Florida Water Resources Journal - June 2022

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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office:

1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Mish Clark

Mish Agency

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 Biosolids Biennial Report: 2018-2019 6 Toho Water Dedicates Administration Building to Founding Executive Director 10 Sondra Lee Takes Office as 2022-2023 FWEA President 10 2022-2023 FWEA Board of Directors 11 2022-2023 FWEA Officers, Chairs, and Advisors List 21 Correction 22 Get Ready: August is National Water Quality Month! 24 Process Page: Award-Winning Polk County Northwest Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility: Operational Excellence on Display—Bartt C. Booz 34 Biosolids Regulation: Health, Safety, and Environmental Protection 38 WQA Announces Leadership, Excellence Award Winners 43 News Beat

Technical Articles 16 Biosolids Management in Florida—National Biosolids Data Project

Education and Training 8 30 31 32 33 37 41 45

EU Challenge C FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration FSAWWA Fall Conference General Information FSAWWA 2022 Water Distribution System Awards TREEO Center Training FWPCOA Training Calendar AWWA Membership Rewards

Columns 14 C Factor—Patrick “Murf” Murphy 28 Let’s Talk Safety: Build Safety Into Your Construction Site Visits 40 Reader Profile—Ed Torres 42 FWEA Focus—Sondra W. Lee 44 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 46 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Emilie Moore

Departments 47 50

Classifieds Display Advertiser Index

Volume 73

ON THE COVER: The headworks structure for screenings and grit removal at the Northwest Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility. For more information, see page 24. (photo: Bartt Booz)

June 2022

Number 6

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


Biosolids Biennial Report: 2018-2019 The Clean Water Act (CWA) requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to review federal biosolids (sewage sludge) standards every two years to identify additional toxic pollutants that may occur in biosolids. It then sets regulations for those pollutants if sufficient scientific evidence shows they may harm human health or the environment. The biennial review process is intended to fulfil the CWA requirement to identify additional pollutants that occur in biosolids. The EPA has now published its latest report for the 2018-2019 review period.

Background The EPA collected and reviewed publicly available information for: S Pollutants in biosolids that were newly identified during the literature search timeframe (2018-2019). S Pollutants in biosolids that were previously

identified in EPA national sewage sludge surveys conducted in 1988, 2001, and 2009 and/or in previous biennial reviews. Information was collected on the occurrence, fate, and transport of these pollutants in the environment and their effects on human health and ecological receptors. The types of information collected are needed to conduct risk assessments.

Results of the 2018-2019 Biennial Review As a result of the literature search, EPA found 18 new articles that provide relevant data on chemical pollutants that may occur in biosolids in the United States. The articles identified 116 new chemicals in biosolids: S 50 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): 39 congeners, 10 homologs, and total PCBs S Four pesticides S 19 flame retardants

S E ight per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) S Three antibiotics S One metal S Two inorganics S 29 other organics The articles also identified new data for 48 chemicals that were previously identified in biosolids. Concentration data for biosolids were found for 61 of the 116 new chemicals and for 34 chemicals identified in previous biennial reviews. Additional sources were searched for data needed for risk assessment. Human health toxicity values were found in multiple sources for four of the new chemicals and 112 previously identified chemicals. Ecological toxicity (ECOTOX) data were found for 63 newly identified chemicals and 71 previously identified chemicals in the ECOTOX database. Additional data were found for 99 of the newly identified chemicals in the Estimation Programs Interface (EPI) Suite™ (EPA, 2017). Physical-chemical properties were identified for 102 new chemicals and five previously identified chemicals. Bioconcentration, or bioaccumulation factors, were identified for one new chemical in the literature, 99 new chemicals in EPI Suite, and 40 new chemicals in peer-reviewed databases maintained by Arnot and Gobas (2006), Environment and Climate Change Canada (2006), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (2020). Two articles identified five new microbial pollutants in biosolids and data for five previously identified microbial pollutants found in biosolids.

Full Report and Biosolids Information To view the full biennial report for the reporting period (2018-2019) and get more information about EPA’s biosolids program, visit www.epa.gov/biosolids. S

4 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Toho Water Dedicates Administration Building to Founding Executive Director Toho Water Authority (Toho) has dedicated its administration building to honor Brian L. Wheeler, the founding executive director. Now officially known as the Brian L. Wheeler Water Resources Center, the fourstory building in Kissimmee stands as a testament to his hard work and perseverance. Wheeler led Toho for 15 years, including overseeing its formation in 2003 by a special act of the Florida Legislature. Prior to that, starting in 1985, he served as the director of water resources for City of Kissimmee. “Having the privilege to serve as director of this organization has been tremendously fulfilling, and seeing it continue to grow and prosper is also incredibly rewarding,” said Wheeler, who retired in 2018. “It’s both humbling and an honor to have the building commemorated with my name.” During a recent ceremony, signs in front of the building and at the lobby entrance were unveiled to showcase the new name.

Toho administration building.

6 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Brian L. Wheeler poses by the sign bearing his name.

Toho is the largest provider of water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services in Osceola County. It currently serves over 115,000 customers in Kissimmee, Poinciana, and unincorporated areas of Osceola and Polk counties. Toho currently operates 14 water facilities and eight wastewater treatment facilities, with the purpose of providing efficient and reliable water services. It has positioned itself as a respected leader in water, a valued community partner, and an employer of choice. With a workforce of more than 300, Toho treats and distributes approximately 37.5 million gallons of potable water and reclaims 27 million gallons of wastewater each day. Toho is governed by a five-member board of supervisors responsible for approving all its operating policies and its $124 million operating budget. S

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Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Biosolids and Bioenergy Management. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Biosolids Management in Florida National Biosolids Data Project (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW02015402) 1. A 10-year increase in phosphorus within the Upper St. Johns River watershed is correlated to a. b. c. d.

increased agricultural activity. statewide increase in the application of Class B biosolids. a shift in biosolids land application away from the Lake Okeechobee watershed. regional biosolids treatment issues.

2. B y 2018-2021, many separate preparers that used ______________had ceased operations. a. b. c. d.

alkaline stabilization aerobic digestion anaerobic digestion surface application

3. Approximately _____ percent of Florida’s wastewater solids were placed in landfills in 2018. a. b. c. d.

0.4 20 50 80

4. Florida’s ______________ biosolids treatment standards are essentially equivalent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Part 503 Class A Exceptional Quality (EQ) standards.

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

a. b. c. d.


5. Of 50 Florida landfills, _______ percent accept wastewater biosolids. a. b. c. d.

5 10 20 25

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

8 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal


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Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


Sondra Lee Takes Office as 2022-2023 FWEA President Sondra W. Lee, P.E., is the wastewater treatment program engineer for the City of Tallahassee’s Underground Utilities and Public Infrastructure Department, where she manages projects for the city’s water reclamation facility system and provides support to the wastewater treatment team. Before taking on her current role with the city’s engineering division, she worked at the Thomas P. Smith Water Reclamation Facility for 10 years. She served at the city’s design project manager of the advanced wastewater treatment upgrade project and later as the supervisor of the wastewater operators, coordinating between the operations staff and construction-related activities, including process tie-ins and the start-up and commissioning process. Prior to joining the City of Tallahassee in 2002, Lee worked for

private engineering consulting firms, as well as the Florida Department of Transportation, after obtaining her bachelors in civil engineering degree from Auburn University. Lee first became involved with FWEA in 2002 and later became a member of the Big Bend Chapter Steering Committee. After serving as the Big Bend chair in 2009, she continued to support the Big Bend Chapter by taking on the role of its membership coordinator and webmaster. Lee had the opportunity to participate as a mentee and a mentor in the mentoring programs offered by FWEA, and later by WEF. She took on the role of a director at large for several years before becoming the FWEA treasurer/secretary in 2018, which eventually lead up the her new role serving as FWEA president. S

2022-2023 FWEA Board of Directors

Sondra W. Lee President

Kristiana Dragash WEF Delegate

Suzanne E. Mechler President-Elect

Michael Sweeney WEF Delegate

10 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Joseph Paterniti Vice President

Jody Barksdale Director at Large

Joan Fernandez Secretary/Treasurer

Ronald R. Cavalieri Past President

Dustin Chisum Director at Large

Kristina Fries Director at Large

2022-2023 FWEA Officers, Chairs, and Advisors

David Hernandez Director at Large

Megan Nelson Director at Large

Ioannis (Yanni) Polematidis Director at Large

Lynn Spivey Director at Large

Tim Ware Director at Large

Jeff Greenwell Utility Council President

The following officers, directors, committee leaders, chapter leaders, and student chapter advisors began their terms May 1. DIRECTOR AT LARGE BOARD OF DIRECTORS Dustin Chisum, P.E. CONSOR Engineers PRESIDENT 239-849-5093 Sondra W. Lee, P.E. dustin.chisum@consoreng.com City of Tallahassee 850-891-6123 DIRECTOR AT LARGE Sondra.Lee@talgov.com Kristina Fries, P.E. City of Orlando PRESIDENT ELECT Kristina.fries@cityoforlando.net Suzanne E. Mechler, P.E. CDM Smith DIRECTOR AT LARGE 561-571-3800 David Hernandez, P.E., ENV SP mechlerse@cdmsmith.com Hazen and Sawyer 305-951-2660 VICE PRESIDENT dhernandez@hazenandsawyer.com Joseph Paterniti, P.E. DIRECTOR AT LARGE Clay County Utility Authority Megan Nelson, P.E. 904-424-2412 Orange County Utilities jpaterniti@clayutility.com (407) 254-9927 megan.nelson@ocfl.net SECRETARY/TREASURER Joan Fernandez, P.E. DIRECTOR AT LARGE Arcadis U.S., Inc. Ioannis (Yanni) Polematidis, P.E., 954-882-9566 BCEE joan.i.fernandez@arcadis.com CDM Smith 904-527-6722 PAST PRESIDENT polematidisim@cdmsmith.com Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE AECOM Technical Services Inc. DIRECTOR AT LARGE 239-278-7996 Lynn Spivey Ronald.cavalieri@aecom.com City of Plant City 813-757-9190 WEF DELEGATE lspivey@plantcitygov.com Kristiana Dragash, P.E. Carollo Engineers Inc. 941-371-9832 kdragash@carollo.com

WEF DELEGATE Michael Sweeney, Ph.D. Toho Water Authority 407-944-5129 msweeney@tohowater.com DIRECTOR AT LARGE Jody Barksdale, P.E., ENV SP Carollo Engineers Inc. 813-888-9572 jbarksdale@carollo.com

Bradley P. Hayes Operations Council Representative

Kartik Vaith Executive Director of Operations

DIRECTOR AT LARGE Tim Ware, P.E. Arcadis U.S. Inc. 813-353-5773 tim.ware@arcadis.com UTILITY COUNCIL PRESIDENT Jeff Greenwell, P.E. Hillsborough County Public Utilities 813-612-7757 GreenwellJ@hillsboroughcounty.org OPERATIONS COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVE Bradley P. Hayes Woodard & Curran 325-516-4397 bhayes@woodardcurran.com Continued on page 12

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


Continued from page 11 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS Kartik Vaith, P.E. Ardurra 904-562-2185 kvaith@ardurra.com

COMMITTEE LEADERS AIR QUALITY Robert Jeyaseelan Vapex Environmental 407-977-7250, x111 robertj@vapex.com AWARDS Damaris Noriega Orange County Utilities (407) 254-9538 damaris.noriega@ocfl.net BIOSOLIDS Tony Pevec, P.E. Freese and Nichols (813) 909-5120 Tony.Pevec@freese.com COLLECTION SYSTEMS Keisha McKinnie, P.E. Walt Disney Parks and Resorts U.S. Inc. (321) 512-6111 Keisha.mckinnie@disney.com CONTRACTORS Josh Burns Wharton-Smith Inc. (407) 402-7528 jburns@whartonsmith.com MANUFACTURERS AND REPRESENTATIVES Chris Stewart Xylem Water Solutions USA Inc. (239) 322-3257 chris.stewart@xyleminc.com MEMBER RELATIONS Melody Gonzalez, E.I. Black & Veatch (786) 226-3960 GonzalezM@bv.com MEMBERSHIP Joseph Paterniti, P.E. Clay County Utility Authority 904-424-2412 jpaterniti@clayutility.com

OPERATIONS CHALLENGE Chris Fasnacht Water Reclamation Division, OCU (407) 254-7724 Chris.fasnacht@ocfl.net PUBLIC COMMUNICATIONS AND OUTREACH Shea Dunifon Pinellas County Utilities (727) 582-2898 sdunifon@pinellascounty.org SAFETY AND SECURITY Steve Johnson HDR (813) 365-9089 steven.johnson@hdrinc.com SEMINARS Manasi Parekh Ardurra (904) 318-9028 mparekh@ardurra.com STUDENTS AND YOUNG PROFESSIONALS Nicole Cohen Carollo Engineers Inc. (941) 893-6482 ncohen@carollo.com TRAINING AND CONTINUING EDUCATION Kenny Blanton, P.E. Hazen and Sawyer (407) 362-1101 kblanton@hazenandsawyer.com UTILITY MANAGEMENT Randy Brown City of Pompano Beach (954) 545-7044 randolph.brown@copbfl.com WASTEWATER PROCESS Bartt Booz, P.E. Wright-Pierce (407) 747-9935 bartt.booz@wright-pierce.com WATER RESOURCES, REUSE, AND RESILIENCY (WR3) Ryan Messer HDR (813) 361-6241 Ryan.Messer@hdrinc.com

12 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

CHAPTER LEADERS BIG BEND Felicity Appel, P.E. Kimley-Horn (850) 553-3537 felicity.appel@kimley-horn.com CENTRAL FLORIDA Mike Demko Wade Trim (321) 249-2147 mdemko@wadetrim.com FIRST COAST Dave Rasmussen Ardurra (904) 567-7754 drasmussen@ardurra.com MANASOTA Chris Collins Manatee County (941) 920-2083 chris.collins@mymanatee.org Madeline Kender, P.E. Kimley-Horn (941) 379-7604 madeline.kender@kimley-horn.com SOUTH FLORIDA Arturo Burbano Black and Veatch (305) 570-7501 burbanoa@bv.com SOUTHEAST Isabel C. Botero, P.E. Black & Veatch (954) 319-9861 Boteroi@BV.com SOUTHWEST Bryan Thaggard, P.E. Black & Veatch (239) 938-9605 thaggargbb@bv.com TREASURE COAST Alex Maas Heyward Florida Incorporated (407) 948-4191 amaas@heywardfl.com WEST COAST George Dick, P.E. Carollo (727) 452-9725 gdick@carollo.com

STUDENT CHAPTER ADVISORS FAU STUDENT CHAPTER Florida Atlantic University Daniel Meeroff, Ph.D. 561-297-2658 dmeeroff@fau.edu FIU STUDENT CHAPTER Florida International University Berrin Tansel, Ph.D., P.E. 305-348-2928 tanselb@fiu.edu UCF STUDENT CHAPTER University of Central Florida Anwar Sadmani, Ph.D., P.Eng. 407-823-2781 sadmani@ucf.edu UF STUDENT CHAPTER University of Florida John Sansalone, Ph.D., P.E. 352-373-0796 jsansal@ufl.edu UM STUDENT CHAPTER University of Miami James Englehardt, Ph.D. 305-284-5557 jenglehardt@umiami.edu UNF STUDENT CHAPTER University of North Florida Cigdem Akan, Ph.D. 904-620-5536 cigdem.akan@unf.edu USF STUDENT CHAPTER University of South Florida Sarina J. Ergas, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE 813-974-1119 sergas@usf.edu FAMU/FSU STUDENT CHAPTER FAMU/Florida State University Youneng Tang, Ph.D. 850-410-6119 ytang2@fsu.edu FGCU STUDENT CHAPTER Florida Gulf Coast University Ashley Danley-Thomson, Ph.D. 239-745-4390 athomson@fgcu.edu Florida Gulf Coast University Jong-Yeop Kim, Ph.D., P.E 239-590-1363 jkim@fgcu.edu


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Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022



Florida Water Resources Conference: Back at Last! Patrick “Murf ” Murphy

President, FWPCOA


he Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) was a huge success! The conference was held April 24-27, 2022, in Daytona Beach at the Ocean Center and Hilton. If you weren’t at this amazing event—with networking, technical programs, exhibits, awards luncheons, competitions, and more—you really missed out! There were 360 booths in the exhibit hall and 2,000 attendees preregistered, and there were concerns that the awards luncheons would be standing room only!

