involved with the design and preparation of plans and specifications for various advanced wastewater treatment plants and pumping stations, and oversaw contract administration, construction inspection, and start-up of several facilities. In 1983 he began working for City of Jacksonville as planning and engineering division chief and managing engineer, leading the planning and engineering of all water and wastewater facilities for the city and managing a 60-person team. He later became division chief for solid waste and deputy director for public utilities, and then division chief for collection and distribution, responsible for a staff of more than
On the golf course.
400 in water distribution, sewer collection, water meters, and sewer pumping services. Kelly moved to JEA in 1997, first as vice president for construction and management, where he led the group through a water and electric merger. He then became director for water and wastewater treatment, responsible for water, wastewater treatment, and reuse operations. His final position with the company was as vice president for water and wastewater systems, managing more than 400 workers and a $49 million annual budget, while setting direction that grew the company into the second largest water and wastewater utility in Florida. In 2013 he began his assistant city administrator position at City of West Palm Beach. He was responsible for the public utilities, sustainability, parking, public works, and engineering areas, including operations, budget, environmental compliance, and asset management. Kelly has a bachelor of science degree in civil
Enjoying a new hobby.
engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology and is a licensed professional engineer in Florida. In addition to his work on the FWRC board, he is cofounder and Steering Committee chair of the Florida Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN), on the board of directors of Florida Rural Water Association, and president of Grassy Waters Conservancy. Kelly also founded World Water Alliance of Florida, a nonprofit responsible for the construction of more than $200,000 in water projects providing safe drinking water to hundreds of people in Honduras and Guatemala. Kelly, as president of FWRC, and Holly Hanson, the executive director, grew the conference over the last 18 years into the second largest joint water and wastewater conference in the United States. During this time period, FWRC also returned more than $2 million back to the three member organizations for their education and training programs. S
The first time Holly and Scott worked together at an event in Jacksonville in 2000.
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
WEF Stormwater Institute: Providing Leadership and Advocacy
The Water Environment Federation (WEF) Stormwater Institute is a center for excellence and innovation focused on developing bestin-class solutions to stormwater runoff and wet weather issues. The institute is able to draw from the broad diversity, expertise, and engagement of the WEF membership, which is the largest and most-informed clean water solutions membership in the world. The institute identifies cross-cutting issues and convenes experts to tackle those issues, provides insights and leadership to policymakers, and helps chart a new course toward a healthier and more sustainable stormwater system in the United States—and beyond. Stormwater is the only growing source of water pollution in many watersheds across the country. As urban areas grow and severe weather becomes more common, the issue of stormwater management will only escalate in importance. The growing issue of stormwater pollution, coupled with regulatory pressure, is driving the need for innovative approaches, training, technology solutions, and progressive financing. As such, there is a clear need for national leadership and collaboration to help forge the path to more sustainable stormwater management.
Stakeholder Groups The institute focuses on addressing critical stormwater management issues as a means to
protect public health and the environment. It serves as a conduit for information and feedback between the stormwater and regulatory communities. It benefits many stakeholder groups, including: S Municipal agencies with responsibility for managing stormwater S Individual stormwater and green infrastructure practitioners S Technology providers S Academics and researchers S State and federal regulators S Regional and state stormwater organizations This hub for technical information, networking, and policy advocacy expands on and leverages ongoing and proposed WEF programs. It focuses on developing technical tools, communication strategies, professional training, and networking opportunities for stormwater practitioners worldwide.
Institute Programs The institute serves as a center of excellence to address the growing issues of stormwater management and is a hub for technical information, networking, and policy advocacy. Its programs include: S National Green Infrastructure Certification Program (NGICP) S Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices (STEPP) Initiative S National Municipal Stormwater and Green Infrastructure Awards S WEFTEC Stormwater Congress S World Water: Stormwater Management magazine S The Stormwater Report online newsletter S Targeted Stormwater Projects
12 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Organization Benefits Institute subscribers enjoy benefits such as: S Opportunity to provide input and direction on new projects and participate in their development. S Access to exclusive subscriber webcasts. S Briefings on stormwater legislative issues and early input on regulatory activities. S Recognition in institute publications. S Invitations to special events, including networking opportunities. The community of subscribers consists of: S M unicipal stormwater agencies S Stormwater and green infrastructure practitioners S Technology providers S Academics and researchers S State and federal regulators S Regional stormwater organizations With the support of dedicated industry experts, WEF is a proven leader in the stormwater sector—providing access to stormwater news, education, and training opportunities, as well as policy support and advocacy. The institute fills the vacuum of national stormwater leadership and advances the support of professionals in a water sector poised for major growth. For more information, please contact: Adriana Caldarelli, Stormwater Institute director • email@example.com, 703-684-2406 Rebecca Arvin-Colón, Stormwater Institute senior manager • firstname.lastname@example.org, 703-684-2400 x7017S
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Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
WEF STORMWATER INSTITUTE
wefstormwaterinstitute.org 14 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The Water Environment Federation’s Stormwater Institute (SWI) is expanding to develop key partnering opportunities and implement funded projects and activities to move the national stormwater agenda forward and address needs presented in the Rainfall to Results report. We thank our SWI subscribers for their financial and technical support and our Advisory Committee for its guidance and dedication. A list of current SWI subscribers and our Advisory Committee can be found by choosing “about” at wefstormwaterinstitute.org. Together, their commitment helps the SWI develop solutions to assist the stormwater community meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit needs and to help improve water quality. On the following pages are the current SWI project highlights. The projects address the SWI objectives for stormwater success as outlined in the Rainfall to Results report, which is a blueprint for the SWI programs.
Download a copy of Rainfall to Results at wefstormwaterinstitute.org/rainfall-to-results.
Work at the Watershed Scale
Manage Assets and Resources
Close the Funding Gap
Support Innovation and Best Practices
Transform Stormwater Governance Engage the Community
For more information or to become a subscriber of SWI, please contact Rebecca ArvinColon at email@example.com.
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Support Innovation and Best Practices
OVER 400 CERTIFICATES AWARDED
National Green Infrastructure Certification Program (NGICP) Growth • NGICP provides the base-level skill set needed for entry-level workers to properly maintain, construct, and inspect green infrastructure. It was designed to meet international best practice standards and intended to establish a properly-trained workforce. Over 400 individuals have been certified through the program. The NGICP trainings, exams, and train-the-trainer workshops are held regularly throughout the year. For more information, visit ngicp.org/.
Partnering to Improve Knowledge of Stormwater Costs • WEF’s SWI is partnering with the Water Research Foundation to create the CLASIC (Community-Enabled Lifecycle Analysis of Stormwater Infrastructure Costs) Tool. Download the fact sheet at www.werf.org/c/Lifecycle_Costs/Community-enabled_Lifecycle_Analysis_of_Stormwater_ Infrastructure_Costs.aspx.
Standardizing Stormwater Testing and Evaluation • Created SWI work team to identify the most sustainable way to further develop and implement the National Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices (STEPP); download the STEPP fact sheet at wefstormwaterinstitute.org/programs/stepp.
Close the Funding Gap Partnering to Share Knowledge on Stormwater Funding
IDENTIFY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE FINANCING
• Partnered with the New England Financing Center and University of New Hampshire to conduct the New England Stormwater Financing Workshop. • With funding from the Great Lakes Protection Fund, WEF’s SWI, American Rivers, and Corona Environmental Consulting are working on the project, Stormwater Currency, in two U.S. Great Lakes communities on two different financing approaches for green infrastructure implementation. Download the project fact sheet at https://wefstormwaterinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Stormwater-Currency-handout-3-2019.pdf. • In conjunction with the National Network for Water Quality Trading and the Willamette Partnership, cohosted a stakeholder meeting to increase the diversity of input for financing models. The workshop resulted in the creation of the report, Working with the Market: Economic Instruments to Support Investment in Green Stormwater Infrastructure.. The SWI held a webcast for its subscribers and WEF members on the report results. To view the report, go to willamettepartnership.org/working-with-themarket-green-stormwater-infrastructure/.
16 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
MESSAGING ON THE VALUE OF STORMWATER
Engage the Community Enhancing Communications on Stormwater
• Conducted a workshop on messaging on the value of stormwater to identify the right audiences and develop appropriate communication tools to increase support for stormwater management. This effort will continue to develop.
IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE GAPS AND NEEDS
Manage Assets and Resources National Survey Implementation
• Developed the National MS4 Needs Assessment Survey to identify and analyze gaps and needs for effective stormwater management by NPDES permit holders across the country. The full report and executive summary of the survey results are available on the SWI website: https://wefstormwaterinstitute.org/programs/ms4survey/.
Partnering to Enhance Knowledge of Needs and Tools • Providing institutional support for the National Municipal Stormwater Alliance (NMSA) – an alliance of stormwater associations – to increase two-way conversations on stormwater needs and tools between the SWI and MS4s.
Transform Stormwater Governance Conducted Water Week Stormwater Forums
PROPOSED LEGISLATION WAS PASSED
• The third annual SWI Subscriber Policy Forum was held in April 2019 in Washington, D.C., during Water Week, allowing SWI subscribers to meet with key leaders, and staff from Congress and other agencies, and reinforce the importance of investing in stormwater management. During the event, the SWI released an updated Congressional Ask document, Recommendations to Improve the Stormwater Program in the U.S., available at https://wefstormwaterinstitute.org/about/.
Increase Federal Funding for Stormwater Infrastructure • SWI proposed legislation was passed through the House of Representatives and Senate to establish a new federal, state, local, and stakeholder task force to identify stormwater infrastructure financing needs and recommend to Congress funding solutions. • SWI proposed legislation was passed through the House of Representatives to ensure funding for the EPA Clean Watershed Needs Survey, which will verify significant national stormwater infrastructure needs and push Congress to increase funding.
For more information on any of these projects or to become a subscriber of SWI, please contact Rebecca Arvin-Colon at firstname.lastname@example.org. Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT
Want Water Sustainability and Economic Growth? Invest in Infrastructure! Water Tells the Story Fred Bloetscher, P.E., Ph.D. Chair, FSAWWA
ater is the basis for the growth and development of civilization. Without water, society would not exist. Water engineers were arguably the first engineers, so they therefore rank as one of the oldest professions.
Early in our history, people located near water for food and transportation. As they discovered agriculture, water became more important. If you did not have water, there was no agriculture, and no ability to create a community. Once your group started to grow, water needed to be consistent because disruptions in water supply could be catastrophic. We figured out that water played a vital role in protecting public health back during the Roman Empire (if not before). Ancient Roman aqueducts are well known to us, and some are still used today. The concept was to bring clean water from the mountains to Rome and then wash away the debris (early sewers). It improved the health of the Romans and
Figure 1. Water-deficit areas across the U.S. (source: Reilly, et al. 2008)
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allowed maybe a million people to live there, which was huge in the ancient world. Romans’ taxes paid for these systems. When the United States got started, we followed the same model as the ancient world—we first located on the coast for transportation access, started farming farther inland, build canals for irrigation (and then for transportation), discovered the Great Lakes, and built the industrial Midwest based on the lakes and their resources. America became an industrial power, and because of proximal water supplies, a great agricultural center developed as well. Local entities invested heavily in these water and sewer systems as a means to compete with other communities. As weather patterns have changed, however, the sustainability of water sources has changed in some jurisdictions. The water resources of the South are far more limited than the Northeast and Midwest, and more episodic. As a result, the ability to create the large industrial complexes of the Rust Belt was always a challenge. A lack of water and sewer in many small southern communities was a barrier to their growth and development until the Works Progress Administration program was created during the Great Depression and built the systems many still rely on. The water supply challenges have increase with time. Even in what should be water-rich Florida, with an average of 50 to 60 inches of annual rainfall, we have ongoing challenges in some parts for water supply, which is why potable reuse is being tested in many areas across the state. New sources and added capacity will, however, cost money. Water supplies in the West have always been scarce. As identified by the U.S. Geological Service (USGS) in 2008, the water supplies do not meet the current demands west of the Mississippi River (Figure 1). Surface waters are limited, so groundwater is tapped, but as Figure 2 shows, there is not enough rainfall or recharge to sustain current usage, which puts communities at risk. In the 13 years since that USGS report was published, climate impacts pose added
challenges to long-term water supplies across the country, with no solutions. Clearly, we need to develop sustainable water supply solutions.
Water Comes With a Cost Ten years ago, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) published a water sustainability compendium as a part of its sustainable water sources conference. The compendium involved 24 papers with different perspectives, with the goal of trying to identify what sustainability meant to people competing for water supplies. The answer was that there was no agreement—all views tended to focus on what was good for their own situation, as opposed to that of a holistic view of sustainability. This was the result of water industry-related people commenting, but there was still no consensus on a definition of a means to sort out solutions. You can imagine what would happen when other users were added. Fast forward 10 years and we are not really much closer to a useful definition, but we are 10 years closer to needing one. An recent article in Journal AWWA included a survey of water customers and found that more than half of them think floods and droughts both imperil water supplies and more than a quarter are concerned about the sustainability of the infrastructure supplying the water. The relationship between climate and water was poorly understood by the respondents, but the interest in environmental protection as a part of water supply sustainability was noted by 40 percent of participants. Clearly, we need a means to improve sustainability, as well as a framework to prioritize water use in water-limited areas. In that same AWWA article, half of the respondents do not think water rates should be higher, which means they do not understand the linkage between sustainability and ongoing infrastructure needs, nor that infrastructure investments are needed for the economy to grow. The resistance to increases mimics the results published by the federal government, which show that the amount spent by the federal government for water and sewer infrastructure has continually decreased since the mid-1970s (Figure 3). State and local investments topped out around $120 billion eight years ago, before dropping to $109 billion in 2016 (Figure 3). The recent report card from the American Society of Civil Engineers gave a C- grade for drinking water, so there is an obvious connection—we need to spend money to build the infrastructure.
Figure 2. Areas where the precipitation minus the potential evaporation (PET) yields negative recharge across the U.S. (source: Reilly, et al. 2008)
Figure 3. Water infrastructure spending trends in the U.S. (dark line) and by state and local governments (light line). (source: https://www.cbo.gov/system/files?file=2018-10/54539-Infrastructure.pdf)
There is a clear disconnect between the concept of rates and water use, which suggests that there is a lack of understanding on the costs of utility operations. The customers think we lack sustainability solutions, but at the same time, do not want to spend money. That is a big challenge, one where we need to overcome consumer concerns with
utility costs, sustainability, and supplies by educating them on what these investments will accomplish. Sustainability = infrastructure = jobs = economic growth. You have to invest to grow. S We need to spread the word.
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers Announces New Inductees Patrick Murphy
The lastest inductees for the Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers (FSSSSS) have been announced as follows:
Class of 2020 S T ina Nixon S L arry Hickey S M ike Darrow (with outgoing “pH 7” Tom Baber)
Class of 2021 S M ike Sweeney S V aughan Harshman S J ake Rohrich (with incoming “pH 7” Patrick Murphy) The FSSSSS was founded in 1956 by David B. Lee to recognize industry professionals for their outstanding and meritorious service above and beyond the call of duty to the Florida wastewater industry and to the Florida Pollution Control Association (FPCA), now known as the Florida Water Environment
Association (FWEA). The FSSSSS is an award of FWEA and nominees must be a member in good standing of the organization at the time of their nomination. Traditionally, the intent of the annual award is to honor an engineer, an operator, and a “peddler,” if in fact, three candidates are deemed to have contributed outstanding and meritorious service above and beyond the call of duty to FWEA. Upon successful completion of the induction ceremony, the nominees are “elevated on the official shovel to the highest ridge on the sludge bed, with the title of Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shoveler, with all the honor, atmosphere, perquisites, and dignity appertaining thereunto.” There are no dues for membership in the society, nor are there any officers, except the “influent integrator,” who is designated by the neutral term “ph 7”and who is elected, or should be elected, by a vote of the shovelers present at a meeting of the association and serves until a successor has been elected or installed. The integrator’s duties are to record and report selections, present official
From left to right are Tina Nixon, senior project manager at Ardurra (engineer); Larry Hickey, president of Equipment Plus Solutions Inc. (peddler); Mike Darrow, utilities operations superintendent at Plant City (operator); and outgoing “pH 7” Tom Baber.
20 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
certificates of elevation, bestow badges, and generally keep chapter members advised concerning activities of the society. Each inductee receives a badge in the form of a decorative gold pin in the shape of a round-nosed shovel. The shovel must be displayed at all official functions of the society, FWEA, and the Water Environment Federation (WEF). It must always be worn or displayed to indicate a member in good standing. The penalty of being found without the shovel by another “shoveler” is to provide all those present with a refreshment of their choice. Each member is provided with a membership certificate signed by the influent integrator as pH7 and by twelve other shovelers for the remaining concentrations from pH 1 to pH 13. While the wording on the certificates may vary from chapter to chapter, it normally indicates that selection to membership is in recognition of “outstanding service above and beyond the call of duty” to the association. Patrick Murphy is chief plant operator with S City of Plant City.
