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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office: P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features


4 A Water Security Promise—Ken Doherty 6 Biosolids: Where’s it Going to Go?—Eddie Smith

8 Get Ready: August is National Water Quality Month! 9 Call for Technical Articles for FWRJ 10 Wallace Takes Office as 2020-2021 FWEA President 10 2020-2021 FWEA Board of Directors 11 2020-2021 FWEA Officers, Chairs, and Advisors List 18 Supreme Court Rejects EPA View of Clean Water Act 30 Coronavirus Tracing Through Human Sewage in Wastewater Systems Could Serve as Early Warning System for Future Outbreaks 32 From AWWA: Gitanjali's Quest for Clean Water—Gitanjali Rao 42 News Beat

14 Let’s Talk Safety: Concrete Facts About Jackhammer Safety 24 FWEA Focus—James J. Wallace 26 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 37 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 38 FWEA Committee Corner: 2019–2020 FWEA West Coast Chapter: A Success Story Recap—Matthew S. Love 40 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kowalski

Departments 44 Classifieds 46 Display Advertiser Index

Technical Articles 16 Optimizing Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion via Recycle From an Aerobic Digester— Justin Wippo and Richard Pressley

34 Using Performance Contracts for Biosolids/Bioenergy Project Delivery— John Banks

Education and Training 19 20 21 22 23 28 29 39

FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibits FSAWWA Fall Conference Poker Night, Happy Hour, and Golf Tournament FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards CEU Challenge FWPCOA Training Calendar TREEO Center Training

Volume 71

ON THE COVER: The Frederick-Winchester Service Authority uses an energy savings performance contract at its Opequon Water Reclamation Facility to create new sources of revenue and energy resiliency. For more information, see page 34. (photo: Haskell)

June 2020

Number 6

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


A Water Security Promise Ken Doherty Expect the unexpected. In the meantime, plan. This life-interrupting COVID-10 has taught us in a very personal way how fast things can change. Of course, in southwest Florida, we know how fast things can change. When Hurricane Charley was heading north to the Gulf of Mexico toward Tampa in 2004, everyone was watching. Then, Charley took an unexpected eastern turn into Charlotte County; it devastated Charlotte County, cutting off roads, electricity, and water. But for the Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority’s regional pipeline system interconnecting water supplies between Charlotte and Sarasota counties, people in Charlotte County would have been left high and dry—literally. Since that time, we’ve expanded the amount of water we can safely take from the Peace River, the amount of water we have in storage, and the amount of water that we can treat, and we have extended pipelines interconnecting the utilities of our member governments of Charlotte, Desoto, Sarasota, and Manatee counties. We had a plan. Still, the timeline from calculating the need for water to identifying and securing water is a lengthy one. There’s a lot to consider beyond the cost, though that’s very important. How much we invest to acquire and develop a water source is reflected in what customers pay, so we pay close attention. But even after our water is secure, we have to manage resources to ensure that we protect the environment. For our authority, that includes protecting the Peace River, including Charlotte Harbor, and something else most people don’t think of—managing the land around our reservoir. That’s why we plan. And it’s why we have water security. We have a 50-year permit issued by the state that allows us to take water from the Peace River, treat it, and store it for when you need it. Never again will we count the days during a drought, calculating the amount of water we have left. Never again. And, even though we have a 50-year permit, we’re planning for the water we’ll need after that. So that you, your children, and your grandchildren will have the water they need. COVID-19 can’t stop that. It’s one thing to deliver water; it’s another to ensure that the water is safe and affordable. And, the Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority has a plan for that, too. We use state- of-the-art technology to clean the water that we supply to the utilities of our member governments. Our water supply is safe and secure. There’s no evidence that COVID-19 is transmitted via water; even so, there are thousands of employees at the authority and in your community working hard each day to ensure that your water keeps flowing and your wastewater is getting treated. They are at work every day, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Over the years, we’ve built a water supply system that is reliable, safe, and secure, partnering with the water management district and the state for funding to make the cost affordable. No matter what else happens, you will have the water you need. And, it’s high-quality water; we’ve even won a statewide taste test. Water isn’t sexy, but it is essential. In this complicated time with so many worries, water isn’t one of them. I wrote this during National Drinking Water Week: rest assured, we have you covered well into the future.


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Ken Doherty is chair of the Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority and a Charlotte County commissioner. This was originally published as a guest editorial in the Sarasota Herald Tribune and is reprinted with permission.S S

Biosolids: Where’s it Going to Go? Eddie Smith Biosolids residuals have been a controversial subject for a awhile now; as long as we have wastewater treatment facilities, the residuals, or biosolids, will be produced. Most people have no idea about the many benefits of biosolids, and because of the lack of knowledge, they assume that they’re dangerous to their health.

Beyond Land Application Over three million dry metric tons of biosolids produced in the United States are land-applied; however, land application sites are dwindling, due to land sales and construction of subdivisions, especially here in Florida. Class B lime stabilization is employed for biosolids treatment at approximately 20 percent of the wastewater treatment plants because it’s a simple and inexpensive process. During lime stabilization, the pH of sewage sludge is raised above 12 for pathogen inactivation and odor reduction. Lime dose and mixing have been found to greatly reduce odor generation from lime-stabilized biosolids.


Most wastewater treatment facilities truck their wastewater biosolids to a residuals management facility (RMF) to be treated to either a Class B or Class AA product. You would think that a better-quality biosolids product is less likely to create public opposition to land application programs—it does not! We are being told that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) regulations are coming that will all but end land application of biosolids, but should that happen, where’s it going to go? Class 1 landfills are an option, but I don’t believe they have the capacity to accept the large amounts of biosolids that all of these wastewater facilities generate.

The Fertilizer Option Getting biosolids approved as a fertilizer is one of the only options left in Florida, which we are doing. By combining biosolids and wood waste, we are generating a top-notch fertilizer product that is registered with the Department of Agriculture and has many benefits.

June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Because it’s a registered fertilizer, no permit is needed to apply it anywhere, which is providing a great service, as land application sites are almost nonexistent. The process begins with the biosolids we are accepting from various generators, and we’re also accepting wood waste in the form of wood chips from large tree companies. The wood waste is incorporated with lime-stabilized biosolids and allowed to cure for one to two weeks; then, the larger particles of wood and any other debris are screened out, creating a potting soil-like product. Not all facilities are set up for this type of treatment. Should land application go away, again, where’s it going to go? Nobody wants it spread in their neighborhood. When the day comes that there is no outlet for the biosolids produced in Florida, consumers should be prepared to have monthly sewer bills in the several-hundred-dollar-per-month range. The time is now to figure out a viable option, before your sewer bill is as much as your house payment. Eddie Smith is facility manager with Shelley’s Environmental Systems in Zellwood. S

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Get Ready: August is National Water Quality Month! Water is used every day in a variety of ways: for drinking, recreating, irrigating, transporting, and in industry and manufacturing, to name a few. Just try to imagine what life would be like for your utility customers without easy access to clean water. There would be no fountains to quench their thirst when out on a hot day. No more swimming pools, and no lakes and rivers clean enough for recreational activities. No more long showers at home, or any running water for their businesses. National Water Quality Month reminds us to take a moment to consider how important our water sources are to humans and all of the other inhabitants of the ecosystem. By thinking about the little things that your customers do on a daily basis that could have a negative impact on water quality, and getting them to change their habits, you’ll be a step closer to improving water quality—for everyone. August is designated as National Water Quality Month by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but how is the quality of water in the United States determined? Water quality is based on a set of standards and criteria that describes the desired conditions or level of protection, or how the required conditions will be established in waters of the U.S. in the future. These standards and criteria are provisions of the state, territorial, authorized tribal, or federal law approved by EPA.

ing, recreating, drinking, agricultural irrigation, industrial uses, and navigation. S Criteria for protection of designated uses. States, territories, and authorized tribes must adopt criteria that protect the designated uses. These criteria can be numeric or narrative. Most entities typically adopt both types. S Antidegradation requirements. These provide the framework of water quality protection by maintaining the current uses of the water and protecting the quality that has already been achieved. S General policies for implementation. Based on EPA approval, states, territories, and authorized tribes are allowed to adopt policies and provisions for implementation of water quality standards.

The Standards of Water Quality

Water quality standards are developed by states, territories, and authorized tribes using federal guidelines of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Each of these entities adopts its own legal and administrative procedures for adoption of their standards. Generally, they use the following steps: S Work groups or informal public meetings are held to develop the standards. The proposed standards are then put out for public comment. S Public hearings are scheduled to gather input from the public. S Water quality criteria must be included to provide sufficient coverage and be stringent enough to protect the designated uses.

Water quality standards must include the following items: S Designated uses of the water body. This requires states, territories, and authorized tribes to specify the goals and objectives about how each water body will be used, including fish-

The water quality standards for each entity must be approved by EPA prior to implementation. If the standards are approved, they become applicable. After approval, entities must do a review of their standards at least once every three years. If all or part of an entity’s standards are not approved based on


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the requirement in the CWA, then EPA will outline necessary changes to meet the requirements.

The History of National Water Quality Month The United Nations declared 2005-2015 as the International Decade for Action “Water for Life” in order to emphasize the importance of water quality as it relates to sanitation, human rights, geography, urbanization, and sustainability. Emphasizing how interlinked water systems are, the Audubon Society points to the dangers of runoff from agriculture, forestry, construction, and people’s personal yards: “Each individual household or business may not produce enough pollution to force a beach closing or cause a fish kill, but the combined output of all the homes and businesses in a community can be severe, considering that about half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coastline where runoff flows quickly to the ocean. This is why watershed protection, with attention not only to the body of water but the area that drains into it, is important.”

How to Celebrate National Water Quality Month reminds us to take a long, hard look at what households, businesses, and communities are doing to protect sources of fresh water, which is important to everyone in myriad ways. Research done by the American Chemical Society, for instance, demonstrates that showering leads to greater exposure to toxic chemicals in tap water than drinking the water does. A person can absorb up to eight glasses of

water through the skin during a quick 10-minute shower. Due to this fact, it’s imperative that all of the water that enters homes and businesses is safe and free from contaminants. What can your utility recommend that individuals, families, and businesses do to prevent water pollution from entering their homes, stores, and offices, especially during National Water Quality Month? Here’s a short list of things that can be done to help: S Not using antibacterial soaps or cleaning products. Regular soap and water will do the trick. Much of the antibacterial soaps contain a registered pesticide that is known to harm marine life. S Not flushing unwanted or out-of-date medications down the toilet or drain. S Not putting anything but water down storm drains because they carry water to local waterways. S Fixing leaks that drop from cars, vans, and trucks and putting liners in driveways and garages to collect oil and other materials. S Avoid using pesticides or chemical fertilizers. S Choose nontoxic cleaning products when possible. S Pick up after pets. S Not paving properties. S Have a private well tested and cleaned regularly. There can be bacteria buildup in wells. S Encourage customers to read local water quality reports so that they know what the water quality is in their area. Another option for your customers could be for them to gather a group of family, friends, coworkers, or neighbors and volunteer to clean a local water source. They could bring a picnic and hold a contest to see who can clean up the most trash and debris, offering a prize to the winning team. It’s a great way to get everyone in a community together and enjoy an outdoor day full of fun and doing something that’s good for the environment. Together we can all make a large impact. Spread the word to your customers, the media, and the public, that all of August is National Water Quality Month! S