High Marks From Attendees I asked numerous folks how they would grade the event on a scale of 0 to 10, and there were none that said less than 8 (and the only one who said that had some other terrible experiences

that really weren’t FWRC’s fault, like lost luggage at the airport, grilled squid that was limp like soggy day-old raw French fries with some hash marks on it, staying at a different hotel than the guest hotel because it was sold out, etc.). One of those complaints could have been fixed if they had reserved their room well in advance, so keep that in mind next year: reserve your room, even if it needs to be months before being registered for the conference. Registering for the conference will most likely be greatly improved by then as the FWRC officers are investing in website, software, and registration improvements now to enhance the conference experience in the future. Many thanks go to the executive board members of FWRC for their behind-the-scenes assistance, and the three associations all pitched in to provide volunteers for staffing the registration booth and other events. I haven’t seen any news reports about Daytona running out of beer that week, and I don’t think we left anyone behind, so all in all, it was great!

Operators Showcase and Workshop The FWPCOA Operators Showcase was held

The Florida Water Resources Conference and Florida Water Resources Journal board meetings.

on Sunday, April 24, from 2 to 4 p.m., in the Ocean Center, Room 102A. Dr. Carlyn Higgins with Hazen and Sawyer talked about indirect potable reuse, equipment, and operator certification, and Mike Darrow, past president and Legislative Committee chair of FWPCOA, gave us a rules update, and both rocked their presentations. The unfortunate part to this is that we had the lowest attendance for our showcase in years. Normally we have close to 40 people attend, but this year we might have had a baker’s dozen, with some late arrivals here and there from the posted “free beer” sign in the hallway. This may have been an indication of less operator attendance at the conference; I’m not sure if they track that, but it’s definitely something that I’d like to see in the future. Those who did attend were very interactive with the presenters. Thank you, Carlyn and Mike, for stepping up, and thank you Ken Enlow for moderating. The FWPCOA workshop “Intro to Stormwater,” with Brad Hayes as presenter, was held Monday morning from 9 to 10:30 a.m. I was unable to attend as I had volunteered to be emcee during exhibit hall hours, proving everyone makes mistakes sometimes! I do know that Brad had a tight schedule that morning also and had to run

FWPCOA Operators Showcase.

Polk County Bio Wizards team.

Renee Moticker, FWPCOA Awards Committee chair (with microphone), presenting at the FWRC luncheon. Katie Kinloch (standing at center) receiving one of the Vogh awards.

14 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Part of the Collections Relay Women’s Team.

Collections Relay participants.

from one meeting to that presentation from the hotel to the Ocean Center with lil’ time to spare. Thank you, Brad!

Awards Luncheon FWPCOA Awards At the FWRC awards luncheon and annual meeting, held Monday at noon to 1:30 p.m., Renee Moticker, FWPCOA Awards Committee chair, presented numerous association awards: S Three categories for the David B. Lee Award – Matt Astorino, Region 8; Charles Nichols Jr. and Cody Jordan Diehl, both from Region 10. S Two winners of the Vogh Award – Katherine Kinloch, Region 10; and Deborah Wallace, Region 7, who was not able to attend. S There was no nominations for the Pat Flanagan Award this year. S Belated presentation of the Outstanding Website Award, renamed in memory of our beloved webmaster as the Walt Smyser Award, received by Steve Juengst and another member of the City of Holly Hill. It was copresented with Walt’s wife, Pam Smyser. Thank you, Renee—well done! Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers After the other awards were presented, Chris Collins from Manatee County, Region 12, was inducted into the Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers in the operator category. This is a Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) award that is given annually to honor an engineer, an operator, and a “peddler” (vendor), if they are deemed to have contributed outstanding and meritorious service above and beyond the call of duty to FWEA.

Operations Challenge I want to give a shout out to Polk County’s

FWPCOA volunteers Glenn Whitcomb (left) and Ken Enlow staff the conference registration booth.

Operations Challenge team, the Bio Wizards, for taking first place in the competition. This will put them in the ring at WEFTEC 2022, the 95th annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, which is being held October 8-10 at the New Orleans Morial Convention Center. The team consisted of: S C oach: Charles Nichols Sr. S T eam members: Jeff Goolsby, Ed Clark, Cody Diehl, David McGrotty, and alternate Ozzie Lopez. The JEA team, Fecal Matters, took second place and will also be getting sponsorship to attend what will be the 35th Operations Challenge at WEFTEC 2022 to compete and represent Florida at this huge national event. Last year there were 32 teams competing. Honorably, third place at the FWRC contest went to the St. Pete Dirty Birds, and fourth place went to GRU’s True Grit.

Exhibits I never have had enough time to be in the exhibit hall, and this year was the same, but different: I was in the hall, but with tasks. There’s nothing like being able to talk to all the vendors and see their equipment and watch the competitions, so it was a special bonus for me to be there when they held (for the first

time), a Collections Relay, which was under the wing of the Operations Challenge teams,. This exhibition had 25 volunteers signed up to compete, performing hole saw and pipe cuts timed relays. This was a huge draw, and a special thanks to the women who signed up for this event—their performances were spectacular! I know I’ve missed a bunch of people, and took fewer photos than I ever have, but I want to thank everyone who was involved in making FWRC 2022 happen; we need these types of events. Thank you to all the sponsors, vendors, technical presenters, and volunteers who worked the booths and ran the competitions.

FWPCOA 2022 Fall State Short School The FWPCOA 2022 Fall State Short School will be held Aug. 1-5, 2022, at the Indian River State College in Fort Pierce. Remember, this is when the bulk of the FWPCOA awards are presented, so look at the website, and see which award would be perfect for an individual at your facility. The deadline date for the fall awards is June 17, 2022. For event details go to www.fwpcoa.org and view the calendar. For all events contact Shirley Reaves at (321) 383-9690 or fwpcoa@ gmail.com, or Darin Bishop at (561) 840-0340 or memfwpcoa@gmail.com. Remember—let’s keep that water clean! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022



Biosolids Management in Florida National Biosolids Data Project Most wastewater solids (sewage sludges) are treated to make biosolids and are applied to soils. In 2018, about half were treated to the highest quality standard, a special Class AA designation under Florida regulations, and distributed and marketed as fertilizer. About a quarter were Class B biosolids applied to soils at permitted sites. The remaining biosolids went to landfill, except for 0.4 percent that was burned at waste-to-energy facilities. Class AA biosolids (an FDEP designation for the highest-quality biosolids) have been distributed and used with few further restrictions, making them flexible fertilizer and soil amendment products in the general marketplace. The amount of Exceptional Quality (EQ) Class AA biosolids produced in Florida has been increasing over the past decade.

Beneficial Use of Biosolids Biosolids beneficial use on soils (i.e., Class B land application) has created increasing concerns among the public and lawmakers

because of malodors and other nuisances, and the potential impacts of biosolids-borne phosphorus on surface water quality. This led to law and regulation revisions that became effective in June 2021 and may reduce biosolids beneficial use in the Sunshine State in the coming years. Approximately 80 percent of the estimated 412,000 dry U.S. tons of final biosolids products produced in Florida in 2018 were beneficially used, according to data compiled by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). Of that total, 232,000 dry U.S. tons were Class AA biosolids and were heat-dried, composted, or alkaline-stabilized. About 98,000 dry U.S. tons were land-applied Class B biosolids used in agriculture. The FDEP estimates that 350,000 dry U.S. tons of wastewater solids went into creating the larger total mass of biosolids products, with the additional tonnage being in the form of compost feedstocks and alkaline materials added in making the products. Most of the remaining 20 percent of the state’s wastewater solids (80,000 dry U.S. tons) was put in landfills.

16 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

This article is from the National Biosolids Data Project (2022), accessed at https:// www.biosolidsdata.org on May 6, 2022.

These use and disposal numbers are representative of biosolids management in Florida over the past decade, ever since the state’s biosolids regulations were updated in 2010. In 2021, these regulations were updated again and there is a continuing decrease in Class B land application due to odor and nuisance issues driving public concerns and increased restrictions that incentivize production of Class AA biosolids. Many water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) contract out their biosolids management programs, including hauling, site management, distribution, marketing, and reporting. The FDEP reports that 866 WRRFs sent solids to separate preparers in 2018, which treated the solids further to make biosolids products, such as Class AA composts and fertilizers, as well as some Class B biosolids. There are some small separate preparers that make Class B biosolids from multiple small WRRFs. In Florida, Class B biosolids are typically aerobically or anaerobically digested, or limestabilized. Most are surface-applied, either as dewatered ‘cake’ biosolids or as liquid biosolids. The FDEP reports that, in the early 2020s, many separate preparers that used alkaline stabilization will have ceased operations. A few will remain in business, and all the recently permitted septage land application facilities use alkaline stabilization. Site permit requirements for Class B biosolids land application include nutrient management plans with, as of 2021, the requirement to develop a nitrogen-based agronomic rate and a phosphorus-based agronomic rate—neither of which may be exceeded. Other state requirements specify setbacks, depth to groundwater, signage, storage, public access, grazing and harvesting restrictions, and recordkeeping and reporting. The site permittee does not have to be the landowner; the site permittee could be a biosolids hauler/contractor or a WRRF permittee. A number of large WRRFs choose to treat solids to Class AA standards, which is a unique designation created by Florida regulations that is essentially equivalent to Class A EQ biosolids under the federal U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) biosolids regulations

(Part 503). Class AA biosolids can be distributed and marketed for general use without further restriction, as long as they have a fertilizer license or are sold or given to someone with a fertilizer license (there is an exception for compost outside northern Everglades watersheds). Class AA biosolids may have different physical forms: compost, heat-dried pellets, heat-dried granular products (i.e., nonuniform-size particles), alkaline-treated semisolid forms, and even liquid. Class AA distribution and marketing does not require that end-use sites be permitted, making their use far more flexible. This benefit has led to a steady increase in the production of Class AA products in Florida over the past decade. The FDEP reported that 232,322 dry U.S. tons of Class AA biosolids were produced by about 39 Florida WRRFs in 2018, compared to 197,115 dry U.S. tons in 2016 and 158,576 dry U.S. tons in 2013 (Florida Senate, 2019; FDEP, 2014). While alkaline stabilization processes have been closing down (for example, an N-Viro facility near Tampa shut down as it had mixed 85 percent coal ash with 15 percent wastewater solids), biosolids composting, along with heat drying, has become more prevalent as a way to achieve Class AA designation. Many WRRFs send some or all of their solids to landfills—306 reported doing so in 2018. When corrected for wetness, landfilled solids totaled 80,000 dry U.S. tons in 2018. They included some Class AA, Class A, and Class B biosolids that could not be used at the time. Disposal of biosolids in landfills must be in accordance with FDEP’s solid waste regulation, Chapter 62-701, F.A.C., and the incineration of biosolids must be in accordance with FDEP air regulations. There are about 10 Class 1 (lined) landfills that accept wastewater solids/biosolids out of a total of approximately 50 in the state. While there are no “sewage sludge” incinerators in Florida, there are waste-to-energy trash incinerators that, in 2018, burned about 0.4 percent of the state’s wastewater solids, which are mostly heatdried pellets. Air emissions from such facilities are strictly controlled for mercury and other pollutants. A few Florida WRRFs have helped pioneer new biosolids-related bioenergy technologies. There are several large WRRFs that use anaerobic digestion (AD) and put their biogas to use (e.g., Jacksonville, Miami-Dade, Tampa, St. Petersburg). In the 2000s, gasification of biosolids was demonstrated at full scale by Maxwest at a facility in Sanford; it claimed to have overcome most technical issues, but faced financial challenges and is no longer operating. Additionally, an Orlando pilot project evaluated supercritical water oxidation.