From left to right are Patrick Murphy (incoming pH 7); Mike Sweeney, director–innovation and strategic advancement, Toho Water Authority (engineer); Vaughan Harshman, corporate manager, Evoqua Water Technologies (peddler); and Jake Rohrich, operations and maintenance section manager, Polk County Utilities (operator).
Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Stormwater Management and Emerging Technologies. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators ( DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!
Hillsborough County’s Innovative Pipe Inspection Program Adds Efficiency and Accuracy Richard Cummings and Michael Condran (Article 1: CEU = 0.1WW02015389)
1. Which of the following is listed as a specific advantage of the focused electrode leak location (FELL) system? a. Determining watertightness of customer service connections b. Locating protruding sewer laterals c. Detecting cross bores d. Locating fats, oils, and grease (FOG) deposits
2. W hat type of signal is emitted by the probe inserted into the pipeline? a. Pulse duration b. Alternating current electrical current c. 4-20 milliamp d. Sonic
3. Th e 2020 legislation requiring Florida utilities to focus greater attention on sanitary sewer overflows is the a. Clean Water Act. b. Safe Drinking Water Act. c. Save Our Rivers Act. d. Florida Clean Waterways Act.
4. Th e Clair-Mel pipe material showing the greatest potential for inflow and infiltration (I/I) is a. cast iron. b. polyvinyl chloride. c. cured-in-place. d. unlined vitrified clay.
5. S ub-basin no. ____ of the Dale Mabry Collection Basin showed the greatest potential for I/I. a. 1 b. 30 c. 31 d. 42
___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)
Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded
If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:
___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)
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EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at email@example.com or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
“To Flush or Not to Flush” High School Video Contest Winners Announced Shea Dunifon
While William Shakespeare’s Hamlet might not have ever recited in his soliloquy the line, “To flush, or not to flush, that is the question,” the 2021 high school video contest took some literary inspiration from the classic tale of tragedy to pose this very question to Florida students. While Shakespeare probably didn’t have any issues with clogged sewer pipes filled with unwanted items, like wipes and the occasional cell phone, the times have surely changed since he published “Hamlet” in 1603. In 2020, the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) Public Communications and Outreach Committee (PCOC) sponsored its second video contest for Florida high schoolers that resulted in 15 student entries from two counties. The goal of the contest was to challenge students to create a short video that explains where wastewater goes after the flush and/or explains what does or does not belong down a toilet. This year, the PCOC received an astonishing 52 video entries from nine counties, including Clay, Hillsborough, Miami-Dade, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Sarasota, and St. Johns. The video entries ranged from public service announcements and cartoons to animations and comedic mock news reports. Notably, many of the videos highlighted the skills and interests of a younger generation: public speaking, painting (visual arts), poetry, science fiction, computer animation, Lego building, television production, and lots of potty humor. While the ultimate goal of the contest is to inspire students to create a video that raises awareness of the industry, it also provides students and teachers a financial incentive to win. In 2021, the PCOC awarded $2500 in cash prizes to five students and three teachers. The prizes awarded to teachers are intended for them to use in their classrooms for supplies. This year, the PCOC awarded more money to teachers than in past years to encourage them to have their students enter.
To participate in the contest, individual students or teams submitted entry forms to the PCOC and uploaded their finished videos to YouTube. Judges rated the videos for quality, entertainment value, creativity, accuracy, and ability to follow directions (e.g., was the video 45 seconds in length or less). In 2021, the level of quality (and creativity) made judging difficult, as there were lots of amazing entries to choose from, and a second round of judging was made available to FWEA Connects attendees who voted at the FWEA virtual booth. The PCOC is proud to announce the 2021 video contest winners as follows: S First place: Leo Meng and Hubert Pilichowski – Strawberry Crest High School, Hillsborough County. Teacher: Jennifer Sherrouse S Second place: Arik Karem – Alexander W. Dreyfoos School of the Arts, Palm Beach County. Teacher: Ruby Hernandez S Third place: Aeron Cubangbang and Brianna
22 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Alfaro – Seminole Ridge High School, Palm Beach County. Teacher: Earle Wright S Honorable mention: Emily Singer – Alexander W. Dreyfoos School of the Arts, Palm Beach County. Teacher: Ruby Hernandez S Honorable mention: Ielyzaveta Myronenko – St. Cloud High School, Osceola County. Teacher: Kimberlee McMillan The PCOC would also like to recognize the high school video contest subcommittee for its efforts in making this contest a success. The committee included: S D ebbie Sponsler, Orange County Utilities S M elody Gonzalez, Black and Veatch S M ary Rose Cox, Toho Water S A my Tracy, Dewberry S A shley Dirou, Grundfos S R on Trygar, University of Florida TREEO Center S S uzanne Mechler, CDM Smith The PCOC would also like to thank Alex Maas (Heyward), Kristiana Dragash (Carollo), Alexander Kraemer (Thermal Process Systems), Shawn Yang (Hillsborough County), Jerry Cantrell (Pinellas County Schools), and Rodney Hyde (Manatee County) for spreading the word about the contest. We know that this list is probably much longer and there are many others who helped to promote the contest, and we appreciate you, too! The PCOC video contest subcommittee will begin planning for the 2022 contest this summer and is always in need of more volunteers to help promote the contest to their local high schools. If you are interested in volunteering, please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org. To learn more about the contest, please visit https://fwea.org/video_contest.php. To view all the 2021 entries, visit the FWEA YouTube channel and click on “Playlists.” Shea Dunifon is education coordinator for the Pinellas County’s South Cross Bayou education program and chair of the Public Communications and Outreach Committee. S
F W R J
Hillsborough County’s Innovative Pipe Inspection Program Adds Efficiency and Accuracy
Richard Cummings and Michael Condran
illsborough County is Florida’s fourth largest water utility and faces significant challenges with excessive inflow and infiltration (I/I) in its gravity collection system, consisting of nearly 1,500 mi of pipe. Typically, precipitation events result in immediate flow responses within the collection network, with up to three times the average daily flow rates seen at all its pump stations and treatment facilities. New legislation, the Florida Clean Waterways Act, was signed into law in 2020 requiring all Florida utilities to focus greater attention on sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) mitigation. The formal rulemaking process is underway and is expected to be finalized this year. New reporting requirements and fine structures mean that Florida water infrastructure managers will need to develop robust asset management programs to, among other things, establish optimal collection system performance. Meanwhile, COVID-19 fiscal realities have caused stark choices to be made regarding capital spending priorities. Even under pandemic conditions, the county continues to install between 700 and 800 new residential water meters each month. The county’s strong population growth means that available wastewater treatment capacity limits are being approached at several plants. Thus, in addition
to the new pending SSO regulatory obligations, controlling unwanted I/I is critical for the county to both extend treatment plant capacity to the greatest extent and determine capital spending priorities for pipeline replacement or rehabilitation. While the county maintains a proactive sewer inspection and rehabilitation program, I/I continues to be a concern in several areas of the collection network. The county uses several inspection methods, including smoke testing, night-flow isolation investigations, and flow monitoring; however, I/I evaluations have, to date, relied heavily on closed-circuit television (CCTV) visual pipe inspection performed by in-house crews and a third-party contractor. Inspection results have been used substantially to help develop rehabilitation priorities, as well as verifying watertightness after new sewer liners were installed. Significant capital spending for both inspection and rehabilitation work has not seen a suitable corresponding I/I reduction. The county has sought out different inspection methods to develop rehabilitation and repair programs more accurately. A field demonstration of focused electrode leak location (FELL) technology in November 2018 indicated that this relatively new inspection method held promise to support the county’s need for I/I control.
Richard Cummings is division director–field maintenance services for Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department in Tampa. Michael Condran, P.E., is vice president with Electro Scan Inc. in Tampa.
Focused Electrode Leak Location Technology Pipe Inspection Operating Principles With FELL technology, a probe is advanced between manholes and emits a continuous alternating current electrical current. If a defect exists in the pipe walls, at joints, or in lateral connections, the current will escape the pipe and travel to a preset grounding source to close a circuit. The intensity and duration of the measured current is plotted, and a horizontal location, accurate to within 3/8 of an in., is documented. An approximate potential I/I flow rate is also calculated and reported in units of gal per day (gpd) and gpd per in. diameter mi (gpd/idm). Figure 1 shows a standard field inspection arrangement. The technology has been the subject of numerous United States and international
Figure 1. Typical focused electrode leak location pipe inspection equipment arrangement.
24 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Table 1. Focused Electrode Leak Location Inspection Summary by Sub-Basin, Ranked by Greatest to Least Inflow and Infiltration Potential
Figure 2. Dale Mabry Collection Basin, indicating 14 sub-basins where focused electrode leak location inspection was performed.
studies and benchmarking investigations since the early 2000s. Third-party evaluation work was performed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), American Water Works Association (AWWA), COMSOL Inc., German institute of Underground Infrastructure (IKT), United Kingdom-based Water Research Centre (WRc), and the Japan Sewer Collection System Maintenance Association (JASCOMA). The ASTM Standard F2550, Standard Practice for Locating Leaks in Sewer Pipes by Measuring the Variation of Electric Current Flow Through the Pipe Wall, defines how field work is conducted and results are reported. While CCTV is an important inspection tool, especially to offer insights about structural and operation and maintenance pipe features, such as alignment; debris presence; silt; fats, oils, and grease (FOG); protruding service laterals; crossbores; encrustation; roots; separated joints; and collapses, the county identified several specific advantages of FELL inspection, including: 1. Documenting conditions contributing to pipe and/or liner failures, including accidental cuts, bad service reconnections, delamination, defective epoxy, etc.
42 31 25 1 33 14 41 19 15 30 21 49 54 34 TOTAL
FELL Length (LF) 13,679 23,903 5,174 6,541 13,447 8,444 5,573 4,832 4,984 6,488 6,094 12,578 9,717 1,664 123,117
% Total FELL Length (LF)
% Potential I/I (GPD)
11% 19% 4% 5% 11% 7% 5% 4% 4% 5% 5% 10% 8% 1% 100%
24% 20% 11% 8% 8% 7% 7% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% 100%
2. Inspecting individual joint watertightness, including potential infiltration pathways. 3. Determining watertightness of customer service connections. 4. Providing consistently repeatable results without human judgment or bias.
Dale Mabry Collection Basin Based on the successful November 2018 field demonstration, the county decided to use FELL as part of an ongoing I/I investigation for the Dale Mabry Collection Basin, which is located in the northwestern part of the county’s service area and generally incudes Tampa’s Carrollwood neighborhood. There are 59 sub-basins across the Dale Mabry network. Of these, 14 sub-basins were identified during the county’s phase one study, done by a consulting engineer, as first priority for FELL inspection. Figure 2 shows the Dale Mabry basin and highlights the 14 sub-basins where FELL inspection was performed. Several pipe material types were included in the FELL inspection scope, including fold-and-form polyvinyl chloride (PVC), vitrified clay pipe (VCP), and cured-in-place pipe (CIPP). After each scan was complete for individual pipe segments, data were immediately uploaded to a cloud-based processing application for reporting to the county. Continued on page 26
Figure 3. Dale Mabry Collection Basin focused electrode leak location inspection length by pipe material type.
Figure 4. Dale Mabry Collection Basin focused electrode leak location inspection potential inflow and infiltration by pipe material type.
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Table 2. Focused Electrode Leak Location Inspection Summary by Pipe Material Type
Pipe Material PVC CIPP VCP TOTAL
Figure 5. Clair-Mel Collection Network indicating the portion of the network where focused electrode leak location inspection was performed.
Figure 7. Cumulative flow rates contributing to inflow and infiltration of those pipes containing the greatest number of defects.
26 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
FELL Length, LF 22,749 5,058 4,951 32,757
% Total FELL Length 69.5 15.4 15.1 100%
% Potential I/I, GPD 72.1 19.5 8.4 100%
Figure 6. Clair-Mel electrode leak location inspection results showing individual pipes with greatest potential defect flow rates contributing to inflow and infiltration.
Continued from page 25 Summary inspection data for the 14 sub-basins inspected are shown in Table 1. The county was especially interested in the straightforward FELL data organization, which documented that 34 percent of the inspected pipes, by length, represented 55 percent of the potential I/I flow rates. In this way, an organized set of priorities were able to be quickly identified, with a focus on addressing only those pipes contributing to the greatest potential I/I. This approach allowed the county to avoid costs associated with unnecessary pipeline rehabilitation or replacement. Figures 3 and 4 summarize the breakdown of pipe material type inspected and the corresponding potential I/I flow rates, respectively. These summary data show that unlined VCP installed in the 1970s and ‘80s, and relatively newer CIPP liners, represented only 7 percent of the total inspected length, but contributed over 22 percent of the potential I/I for the pipes inspected. Targeted rehabilitation can now be focused on these pipe classes as a priority.
Clair-Mel Collection Network The Clair-Mel Collection Network was originally a developer-installed franchise collection system in the county’s southeast service area east of downtown Tampa, and the county is ultimately responsible for its operation and maintenance. The entire Clair-Mel network consists of approximately 120,000 lin ft (LF) of gravity pipes. An initial desktop evaluation and night-flow isolation work by the county’s engineering consultant identified 33,000 LF for FELL inspection, or approximately 28 percent of the Clair-Mel network. Figure 5 shows the Clair-Mel network and the portion of the area where the FELL inspection was performed. Table 2 summarizes FELL inspection results by pipe material type and includes the corresponding length, the length inspected as a percentage of the entire project, and potential I/I rates as a percentage for each. Notably, only the unlined VCP pipes showed a lower total potential I/I relative to its relative percentage of length inspected. Figure 6 shows individual pipe segments using a color-coded summary. It indicates the potential I/I defect flow rates relative to all the pipe inspections ranked into the following five flow rate categories: S Potential I/I rate more than 50 gal per min (gpm) S Between 25 – 50 gpm S Between 15 – 25 gpm S Between 7.5 – 15 gpm S Potential flow rate less than 7.5 gpm Figure 7 graphically depicts the cumulative potential I/I flow rate for the 35 percent of all pipe inspections and reveals that these pipes collectively contribute nearly 75 percent of the potential I/I of those inspected across the Clair-Mel network. This allows the county to make targeted decisions on how to focus a rehabilitation program to maximize I/I reduction at the lowest possible cost.
New eBook on Ultraviolet Disinfection Available The final treatment step in municipal wastewater treatment is the disinfection process. Disinfection is required to reduce and destroy the bacteria, viruses, and protozoa in wastewater before discharge into the receiving body of water. The disinfection of wastewater is critical to the protection of public health and the environment. Growing awareness of the longterm public safety and environmental costs of chemical wastewater disinfection has led some in the industry to adopt alternatives, such as ultraviolet (UV) light.
acids. The high energy associated with short wavelength UV energy, primarily at 254 nm, is absorbed by cellular ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This absorption of UV energy forms new bonds between adjacent nucleotides, creating double bonds or dimers. Dimerization of adjacent molecules, particularly thymine, is the most common photochemical damage. Formation of numerous thymine dimers in the DNA of bacteria and viruses prevents replication.
What is Ultraviolet Light?
The eBook, “An Introduction to UV Disinfection for Municipal Wastewater” is now available. It provides information about UV disinfection for municipal wastewater and answers many frequently asked questions, such as: S Why does wastewater need to be disinfected? S What is UV light? S What happens to microorganisms when they are exposed to germicidal wavelengths of UV light? S How does UV light disinfect wastewater? S How long has UV been used as a disinfection method? S What are the different types of UV lamps? S How does UV differ from chemical disinfection? S What are the safety advantages of UV? S What are the cost advantages of UV?
A UV light is a form of light that is invisible to the human eye. It occupies the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between X-rays and visible light. The sun emits ultraviolet light; however, much of it’s absorbed by the earth’s ozone layer. Unlike chemical disinfection, in which substantial contact tanks and time are needed, UV light provides rapid, effective inactivation of microorganisms through a physical process. When bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are exposed to germicidal wavelengths of UV light, they are instantaneously rendered incapable of reproducing and infecting. The process adds nothing to the water but UV light, has no impact on chemical composition or dissolved oxygen content, and does not create disinfection byproducts. Microorganisms are inactivated by UV light as a result of damage to nucleic
To download the trojantechnologies.com.
