Florida Water Resources Journal - May 2021

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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

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Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 Leak at Wastewater Pond Prompts Evacuations in Tampa Area 6 Applications Open for 2021 “Utility of the Future Today” Recognition Program 8 Plant City’s Integrated Water Management Plan—Lynn Spivey, Amy Tracy, Chris Keller, Chris Owen, and David O'Connor 16 Sweating the Small Stuff—David Steinkraus

28 Wringing Every Last Drop Out of the Old Before Ringing in the New—Joel Engelhardt

44 Testing Finds SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater 62 Technically Speaking: 11 Tips For Communicating With Nontechnical Audiences—Shea Dunifon 63 News Beat 64 AMWA Announces 2021 Management Recognition Awards Honoring Water Utility Achievements and Individual Contributions

27 FSAWWA Awards 35 CEU Challenge 41 TREEO Center Training 65 FWPCOA Training Calenda 69 AWWA Virtual ACE21

Columns 14 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 20 Let’s Talk Safety: Driving Home the Seriousness of Company Vehicle Safety 36 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Fred Bloetscher 38 Reader Profile—Renee Moticker 40 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 42 Legal Briefs: Georgia 9, Florida 0: Georgia Shuts Out Florida in the Latest Supreme Court Water War Battle—Kyle Robisch

46 FWEA Focus—James J. Wallace

Departments 67 Classifieds 70 Display Advertiser Index

Technical Articles 32 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Master Planning: How One Utility Focused Planning Efforts to Improve the Return on Investment of Its Existing System—Nicholas Claudio, Brian Head, and Chris Martin

48 Know the Unknown: Evaluating Water Main Inspection Technologies—Weston Haggen and Emily Staubus Williamson

Education and Training 22 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers 23 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibit Registration 24 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship Fund 25 AWWA 2020 Impact 26 AWWA Celebrates Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month

Volume 72

ON THE COVER: Carel Bent, lead operator at City of Pompano Beach Utilities, obtains operational data from a membrane skid at the treatment plant. (photo: Randy Brown)

May 2021

Number 5

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Leak at Wastewater Pond Prompts Evacuations in Tampa Area Gov. Ron DeSantis declared a state of emergency after a significant leak at a large pond of wastewater threatened to flood roads and burst a system that stores polluted waters. From March 26 to April 9, approximately 237 million gallons of water leaked from a large reservoir in the Tampa Bay area north of Bradenton, the state’s environmental department said.

Evacuation Ordered Officials in Florida ordered more than 300 homes to be evacuated and closed off a highway near the reservoir. Residents who live around the Piney Point reservoir received an alert via text saying to leave the area immediately because a collapse was “imminent.” Authorities later expanded the evacuation area to include more homes, but said they were not planning to open shelters. Scott Hopes, administrator for Manatee County, said at a recent press conference that the most pressing concern is that the water could flood the area, which he said was mostly agricultural and low in population density. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) says a break was detected in one of the walls of a 77-acre pond that has a depth of 25 feet and holds millions of gallons of water containing phosphorus and nitrogen from an old phosphate plant. Workers have been pumping out thousands of gallons per minute at the site to bring the volume down in the event that the pond bursts. Pumping the entire pond took 10 to 12 days. Others have been working to chart the path to control how the water flows from the pond into the Tampa Bay. While officials have managed to drain the reservoir enough so that a “tidal wave” of wastewater didn’t flood the area, experts say that the threat of damage still remains.

Environmental Concerns DeSantis’ declaration of a state of emergency allocated more pumps and cranes to the area. The pond where the leak was discovered is at the old Piney Point phosphate mine, sitting in a stack of phosphogypsum, a waste product from manufacturing fertilizer, which is radioactive. It contains small amounts of naturally occurring radium and uranium, and the stacks can also release large concentrations of radon gas. Hopes says that if the pond collapses, there is a risk it could destabilize the walls of other areas in the plant. “The pond is basically salt water. We saw ducks yesterday, there are snooks swimming in there. It’s sustaining wildlife. That’s not the case for the other two pools,” he said, adding that the wastewater in the other ponds would need to be treated to reduce ammonium content and other materials. The nutrients most of concern when it comes to the wastewater—which is a combination of saltwater from a local dredge project, process water, and stormwater—are nitrogen and phosphorus. While both are

4 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

essential to plant life, excessive amounts can destroy ecosystems, experts say.