Call for Technical Articles for FWRJ As I’m sure you know, the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) wasn’t held this year, cancelled because of the coronavirus pandemic. First and foremost, I hope you and yours are well. The water and wastewater industry is vitally important to the well-being of the country and its citizens, and the work that you do ensures that we all have the safe, clean water we need, when we need it. The Florida Water Resources Journal is proud to play a part in furthering the strength of the industry in Florida. The magazine gets most of its technical articles from FWRC, with some coming from the FSAWWA Fall Conference and from readers and others in the industry. So that FWRJ has the articles that it needs for the near future, I’m asking that you consider writing one for the magazine. Being published, of course, can be a plus for your career. Please feel free to send me a technical article on any topic that would be of interest to those in the industry, or you can write an article that would fit one of the magazine’s monthly themes, which are as follows: January ..................Wastewater Treatment February ................Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ......................Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ........................Conservation and Reuse May..........................Operations and Utilities Management June ........................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ........................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August ....................Disinfection; Water Quality September ..............Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ..................New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ..............Water Treatment December ..............Distribution and Collection You can send your article to me at email.fwrj.com at any time, or to be included as a themed article, it would be due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). If you have any questions or need more information, please contact me by email or at 303.759.4966. Stay safe! Rick Harmon FWRJ Editor

January 2016

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


Wallace Takes Office as 2020-2021 FWEA President

James J. Wallace, P.E., has begun his term as president of the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), following his election at the association’s virtual annual meeting on April 28. Wallace graduated from the University of Florida in spring 1995 with a bachelor of science degree in environmental engineering. Upon graduation, he worked with Hartman and Associates Inc. in Orlando, working on a variety of water, wastewater, and reclaimed water projects throughout the state between 1995 and 1999. Following a move to Atlanta in 1999 to work with Jordan, Jones and Goulding Inc. (now Jacobs Engineering Group Inc.) on large, regional water and wastewater treatment, pumping, and pipeline projects, he moved back to Florida in 2003, spending four years helping to establish a new presence for Jacobs in Palm Beach Gardens, while also completing a master’s in business administration through the University of Florida professional MBA program in 2005. He began his involvement with FWEA in 2003 participating in the Southeast Chapter and immediately was inspired and encouraged by the professional development and networking. In 2005 he cofounded the Treasure Coast Chapter of FWEA, serving members of Indian River, St. Lucie, Okeechobee, and Martin counties, where he resided. In 2007 he moved to Jacksonville, shifting his focus to establishing a new water business for Jacobs in northeast Florida, while continuing to deliver water, wastewater, and reclaimed water treat-


ment, pumping, and pipeline projects. Today he is a senior program manager at Jacobs, where he is helping to lead and deliver a multiyear capital infrastructure program for JEA to increase reliability and capacity, while minimizing long-term water quality risks. He is a native Floridian and currently lives in Jacksonville with Erika, his wife of 22 years, and their teenage daughters, Julia and Katherine. Aside from engineering, Wallace is extensively involved in family activities, with his daughters’ many competitive pursuits, including golf tournaments, cross country meets, and lacrosse tournaments. While he is still able to compete in local and state golf tournaments with his older daughter (Julia) as a teammate, his younger daughter’s speed, endurance, and talent in her events leave him a spectator. Wallace also enjoys a passion for travel with his wife and family that has provided him with a lifetime’s worth of memories, both in the United States and abroad, leaving him yearning for a quick return to more “normal” times when we can resume travel. S

June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

2020-2021 FWEA Board of Directors

Ron Cavalieri President Elect

Sondra Winter Lee Vice President

Suzanne E. Mechler Secretary/Treasurer

Michael Sweeney Past President

Kristiana Dragash WEF Delegate

Tim Ware WEF Delegate

Jody Barksdale Director at Large

Joan Fernandez Director at Large

2020-2021 FWEA Officers, Chairs, and Advisors


Kristina Fries Director at Large

Tim Madhanagopal Director at Large

The following officers, directors, committee chairs, chapter chairs, and student chapter advisors began their terms at the beginning of the FWEA annual meeting in April.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS PRESIDENT James J. Wallace, P.E. Jacobs Engineering Group 904-636-5432 jamey.wallace@jacobs.com

Joseph Paterniti Director at Large

Ioannis (Yanni) Polematidis Director at Large

PRESIDENT ELECT Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE AECOM Technical Services Inc. 239-278-7996 Ronald.cavalieri@aecom.com VICE PRESIDENT Sondra Winter Lee, P.E. City of Tallahassee 850-891-6123 Sondra.Lee@talgov.com SECRETARY/TREASURER Suzanne E. Mechler, P.E. CDM Smith 561-571-3800 mechlerse@cdmsmith.com

Lynn Spivey Director at Large

Alice Varkey Director at Large

PAST PRESIDENT Michael Sweeney, Ph.D. Toho Water Authority 407-944-5129 msweeney@tohowater.com WEF DELEGATE Kristiana Dragash, P.E. Carollo Engineers Inc. 941-371-9832 kdragash@carollo.com

Rick Hutton Utility Council President

Bradley Hayes Operations Council Representative

WEF DELEGATE Tim Ware, P.E., CRL Arcadis 813-353-5773 tim.ware@arcadis.com DIRECTOR AT LARGE Jody Barksdale, P.E., ENV SP Carollo Engineers Inc. 813-888-9572 jbarksdale@carollo.com

Kartik Vaith Executive Director of Operations

DIRECTOR AT LARGE Joan Fernandez, P.E. Arcadis 954-882-9566 joan.i.fernandez@arcadis.com

DIRECTOR AT LARGE Kristina Fries, P.E. City of Orlando Kristina.fries@cityoforlando.net DIRECTOR AT LARGE Tim Madhanagopal, P.E., F.WEF, F.NSPE. Constantine Engineering Inc. 407-886-2615 tmadhanagopal@gmail.com DIRECTOR AT LARGE Joseph Paterniti, P.E. Boynton Beach Utilities 561-742-6423 paternitij@bbfl.us DIRECTOR AT LARGE Ioannis (Yanni) Polematidis, P.E., BCEE CDM Smith 904-527-6722 polematidisim@cdmsmith.com DIRECTOR AT LARGE Lynn Spivey City of Plant City 813-757-9190 lspivey@plantcitygov.com DIRECTOR AT LARGE Alice Varkey, PEng GHD 813-971-3882 Alice.Varkey@ghd.com UTILITY COUNCIL PRESIDENT Rick Hutton, P.E. Gainesville Regional Utilities 352-393-1218 huttonrh@gru.com OPERATIONS COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVE Bradley P. Hayes Woodard & Curran 325-516-4397 bhayes@woodardcurran.com EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS Kartik Vaith, P.E. Constantine Engineering Inc. 904-562-2185 kvaith@tcgeng.com Continued on page 12 Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


Continued from page 11

COMMITTEE CHAIRS AIR QUALITY Phillip Clark City of Tavares (352) 742-6485 pclark@Tavares.org AWARDS Damaris Noriega Orange County Utilities (407) 254-9538 damaris.noriega@ocfl.net BIOSOLIDS Alexander Kraemer Thermal Process Systems Inc. 561-846-0334 akraemer@thermalprocess.com COLLECTION SYSTEMS Jamison Tondreault Kimley-Horn (863) 226-6877 jamison.tondreault@kimley-horn.com CONTRACTORS Nathan Hillard Wharton-Smith Inc. 407-402-0120 nhillard@whartonsmith.com MANUFACTURERS AND REPRESENTATIVES Chris Stewart Xylem Water Solutions USA Inc. 239-322-3257 chris.stewart@xyleminc.com MEMBER RELATIONS Melody Gonzalez, E.I. Black & Veatch (786) 347-1360 GonzalezM@bv.com MEMBERSHIP Sondra Winter Lee, P.E. City of Tallahassee 850-891-6123 Sondra.Lee@talgov.com

OPERATIONS CHALLENGE Chris Fasnacht Water Reclamation Division, OCU 407-254-7724 Chris.fasnacht@ocfl.net PUBLIC COMMUNICATIONS AND OUTREACH Shea Dunifon Pinellas County Utilities (727) 582-2898 sdunifon@pinellascounty.org SAFETY W. Scott Holowasko Gainesville Regional Utilities 352-393-1667 holowaskows@gru.com STUDENTS AND YOUNG PROFESSIONALS George Dick Carollo Engineers Inc. (813) 437-8908 gdick@carollo.com TRAINING AND CONTINUING EDUCATION Kenny Blanton, P.E. Black & Veatch 201 S. Orange Ave., Ste. 500 Orlando, FL 32801-3420 407-419-3570 blantonkm@bv.com UTILITY COUNCIL Rick Hutton, P.E. Gainesville Regional Utilities 352-393-1218 huttonrh@gru.com UTILITY MANAGEMENT Rick Nipper Toho Water Authority 407-944-5071 rnipper@tohowater.com WASTEWATER PROCESS Ioannis (Yanni) Polematidis, P.E. BCEE CDM Smith 904-527-6722 polematidisim@cdmsmith.com

WATER RESOURCES, REUSE AND RESILIENCY (WR3) Kevin Carter Broward County 954-831-0718 kcarter@broward.org

CHAPTER CHAIRS BIG BEND TBD CENTRAL FLORIDA Jennifer Ribotti Tetra Tech 407-480-3934 jennifer.ribotti@tetratech.com Megan Nelson Orange County Utilities 407-254-9927 megan.nelson@ocfl.net FIRST COAST Manasi Parekh The Constantine Group 904-318-9028 mparekh@tceng.com MANASOTA Mike Nixon McKim & Creed Inc. 941-379-3404 mnixon@mckimcreed.com SOUTH FLORIDA Layla Llewelyn CDM Smith 305-372-7171 llewelynll@cdmsmith.com SOUTHEAST Eric Antmann Hazen and Sawyer 954-865-9098 eantmann@hazenandsawyer.com SOUTHWEST Tom Meyers FJ Nugent 23-224-8422 Tmeyers@Nugentco.com TREASURE COAST Christine Miranda Holtz Consulting Engineers 561-575-2005 christine.miranda@holtzconsulting.com WEST COAST Kris Samples McKim & Creed 407-618-7435 KSamples@mckimcreed.com


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

STUDENT CHAPTER ADVISORS FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY Dr. Daniel Meeroff 561-297-2658 dmeeroff@fau.edu FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Berrin Tansel, Ph.D., P.E. 305-348-2928 tanselb@fiu.edu UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Anwar Sadmani, Ph.D., P.Eng. 407-823-2781 sadmani@ucf.edu UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA John Sansalone, Ph.D, P.E. 352-373-0796 jsansal@ufl.edu UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI James Englehardt, Ph.D. 305-284-5557 jenglehardt@umiami.edu UNIVERSITY OF NORTH FLORIDA Craig Hargis, Ph.D. 904-620-1350 Craig.hargis@unf.edu UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA Sarina J. Ergas, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE 813-974-1119 sergas@usf.edu FAMU/FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Youneng Tang, Ph.D. 850-410-6119 ytang2@fsu.edu FLORIDA GULF COAST UNIVERSITY Ashley Danley-Thomson, Ph.D. 239-745-4390 athomson@fgcu.edu

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LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Concrete Facts About Jackhammer Safety ne of the most powerful tools used in the water and wastewater utility industry is the jackhammer, which is designed to break asphalt, concrete, and rocks. Jackhammers come in electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic models. Without proper training and personal protective equipment (PPE), workers can inflict serious injury to their feet and other parts of the body, as well as injure others nearby, while operating this tool. The jackhammer itself is very heavy, so only appropriate personnel should handle this tool to reduce the risk of accidents. Jackhammers have different tips and blades that should be installed, depending on the type of job being performed. There are certain tips, tricks, and rules to follow that will help you use the jackhammer safely and more easily.


Pneumatic, Hydraulic, and Electric Jackhammers The main types are: S Pneumatic jackhammers, which perform by the high pressure of air from an air compressor. S Hydraulic jackhammers operate by hydraulic energy from some fluid. S Electric jackhammers function by electric power.