Agency Oversight, Regulations, and Permitting As noted in a FDEP report on biosolids management in 2013, “Section 403.702, Florida Statutes (F.S.)... promotes resource recovery and management, [and] supports the beneficial use of biosolids, such as land application and distribution and marketing of biosolids. The biosolids are typically high in organic content and contain moderate amounts of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. These properties make biosolids valuable as a fertilizer or soil amendment.” The beneficial use of biosolids in Florida is regulated by FDEP under Chapter 62-640, F.A.C., and by EPA under 40 CFR Part 503. The Florida regulations are considerably more restrictive and involved than the federal Part 503 rules, including site permitting for Class B land application, setback distances, nutrient management requirements, and more. In 2010, the Class AA regulations were enhanced to require a fertilizer license, or distribution and marketing to someone with a fertilizer license, as well as requiring more information about a facility’s planned distribution and marketing, including contingency plans. The FDEP permits WRRFs, including how they manage wastewater solids. It also permits and oversees Class B land application sites, of which there are about 130 throughout just the northern two-thirds of the state. Typically, a wastewater facility contracts with a hauler or

land application company, which makes the arrangements with farmers and conducts the land application operations, permitting, and recordkeeping. Florida’s additional requirements above and beyond the federal Part 503 include special requirements for molybdenum (Mo). Measuring and reporting Mo are required, and farmers must be given notice if the concentration in the biosolids exceeds 37.5 mg/kg, because of possible molybnenosis concerns. The frequency of testing is also more stringent; for example, all Class AA biosolids must be tested monthly. The WRRFs and biosolids site permittees involved with Class B land application must report annually to FDEP, in addition to completing annual electronic reports under the federal Part 503. Visits and inspections are conducted by FDEP to ensure compliance and enforcement. The six different district offices receive odor complaints and do enforcement locally. In June 2021, a new version of Chapter 62-640 went into effect; this version addresses public and lawmaker concerns about phosphorus management and potential impacts of biosolids use on surface water quality. These new regulations, required by a law passed by the Florida Legislature and ratified in 2021, may reduce beneficial use of biosolids because of reduced application rates based on phosphorus, more-restrictive groundwater monitoring requirements, new surface water monitoring requirements, and other increased monitoring, which, all together, may make land application Continued on page 18

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Continued from page 17 more expensive and less viable. About one-third of Florida’s counties have local county ordinances restricting biosolids use—some very restrictive— and those ordinances are being allowed to remain in place. Biosolids management programs have one or two years after June 2021 to meet the new requirements, depending on the type of permit they have and when it was issued. Nutrient management plans (NMPs), especially phosphorus management, are a major focus of the new 2021 regulations. The updated Chapter 62-640, F.A.C., requires the NMPs to establish biosolids application rates based on nitrogen and phosphorus—neither of which can be exceeded. The phosphorus rate is developed based on crop demand, with adjustments allowed based on the percent of water-extractable phosphorus in the biosolids and the soil phosphorus storage “capacity index.”

Pressures on Biosolids Management and Land Application Overall, the pressures on biosolids in Florida include the following, which were selected by the state coordinator from a preset list in the National Bisolids Data Project (NBDP) state survey: S Environmental Issues – nutrient management, phosphorous, nitrogen S Regulations on Beneficial Use – restrictive local ordinances S Nuisance Issues – odors, truck traffic, dust, etc. S Public Involvement – concerns of neighbors, environmental groups, and others S Regulations on Disposal – strict regulations or fees on disposal The FDEP appears to have fewer staff than in 2004 to permit and enforce the biosolids regulations, which are implemented through the wastewater program. This current NBDP has found that many other states have also had

Table 1. Florida Septage Management

similar reductions in staff resources dedicated to biosolids over the past 15 years. As mentioned, as of 2018, the amount of beneficial use of biosolids had been consistently at a high percentage (80 percent) for many years. The production of Class AA products for fertilizer blending and general distribution has increased in recent years, and Class B biosolids have diminished. The use of Class AA biosolids is less restricted and requires no site permits, creating incentives for WRRFs to produce Class AA products; however, as of 2021, because of concerns about excess phosphorus in sensitive surface waters creating public pressure and legislation, the recycling of biosolids to soils in Florida is becoming more difficult. The public concerns about phosphorus were stimulated in part by reporting beginning in 2017, and continuing for several years, encouraging a statewide ban on biosolids recycling to soils. Increasingly, biosolids are perceived as a potential source of excess phosphorus, causing algae blooms in surface waters. One particular issue has been an increase in phosphorus levels in the Upper St. Johns River watershed over the past 10 years, as reported by the St. Johns River Water Management District. The increase appears to be correlated to the location of large biosolids land application sites and a major shift of biosolids land application from the Lake Okeechobee watershed to the Upper St. John’s River watershed after the implementation of legislative requirements for biosolids in that watershed. Concern from local governments and the public led FDEP to form a biosolids technical advisory committee in 2018 to recommend improvements for the management of biosolids in Florida. The recommendations of the biosolids technical advisory committee led to legislation directing FDEP to develop new requirements for the land application of biosolids. The proposed regulations were ratified by the Florida Legislature and went into effect in June 2021. The FDEP predicts that biosolids land appliers will need 10 times more acreage to meet the need for much lower application rates that are now allowed for land application, or that facilities will shift to producing Class AA biosolids.

Septage Management It’s estimated that 30 percent of Florida residents and small businesses rely on onsite wastewater systems (septic systems) for wastewater treatment. Septage can be landapplied in Florida, and septage haulers treat septage by alkaline stabilization and land-apply it directly, in accordance with federal requirements; however, much septage is disposed of at WRRFs

18 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and contributes to production of solids at those WRRFs. Land application of septage in Florida was technically prohibited under Department of Health regulations after June 30, 2016, Section 381.0065(6), Florida Statutes. This prohibition did not apply to septage regulated as biosolids under FDEP regulations and Part 503, and there are about 46 FDEP-permitted facilities that are treating septage (sometimes along with biosolids) and applying it to land under the Florida biosolids regulations.

Major Water Resource Recovery Facilities, Separate Preparers, and Notable Projects Miami - The Miami area has the largest regional population and number of WRRFs in Florida, and its biosolids program is diversified. Miami and Tampa treat solids with AD, as do several larger WRRFs: Miami is the state’s second largest city in Florida, at just under 500,000 people. The MiamiDade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) provides wastewater service by retail and wholesale to a population of about 2.5 million in the City of Miami and Dade County, with a wastewater treatment capacity over 300 mil gal per day (mgd). The WASD has centralized its biosolids management facilities at its central and south district wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), where biosolids are anaerobically digested and dewatered with centrifuges. Some of the biosolids at its south district WWTP are also air-dried and composted to Florida Class AA quality. The WASD biosolids facilities were built mostly in the 1980s and are based primarily on traditional Class B digestion and dewatering technologies meeting Class B standards. The WASD land application program and its open-air composting facility are susceptible to vagaries of south Florida weather. As a result, a substantial portion of WASD’s biosolids are landfilled (Forbes et al., 2018). As of 2021, WASD is considering changes to its biosolids management program. Some WASD solids are composted at the JFE Brighton Compost Facility in Okeechobee, which can process up to 100,000 wet tons per year. The compost (100,000 cu yd/yr) is sold to Harvest Quest, which sells almost all of it to the citrus industry once it’s treated with microbial inoculants (CH2M, 2018). Tampa - With a population of 405,000 in 2020, Tampa produces an average daily wastewater flow of about 55 mil gal. Its solids have long been anaerobically digested, producing biogas that is used to generate 20 percent of the WRRF’s electricity requirement. The digested solids are dewatered with belt filter presses or

sand-drying beds and land-applied as Class B bulk biosolids. Pensacola - The biosolids here are representative of the two most-common Class AA biosolids management options in Florida: heat-drying and composting. Pensacola is served by the Emerald Coast Utilities Authority, which operates two small Komline-Sanderson dryers and a composting facility, which was needed to deal with yard trimmings and helps diversify biosolids management. Dried product is very dusty and produces 400-500 tons/month of 6-5-0 fertilizer product. It also produces 30,000 tons/ yr of compost, using a building canopy for dried product storage. It sells all dried product to Mannco for $15/ton, freight on board (FOB), which resells it to agriculture and sod industries. Compost was being used on landfill and is now sold for $4 to $10 per cu yd, based on volume purchased (CH2M, 2018).

Heat-Drying Heat-drying is the Class AA EQ option of choice for many large Florida WRRFs. Jacksonville - Florida’s most-populous city, with about 930,000 people, is served by four WRRFs. The city’s utility, JEA, and the Buckman Residuals Management Facility treat primary and secondary solids from the Buckman WRRF, plus secondary solids pumped via force main from three other WRRFs and thickened biosolids hauled by tanker trucks from five other WRRFs. The JEA practices AD, centrifuge dewatering, and thermal drying of biosolids using a three-pass, rotary-drum dryer fueled by a combination of digester gas and natural gas, which operates at relatively high temperatures of approximately 425°C (800°F), and produces dried biosolids in the form of pellets. It contracts

with a private-sector company to purchase and resell dried biosolids for beneficial use, including agriculture, forestry, and blending with other soil products (Forbes et al., 2018). GreenEdge sells the biosolids fertilizer, which is used by landscapers, golf courses, homeowners, and more. It’s considering changes and updates to its biosolids management program. Orlando - With over 300,000 people, Orlando has had contracts with private companies to heatdry its wastewater solids, producing about 4000 dry U.S. tons a year, which is distributed (and delivered) to farmers for free (CH2M, 2018). Tallahassee - The city’s Thomas P. Smith WRRF produces heat-dried biosolids for agricultural use. The product is sold directly to area farms or to fertilizer blenders. Palm Beach County - The county had a large composting facility that closed in 2014. Now, county solids are processed into Class AA fertilizer in a heat-drying pelletizing facility. The product is primarily marketed to fertilizer blenders and agriculture, as it produces a 1.8to 2.2-mm hard granule that fertilizer blenders like. High-value end users pay up to $100/ton, delivered; low-value users could pay shipping of $15 to $25/ton, delivered (CH2M, 2018). City of Largo - The city has produced heatdried biosolids fertilizer for two decades. Bonita Springs – The city has had a small Andritz drying facility since 2007, producing under 1,000 dry U.S. tons/yr of product that is sold at a low price for fertilizer use. Wellington – Its WRRF (6.5-mgd design capacity) treated solids to Class B standards with lime stabilization up until 2012, when a new automatic batch heat-drying system was installed. The solids are initially treated by aerobic digestion and dewatered to 15 percent solids. They then enter the indirect dryer, which Continued on page 20

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Continued from page 19 produces 2 to 4 tons of 95 percent dry solids per day. Gainesville - The Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) serves approximately 185,000 people, including the University of Florida. It has long had a Class B liquid land application program, providing biosolids to local farms. In the mid-2010s, it began dewatering its solids to save on transportation costs and to provide greater flexibility for end use or disposal. Alachua County, where much of the GRU Class B biosolids was used, became concerned, with much of the biosolids going to landfills in recent years. GreenEdge was contracted by GRU to take the biosolids and GreenEdge has been permitted for a Class AA drying facility, but it has not yet been built. Pinellas County - The county contracts with Synagro, which operates a heat-drying facility that produces Class AA biosolids. Pasco County - Merrell Brothers recently built and operates a Class AA heat-drying facility for the county.

Composting Composting is the other most-common option currently in use in Florida to make Class AA biosolids: Lee County and Ft. Meyers - With a population of 97,000 in 2020, solids are sent to the 22-acre Lee County Composting Facility, which is co-located at the Lee Hendry Landfill. Since 2009, the facility has been making about 30,000 wet tons of biosolids compost annually, bulked with ground yard waste and sold from the facility in bulk or 20-pound bags. The bulk price in 2015 was $9.75/ton (Goldstein, 2015). The compost is selling primarily to citrus groves ($10/ton, FOB), and some retail ($10/cu yd, FOB). A fleet of 12 trucks manages yard waste and compost shipping. Punta Gorda - Synagro’s Charlotte Biorecycling Center in this city provides composting for numerous WRRFs in the area, including Sarasota (it had operated its own composting system until the early 2010s), Ft. Myers, Lehigh Acres, and some of Naples. Hollywood – Its biosolids program depends on a Schwing-Bioset lime stabilization process at the city’s wastewater treatment plant. It operates five other facilities in the state, including merchant facilities, and more are under design. A sister company ages and markets the product, sold primarily to grazing land, orange groves, golf courses, and sod producers. Soil amendments are sold to sod farms, plant nurseries, and for use on state projects. Southeast Soil (Compost USA) is another

private composting operation, with two sites. It expanded from a peat and nursery soils company, and much of the compost has been used for its own nursery products (CH2M, 2018). Alkaline stabilization is also used to meet Class B or, more commonly in recent years, Class AA biosolids; however, several private alkaline stabilization facilities have closed in the past ten years, and use of this option is diminishing.

References The state biosolids coordinator at FDEP provided much of the data and other information for this report. Additional information was gleaned from the following resources: FDEP: • https://floridadep.gov/water/domesticwastewater/content/domestic-wastewaterbiosolids https://floridadep.gov/water/ domestic-wastewater/content/links-referencesguidance-and-other-useful-informationchapter-62 • https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ ChapterHome.asp?Chapter=62-640 • FDEP, 2014. “Biosolids in Florida: 2013 Summary.” December 2014. https://floridadep. gov/sites/default/files/BiosolidsFlorida-2013Summary_1.pdf • “Chapter 62-640, F.A.C. Public Meeting, Division of Water Resource Management, May 27, 2021.” Public presentation by FDEP on new state regulations effective June 2021. University of Florida: • https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/entity/topic/series_ florida_biosolids http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_ series_florida_phosphorous_index . General biosolids management in Florida: • https://floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/ Biosolids101-TAC-090518.pdf https://fwrj. com/techarticles/0611%20tech4.pdf Map showing land application sites: • h ttps://www.arcgis.com/home/item. html?id=70300d6abaa5463e83091786599d06dd • Forbes et al., 2018: “Tale of Two Florida Cities.” WEF Proceedings, 2018(4):632-652 DOI:10.2175/193864718824828362 • https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/328959613_Tale_of_Two_ Florida_Cities_• Competition_and_Innovation_Drive_ Biosolids_Management_toward_the_Private_ Sector/link/5bf54a65a6fdcc3a8de667e5/ download. • CH2M, 2018: Basis of Design Update for Biosolids Processing Facilities, Technical Memo for Miami Dade Water and Sewer

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Department (WASD). https://www. miamidade.gov/water/library/reports/basis-ofdesign-january-2018.pdf . • Peterson, Dan. 2019. “Biosolids: Ann Annual 700 Million Pound Pollution Source About Which You Rarely Hear.” Online posting at http://www.cpr-fl.org/biosolids-an-annual-7million-pound-pollution-source-about-whichyou-rarely- hear/, with version at Gainesville. com and in the Gainesville Sun, Sept. 11, 2019. Phosphorus concerns driving new law in 2021 that restricts biosolids use: • “Here’s How Human Waste Pollutes State Waters,” an example of the kind of coverage provided from 2017 to the present: https:// www.tcpalm.com/story/news/local/indianriver-lagoon/health/2018/07/17/treasurecoast-planning- council-stop-using-biosolidsfertilizer/788872002/ • And “Biosolids Ban...on Planning Council Agenda:” https://www.tcpalm.com/ story/news/local/indian-river- lagoon/ health/2018/07/17/treasure-coastplanning-council-stop-using-biosolidsfertilizer/788872002/ . Other coverage: • https://www.martin.fl.us/biosolids • https://tcrpc.org/biosolids-symposium/ • https://tcrpc.org/wp-content/ uploads/2020/12/2018_Biosolids1_Barker. pdf https://tcrpc.org/wp-content/ uploads/2020/12/2018_Biosolids6_Silveira. pdf https://www.newswise.com/articles/ study-biosolids-produce-less-nitrogen-andphosphorus-runoff-than-inorganic- fertilizer https://www.wlrn.org/news/2021-06-02/statetightens-rules-for-sewage-sludge-used-asfertilizer-but-leaves-a-loophole- in-place • https://www.floridatrend.com/article/25908/ biosolids-waste-to-fertilizer-to--pollution • https://www.gainesville.com/opinion/ 20190911/ dan-peterson-biosolids---futuredisaster • https://www.dailycommercial.com/news/ 20190925/polk-county-again-cites-lakelandbiosolid-waste-recycling-facility-bs- ranchfor-offensive-odors. Septage: Map showing facilities accepting septage and septage land application sites: • https://ca.dep.state.fl.us mapdirect/?focus= wastewatersepticsystems. Ft. Myers/Lee County: • Goldstein, N. 2015. Biosolids compost manufacturer taps agricultural markets. BioCycle, Aug. 18, 2015. https://www.biocycle. net/biosolids-compost-manufacturer-taps-

agricultural-markets/ and https://www.leegov. com/solidwaste/residential/compost . Jacksonville: • https://www.jea.com/About/Wastewater/ Wastewater_Treatment_Byproducts/ https:// modernpumpingtoday.com/lowering-thecosts-and-risks-of-managing-biosolids-andorganic-waste/ http://www.green-edge.com.