Next Steps Nikki Fried, the state’s agriculture commissioner, urged the governor to convene an emergency session of the state cabinet to discuss a plan, adding that this property has seen similar leaks in the past. “The immediate evacuation of residents, disruption of families during Easter weekend, and potential environmental catastrophe requires the attention and action of Florida’s statewide elected leadership,” Fried said. In 2016, more than 200 million gallons of contaminated wastewater from another fertilizer plant in central Florida leaked into one of the state’s main aquifers after a massive sinkhole opened up in a pond of a phosphogypsum stack. There are at least 70 gypsum stacks in the United States and about 27 in Florida, mostly in the region of west-central Florida. The wastewater stored in the gypsum stacks can’t be seen from the ground as the piles surrounding the structure can go as high as 500 feet. S

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Applications Open for 2021 “Utility of the Future Today” Recognition Program The Utility of the Future Today Recognition Program honors forward-thinking, innovative water utilities that are providing resilient valueadded service to communities, particularly in community engagement, watershed stewardship, and recovery of resources, such as water, energy, and nutrients. The application deadline is May 14, 2021, by 5 p.m. EDT. The program’s concept is being promoted as the water systems in the United States transform operations through innovation and technology. It’s a model for utilities of all sizes to achieve more-efficient operations, enhanced productivity, and long-term sustainability. Since the Utility of the Future concept was introduced in 2013, many utilities have successfully implemented new and creative programs to address local wastewater technical and community challenges. Now in its sixth year, the program seeks to reach deeply into the water sector to form and motivate groups of like-minded water utilities engaged in advancing resource efficiency and recovery, developing proactive relationships with stakeholders, and establishing resilient, sustainable, and livable communities. The recognition program, through the aggregation and sharing of utility advancements and experiences, enables participants across a broad continuum of capacities and capabilities to learn from each other and continually grow and sustain their efforts to be, and advance the concept of, the utility of the future.



Public and private water sector utilities of all sizes that can demonstrate achievement of the application requirements are encouraged to apply.

Honorees will be notified during the summer and recognized at the utility leaders event that will be held at WEFTEC 2021—WEF’s 94th annual technical exhibition and conference. Utilities receiving the recognition will also be recognized in Water Environment & Technology, the Federation’s flagship publication, and will receive a certificate and Utility of the Future flag for their organizations to proudly hang and fly. Applicants are not required to attend WEFTEC to receive recognition.

Focus The program’s activity areas focus on the key building blocks of this industry transformation: S Recovery and new uses of a full range of resources. S Engagement as a leader in the full water cycle and broader social, economic, and environmental sustainability of the community. S Transformation of the internal utility culture in support of these innovations. S Engagement in the community and formation of partnerships necessary for success when operating outside of the traditional span of control of the utility.

Collaborative Effort The recognition program was launched in 2016 by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA), Water Environment Federation (WEF), The Water Research Foundation (WRF), and WateReuse Association, with input from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

6 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

How to Apply To apply for the recognition, download the 2021 Utility of the Future Today application form. Completed forms can be submitted via the WEF Open Water platform. There is no cost to apply. For more information visit www.wef.org/ utility-of-the-future/ or UtilityRecognition@ S wef.org.

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Plant City’s Integrated Water Management Plan Lynn Spivey, Amy Tracy, Chris Keller, Chris Owen, and David O’Connor Florida is growing at a record pace, with an estimated 1,000 new residents arriving every day. In Plant City (city), population forecasts indicate an increase of approximately 74,000 people through the year 2045. Presently, the city utility serves 40,210 residents; with the projected population increase, the city estimates, in 2045, about 35 percent more potable water supply customers. New legislation, rule revisions, and regulatory changes regarding water supply and quality are underway because the city’s aquifers, lakes, and springs cannot keep up with the need for fresh water. The supply of fresh water is limited, and the ways in which the city uses its recycled water will facilitate a more resilient water supply future.