Summary Based on results from two studies totaling 30 mi of gravity pipe inspection, the county has been able to identify those pipes contributing the greatest potential I/I, and thereby optimize its capital spending for pipe rehabilitation and repair work. Given the inspection results, the county has now adopted FELL inspection for its rehabilitation strategy development and will be retrofitting one of its in-house CCTV inspection trucks to add FELL inspection equipment so that collections staff members can self-perform pipe inspections going forward. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
PRO CE S S PAG E Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! In October and November 2020, the Process Committee hosted a series of 10 virtual presentations under the theme, “Back to Wastewater Process Fundamentals.” Presenters covered a wide range of topics, ranging from process technology updates to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) basics, design fundamentals, and lessons learned during construction. This article is a summary of the “Wastewater Treatment Facility Basis of Design Fundamentals” presentation that was hosted on Oct. 22, 2020.
Wastewater Treatment Facility Basis of Design Fundamentals Bartt Booz
What is a Basis of Design? A basis of design (BOD) for a wastewater treatment facility project documents the principles, assumptions, rationale, criteria, calculations, and decisions made that impact the final design. The BOD typically follows a master plan or a facilities plan in the project development process and defines the goals of the project and project success factors. Projects that proceed without a well-defined project and detailed BOD can lead to costly changes during the final design phase.
Project Purpose Understanding the project’s purpose is essential when developing the basis of design. Projects typically fall into one (or more) of four categories: S Rehabilitation and replacement S Permit compliance S Capacity expansion S Funding opportunities
Rehabilitation and Replacement Many plants within the United States were built during the late 1970s and early ‘80s as a result of the Clean Water Act and the prevalence of grant money. Now over 40 years old, these plants may or may not have undergone at least one major upgrade during this period and may operate equipment that is well past its expected useful life. Eventually, equipment and piping need to be replaced, concrete tanks need to be rehabilitated, and control and electrical systems become obsolete. Many projects are driven simply by rehabilitation and replacement, when the cost of maintaining the old equipment and systems becomes too high. Permit Compliance Plants may also require upgrades when new, more-stringent permit limits are issued by the regulatory agency. It’s always beneficial to try to achieve new limits using existing tankage or repurpose unused tanks whenever possible to reduce project costs. In addition, many of today’s innovative technologies use
process intensification to achieve more in a smaller volume. Capacity Expansion When growth overtakes the available capacity of a plant and process intensification is maximized (or more expensive to implement), additional treatment volume or trains should be considered to meet future growth. Ideally, some foresight was established during the original plant design for its eventual expansion. If not, you may have to implement creative ways to add capacity within the available site footprint and hydraulic profile. Funding Opportunities Plant upgrades may also be performed sooner than required simply due to the availability of grant or low-interest loan funding. Future effluent limits may also be on the horizon, and conducting upgrade projects when grant funding is available is a prudent strategy. This often occurs with plants within a total maximum daily load (TMDL) area with an established basin management action plan (BMAP) where a schedule for compliance may be forthcoming.
Discharge Standards and Permit Limits A BOD report should state the treatment plant’s current effluent limits and what should be achieved following the upgrade. Limits depend on the destination for the effluent and the location of the plant. A 100 percent reuse plant will have different effluent
28 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
limits than a plant that discharges to surface water, even if that discharge is only occasional. A plant that falls within a priority focus area (PFA) of a BMAP will have different limits than one without a BMAP or impairment. Limits may also be in place for plants that do not meet the primary and secondary drinking water standards during annual sampling (carefully consider the analytical methods used, as the detection limits during sampling should not be higher than the standard).
Flows and Loads A BOD report for a treatment plant upgrade will have an assessment of current and future flows and loads to the plant. Historic influent and effluent flow data are typically accessible, as shown in Figure 1. The plant’s daily monitoring reports (DMR) and the last capacity analysis report (CAR) are excellent sources of information. Each CAR is required to summarize the permitted and design capacities of the plant, as well as monthly average, three-month average, and annual average daily flows for the past 10 years or for the facility’s time in operation. Also required are flow projections based on local population growth and water usage rates for at least the next 10 years; an estimate of the time required for the three-month average daily flow to reach the permitted capacity; recommendations for expansions; and a detailed schedule showing the dates for planning, design, permitting, start of construction, and operation of the new or expanded facilities. Future flows can be difficult to predict. During Florida’s 2007-2008 economic downturn, much of the state’s anticipated growth stalled, which deferred capacity expansions at many plants. Currently, approximately 1,000 people are moving to Florida each day, and some communities are experiencing historic growth. In some cases, as soon as a capacity upgrade is designed, planning for the next upgrade begins. While planning with certainty is impossible, intelligent future flow estimates that document the assumptions should be made and reevaluated periodically. A BOD report should also summarize the current plant loadings using available data as a starting point. Effluent data are typically readily available, but a complete assessment of the influent loads to a plant, at least on a consistent basis, typically is not. Permits often do not require sampling for some of the influent loads that are beneficial in plant evaluations. Supplemental influent sampling
Figure 1. Example of influent and effluent data.
data may need to be requested from the plant operations staff. The amount and type of data needed is dependent on the purpose. Supplemental sampling can be expensive if sent to an outside laboratory, so a clear purpose for the data requested is essential. For example, if only a high-level alternatives analysis is being conducted using process modeling software, there may be sufficient data available to extrapolate what is needed to accomplish the modeling without supplemental sampling. If a calibrated process model of the plant is needed to conduct an in-depth evaluation of process and operational alternatives, then supplemental influent sampling may be required to use actual versus extrapolated influent values. Creating a calibrated model involves adjusting parameters in the model to mimic a known outcome from the actual treatment plant data (typically a maximum month loading condition). Ideally, the model will output similar effluent quality and solids production rates as the actual maximum month condition.
Evaluation of Existing Conditions Evaluating existing conditions at a plant always begins with the existing design basis. What is the existing plant designed to achieve, what is the current process flow, and how much flexibility is there, either hydraulically or operationally? Assess the current tank sizes and equipment capacities to determine the potential to gain additional capacity through a rerating of the plant. Identify limitations in
the process (or hydraulically) that may hinder your goals. Next, conduct a multidiscipline review of the unit processes impacted by the project to determine their needs. This can range from a structural review of the condition of the existing tankage to the age and condition of the electrical systems. Code compliance must also be evaluated. Consider the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 820 standard, which provides electrical classification requirements for various wastewater collection, treatment systems, and solids handling systems. Every wastewater design professional should understand NFPA 820 and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) requirements as they relate to improvements to an existing facility. The BOD must also clearly identify the owner’s wastewater design standards. These may range from a simple list of acceptable manufacturers to complete specifications in the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) format. Unwritten equipment preferences may also exist, and operations and maintenance staff may have a preferred process or equipment that requires duplication at other facilities. If sole-sourcing is needed, it’s important to follow all of the owner’s procurement requirements when creating project specifications. The owner’s SCADA standards must also be understood during the basis of design. The SCADA architecture impacts the electrical, instrumentation, and control designs and must be identified in the BOD so that the design team can understand the controls architecture of the plant. Continued on page 30
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Continued from page 29
As-Built and Record Drawing Information Discrepancies often occur between asbuilt information and actual field conditions. Inaccuracies in the record drawings can exist when engineers develop them from a contractor’s redline as-built drawings. To avoid conflicts or errors in the design, collect field measurements of visible areas whenever possible, especially in areas with conflict potential. For underground utilities, ground penetrating radar (GPR) may be beneficial to determine the horizontal locations of pipes and electrical duct banks in underground utilities. When the potential exists for vertical conflicts, consider subsurface utility exploration (SUE), using vacuum extraction to obtain vertical elevations and confirm pipe sizes. The strategic use of SUE can help to avoid conflicts and potentially large changes orders and schedule delays during construction.
Confirm the vertical datum of any record drawings you rely on for your design. Original plans might use National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) 29, while recent surveys of structures are typically in North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) 88. Conversion factors between the two exist, but you should survey the structures and pipes directly impacted rather than rely on old information. For complex pump rooms or piping arrangements, 3D scanning may be used where as-built information is not accurate and where a Revit model of existing infrastructure must be created. Figure 2 is an example of a 3D scan of a below-grade pump room.
Hydraulic Evaluation The importance of the hydraulic evaluation cannot be overstated, as an imbalance of flows (and loads) to each unit process can create plant performance issues throughout the life of the facility. Start by building a hydraulic model of the plant, or
Figure 2. A 3D scan of below-grade pump room.
Table 1. Example of Screening-Level Evaluation
at least the unit processes, that are being impacted by the project. The model can consist of proprietary software or simply an Excel spreadsheet. Once the model is built, it’s beneficial to model a condition from a past set of record drawings or upgrades to see if the created model mimics the previous design. Incorporate any plant recycle flows into the hydraulic model where they occur and talk with plant operators about their target recycle rates across various flow conditions. Check whether flow-splitting weirs or control weirs are submerged under any flow conditions. If submergence has occurred, assurance of acceptable flow split cannot be guaranteed. Adding unit processes into an existing hydraulic profile is easier when there is a large drop in the profile. It’s more challenging when only a few inches are available, especially when flow splitting structures need to be incorporated. Consider computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to confirm how a hydraulic control device is going to behave, particularly if you must develop a nonstandard arrangement to fit a structure within a tight hydraulic profile. As previously noted, do not solely rely on record drawing elevations for the hydraulic evaluation, as the opportunity for error is too great. Obtain true survey information whenever possible. Another important practice is to take field measurements to confirm that the calculations are accurate. This entails physically going to the plant to take water surface measurements, while documenting the current influent and recycle flows. As you perform a walkthrough, collect measurements of depth to water surfaces from the tops of structures, depths over weirs, and at flow-splitting structures, and where flows enter a new unit process. Based on those flows and measurements, conduct a model run at the flow rate and recycle rate observed at the plant to see if your field measurements match the theoretical model. If the theoretical aligns with the actual measurements, you should have greater confidence in the model. If they don't, then either the model is incorrect, or something else is happening in the field that is not readily apparent and requires additional investigation.
Alternatives Analysis Once the basis of design has identified the drivers and needs for a plant upgrade, the next step is to identify the available alternatives that achieve the established goals. Begin by prescreening alternatives to create a short list
30 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
of options for further evaluation. The short list can then be taken through a more-detailed analysis to determine the recommended alternative. The owner and operations staff should be involved throughout this process. Important factors to consider include: S Lowest capital cost versus lowest operational cost. Determine the net present value over a 20-year planning period for each alternative. S Conventional versus innovative processes. Does the owner prefer nonproprietary solutions, established technologies, or new technologies? Consider whether the design performance basis is coming from a consulting engineer or a technology provider. S For facilities where space is limited or reserved for future expansion, repurposing old tanks may be favored over technologies requiring new tanks. Other evaluation criteria may include technologies that can be expanded easily or technologies that are robust and operatorfriendly versus those that require more monitoring and control. Table 1 is an example of a screeninglevel evaluation for nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes to achieve varying effluent limits.
To summarize: S Th e basis of design serves as a roadmap to a successful project and mitigates complications or rework during final design. S Assess the current and future flows and loads and use existing data sources and supplemental sampling to develop a complete picture.
S U nderstand current and future discharge limits and what may be driving those limits. S P roperly assess existing conditions. Do not trust the as-built drawings. Instead, take the time to confirm existing conditions to ensure that your design can properly incorporate within the existing facility. S U nderstand the plant’s hydraulics and confirm that your calculations are representative of the existing conditions. S I dentify feasible alternatives and prescreen the alternatives for more detailed analysis. S D evelop the recommended alternative with input from the owner. S A fter developing the recommended alternative, review your project success factors identified at the start of the project to ensure that you hit the target. Bartt Booz, P.E., is senior project manager at S Wright-Pierce in Maitland.
Identifying Solutions Following the detailed evaluation, identify a proposed solution. Review the original project success factors and ensure that you have met the criteria established with the owner at the project’s inception. Success factors will differ for every project, but the solution should be a mutual effort among consultants, senior decision makers for the owner, and operations and maintenance staff. Success is more likely when collaboration occurs. Once you’ve established the process design basis for the recommended alternative, all other building disciplines (architectural, structural, mechanical, instrumentation, and electrical) should summarize their design criteria for every aspect of the future upgrade.
Summary This high-level overview of some of the important elements of a basis of design for a wastewater treatment facility upgrade has hopefully given you a few strategies to implement during your next project.
Water, wastewater, and civil infrastructure services since 1947. wright-pierce.com/careers
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
What Do You Know About Reclaimed Water? 5. Per the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) One Water Florida website, highly treated recycled water that can be used for drinking, cooking, and bathing is called
1. P er Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application, reclaimed water means water that has received at least what level of treatment and disinfection that is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility?
a. m ay be part of the operation and maintenance manual or a separate document. b. m ust be part of the operation and maintenance manual. c. m ust be a separate document. d. m ust be part of the operation and maintenance manual and posted as a separate document. 3. P er FAC 62-610, Part II Slow-Rate Land Application Systems; Restricted Public Access, reclaimed water may be applied to what areas?
a. b. c. d.
D ust control on construction sites E dible crops F ire protection P astures for feed, fodder, fiber or, seed crops
4. P er FAC 62-610, what is the minimum horizontal separation (outside to outside) that must be maintained between reclaimed water lines and either potable water mains or sewage collection lines?
a. 1 8 inches c. 6 feet
b. 3 feet d. 10 feet
a. b. c. d.
advanced water recycling. groundwater replenishment. potable reuse. source water augmentation.
6. Per 403.064 of the Florida Statutes (FS), FDEP was required to initiate rule revisions based on the Potable Reuse Commission’s 2020 report, “Advancing Potable Reuse in Florida: Framework for the Implementation of Potable Reuse in Florida,” by Dec. 31, 2020. In addition to meeting or exceeding all federal and state drinking water quality standards, new rules must require that potable reuse projects address
a. A dvanced secondary treatment and basic disinfection b. Advanced secondary treatment and high-level disinfection c. S econdary treatment and basic disinfection d. Tertiary treatment and high-level disinfection 2. P er FAC 62-610, an operating protocol is a document that describes how a domestic wastewater facility is to be operated to ensure that only reclaimed water that meets applicable standards is released to a reuse system. It is a detailed set of instructions for the operators of the facilities. The operating protocol
a. b. c. d.
contaminants of emerging concern. Covid-19 testing and monitoring. dechlorination needs. enhanced lead and copper requirements.
7. Per FAC 62-610, for rapid-rate land application systems, what is the maximum nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration in the applied reclaimed water?
a. b. c. d.
3 mg/L 10 mg/L 12 mg/L 15 mg/L
8. Per FAC 62-610, indirect potable reuse involves the planned use of reclaimed water to augment what type of water resources used for public water supply?
a. b. c. d.
Groundwater Groundwater and surface waters Surface waters Wetlands only
9. P er FDEP’s Reuse Feasibility website, rules, and laws that require preparation of reuse feasibility studies include the Indian River Lagoon and Basin Act, the antidegradation policy for new and expanded surface water discharges, rules of the applicable water management district, and Section 403.064 for domestic wastewater facilities serving a population or discharging within
a. b. c. d.
a pproved mixing zones. aquifer protection areas (APAs). basin management action plan zones (BMAPs). water resource caution areas (WRCAs).
10. F AC 62-610, FDEP encourages implementation of reuse of reclaimed water programs. Since demand for reclaimed waters normally declines during wet weather periods, and stream flows increase, FDEP allows permitting for
a. b. c. d.
additional temporary reclaimed water storage. a limited wet weather discharge. temporary alternate reclaimed water usage. temporarily reducing reclaimed water quality. Answers on page 70
References used for this quiz: • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-610 Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter=62-610 • Florida Department of Environmental Protection One Water Florida website: https://floridadep.gov/southwest/sw-permitting/ campaign/one-water-florida • Florida Department of Environmental Protection Reuse Feasibility website: https://floridadep.gov/water/domestic-wastewater/ content/reuse-feasibility • Recycled Water: The Facts available from FDEP’s One Water Florida website: https://floridadep.gov/southwest/sw-permitting/ campaign/one-water-florida • Florida Statutes 403.064: https://m.flsenate.gov/statutes/403.064
Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: email@example.com
32 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association
FWPCOA STATE SHORT SCHOOL August 9 - 13, 2021
Indian River State College - Main Campus – FORT PIERCE –
Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester ..........................$375/$405
Stormwater Management C, B & A...............................$325/$325
Backflow Prevention Assembly Repairer ......................$275/$305
Utility Customer Relations I, II & III................................$325/$325 Utilities Maintenance III & II ..........................................$325/$325
Backflow Tester Recertification ......................................$85/$115 Wastewater Collection System Operator C, B & A ......$325/$325 Basic Electrical and Instrumentation ............................$225/$255 Water Distribution System Operator Level 3, 2 & 1............$325/$325 Facility Management Module I......................................$275/$305 Wastewater Process Control ........................................$225/$255 Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B & A ........................$325/$325 (Abbreviated Course) ................................................$125/$155
Wastewater Troubleshooting ........................................$225/$255
For further information on the school, including course registration forms and hotels, visit: http://www.fwpcoa.org
SCHEDULE CHECK-IN: August 9, 2021 8:00 a.m. CLASSES: Monday – Thursday........8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Friday........8:00 a.m. to noon
FREE AWARDS LUNCHEON Wednesday, August 11, 11:30 a.m.