Miami Dade: • https://www.floridatoday.com/story/news/ local/environment/2019/09/17/countycommissioners-debate-biosolids-first- twopublic-hearings/2347766001/. Wellington: • https://www.tpomag.com/editorial/2017/07/ reclamation_facility_embraces_innovation_ with_biosolids_and_reclaimed_ water.

Tallahassee: • https://www.talgov.com/you/wastewater.aspx Gainesville: • https://www.gru.com/OurCommunity/ Content/BiosolidsRecycling.aspx. Tampa: • https://www.tampa.gov/wastewater/info/ advanced-wastewater-treatment-plant/virtualtour/step-7---sludge- treatment . S

Correction On page 66 of the May 2022 issue of the magazine, the wrong Test Yourself answer key was printed. The correct answer key appears below. 1. A) infiltration.

Per FAC 62-604.200(8), Definitions, “‘Infiltration’ means groundwater that enters a collection/transmission system, including service connections, through defective pipes, pipe joints, connections, service connections, manholes, or pump stations. Infiltration does not include and is distinguished from inflow. Infiltration is generally observed during seasonally high groundwater conditions.”

2. C ) 12 inches

Per FAC 62-604.400(2)(a)1, Design/Performance Considerations, “Emergency pumping capability shall be provided for all pump stations. Pumping capability shall be provided as follows: 1. Pump stations that receive flow from one or more pump stations through a force main or pump stations discharging through pipes 12 inches or larger shall provide for uninterrupted pumping capabilities, including an in-place emergency generator.”

3. B) cybersecurity.

Per FAC 62-604.500(4)(b), Operation and Maintenance, “The detail of the operation and maintenance manual shall be consistent with the complexity of the system. . . The manual shall provide the operator with adequate information and description regarding the design, operation, and maintenance features of the facility involved, including an emergency response plan. The emergency response plan shall assess system security, including cybersecurity, water quality monitoring for sanitary sewer overflows affecting surface waters, and hurricane and severe storm preparedness and response.”

4. B ) hydrogen sulfide.

Per the EPA CMOM Guide, Section 2.2.3, Hydrogen Sulfide Monitoring and Control, “The collection system owner or operator should have a program under which they monitor areas of the collection system that may be vulnerable to the adverse effects of hydrogen sulfide. It may be possible to perform visual inspections of these areas. The records should note such items as the condition of metal components, the presence of exposed rebar (metal reinforcement in concrete), copper sulfate coating on copper pipes and electrical components, and loss of concrete from the pipe crown or walls.”

5. B ) I/I is excessive if it causes or contributes to sanitary sewer overflows.

Per 62-604.500(5)(a), Operation and Maintenance, “I/I is considered excessive if one or both cause or contribute to sanitary sewer overflows. Inflow shall not be considered excessive if the collection/transmission system owner/operator demonstrates that the inflow is not representative of collection/transmission system performance. Examples include extreme weather, such as a hurricane, beyond the control of the owner/operator of the collection/transmission system.”

6. A ) With a numbering system to uniquely identify each manhole and cleanout. Per the EPA CMOM Guide, Section 2.2.7.,Mapping, “Collection system maps should have a numbering system that uniquely identifies all manholes and sewer cleanouts. The system should be simple and easy to understand. Manholes and sewer cleanouts should have permanently assigned numbers and never be renumbered. Maps should also indicate the property served and reference its cleanout.”

7. B) June 30

Per FAC 62-600.700(4), General, “Public utilities or their affiliated companies shall submit annual reports regarding transactions or allocations of common costs and expenditures on pollution mitigation and prevention among the utility’s permitted wastewater systems, including the prevention of sanitary sewer overflows, collection and transmission system pipe leakages, and I/I. This report may be combined with the annual report requirement in paragraph 62-600.705(2)(b), F.A.C. The annual report shall be submitted electronically to the applicable district office or delegated local program no later than June 30 of the year following the close of the fiscal year covered by the report.”

8. D) smoke testing.

Per the EPA CMOM Guide, Section 2.4.2., Sewer System Testing, “Smoke testing is a relatively inexpensive and quick method of detecting sources of inflow in sewer systems, such as downspouts, or driveway and yard drains, and works best when suited for detecting cross connections and point source inflow leaks. Smoke testing is not typically used on a routine basis, but rather when evidence of excessive I/I already exists. With each end of the sewer of interest plugged, smoke is introduced into the test section, usually via a manhole. Sources of inflow can then be identified when smoke escapes through them.”

9. D) State Watch Office.

Per FAC 62-604.550(2)(a), Abnormal Events, “For unauthorized releases or spills in excess of 1,000 gallons per incident, or other abnormal events where information indicates that public health or the environment will be endangered, oral reports shall be provided to the department by calling the State Watch Office toll-free number, (800)320-0519, as soon as practicable, but no later than 24 hours from the time that the owner/operator becomes aware of the discharge.”

10. D ) Replacement of a major pump station that has no in-place generator. Per FAC 62-604.600(2)(a), Procedure to Obtain Construction Permits, “The following activities do not require a collection system permit: (a) Replacement of any facilities with new facilities of the same capacity at the same location as the facilities being replaced, except for pump stations that do not meet the requirements of paragraphs 62-604.400(2)(a)-(e), F.A.C. Emergency pumping capability shall be provided for all pump stations. Pumping capability shall be provided as follows: 1. Pump stations that receive flow from one or more pump stations through a force main or pump stations discharging through pipes 12 inches or larger shall provide for uninterrupted pumping capabilities, including an in-place emergency S generator.”

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


Get Ready: August is National Water Quality Month! Water is used every day in a variety of ways: for drinking, recreating, irrigating, transporting, and in industry and manufacturing, to name a few. Just try to imagine what life would be like for your utility customers without easy access to clean water. There would be no fountains to quench their thirst when out on a hot day. No more swimming pools, and no lakes and rivers clean enough for recreational activities. No more long showers at home, or any running water for their businesses. National Water Quality Month reminds us to take a moment to consider how important our water sources are to humans and all of the other inhabitants of the ecosystem. By thinking about the little things that your customers do on a daily basis that could have a negative impact on water quality, and getting them to change their habits, you’ll be a step closer to improving water quality—for everyone. August is designated as National Water Quality Month by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but how is the quality of water in the United States determined? Water quality is based on a set of standards and criteria that describe the desired conditions or level of protection, or how the required conditions will be established

in waters of the U.S. in the future. These standards and criteria are provisions of the state, territorial, authorized tribal, or federal law approved by EPA.

The Standards of Water Quality Water quality standards must include the following items: S Designated uses of the water body. This requires states, territories, and authorized tribes to specify the goals and objectives about how each water body will be used, including fishing, recreating, drinking, agricultural irrigation, industrial uses, and navigation. S Criteria for protection of designated uses. States, territories, and authorized tribes must adopt criteria that protect the designated uses. These criteria can be numeric or narrative. Most entities typically adopt both types. S Antidegradation requirements. These provide the framework of water quality protection by maintaining the current uses of the water and protecting the quality that has already been achieved. S General policies for implementation. Based on EPA approval, states, territories, and authorized tribes are allowed to adopt

22 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

policies and provisions for implementation of water quality standards. Water quality standards are developed by states, territories, and authorized tribes using federal guidelines of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Each of these entities adopts its own legal and administrative procedures for adoption of their standards. Generally, they use the following steps: S Work groups or informal public meetings are held to develop the standards. The proposed standards are then put out for public comment. S Public hearings are scheduled to gather input from the public. S Water quality criteria must be included to provide sufficient coverage and be stringent enough to protect the designated uses. The water quality standards for each entity must be approved by EPA prior to implementation. If the standards are approved, they become applicable. After approval, entities must do a review of their standards at least once every three years. If all or part of an entity’s standards are not approved based on the requirement in the CWA, then EPA will outline necessary changes to meet the requirements.

The History of National Water Quality Month The United Nations declared 2005-2015 as the International Decade for Action “Water for Life” in order to emphasize the importance of water quality as it relates to sanitation, human rights, geography, urbanization, and sustainability. Emphasizing how interlinked water systems are, the Audubon Society points to the dangers of runoff from agriculture, forestry, construction, and people’s personal yards: “Each individual household or business may not produce enough pollution to force a beach closing or cause a fish kill, but the combined output of all the homes and businesses in a community can be severe, considering that about half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coastline where runoff flows quickly to the ocean. This is why watershed protection, with attention not only to the body of water, but the area that drains into it, is important.”

How to Celebrate National Water Quality Month reminds us to take a long, hard look at what households,

businesses, and communities are doing to protect sources of fresh water, which is important to everyone in myriad ways. Research done by the American Chemical Society, for instance, demonstrates that showering leads to greater exposure to toxic chemicals in tap water than drinking the water does. A person can absorb up to eight glasses of water through the skin during a quick 10-minute shower. Due to this fact, it’s imperative that all of the water that enters homes and businesses is safe and free from contaminants. What can your utility recommend that individuals, families, and businesses do to prevent water pollution from entering their homes, stores, and offices, especially during National Water Quality Month? Here’s a short list of things that can be done to help: S Not using antibacterial soaps or cleaning products. Regular soap and water will do the trick. Much of the antibacterial soaps contain a registered pesticide that is known to harm marine life. S Not flushing unwanted or out-of-date medications down the toilet or drain. S Not putting anything but water down storm drains because they carry water to local waterways. S Fixing leaks that drop from cars, vans, and


trucks and putting liners in driveways and garages to collect oil and other materials. A void using pesticides or chemical fertilizers. C hoose nontoxic cleaning products when possible. P ick up after pets. N ot paving properties. Have a private well tested and cleaned regularly, as there can be bacteria buildup in wells. E ncourage customers to read local water quality reports so that they know what the water quality is in their area.

Another option for your customers could be for them to gather a group of family, friends, coworkers, or neighbors and volunteer to clean a local water source. They could bring a picnic and hold a contest to see who can clean up the most trash and debris, offering a prize to the winning team. It’s a great way to get everyone in a community together and enjoy an outdoor day full of fun and doing something that’s good for the environment. Together we can all make a large impact. Spread the word to your customers, the media, and the public that August is National Water Quality Month! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


PRO CE S S PAG E Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This month’s column will highlight the Polk County Northwest Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility, which won the 2021 Earle B. Phelps Award in the advanced secondary category for facilities with a design capacity less than 5 mgd.

Award-Winning Polk County Northwest Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility: Operational Excellence on Display


Bartt C. Booz

he Northwest Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility (NWRWWTF) is the third-largest regional wastewater treatment facility in Polk County and one of three Polk County Utilities (PCU) plants to receive an Earle B. Phelps Award for 2021 in the advanced secondary category. The Earle B. Phelps Award is presented annually to wastewater treatment facilities that demonstrate exceptional effluent quality throughout the year and maintain the highest removal of major pollution-causing constituents. This award demonstrates the county’s dedication and commitment to protecting the environment and serving its community.

Facility Background The NWRWWTF is a 3-million-gallonper-day (mgd) design capacity plant in PCU’s Northwest Regional Utilities Service Area (NWRUSA). The facility is operated to provide secondary treatment with high-level disinfection and Class I reliability. Influent wastewater is

pumped to an elevated headworks structure for screening and grit removal prior to flowing to three oxidation ditches, with a total volume of 2.3 million gallons divided into anoxic and aerobic zones. Following the oxidation ditches, with the assistance of an intermediate pump station, wastewater flows to three secondary clarifiers (1.21 million gallons; 11,500 square feet of surface area) and two traveling bridge filters, with a total surface area of 1,600 square feet. After filtration, effluent flows to two chlorine contact chambers equipped with a chloramination chemical feed system (sodium hypochlorite and ammonium sulfate). The final plant effluent meeting reuse requirements is pumped to ground storage tanks, with a total capacity of 23 million gallons. Effluent not meeting reuse requirements is rejected to tanks and slowly returned to the headworks for retreatment through the onsite lift station. The sludge handling facility consists of two sludge digestors, with a combined capacity of 641,000 gallons and a mobile centrifuge for dewatering and landfill disposal. The facility is currently restricted to a permitted capacity of 1.582 mgd due the size of

View of the Northwest Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility Secondary Treatment Process, March 2022

24 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the part III slow-rate public access reclaimed water system that serves PCU’s master reuse service area; however, the facility is also equipped with an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) well that helps address fluctuations in reuse demands. At the time of installation, the ASR well was the deepest in the world at 2,944 feet. Reuse water distributed from the ground storage tanks or ASR well is distributed to the NWRUSA, including the Northwest Groves on Daughtery Road, onsite irrigation use, Latham Grove Site (including the Kathleen Historical Society), Cherry Hill sprayfield, Huntington Hills golf course, R. Clem Churchwell School rapid infiltration basin, and more than 11 residential developments. Table 1 summarizes the typical plant loadings and effluent quality.