Water Projects With “One Water” Philosophy The city, in collaboration with its funding partners, is investing in a series of water projects that follow an integrated approach to water resource management. Part of the city’s plan to

sustain and protect water and the environment is through the implementation of the McIntosh Preserve Integrated Water Management Plan to provide for future water supply needs and protect a section of wild and scenic beauty in the city. The projects are predicated on the “One Water” approach to managing the water cycle. The projects incorporate the use of a natural green space just north of the city center. McIntosh Preserve is a 365-acre natural habitat located in the city (Figure 1). The McIntosh tract was purchased in 1998 for $1.1 million by the Florida Communities Trust (FCT) and the Hillsborough County Environmental Land Acquisition and Protection Program (ELAPP). In 2015, the city opened the habitat facility as a passive recreational park, with amenities that include walking and hiking trails, and picnic facilities. The city continues to invest in the preserve to protect local water resources and expand recreational access to realize multiple environmental benefits through the concept and implementation of integrated water management principles. “One Water” is defined by The Water Research Foundation as “an integrated planning and implementation approach to managing finite water resources for long-term resilience and reliability meeting both community and

Figure 1. McIntosh Preserve Boundary

8 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

ecosystem needs.” The U.S. Water Alliance recognizes that all water has value and should never be treated as a waste product. The integrated water management plan projects include utilizing the city’s highly treated reclaimed water for wetland rehydration and surficial aquifer recharge and as an alternative water supply (AWS) through an indirect potable reuse (IPR) project. The plan also includes the mitigation of flooding through increased stormwater capacity at the McIntosh Preserve parcel, in part through the expansion of natural and engineered wetlands that also provide additional water quality treatment to stormwater and reclaimed water, and expanding the natural passive park amenities and preservation of critical habitat at McIntosh Preserve.

Projects to Implement the Plan The water projects in this integrated water management plan are multi-year projects cofunded by the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD). The water projects encompass two elements. The first is the evaluation of IPR as a possible future 1.5-million-gallon-per-day (mgd) water supply opportunity through the utilization of highly treated recycled water for aquifer recharge. Additional benefits of aquifer augmentation are prevention of the degradation of wetlands and formation of sinkholes in the Dover Water Resource Cautionary Area. The second water project element of the integrated water management plan includes the design and construction of 172 acres of multipurpose constructed treatment wetlands on the McIntosh parcel, where reclaimed water will be used as beneficial reuse to support wildlife habitat through proper maintenance of the hydroperiod, while reducing the surface direct discharge to the East Canal. Both elements of these water projects use the highly treated reclaimed water from the Plant City Water Reclamation Facility (WRF), a 10-mgd adjusted average daily flow (AADF) advanced wastewater treatment plant (AWT). Currently, the city’s WRF National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit allows for a surface water discharge (SWD) of up to 6 mgd on an annual average into the East Canal, which flows to the Itchepackasassa Creek, and eventually, the Hillsborough River. The SWD permit requires reclaimed water to be Continued on page 10



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Continued from page 8 treated to a high water quality standard to meet the 5 mg/L carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), 5 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), 3 mg/L total nitrogen (TN), and 1 mg/L total phosphorus (TP) water quality limits to a surface water body. Although the reclaimed water is already treated to high standards for SWD, these new projects will provide additional beneficial use opportunities. The IPR feasibility project utilizes the city’s recycled water, which would be treated to drinking water standards, and then subsequently injected into either the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) or the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) to contribute to the overall regional sustainability of the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) and help offset impacts resulting from increased groundwater pumping during future freeze events across the area and provide a self-sustaining water supply for the city. Additionally, the injection will result in increased groundwater heads in the UFA along the western portion of Polk County and improve water management flexibility.