Using a Jackhammer Before Operation Use this list before operating any kind of jackhammer: S Always wear proper PPE, which includes eye protection, long-sleeved clothing, sturdy fulllength pants, steel-toe boots or shoes, respiratory and head protection, hearing protection, and safety gloves. S Know how to safely operate the supply compressor—especially in emergencies. S Place the compressor as far as possible from the work area to reduce the level of noise. S Regularly inspect the jackhammer and other necessary tools for defects or damage. S Check to see if all components and parts are

complete, securely in place (or tightened), and in good condition. Do this before every shift or the start of operation: S Check air hoses for breaks, cracks, and worn or damaged couplings. S Ensure that the rating of the hose is sufficient for the job intended. S Inspect the electrical cord for frays, wear, and other signs of damage. S Inspect the tool’s breaking point. Never use a broken or cracked point. During Operation Review this list to operate any kind of jackhammer: S With an electric jackhammer, place the electrical cord onto your shoulder when in use to prevent the cord from accidentally swerving, which can cause electrocution. S Always use the proper weight of jackhammer for the job. For your back’s sake, try to use a lighter jackhammer for the job as much as possible. S Always lift the tool jackhammer properly by using your legs. This method helps you avoid back strain or injury. S Use the proper jackhammer point for the material to be broken: rock point for rocks, spade point for asphalt, chisel point for concrete. S When moving the jackhammer from place to place during operation, place your hand between the handle and the operating lever.

S Always operate the tool at a slight angle with it leaning back toward you. This way, you prevent the point from getting stuck in the material and the tool from getting out of control. S Shut off the air supply and relieve pressure from the supply hose before changing tool points. Do the same when leaving the jackhammer unattended. S If the jackhammer gets stuck, try to release it by moving it back and forth from side to side. If it's still stuck, install another bit into the jackhammer and try to release if by working at an angle. S Barricade the work area as much as possible to keep spectators, the public, and untrained personnel from getting exposed to the hazards of jackhammer operations. S Immediately remove defective or malfunctioning jackhammers and other tools until they are properly repaired.

Rules on Silica Dust The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has rules for respirable crystalline silica, as its inhalation puts workers at risk of silicosis, lung cancer, lung disease, and kidney disease. Exposure to silica dust can occur when cutting, sawing, grinding, drilling, and crushing stone, rock, concrete, brick, block, mortar, and industrial sand (including sand blasting). Two methods for controlling dust when using jackhammers or powered chipping tools are: S Continuously feeding water to the point of impact S Using a vacuum dust collection system (VDCS). Wet Methods When jackhammering, the wetting must occur with a continuous stream or spray of water at the point where the jackhammer’s tip strikes the surface material. Workers may use manual spraying or water-spray systems. Under either approach, water must be applied at a flow rate sufficient to minimize the release of visible dust.

The 2019 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY19. The code is good for the 2019 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Manual Spraying One method for applying water when jackhammering is to have one worker direct a stream or spray of water at the impact point, while another worker operates the jackhammer or powered chipping tool. A portable sprayer with a nozzle can be used for this job. But only wetting the surface is not sufficient. Continuous water application either streamed or sprayed at the point where the jackhammer or handheld powered chipping tool breaks the surface is necessary, because as the tool breaks through the surface, dry materials below are disturbed, which can produce dust. Water-Spray Systems Spray nozzles aimed at the tip of the tool on jackhammers and handheld powered chipping tools can lower silica exposures. Existing equipment can be retrofitted. Electrical Safety Where water is used to control dust, electrical safety is a particular concern. Use ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) and watertight, sealable electrical connectors for electric tools and equipment on construction sites. Vacuum Dust Collection Systems Workers may use commercially available VDCS for jackhammers and handheld powered chipping tools to reduce silica exposure. A VDCS includes: S A hood or shroud for the tool that is recommended by the manufacturer. S A vacuum that meets the specifications recommended by the tool manufacturer,

with enough suction to capture dust at the cutting point. S A dust collector equipped with a filter efficiency of 99 percent or greater and a filter-cleaning mechanism. S A vacuum exhaust hose capable of providing the airflow recommended by the tool manufacturer. A 1.5- to 2-inch-diameter vacuum exhaust hose is typically adequate. The tool and VDCS must be operated and maintained in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions to minimize dust emissions. When operating the tool, do the following: S Keep the vacuum hose clear and free of debris, kinks, and tight bends. S Change vacuum-collection bags as needed, or at least as often as the manufacturer recommends. Do not overfill the bag. S Set a regular schedule for maintenance and filter cleaning of the VDCS. S Avoid exposure to dust when changing vacuum bags and cleaning or replacing air filters. Indoors or in Enclosed Areas When jackhammers or chipping tools are used indoors or in an enclosed area, wet methods or a VDCS may not reliably keep dust or particulate exposure low. Extra ventilation may be needed to reduce visible airborne dust. Extra ventilation can be supplied by using: S Exhaust trunks S Portable exhaust fans S Air ducts S Other means of mechanical ventilation Ensure that airflow is not impeded by the movements of employees during work, or by the

opening or closing of doors and windows. Position the ventilation to move contaminated air away from the workers’ breathing zones. Use of Compressed Air Unless there is a ventilation system that effectively captures the dust cloud, do not use compressed air or blowers to clean surfaces, clothing, or filters as it can increase exposure to silica. Instead, clean with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter-equipped vacuum or by wet methods. Respiratory Protection The use of respiratory protection with a minimum assigned protection factor (APF) of 10 is required whenever jackhammers or handheld powered chipping tools are used indoors or in an enclosed area. The APF 10 respirators are also required when jackhammers or handheld powered chipping tools are used outdoors for more than four hours per shift. When respirators are required, employers must put in place the written OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard 29 CFR 1910.134.

Resources For additional information, see the following: • OSHA booklet on hand tool safety: www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3080.pdf. • Safety Services Company’s website on jackhammer safety: www.safetyservices company.com/blog/construction-safety-usinghandling-and-maintainingjackhammers. • OSHA website on Crystalline Silica Rulemaking https://www.osha.gov/silica/index.html. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020



Optimizing Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion via Recycle From an Aerobic Digester Justin Wippo and Richard Pressley Objectives Anaerobic digestion is often used in larger wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as aerobic digestion can become too energyintensive at such scales. Research has started taking a harder look into the benefits of postaerobic digestion (PAD) following anaerobic digestion. Having a long history of researching and improving aerobic digestion methods, Thermal Process Systems (TPS) sought to apply its

existing technologies and knowledge of aerobic digestion to a two-stage anaerobic digestion system. One of the primary methods of failure for anaerobic digesters is becoming overloaded with volatile fatty acids (VFAs). This occurs as a result of the acidogens making VFAs at a faster rate than the methanogens can convert the VFAs to methane. Two-stage anaerobic digestion was used to separate out the morerapid stages of hydrolysis and VFA formation from the much slower step of methane production.


Justin Wippo is technical manager, and Richard Pressley is president with Thermal Process Systems Inc. in Crown Point, Ind.

Optimizing and stabilizing the anaerobic digesters significantly reduces the oxygen demand in a postaerobic digester, therefore reducing the energy requirements. The primary goal of coupling aerobic digestion to anaerobic digestion with a recycle stream was to improve the stability of the anaerobic digester, therefore increasing the volatile solids reduction (VSR), improving biogas production and quality, reducing the overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) for the digestion process, and improving the dewatering characteristics. The effects of varying the recycle rate from the aerobic digester to the fermenting digester were also observed.

Scope Figure 1. Methanogen reactor volatile fatty acids-to-alkalinity ratio

Figure 2. Dewatering results


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The pilot-scale study was carried out with a blend of primary sludge (PS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) collected from the Crown Point (Ind.) WWTP. The facility utilizes standard anaerobic digestion and feeds a blend of PS that is gravity thickened, and WAS that is thickened via a gravity belt thickener (GBT). The pilot system followed the feeding schedule of the Crown Point facility (typically Monday through Friday) over the course of two years, which meant dealing with the same variations in the feed material as a result of seasonal changes, equipment being taken down for maintenance, facility construction, etc. Liquid samples taken daily from each digester were tested for total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) content. The liquid samples were tested in a Hach DR3900 Spectrophotomer for multiple parameters. Draeger gas detector tubes were used to test the carbon dioxide, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide in the off-gas of each digester. Gas chromatography (GC) testing was occasionally used to confirm the results of the gas detector tubes. Dewatering chemical dosing rates were preliminarily determined via laboratory jar testing. Mechanical dewatering

results representative of centrifuge dewatering were obtained by sending samples to Centrisys Centrifuge Systems in Kenosha, Wis.


Methods Operation of the pilot unit commenced without utilizing a recycle from the aerobic digester to establish a baseline. During the initial phase of the pilot demonstration, the operational liquid levels of each tank were set so that the fermentation tank, methanogen reactor, and aerobic digester operated at two-, 15-, and eight-day HRTs, respectively. Each phase of the pilot demonstration lasted for three sludge ages of steady-state operation. After the first phase of operating in a plugflow fashion, the recycle was initiated at 60 percent of the daily feed amount. The recycle rate was later increased to 100, 150, and 200 percent of the daily feed amount to observe the ability of the system to reduce the struvite precipitation potential in the anaerobic digester by decreasing the ammonia.

Figure 3. Methanogen reactor ammonia after increasing recycle rate

Results The plug-flow operation of the pilot unit resulted in the methanogen reactor becoming overloaded with VFAs. This was accompanied by a decrease in the VSR, biogas production, and methane concentration in the biogas. Initiating the recycle rapidly lowered the VFA to alkalinity ratio (VFA/ALK) in the reactor, bringing it to literature values that designate a healthy anaerobic digester (Figure 1). The VFA/ALK was maintained at proper values without spikes in the VFA concentration or foaming events in the methanogen reactor for the remainder of the pilot demonstration. The methanogen reactor consistently achieved 55 to 60 percent VSR with the recycle in effect. Dewatering results from Centrisys showed a significant improvement to the dewatering characteristics of the digested biosolids (Figure 2). No coagulant, and only 18 active pounds of polymer per dry ton of biosolids, were required to achieve 32 percent TS in the dewatered cake. The elimination of a requirement for standard metal salt coagulants reduced the amount of phosphorus in the biosolids cake, bringing the nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio in the cake to the range that agronomic studies suggest makes up a healthy soil. Increasing the recycle through the system effectively allowed the aerobic digester to remove a larger mass of ammonia from the methanogen reactor daily (Figure 3). The decreasing ammonia was accompanied by a controlled pH adjustment in Continued on page 18

Figure 4. Methanogen reactor pH after increasing recycle rate

Figure 5. Gas chromatography biogas results

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


Supreme Court Rejects EPA View of Clean Water Act The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that sewage plants and other industries cannot avoid environmental requirements under landmark clean water protections when they send dirty water on an indirect route to rivers, oceans, and other navigable waterways. Rejecting the Trump administration’s views, the justices held by a 6-3 vote that the discharge of polluted water into the ground, rather than directly into nearby waterways, does not relieve an industry of complying with the Clean Water Act. “We hold that the statute requires a permit when there is a direct discharge from a point source into navigable waters or when there is the functional equivalent of a direct discharge,” Justice Stephen Breyer wrote for the court. The decision came in a closely watched case from Hawaii about whether a sewage treatment plant needs a federal permit when it sends wastewater deep underground, instead of discharging the treated flow directly into the Pacific Ocean. Studies have found the wastewater soon reaches the ocean and has damaged a coral reef near a Maui beach. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under President Donald Trump reversed the agency’s position that Breyer noted has appeared to work well for more than 30 years. That’s one of many actions the administration has taken to change course on environmental regulations, including making official a sweeping rollback of the Clean Water Act that would end federal protection for millions of miles of streams, arroyos, and


wetlands in the United States. Public health and environmental groups and some Western states, among other opponents, say the rollback would leave the waterways more vulnerable to pollution from development, industry, and farms, and they have promised court fights. In the Hawaii case, Justices Samuel Alito, Neil Gorsuch, and Clarence Thomas dissented. “Based on the statutory text and structure, I would hold that a permit is required only when a point source discharges pollutants directly into navigable waters,” Thomas wrote. Sewage plants and other polluters must get a permit under the Clean Water Act when pollutants go through a pipe from their source to a body of water. The question in this case was whether a permit is needed when the pollutant first passes through the soil or groundwater. Maui injects 3 to 5 million gallons a day of treated wastewater into wells beneath the Lahaina Wastewater Reclamation Facility, which sits about a half-mile from the Pacific shoreline. Environmental groups in Hawaii sued Maui after studies using dyes to trace the flow showed more than half the discharge from two wells was entering the ocean in a narrow area. They won a ruling from the federal appeals court based in San Francisco. Breyer raised concerns during arguments in November 2019 that a ruling for Maui would provide a “road map” for polluters to evade federal permit requirements. The court did not go as far as the federal appeals court, which adopted a standard that would have brought even more groundwater discharges under the clean water law. S

June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 17 reactor. The methanogen reactor maintained less than 550 mg/L of ammonia and a pH of 6.7 throughout the steady-state portion of this phase of the pilot, levels that theoretically eliminate the production of struvite (Figure 4). These effects were not accompanied by a decrease in the VSR or biogas production. An unexpected result that was observed was that the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the biogas became nondetectable with the Draeger tubes. The GC results confirmed this observation with a reported H2S concentration of 5.6 parts per bil (ppb), while also confirming the methane concentration at 62 percent in the biogas (Figure 5). Further research revealed previously published discussions of the ability of nitrates to inhibit the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) that produce H2S by offering a more thermodynamically favorable electron receptor. The nitrates supplied by the recycle from the aerobic digester inhibited the SRBs, while promoting a sulfur-oxidizing, nitratereducing bacteria. This allowed the system to decouple the nitrification and denitrification processes by shifting denitrification to the fermentation tank.