Operational Challenges and Successes Discharging treated effluent to an ASR well presents operational challenges. The use of sodium hypochlorite alone for disinfection can produce disinfection byproducts (DBPs), particularly total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Discharging to the

View of the Northwest Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility Headworks, March 2022

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Screen of Chloramination Chemical Feed System

ASR brings with it stringent TTHM limits. The implementation of an ammonium sulfate chemical feed system to produce chloramines was designed to combat this specific issue. The key to consistent control of the chloramination system is complete nitrification in the activated sludge process. According to Ed Clark, PCU’s water pollution operator III for the NWRWWTF, “We found that operating more of our oxidation ditch volume than we theoretically needed to meet the permit allowed our chloramination system to operate more smoothly and avoid chasing our control setpoints. It also allows us to achieve the best product that we can make, which is a goal of our operating staff and PCU.” Chloramine equipment consists of two 1,500-gallon sodium hypochlorite tanks, one 1,000-gallon ammonium sulfate tank, one skid with three pumps for sodium hypochlorite, and one skid with two pumps for ammonium sulfate. The feed rate for the sodium hypochlorite is controlled by a compound loop from a dosing chlorine meter and effluent flow meter. The ammonium sulfate feed rate is controlled either by a compound loop by the effluent flow and a ChemScan analyzer measurement of free ammonia or a setpoint and flow pacing signal. One of the major enhancements that the county implemented to optimize the chlorine disinfection efficiency and further reduce chlorine consumption was to add shade balls to the chlorine contact chambers. While approximately 65 percent of the chlorine savings are attributed to the county’s operation of the mainstream process, approximately 35 percent of chlorine savings came from the addition of the shade balls. Originally, in August 2013, the Northwest

operators experimented with the balls in the chlorine contact chambers to reduce chemical costs. During the testing, it was discovered that the shade balls not only reduced chlorine consumption, but they also stabilized the residual by occupying the area of chlorinated water exposed to the environment (ultraviolet, wind, etc.). The balls virtually eliminated algae growth

that previously built up on the channel walls. In addition, the use of chloramines for disinfection reduced iron oxidation that stained the chlorine contact chamber walls. The use of the shade balls and chloramination system has all but eliminated cleaning of the chambers, except where the Continued on page 26

Table 1. Plant Loadings and Effluent Quality

cBOD (mg/L)





(mg/ L)

(mg/ (mg/L) L)

(mg/ L)

Nitra te (mg/ L)

TP (mg/ L)

Fecal Coliform (#/100 mL)

Annual Average Influent



57.7 7




<5.3 1


Annual Average Effluent





0.878 2.396

<1.2 50


% Removal


99.8 %

92.8 %


98.1 %


76.5 %


Permit Limit



Repo rt




Repo rt


Number of Occurrences Out of Compliance









Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


View of Chlorine Contact Chamber with Shade Balls, March 2022

Continued from page 25 channels are exposed to sunlight. To keep the balls in place, there is grating installed at the end of each contact chamber before the outfall.

Personnel The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) requires that the plant be staffed with state-certified operators for a minimum of six hours per day, seven days per

Pictured (left to right): Edward Clark, water pollution operator III; Charles Nichols Jr., north regional supervisor; Howard Coggin, water pollution operator I; and Sylvester Render, water pollution operator III. Not pictured: Roy Gerstner, water pollution operator III (deceased).

week. The facility currently has four level A operators and one level C operator on staff. The operations staff is comprised of: S Sylvester Render, water pollution operator III S Howard Coggin, water pollution operator I S Charles Nichols Jr., north regional supervisor S Edward Clark, water pollution operator III S Roy Gerstner, water pollution operator III (deceased)

26 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The dedication and hard work of the entire NWRWWTF operations, maintenance, and electrical/instrumentation staff resulted in Polk County’s NWRWWTF consistently producing exceptional effluent quality and exceeding all regulatory requirements. The 2021 Earle B. Phelps Award for Advanced Secondary Facilities for less than 5 mgd is well-earned by this dedicated team! Bartt Booz, P.E., is a senior project manager with Wright-Pierce in Maitland. S



SediVision helps wastewater managers ‘see’ and prioritize problems associated with reduced capacity by providing complete visibility in full wastewater tanks. SediVision reduces uncertainty in the quantity of material without the need to drain down a wastewater tank.

SEDIVISION FOR WASTEWATER MANAGERS Is loss of treatment volume a concern? Determine the size of the problem. Is inflow a problem? Determine collection system influence on treatment capacity. Establish a tank cleaning schedule. Plan capital expense and maintenance activity better. Eliminate the guesswork.



L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Build Safety Into Your Construction Site Visits Whether you're a utility field worker, inspector, manager, or supervisor, sooner or later you will work at, or visit, a busy construction site. When you do, keep in mind that a construction site can be the most-hazardous environment in which you will ever work.

Basic Guidelines and Site Hazards In general, follow all instructions that your guide or the site supervisor may give you; they will know the best way for you to safely navigate the site. You not only want to be safe, you want to be welcomed back in the future! It‘s common sense to have a general awareness of the construction site you're visiting. If there is a place where the materials appear to be unstable, or if employees are vigorously working, do not approach that area. Safety is the first priority, and if you approach an area where people are doing work, they may have to stop and disrupt their progress until you leave. Typical hazards on a construction site include: S Heavy equipment S High-traffic areas S Flying debris

Heavy Equipment Movement On any construction site, you are likely to find heavy equipment, such as backhoes, frontend loaders, and dump trucks. The best way to prevent injuries from these large machines is to keep your distance. When you can’t keep a safe distance, however, remember these few simple rules: S Make eye contact with the machinery operator before you go near the equipment. S Listen for backup alarms. S Watch out for pinch points between vehicles. S Always have an escape route in mind.

Traffic Movement Most construction sites make it a priority to safely move heavy equipment traffic around the site. When you enter a site, talk to the project manager about equipment movement and then mark your work area with plenty of cones, signs, and flashing arrows. If possible, park a vehicle between you and the rest of the construction site. As an added precaution,

point the wheels in the direction you want your vehicle to roll if it’s struck.

Flying Debris Watch out for flying debris, such as sparks, metal scraps, hot hydraulic fluids, dirt, and rocks. These can be launched toward you at any time, so make it a habit to be vigilant of your surroundings and to always wear a hard hat and safety glasses when on the site. Maintain a safe distance from flammable materials when around a saw, grinder, or other similar tools. Watch for small pieces of metal flying off flaring tools or hammered pieces of steel. Broken hydraulic hoses on heavy equipment can expel hot hydraulic fluid (another reason to keep your distance from heavy equipment).

Hands Off! It’s advised not to touch any materials on the construction site, especially any loose wires. Those wires may be live, and the materials could be sharp, rusty, or recently painted.

Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

28 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Wear Appropriate Clothing Wearing the right clothing and personal protective equipment will help to keep you safe. Hardhat On an active construction site, workers could be transporting materials above your head—with a crane, for example—or materials may not be secured. Hardhats will protect your head from any potential injury. Hardhats do have a shelf life, however! The date of manufacture should be printed on the inside of the hardhat, and it should be used for no more than four to five years from that date. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the hardhat manufacturer, can offer specific guidance. In addition, other factors, such as excessive temperatures (i.e., keeping your hardhat in your vehicle) can cause it to degrade more quickly and be less effective in the event of an impact. High-Visibility Vest It’s important to make sure that you can be easily seen on a construction site, so high-visibility vests are recommended. If someone wears clothes that blend in with the materials on the construction site, they can be easily overlooked and subject to injury. High-visibility outerwear makes you more noticeable, and reflective strips are essential to being seen, especially in low light situations. Appropriate Footwear Appropriate footwear includes boots or shoes with hard soles and preferably steel toes. Shoes with open toes, high heels, and soft soles (such as flip flops) are strongly discouraged as there are sharp objects that can be stepped on or heavy materials that can be dropped on your feet. Construction sites are often unlevel and appropriate footwear will decrease the chance of slipping or tripping. Safety Glasses Any active construction site is a hazard for your eyes. Dirt, dust, rocks, and construction materials are constantly moving around, including through the air. Wear safety glasses to protect your eyes from flying objects and other debris. Long Pants and Long Sleeve Shirt Sharp objects may be sticking up from the ground or out of a pile somewhere at the site, and you may be subject to scratches and cuts. Skirts, shorts, and dresses are discouraged everywhere on the construction site. Wearing

long pants and a long sleeve shirt will protect your legs and arms from harm.

Keep the Site Neat What is true around the office or at home is also true on a construction site—a little housekeeping can go a long way toward creating a safer site. If you’re a construction site supervisor, here are some recommendations for keeping a site safe: S Keep the construction site as clean as possible. Pick up discarded scrap materials and debris, including wood, protruding nails, forms, and fasteners. Work areas, passageways, and stairs should especially be kept clear and free of debris.

S P rovide separate waste containers for construction debris, office waste, and other trash or garbage. S Provide an appropriate container (with a lid) for hazardous wastes, such as oily rags and flammable solvents. S Keep incompatible materials separated. For more information go to the OSHA Pocket Guide on Construction Safety: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/ OSHA3252/3252.html. Remember that your safety on a jobsite affects the safety of others as well, because if you get hurt, others may get hurt trying to help you. Stay safe—for everyone’s sake! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


Abstract Submittal Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

Abstracts will be accepted in WORD ONLY via email to:

Call for Papers

Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., Technical Program Chair at h2o_man@bellsouth.net

Abstracts must be submitted by: Thursday, June 30, 2022 To participate in an FSAWWA conference, the first step is submitting an abstract to be considered for a presentation at the conference. There is no guarantee that the paper you submit will be chosen, but if your paper is well thought-out and pertinent to the subject matter of the conference, then your chances of being selected go up. FSAWWA wishes to invite authors and experts in the field to submit abstracts on a variety of sustainability topics, including:

Potential Session Categories 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

Cybersecurity Asset Management and GIS Sanitary Sewer Systems Potable Reuse PFAS/PFOS Emerging Water Quality Issues (UCMR 5 Testing, LCRR, etc.) Alternative Water Solutions – No-Surface - Discharge Rule, I Need More Water! Solutions for Water Treatment Challenges Hydraulic Modeling – Solutions to Increase Knowledge and Address Challenges Funding the Utility System Workforce planning – Is It Us? Water Conservation

Please attach a cover page to the abstract which includes the following information: a) Suggested Session Category b) Paper Title c) Names of Authors d) Name of Presenter(s) e) Main contact including name, title, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and email

“Best Paper” Competition Each year awards are presented to the best papers during the Fall Conference Business Luncheon.

Questions? Call 239-250-2423

Aging Well - Protecting Our Infrastructure Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Exhibit Schedule Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

Exhibit Registration Starts June 1, 2022

Monday, November 28 Set-up: 7:00am - 3:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Tuesday, November 29

Hall Open: 8:00 - 11:30am | 1:30 - 6:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Wednesday, November 30 Standard Booth @ $900 Includes:

• 8-foot X 10-foot booth space • One (1) six-foot draped table • Backdrop • Side drapery • Two (2) chairs

• Company sign • Wastebasket • Three (3) exhibit staff registrations • Additional exhibit staff $50/each

Exhibit booth spaces can include heavy equipment, workshops, portable equipment and showrooms. Flammable materials are prohibited. No modifications will be made to the backdrops or sidewalls without approval from the Exhibits Chair.

Online Registration is strongly recommended!

Hall Open: 8:00am - 12:00pm Tear Down: 1:00 - 6:00pm

Sponsorship Levels Premier | $1700

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Platinum | $1000

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Gold | $800

10% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Online Exhibitor registration at: www.fsawwa.org/2022exhibits

For additional info on sponsorship levels and benefits, visit:

No Refunds after September 1st.

Please Note: All promotional activity other than product demonstrations must be approved by FSAWWA prior to the conference.

Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2022hotel


Aging Well - Protecting Our Infrastructure Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.


The Roy Likins Scholarship Fund

Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure The FSAWWA Fall Conference brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, and students. Register and learn from the industry’s best through technical session, workshops, and exhibits. Network with water industry professionals. Over 160 exhibitors will give you first-hand information on the latest developments to help your utility take actions to implement Florida’s future.

Exhibitor Registration: Registration opens June 1, 2022 www.fsawwa.org/2022exhibits

Attendee Registration: Starts August 1, 2022 fsawwa.org/2022fallconference

For more information: fsawwa.org/2022fallconference Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2022hotel Host hotel is Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress

CHEER for Meter Madness!

Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!

Let loose at the RODEO!

Join the Tapping FUN!

Technical Sessions

• Cybersecurity • Asset Management and GIS • Sanitary Sewer Systems • Potable Reuse • PFAS/PFOS • Emerging Water Quality Issues (UCMR 5 Testing, LCRR, etc.) • Alternative Water Solutions – • • • • •

No-Surface - Discharge Rule, I Need More Water! Solutions for Water Treatment Challenges Hydraulic Modeling – Solutions to Increase Knowledge and Address Challenges Funding the Utility System Workforce planning – Is It Us? Water Conservation

Conference Highlights

• BBQ Challenge &

Incoming Chair’s Reception

• Operator Events:

Meter Madness Backhoe Rodeo Hydrant Hysteria Tapping Competition

Professionals Events: Aging Well - Protecting • YoungLuncheon Water Bowl Our Infrastructure

Fresh Ideas Poster Session

• Water for People’s Fundraising Events: Exhibitor’s Raffle Fundraiser


Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022.

Poker Tournament Monday, November 28, 2022 Starts at 9:00 pm TopGolf Tournament Wednesday, November 30, 2022 8:00 am Shotgun start

Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

2022 Water Distribution System Awards

Divisions based on the Number of Water Services Division 1 = 1 - 5,999 Division 2 = 6,000 - 12,999 Division 3 = 13,000 - 19,999

The FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards are presented to utilities whose outstanding performance during the preceding year deserves special recognition by the section.

Division 4 = 20,000 - 29,999

The Award Criteria is based upon the following:

Division 7 = 70,000 - 129,999

Water Quality Operational Records Maintenance Professionalism Safety Emergency Prepardness Cross Connection Control Program Must be an AWWA member (Organizational or Individual) Actively supports the activities of the FSAWWA Demonstrates high standards and integrity The selection committee is under the Manufacturers/Associates Council.

Division 8 = 130,000+

• • •

Division 6 = 46,000 - 69,999

Send applications to: Mike George 10482 Dunkirk Road Spring Hill, FL 34608 tapitflorida@att.net


2021 Winners: Division 1: Division 2: Division 3: Division 4: Division 5: Division 6: Division 7: Division 8:

Division 5 = 30,000 - 45,999

Not Awarded South Walton Utility Co., Inc. City of Zephyrhills Utility Department Bonita Springs Utilities, Inc. City of Boca Raton Utility Services Department Broward County Water and Wastewater Services Lee County Utilities Water Distribution Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department

Friday, October 21, 2022 Download the application form:

www.fsawwa.org/ distributionawards

E W Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to November 30, 2022.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Biosolids Regulation: Health, Safety, and Environmental Protection The Clean Water Act (CWA) and its amendments govern water pollution in the United States and are central to the mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect public health and the environment. Section 405(d) of the CWA requires EPA to: S E stablish numeric limits and management practices that protect public health and the environment from the reasonably anticipated adverse effects of chemical and microbial pollutants during the use or disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids). S R eview biosolids regulations every two years to identify any additional pollutants that may occur and then set regulations for those pollutants if sufficient scientific evidence shows they may cause harm.

current regulation, including the amendments, is available in the Code of Federal Regulations.