To utilize the city’s current recycled water for IPR, it must undergo additional treatment. The IPR feasibility project includes pre-pilot sampling for characterization of the reclaimed source water, selection of the best treatment technology for the treatment pilot, demonstration of the selected pilot system for a minimum of six months, and groundwater modeling to determine the best injection well location. To determine the advanced water treatment needs, the city performed a source water characterization of the city’s reclaimed water to guide the selection of an appropriate treatment approach for the pilot system. The selected treatment system for the pilot treatment process includes membrane filtration (MF), reverse osmosis (RO), and ultraviolet/advanced oxidation process (UV/AOP), also known as full advanced treatment (FAT), which is universally recognized as a validated treatment for potable reuse (California State Water Resources Control Board, 2019) and has been implemented throughout the United States, Europe, Africa, and Australia (California State Water Resources

Table 1. Pathogen Log Reduction Credits for Full Advanced Treatment (source: Florida Potable Reuse Commission)

Process MF RO UV/AOP Storage with Cl Total

Virus 0 2 6 4 12

Cryptosporidium 4 2 6 0 12

Figure 2. Indirect Potable Reuse Groundwater Modeling Sites

10 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Control Board, 2019; Law et al., 2015; Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council et al., 2008; Alcalde Sanz & Gawlik, 2014). The FAT technologies taken in total provide barriers against both chemical constituents (Walker et al., 2016) and pathogens to protect human health; they're recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for potable reuse treatment (USEPA, 2017), and have been extensively studied for more than two decades (Bernados, 2018; Gerrity et al., 2013). The FAT process consists of the most advanced and comprehensive water treatment technologies available for drinking water treatment, producing high-quality water for human consumption. The water produced by the reuse facility will be treated using a microfiltration/ultrafiltration (MF/UF) system, which will reduce solids and particles and produce a consistent quality of water to enhance the performance of the downstream RO and UV/AOP processes. The MF/UF also provides pathogen removal for protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The water will then be treated using RO filtration. The RO membranes remove dissolved substances from water, producing a permeate with low dissolved solids; however, some small compounds, such as N- Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and 1,4-dioxane, may pass though the membranes. The next step, advanced oxidation, targets these and other organic compounds. The UV/AOP technology also will destroy pathogens, viruses, and trace organics that are not removed by the RO process. Table 1 summarizes the effectiveness of the FAT treatment proposed for the AWT for pathogens. The IPR project also incorporates the principles of a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) to identify critical control points (CCPs) and assess the reliability of those CCPs to manage acute and chronic health risks (Walker et al., 2020). The application of HACCP provides assurance that the treatment process is always working properly; it’s used to identify possible hazards in the source water, beginning with the industrial pretreatment control program (IPTCP). A robust IPTCP will allow the city to identify possible risks to the current permitted reuse system and prevent the introduction of industrial contaminants that could upset the reuse treatment facility, disrupt specific processes, or make it through the reuse processes to the reuse plant effluent. The city is currently in the process of procuring the pilot equipment for the pilot demonstration portion of the project. To determine the best location for the injection well, the city’s consulting team performed extensive groundwater modeling (Figure 2). The city is located within the Dover/Plant City Frost Freeze Management Plan (SWFWMD, 2010), developed to reduce impacts from increased

agricultural groundwater pumping during future freeze events. The freeze management plan established a water use caution area (WUCA) in the Dover/Plant City area and created a minimum aquifer level protection zone (MALPZ) to help guide future water management decisions. To evaluate whether the long-term application of excess reclaimed water could effectively offset groundwater declines that result from increased agricultural pumping during significant freeze events or during crop establishment, the modeling analysis primarily focused on the changes in simulated heads in the MALPZ. Recovery rates were estimated to minimize impacts to the MALPZ. Hydrological modeling for this study focused on simulating direct recharge of the UFA and LFA to increase the freshwater head in this area and, consequently, provide additional groundwater storage for future use. For each of the recharge/ recovery scenarios, the injection well(s) operated at a constant rate over a one-year period. The volumes of injected water for the model simulation were 2 and 8 mgd. Recovery wells will then extract up to 90 percent of the recharged water. Groundwater modeling was performed to assess the performance of potential recharge wells and recovery wells, and the impacts to the aquifer systems. Four candidate well locations for recharge and recovery were identified for the study, including: S McIntosh Park area S Current Plant City Water Reclamation Facility S Northeast Plant City S Proposed Water Treatment Plant # 6 located in Southeast Plant City While locating a recharge well in the northeast area of the city would be challenging due to the availability of land, it was included as a potential alternative location for comparative purposes. To evaluate the feasibility of the IPR project at these four locations, numerical groundwater flow modeling was performed using the districtwide regional model (DWRM). Results from the modeling analyses (Table 2) suggest that all four sites are suitable candidates for IPR recharge/recovery operations. Modeling simulations suggest that both the McIntosh Park and northeast sites of the city can support a higher recovery rate without any deleterious drawdown impacts within the MALPZ. Within the LFA, simulation results show that all four sites are equally suitable for the recharge/recovery operations. Overall, results of this modeling analysis show that the various configurations of the recharge/ recovery wells as outlined could accommodate anywhere from 2 to 8 mgd of reclaimed water as direct recharge to the UFA/LFA, while increasing the following:

Table 2. Results of Recharge/Recovery Scenarios Scenario



McIntosh Park

Plant City WRF


UFA (Avon Park)

Recharge (mgd) Recovery (mgd) % Recovery

2 1.8 90%

2 1.6 80%



Recharge (mgd) Recovery (mgd) % Recovery Recharge (mgd) Recovery (mgd) % Recovery Recharge (mgd) Recovery (mgd) % Recovery

2 1.8 90% 8 7.2 90% 8 7.2 90%

2 1.8 90% 8 6.4 80% 8 7.2 90%


UFA (Avon Park)



NE Plant City Area 2

Proposed WTP #6 2

1.8 90%

1.6 80%

2 1.8 90% 8 7.2 90% 8 7.2 90%

2 1.8 90% 8 6.4 80% 8 7.2 90%

Figure 3. McIntosh Preserve Treatment Wetland Layout – 30 Percent Design

S F reshwater heads along the coast in the LFA to mitigate saltwater intrusion. S Groundwater heads in the UFA across the Dover/Plant City WUCA to offset excessive drawdown during freeze protection events. S Groundwater heads in the UFA along the western portion of Polk County to effectively enhance groundwater storage volume and improve water management flexibility. On Dec, 18, 2019, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) approved the city’s level II water-quality-based effluent limitations (WQBEL) for the WRF, which allows the city to send 6-mgd AADF to surface waters of the state. Though the WQBEL assessment proved that no harm was caused by the SWD and, in

fact, the stream water quality was improved, the state is moving toward prohibiting surface water discharge and looking toward more beneficial uses (2021 Senate Bill 64). The city’s WRF is a 10-mgd facility (ultimately 12 mgd at buildout); therefore, excess reclaimed water is available for additional beneficial use, leaving ample water to provide supplemental hydration to the McIntosh Preserve wetlands. MacIntosh Preserve includes an existing, enhanced stormwater treatment wetland (Figure 3) that provides treatment and attenuation for the East Canal sub-basin, which experiences frequent flooding. This SWFWMD-funded project, constructed Continued on page 12

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Continued from page 11 approximately 15 years ago, diverts water from the East Canal offline through the wetland to provide storage and water quality improvements prior to discharge back into the East Canal. The original project included both wetland treatment and an alum facility for additional phosphorus polishing. The alum treatment system experienced operational challenges since its inception and

is currently inoperable. While the original wetland provided water quality improvements, the benefits of the project were limited by the flashy nature of stormwater runoff and the dehydration of the treatment wetlands between storm events. This first project was primarily to treat stormwater from the East Canal system; the current McIntosh project uses an integrated approach to water management that produces multifaceted environmental benefits.

Figure 4. McIntosh Preserve Phase One Upland Trails

The McIntosh Preserve wetlands project expands upon the original project through development of design plans for 172 acres of multipurpose constructed treatment wetlands. To address the dehydration experienced by the original wetland and increase treatment, this project reconfigures the original wetland cells and adds additional treatment wetlands in the center and western portion of the park, and also includes the addition of highly treated reclaimed water for hydration of the wetlands. The southeastern cell that is directly connected to the East Canal will not receive reclaimed water; rather, it will continue to derive its hydroperiod solely from surface water. The new wetlands cells receive supplemental water from the city’s reclaimed system during dry periods. The McIntosh Preserve wetlands expansion and the proposed hydrological improvements increase the stormwater system capacity to reduce localized flooding conditions. The site continues to accept offsite stormwater and improvements in the southern portion of the project increase the efficiency of the conveyance of water, reducing the duration of localized flooding. The expansion of wetlands and a backflow preventer in the northeastern corner of the property will reduce offsite flooding and lessen the duration and extent of standing water. The expanded wetland treatment is estimated to decrease nutrient loading to the East Canal, above and beyond the original project, with a net improvement of 7,620 pounds a year of TN and 2,280 pounds of TP. The final component of this project is the enhancement of the park element throughout the McIntosh parcel. The city’s parks and recreation department is working with the utilities department to enhance the park elements in a series of phased projects to match the construction timeline of the wetland’s expansion. The phaseone recreational improvement (Figure 4) is a $600,000 investment funded with a $300,000 legislative appropriation and $300,000 in match dollars from the city that was scheduled to be complete in April 2021. These improvements include two miles of upland pedestrian hiking trails that are Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)-accessible, a three-story wildlife observation tower with ADA accommodations to include live video feed using solar power, and a rock-climbing feature for children. Additional parking, educational signage, benches, and trash cans are also included under the current phaseone project.