For more information call the
FWPCOA Training Office 321-383-9690 Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
FWEA C H A P TE R CO R N E R Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water EnvironmentvAssociation hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Melody Gonzalez at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Central Florida Chapter: Creating an Inspired Virtual Program The chapter bravely stepped into unchartered waters to bring great value to members despite uncertain times
Megan L. Nelson
hile a cloud of uncertainty and challenge drifted through our communities and the world starting in March 2020, a quiet sense of calm started to take hold as we softly began to embrace the unknown. Every day was a new challenge. Amazingly, with the right mix of inspiration, motivation, and determination, the Central Florida Chapter (CFC) leadership team was able to successfully produce a full year of successful events and provide great value to our local members. I found that the relationships we had built were the real foundations of our success. We discovered new ways to connect as a chapter and within our leadership team. Through virtual meetings, more one-on-one phone calls, and frequent communication we collectively built confidence and discovered new ideas together. We challenged ourselves to keep going, even though we had few models for what virtual events could look like. I was so honored to be cochair, alongside Jennifer Ribotti, as a part of this rock-star team. We not only continued to create, but we thrived in delivering a high-quality program to our central Florida community.
Program Successes This year we achieved so many amazing things, including: S Led the state in launching the first virtual technical seminar for FWEA.
S S S
We presented a valuable discussion with community leaders on what our utility community was experiencing in the pandemic landscape. This event served as a model for future successful virtual events. Held several creative, well-attended, engaging virtual social events. Raised awareness of Toys for Tots in our community and contributed over $200 to the program. Engaged and trained a record number of central Florida members (seven) through FWEA’s Leadership Development Workshop. Maintained solid business partnerships and established new partnerships with our community sponsors. Contributed $4,000 each to the Norm Casey Scholarship (FWEA) and the Gabe Delneky Scholarship (University of Central Florida). Contributed year-end net revenue to our general fund, effectively offsetting some negative financial effects from two years of Florida Water Resources Conference cancellations. Confirmed another amazing team of volunteer leaders for our upcoming 2021-22 program year! Look out year—here we come!
Megan L. Nelson, E.I., is with Orange County Utilities in Orlando and is the incoming FWEA Central Florida Chapter chair for the 2021-22 program year. S
34 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Local Chapter Leadership Awards The CFC would like to thank these outstanding individuals for their great contributions during the 2020-21 program year. • The Golden Toilet Award Jennifer Ribotti and Megan Nelson - For the leaders suited to the fanciest thrones! • The Duct Tape Award Tucker Hunter - Things go wrong from time to time. Lucky for us, Tucker always has a fix for what’s gone wrong. Creative solutions, rapid action, and remedying any situation are his claims to fame. • Mission Impossible Award Meera Joshi - For making the impossible possible. Mission accomplished! • On-The-Spot Award Ashley Backert - For showing up in a big way! When we needed help, she was there, always smiling and full of ideas! • The “You Rock!” Award Marina Toro, Kirsten Burns, Mike Demko - For exemplary support and teamwork, and for totally rocking their contributions! • Eternal Service Award Kristi Fries - For her long-standing dedication to CFC. Through the years, she’s shown up and served, creating a foundation for us to rely on! • Laugh Master Award Alex Solanilla - For keeping the uproarious laughter rolling for all! • Biggest Heart Award Sydney Collins - For inspiring us to contribute more and for dedicating her time. • Cheers Award Nicole McConnell - To the one most likely to bring the whole office to our next event! Thank you for sharing your passion for CFC with everyone you know!
The Roy Likins Scholarship Fund
The FSAWWA Fall Conference brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, and students. Register and learn from the industry’s best through technical session, workshops, and exhibits. Network with water industry professionals. Over 160 exhibitors will give you first-hand information on the latest developments to help your utility take actions to implement Florida’s future.
Exhibitor Registration: Registration opens June 1, 2021 www.fsawwa.org/2021exhibits
• Potable Reuse • Alternative Water Supply Options • Utility Finances in Challenging Times • Strategies to Communicate Your Message in the Changed World
• Increasing Optimization of Utility
Attendee Registration: Starts August 2, 2021 fsawwa.org/2021fallconference
For more information: fsawwa.org/2021fallconference
Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2021hotel
Host hotel is Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress CHEER for Meter Madness!
Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!
Let loose at the RODEO!
Join the Tapping FUN!
Systems (Pipes, SCADA, Sewer Systems) Asset Management PFAS, PFOS, Lead and Copper, and Other Regulatory Strategies What’s New with Covid-19? And How Does it Affect our Workplace? The New Workplace Normal – Zoom, Remote, Home and Office Challenges for Utilities Water Conservation
• BBQ Challenge &
Incoming Chair’s Reception
• Operator Events:
E W O RM
Meter Madness Backhoe Rodeo Hydrant Hysteria Tapping Competition
• Young Professionals Events:
Luncheon Water Bowl Fresh Ideas Poster Session
• Water for People’s Fundraising Events: Exhibitor’s Raffle Fundraiser
Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.
Poker Tournament Monday, November 29, 2021 Starts at 9:00 pm Golf Tournament Thursday, December 2, 2021 8:00 am Shotgun start
Exhibit Schedule Monday, November 29 Set-up: 7:00am - 3:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm
Tuesday, November 30
Accepting Exhibitor Registrations on or after June 1, 2021
Hall Open: 8:00 - 11:30am | 1:30 - 6:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm
Wednesday, December 1 Hall Open: 8:00am - 12:00pm Tear Down: 1:00 - 6:00pm
Standard Booth @ $800 Includes:
• 8-foot X 10-foot booth space • One (1) six-foot draped table • Backdrop • Side drapery • Two (2) chairs
Exhibit booth spaces can include heavy equipment, workshops, portable equipment and showrooms. Flammable materials are prohibited. No modifications will be made to the backdrops or sidewalls without approval from the Exhibits Chair.
Online Registration is strongly recommended to help adhere to social distancing guidelines. Online Exhibitor registration at:
Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2021hotel
15% discount on 8’x10’ booth
Platinum | $850
15% discount on 8’x10’ booth
Gold | $600
10% discount on 8’x10’ booth
Silver | $400
E W O RM
Premier | $1500
Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.
For additional info on sponsorship levels and benefits, visit:
Please Note: All promotional activity other than product demonstrations must be approved by FSAWWA prior to the conference.
Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.
The Roy Likins Scholarship Fund
Poker Night & Happy Hour
Monday, November 29, 2021 9:00 pm to midnight Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress
Thursday, December 2, 2021 8:00 am Shotgun start Grand Cypress Golf Club
Registration will open August 2
fsawwa.org/2021poker It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Terry Gullet at email@example.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.
Buy-ins Blackjack Buy in | $20.00 (2000 in chips) Poker Buy In | $40.00 (5000 in chips)
Opportunities to Sponsor Straight | $50
• One of four at a game table sponsors • Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor board at the registration table
Full House | $150
• • •
One of two at a game table sponsors Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor board at the registration table 2 Blackjack or 2 Poker Buy-ins
Royal Flush | $250
• • •
Sole game table sponsor Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor board 4 Poker Buy Ins or 5 Blackjack Buy-ins
15% discount for bundled Eagle Golf and Royal Flush Poker Sponsorships: $765 Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.
Registration will open August 2
It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Chase Freeman at Cfreeman@spiritgroupinc.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.
Opportunities to Sponsor Eagle Sponsor | $650
• Your company’s name prominently displayed on • • •
a special sponsor banner on the beverage cart. Your company’s name prominently displayed at one of the tournament course tees or holes. One foursome in the tournament. Recognition at the awards ceremony.
Birdie Sponsor | $550
• Your company’s name prominently displayed • •
at one of the tournament course tees or holes. One foursome in the tournament. Recognition at the awards ceremony.
Par Sponsor | $200
• Recognized with signage. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. Lunch Sponsor | $250
• Recognized with signage. • Recognition at the awards ceremony.
Divisions based on the Number of Water Services
2021 Water Distribution System Awards
Division 1 = 1 - 5,999 Division 2 = 6,000 - 12,999 Division 3 = 13,000 - 19,999
The FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards are presented to utilities whose outstanding performance during the preceding year deserves special recognition by the section.
Division 4 = 20,000 - 29,999
The Award Criteria is based upon the following:
Division 7 = 70,000 - 129,999
Water Quality Operational Records Maintenance Professionalism Safety Emergency Prepardness Cross Connection Control Program Must be an AWWA member (Organizational or Individual) Actively supports the activities of the FSAWWA Demonstrates high standards and integrity The selection committee is under the Manufacturers/Associates Council.
Division 8 = 130,000+
• • •
Division 6 = 46,000 - 69,999
Send applications to: Mike George 10482 Dunkirk Road Spring Hill, FL 34608 firstname.lastname@example.org
2020 Winners: Division 1: Division 2: Division 3: Division 4: Division 5: Division 6: Division 7: Division 8:
Division 5 = 30,000 - 45,999
Ozello Water Association, Inc. Destin Water Users, Inc. City of Tamarac Village of Wellington Not Awarded Charlotte County Utilities Not Awarded Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department
Friday, October 22, 2021 Download the application form:
E W Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.
Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.
Join the Competition
Tuesday & Wednesday November 30 - December 1, 2021
Let loose at the RODEO!
fsawwa.org/2021fallconference FSAWWA hosts fun and lively competitions between municipalities to find the most skilled person or team in the Meter Madness, Tapping, and Back Hoe Rodeo contests. Please join us as a spectator or visit our website to download the application to complete. Join the Tapping FUN!
Back Hoe Rodeo: Tuesday | 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Backhoe operators show off their expertise by executing several challenging lifts and drops of various objects in the fastest time.
Tapping Contests: Tuesday | 11:00 am - 2:30 pm
In a contest of skill and dexterity as well as speed, teams of four compete for the fastest time while they perform a quality drill and tap of pipe under available pressure. Penalties are assessed in seconds for infractions of rules such as leaking connections or safety violations. Only two taps are allowed per team.
CHEER for Meter Madness!
Ductile Iron Tap: 11:00 am - 12:00 pm Fun Tap: 1:00 - 2:30 pm
Meter Madness: Tuesday | 4:00 - 5:00 pm
Contestants are challenged to put together a completely disassembled meter against the clock. To make the contest more interesting, three to six miscellaneous parts are included in the bucket of meter components. Once the meter is assembled, it must operate correctly and not leak.
Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!
Hydrant Hysteria: Wednesday | 9:00 - 11:00 am
Hydrant Hysteria is a fast paced two person competition as to who can assembly a fire hydrant quickly, totally, and accurately. Two or more teams go head to head while assembling the hydrant. All parts will be assembled in proper manner and reassembled hydrant shall be tested by the judges for ability to operate correctly.
Sponsorship Opportunities Please Contact: Mike George email@example.com (352) 200-9631
Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on 2021 November 28 to December 2, 2021.
Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.
Resiliency Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE President, FWEA
n my last column it was noted that America’s water infrastructure is failing. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) created an Infrastructure Report Card to assign grades for infrastructure in the United States based on condition, safety, capacity, and other factors. The most recent report card assigned drinking water and wastewater infrastructure a C- and D+, respectively. Water infrastructure is fundamental to our nation’s economic health and competitiveness. By keeping water infrastructure in a state of good repair, we strengthen our economy. Local, state, and federal action to increase investment in our water infrastructure today will lead to a resilient, efficient, and reliable water future and protect the public health of generations to come. This leads me to the topic for this month’s column—resiliency.
Focus on Climate Change According to Merriam-Webster, resiliency is defined as “an ability to recover from or adjust easily to adversity or change.” To be sustainable, utility infrastructure needs to be resilient to manage acute and chronic disruptions to service. Natural and anthropogenic challenges include floods, earthquakes, droughts, sea level rise, climate change, an increasing customer base, energy challenges, a changing workforce, aging infrastructure, and yes, even pandemics. To some extent, the focus of resiliency
has been on climate change, and especially the impacts from extreme storms. The summary table shows anticipated climate conditions, observed and projected trends, and potential relevance to utilities.
Recent Legislation and Regulatory Requirements The Florida 2020 legislative session was significant in introducing legislation to increase the resilience of utility infrastructure. In a year when domestic wastewater collection and treatment were focal points for both Gov. Ron DeSantis and the Florida Legislature, Senate Bill 712 (Clean Waterways Act) was passed unanimously by the legislature. The bill addresses water quality impacts across the stormwater, agricultural, and domestic wastewater sectors and includes a requirement for sanitary sewage facilities to implement asset management plans and electric power outage mitigation plans that will limit sanitary sewer overflows (SSO). The bill also directed the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) to consider the implementation of such plans to mitigate penalties that would otherwise apply due to SSO. The FDEP has developed draft rules for implementation of SB 712 and plans to seek ratification of rules in the 2022 legislative session. The FWEA Utility Council has been actively engaged in working with FDEP to develop a rule that is effective in meeting the intended goals, provides flexibility to accommodate the differing circumstances of each utility and allow innovation, and is practical to implement and comply with. The council’s concerns on early drafts of the rule have been addressed. The FDEP is expected to publish the revised proposed rule within the next two months.
40 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Asset Management Framework To a further extent, having resilient utility infrastructure is good management. While compliance with SB 712 will help utilities become more resilient, there is more that can be done. Major tenets of resilience are system reliability and sustainability. Creating a system, which eliminates single points of failure and incorporates reliable components that provide consistent performance over a range of operating conditions, is critical. Resilient utilities also provide robust, flexible design that can be adapted to emergencies. Using an integrated asset management approach helps to achieve these objectives. Asset management and asset management condition assessment are important management strategies that utilities can use to make their systems more resilient. This is important as it permits a utility to shift from a reactive mode to a proactive approach in making decisions based on transparent understanding of cost of service, levels of service, and acceptable risk. An asset management decision-making framework results in identifying a utility’s needs and the right solutions to address those needs. Asset management is about determining the mix of management investment in maintenance, operations, and capital that sustains organizational performance over a long-term horizon, while minimizing life cycle costs. It is also about building confidence in decision making by guiding investment in the right work, on the right projects, at the right time. The benefit to a utility of using asset management in a decision-making framework as the basis for infrastructure improvements includes: S Increased confidence in identification of needs and recommended solutions. S Using a common asset management framework will allow a utility to compare and prioritize assets from different systems and classes (e.g., water versus wastewater). S The weakest links in the existing system and greatest risks will be identified using data and analytics that are based on a transparent asset management framework. S Maintenance will be optimized by understanding asset criticality to identify the right kind of maintenance practices and S resource requirements.
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Disinfection: Part One Kenneth Enlow
reetings everyone. Here we are at midyear already. July brings hot weather, resulting in warmer water. This is the time of year when we face some of our most difficult disinfection challenges. For July’s C Factor I am starting a two-part series on disinfection. This month’s column will take a look at the history and methods of disinfection.
would limit the spread of infection. From this erroneous belief, the disinfection of both water and sanitary wastes evolved. Rational of Disinfection Water disinfection involves specialized treatment for the destruction of harmful and otherwise objectionable organisms, primarily disease-producing (pathogenic) organisms and particularly bacteria of intestinal origin.
The History of Disinfection
Efficiency of Disinfection The major factors influencing the efficiency of disinfection are as follows: S Kind and concentration of organisms to be destroyed S Kind and concentration of disinfectant S Contact time provided S Chemical character and temperature of the water to be treated
The Origin of Disinfection The disinfection of water probably has been practiced for millennia, but obviously with little or no understanding at first of the principals involved in its improvement of water quality. Records show that the boiling of water was practiced as early as 500 B.C. Until the germ theory of disease was established in the mid-1880s, odors were believed to be the transmitter of diseases. It was commonly believed that the control of odor
The resistiveness of the same and different kinds of organisms to a specific disinfectant varies considerably. Nonspore-forming bacteria are less resistant than spore-forming types. Cysts and viruses are sometimes quite resistant and may require treatment in degree or kind different than that for less-resistive organisms. Organisms within the same species can have varying degrees of resistance. The concentration of organisms in high numbers can cause clumping that forms a barrier against disinfection processes.