Process for Regulating Pollutants in Biosolids The CWA also requires EPA to review biosolids regulations every two years to identify any additional pollutants that may occur in biosolids and then set regulations for those pollutants if sufficient scientific evidence shows they may harm human health or the environment. The following items are to be followed: S B iennial reviews are conducted to identify publicly available data on previously and newly identified pollutants in biosolids. Reports are published with data that may be used to conduct risk assessments on pollutants found in biosolids. S S ewage sludge surveys will be conducted to identify pollutants in biosolids from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). S Th e EPA will screen those pollutants found in biosolids to identify which pollutants do not pose a risk and which exceed EPA’s levels of concern. A pollutant risk screening process increases EPA’s ability to invest more resources into pollutants that potentially present greater risk. S R isk assessments will be conducted on pollutants identified in biosolids that exceed a level of concern. The EPA may regulate those pollutants that pose risk.

Regulatory Determinations for Pollutants in Biosolids The following tables summarize the regulatory determinations for pollutants found in biosolids and the limits associated with those pollutants.For more complete information, refer to the references of the full regulatory determinations. Regulatory Determination and Pollutant Limits for Land-Applied Sewage Sludge Table 1. Land-Applied Sewage Sludge

Standards for the Use or Disposal of Biosolids Per the first requirement of CWA Section 405(d), EPA established requirements and management practices for the use and disposal of biosolids, and it issued the regulations found in 40 CFR Part 503. The 40 CFR Part 503, Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge, regulates sewage sludge that is applied to land, fired in a sewage sludge incinerator, or placed on a surface disposal site. It includes pollutant limits, pathogen and vector attraction reduction, management practices, monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting, among other requirements. The 40 CFR Part 503 applies to any person or treatment works that prepares sewage sludge, applies sewage sludge to the land, or fires sewage sludge in an incinerator, and the owners and operators of surface disposal sites. The 40 CFR Part 503 has been amended several times since the regulation was finalized in 1993. The original regulation, including the preamble to the regulation, is available in the Federal Register. The

34 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Annual Cumulative pollutant Ceiling Monthly average pollutant loading rate concentration concentrations loading rate (kilograms per (milligrams per (milligrams per (kilograms per hectare per kilogram)1 kilogram)3 hectare)2 365-day period)4 75 41 41 2.0 85 39 39 1.9 4300 1500 1500 75 840 300 300 15 57 17 17 0.85 75 420 420 420 21 100 100 100 5.0 7500 2800 2800 140

Arsenic Cadmium Copper Lead Mercury Molybdenum5 Nickel Selenium Zinc Dioxins and In 2003, EPA made a determination not to regulate dioxins and Dioxin-Like dioxin-like compounds in land applied sewage sludge. Compounds

Regulatory Determination and Pollutant Limits for Surface-Disposed Sewage Sludge Table 2. Surfaced-Disposed Sewage Sludge Pollutant Concentrations Active Sewage Sludge Unit Without a Liner and Leachate Collection Concentration (milligrams per kilograms)6 Arsenic 73 Chromium 600 Nickel 420 In 2001, EPA made a determination not to regulate Dioxins and Dioxin-Like dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in sewage sludge Compounds that is incinerated or placed on a surface disposal site. Pollutant Concentrations Active Sewage Sludge Unit Pollutant Without a Liner and Leachate Collection Concentration (milligrams per kilograms)6 Arsenic 73 Chromium 600 Nickel 420 In 2001, EPA made a determination not to regulate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in sewage sludge Dioxins and Dioxin-Like that is incinerated or placed on a surface disposal site. Compounds Pollutant


Table 3. Active Sewage Sludge Pollutant Concentrations Active Sewage Sludge Unit Without a Liner and Leachate Collection System that has a Unit Boundary to Property Line Distance Less Than 150 Meters7 0-less 25 to less 50 to less 100 to less 125 to less than 25 than than 75 to than than meters 50 meters 75 meters 100 meters 125 meters 150 meters Pollutant to to to to property to property to property property property property line line line line line line (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) Arsenic 30 34 39 46 53 62 Chromium 200 220 260 300 360 390 Nickel 210 240 270 320 390 420 Dioxins and In 2001, EPA made a determination not to regulate dioxins and Dioxin-Like dioxin-like compounds in sewage sludge that is incinerated or placed Compounds on a surface disposal site.

Regulatory Determination and Pollutant Limits for Incinerated Sewage Sludge Six pollutants are regulated in incinerated sewage sludge by 40 CFR Part 503. There are pollutant limits for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and total hydrocarbons, which is, in part, based on risk-specific concentrations developed by EPA.

Compliance The 40 CFR Part 503 is a self-implementing rule. This means that the requirements of Part 503 must be met, even if a permit has not been issued. An enforcement action can be taken against a person or a WWTP that does not meet the requirements of Part 503, even when that person or WWTP does not have a permit for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Annual Biosolids Reporting Certain treatment works specified by Part 503 are required to submit an annual report on biosolids treatment and management practices to the permitting authority by February 19 of each year. Additional information

is available, including annual reporting requirements, frequently asked questions, and training webinars. The EPA works with its federal, state, and tribal regulatory partners to monitor and ensure compliance with clean water laws and regulations. The CWA is the primary federal law governing water pollution. Treatment works that meet applicability requirements and either land-apply, surface-dispose, or incinerate sludge are required to submit an annual report to their permitting authority by February 19 of each year. These requirements apply to facilities if the design flow rate is equal to or greater than 1 million gallons per day, they serve 10,000 or more people, are required to have an approved pretreatment program (Class I sludge management facility), or are otherwise required to report. Electronic biosolids reporting began in 2017, which covered data from 2016. Reports are collected from the 41 states where EPA implements the federal biosolids program. There are currently nine states (Arizona, Idaho, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wisconsin) that are authorized through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program to be the permitting authority for biosolids. The EPA transitioned to electronic reporting for the remaining authorized states as part of Phase 2 implementation of the NPDES eRule.

Additional Information National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System The NPDES program oversees and regulates the discharge of pollutants into waters of the U.S. A NPDES permit translates general requirements of the CWA into specific provisions for a person or WWTP discharging pollutants into the water. Components of the NPDES program include the biosolids program, state NPDES permits, regulation of federal facilities, pretreatment program, and general permits program. States may receive authorization to run one or more of the NPDES program components. Pretreatment The goal of the pretreatment program is to prevent the introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) that will pass through or interfere with the operation of a POTW, including use and disposal of biosolids. The national pretreatment program is a component of the NPDES program. It’s a cooperative effort of federal, state, and local environmental Continued on page 36

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


Continued from page 35 regulatory agencies established to protect water quality. Similar to how EPA authorizes the NPDES permit program to state, tribal, and territorial governments to perform permitting, administrative, and enforcement tasks for discharges to surface waters, EPA and authorized NPDES state pretreatment programs approve local municipalities to perform permitting, administrative, and enforcement tasks for discharges into a municipality’s POTWs.

The national pretreatment program is designed to: S P rotect POTWs infrastructure. S Reduce conventional and toxic pollutant levels discharged by industries and other nondomestic wastewater sources into municipal sewer systems and into the environment.

Office of Inspector General The EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) is an independent office within EPA that helps the agency protect the environment in a moreefficient and cost-effective manner. The biosolids program was evaluated by the OIG in 2018 to determine whether EPA has the authority and can implement controls over the land application of sewage sludge.

Commitment to Human and Environmental Health The EPA continues to support the use of biosolids for land application. Biosolids are an important resource for the U.S., and EPA takes very seriously its statutory obligations to evaluate and regulate, where appropriate, contaminants in biosolids that may pose a risk to human health and the environment through discharges to waters subject to CWA jurisdiction. The presence of a pollutant in biosolids alone does not equate to scientific risk and EPA’s biosolids program is working hard to prioritize its risk assessment work for known, but not yet regulated, pollutants found in biosolids. S

36 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal


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WQA Announces Leadership, Excellence Award Winners 12 individuals, one company honored during 2022 convention Winners of the prestigious Hall of Fame and Lifetime Membership awards, as well as an Illinois company honored with the award for excellence, are among 13 honorees announced April 6 during the opening general session of the Water Quality Association (WQA) Convention and Exposition, recently held in Orlando.

Award Requirements Any WQA member is eligible for the leadership awards with a required minimum commitment or service to the water quality industry evidenced by engagement with WQA, a state or regional WQA, or other industry association. In addition to that, each award has individual requirements that must be met. Nominations are evaluated against the individual award criteria by the Nominating Committee, and recommended award recipients are reviewed and approved by the WQA board of governors and announced at the following year’s convention.

2022 Awards Hall of Fame Award The Hall of Fame Award, the highest honor bestowed on a WQA member and given for lifetime dedication and service to the industry and the association, went to Richard Mest, president of Master Water Conditioning Corp. Mest, who served as WQA president in 2013-14 and is completing his second year as Water Quality Research Foundation president, is an avid educator and the author of numerous technical articles on water treatment. He previously was honored with WQA’s Award of Merit (2006) Key Award (2011), and Lifetime Membership Award (2020). Lifetime Member Award Steve Ver Strat, former WQA president, who recently retired after more than 42 years with Amway Corp., is honored with the WQA Lifetime Member Award, which recognizes exemplary service to the association. Ver Strat was Amway’s regulatory policy director for the home environment category of products that included water and air filtration products and represented

the corporation in many national and international trade associations. He was also WQA president in 2019-2020. Excellence Award This award is given to WQA member companies who excel in their operations, innovation, customer service, or community involvement. This year it was awarded, in the manufacturer/supplier category, to Antunes, a water treatment and commercial kitchen appliance manufacturer in Carol Stream, Ill.

The company partners with the nonprofit organization Splash to bring clean water to children around the world through the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) program. Antunes’ ultrafiltration technology, designed for the challenges of the food service industry, treats water in public schools, hospitals, and other institutions to meet World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water quality. As of 2021, Splash and Antunes have partnered to provide clean water technology to nearly 900,00 children at more than 2,300 schools, hospital, shelters, and orphanages. Key Award This award, which honors members who demonstrate the highest quality of leadership within their company, industry, and various associations, including local civic and community activities, was given to Cindy Gresham, who recently retired as business development manager with Thermax Inc., where she worked for 17 years. Gresham served on the WQA board of directors from 2012-2018, with two of those years on the board of governors. She was also president of the Florida WQA from 2007-2009. Ray Cross Award This award, recognizing WQA members whose pioneer spirit and unwavering commitment made a notable difference in the water treatment industry, was presented to Bob

38 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Maisner, vice president of sales and marketing for Paragon Water. Maisner has been a member of WQA for the past 25 years, serving on many committees and task forces and currently serving on the Industry Research Committee. He served on the WQA board of governors for eight years and was WQA president in 2017-2018. Regents Award This award, presented to individuals who have made significant contributions at the state or local level, went to Mike Heatwole, MWS, a territory sales manager for Water-Right Inc. A frequent speaker at WQA conventions, Heatwole has taught on water quality and water treatment topics at numerous state associations and other events in the United States. Award of Merit In recognition of exceptional service to the water quality improvement industry, this award goes to two recipients: S C laudia Milliron, market research manager at Kinetico Inc., who has chaired the WQA Market Research Committee, led the reverse osmosis task force, and is now chair of the newly created WQA Thrive Advisory Council. S C andice Wentling, MWS, director of Certified Action, a business advisement and training company, has been conducting sales training, field coaching, and leadership accountability seminars for the last 16 years, including many for WQA. Honorary Membership Award This award is given to someone outside the water treatment industry with meritorious contributions to humanity though research, education, or exemplary service. This year, it went to Sen. Tammy Baldwin (D-Wis.). She serves on the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (HELP); the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation; and the Senate Appropriations Committee. She is also chair of the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies. She is

sponsoring WQA’s Clean Water for All initiative in the Senate. Next Gen Award This award is given to individuals who are 40 years or younger and have demonstrated a commitment to the betterment of the water treatment industry. It went to two rising stars this year: S T rent Jacobi, senior director–water treatment for GE Appliance, a Haier company, who serves on the WQA board of directors. He has been in the water treatment industry for 14 years and mentors youth in his community by leading several sports teams and actively volunteering in youth programming at his church.

S A riane Paris, who is a 20-year veteran of the water quality industry and founder and chief executive officer of Ethical H2O in San Diego, a company that was named one of the top dealers of 2020 by WQP Magazine. Paris serves as vice chair of the WQA Women in Industry Advisory Council and mentors for WQA’s LEAD mentoring program. President’s Club The association also honored two members with President’s Club memberships for recruiting at least three new companies to join WQA in the last year: S Roy Esparza, MWS, CI, CWR, Puronics Water Systems Inc. S Kelly Thompson, MWS, CI, Moti-Vitality

More details about the awards and honorees can be found on the WQA website at www.wqa.org. About WQA The WQA is a not-for-profit trade association representing the residential, commercial, and industrial water treatment industry. Its education and professional certification programs have been providing industry-standardized training and credentialing since 1977. The WQA Gold Seal certification program has been certifying products that contribute to the safe consumption of water since 1959 and is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the Standards Council of Canada (SCC). The organization also offers a consumer-friendly website, BetterWaterToday.org. S

Richard Mest

Steve Ver Strat

Cindy Gresham

Bob Maisner

Mike Heatwole

Claudia Milliron

Candice Wentling

Sen. Tammy Baldwin (D-Wis.)

Trent Jacobi

Ariane Paris

Roy Esparza

Kelly Thompson

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022



Ed Torres

Orange County Utilities Work title and years of service. I currently serve as the director of Orange County Utilities (OCU). I have over 30 years of experience, with 15 years as a director at other utilities and one year in my role at OCU. What does your job entail? My responsibilities include providing leadership, vision, and guidance to the OCU organization, aligning with the mayor’s and county administration’s vision and goals. I also collaborate, assist, and provide expertise to other departments and support county initiatives. Most importantly, it’s my duty to ensure long-term, sound, and efficient water, wastewater, reclaimed water, and solid waste services for our residents and visitors. What education and training have you had? I hold bachelor’s and master of science degrees in civil engineering from the Florida

Institute of Technology, and have over 30 years of progressive leadership experience in service delivery and effective program management. I have spearheaded the implementation of numerous novel and complex water resources, solid waste, and renewable energy projects throughout my career. My water resources experience ranges from potable reuse to industrial wastewater and stormwater pollutant load abatement projects. I have knowledge and expertise in managing enterprise-funded service delivery experiences, including traditional water, wastewater, and reclaimed water service delivery, as well as inhouse and contracted municipal solid waste and recycling services. In addition to my daily responsibilities, I am a licensed professional engineer in Florida and a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Accredited Professional (LEED AP) with a strong interest in sustainability and renewable energy. I am also a member of the board of directors for the FWEA Utility Council and a former board member of the Florida Stormwater Association.