Conclusion This pilot demonstration showed the capabilities of coupling two-stage anaerobic digestion to a conditioning aerobic digester that recycled material through the system. The recycle supplied by the aerobic digester offset variations in the feed material, improving the stability of the anaerobic digestion process. Maintaining high VSR increases the total amount of methane produced through anaerobic digestion. High VSR combines with the reduction of dewatering chemical requirements and higher cake solids to offer substantial cost savings for facilities. The ability of the recycle to reduce the struvite potential in the methanogen reactor reduces maintenance concerns that often accompany anaerobic digestion. This is linked to the elimination of H2S in the biogas, which removes the need for more expensive forms of H2S treatment and continuous maintenance of boilers and combined heat and power (CHP) units. The capabilities of this system offer cost savings and solutions for problems that many anaerobic digestion facilities face. S

Call for Papers

Abstracts must be submitted by: Wednesday, July 15, 2020 To participate in an FSAWWA conference, the first step is submitting an abstract to be considered for a presentation at the conference. There is no guarantee that the paper you submit will be chosen, but if your paper is well thought-out and pertinent to the subject matter of the conference, then your chances of being selected go up. FSAWWA wishes to invite authors and experts in the field to submit abstracts on a variety of sustainability topics, including:

Abstract Submittal Abstracts will be accepted in WORD ONLY via email to: Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., Technical Program Chair at h2o_man@bellsouth.net Please attach a cover page to the abstract which includes the following information: a) Suggested Session Category

Potential Session Categories

b) Paper Title

01 Potable Reuse 02 Improving our Piping Systems 03 Innovations in Water Treatment

c) Names of Authors

04 05 06 07

Role of Membranes for the Future Tools for Assessing our Assets Total Water Solutions Financing the Future

08 Water Systems Resilience 09 Water Conservation

d) Name of Presenter(s) e) Main contact including name, title, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and email

“Best Paper� Competition Each year awards are presented to the best papers during the Fall Conference Business Luncheon.

Questions? Call 239-250-2423

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.


The Roy Likins Scholarship Fund

The FSAWWA Fall Conference brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, and students. Register and learn from the industry’s best through technical session, workshops, and exhibits. Network with water industry professionals. Over 160 exhibitors will give you first-hand information on the latest developments to help your utility take actions to implement Florida’s future.

Exhibitor Registration: Starts June 1, 2020 www.fsawwa.org/2020exhibits

Attendee Registration: Starts August 3, 2020 fsawwa.org/2020fallconference

For more information: fsawwa.org/2020fallconference Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2020hotel Host hotel is Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate.

Technical Sessions

• Potable Reuse • Improving our Piping Systems • Innovations in Water Treatment • Role of Membranes for the Future • Tools for Assessing our Assets • Financing the Future • Water Systems Resilience • Water Conservation Conference Highlights

• BBQ Challenge & Incoming Chair’s Reception

CHEER for Meter Madness!

Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!

Let loose at the RODEO!

Join the Tapping FUN!

• Operator Events: Meter Madness Backhoe Rodeo Hydrant Hysteria Tapping Competition

• Young Professionals Events: Luncheon Water Bowl Fresh Ideas Poster Session

• Water for People’s Fundraising Events: Duck Race Exhibitor’s Raffle Fundraiser

Events Poker Tournament Monday, November 29, 2020 Starts at 9:00 pm

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Golf Tournament Thursday, December 3, 2020 8:00 am Shotgun start

Exhibit Registration Accepting Exhibitor Registrations on or after June 1, 2020 www.fsawwa.org/2020exhibits

Standard Booth @ $800 Includes:

• 8-foot X 10-foot booth space • One (1) six-foot draped table • Backdrop • Side drapery • Two (2) chairs

• Company sign • Wastebasket • Two (2) exhibit staff registrations • Additional exhibit staff $50/each

Exhibit booth spaces can include heavy equipment, workshops, portable equipment and showrooms. Flammable materials are prohibited. No modifications will be made to the backdrops or sidewalls without approval from the Exhibits Chair.

Exhibit Schedule Monday, November 30 Set-up: 7:00am - 3:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Tuesday, December 1 Hall Open: 8:00 - 11:30am | 1:30 - 6:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Wednesday, December 2 Hall Open: 8:00am - 12:00pm Tear Down: 1:00 - 6:00pm

Please check our refund policies at fsawwa.org/2020refundpolicy

Online Registration is strongly recommended to help adhere to social distancing guidelines. Online Exhibitor registration at: www.fsawwa.org/2020exhibits Or return form with payment to: Stacey Smith Wall, Register With EaseSM 3037 Golfview Drive, Vero Beach, FL 32960 Phone: (863) 325-0077 | Fax: (863) 325-0051 No reservations accepted by phone.

Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2020hotel Host hotel is Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate.

Sponsorship Levels Premier | $1500

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Platinum | $850

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Gold | $600

10% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Silver | $400 For additional info on sponsorship levels and benefits, visit:


November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Please Note: All promotional activity other than product demonstrations must be approved by FSAWWA prior to the conference.


The Roy Likins Scholarship Fund

Poker Night & Happy Hour

Opportunities to Sponsor

Monday, November 29, 2020 | 9:00 pm to midnight Straight | $50 Omni Orlando Resort ChampionsGate

• One of four at a game table sponsors • Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor

Register Today

board at the registration table

Registration will open August 3

Full House | $150


• One of two at a game table sponsors • Logo on a prominently displayed sponsor

It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Terry Gullet at tgullett@neptunetg.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.

board at the registration table

• 2 Blackjack or 2 Poker Buy-ins Royal Flush | $250

• Sole game table sponsor • Logo on a prominently displayed

Buy-ins Blackjack Buy in | $20.00 (2000 in chips) Poker Buy In | $40.00 (5000 in chips)

Golf Tournament Thursday, December 3, 2020 8:00 am Shotgun start Omni Orlando Resort ChampionsGate

Register Today Registration will open August 3

fsawwa.org/2020golf It is not necessary to participate in the tournament in order to be a sponsor. Please send Chase Freeman at Cfreeman@spiritgroupinc.com a pdf or jpeg version of your company logo for all sponsorships.

15% discount for bundled Eagle Golf and Royal Flush Poker Sponsorships: $765

sponsor board 4 Poker Buy Ins or 5 Blackjack Buy-ins

Opportunities to Sponsor Eagle Sponsor | $650

• Your company’s name prominently displayed on a special sponsor banner on the beverage cart.

• Your company’s name prominently displayed at one of • •

the tournament course tees or holes. One foursome in the tournament. Recognition at the awards ceremony.

Birdie Sponsor | $550

• Your company’s name prominently displayed at one of • •

the tournament course tees or holes. One foursome in the tournament. Recognition at the awards ceremony.

Par Sponsor | $200

• Recognized with signage. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. Lunch Sponsor | $250

• Recognized with signage. • Recognition at the awards ceremony. November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

2020 Water Distribution System Awards The FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards are presented to utilities whose outstanding performance during the preceding year deserves special recognition by the section.

The Award Criteria is based upon the following:

Divisions based on the Number of Water Services Division 1 = 1 - 5,999 Division 2 = 6,000 - 12,999 Division 3 = 13,000 - 19,999 Division 4 = 20,000 - 29,999

Water Quality

Division 5 = 30,000 - 45,999

Operational Records

Division 6 = 46,000 - 69,999


Division 7 = 70,000 - 129,999


Division 8 = 130,000+

Safety Emergency Prepardness Cross Connection Control Program Must be an AWWA member (Organizational or Individual) Actively supports the activities of the FSAWWA Demonstrates high standards and integrity The selection committee is under the Manufacturers/Associates Council.

• • •

2019 Winners: Division 1:

Not Awarded

Division 2:

Destin Water Users

Division 3:

City of Coral Springs

Division 4:

Bonita Springs Utilities, Inc. Distribution & Collection

Division 5:

Not Awarded

Division 6:

Charlotte County Utilities

Division 7:

Collier County Water-Sewer District

Division 8:

Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department

Send applications to: Mike George 10482 Dunkirk Road Spring Hill, FL 34608 tapitflorida@att.net

Deadline Monday, October 19, 2020

Download the application form:

www.fsawwa.org/ distributionawards

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate


Uncharted Waters 2020-2021! James J. Wallace, P.E. President, FWEA am both honored and humbled to serve as FWEA president this year and I thank you personally for providing this opportunity. Additionally, it’s a privilege to contribute monthly to the Florida Water Resources Journal through this column, FWEA Focus, as our publication is without peer in our industry, and has been a consistent cover-to-cover read for me as long as I can remember. There is no question that we face unique challenges in the year to come. These surely are uncharted waters for many of us, both personally and professionally; however, those who know me well can attest to the fact that I am steadfast in my pursuit of silver linings for every one of life’s challenges. Optimism and positivity support the development of solutions to address any problem. Today—and the days ahead—are no different. We will need to remain focused on all that is good. Therefore, let’s begin at the foundation. We have a tremendous association in FWEA, and we are blessed to have an exceptional group of leaders throughout our board of directors, as well as consistently through our many chapters and committees. The addition of four new, highly accomplished directors at large (DALs) to our board this year complements the leadership that



has continued to reach new heights. The new members are: S Joan Fernandez, P.E., Arcadis S Kristi Fries, P.E., City of Orlando S Joe Paterniti, P.E., City of Boynton Beach S Yanni Polematidis, P.E., CDM Smith They have been welcomed with renewed optimism for great things to come, as each one of them brings successful experiences leading FWEA chapters and committees, as well as their accomplishments within our industry, to FWEA and the board.