Preserving the Past, Looking to the Future Figure 5. Residents of the Preserve Public Engagement Artwork Done by Scott Merrell, Creative Director, England Thims and Miller Inc.

12 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The integrated water management plan embodies the city’s commitment to preserving

the past through investment in the McIntosh Preserve Wetlands and environmental park, but also its dedication to the future, as the city investigates potable reuse as a potential AWS option. The application of the integrated water approach supports Florida’s initiative to protect and improve water quality and beneficially reuse recycled water. Gov. Ron DeSantis is committed to Florida’s water resources. Executive Order (E.O.) 19-12 underscores his commitment to AWS through directing FDEP to take all necessary steps to help communities plan for and implement vital conservation, reuse, and AWS projects. He is also focused on the importance of water quality, as evidenced in the establishment of the Florida’s Blue Green Algae Task Force. A recommendation from the task force includes stormwater projects that reduce nutrient loading to receiving waterbodies. The city’s investigation of potable reuse and the beneficial reuse of 1.5 mgd of the city’s highly treated recycled water to supplement the wetland hydroperiods and support the delicate ecosystem meets the objective of E.O. 19-12. Lynn Spivey, director of utilities at City of Plant City, and Amy Tracy, Florida water resources

leader with Dewberry-Hydro in Jacksonville, are authors of this article. Chris Keller, president of Wetland Solutions Inc. in Alachua; Chris Owen, director—water and reuse innovation with Hazen and Sawyer in Clearwater; and David O’Connor, associate vice president with ARCADIS in Tampa, are coauthors.

Citations and References

• B ernados, B. (2018). Reverse Osmosis for Direct Potable Reuse in California. Journal of American Water Works Association, 110: 28-36. • California State Water Resources Control Board (2019). A Proposed Framework for Regulating Direct Potable Reuse in California. California Environmental Protection Agency. Sacramento, Calif. • Gerrity, D; Pecson, D.; Trussell, R. S; Trussell, R. R. (2013). Potable reuse treatment trains throughout the world. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 1; 62 (6): 321–338. • Law, I., Menge, J., Cunliffe, D. (2015). Validation of the Goreangab Reclamation Plant in Windhoek, Namibia Against the 2008 Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination. 5.

• N atural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Environment Protection and Heritage Council, National Health and Medical Research Council (2008). Australian Guidelines for Recycling: Managing Health and Environmental Risks (Phase 2); Augmentation of Drinking Water Supplies. Canberra, Australia. • Alcalde Sanz, L. and Gawlik, B. (2014). Water Reuse in Europe: Relevant guidelines, Needs for and Barriers to Innovation: A Synoptic Overview. JRC Science and Policy Reports. European Commission. • Walker, T., Boyle, N., Stanford, B., Owen, C., and Biscardi P. (2020). Full-Scale Evaluation of Critical Control Points and Monitors at a Reuse Facility. AWWA Water Science. Denver, Colo. • Walker, T., Stanford, B., Khan, S., Robillot, S., Snyder, S., Valerdi, R., Dwivedi, S., Vickers, J. (2016). Critical Control Point Assessment to Quantify Robustness and Reliability of Multiple Treatment Barriers of a DPR Scheme. Water Environment & Reuse Foundation. Alexandria, Va. • USEPA. (2017). Potable Reuse Compendium. EPA/810/R-17/002. Washington, D.C. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021