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It’s very important to note that the kill of a species of organisms by a particular disinfectant, other factors being constant (pH, temperature, etc.), is proportional to the concentration of the disinfectant and the reaction time. Means of Disinfection There are several means of accomplishing disinfection, excluding the water treatment process, that result in the partial removal of potentially infective and objectionable organisms, such as sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, etc. They are: Physical treatment - such as the application of heat or other physical agents. Irradiation - such as by ultraviolet light. Metal ions - such as copper and silver. Alkalis and acids - such as contact with alkaline or acid waters related with pH adjustment and corrosion control, lime softening, etc. Surface-active chemicals - such as quaternary ammonium compounds (any of a group of compounds in which organic radicals replace hydrogen atoms of the ammonia radical used as solvents, antiseptics, and emulsifying agents). Oxidants - such as halogens, ozone, and other inorganic or organic material. The criteria for determining the suitability of various potential water disinfectants are: S The ability of the disinfectant to destroy
the kind and number of organisms present within the contact time available and given the physical characteristics of the water. The availability of the disinfectant at a reasonable cost and in a form conveniently, safely, and accurately applied. Ability of the disinfectant, in the concentrations employed, to accomplish the results desired without rendering the water toxic or aesthetically objectionable. Ability of the disinfectant to persist in residual concentration to prevent recontamination. Adaptability of a practical, duplicatable, quick, and accurate assay technique for determining disinfectant concentration for operating control of the process and for measuring the efficiency of the disinfectant.
Methods of Disinfection Heat and Other Physical Agents The important waterborne diseases are not known to be caused by spore-forming bacteria or other heat-resistant organisms; therefore, water can be disinfected by subjecting it to heat. Subjecting water to boiling temperatures for about 15 to 20 minutes will render it potable. This is why health departments will issue an emergency “boil water” order when a water system has been compromised due to a lowpressure condition or loss of chlorine residual. Boiling water as a disinfection method is impractical on a routine or large-scale basis. The physical and biological effects of ultrasonic frequency waves have been a subject of laboratory investigations since 1926. The United States demonstrated in 1951 the lethal effects of ultrasonic energy at 400kc/sec on aqueous suspensions of E. coli at 98°F, resulting in complete sterility after an exposure of 60 minutes. Estimation of the operating costs of this method is approximately $15,000 to sterilize one million gallons, making it uneconomical and impractical for application to domestic water treatment. Irradiation The ultraviolet (UV) method of disinfection involves exposure of a film of water to one or several quartz mercury-vapor arc lamps emitting germicidal UV radiation at a wavelength in the range of 200 to 295 nm. Contemporary UV units can operate on standard 110 volts alternating current power. The earliest known positive mention of the successful application of UV for water disinfection was 1877, and again in 1909 to 1910 in Marseilles, France. The first use in the U.S. of UV for water treatment was in Henderson, Ky., in 1916.
Between 1916 and 1928 three other U.S. municipal installations were made, but by 1939 they all had been abandoned primarily due to the greater cost of operation and maintenance compared with other disinfection processes. The UV treatment is still used with success, but as in the past, where it was limited to small systems, larger-system applications are being developed. Its use is more common in Europe, especially in France where it was first developed. Metal Ions It has been known for many centuries that copper is slightly bactericidal and strongly algacidal. Other metals, such as mercury and silver, are also effective in minute concentrations. The name “oligodynamic” has been given to the sterilization action of minute quantities of metals. As early as 1869 the properties of silver were studied for their ability to kill organisms. The common use of silver for surgical instruments and for the impregnation of bandages and ointments, and the use of silver nitrate, argyrol, and other forms of colloidal silver suspensions for the treatment of various body infections, are well established. In England in 1932, a paper was published on the use of silver for water disinfection. Later papers were published between 1934 and 1936 in the U.S. The English paper dealt with laboratory experiments with silver-coated sand. The U.S. experiments dealt with filters containing metallic silver, with solutions of silver salt, and with electrocatynization, whereby finely divided silver was produced by an electrolytic system. Concentrations of silver are of a low magnitude, but contact times are long. There is a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.1 mg/l for silver, so doses are limited. It was observed by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1962 that, because of its relative expense, adsorption and bacteriostasis characteristics, long reaction time, and other factors, silver is not a very useful disinfectant in large applications. Silver is used very little in others countries; in Austria and Belgium, silver has been used in isolated incidents at private water supply installations. In France it’s said to be limited to the food and carbonated beverage industry. Alkalis and Acids Pathogenic bacteria normally do not survive long in strongly alkaline or acidic waters. Though of very limited direct interest as disinfectants, the application of certain material for pH and corrosion control, lime softening, etc., can affect a partial reduction of some microorganisms in water, especially where long contact periods are available.
Surface-Active Chemical Cationic detergents are highly germicidal, but anionic detergents are a weak germicide. Neutral detergents occupy an intermediate position as a germicide. Quaternary ammonia compounds (QAC), known since 1916, include a wide range of cationic detergents that readily ionize in water. They work best in waters with a pH of 7 to 9. Their mode of action as disinfectants is considered different from that of gaseous chlorine. They have a limited use in the lack of quantitative chemical tests of residual that can be interpreted in terms of germicidal effect. The treatment cost is about 70 times greater than chlorine at dosage concentrations of 1 mg/l. The QAC has not been seriously considered for use in potable water disinfection due to the reasons mentioned previously, possible toxic effects, and the objectionable tastes they impart. The attitude of current public health services in the U.S. is that it’s unlikely that they will be acceptable in drinking water. Chemical Oxidants Of these materials, the halogens, such as bromine, iodine, ozone, and chlorine, are the most widely used. Bromine Bromine is a dark, reddish-brown halogen that exists as a liquid at atmospheric pressure. It’s a good germicidal agent, and effective tests exist to determine residual concentrations. As in the case with chlorine, bromine combines with ammonia to form amino compounds and a similar breakpoint phenomenon has been demonstrated. Bromine and monobromamine have been reported nearly equal in bactericidal properties and essentially equal to free chlorine on a parts-per-million basis at comparable pH. There are no known applications of bromine in potable water systems. Application appears to be limited to swimming pools and industrial waters. Iodine Iodine was introduced in water treatment in the early 1920s when it was suggested that small amounts added to water at infrequent intervals would prevent goiter. In 1923 the cities of Rochester, N.Y., and Sault Saint Marie, Mich., began adding iodine to the public water system. This practice was followed only briefly in Sault Saint Marie, but Rochester added iodine for 10 years. Iodization was also practiced in England from 1924 to 1925. With the practice of adding iodine to table salt, iodization of water died out. The use of iodine tincture for rapid sterilization of drinking Continued on page 44
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Continued from page 43 water was suggested by Vernoux in 1915. Further experiments of the application of iodine from 1917 and 1918 proved it destroyed diseaseproducing bacteria in water. In 1922 the U.S. Public Health Service recommended the use of tincture of iodine for emergency disinfection of drinking water supplies. In 1941 research was conducted in the development of a method of disinfecting canteen water supplies, which would destroy amoebic cysts, as well as enteric pathogenic bacteria. By 1945 a stable tablet preparation, Globaline, had been developed and was demonstrated effective for destruction of enteric bacteria and amoebic cysts using one or two tablets per quart of water with a contact period of 10 minutes. Iodine has been found to be useful as a swimming pool disinfectant, but has not been used for large potable water systems. Ozone Ozone is generated by passing air through an electrical charge, creating the ozone molecule (O3). Because of its instability and other characteristics, it’s generated onsite. Discovered in 1783 by the Dutch scientist Van Marum, it was dubbed “ozone” in 1840 by Schonbein (from the Greek word meaning smell), who is said to have experimented with it for water treatment in Metz, Germany. A full-scale plant was built at Wiesbaden and Paderborn in 1896 for the purpose of disinfecting water. Other investigations took place in Holland and France. The results of treatment at Oudshoorn, Holland, indicated the effectiveness of ozone against all spores, and pathogenic and saprophytic bacteria. This led to the adoption of ozone treatment at plants in Paris, Lille, and Nice, France, in 1898 to 1904. By 1933 the Paris installation was treating about 90 million gallons per day (mgd) of water by ozone. In the U.S. the development of ozone, beginning in 1909, was primarily for the control of taste, odor, and color. Ozone is still employed in the U.S. as a treatment for these three, as well as a primary disinfectant. Most states require the addition of postchlorination in order to maintain a residual in the distribution system. Chlorination Chlorination is the most-common method of water disinfection. Chlorine is a chemical oxidant. It was discovered in 1774 by a Swedish chemist, Karl Wilhelm Scheele, as a product of the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCI) and manganese dioxide. The gas was first liquefied in 1805 to 1806 by Thomas Northmore and was first identified as an element by Sir Humphry Davy, who named if from the Greek word cloros (meaning green) because of its characteristic
color. History records its use as a disinfectant around 1800 by De Morveau in France and by Cruikshank in England. When chlorine was first used specifically to improve water quality is not clear, but the earliest applications were for its deodorizing capacity rather that its disinfecting capacity. Bleach solutions (probably sodium hypochlorite) were being used by 1850 to treat well water, but again, apparently without definite knowledge of its capacity to destroy microorganisms. In 1854, chlorinated lime was being used to deodorize London’s sewers and was used in most of England to treat body wastes from typhoid patients before disposal to the sewers in 1879. The earliest recorded use of chlorine directly for water disinfection in the U.S. was in January 1896 when W.M. Jewell utilized electrolytically produced chlorine gas for a week or two in conjunction with a filter study by G.W. Fuller in Louisville, Ky. The first continuous treatment process utilizing chlorination for water disinfection was in Middlekereke, Belgium, in 1902. In 1903 studies of the destruction of pathogens by chlorine compounds were described by Lt. Nesfield of the British Indian Army Medical Service, who also suggested their application to prevent waterborne-disease transmission among military personnel. This study suggested compressing chlorine gas in lead-lined iron cylinders. The second continuous treatment process utilizing chlorination was in England at the filter plant in Lincoln. A sodium hypochlorite solution was added in an effort to combat an epidemic of typhoid. In North America the first continuous application of a chlorinated compound for water disinfection was in 1908 where sodium hypochlorite was utilized to disinfect the 40mgd Boonton reservoir supply for the Jersey City (N.J.) Water Works. During the infancy of water chlorination, the only commercial sources of chlorine were chlorinated lime and sodium hypochlorite bleach solutions, but in 1909, liquid chlorine became commercially available in steel containers. In 1910, Maj. C.R. Darnell of the U.S. Army Medical Corps experimentally employed chlorine gas for water disinfection in Fort Myer, Va., using a dry gas chlorine feeder of his own design, which was later patented. The first full-scale use of liquid chlorine for water disinfection was employed at Niagara Falls, N.Y., to put down a typhoid outbreak in 1912. In 1913 improved equipment invented by C.F. Wallace and M.F. Tiernan to measure chlorine gas was used in Boonton, N.J., replacing the use of sodium hypochlorite. The evolution of water chlorination processes began with simple chlorination of
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filter effluent, or in some cases, it was the only treatment provided. In 1914, prechlorination was introduced prior to filtration as an aid to coagulation. Chlorine and Ammonia This combined treatment was first recognized during the chlorination of sewage. It was noted that the bactericidal action continued even after all the free chlorine or hypochlorite had disappeared. Sir Alexander Houston also recognized the superior advantages of chloramine in some instances and suggested the application of ammonia prior to chlorine to avoid tastes resulting from reactions of chlorine with organic material. In the U.S. the use of chloramines had been successfully adopted in Denver in 1916. Chlorine-ammonia treatment later lost its popularity, largely due to the advent and development of “free residual chlorination” processes and the realization of the superior bactericidal efficiency of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Today chloramination is employed as a postammonization process to provide a longlasting chloramine residual in potable water distribution systems. This also helps aid in the reduction of trihalomethane formation and other disinfectant byproducts in the distribution system. The practice of superchlorination and dechlorination for the elimination of odors through oxidation was reported as early as 1912, and again in 1916. Sir Alexander Houston was the one who proposed the terms “superchlorination” and “dechlorination” in 1925, demonstrating that, the more chlorine that’s added, the more certain is the absence of taste after dechlorination. The “breakpoint” chlorination concept began to emerge in 1939 when it was reported that some waters exhibit a break in the chlorine residual curve if a sufficient amount of chlorine is applied to the water and the contact time is adequate. Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide was experimented with for water disinfection as early as 1900. At about the time that breakpoint chlorination was introduced, sodium chlorite was commercially developed as a bleaching agent. This compound, which is soluble in water, readily reacts with chlorine to produce an aqueous solution of chlorine dioxide. It was adopted on a full-scale basis in Niagara Falls in 1944 for control of phenolic tastes and odors. Chlorine dioxide has the ability to disinfect water without the formation of trihalomethanes. Chlorine disinfection was finally established on a scientific basis in the period from 1917 to
1919 when the suitability and reliability of the orthotolidine test was demonstrated. It was recommended that water systems vary the dose of chlorine to maintain some residual chlorine after treatment. Minimum Bactericidal Residuals These residuals were investigated from 1944 to 1948 by the Public Health Service. Data were examined from experiments at temperatures from 68 to 77°F, using 10 minutes of exposure to free available chlorine and 60 minutes exposure for combined available chlorine. With free chlorine residual at a pH of 6 to 8, a safe residual for complete destruction of bacteria after 10 minutes contact time would be not less than 0.2 mg/l (This should be familiar to all of you as the minimum free residual allowed in your distribution system under today’s disinfection regulations). As the pH increases the minimum residual must also increase. For combined residual chlorine at a pH of 6 to 7 a safe residual after 60 minutes contact time would be not less than 1 mg/l. The minimum required residual must be increased with the increase of pH in this case as well. Additional studies in 1965 examined data based on a 30-minute contact time. The results confirmed a free residual of 0.2 mg/l as being adequate up to a pH of 9.2. This study indicated that higher residuals for combined chlorine would be required. A pH of below 6.8 would require a minimum combined residual of 2 mg/l and as much as 3 mg/l at a pH of 10. Principles of Water Chlorination Disinfection is the principle and mostcommon objective of chlorination. Chlorine also acts as an oxidizer to modify the chemical characteristics of water. Oxidation-Reduction Potentials Chlorine is a strong oxidizer and can be dissipated in reactions with various inorganic and organic materials in water before significant disinfection is accomplished. The oxidation-reduction (redox) potential can be considered a measure of the tendency chlorine has to react with other materials. As a general rule, chlorine reacts with fewer materials as the pH increases, and with those materials with which it reacts, the reaction rate increases with increasing temperature, although the redox potential is not a measure of the rate at which chlorine compounds react. The oxidation reactions of chlorine with inorganic-reducing substances, such as sulfides, sulfites, ferrous iron, and nitrites, are generally very rapid. Some dissolved organic materials also react with chlorine rapidly, but most
reactions with organics take hours. The redox potential for various chlorine compounds varies, but in all cases, has a positive net charge. Reactions With Water When chlorine is added to water it’s a mixture of HOCl and HCl. At ordinary water temperatures this reaction is essentially completed in a few seconds. The oxidation property of the chlorine, as well as the disinfection capacity, is contained in the HOCl formed in the reaction. The pH of chlorinated water supplies is normally within the range where chlorine may exist, both as HOCI and hypochlorite ion. Chlorine existing in water as HOCI and hypochlorite ions is defined as free available chlorine. Chlorine-Ammonia Reactions These reactions are of great significance in the water chlorination processes, especially disinfection. When chlorine is added to water containing natural ammonia, or added ammonia, the ammonia reacts with the HOCl to form various chloramines which, like HOCl, retain the oxidation power of the chlorine. These reactions form monochloramine and dichloramine, depending on the pH, temperature, time, and initial ratio of chlorine to ammonia. Common ratios are a 3:1 to 5:1 relationship of chlorine to ammonia. Chlorine existing in water in chemical combination with ammonia or organic nitrogen compounds is defined as combined available chlorine. Chlorine Demand Chlorine demand is defined as the difference between the amount of chlorine applied to water and the amount of free, combined, or total available chlorine remaining at the end of
the specified contact period. The portion of the remaining available chlorine is the residual. Free Chlorine Residual (Breakpoint Chlorination) When chlorine is added to water the characteristics of the water will determine the formation of free chlorine residual. When chlorine is first added to water the inorganic compounds act as reducing agents to consume the chlorine. As more chlorine is added the chlorine begins to react with the ammonia and organic matter to form chloramines and chlororganic compounds. This is the combined chlorine residual. Adding more chlorine to the water actually decreases the combined residual as the chlorine oxidizes some of the chlororganic compounds and ammonia. The additional chlorine also changes some of the monochloramines to dichloramine and trichloramine. As additional chlorine is added, the amount of chloramine reaches a minimum value. Beyond this point further addition of chlorine produces free chlorine residual. Points of Application When chlorination was first employed for disinfection, terminal treatment of the purification plant effluent was almost always employed. Now chlorine is used at various stages of water treatment, as well as in the distribution system. Plain or Simple Chlorination This involves the application of chlorine to water that receives no other treatment. More than half of the water systems in the U.S. use this type of chlorination process. Prechlorination This involves the application of chlorine to Continued on page 46
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Continued from page 45 water prior to any other treatment process. This process aids in the treatment of water by oxidizing inorganic and some organic compounds prior to coagulation/flocculation treatment or filtration. Also, the primary disinfection takes place in the prechlorination process. Postchlorination This involves the addition of chlorine to the water after the treatment process, usually after filtration. Chlorine is added in quantities sufficient to maintain chlorine residuals in the distribution system. Rechlorination This involves adding chlorine to water after previous chlorine treatment. It’s usually done at distribution pumping stations, elevated storage tanks, and in some cases, where large distribution systems need chlorine residuals boosted due to long retention times. Dechlorination This is the partial or complete reduction of residual chlorine in water by any chemical or physical treatment. Sometimes high levels
of chlorine are required to complete the desired treatment results; when this happens, it’s necessary to reduce the chlorine residual before the water can be sent to the distribution system. Sometimes the chlorine residual must be completely eliminated or reduced substantially if storage tanks are to be drained to natural estuaries. A common compound use for dechlorination is the use of sulfur dioxide. Activated carbon is very effective for the purpose of dechlorination. Aeration is another method that has been employed. Sodium thiosulfate is the common compound for dechlorination of water samples for bacteriological analysis. I hope you find this information on the history and methods of disinfection interesting and informative. Next month’s C Factor will take a look at the practical application of disinfection in the operation and maintenance of our potable water systems.