What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to FSAWWA, FWEA, National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA), Florida Stormwater Association (FSA), Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), and Florida Engineering Society (FES).

What do you like best about your job? The best thing about my job is being able to encourage innovation, collaboration, and education throughout the organization, while giving back to our community. We are implementing multiple sustainability and renewable projects and participating in several research initiatives. We are also looking at expanding our educational programs to offer a wastewater treatment plant operator apprenticeship program to high school students.

What do you do when you’re not working? I enjoy spending time with my family. We like being at the beach and doing water-related activities (surfing, windsurfing, paddleboard, kayaking). When we leave Florida, we also enjoy skiing and mountain hiking trips. I’m very proud of my two children: my son is a biomedical scientist currently working on Alzheimer’s research, and my daughter is a mechanical engineer working in the aerospace industry. S

How have the organizations helped your career? These organizations have been instrumental in providing training, an open exchange of ideas, and networking opportunities for like-minded individuals in the utilities business. What do you like best about the industry? I really enjoy the broad collaboration that exists in all aspects of our industry, including with operations staff, consultants, manufacturers, and contractors. The ability to call colleagues, brainstorm, plan, and implement ideas is extremely fulfilling.

Above: At the GoPro Mountain Games in Vail, Colo. At left: Skiing in Lake Tahoe.

40 40 June June 2022 2022 •• Florida Florida Water Water Resources Resources Journal Journal



for the latest updates on classes June

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July 11-13..... Backflow Repair Course.................................................St. Petersburg..... $275/305 13..... Backflow Tester Recertification.....................................St. Petersburg..... $85/115 18-21..... Wastewater Collections B...............................................Deltona............... $325 25-29..... Reclaimed Water Field Inspector...................................Winter Garden..... $350/380 29..... Backflow Tester Recertification.....................................Deltona............... $85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. *B ackflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022



Expanding Biosolids Acceptance Sondra W. Lee, P.E. President, FWEA


onversations about biosolids are certainly not commonplace outside of the water industry; however, occasionally the topic of “what do you do for a living” is brought up outside of the workplace. In general, I’ll just state that I’m a wastewater treatment engineer, which will spark a variety of reactions— from disinterested to genuinely curious. Sometimes the conversation will lead to a quick overview of what happens at a water reclamation facility. Every so often I will be able to enjoy seeing a person’s change of perspective when they hear what happens to “all the stuff ” that’s sent down the drain. This also frequently happens when giving tours at treatment facilities. When I have the opportunity to conduct a tour at the City of Tallahassee’s Thomas P. Smith Water Reclamation Facility, it usually ends at the biosolids thermal drying facility. Here I enjoy showing our guests the final product, which forms into a nice round pellet. If it’s a nontechnical group, I will use the term “soil

amendment” instead of calling it Class AA biosolids, explaining that it’s similar to products you might find sold in a garden center. When the public hears that we sell our product to farmers, golf courses, and fertilizer bagging firms, they often can make the switch from seeing biosolids as something gross to seeing it as a recovered resource.

Public Outreach Little by little we can help change the perspective of the general public. One vector for improving the perception of biosolids is through reaching out to students. Giving facility tours to kids and college students can be a lot of fun, for both the tour guests and the operators or engineers giving the tour. I highly recommend that more utilities invite youth to their facilities. In addition to facility tours, there is a great book available from FWEA at no cost for educators (and all members!) to educate students on how renewable resources can be recovered from wastes, while also promoting environmental sustainability. Entitled “Residuals. Biosolids. Sludge.” this 195-page book contains 14 lesson plans to introduce students to some of the issues that our biosolids industry faces, like public acceptance, regulations, and emerging contaminants. I highly encourage you to share this book with any middle or high school

42 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

teachers you know. It can be found on the FWEA website, under the “Resources” drop down menu, or directly using this link: www. fwea.org/biosolids_infusion_unit.php. As more of the public gains a better understanding that biosolids can be a resource, it may make other more-difficult conversations a little easier to handle. To aid you in your conversations with people about the topic of biosolids, you may want to visit the National Biosolids Data Project site at www.biosolidsdata.org. This site endeavors to demonstrate how biosolids are used and managed in the United States. Information is available for most states and provides a visual comparison among them. It’s probably of no surprise that, since 2004, Florida has seen a significant drop in solids treated to Class B, and that today, most of Florida’s biosolids meet Class AA standards and are distributed and marketed as fertilizer.

Committee Involvement For those who want to get more involved with professional education or public outreach regarding biosolids there are a few committees that may be of interest to you. Biosolids Committee The Biosolids Committee promotes education, networking, and sound public

policy in the field of biosolids, while advocating proper management of biosolids by utilities, haulers, land appliers, and other biosolids end users. The committee develops technical education seminars and routinely conducts conference calls to keep its membership informed. The committee also coordinates with the WEF Residuals and Biosolids Committee to disseminate national information to local members. Be on the lookout for a biosolids seminar to be held late summer or early fall this year. This committee is currently chaired by Tony Pevec with Freese and Nichols.

Public Communications and Outreach Committee The Public Communications and Outreach Committee (PCOC) facilitates communications between our members and the public on water environment issues. The committee seeks to educate the public, particularly students in grades K-12, about the clean water profession. This is accomplished through several projects and programs, including a high school video contest, Stockholm Junior Water Prize, and the Biosolids Infusion Unit, and by promoting Water Environment Federation (WEF) PCOC initiatives. The PCOC is a resource

for members looking to enhance their public education efforts, providing support through the development and implementation of educational resources. This committee is chaired by Shea Dunifon, who works for Pinellas County. Please consider looking into the resources mentioned and reaching out to Tony or Shea to learn more, or to get involved (assistance in planning the biosolids seminar is desired). Their contact information can be found at www.fwea.org by clicking on “Committees” from the “Membership” drop down menu. S

NEWS BEAT James Clinch has been named the new director of public works and asset management James Clinch for City of Venice. “The appointment of James Clinch brings an experienced professional with a working knowledge of Venice government,” said Ed Lavallee, city manager. “James possesses the essential tools to lead the complex department that includes general fund and enterprise fund components. As a licensed civil engineer, James has great technical knowledge, demonstrates exceptional interpersonal skills, and has earned the respect and admiration of his colleagues.” Clinch will transition to his new directorship as he completes projects currently underway in the city’s engineering department. Clinch has worked for the city for six and a half years, the last three as assistant city engineer. Major projects he has managed during his tenure in engineering include the Heritage Park Multi-Use Trail (designer and project manager); Outfall 1 and 2 Dune Treatment System (designer and project manager); numerous new city parking areas, public sidewalks, and the recent

road bond resurfacing project (designer and project manager); Downtown Venice Beautification Project (assisted with design and project management); and the Service Club Park boardwalk reconstruction (project manager). “The City of Venice is truly a wonderful community in which to work and reside. Our public works department has the privilege of providing our residents with the beautiful public spaces and high-quality city services that make Venice such a nice community,” Clinch said. “I am excited to bring my engineering and project management experience into this department and work on building a culture based on teamwork, respect, and progress. This department has many challenging projects in the near future, and I’m confident that, working together with the talented public works staff, we can accomplish many things.” “James first impressed me with his strong engineering and construction management skills when he completed value engineering and design upgrades to the very complicated Venice Avenue drainage project, while working as a consultant for the city,” said Kathleen Weeden, city engineer. “The city was fortunate enough to recruit him as a stormwater engineer in 2012, and he was selected as the assistant

city engineer in 2015. He is a firstrate engineer, but beyond that, he is a strong leader. He uses a collaborative approach to resolve complicated projects without clear solutions to find the mosteffective method of addressing the problems from a technical

and economic perspective. James is a well-respected, approachable leader who inspires those around him with his positive, can-do attitude.” Clinch, 35, lives in Venice with his wife, Casey, and their S two children.

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Hurricane Preparedness and Response? Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per the Florida Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN) website, FlaWARN is a formalized mutual aid response network/ consortium of utilities willing to provide critical resources to member utilities during manmade or natural disasters. Which utilities may become members of FlaWARN? a. All water and wastewater utilities. b. Only utilities that are members of the Florida Rural Water Association. c. Privately owned utilities only. d. Publicly owned utilities only. 2. T he Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) has combined its former StormTracker website with the FlaWARN event tracker to create one source for all water and wastewater facilities to report event-related status, and to submit needs and request resources. This new system is on what website? a. Florida Storm Warning and Emergency Response (Florida StormWARN) b. Florida Water Assistance Tracking and Emergency Response (Florida WATER Tracker) c. Florida Water/Wastewater Agency Response and Tracking (Florida WARNTracker) d. Florida Water Emergency Response Tracker (Florida WERT) 3. Per the FDEP “Storm Preparation Guide,” planning efforts should be completed well in advance of a forecasted storm. The four key components of a hurricane plan are communication, development of plans and procedures, training, and a. assessments. b. cybersecurity. c. r estoration. d. staging. 4. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Resilient Strategies Guide for Water Utilities,” states that “through integrated strategies, utilities can ensure that actions will address a broad range of challenges, while remaining flexible enough to adapt to changing conditions and new information.” Three categories of strategies include planning strategies, operational strategies, and a. budget strategies. b. capital/infrastructure strategies. c. communication strategies. d. political strategies.

5. Per the EPA Creating Resilient Water Utilities website, an interactive tool that assists water sector utilities in assessing climate-related risks to utility assets and operations is the a. Adaptive Tropical Storm Assessment Tool (ATSAT). b. Climate Change Preparedness Tool (CCPT). c. Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT). d. Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool (VSAT). 6. Per the EPA guide, “How to Develop a Multi-Year Training and Exercise (T&E) Plan – A Tool for the Water Sector,” there are seven types of training exercises, each of which is either discussion-based or operations-based. Which type of exercise examines and/or validates the coordination, command, and control among various agencies, such as water, public health, fire, law enforcement, and emergency operations centers? a. A drill b. A full-scale exercise c. A functional exercise d. A game 7. Per the National Institute of Environmental Health and Safety booklet, “Safety Awareness for Responders to Hurricanes – Protecting Yourself While Helping Others,” a hazard that can occur when responding after a hurricane includes a painful condition that occurs when the feet are wet for a long period of time called a. foot neuroma. b. plantar fasciitis. c. Gout. d. t rench foot. 8. Per the FlaWARN website, what document is needed to ensure formalized and standardized terms and conditions of reimbursement prior to requesting and receiving assistance? a. A certified list of costs b. A standardized mutual aid agreement c. A work and materials contract d. An FDEP approval form 9. Per the EPA Incident Action Checklist – Hurricane, what should drinking water systems do with storage tanks during the pre-landfall hurricane activities? a. Ensure all hatches are open. b. Empty all water storage tanks to allow room for rainfall. c. Fill storage tanks to full capacity to maximize storage. d. Leave storage tanks in their present condition, regardless of level. 10. Per the EPA guide, “Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply,” there are four basic source alternatives for providing an emergency drinking

44 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

water supply during or after a disaster. These are local sources, neighboring water utilities, prepackaged water, and a. atmospheric water generation. b. bulk water. c. pumped water from nearby rivers or lakes. d. point of use water systems. Answers on page 50 References used for this quiz: • Florida Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN) website: https://flawarn.pwd.aa.ufl.edu • Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Water Tracker website: https://flwatertracker.com/?rtn=// • Florida Department of Environmental Protection, “Storm Preparation Guide”: https://floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/WRMStormPrepGuideChecklist_.pdf • National Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, “Safety Awareness for Responders to Hurricanes – Protecting Yourself While Helping Others”: https://tools.niehs.nih.gov/wetp/public/hasl_get_blob. cfm?ID=9716 • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Resilient Strategies Guide for Water Utilities”: https://www.epa.gov/crwu/resilient-strategies-guidewater-utilities#/ • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “How to Develop a Multi-Year Training and Exercise (T&E) Plan – A Tool for the Water Sector”: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2015-05/ documents/how_to_develop_a_multi-year_training_ and_exercise_plan_a_tool_for_the_water_sector.pdf • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Creating Resilient Water Utilities website: https://www.epa.gov/crwu • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Incident Action Checklist – Hurricane: https://www.epa.gov/system/files/documents/2021-10/ incident-action-checklist-hurricanes_508c-final.pdf • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Planning for Emergency Drinking Water Supply”: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2015-03/ documents/planning_for_an_emergency_drinking_ water_supply.pdf

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

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Get Rewarded Tell a Colleague About AWWA You know AWWA provides the best technical resources and networking opportunities in the water sector. Refer a colleague and get rewarded for each person who joins. More members mean more connections and resources for you! Learn more at www.awwa.org/getrewarded

Dedicated to the World’s Most Important Resource®


Your Voice Has Impact Emilie Moore, P.E., PMP, ENV SP Chair, FSAWWA

policies to be advocated to the Florida Legislature and regulatory agencies. The WUC Legislative Committee conducts conference calls during Florida’s legislative sessions to discuss proposed legislation and possible impacts to utilities.

Water Matters! Fly-In


have always had great appreciation for our Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) Water Utility Council (WUC) and volunteers, and events over the past couple of years have highlighted the importance of our WUC.

Actions of State and National Utility Councils Starting over two years ago, in March 2020, during the beginning of the pandemic and to this day, the FSAWWA WUC and the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) Utility Council have conducted open conference calls with all of our statewide water and wastewater utility professionals to discuss various operations topics, such as managing the utility workforce during the early stages of the pandemic and the availability of chemicals for treatment processes, which are still of concern today with our supply chain challenges. Additionally, statewide, our WUC, in coordination with AWWA’s WUC, develops

Nationally, our AWWA WUC is highly engaged and recently hosted the annual Water Matters! Fly-In, held in Washington, D.C., on April 27 and 28. The first AWWA Fly-In was held in the spring of 2002 with the purpose of advancing AWWA’s legislative issues on Capitol Hill utilizing the grassroots power of AWWA by meeting with members of Congress and their staffs to discuss pressing water issues. The Fly-In has helped establish, with these congressional members, our AWWA water professionals as authoritative sources of knowledge and expertise on drinking water issues. Approximately 140 AWWA delegates from across the United States attended this year’s Fly-In to meet with their respective members of Congress and their staff members. The three focused talking points this year were: S Infrastructure funding (bipartisan infrastructure law appropriations) S Cybersecurity S Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) liability exemption

2022 AWWA Water Matters! Fly-In Issues Briefing (photo: Emilie Moore)

46 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The Florida Section was well represented by members of our FSAWWA WUC and we met in person with more than 13 congressional members and/or their staffs.