Holding a Successful Spring State Short School: In-Person is Best! listening to its members and other operators. In an effort to meet their needs, FWPCOA successfully presented the 2021 State Short School, held March 15-19 at the Indian River State College in Ft. Pierce.

reetings everyone. Here we are moving into May. By this time everyone should have renewed their state certifications, which were due April 30, 2021. Whether you’re earning continuing education units (CEUs) to maintain your license or preparing for a certification exam, having access to comprehensive training programs is essential to your success. Many of our utilities require advancing levels of certification for employees to be promoted or to be compensated at a higher

pay level. This is true for certifications required by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) for operators, but also for the wide range of volunteer certifications that have been provided by FWPCOA for decades. The FWPCOA online training program has been very successful, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although online training has been an effective way to provide training programs for operators to earn CEUs and advance their licenses, most operators will tell you they feel face-to-face classroom training has been more successful for them when preparing for exams. As an association that administers exams both online and at schools face-to-face, we too have seen a better pass/fail rate with in-person training. As the premier provider of training in Florida for operators, FWPCOA has been

The FWPCOA partnered with Indian River State College to hold our Spring State Short School. There was a considerable amount of work done, planning and preparing classrooms with the college staff to maintain Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for social distancing. Face masks were mandatory at all times on the college campus and hand sanitizer stations were provided in many convenient locations.

Backflow tester class.

Another view of the backflow tester class.

FWPCOA in the house.

Facilities management, stormwater A, and wastewater collection A class.

Another view of the facilities management, stormwater A, and wastewater collection A class.

Stormwater B class.

Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA


14 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

How to Hold a Successful Short School During a Pandemic

Wastewater collection B class.

Utilities maintenance class.

Wastewater collection C class.

Utilities customer relations level I class.

Class registration was completed in the classrooms on the very first day of class, instead of a mass gathering of students in an auditorium. Students completed a COVID-19 health check questionnaire, and temperatures were taken daily. There were 225 students that attended this short school, taking certification classes on the following topics: S S tormwater S U tilities Maintenance S U tility Customer Relations S W astewater Collection S W astewater Treatment Plant Operator S W ater Distribution S B ackflow Tester S F acilities Management S S tormwater A S W astewater Collections A

Another view of the wastewater collection C class.

Students were very cooperative, adhering to campus and FWPCOA guidelines for COVID-19, which was a great contributor to the success of the short school. It’s also good to note that, at the time this article was written, there have been no reported incidents of COVID-19 cases associated with holding this school. The FWPCOA is looking forward to this August, when we will be holding our next short school. We will announce those dates as soon as arrangements have been finalized. We look forward to seeing you there!

FWPCOA Training Update The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor please contact the training office at 321-383-9690.

In the meantime, and as always, our online Training Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at OnlineTraining@ fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at training@fwpcoa.org. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Sweating the Small Stuff Efficient operations and an emphasis on recycling add up to award-winning performance for this Florida water treatment team STORY: David Steinkraus PHOTOGRAPHY: Preston Mack

An elevated tank stores reclaimed water for irrigating the sport fields next door to the treatment plant in Clermont.

The City of Clermont is lucky because its source water is so clean. But that doesn’t mean the water plants are free of challenges. Those can be found in the thousands of details that need attention if a plant is to operate at top efficiency, says Duane Land, water and wastewater operations manager. By taking care of those details, Clermont has consistently won awards from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), while meeting the demand from a community that grew by 27 percent from 2010-19. “We’ve been very proactive so that we won’t get caught behind the growth curve,” says Land. The city owns two water plants; the East plant has won most of the awards and is noteworthy for not only treating water, but recycling water from the wastewater treatment plant nearby. Clermont is 25 miles west of Orlando (or, as Land puts it, 22 miles from Disney World), yet the city doesn’t call itself a bedroom community. “We are a rural lifestyle community for cities.” Land says that people come to Clermont to escape. Immediately west of the city, the land turns quickly from urban to rural.