FWEA Initiatives During our FWEA annual meeting, this year held virtually on April 28, I outlined several additional areas that provide me with optimism for the upcoming year. These initiatives both excite me and provide the focus to set our course through the year ahead. They are: Strategic Plan A very important step was taken this past year involving our strategic plan. Mike Sweeney’s excellent leadership and commitment as our previous president provided the momentum needed to update our existing plan. Through his direction, we garnered an impressive 17 percent participation in our comprehensive membership survey, which provided feedback that was integrated into a one-day workshop completed this past January. The result is that four strategic areas and several objectives were defined that

June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

provide us with actionable goals that we will put into specific plans this year to move FWEA forward to meet our members’ needs. These strategic goals will be centered around the following: S Member engagement S Sound public policy S Professional development S Public awareness In the remainder of this column, I will focus on public awareness, a key focus area for me this year. Public Awareness It’s my passion and goal this year to improve our communications and public awareness within FWEA in support of our industry. I have no doubt that we all know how “essential” our industry is, but sometimes this is lost in translation (or not translated at all) to the general public. It’s not just today (COVID-19 pandemic) or in other challenging times (hurricanes, floods, etc.) that our heroics are unseen—it’s in our everyday pursuit of a clean water environment that presents us with these stories that are worth sharing. Each and every day, our utilities, consultants, academicians, regulators, manufacturers, and contractors provide opportunities to share amazing stories of bravery, heroism, and/or ingenuity that enhance the value of water and our industry as a whole. We are part of a noble industry; let’s improve our communications to help our teachers, students, customers, lawmakers, and the public at large understand just how amazing we are at sustaining a clean water environment! I envision improvements to our website, in combination with efforts in each of our FWEA chapters, to connect with our local utilities and the FWEA Utility Council to identify these great stories and communicate them to the public through our website, local newspapers, and/or other appropriate media outlets. In closing, I’m extremely optimistic that we can continue the excellent work that built this firm foundation, while also improving in key areas, all while facing some of the more unique challenges of our lives. I know that with focus, optimism, and resilience, we will navigate these troubled waters and accomplish great things. As Winston Churchill once said, “The positive thinker sees the invisible, feels the intangible, and achieves the impossible.” We will go forth this year and do great things! S


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Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020



Preparing for an Online Meeting and Hurricane Season Kenneth Enlow President, FWPCOA

reetings, everyone. I hope this finds all of you doing well and hopefully getting back to some semblance of normalcy. As an association, FWPCOA has experienced many changes over the years, especially with the advancement of technology in electronic communication.


Some of us can remember back when there were no cell phones. Pagers were our first remote connection to our job, but they still required a “landline.” Then the personal computer came along and connected us through email. Well, for the first time ever, our board of directors meeting, which will be held on June 6, will be a virtual meeting. Now, don’t laugh too loudly because our children and grandchildren (and mostly the rest of the world) have been doing face-to-face communications on computers, iPads, and cell phones for a while. It’s common for businesses to video conference, especially when they have multiple locations worldwide.

Many of us have attended live webcasts or online training. It’s been common for awhile to connect with family and friends through FaceTime, Skype, and video chat. Let’s see how this first meeting goes, but I think once we do this, we’ll find many creative reasons to do these types of meetings even more in the future.

That Time of Year We are officially into the 2020 hurricane season. What is expected for this year, according to meteorologist Phil Klotzbach and other experts from Colorado State University, who are among the top seasonal hurricane forecasters in the United States, is that 16 named tropical storms will form, eight of which will become hurricanes. Of the eight predicted hurricanes, four are expected to spin into major hurricanes (Category 3, 4, or 5), with sustained wind speeds of 111 miles per hour or greater. "We anticipate that the 2020 Atlantic basin hurricane season will have above-normal activity," the forecast said. In addition, there is an “above-average probability for major hurricanes making landfall along the continental United States.” The group said there's a 69 percent chance for at least one major hurricane to make landfall somewhere along the U.S. coastline. We in Florida are seasoned veterans of severe weather, and we have already set up our plans for this hurricane season. Don’t forget to sign up with FlaWARN (Florida Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network) if you have not already done so. There are many good reasons to do this, as FlaWARN is a mutual aid association of utilities helping utilities. For information, connect to its website at flawarn.pwd.aa.ufl.edu to get more information or become a member. Scott Anaheim is the FWPCOA chair for the association’s FlaWARN committee. Feel free to direct your questions to him at FlaWARN@fwpcoa.org.

Fall Short School The Fall State Short School is scheduled to be held at the Indian River State College in Ft. Pierce the week of August 10 through 14. We are all looking forward to being able to get


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

together for our short school, but we’re also working on potential alternate contingency options if the need arises.

FWPCOA Awards Besides the many training and certification courses we will be offering, we will also feature our annual awards luncheon at the short school. We will be presenting our normal slate of awards, as well as the Pat Flanagan Award, David B. Lee Award, and Richard P. Vogh Award, which we were not able to present this year at the Florida Water Resource Conference (FWRC) due to its cancellation. We will also be presenting the safety awards at the luncheon. These awards will need to be submitted to Pete Tyson at safety@fwpcoa.org by June 1, so if you haven’t already submitted your application, get it in as soon as possible, as you don’t have much time. All other award submittal deadlines will be June 27, and since the COVID-19 pandemic prevented the three awards I mentioned previously from being presented at FWRC, we will accept additional applicants for these awards as well. Submit your award applications to Renee Moticker at 07-director@fwpcoa.org. Please refer to the FWPCOA website at fwpcoa.org for information on the various awards.

the Wastewater Collection “C” online training course rollout. This course has been newly revamped to include a manual developed by FWPCOA. The cost of the course is $275, which includes the newly developed manual and a membership in FWPCOA for a year. You can access our online training by going to the website at fwpcoa.org. Select the “Online Institute” button at the upper righthand area of the home page to open the

institute login page. You can scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog to see the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work! S


Membership Recognition I also want to mention that we will be presenting some very special membership awards at our August luncheon. Rim Bishop, Katherine Kinloch, Lyle Waltemire, and Thomas Mueller will be recognized for their more than 50 years of membership in FWPCOA, and William Allman and Robert McColgan will be recognized for their more than 60 years of association membership. If you see or talk to any of these longtime members, don’t forget to congratulate them for their dedication and contribution to our association. We hope to see you at the awards luncheon to honor these members and the other folks being recognized for their achievements.

Training The association has many training options available through our Online Training Institute. We previously announced the addition of

The biosolids management landscape is evolving. From dewatering to digestion to land application alternatives, we are helping our clients find effective solutions to their biosolids challenges and protect the environment as we have for more than 50 years. Together, we can find solutions to meet the biosolids challenges of the future. Port Orange | Tampa | Tallahassee | meadhunt.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Biosolids and Bioenergy Management. Look above each set of questions to see if it's for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Optimizing Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion via Recycle From an Aerobic Digester Justin Wippo and Richard Pressley (Article 1: CEU = 0.1WW02015367)

1. Throughout the steady-state portion of pilot testing, the methanogen reactor maintained ammonia and pH levels that theoretically prevent the formation of a. hydrogen sulfide. b. struvite. c. carbon monoxide. d. excess methane. 2. During the initial phase of pilot testing, the __________ was operated at a liquid level that provided two days of hydraulic retention time. a. fermentation tank b. anaerobic digester c. aerobic digester d. methanogen reactor 3. Draeger tubes were not used to detect which of the following? a. Methane b. Hydrogen sulfide c. Ammonia d. Carbon dioxide 4. Anaerobic digestion frequently fails because the process produces _________ faster than it converts them to methane. a. sulfur compounds b. volatile fatty acids c. acidogens d. methanogens 5. Without the use of coagulant, the aerobic sludge recycle pilot system achieved ___ percent solids in the dewatered cake. a. 15 b. 18 c. 24 d. 32

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.


www.fwpcoa.or g for the latest updates on classes.

July 13-15 13-17 13-17 31

......Backflow Repair* ..................................St. Petersburg ......$275/305 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector Orlando..............$350/380 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector Osteen................$350/380 ......Backflow Tester recerts*** ....................Osteen................$85/115

August 10-14 ......F ALL STATE SHORT SCHOOL ..............Ft. Pierce

September 14-18 14-18 21-23 21-24 25

......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector Orlando..............$350/380 ......Wastewater Collection C ......................Osteen................$325 ......Backflow Repair ....................................Osteen................$275/305 ......Backflow Tester* ....................................St. Petersburg ......$375/405 ......Backflow Tester recerts*** ....................Osteen................$85/115

October 5-9 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector Osteen................$350/380 19-23 ......Backflow Tester ......................................Osteen................$375/405 30 ......Backflow Tester recerts*** ....................Osteen................$85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


Coronavirus Tracing Through Human Sewage in Wastewater Systems Could Serve as Early Warning System for Future Outbreaks Scientists at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) have developed a new methodology to trace COVID-19 through sewage and wastewater systems, which could potentially be used to track existing and future outbreaks of the coronavirus. Environmental monitoring of sewage can be effective if clinical testing is deficient in ascertaining the infection rate. Sewage surveillance can provide better estimates of how widespread the virus is to determine the extent of those who are infected, but have not been tested and are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms. If the virus is identified in wastewater, using the population size, the researchers can calculate the amount of virus shed in feces and then extrapolate the number of infected people in a population from these samples. The research team has already determined that COVID-19 is transferred through feces into the sewage, and is now seeking to determine if the virus remains

contagious there. Previous coronaviruses, like SARS, could only survive below 68°F for long periods in sewage. The team is planning on testing the samples to see if the virus is still capable of infecting someone, or only present and not contagious. The BGU researchers found COVID-19 in sewage after conducting sampling at all the wastewater treatment plants in Israel and several additional spots in the sewage pipeline in the Tel Aviv area before, during, and after the coronavirus outbreak. The BGU researchers also found a larger concentration in the Bnei Brak area, which was an outbreak hotspot; therefore, they believe screening sewage and wastewater could give a better indication of the spread of the virus than current methods. In 2013, the same BGU team discovered an outbreak of wild polio in the sewage that only reproduced in humans, so they knew the virus was in the population. Israel is the world’s leader in wastewater

reuse for agriculture, so it’s critical to determine if the virus is being passed through human excrement or other routes into the sewage while remaining infectious. If it does remain infectious, then sewage maintenance workers could be an additional vector for the virus spread. This is of great relevance to high-risk communities and regions with inadequate sanitary conditions, where someone is more likely to be exposed to untreated sewage. The research team from BGU includes: S Prof. Ariel Kushmaro, BGU Avram (leader) S Stella Goldstein-Goren, department of biotechnology engineering S Dr. Yakir Berchenko, department of industrial engineering and management S Dr. Oded Nir, department of desalination and water treatment at Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research Other members include: S Dr. Itay Bar-Or, Sheba Medical Center S Prof. Eran Freedler, Technion Israel Institute of Technology “Testing water systems is an established practice for municipalities, so this process could yield valuable data that could prevent transmission and save lives, especially given the shortage of testing capabilities right now in the United State and many countries,” explains Doug Seserman, chief executive officer of the New York-based American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (AABGU). “This is yet another example of researchers devising solutions to address the global challenges of COVID-19.” S


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


AWWA Section Services provides sections with content for their publications. These articles contain brand new information and will cover a variety of topics.

Gitanjali's Quest for Clean Water Gitanjali Rao Water is something I have always been particularly interested in. It’s crazy how something so simple can be a thing that we depend on every single day of our lives. My interest in water started when I was four years old. It was my third or fourth visit to India to see family, and I was old enough to start making observations about what was going on around me. My grandparents lived in a rural location, and they got water from a well that was about a mile away from their apartment. I watched in awe as they came back with a bucket of well water every week. As a thirsty toddler, I reached out for the water, but my grandma slowly shook her head and proceeded with a long process of boiling the water multiple times before we could drink it. As I got a bit older, I noticed the boiling occurred more often. I couldn’t believe that just to take a sip of water we had to do so much with it. Water is a basic right that everyone should have, and it was unfair that countries like India didn’t have clean water to drink. Forward to four years ago, when I heard about the water crisis in Flint, Mich. This was the moment when I knew that I had to act. It was already shocking that places in India and other locations in the world didn’t have clean water, but in our own, developed country, it seemed unreal. I couldn’t accept the fact that there was a city in the United States where children my age were drinking a poison every


single day that caused lifelong damage to their mental capacity, vital organs, and even normal growth just because they were using water in their daily lives. It was unfair that I had clean water to drink but nobody in Flint did. I knew I needed to do something about it. As with most ideas, I started dreaming big. I started thinking about releasing bacteria into water in order to eat up the lead and completely eliminate it. I realized, however, that a scaled-up solution such as that takes a lot of time to implement and the likeliness of it working is not exactly high. I decided to take a step back and notice the real problem, which was the lack of knowledge of lead in the water. I needed to act as soon as possible. I knew that there were test strips available, but how accurate were they? I decided to come up with a device that's able to detect lead in drinking water faster and cheaper than the current methods out there. My device is called “Tethys,” named after the Greek goddess of fresh water. The goal is to create something that households and families can use to test the water coming directly out of their tap and they can drink it. All of the results are then sent directly to a custom-made app on a cell phone that is able to save the results and put them on a heat map indicating places with either more lead levels and fewer lead levels. I created a working prototype in October of 2017. Since then, I’ve partnered with Denver Water to actively test my device and

June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

continue improving the design of it. Currently, I’m looking to partner with an organization that can assist me with scale testing and mass-producing Tethys, so I can distribute the device to places like Flint, schools, and other water sources where field testing can be done. Even though I’m working on wrapping up Tethys, my innovation and water journey is far from over. I’m constantly coming up with ideas and hoping to make an impact on the world. Gitanjali Rao is a student, inventor, and entrepreneur. She won the Discovery Education 3M Young Scientist Challenge in 2017. She spoke at the AWWA ACE19 Innovation Lounge. (photos courtesy of Gitanjali Rao) Reprinted with permission from American Water Works Association. S


Using Performance Contracts for Biosolids/Bioenergy Project Delivery John Banks lorida has a tool called the energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that can be used as an alternative project delivery method for many types of utility projects. An ESPC is particularly well-suited for innovative biosolids and bioenergy projects. The “energy saving” part of the name tends to throw people off in thinking that this contracting vehicle is only for a narrow range of project types; this isn’t true, however, as changes to the law now allow great flexibility in what can be counted towards the savings part of ESPC.