Water Week 2022: April 24-30 The Fly-In was held in conjunction with Water Week 2022, which is held annually in the spring. Water Week encourages the advancement of key water policy priorities, such as increasing federal infrastructure investment, addressing water affordability, supporting water research and development, and making critical infrastructure more resilient. Water Week 2022 was supported by AWWA and 19 partners, including the following: S A merican Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) S W ater Environment Federation (WEF) S W ateReuse S A ssociation of Clean Water Administrators (ACWA) S A ssociation of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA) S A merican Public Works Association (APWA)

The U.S. Capitol (photo: Emilie Moore)

S Association of State Drinking Water Administrators (ASDWA) S Council of Infrastructure Financing Authorities (CIFA) S National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) S National Association of Flood and Stormwater Management Agencies (NAFSMA) S National Association of Sewer Service Companies (NASSCO) S National Association of Water Companies (NAWC) S National Rural Water Association (NRWA) S Rural Community Assistance Partnership (RCAP) S U.S. Water Alliance S Water Quality Association S Water Research Foundation S Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (WWEMA) The 19 organizations intersected at the Water Week reception on April 27, which provided a great opportunity to network with other like-minded professionals passionate about all things water.

AWWA Drinking Water Week 2022 The AWWA and its members recognized and celebrated Drinking Water Week from May 1-7, 2022. The week provides a unique opportunity for both water professionals and the communities we serve to recognize the vital role water plays in our daily lives. Drinking Water Week was brought by AWWA to the attention of the U.S. Government in 1988, which formed a coalition, along with the League of Women Voters, the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Rep. Robert Roe and Sen. Dennis DeConcini subsequently sponsored a resolution to name

the first week of May each year as Drinking Water Week, and the week-long observance was declared in a joint congressional resolution signed by then-president Ronald Reagan. Downloadable materials are available from AWWA on its website, including logos, social media posts, proclamations, radio public service announcements (PSAs), press releases, and children’s activities, including an artwork contest. All of these can assist with your organization’s drinking water celebration in the future.

Your Voice Local and national opportunities abound for water utilities and associates to make a difference in water policy and in celebrating drinking water. I encourage your participation in these outreach opportunities—your voice has impact and Water Matters! S

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

POSITIONS AVAILABLE Project Manager Water and Wastewater Utilities - Tavares, FL

Halff Associates, Inc. has an immediate opening for a Water and Wastewater Utilities Project Manager in our Tavares, FL office.


Hourly range (PG 54): $25.95 to $42.60 Outside Hire Starting Pay Range: $19.56 to $32.39 hourly depending on qualifications. Closing date: Open until filled. Excellent benefits to include employer paid health, dental, life, short & long term disability and retirement. To obtain a job application, please visit the Seacoast Utility Authority website at: http://www.sua.com/hr-careers/career-opportunities Please submit your application and resume to: Seacoast Utility Authority Human Resources Department 4200 Hood Rd Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410 E-Mail: HR@sua.com Phone: 561-656-2258

Qualifications: • B achelors or Masters degree in Civil or Environmental Engineering • 5 + years of experience to support Water/Wastewater Utility projects including pipeline and facility planning and design • L icensed PE, preferably in Florida or can obtain within 6 months • W ater/Wastewater treatment plant experience required • P ump station, water storage and large diameter pipeline design experience desired • A bility to manage projects, clients, and support staff • E xperience with AutoCAD, WaterCAD, SewerCAD preferred To apply: https://www.halff.com/join-our-team/ Halff Associates is an Equal Opportunity Employer, including disability and protected veteran status.

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022


CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS • Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III • Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III • Public Service Worker II – Stormwater • S uperintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater • W astewater Plant Operator – Class C

Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

CADD Technician–Water Wastewater–Tavares, Florida

Halff Associates, Inc. has an immediate opening for a Computer Aided Design Drafter (CADD) Technician in our Tavares, FL office to perform drafting, plans preparation and to work with design professionals on our Water/Wastewater team. Responsibilities: - Prepare drawings for utility projects, including utility lines, plants, pump stations and associated infrastructure utilizing CAD software - Actively participate in implementing and monitoring continuous improvement initiatives to improve project quality - Support multiple projects when needed and help ensure timely completion of assignments Requirements: - 3+ years of working experience in the Civil Engineering industry, water and wastewater utilities preferred but not required - Experience in AutoCAD - Drafting Certificate or Associates Drafting Degree a plus

Project Engineer Water and Wastewater Utilities - Tampa, FL

Halff Associates, Inc. has an immediate opening for a Water and Wastewater Utilities Project Engineer in our Tampa, FL office. Qualifications: • Bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering • Licensed PE, preferably in Florida or can obtain within 6 months • 4+ years of experience designing Water/Wastewater utility projects including pipeline and facility planning and design • Pump station, water storage and large diameter pipeline design experience required • Water/Wastewater treatment plant experience desired • Ability to engage in plans production, coordinate project deliverables production, and support EI staff • Experience with AutoCAD, WaterCAD, SewerCAD preferred

To apply: https://www.halff.com/join-our-team/ Halff Associates is an Equal Opportunity Employer, including disability and protected veteran status.

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Utility Asset Program Manager, Asst Chief Plant Operator, Plant Operator Trainee, Industrial Electrician, Electronics Technician, Field Technician, Meter Reader, Apprentice or Senior Maintenance Mechanic. Apply at www.titusville.com

To apply: https://www.halff.com/join-our-team/ Halff Associates is an Equal Opportunity Employer, including disability and protected veteran status.

Water Treatment Plant Operators

The Water Treatment Plant at Village of Wellington is currently accepting applications for a full-time Water Operator. Apply online. Job postings and application are available on our website:. https://wellingtonfl.munisselfservice.com/employees/ EmploymentOpportunities/JobDetail.aspx?req=20&sreq= 5&form=WTO3&desc=OPERATOR III, WATER TREATMENT PLANT We are located in Palm Beach County, Florida. The Village of Wellington offers great benefits. For further information, call Human Resources at (561) 753-2585.

48 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator “C” Salary Range: $52,645.98 - $84,011.20

The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority’s WASTEWATER DIVISION IS GROWING, and we need (2) WWTP Operators with a Florida “C” license or higher. You will perform skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant. This requires technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance on plant equipment, machinery, and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Location: Big Coppitt Key and Duck Key, FL. Must complete on-line application at www.fkaa.com EEO, VPE, ADA

Wastewater Treatment Operator

The Ocean Reef Community Association (ORCA), located in North Key Largo, FL, has a Full-Time position available for a Wastewater Treatment Operator. The Wastewater Treatment Operator is responsible for recording and interpreting data to generate reports of the plant. Selected candidate assist with the operation of a secondary level 350,000 gal/day wastewater treatment plant, wastewater collection system, and a reverse osmosis water treatment plant and ancillary facilities. In addition, selected candidate will collect samples and perform routine laboratory analyses. Selected candidate must respond to emergency call outs during weekends, holidays, and nonbusiness hours to ensure continued operation of public facilities. High School Diploma or equivalent is required. Community College and/or Correspondence courses in utility infrastructure are desirable. A valid Florida Driver License is required. A Florida Class C Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator License is required. One (1) to three (3) years of experience is preferred. Please visit orcareef.com to view the full job description/requirements and apply online. orcareef.com

Coral Springs Improvement District has multiple positions available Drinking Water Plant Operator Applicants must have a valid Class C water treatment license or greater and experience in Reverse Osmosis/Nano Filtration treatment processes preferred however not required. Position requirements include knowledge of methods, tools, and materials used in the controlling, servicing, and minor repairs of all related R.O. water treatment facilities machinery and equipment. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license, satisfactory background check and pass a pre-employment drug screening test. Salary range for this position is $47,008 - $74,880. Salary to commensurate relative to years of experience and license held in this position. Wastewater Plant A Operator Applicants must have a valid Class A Wastewater Treatment license. Operates sewage treatment, sludge processing, and disposal equipment in a wastewater (sewage) treatment plant to control flow and processing of sewage. This employee is responsible for keeping within permit discharge limits and routinely monitors the flow of wastewater and chemical levels. Salary range for this position if $58,240 - $74,880. Salary to commensurate relative to years of experience in this position. Excellent compensation including defined benefit and matching 457 pension plan. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at www.csidfl.org/resources/employment.html and fax resume to 954-753-6328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Stormwater Utility Manager

$54,156- $93,849 http://cityofcocoabeach.hrmdirect.com/employment/job-opening. php?req=2032929&&&internal=4680&#job Are you looking for a career, great benefits, a place to grow and accomplish things? Florida Rural Water Association is looking for motivated, willing to learn and “think outside the box” people to fill open positions within the Association. If you like assisting water/wastewater utilities and either love working in the water and wastewater field or want to learn more about the industry, then we have a career for you! If you have any experience in municipal drinking water/wastewater knowledge, skills, and abilities. Enjoy traveling and seeing Florida. Computer skills would be a plus. Good oral and writing abilities is necessary. Full-Time Employee Professional Exempt. Great benefit package. Pay based on experience. Send resume to Florida Rural Water Association, 2970 Wellington Circle, Tallahassee FL 32309. Fax: 850-8934581. E-mail to: frwa@frwa.net. EOE/M/F/D/V/H/AA/S/DFW Employer.

Water Reclamation Plant Chief Operator

City of St. Petersburg - Water Reclamation Plant Chief Operator (IRC54693) This is highly responsible supervisory and technical work involving planning, organizing, and directing the daily operation of a large complex water reclamation facility, associated lift stations, injection wells and effluent pumping system. The position requires a self-directed and motivated individual who is capable of developing and supervising a team to achieve maximum results. Requirements: valid High School Diploma or GED; valid Driver License; State of Florida Wastewater Operator “A” Certificate; considerable progressive experience in the operation of a reclaimed water treatment plant. Closes: 06-06-2022; $28.97 - $49.26; See details at www.stpete.org/jobs EEO-AA-Employer-Vet-DisabledDFWP-Vets’’ Pref

Multiple Positions Available Classified Ad Text: The Town of Davie Utilities Department is looking for qualified candidates to join the team. Available positions are: • Plant Operators Class "C" Water or Wastewater; • Regulatory Technician-Will Call; • Lead Operator; • Compliance Specialist; • Project Manager. To learn more about the positions and complete and application go to https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/davie

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2022



Test Yourself Answer Key From page 44 January 2016

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May ................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; Florida Water Resources Conference Wrap Up August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index AWWA Membership Rewards ������������������������������������������ 45 Blue Planet Environmental Systems �������������������������������� 51 CEU Challenge ������������������������������������������������������������������ 8 Data Flow ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 36 FSAWWA Fall Conference ������������������������������������������ 30-33 FWPCOA Training Calendar �������������������������������������������� 41 Gerber Pumps �������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Heyward ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump ������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Hydro International ������������������������������������������������������������� 5 InfoSense ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43 Lakeside ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 PolyProcessing ���������������������������������������������������������������� 26 US Submergent ��������������������������������������������������������������� 27 UF TREEO Center ����������������������������������������������������������� 37 Xylem ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 52

50 June 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. A ) All water and wastewater utilities.

Per the FlaWARN website, About FlaWARN page, “FlaWARN is: • A formalized mutual aid response network/ consortium of utilities willing to provide critical resources to member utilities during manmade or natural disasters. • Open to all water and wastewater utilities. • Designed to help protect public health and the environment. • A support entity to Florida county and state departments of emergency management. • A support entity to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and conduit to the WATER Tracker resourcing database. • Not a corporation or government entity.”

2. B ) Florida Water Assistance Tracking and Emergency Response (Florida WATER Tracker)

Per the FDEP Florida Water Tracker website, “This new system combines FDEP’s former StormTracker website and Florida Water/ Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN) event tracker. The overall solution was to create one source for all water and wastewater facilities to report event-related status, and to submit needs and request resources. This new system is designed for all hazard types to include both natural hazards (tropical storms, hurricanes, floods, etc.) and malevolent acts (contamination of finished water or source water, assault, cyberattack, etc.).”

3. A) assessments.

The FDEP “Storm Preparation Guide” states that “These planning efforts rely on four key components: communication, development of plans and procedures, training, and assessments.”

4. B ) capital/infrastructure strategies.

The EPA “Resilient Strategies Guide for Water Utilities” states that “Through integrated strategies, utilities can ensure that actions will address a broad range of challenges, while remaining flexible enough to adapt to changing conditions and new information. . The three categories of strategies included are: • Planning strategies, which include use of models, research, training, supply and demand planning, natural resource management, land use planning and collaboration at watershed and community scales; • Operational strategies, which include efficiency improvements, monitoring, inspections, conservation, demand management and flexible operations; and • Capital/infrastructure strategies, which include construction, water resource diversification, repairs and retrofits, upgrades, phased construction, and new technology adoption.”

5. C ) Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT). Per the EPA Creating Resilient Water Utilities website, “CREAT is a tool that assists water sector utilities in assessing climate-related risks to utility assets and operations. Throughout CREAT’s five modules, users consider climate impacts and identify adaptation options to

increase resilience. The modules are: 1. Climate Awareness: Provide basic utility information; increase awareness of climate impacts; 2. Scenario Development: Understand utility risk; design scenarios of threats based on climate data; 3. Consequences and Assets: Outline potential consequences; catalog critical assets; 4. Adaptation Planning: Inventory current actions that provide resilience; design adaptation plans; and 5. Risk Assessment: Assess risk from a changing climate; compare risk reduction of adaptation plans.”

6. C ) A functional exercise

The EPA guide, “How to Develop a Multi-Year Training and Exercise (T&E) Plan – A Tool for the Water Sector,” states that “A functional exercise examines and/or validates the coordination, command, and control among various agencies, such as water, public health, fire, law enforcement, and emergency operations centers (e.g., utility personnel, other first responders, and emergency officials responding to an incident in real time).”

7. D) trench foot.

The booklet, “Safety Awareness for Responders to Hurricanes – Protecting Yourself While Helping Others,” states that “Trench foot, also known as immersion foot, occurs when the feet are wet for long periods of time. It can be quite painful. . . To prevent trench foot, when possible, air-dry and elevate your feet, and exchange wet shoes and socks for dry ones.”

8. B ) A standardized mutual aid agreement

Per the FlaWARN website, “During the hurricanes of 2004, utilities throughout the state found it difficult to get the needed assistance without a formalized agreement for the responding utility to get reimbursed for their efforts. FlaWARN resolved this issue by offering member utilities a standardized mutual aid agreement outlining terms and conditions of reimbursement prior to requesting and receiving assistance.”

9. C ) Fill storage tanks to full capacity to maximize storage.

Per EPA’s Incident Action Checklist – Hurricane, “Fill storage tanks to full capacity to maximize storage.”

10. B ) bulk water.

The EPA guide, “Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply,” states that “There are several building blocks categories that support an emergency drinking water plan: source, treatment, storage, and distribution. Each element is described separately below. Building Blocks – Source. There are four basic source alternatives: • Local • Neighboring Water Utilities • Bulk Water Transport • Prepackaged Water.”




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