FWPCOA Training Update The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor, please contact the training office at 321-383-9690.
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46 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
In the meantime, and as always, our Online Training Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at onlinetraining@ fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at email@example.com. Fall Short School I want to remind everyone that we will be holding the FWPCOA Fall Short School at the Indian River State College in Ft. Pierce from August 9 through 13. If you have not already registered for your classes now is the time to do it. Some classes will fill up quickly. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work! S
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Backflow Prevention Recertification Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.
CPR and AEDs Can Save Lives
udden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the unforeseen and unexpected loss of heart function, breathing, and consciousness. An SCA occurs when the heart’s electrical function—its ventricular fibrillation—is interrupted and stops the heart from pumping blood. It can also occur with a heart attack, which occurs when blood flow to a portion
of the heart is blocked. Either way, without medical attention, the victim will die. Of the nearly 300,000 people in the United States who suffer an out-of-hospital SCA, 92 percent die, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What survivors have in common are early intervention with cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) and an automatic external defibrillator (AED), followed by rapid delivery of appropriate care—usually a trip to the emergency room. An SCA can be caused by: S H eart attack and other cardiac conditions S E lectrocution S A sphyxiation (loss of consciousness and death caused by inadequate oxygen in the work environment, such as in a confined space) S T rauma, drowning, overdose, primary respiratory arrests, anaphylactic shock, and other noncardiac conditions Many victims have no prior history of heart disease and are stricken without warning.
Remember the Four Cs When someone goes down and suddenly loses consciousness, think CCCC: Clear, Check, Call, and Compress. S Clear the area of other safety hazards. Make sure that the victim and you are safe from further harm. S Check the victim for responsiveness. Has he stopped breathing or is he gasping irregularly for air? Does he respond at all to a hard slap on the shoulder blades? S Call for help. If someone else is around, tell her to call 911 and find the nearest AED, if one is available. An AED provides an electric shock that can restore normal rhythm to a heart in ventricular fibrillation. S Compress the chest hard and fast. Push straight down on the lower sternum, using one hand on top of the other at the rate of 100 times a minute. Compressions are the most important part of CPR. Recent American Heart Association The 2020 Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the 2020 Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.
48 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
(AHA) guidelines no longer require the rescuer to provide lifesaving breaths to the victim because compressions, done properly, will keep the blood circulating throughout the victim’s body. There is enough oxygen in the blood of the victim to keep the heart, brain, and organs alive if it’s circulated through chest compressions, and time spent assessing breathing is better spent compressing. This is known as hands-only CPR. If you can provide breaths and medical help isn’t immediately available, then do the following: 1. Open the airway with a gentle head tilt and chin lift. 2. Pinch the victim’s nose closed. 3. Take a normal breath, cover the victim’s mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, and give two breaths at one-second intervals as you watch for the chest to rise.
Staff Training is Vital Staff trained in CPR and the use of an AED can save precious time and improve survival odds because they provide aid before emergency medical service personnel arrive. Basic CPR can be learned in less than a day of training, and many businesses will either sponsor their staff members to attend CPR classes or bring a professional in for the training. A person trained in CPR and AED use can determine if a victim needs to be treated with chest compressions and airway breaths, and then appropriately conduct the training procedures. Here’s a step-by-step guide for the latest CPR: 1. Slap the victim’s shoulder blades and call out to try to get the victim to respond. If the victim doesn’t respond, gently roll the person onto his or her back. 2. Send someone to phone 911 and to get the nearest AED device. 3. Start vigorous chest compressions in sets of 100; pause for no more than 10 seconds after two minutes or five cycles—or have someone else take over. Place the heel of your hand on the center of the victim’s chest. Put the other hand on top and interlace the fingers. Press down so you compress the chest at least 2 inches for an adult or a child and 1.5 inches for an infant (with an infant, use only the pressure of two or three fingers). Give compressions of approximately 100 a minute or more (about the beat of the Bee Gees song “Stayin’ Alive”). Let the chest return to its normal position between compressions.
4. C ontinue compressions until the AED or help arrives. 5. When the AED arrives, turn it on and follow the audio prompts.
You Can’t Push Too Hard! When doing CPR, some rib bones may crack or break if you are correctly compressing the heart. Ribs are repairable, but when the heart stops, the absence of oxygenated blood can cause permanent brain damage within minutes and death will occur within eight to 10 minutes. For every minute that treatment
is delayed, the survival rate drops 10 percent. The earlier CPR or AED is initiated, the greater the chances of survival. If help is provided within four minutes, chances of survival are doubled. These few minutes can be the difference between life and death The AHA recommends breaths with compressions for infants and children, victims of drowning or drug overdose, or people who collapse due to breathing problems. For more information go to the American Heart Association website at www.heart.org, or the American Red Cross at www.redcross.org.S
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Climate Cases Crest Into Florida: Reynolds v. Florida and What’s Next
ver the past ten or so years, imaginative plaintiffs have pressed “climate change cases” in federal and state courts across the United States. In these cases, plaintiffs (most commonly states, municipalities, or environmentalists) sue defendants (often
energy companies, states, or municipalities themselves) seeking damages related to climate change. While these cases have proliferated across the country, Florida saw very few in the early going. That changed in 2018, when a group of young Floridians filed the first major climate change case in Florida, suing several state officials and agencies for “unconstitutional contributions to climate change and creation and operation of a fossil fuel-based energy system.” Though Florida’s appellate courts recently affirmed dismissal of that case, Reynolds v. Florida, No. 1D20-2036 (Fla. 1st DCA), there’s likely more climate change litigation coming Florida’s way.
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50 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Climate Change Cases Generally
There are, generally speaking, four broad classes of climate change cases: S Municipalities suing companies under tort theories. S Shareholders and states suing companies under commercial litigation theories. S Environmentalists suing local, state, and federal agencies alleging constitutional violations. S Businesses suing regulators. The first three classes of cases are generally alike: plaintiffs stretching common, commercial, and constitutional law as far as they can. In the first kind of case, municipalities sue private companies, often energy companies, under state common law tort theories. For example, cities and states sometimes sue energy producers under public nuisance, trespass, negligence, failure to warn, and strict liability theories. These plaintiffs argue that, for instance, energy companies created a public nuisance (e.g., sea level rise), “failed to warn” about the effects of climate change, “defectively designed” fossil fuel products, and “trespassed” through sea level rise. The second sort of case usually involves shareholders (and sometimes state attorneys general) suing businesses under fraud and deception theories, contending that the defendants misled public and private investors about climate change risk, assessment, and mitigation. These cases commonly include state consumer protection act-based claims, like those anchored in the Florida Deceptive and Unfair Trade Practices Act (FDUTPA). Although energy companies are typical targets, these cases sometimes rope in pension funds, banks, and other financial services companies, too. In the third class of case, plaintiffs assert constitutional theories against governments and elected officials. These cases often argue that state officials are violating the plaintiffs’ “fundamental rights” including to a “stable climate” or “clean environment.” Reynolds (more on this shortly) exemplifies this bucket of cases. The last category of cases turns the tables: businesses suing regulators for denying permits or blocking business activity under the auspices of climate change mitigation.
These cases have challenged state actions under breach of contract, due process, Dormant Commerce Clause (which prevents states from unduly interfering with interstate and foreign commerce), and related theories.
Reynolds v. Florida and What Comes Next Reynolds v. Florida marks Florida’s first notable entry into the international climate change row. In Reynolds, the plaintiffs sued an array of Florida state agencies and officials, including the Governor’s Office, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and the Florida Public Service Commission, seeking, among other things, an order commanding state officials to “prepare and implement an enforceable comprehensive statewide remedial plan . . . to phase out fossil fuel use and draw down excess atmospheric CO2 . . . to stabilize the climate system.” The Reynolds plaintiffs offer two untested theories: 1) a “breach of mandatory fiduciary duty to protect Florida’s public trust resources” and 2) a violation of substantive due process under the Florida Constitution. In June 2020, a Leon County Circuit
Court judge dismissed the case with prejudice. Following several similar judicial decisions, including the Ninth Circuit’s decision dismissing a similar case (Juliana v. United States), the Court determined that the Reynolds plaintiffs presented “inherently political questions that must be resolved by the political branches of government,” dismissing the case under the political question and separation of powers doctrines. In late May 2021, the Florida First District Court of Appeal affirmed that decision, although the plaintiffs might seek Florida Supreme Court review. Reynolds is probably just the tip of Florida’s climate change case iceberg. While Reynolds might foreclose more cases like it, don’t be surprised to see some Florida cities and counties file their own tort cases against private companies in the coming years. Likewise, Florida might experience its own wave of public and private investor-driven securities and commercial litigation cases. Businesses operating and investing in Florida might make tempting targets as plaintiff ’s groups and firms search for new ocean-front litigation venues. If that comes to pass, expect businesses and municipalities to aggressively defend themselves. As Reynolds shows, there are very
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tenable defenses to these types of claims and Florida’s courts won’t hesitate to apply them. There might be private pushback, too. If Florida regulators—likely localities—block certain economic activity (like fossil fuel transport or trade), discriminatorily deny development permits (like inconsistently applying climate considerations in permitting processes), or otherwise act arbitrarily, expect the regulated community to push back. As the next wave of climate cases crests into Florida, we’ll likely see litigants tread even newer ground. For example, we might see plaintiffs put public utilities, power generators, manufacturers, banks, and other “new” kinds of defendants in their climate crosshairs. We could also see more Reynolds-style cases spring up around Florida, but based on local charter or ordinance guarantees (e.g., claims that local governing documents guarantee citizens a stable climate, a clean environment, and the like). Reynolds is likely just the first chapter of many in Florida’s climate change litigation book. Businesses, utilities, and municipalities should prepare and begin thinking about how to defend themselves, press their own climate cases, and adapt to a new litigation landscape. S
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Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Florida Section AWWA Student Member Receives Scholarship An AWWA student member since 2015, Jessica Cormier has received the 2021 Holly A. Cornell Scholarship from Jacobs Engineering for her Ph.D. studies in environmental engineering at the University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando. The $10,000 scholarship was created in 1990 in honor of Jacobs/CH2M cofounder Holly A. Cornell to encourage and support outstanding female and/ or minority students pursuing
advanced training in the field of water supply and treatment. Jessica has been working as a graduate research assistant at UCF where she has been working with the Babson Park public water system located in Polk County. Through this utility-university collaboration, Jessica has been able to perform operations research that examines the effectiveness of integrating treatment systems that can function together to resolve a regulatory need at an affordable cost.
Connect And Collaborate With Your Water Industry Peers
There’s nothing quite like working with others to ﬁnd solutions to shared challenges. AWWA members are a community of water professionals who are dedicated to the world’s most important resource. In member value surveys, respondents state that connecting and collaborating with others in the industry is the primary reason they are a member.
52 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
In working with the water system, she has been able to appreciate the role of the water operator and was able to diagnose control valve problems and work out a solution with the operators directly, solving an intermittent but recurring problem that was causing chlorine instability in the disinfectant dosing system. She plans to use her scholarship funding to complete her Ph.D., working with the small system utility so that she can provide an academic contribution for the water quality engineering community, and she desires to publish one or more peer-reviewed papers pertaining to her work.
Jessica hopes to have a positive impact on the water industry in her career, and she is interested in working in and contributing to the drinking water community. Her goal is to apply science and technology principles to advance water quality engineering that will help protect public health and welfare. As a Florida resident, Jessica hopes to broaden her Florida Section AWWA network and can be contacted at JCormier@ Knights.ucf.edu. S
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Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
2020 Survey Highlights Stormwater Funding Needs Justin Jacques The Water Environment Federation (WEF) Stormwater Institute has released the results of its 2020 MS4 Needs Assessment Survey. Last year, more than 800 municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) program permittees in the United States shared information about the challenges facing their organizations and the resources they need to surmount them as part of the Institute’s second survey. Results from the 2020 survey, released in February, indicate an annual estimated funding gap of approximately $8.5 billion for U.S. MS4 permittees. The survey adds new context to the results of the 2018 survey, which represented the first national-scale inquiry into the resources and requirements of stormwater management organizations. Responses suggest a need for more-robust funding mechanisms in order to empower MS4 permittees to better protect public health and the environment, which survey administrators described in a February 25 webcast about the results.
“The stormwater infrastructure that is vital to the health of our communities and our environment is in desperate need of increased and sustained investment,” said Lynn Broaddus, WEF president. “Stormwater infrastructure is an integral part of our overall water infrastructure and it is imperative that it be included in any infrastructure package developed by the Biden administration and Congress.”
Common Challenges Among both Phase I and Phase II MS4 permittees that responded, aging infrastructure, funding and availability of capital, and increasing or expanding regulations were the most frequently cited challenges. More than 50 percent of respondents ranked all three of these issues as either “challenging” or “very challenging.” Aging infrastructure was consistently indicated as the most-pressing issue, with about 75 percent of Phase I MS4 permittees reporting infrastructure disrepair as their primary challenge. Compared to the 2018 survey, more respondents voiced needs for infrastructure renewal and other types of asset management during the 2020 survey.
In 2018, about 45 percent of respondents indicated that they experienced an annual funding gap, meaning they have had to defer programs and infrastructure work due to a lack of sufficient ongoing funding. In the 2020 survey, that number rose even higher. “Almost 60 perecent of 804 respondents identified needs for additional funding for their stormwater programs, confirming again the need for reliable funding sources to ensure a sustainable stormwater sector,” said Fernando Pasquel, national director of stormwater and watershed management for Arcadis in Arlington, Va., during the webcast. “What is clear is that there is a need for federal and local investment in stormwater infrastructure.” Other needs expressed include best practices for watershed-based stormwater planning, better strategies to win public and political support for stormwater programs, improving cross-departmental coordination, and attracting new talent to fill the positions of sector veterans, many of whom are reaching retirement age. “With all of the compounding issues that the sector faces, these challenges and needs will continue to increase,” said Rebecca Arvin-Colon, WEF Stormwater Institute senior manager. “As we continue to make large investments in our infrastructure, it’s important to understand the needs of the MS4 programs and communicate those needs to Congress.”