What is an Energy Savings Performance Contract? An ESPC is a contractual agreement between an owner and an energy service company (ESCO). This contract vehicle can be used by municipal utilities for infrastructure improvements and has several advantages over traditional procurement methods. The ESPC includes project scope development, design, construction, and postconstruction performance measurement of improvements to a municipal utility’s infrastructure. An ESPC is an alternative project delivery method—a turnkey service— and is similar to progressive design-build project delivery, with the additional feature of

an overall project financial performance guarantee. In an ESPC, the ESCO, through project improvements, creates annual energy and operational cost savings, and/or provides the owner with the ability to generate new sources of revenue. These savings and revenue may be used to cover some or all of the cost of the infrastructure improvements. As part of the ESPC, the ESCO typically provides a financial guarantee for the annual savings or new revenue created by the new infrastructure for the life of the contract; in Florida, the contact term can be up to 20 years. The financial guarantee helps to mitigate the owner’s financial risk. This financial guarantee is different from the performance guarantee that a product manufacturer provides, which ensures that its equipment meets a minimum output, result, or set of defined performance characteristics.

Why Municipal Utilities Use Energy Savings Performance Contracts The traditional design-bid-build model has been used successfully for many projects; however, successful projects require a very clear understanding of project definition and a very well-executed design phase. The traditional

John Banks, P.E., is senior business development manager with Energy Systems Group LLC in Clearwater.

process has many opportunities to fall short of owner expectations. The following are common reasons municipal utilities consider using an ESPC as an alternative to the traditional design-bid-build process: S ESPCs create a single point of accountability for all aspects of the project. S Poor experiences with the traditional designbid-build process, including: • Lack of focus on project schedule • Inability to accurately determine and manage project price during design process • Lack of collaboration between design and construction team members • Legal liabilities created by owner’s design responsibilities S ESPCs provide municipal utilities future budget and rate stability by actively managing the most price-variable aspects of the operating budget—utility, chemical, and biosolids disposals. S ESPCs can create revenue resilience through services to new nontraditional customers, such as high-strength organic waste producers in the food processing industry. S They minimize the procurement and management burden of numerous small projects by incorporating them into one major project (i.e., get more done quickly). S They may utilize alternative financing methods that help minimize the impact of long-term capital debt.

How an Energy Savings Performance Contract is Administered in Florida

For the Town of Niskayuna, N.Y., which was under a Department of Environmental Conservation consent order, ESG fast-tracked a three-phase project that addressed the consent order requirements, upgraded nearly every system of the treatment plant, expanded its capacity, and made it capable of achieving net zero energy. (photos: Haskell)


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

In Florida, energy savings performance contracting is enabled by Florida Statute 489.145 – Guaranteed Energy, Water, and Wastewater Performance Savings Contracting.

Originally enabled in 1994, the legislation has been updated several times to its current form. A few key features of the legislation are: S “Agency” means the state, a municipality, a political subdivision, a county school district, or an institution of higher education, including all state universities, colleges, and technical colleges. S It allows for any measure that is designed to reduce utility consumption, reduce wastewater costs, enhance revenue, avoid capital costs, or achieve similar efficiency gains at an agency or other governmental unit. S An ESCO must be selected in compliance with Florida Statute 287.055 –Consultants’ Competitive Negotiation Act (CCNA), except that if fewer than three firms are qualified to perform the required services, the requirement for agency selection of three firms, as provided in s. 287.055(4)(b), (shortlist), and the bid requirements of s. 287.057, do not apply. S A facility alteration that includes expenditures that are required to properly implement other energy conservation measures may be included as part of a performance contract.

Town of Niskayuna, N.Y.

In summary, the ESPC rules in Florida allow for great flexibility in the types and scope of projects that can be developed. The request for qualifications (RFQ) used for selection of a firm does not have to specify the exact scope, allowing for the project to be defined during the project development phase.

How Energy Savings Performance Contracts Compare to the Traditional Design-Bid-Build Process When comparing the two processes, the major differences to consider are: Single Point of Accountability In design-bid-build, the owner will have multiple contracts to manage—at least one with an engineer for design and at least one with the prime contractor. Each of these will have multiple subcontracts. Each is only responsible for their own role, and when conflicts arise, each can blame the other for the error. Such conflicts are a repeated theme on many projects that require owner intervention. With an ESPC, the ESCO is contractually responsible for both the design and construction, providing all of the services required to fully complete the project, from the initial conceptual design through construction

Aerial view of Frederick-Winchester Service Authority in Winchester, Va.

and long-term monitoring and verification of project performance. Thus, the ESCO is incentivized to resolve all conflicts within the project team. This provides the owner a single point of accountability for all issues related to the project. For example, if after start-up a piece of equipment does not perform to the level expected or needed, the ESCO will work with the original equipment manufacturer to replace or modify the equipment to the extent required. The ESCOs that develop long-standing relationships with manufacturers and suppliers are able to receive consultative serves from key providers for the ultimate benefit of the owner. Improved Collaboration of Project Team The design-bid-build process is inherently linear, can be slow, and is not structured for collaboration. For example, the engineer will independently create the project solution with

no input on constructability from the general contractor. Design decisions are typically made early in the process as part of the basis-of-design creation and, typically, are not revisited. Since the general contractor will not see the engineered drawings until they are 100 percent complete during the public bid process, any design flaws or hard-to-construct components of the project will result in a higher construction price for the owner. The ESPC is an adaptive and responsive process removing the linearity of design-bidbuild. In an ESPC, the owner has flexibility to adjust the scope of work throughout the design process until a final scope and price are developed and agreed upon. In addition, the ESCOs are early participants in the development process, improving a project’s constructability, and therefore, reducing costs. Continued on page 36

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


Continued from page 35 This collaboration allows the owner to consider numerous project scenarios to determine which will best meet the overall project technical goals and financial constraints. For example, a project can be developed in multiple phases, allowing for the most-critical issues, such as regulatory compliance, to be addressed in the initial phase, while features providing for savings and new revenue are addressed in a later phase. Selection of Equipment and Contractors In the design-bid-build process, if the owner wants a particular brand of equipment, they usually need to write a very tight specification that only that brand can meet, attempt to sole-source it (often at a price premium), or hope it’s the lowest price provider. In an ESPC, the owner meets the procurement obligation through the competitive selection of the ESCO. After the selection, the owner can provide direction to the ESCO on preferred equipment brands and contractors who have done quality work for them on previous projects. The ESCO ensures competitive pricing in order to get the equipment it wants. The ESCO can require that multiple equipment providers and contractors compete for the ESCO’s subcontracted work if required by the owner. Transfer of Design Risk to Create Construction Price Certainty In the design-bid-build process, the owner hires an engineer to create a 100 percent complete set of engineered drawings and technical specifications for a project. Then, through the public bidding process, the owner provides these drawings and specifications to interested contractors to obtain price bids, with the lowest responsible bidder being selected. In this process, the owner is deemed by law to

impliedly warrant that the plans and specifications are both accurate and suitable for their intended use. Typically, design problems are identified after the low-bid contractors have been selected. Since the owner is responsible for any problems with the design as they relate to the construction contract, these result in costly change orders for the contractor. This is how cost overruns occur in traditional construction. In an ESPC, the engineer is a subcontractor to the ESCO and is not under contract directly to the owner; therefore, the owner’s risk of costly change orders due to design problems is now eliminated because the implied warranty of the design’s accuracy and suitability is transferred from the owner to the ESCO and its subcontractors. The owner can now negotiate a construction scope and price with the ESCO, knowing that the agreed-upon price will not increase unless the owner makes a substantial change to the work scope (like requesting that additional equipment be installed). Warranty and Performance Guarantee At the end of a design-bid-build process, the contractor will have short-term start-up responsibilities for equipment and will typically provide a one-year construction warranty. Specific manufactured items may have a longer warranty. In an ESPC, the ESCO provides these warranties as well; however, ESCOs also provide a long-term financial performance guarantee: the savings produced by the project will be sufficient to cover the cost of project financing for the life of the project. This provides a powerful incentive for the ESCO to ensure all components of the project perform as intended. Providing this financial guarantee is one of the biggest differences between a typical general contractor and an ESCO.

Frederick-Winchester Service Authority.


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Services Beyond Engineering and Construction The design-bid-build process is strictly focused on the engineering and construction of a project. In an ESPC, the ESCO may offer a variety of additional services than those required to design and construct. Communication strategies regarding the needs and benefits of a project, via materials such as project-focused websites and fact sheets, may be offered. Equipment maintenance, staff training, and other ongoing support services may also be included in an ESPC. The ESCO, via the ESPC, has the ability to offer a variety of services that can help the municipal utility achieve its goals.

Summary When considering the utilities of the future, where new services and new ways of doing business need to be considered, the ESPC project delivery model translates very well to providing public utilities with the flexibility to execute new concepts and approaches. Florida has a rule that allows great flexibility and financial backstops that utilities need for developing new and innovative programs, which further advances financing and alternative revenue flexibility beyond traditional solicitation types, where ratepayers carry the full burden. High-strength organics waste, biosolids management, renewable energy, energy resiliency, and operation services and alternative financing options, like a publicprivate partnership, all come into play. This is being done in other parts of the United States. Codigestion projects, for example, have been developed for public utilities using ESPCs. These projects have successfully provided for financial stability in organizations previously facing difficult outlooks without this option. Furthermore, since the ESPC is essentially a progressive design-build contract, most funding organizations will recognize the selection of an ESCO as a “shovel-ready” project, ready to proceed without any additional solicitation actions by the owner. The ESPC, as an alternative project delivery approach, is in itself a catalyst providing utility managers options to select business partners that advance and balance the mission-critical requirements of the evolving public utility. These partners are able to look at the changing markets around the utility to evaluate revenue and savings opportunities across preconceived or traditional municipal boundaries. It can go much further, however, as business partners can offer competitive analysis of the market and will provide competitive alternatives that ensure an achievable return on investment. The more-advanced partners will manage the risk and have a stake in the game by guaranteeing the expected result. S

Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Emergency Preparedness and Response? 5. The new Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) WATER website is the

Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Water Resilience webpage, America’s Water Infrastructure Act requires community drinking water systems serving more than 3,300 people to develop or update risk assessments and a. b. c. d.

asset management plans (AMPs). emergency response plans (ERPs). process safety management plans (PSMs). risk management plans (RMPs).

2. Per its webpage on the Risk Management Plan Rule (RMP), EPA requires facilities that use extremely hazardous substances to develop a risk management plan that identifies the potential effects of a chemical accident, identifies steps the facility is taking to prevent an accident, and spells out a. a chain of command for implementing the plan. b. emergency response procedures should an accident occur. c. notification methods for the responders and the public. d. the agencies responsible for approving the procedures. 3. Per its website, FlaWARN is a formalized system of "utilities helping utilities" to address mutual aid during emergency situations. FlaWARN stands for a. Florida Warning and Response Network. b. Florida Water Response Network. c. Florida Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network. d. Florida Weather Reconnaissance Network. 4. What document is important to have on file with FlaWARN to promote "utilities helping utilities" in time of emergency? a. b. c. d.

Employee roster Mutual aid agreement Purchase order for service and supplies Proof of insurance

a. Water assistance tracking and emergency response site. b. Water/wastewater and treatment emergency response site. c. Water engineering and reporting site. d. Wastewater analysis and emergency records site. 6. The FDEP WATER website combines the FlaWARN event tracker and FDEP’s former website a. b. c. d.

a. aging workforce. b. climate change. c. failure of stakeholders to recognize water as a lifeline sector. d. lack of system automation.

DEPTracker. DisasterTracker. EmergencyResponder. StormTracker.

Answers on page 46

7. What type of hazards or emergencies is FDEP’s WATER system designed to address? a. All hazards, natural and manmade. b. Only hazards that involve drinking water contamination or sanitary sewer overflows. c. Only hurricanes, tropical storms, and flooding. d. Only incidents that require assistance from other states. 8. Per its website, WaterISAC was authorized by the U.S. Congress in the Bioterrorism Act. It’s the designated information sharing and operations arm of the Water Sector Coordinating Council and an all-threats security information source for the water and wastewater sector. WaterISAC stands for a. b. c. d.

10. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) designated water and wastewater as one of 16 critical infrastructure sectors, each required to have a sector-specific plan. In the Water and Wastewater SectorSpecific Plan, the most-significant risks were determined to be natural disasters, economic implications of aging infrastructure, cyber events, capability in managing an areawide loss of water, and

References used for this quiz: • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – Water Resilience webpage: https://www.epa.gov/waterresilience • EPA’s Community-Based Water Resilience webpage, Community-Based Water Resilience Guide: https://www.epa.gov/communitywaterresilience/co mmunity-based-water-resilience-guide • EPA’s Risk Management Plan webpage: https://www.epa.gov/rmp • FlaWARN website: https://flawarn.pwd.aa.ufl.edu/ • Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) WATER website: https://www.flwatertracker.com/ • WaterISAC website: https://www.waterisac.org/ • Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) 2015 Sector-Specific Plans webpage: https://www.cisa.gov/2015-sector-specific-plans

Water - Initial Source and Contact. Water Incident Status and Coordination. Water Incident System and Command. Water Information and Sharing and Analysis Center.

9. Per the EPA Community-Based Water Resilience website, in its Community-Based Water Resiliency Guide, utilities build resilience by following the five components of a resiliency framework: assess, plan, train, respond, and a. analyze. c. recover.

b. communicate. d. review.

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


FWEA CHAPTER CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Megan Nelson at megan.nelson@ocfl.net.

2019–2020 FWEA West Coast Chapter: A Success Story Recap Matthew S. Love The West Coast Chapter Steering Committee (WCC) began the 2019-2020 year off on great footing. Our annual sponsor goal for the year was thirteen. We had targeted twelve the year before, receiving fifteen, and didn’t want to be too aggressive with a relatively high goal that might be unachievable. None the less, we actually received seventeen sponsors for the 2019-2020 fiscal year. This stands as a testament to the dedication and generosity of the community that surrounds the West Coast Chapter. Our sponsors range from public entities to vendors to consultants, all of whom have shown great support in our mission to

protect the environment and educate the public over the years. The success continued throughout the year as the WCC was able to organize many great events, not the least of which was our four quarterly luncheons that we hosted at the Columbia Restaurant in Ybor City in Tampa. Our attendance this year ranged from 65 to 95 individuals for each of these events. The speakers came from all over the state of Florida and volunteered to make presentations to our members on a wide range of topics that included regulatory reform, project success stories, and environmental issues. The WCC also remained active in the community, as we sponsored young professional

events to help introduce new or aspiring engineers to the engineering community at large. We held a successful tailgate social, Night at the Rowdies, and participated in teach-in events to inspire young minds to think about our water environment. We also organized the Florida Water Festival as an outreach to the community and had some fun along the way with our sponsorship of an Oktoberfest event and annual clay shoot. Like so many other organizations, our year was cut a little short by current events and we didn’t get to finish up with the annual roundtable event at the Brio Restaurant in Tampa, but we completed the bulk of our goals in the 2019-2020 year. We successfully held our officer elections for the 2020-2021 year, and the following were selected: S Chair - Kris Samples, McKim & Creed S Vice Chair - George Dick, Carollo Engineers Inc. S Treasurer - Weston Haggen, Reiss Engineering S Secretary - Pamela Kearns, Reiss Engineering The WCC is looking forward to the challenges and successes of the new year. Matthew S. Love, P.E., is a senior engineer/associate with Carollo Engineers in Tampa. S


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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COVID–19 and the Utility Impact Informing the Public

Kim Kowalski Chair, FSAWWA

s I write this article, the state of Florida is starting to slowly reopen— what an experience the last eight weeks have been. As Gov. DeSantis issued executive orders to stay at home for all citizens and businesses, I slowly realized the impact this would have on those businesses deemed essential and how we would come to rely on our unsung heroes working on the frontline. I would like to extend my gratitude to all of those industries working tirelessly to keep us safe during these times, but I want to highlight our “invisible” heroes during this pandemic: the operators, and the utilities that support them, keeping our water running and safe. No one really thinks about water; they just turn on the tap and expect it to come flowing out, so thank you to all of the operators for all of your hard work.


As all this started, the FSAWWA Water Utility Council (WUC) began holding weekly teleconference meetings to discuss the impacts that COVID-19 would have on utilities and operators. Every week I listened in and quickly realized that the public needed to know the struggles our utilities were facing, so with the help of the WUC members, a list of questions was drawn up and they kindly answered them. I would like to thank the following for their contribution to this column: S Monica Autrey, Destin Water Users Inc. S Mark Lehigh, Hillsborough County Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department S Lisa Wilson Davis, City of Boca Raton, Utility Services Department S William Young, St. Johns County Utility Department S Jacqueline Torbert, Orange County Utilities S Michael Bailey, City of Cooper City Utilities Department S Steve Soltau, Pinellas County Utilities

Water Professionals: We Appreciate Your Service AWWA wants to thank water professionals EVSYRHXLI[SVPHJSVXLIMVLEVH[SVOWEGVMƤGI and dedication in providing safe and clean water during the Coronavirus pandemic. Thank you for all that you do, now and always.


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. What type of human-resource steps have you taken to address the COVID-19 socialdistancing guidance? What is working for your utility staff? Any lessons learned? Most utilities began social distancing on March 30 and implemented multiple steps, including: a. Working from home for all staff who had the tools to make that happen. For some utilities, this included providing the tools needed (laptops, MiFis, etc.). b. Laboratory staff members staggered their shifts (half worked in the morning and the other half in the afternoon). c. Some plant and field staff members were transitioned into two teams (A and B) and worked staggered schedules. Some schedules were a week on, then three weeks off; another schedule was eight-hour shifts for 14 days, while the other shift stayed home. (After a month, this schedule was amended to five days due to cost). Other utilities staff continued to work normal schedules, but all work was distributed to staff using work order software. d. Plants and facilities maintained 24/7 operations. 2. Have you seen any impacts (positive or negative) from any media messaging pertaining to drinking water safety or concerns? A lot has been done by AWWA in terms of “messaging” and support to operators; has it made it to the communities? The consensus is that there has been no negative impact from the media. Most of the utilities issued COVID-19-related messages to their users about what they need to know during the pandemic, which was not met with any positive or negative comments. A positive outcome has been the media helping to highlight the important issue of “what to flush” to educate customers about wipes and “fat burgs.” An interesting idea would be to implement a public service recognition week to be able to recognize the frontline staff.

3. How will your utility incorporate what you have learned from this crisis into your existing emergency response plans (ERPs)? a. Destin Water Users – Intends to use what it has learned to update its ERPs as requested by the America’s Water Infrastructure Act (AWIA) legislation and the stock level of personal protective equipment (PPE). b. Orange County Utilities – Additions to protocols for “teleworking” and requirements associated with mainlining appropriate stock of PPE. c. Pinellas County Utilities – Minimum staffing levels that are maintainable and customer service representatives all working from home to successfully meet all benchmarks and goals. d. City of Cooper City – Stock requirements for PPE and incorporating its current scheduling into the emergency response plans for pandemics. e. City of Boca Raton – Will conduct “after action” team meetings and evaluate and incorporate changes based on those discussions, which will be an ongoing and evolving situation.

f. Hillsborough County – 1. Determine minimum staffing levels that can be maintained. 2. Rewrite its ERP. 3. Better equip employees to be able to work from home seamlessly. 4. More laptops in place of desktops. 5. Training on apps and programs specific to working from home. 6. Procurement of PPE, thermometers, disinfectant wipes, etc. 7. Employee safeguards at facilities with UV-C (ultraviolet “C” frequency) bulbs in heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) systems, and handheld UV wands for disinfecting items, such as keyboards, counters, door handles, etc. g. St. Johns County – Much of the same as the other utilities and address its response during a pandemic based on the lessons learned. 4. As the state reopens, will you keep any of the guidelines that you have established thus far? All answered with the maintaining of the social-distancing guidelines and the continuation of sanitation practices.

5. What are your thoughts on travel for your employees, such as to conferences and workshops? Unfortunately, all travel has stopped, and all are relying on webinars and local teams going forward. The travel and training budgets for fiscal year (FY) 2020 and FY2021 will be looked at and amended accordingly. Some have already seen a reduction of 50 percent in these budgets.

Thanks to All of the Heroes The impact has been great, and I am thankful for all of the hard work and sacrifice our utilities have made—and are still making—to keep our water safe during this pandemic. As always, thank you to our volunteers; the section would not be where it is today without all of your efforts. No one knows what the future holds for our state during this pandemic, so let’s keep being safe and stay healthy! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


News Beat The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has selected George F. Ruchti, an engineer with Lockwood, Andrews & Newnam (LAN), as the 2020 recipient of the Stephen D. Bechtel Pipeline Engineering Award. This prestigious award is presented George Ruchti to an ASCE member who has made outstanding contributions to the advancement of pipeline engineering, either in research, planning, design, or construction. Ruchti is now in his sixth decade in the water and wastewater pipeline industry. His background includes 17 years in prestressed concrete cylinder pipe, 24 years in steel pipe, and 15 years with consulting engineering firms. Currently, he provides business development and technical advisory services to LAN’s infrastructure water conveyance group. “George’s contributions to pipeline engineering for more than half a century have left a lasting mark on the industry and inspired pipeline engineers throughout the country,” said Wayne Swafford, P.E., LAN president. “This award is a fitting tribute to his service.”


Ruchti’s contributions include serving national organizations on various technical committees. He is an honorary life member of the American Water Works Association and received the “Man of Steel” award from its Steel Water Pipe Manufacturers Technical Advisory Committee in 2009, and presently serves on the organization’s Steel Pipe Committee. A member of the ASCE pipeline division since 1990, Ruchti served as its chair in 2004 and received the division’s 2005 Award of Excellence. He served as the chair and editor of Manual of Practice 134, Water Pipeline Condition Assessment, and chair of the blue-ribbon committee for Manual of Practice 117, Inspecting Pipeline Installation. He also served on the Water Research Foundation Project 4498 Advisory Committee for Potable Water Pipe Condition Rating. In addition, he served the Steel Tank Institute/Steel Plate Fabricators Association for several years, including seven years as chair of the Steel Pipe Committee and six years as a board of directors member. Upon his retirement, the association bestowed its Hall of Fame award. Ruchti’s other accomplishments include publishing papers on pipeline issues and presenting them across the United States. He has

June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

guest-lectured at West Virginia University, University of Houston, and Utah State University on topics such as corrosion control methods for steel pipe and pipeline construction and rehabilitation in major cities. Ruchti graduated with a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering in 1964 from New England College in New Hampshire.