Data With a Purpose For the 2020 installment, survey administrators partnered with software developer 2NDNATURE in Santa Cruz, Calif., to create a dynamic data dashboard that adds
54 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
context to the results. Dashboard users can filter survey results by location, organization type, service population, and other factors, as well as how those values have changed over time. Survey results help inform Institute advocacy, as well as other efforts to identify U.S. national-level stormwater sector trends. Findings, for example, were incorporated into the American Society of Civil Engineers upcoming Infrastructure Report Card, which will this year assign a grade to the state of U.S. stormwater infrastructure for the first time. The survey also helps guide WEF’s efforts to build support for stormwater-sector funding among state and federal legislators, including the organization’s “2020 Recommendations to Improve the Stormwater Program in the U.S.” document. In an effort to track how stormwatersector challenges, resource levels, and priorities change over time, the Institute plans to undertake its MS4 survey at regular intervals. “WEF is committed to regularly conducting the survey in the future and providing the results analysis to continue to better understand the sector’s needs and challenges, as well as how we can address
those challenges by developing resources and advocating for the sector,” Arvin-Colon said. Full results from the 2020 survey can be found at the WEF Stormwater Institute website at www.wefstormwaterinstitute.org. Justin Jacques is editor of Stormwater Report and a staff member of the Water Environment Federation. In addition to writing for WEF’s
online publications, he also contributes to Water Environment & Technology. Reprinted with permission from the Water Environment Federation, Copyright ©2021 Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, Va. All rights reserved. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
RECOMMENDATIONS TO IMPROVE THE
STORMWATER PROGRAM IN THE U.S.
SUMMARY The introductory text to the Clean Water Act (CWA) noted, “It is the national goal that the discharge of pollutants into navigable waters be eliminated by 1985.” This goal has yet to be achieved, and new tools are needed to help make this goal a reality. This fact sheet outlines a long-term strategy to guide the stormwater program through the next 20 years. These strategies are reasonable and practical actions for Congress and the executive branch to enact. These recommendations address the fundamental issues of reliable funding, infrastructure retrofit and maintenance, and pollution source control as the next steps to achieve the goals of the Clean Water Act.
STORMWATER PROGRAM RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Stormwater Infrastructure Funding Tools Request: Create a technical assistance grant program (at the regional or federal level) to assist communities with identifying funding resources for stormwater infrastructure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is assessing funding options for the ‘construction, rehabilitation, and operation and maintenance of stormwater infrastructure’ with a congressionally authorized stormwater infrastructure task force. Communities have a keen interest in securing sources of funding for stormwater and green infrastructure (GI) retrofits, but lack a comprehensive set of tools to construct and maintain the required improvements. States, cities, departments of transportation (DOT), and counties need infrastructure investment in the next decade to ensure public safety and meet the requirements of the CWA. Funding tools for states can help them identify approaches to finance the required infrastructure using general funds, grants, fees, and utilities in combination with public and private financing, such as state revolving funds, bonds, private loans, social
capital, and equity investments. These financing options can be utilized through emerging vehicles and platforms, such as the community-based public-private partnership, an approach championed by EPA designed to enhance project delivery efficiencies. The available funding streams and project delivery options are complex and varied. Communities need assistance in developing successful financing mechanisms and reducing finance risk. We recommend that the current federal infrastructure task force be continued for a second year to develop funding, financing, and project delivery templates for municipalities.
DID YOU KNOW?
of impairments were from
Traditional Point Sources
1970; by 2010,
Nonpoint Sources (Ag and Urban Runoff)
Nuisance flooding has increased between 300 and 900% in some major U.S. eastern cities over the last 40 years
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
2. Stormwater Treatment System Verification Program Funding Request: Provide funding to EPA regions to develop a national performance verification program for stormwater best management practices (BMPs). Stormwater pollution is a persistent issue in urban watersheds throughout the United States. To ensure that engineered stormwater management systems are achieving their intended benefits, better information is needed linking the performance of specific treatment system designs to their ability to remove common stormwater pollutants. The performance of conventional landscape-based stormwater treatment systems has been studied, but system designs and study techniques vary widely. As a result, performance estimation for specific treatment systems is challenging and imprecise. In addition, over 50 different modular stormwater management systems have been developed in recent years by private industry for use in urban environments where available land area is scarce, such as transportation corridors. These systems may be standalone solutions or can be integrated into treatment trains to enhance the functionality and increase the design life of GI systems. There are
several successful state and regional stormwater treatment system testing and verification programs for these systems, but adoption of results from these programs outside of their immediate jurisdictions has been limited. A national performance verification program, drawing on the success of these programs, is being developed by local, regional, and national stakeholders to: • Inform and guide significant local investments in stormwater infrastructure. • Accelerate the implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies. • Create regulatory confidence and provide accurate “regulatory credit.” • Minimize duplicative performance evaluation efforts. • Establish a common framework for testing and evaluation of both public domain and proprietary stormwater control measures.
3. Improved Stormwater Infrastructure Needs Data Collection Request: Insert “municipal stormwater” in the required data collected through the Clean Watersheds Needs Survey, CWA SEC. 516 (b)(1). Provide $500,000 per year for two years to EPA to complete the Clean Watershed Needs Survey. The CWA regulates stormwater through the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), which requires permit holders, such as communities, business and industry, and state transportation departments, to meet federal regulatory water quality standards. The infrastruc-ture needed to meet those regulations requires a substantial investment by communities, primarily paid for by local taxes and utility rates. To improve design and maintenance efficiencies of practice needed for communities, a long-term data record, relating design, maintenance activities, performance of stormwater practices, and cost, is required. We recommend that Congress insert “municipal stormwater” into CWA SEC 516 (b)(1). This would add to the EPA Clean Watershed Needs Survey data collection process the
requirement that states request municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) entities to submit data on the cost and effectiveness of their stormwater management and maintenance activities. This first-of-its-kind database would then be reported to Congress through the Clean Watersheds Needs Survey to help guide national policy and stormwater infrastructure design and funding decisions. The last Clean Watersheds Needs Survey was completed in 2016 using 2012 data, although the CWA statute directs EPA to complete it every two years. The FY19 appropriations included $500,000 of the $1 million needed to complete the survey. Congress should provide the remaining $500,000 in FY20 to complete the survey and establish a permanent funding source for the Clean Watershed Needs Survey.
EPA has identified urban runoff as the only major growing source of water pollution across much of the country
58 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
4. Modernize NPDES Permits Request: Direct EPA to work with permit holders to develop incentives for development and implementation of integrated plans, as well as model permit language for watershed-based permits. The Water Infrastructure Improvement Act of 2018 (HR 7279), passed by Congress in late 2018 and enacted in early 2019, provides that the EPA integrated planning process is an option for municipalities to meet their wastewater and stormwater management requirements. It encourages municipalities to include GI and allows the use of compliance schedules to meet water quality standards. Stormwater NPDES permits should be written to encourage the use of EPA’s integrated planning framework, which would include the development of a master plan, relating both water quality and quantity, from all contributing point and nonpoint sources. The plan needs to describe infrastructure
improvement needs, modeling to demonstrate compliance with water quality goals and standards, asset management maintenance requirements, a schedule, and a cost estimate, developed with community input. We recommend this legislation be followed by a congressional directive to EPA to provide guidance to the states for model permit language for both integrated planning and watershed-based permits. This is the critical next step to modernize the NPDES permit process, integrating all components of the issue, promoting innovation, and bringing new efficiencies for stormwater program implementation.
5. Implement Source Control for Stormwater Pollution Request: Direct EPA to examine the authority under the CWA and Toxic Substances Control Act, and other legislation as appropriate, to control pollutants in stormwater at the source and assist states developing pollutant source control programs. We recommend that Congress direct EPA to identify a preferred regulatory pathway for source control and develop tools to support source control implementation by permit holders. It is technically infeasible to remove many common pollutants once they become entrained in stormwater. It is also costly to treat or remove pollutants once they are in the environment. Source control is by far the most effective and cost-efficient approach for control of pollutants, such as pesticides, nutrients, many metals, and emerging pollutants. An example of source control is the reduction of copper in automotive brake pads, instituted in California and Washington. Vehicle brake linings were found to represent up to half of the copper load in urban stormwater. Substituting other materials in brake pads is estimated to save over $1 billion in California
Major rain events have doubled in the Midwest over the last 40 years
at the municipal level by eliminating urban copper control programs. The EPA’s restriction of several organophosphate pesticides is another successful example of the application of source control. Other examples include measures in Minnesota to restrict phosphorus in lawn fertilizer and ban the sale and use of coal-tar sealants on pavements. The only practical approach to controlling emerging pollutants, such as PFAS/PFOA and microplastics, is source control. These actions will save municipalities billions of dollars in future expenditures attempting to remove pollutants from the environment.
While only 2% of the continental U.S. is covered by impervious surfaces (about the size of the state of Ohio), the impact on lakes, rivers, and estuaries is several factors larger than this - up to an order of magnitude or more
(Note: developed land is not impervious surface area - approximately 25% of developed land is impervious)
WEF Stormwater Institute
National Municipal Stormwater Alliance
Adriana Caldarelli, Director, Stormwater Institute 703.684.2406 | email@example.com
Scott Taylor, P.E., D.WRE, FASCE | Chair 760.603.6242 | STaylor@mbakerintl.com
Reprinted with permission from the Water Environment Federation, Copyright ©2021 Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, Va. All rights reserved.
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
FWRJ READER PROFILE of water and wastewater design projects, both inside and outside the fence, ranging from asset management and lift station design to treatment plant expansions.
Work title and years of service. I’m a project manager with eight and a half years of experience.
What education and training have you had? My bachelor’s degree is in environmental engineering from the University of Central Florida. I am a professional engineer (P.E.) and have certification in the National Association of Sewer Service Companies (NASSCO) pipeline, manhole, and lateral assessment certification program (PACP/MACP/LACP), which serves as a standardized method of evaluating and grading pipelines, lateral, and manholes. I also utilize Bently WaterGEMs for hydraulic modeling on various pump station projects.
What does your job entail? I typically serve as both the project engineer and project manager on an assortment
What do you like best about your job? In our industry and my role as a consultant, we are here to help our clients, their needs,
Mead & Hunt, Port Orange
Catarata del Toro in Bajos del Toro, Costa Rica.
Olympic lifting at Subu Crossfit in downtown Orlando.
and the citizens that they serve, all while being good stewards to the environment. Not many industries or people can say the same thing and end their workday knowing they had such an impactful and positive role in the lives of so many people through a resource that is essential to all life—water. What professional organizations do you belong to? I am involved with FWEA and FSAWWA. My involvement with the two organizations began in my first year after college through the FSAWWA Drinking Water Taste Contest and the joint FWEA water panel discussion. Over the years I became very active within FWEA, through the Central Florida Chapter, serving as program coordinator for two years, treasurer, vice chair, and ultimately, chair. The pandemic brought the need for virtual webinars and education in which FWEA
Snorkeling with Wall the Maori Wrasse in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
Our wedding in Vero Beach on Nov. 17, 2018.
60 July July 2021 2021 • • Florida Florida Water Water Resources Resources Journal Journal
My two pups: Kirra (left) and Cooper.
Pineapple proposal on my honeymoon in Maui, Hawaii.
Somewhere in Maui, Hawaii.
provided me the opportunity to navigate these uncharted waters. This reinvigorated the Seminars Committee by helping all of the local chapters and committees with their virtual events and the 2021 FWEA Connect virtual conference (in lieu of the 2021 Florida Water Resources Conference). I currently serve as chair to this committee, but could never do it without my team: Manasi Parekh, Suzette Blanton, and Karen Wallace.
How have the organizations helped your career? The FWEA has always been a major component of my career, primarily in education, training, and networking opportunities. I have been fortunate to have always had the support of my employer in my active involvement with both organizations. I’ve had invaluable opportunities with FWEA to connect with technical leaders, deepen my understanding of goings-on around the state, and continue to expand upon my education and training.
Catarata del Toro in Bajos del Toro, Costa Rica.
What do you do when you’re not working? I have been doing CrossFit for just over five years. I love cooking and baking when I can find the time (I highly recommend Ambitious Kitchen and Defined Dish). I love traveling and I am currently planning a trip to Italy and Greece this summer, and hoping to see Portugal this fall. My favorite hobby of all time is coming home to snuggle my two pups, Kirra and Cooper.
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62 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! Please go to the FWPCOA website
for the latest updates on classes
7-11...... Water Distribution Level III............... Deltona............... $325 14-16..... Backflow Repair*.............................. Deltona............... $275/305 28-30..... *Backflow Repair*............................. St. Petersburg..... $275/305
5-8...... Backflow Tester*............................... St. Petersburg..... $375/405 19-22..... Wastewater Collection B.................. Deltona............... $325
9-13...... FALL STATE SHORT SCHOOL.......... Ft. Pierce............ check website
3-15..... Backflow Repair................................ St. Petersburg..... $275/305 1 13-17..... Wastewater Collection C.................. Deltona............... $325 20-23..... Backflow Tester................................ Deltona............... $375/405 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or firstname.lastname@example.org. *B ackflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also
You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
Automatic Self-Cleaning Scraper Strainers Filter Smallest Particles to Largest Debris Unlike backwash systems, scraper strainers reliably resist clogging and fouling when faced with micron-sized particles, oversized solids, and high solids concentration Robert Presser
One key to providing reliable energy to the Kansas City area was using cooling water strainers that would not foul during the Missouri River’s high tide. When a power plant was supplying energy as a backup for a power provider in the city, the plant used river water for cooling, utilizing large basket strainers. The plant is now part of an energy solution partner with multiple district energy networks across the United States, and sought more-efficient operation and maintenance from a downtown steam loop that produced chilled water. District energy uses a centrally located facility, or facilities, to generate thermal energy—heat, hot water, or chilled water—for a number of nearby buildings. These resources are transported through underground pipes to meet the needs of communities, cities,
and campuses, such as colleges, hospitals, airports, and office parks.
Firms can custom-manufacture pressure vessels to fit within the existing piping arrangement, which minimizes scraper strainer installation costs.
64 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
“To provide condensing water for steam production, as well as cooling water to the chillers and condensers, water is taken from the river and put into a once-through cooling system,” says Keith Williams, P.E., who was involved with the project and is a manufacturer’s representative for a company that represents North American manufacturers of heating, cooling, and hydronic equipment. According to Williams, the river’s fast flow, along with the high tide, complicated the straining of river water for the plant. Williams notes that the power plant’s
Automatic, self-cleaning scraper strainers can filter smallest particles to largest debris and resist clogging and fouling from micron-sized particles, oversized solids, and high solids concentrations.
Plugging and fouling from large solids and small particulates can cause unscheduled downtime, excessive maintenance, and costly premature replacement, but automatic scraper strainers can remove waste from raw water before the debris enters heat exchangers and cooling systems.
previous basket strainers required excessive maintenance. “Workers had to clean the manual strainers every shift, three times a day, during high tide, and it was a very dirty, disgusting job that no one wanted to do.” Backwash strainers are often used, but are not ideal for removing large solids from perforated screen elements. The backwash arm must be close to the screen to function properly, which prevents passing larger particles. When solids are bigger than the gap between the screen and backwash arm, they remain in the vessel and must be removed manually. Biological film can also adhere to the screen, so frequent cleaning is usually required by maintenance crews. In this case, a basket strainer was used, but was continuously clogged during the river’s high tide. Williams was originally contacted as part of a plan to install new cooling towers. He instead advised that, for this application, a more-cost-effective solution was to install more-efficient strainers. “I advised using an automatic scraper strainer that is capable of very fine straining, while still passing very large debris,” he says. “It can strain to the micron level, yet pass debris that’s surprisingly large.”
The automatic scraper strainer is a motorized unit designed to continually remove very large and very small suspended solids from cooling water. A spring-loaded blade and brush system provide cleaning, managed by a fully automatic control system. Four scraper brushes rotate at eight revolutions per minute, cleaning 32 times per minute. The scraper brushes get into wedgewire slots and dislodge resistant particulates and solids. This enables scraper strainers to resist clogging and fouling when faced with large and high solids concentration. It ensures a complete cleaning and is very effective against biofouling. Blowdown occurs only at the end of the intermittent scraping cycle when a valve is opened for a few seconds to remove solids from the collector area. Liquid loss is well below 1 percent of total flow. According to Williams, the scraper basket also allows the strainer to bypass extremely large particles and debris. “There are very few manufacturers that can pass such large particles, while straining out the fine particles.” The automatic scraper strainer had to be customized to install on a 30-inch inlet and an outlet with a 12-inch blowdown line for
solids removal. Although industrial facilities with existing systems may be hesitant to replace under-performing backwash strainers due to the misperception that the installation modifications can be costly, some firms can custom-manufacture pressure vessels to fit within the existing piping arrangement, which minimizes installation costs. They can even deliver units with backwash arms. “The line they wanted to install it in was at a 15-degree angle in a very tight space with a very short line, so we made a strainer where the inlet and outlet angled at 15 degrees,” says Williams. “This enabled them to just cut the pipe, install the flanges and the strainer, and be done. It was a custom-made vessel.” The facility’s staff was impressed at how much the automatic scraper strainer simplified the maintenance of the strainer for cooling, despite the size range of river water debris it has to catch. “Now, they only open it for annual inspection and maintenance, and no one has to manually clean it anymore,” he concludes. Robert Presser is vice president of Acme Engineering Prod. Inc. in Mooers, N.Y. For more information go to acmeprod.com. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
NEWS BEAT Marc Roehl has been named executive vice president of Watercare, a company of Ixom that’s based in the U.S. Roehl is an executive Marc Roehl with more than 25 years of experience in the water and wastewater treatment sector, with a focus on industrial and municipal markets. He is currently an active board member of the global
Water Council and is a member of the Water Environment Federation. David Head, managing director and CEO of Ixom, said of the appointment, “I am delighted to announce that Marc has joined the Ixom executive team. The growth of Ixom’s business in new North American markets is an important part of our global expansion strategy that also includes a focus on Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. It’s therefore fitting we have a person of Marc’s credentials in this key U.S.-based global leadership position.”
Roehl is excited to deal with what lies ahead in his new role. “The industry faces a myriad of challenges as the world's population continues to grow and urbanize,” he said. “The big topics I see that Ixom can help solve for customers include dealing with emerging contaminants (PFAS, microplastics, endocrine disruptors, disinfection byproducts), managing algae blooms, nutrient management and treatment, stormwater control, water management in arid areas, an aging workforce, and digitization and data security. Ixom has offerings that address many of these issues and we can do even more as we develop the Ixom North American business.” Roehl is a registered professional engineer and has a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering and a master’s degree in environmental engineering, both from the University of Iowa. He joins Watercare from Evoqua, where he led its wastewater technologies business globally and managed more than 300 employees across sales, product management, and operations.
The Water Quality Association (WQA) has elected Toby Thomas, president and CEO of Kinetico Inc., as the association’s new president of its board of directors. Thomas has 30 years of experience generating growth, tackling complex strategic issues, and building world-class capabilities in leading companies both inside and outside the water treatment industry, and he says WQA has never been stronger. “The opportunities ahead of us as an association are vast as we emerge— and we will emerge—from this pandemic,” said Thomas. He succeeds D.J. Shannahan, owner and operator of four water treatment dealerships. In remarks at WQA’s annual meeting, Thomas outlined his three main areas of focus in the coming year: successfully guiding WQA out of the pandemic; advancing the awareness of water quality and WQA’s preparedness for a broader, more public stage; and broadening membership and deepening member engagement. In 2021, Thomas wants WQA to effectively finish commissioning its new headquarters and laboratory facility, maintain and improve on financial gains the association has made, and reestablish important face-to-face engagement at convention, midyear, and regional events. Thomas will push to advance the awareness of water quality by increasing WQA’s advocacy efforts at the federal and state levels, working with affiliated associations and organizations to promote the unique value of water treatment in resolving water quality concerns, driving
66 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
consumer awareness and knowledge through WQA’s leadership, and strengthening WQA’s brand recognition. Another goal is to see WQA build on its relationship with the women in industry and young professionals advisory councils. “Let’s build on the success we have had and move WQA to an even more influential, valuecreating, and engaging association for us all and for the public,” Thomas said. The WQA has a 24-member board of directors: 15 elected representatives of manufacturer/supplier members and nine from the dealer membership category. Eight directors, including Thomas, serve as the board of governors. Thomas has served nine years on the board of directors, including four on the board of governors. He has also served on the board of trustees of Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, from which he holds a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering. He earned an MBA from Harvard Business School.
past three years. The findings center on five interconnected elements of fit-for-future utilities: innovation, resilience, advanced asset management, intelligent water, and the workforce. The needs of people, including employees, customers, and stakeholders, were paramount in all five areas. Familiar challenges to the water industry, including the upcoming wave of retirements, lack of diversity, and rate increases, were accounted for in forming the
recommendations for how utility leaders can address challenges. “It’s a perfect storm,” said John McCarthy, president of Arcadis’ water business in North America. “Utilities know they need more data, and they need to become more resilient to costly natural disasters, get better visibility into their operations, and train their workforces to look beyond the scope of one facility and into the communities they serve. When you dig into each Continued on page 69
A new collection of insights published by Arcadis highlights five fundamentals for utilities to successfully navigate aging infrastructure, a changing workforce, and increasingly intense shocks to their systems. With U.S. drinking water and wastewater infrastructure earning a C- and D+ respectively on the American Society of Civil Engineers 2021 Infrastructure Report Card, “Building a Fit-for-Future Utility” outlines how utilities can optimize costs and avoid unsustainable rate increases. “Utilities are fighting an uphill battle against emerging challenges,” said Tanya McCoy-Caretti, client development director for Arcadis. “From transforming their workforces and addressing aging infrastructure, to embracing digitalization or accounting for the effects of climate change, our research has consistently shown that water utilities are aware of future stressors, but their roadmap to resilience remains a challenge to complete.” Research shows less than 15 percent of utilities feel equipped to fully cover costs of providing service in the future. Despite EPA’s announcement that the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) will facilitate more than $12 billion in water infrastructure projects and the Biden administration’s proposed $111 billion in water infrastructure investment within the American Jobs Plan, optimizing available funding to bridge the gap and meet ever-growing needs will remain critical as utilities modernize their operations. Arcadis compiled data from surveys of water professionals and research from the
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. email@example.com
City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available
Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida.
Laboratory Supervisor, Water Quality Coordinator, Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Asst Chief Treatment Plant Operator. Apply at www.titusville.com
Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!
Available Positions Include:
Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com
CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.
Are you a Water Plant Operator Rockstar?
Then come join our incredibly awesome team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $37,000 - $39,000yr – 10% more if you have a dual license or a Class A or B. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Marc Correnti. EEO/AA/V/H/ MF/DFWP.
68 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $51,112. - $96,050. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA
Brevard County - NOW HIRING Treatment Plant Operators and field personnel
Brevard County Utilities is seeking Treatment Plant Operators and field personnel to work in various locations throughout Brevard County, Florida. These positions are for a County-owned public water and sewer Utility. For more information and to apply, go to the employment website of the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners at https://career8.successfactors.com/career?company=brevardcou Brevard County is an Equal Opportunity/Veterans Preference Employer
GS Inima USA City of Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Plant
Salary / Benefits $65,000 to $85,000.00 (based on experience and qualifications) Health, Dental and 401K Accepting applications for a Chief Operator position. Must have experience with a Drinking Water Plant and Reverse Osmosis membrane. The Chief Operator shall possess a minimum of 15 years’ experience with operation of drinking water treatment facilities, including five years of management responsibility, five years’ experience with membrane treatment systems and shall hold a Class A (Category II) operators certificate issued by the State of Florida, valid drivers. Contact Jennifer.firstname.lastname@example.org
Continued from page 67 of these challenges, it’s clear that putting people first is critical to driving lasting positive change.”
Two groups have filed a legal challenge to the Florida Division of Administrative Hearings contesting the Seven Springs Water permit to pump nearly a million gallons daily for bottling services by Nestlé. Florida Springs Council and Our Santa Fe River are challenging the legitimacy of the permit, which the Suwannee River Water Management District approved in late February. The petition contests the board’s decision on the grounds that Nestlé can’t benefit from the permit as it’s not an official applicant, and the board did not consider the public interest in making the decision. The challenge argues that the permit’s applicant, Seven Springs Water Company, does not have the right to conduct water use under district law, as it does not have control over the bottling facility pumping water. Because Nestlé is not the official permit applicant, the suit alleges, the district would have no way to regulate its water use operations to ensure that they are used in a reasonable manner. The petition also states that the water board did not follow its rules and the Florida Statute to consider if the permit was “consistent with public interest.” When making the decision to grant the permit, the board did not address the nearly 20,000 comments submitted in regard to the pumping of water. An initial hearing for the petition has yet to be scheduled.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has selected the Water Environment Federation (WEF) to develop, manage, and provide training for a network
American Water-Acciona Aqua - Now Hiring at American Water-Acciona Aqua NOW HIRING! Are you a Certified Class C Water Operator? American Water-Acciona Aqua is interested YOU! Shift work and willing to train. Apply now for immediate consideration at www.amwater.com/careers or Contact Erin at e email@example.com
LOOKING FOR A JOB?
The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.
of water utilities, public health agencies, and laboratories participating in wastewater-based disease surveillance in the U.S. Wastewater-based disease surveillance has been used to study the presence and trends in coronavirus infections in communities and is increasingly viewed as a valuable tool during the current COVID-19 pandemic and for future public health research. For example, up to 80 percent of infected people pass on traces of coronavirus through their waste, and so strategic sampling of wastewater can provide information on the infection trends of the virus in a community. “Water and wastewater sector personnel are on the front lines of ensuring the protection of public health and are able to play a central role in identifying and evaluating the presence of pathogens and other public health concerns in water,” says Dr. Andrew Sanderson, WEF chief medical officer. “We look forward to working with CDC and the U.S. water sector on guidelines, best practices, and training that improve and expand utilization of wastewaterbased epidemiology.” The CDC is working with other federal agencies and entities to establish a national wastewater surveillance system, the first government-led wastewater surveillance program in the U.S. The system will involve a network of wastewater facilities, state and local health departments, and laboratories, which WEF will help coordinate. “We’re uniquely positioned to partner with CDC on a national wastewater-based disease surveillance system and network through our extensive membership presence in the areas of sanitation, engineering, public health, and laboratories,” says Lynn Broaddus, WEF president. “We’re grateful for the opportunity to be part of CDC’s efforts to advance science and protect communities from infectious diseases.” The CDC is focused on improving public health through national partnerships to prevent and control infectious disease threats. Under
the agreement, WEF will conduct the following activities: • Support CDC in the development, dissemination, and adoption of guidance and best practices for the prevention and control of infectious diseases within the water and wastewater sector. • Develop a network for wastewater-based disease surveillance, with a focus on information sharing and problem-solving. • Target frontline wastewater and public health personnel with training in surveillance activities and advance understanding of the spread of disease in communities across the U.S. • Implement projects that pilot new approaches and technologies in wastewater-based disease surveillance. For more information about the partnership visit www.wef.org/coronavirus.
The Environmental Research and Education Foundation (EREF) now has a page on its website that provides free access to 600 data-driven, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)-related studies, articles, and other content material. The EREF documents and links everything— from toxicology and epidemiology to solid waste management and treatment—related to PFAS. All studies have been reviewed by the staff and have been organized by topic. The entire list, which includes title, source, type, author, and a direct link, can be downloaded in Excel. To visit the EREF PFAS resource page, go to https://erefdn.org/per-and-polyfluoroalkylsubst ances-pfas-list-of-s cient if ic-andtechnical-studies-related-to-solid-waste/. For help finding an expert on PFAS as it relates to waste and recycling contact Catherine Ardoin, EREF communications manager, at firstname.lastname@example.org. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • July 2021
SERVING FLORIDA’S WATER AND WASTEWATER INDUSTRY SINCE 1949
Test Yourself Answer Key From page 32
January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.
Display Advertiser Index American������������������������������� 51 AWWA Membership������������� 52 Blue Planet Environmental Systems������������������������������ 71 CEU Challenge��������������������� 21 Data Flow Systems�������������� 65 Ferguson Waterworks��������� 13 Florida Aquastore���������������� 55 FSAWWA 2021 Conference Competitions���������������������� 39 FSAWWA 2021 Conference Water Distribution Awards 38 FSAWWA 2021 Conference Exhibit Registration����������� 36 FSAWWA 2021 Conference Overview����������������������������� 35 FSAWWA 2021 Conference Poker Night & Happy Hour/ Golf Tournament���������������� 37
FWPCOA State Short School33 FWPCOA Training Calendar� 63 FWRC 2022 Call for Papers�� 66 Gerber Pumps������������������������ 9 Heyward HICARB/HIBOCS����� 2 Hudson Pump & Equipment� 53 Hydro International���������������� 5 Kamstrup������������������������������ 46 Lakeside Equipment Corporation��������������������������� 7 Mead & Hunt������������������������� 67 RieberLok������������������������������ 62 Smith & Loveless����������������� 23 UF TREEO Center����������������� 47 Vaughan/FJ Nugent�������������� 41 Water Treatment & Controls Technology������������������������� 61 Wright-Pierce������������������������ 31 Xylem������������������������������������� 68
70 July 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal
1. C) Secondary treatment and basic disinfection
Per FAC 62-610.200(48) Definitions, “‘Reclaimed water,’ except as specifically provided in Chapter 62-610, F.A.C., means water that has received at least secondary treatment and basic disinfection and is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility.”
2. A) may be part of the operation and maintenance manual or a separate document.
Per FAC 62-610.320(6)(a), Operation and Maintenance Requirements and Operating Protocols, “An operating protocol is a document that describes how a domestic wastewater facility is to be operated to ensure that only reclaimed water that meets applicable standards is released to a reuse system. It is a detailed set of instructions for the operators of the facilities. It may be part of the operation and maintenance manual or it may be a separate document.”
3. D ) Pastures for feed, fodder, fiber, or seed crops
Per FAC 62-610.400(4) Description of System, “Reclaimed water may be applied to pastures and areas used to grow feed, fodder, fiber, or seed crops. Trees, including managed hardwood or softwood plantations, may be irrigated.”
4. B) 3 feet
Per FAC 62-610.469(7)(c), Application/ Distribution Systems and Cross Connection Control, “Maximum obtainable separation of reclaimed water lines and domestic water lines shall be practiced. A minimum horizontal separation of 3 feet (outside to outside) shall be maintained between reclaimed water lines and either potable water mains or sewage collection lines. The department shall approve smaller horizontal separation distances if one of the following conditions is met: 1. The top of the reclaimed water line is installed at least 18 inches below the bottom of the potable water line. 2. The reclaimed water line is encased in concrete. 3. The applicant provides an affirmative demonstration in the engineering report that another alternative will result in an equivalent level of protection.”
5. C) potable reuse.
Per FDEP’s One Water Florida website, “Potable reuse is highly treated recycled water that can be used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Recycled water is part of our state’s plan to be more sustainable, diversify its water sources, and protect the environment.”
6. A) contaminants of emerging concern.
Per 403.064 FS(17) Reuse of Reclaimed Water, “By Dec. 31, 2020, the department shall initiate rule revisions based on the recommendations of the Potable Reuse Commission’s 2020 report ‘Advancing Potable Reuse in Florida: Framework for the Implementation of Potable
Reuse in Florida.’ Rules for potable reuse projects must address contaminants of emerging concern and meet or exceed federal and state drinking water quality standards and other applicable water quality standards. Reclaimed water is deemed a water source for public water supply systems.”
7. C) 12 mg/L
Per FAC 62-610.510(1), Waste Treatment, Disinfection and Monitoring, “ The nitrate concentration in the applied reclaimed water shall not exceed 12 mg/L (as nitrogen) unless reasonable assurance is provided in the engineering report that nitrate as measured in any hydraulically down-gradient monitoring well located at the edge of the zone of discharge established in accordance with Chapter 62-520, F.A.C., will not exceed 10 mg/L or background levels in the receiving groundwater, whichever is less stringent.”
8. C) Surface waters
Per FAC 62-610.550(2) Groundwater Recharge and Indirect Potable Reuse, “Indirect potable reuse. This type of reuse system involves the planned use of reclaimed water to augment surface water resources which are used or will be used for public water supplies. Indirect potable reuse systems include: (a) Discharges to Class I surface waters, as described in Rule 62-610.554, F.A.C. (b) Discharges to other surface waters that are directly or indirectly connected to Class I surface waters, as described in Rule 62610.555, F.A.C.”
9. D ) water resource caution areas (WRCAs).
Per FDEP’s Reuse Feasibility website, “Reuse feasibility studies are conducted in order to evaluate the capability of a domestic wastewater treatment plant to implement reuse. Rule 62-610.820, F.A.C., lists the rules and laws that require preparation of reuse feasibility studies as follows: (a) Section 403.064, F.S., for domestic wastewater facilities located within, serving a population within, or discharging within designated water resource caution areas (WRCAs). (b) The Indian River Lagoon system and Basin Act, contained in Chapter 90-262, Laws of Florida. (c) The antidegradation policy in Rules 62-4.242 and 62-302.300, F.A.C., for new or expanded surface water discharges. (d) By rules of the applicable water management district (WMD).”
10. B) a limited wet weather discharge.
Per FAC 62-610.860(1). Limited Wet Weather Discharge, “The department encourages implementation of reuse of reclaimed water programs. Demand for reclaimed waters normally declines during wet weather periods. During such wet weather periods, surface water stream flows normally increase. Allowing limited wet weather discharge of excess reclaimed waters during such wet weather periods will facilitate implementation of reuse projects. Therefore, persons implementing reuse projects are authorized to seek approval for limited wet weather discharges. . .”
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