Freese and Nichols Inc. continues building its Florida team with the addition of Tom Cross, P.E., Assoc. DBIA, as senior project manager to lead transmission, utilities, and pump station projects for municipal clients across the Southeast. Cross has more than 26 years of experience in project Tom Cross development, design, permitting, and construction management. He has spent more than 17 years in the Tampa Bay area and has led infrastructure and facility projects and master-plan development for multiple Florida cities and counties, including Tampa, Clearwater, Daytona Beach, and Hillsborough County.

A regionally recognized leader in designbuild project delivery, Cross can provide municipalities with an expanded array of options for completing their water, wastewater, reclaimed water, or stormwater projects. He also is skilled in helping municipalities engage and inform their residents about major capital projects through public meetings and project information websites. “Tom brings us solid technical and project management expertise,” said Tony Pevec, Freese and Nichols group manager in Florida. “He’ll also add his leadership skills to our team as a quality control reviewer, senior advisor, and mentor.” Cross is licensed as a professional engineer in Florida, Alabama, and Georgia, and is credentialed as an associate DBIA by the DesignBuild Institute of America. For almost a decade, he has taught as an adjunct instructor at the University of South Florida. He received a master of science in environmental engineering from the University of Mississippi and a bachelor of science in civil engineering from the University of Tennessee.


While restaurants, gyms, schools, offices, and other buildings are closed indefinitely to prevent the spread of COVID-19, the quality of water left sitting in pipes could change, according to a National Science Foundation (NSF) study. In buildings nationwide, water left sitting for long periods of time could contain excessive amounts of heavy metals and pathogens that are concentrated in pipes, say researchers who have begun a field study on the impact of the pandemic shutdown on buildings. The problem of stagnant water may not be confined to buildings recently closed. Water could have been bad for months or years in old hospital buildings that cities are reopening to accommodate a potential influx of COVID-19 patients. "We don't design buildings to be shut down for months," says Andrew Whelton, a civil and environmental engineer at Purdue University. "This study focuses on the consequences and will help building owners make sure their buildings are safe and operational when occupants return." The researchers began their study with a rapid response research grant from NSF. The work involves monitoring water quality in buildings during a period of extended vacancy and upon the return of occupants. This is part of a national effort to advise public health officials, building owners, and water utilities on how to safely recommission buildings with low or no occupancy because of the pandemic.


The Water Quality Research Foundation (WQRF) selected three researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst to carry out its latest research, a sustainability comparison of centralized drinking water treatment to point-of-use (POU) or point-of entry (POE) treatment in small community systems for Safe Drinking Water Act compliance. In the study, Drs. Emily Kumpel, David

Reckhow, and John Tobiason will be using realworld data to compare the human, environmental, and economic impacts of centralized drinking water treatment to residential POU/POE treatment in small community water systems in the United States. The two-year research project begins this month. “Other studies in the past have explored the economic and technical feasibility of these treatments, but this study will be the first of our Continued on page 45

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CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida.

U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include: Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 7538292. EOE/m/f/v/d

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Licensed Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators http://www.cityofcocoabeach.com/619/Employment-Opportunities


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water Plant Operator A License Operator: $44,217 - $74,284 B License Operator: $42,313 - $71,085 C License Operator: $40,490 - $66,810 Trainee Operator: $36,346 - $59,971 The City of Melbourne is currently accepting applications for the positions of Water Treatment Plant Operator and Water Trainee Operator. To learn more and apply, please visit www.melbourneflorida.org

News Beat City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available Network Analyst SCADA, Laboratory Assistant, Industrial Electrician, Crew Leader, Foreman, Maintenance Mechanic, Plant Operator Trainee. Apply at www.titusville.com

Continued from page 43 knowledge to investigate and compare the environmental and human health impacts of using either POU/POE or centralized upgrades for compliance,” said Dennis Rupert, WQRF president. The sustainability comparison study is one of several WQRFfunded projects currently under way. Details of other WQRF research are available at wqrf.org.


Water Treatment Plant Operators The Water Treatment Plant at Village of Wellington is currently accepting applications for a Water Operator Level C, and a Water Operator Level A. Apply online. Job postings and application are available on our website: https://wellingtonfl.munisselfservice.com/employmentopportunities/default.aspx The Village of Wellington offers great benefits, and it is located in Palm Beach County, Florida. For further information, call Human Resources at (561) 753-2585.

Utilities Development Engineer / Engineer Intern Searching for both Interns and Professional Engineers. Highly responsible professional and technical civil engineering staff work performing residential and non-residential development plan(s) review for compliance with related elements of the Utilities master plans and other permitting programs/activities. To apply/review full job details please visit: https://www.polkcounty.net/equity-and-human-resources/career-opportunities


The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at

407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) has issued an order on water conservation measures with strict guidelines to property owners to follow irrigation schedules that conserve water amid drier-than-average conditions. The SFWMD has lawn watering restrictions all year. Amid recent dry conditions, property owners should take additional measures to conserve water, including: S Water lawns only two days per week between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m. S Apply no more than 3/4 inch to 1 inch of water per week on lawns and landscapes, and only as needed to supplement rainfall. The order states that plants may be watered using low-volume irrigation, micro-irrigation, low-volume hand watering methods, and rain barrels, cisterns, or other similar rain harvesting devices without regard to the watering days or times. It also does not limit irrigation when using treated reclaimed water. Rainfall has been approximately 6.5 inches below average from November of 2019 to March of this year, groundwater levels are decreasing districtwide, and the U.S. Drought Monitor lists all of South Florida as experiencing at least "moderate drought" conditions, with portions of Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade counties and the lower East Coast of the state being classified as "abnormally dry." The SFWMD reminds residents that hand washing uses very little water, and residents are encouraged to continue frequent hand washing to prevent the spread of COVID-19, but the water can be turned off while lathering up. The order does not in any way restrict residents from following those CDC guidelines. Residents can also conserve water by following SFWMD’s simple water conservation tips, including: S Ensuring rain sensors are operating properly. Irrigating during or after significant rainfall is a major cause of outdoor water waste and can cost money. S Replacing aerators in kitchen and bathroom sinks with models rated for 1.5 gallons per minute or less. S Switching to WaterSense®-labeled products, including indoor showerheads, bathroom faucets, and toilets to save hundreds of gallons of water a week. S Implement Florida-Friendly landscaping and principles by using low-maintenance plants and environmentally sustainable practices. S Consider updating appliances, like dishwashers and washing machines, to Energy Star®-rated products. S Using the shortest clothes washing cycle for lightly soiled loads; normal and permanent press wash cycles use more water. S Thawing frozen food in the refrigerator or microwave, not under running water. S Scraping dishes before loading in the dishwasher without rinsing. S Installing high-efficiency showerheads, faucets, and toilets. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2020


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 37 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January ............Wastewater Treatment February ..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..................Conservation and Reuse May ..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August ..............Disinfection; Water Quality September........Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ............New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ........Water Treatment December ........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index ADS Enviro ..........................................................................41 Blue Planet Environmental Systems ..................................47 CEU Challenge ....................................................................28 Data Flow Systems ............................................................42 Engineered Pumps..............................................................43 Enviro-Care ..........................................................................2 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers..........................19 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview ..................................20 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibits ....................................21 FSAWWA Fall Conference Golf/Poker/Happy Hour ............22 FSAWWA Water Distribution Awards ................................23 FWPCOA Training Calendar ................................................29 Grundfos..............................................................................33 Hudson Pump......................................................................13 Hydro International ..............................................................5 Integrity ..............................................................................31 J&S Valve ............................................................................25 Lakeside Equipment ............................................................7 Mead Hunt ..........................................................................27 UF TREEO Center ................................................................39 Xylem ..................................................................................48


June 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. B) emergency response plans (ERPs). Per EPA’s Water Resilience webpage, under America's Water Infrastructure Act: Risk Assessments and Emergency Response Plans, “AWIA Section 2013 requires community (drinking) water systems serving more than 3,300 people to develop or update risk assessments and emergency response plans (ERPs). The law specifies the components that the risk assessments and ERPs must address and establishes deadlines by which water systems must certify to EPA completion of the risk assessment and ERP.”

2. B) emergency response procedures should an accident occur. Per EPA’s webpage on the Risk Management Plan Rule (RMP), “The RMP rule requires facilities that use extremely hazardous substances to develop a risk management plan that: • identifies the potential effects of a chemical accident, • identifies steps the facility is taking to prevent an accident, and • spells out emergency response procedures should an accident occur.”

3. C) Florida Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network. Per the FlaWARN website, under Frequently Asked Questions, “What is FlaWARN? Florida's Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network is the formalized system of "utilities helping utilities" to address mutual aid during emergency situations. The project's infrastructure consists of a secure web-based data bank of available resources and a practical mutual aid agreement designed to reduce bureaucratic red tape in times of emergency. The goal of FlaWARN is to provide immediate relief for member utilities during times of emergencies.”

4. B) A mutual aid agreement Per the FlaWARN web page, under Resources – Mutual Aid Agreement, “The mutual aid agreement (MAA) aimed at facilitating rapid emergency response amongst FlaWARN member utilities. Signing the MAA is NOT mandatory for basic FlaWARN registration; however, members are encouraged to sign and submit the agreement as soon as possible. The MAA has been carefully crafted to promote "utilities helping utilities" in time of emergency . . . Having a signed MAA already on file prior to an emergency can greatly facilitate planning and prioritizing by agencies responding to your requests for help in time of need.”

5. A) Water assistance tracking and emergency response site. Per FDEP’s WATER website, “Welcome to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's (FDEP) Water Assistance Tracking and Emergency Response (WATER) website.”

6. D) StormTracker. Per FDEP’s WATER website, “This new system combines FDEP's former StormTracker website and the Florida Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN) event tracker. The overall solution was to create one source for all water and wastewater facilities to report event-related status, and to submit needs and request resources.”

7. A) all hazards, natural and manmade. Per FDEP’s WATER website, “This new system is designed for all hazard types to include both natural hazards (tropical storms, hurricanes, floods, etc.) and malevolent acts (contamination of finished water or source water, assault, cyberattack, etc.).”

8. D) Water Information and Sharing and Analysis Center. Per the WaterISAC website, “The U.S. water and wastewater sector’s leading national associations and research foundations established the Water Information Sharing and Analysis Center (WaterISAC) in 2002, in coordination with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency . . . WaterISAC is the only all-threats security information source for the water and wastewater sector. We serve 2,600 water sector personnel across several hundred utilities and other organizations.”

9. C) recover. Per EPA’s Community-Based Water Resilience (CBWR) website, in its Community-Based Water Resiliency Guide under the Route to Resilience section, “CBWR is part of the broader U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) effort to increase water sector resilience. EPA recommends that utilities build resilience by following the five components of a resiliency framework: assess, plan, train, respond, and recover.”

10. C) failure of stakeholders to recognize water as a lifeline sector. Per the 2015 Water and Wastewater Systems Sector-Specific Plan, under Section 3.2 Sector Risks, Figure 4: Water and Wastewater Sector Risks, under “Most Significant Risks • Natural disasters (such as impacts on water quality and quantity from floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, ice storms, pandemic flu, and other geographic catastophes) • Economic implications of aging infrastructure • Cyber events • Capability in managing an areawide loss of water • Although the water sector has been defined as a lifeline sector, this is not commonly recognized among all relevant stakeholders, a situation that can escalate consequences during areawide events.”

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Florida Water Resources Journal - June 2020  

Biosolids and Bioenergy Management

Florida Water Resources Journal - June 2020  

Biosolids and Bioenergy Management

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