Great Water

Jay Buttram performs maintenance on the backup generator. (photo: Cummins Power Products)

16 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Raw water processing is simple. Eight wells feed the city’s two water plants. The water is chlorinated and passed to a storage tank. “We are truly blessed being here in the center of the state,” Land says. “We don’t adjust pH; we don’t strip and recarbonate.” Water from the Floridian aquifer is that good. Hardness is moderate, and the water doesn’t promote scale in pipes. Two more wells are in the planning stages. The present eight wells are served with pumps varying from 100 to 200 horsepower (hp) from Goulds Water Technology, Weir Floway, and Peerless Pump. The distribution system uses one 75-hp pump and four 200-hp pumps, all Peerless pumps with motors from U.S. Motors and Nidec Motor Corp. Given customer demand, Land and his staff don’t have the luxury of running pumps only during off-peak hours to minimize electricity cost. Instead, they’ve figured out what combination of pumps keeps the system charged at the lowest cost. For example, some wells lose head during the day, making them inefficient to operate, “but I can run them at 2 or 4 o’clock in the morning,” Land says. He and his team realized that with variable-frequency drives, a 200-hp pump running at about 85 percent of rating is just as efficient as a 75-hp pump running at capacity.

East Water Treatment Plant Clermont, Florida


BUILT: 2008 POPULATION SERVED: 50,000 SERVICE AREA: 10 square miles EMPLOYEES: 5 FLOWS: 6.9-mgd design/2.6-mgd average SOURCE WATER: Lower Floridian aquifer SYSTEM STORAGE: 3.9 million gallons DISTRIBUTION: 250 miles of water mains ANNUAL BUDGET: $2.8 million (operations) KEY CHALLENGE: Detecting and measuring unregulated contaminants

Rick Laney, chief water operator, reads the water pressure at the high-service pump.

Joshua Brennan, duallicensed operator, flushes a fire hydrant.

Recycling Foresight On the reclamation side, 3.2 to 3.3 million gallons per day (mgd) of wastewater flow to the water treatment plant and are processed for irrigation. To remove organics and most pathogens, the plant is changing from upflow sand filters to the Aqua MegaDisk filters (Aqua-Aerobic Systems). Recycled wastewater is chlorinated and sent to storage before being pumped out through purple pipes. About 93 percent of wastewater reaching the plant is returned to city residents for irrigation—about 1 billion gallons per year. Two large storage ponds at city golf courses hold excess recycled water. Such large-scale reuse is possible because of farsighted management. About 35 years ago, the eastern two-thirds of Clermont was covered with citrus orchards. Several hard freezes ruined the business, and the land was developed. The city required installation of purple pipe throughout that area. The western side of the city, the original Clermont, won’t get that because of the expense of retrofitting with purple pipe. Even though residents like green lawns, a water conservation program

emphasizes native plants that are stingy water users. “We’ve got native grasses that grow a root depth of 10 feet just to survive,” Land says. Evie Wallace, the city’s water conservation officer, visits homeowner associations to explain the city’s irrigation plan and encourage people to install irrigation systems with rain gauges that shut off irrigation after rainfall. Irrigation through purple pipes is scheduled based on home addresses. Even-numbered homes receive water two days a week, and odd-numbered homes receive water on two other days. During winter, the dry season, irrigation is cut back to one day per week per house. Rates are structured in two tiers, and users of less water pay the lower rate. Homeowners are encouraged to switch to low-flow fixtures, and that is having an impact at the wastewater treatment plant where the nitrogen concentration has increased because the volume of water is less. That has required slowing the treatment process to compensate, Land says. As the city is growing, so is reclamation. There have been four plant expansions, and a fifth is in the design stage. Capacity will expand from 4 to 6.5 mgd by fall 2022, if the project remains on track. Continued on page 18

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Continued from page 17

Hard-Working Team

Direct Potable Reuse On The Horizon?

The people who make the Clermont plant work so well are: Rick Laney, chief water operator; and Jay Buttram, Al Pagan, and Jodi Pearson, class C operators. All are also certified for wastewater treatment, although not to the same level as for water. Dual certification allows the city to cover both water and wastewater plants with fewer people. Someone is on duty for water and wastewater for eight hours every day, seven days per week; if needed, the water plant staff can help at the wastewater plant. Another testament to the skill of the Clermont team is its award history. In 2019, the plant received its eighth consecutive Plant Operations Excellence Award for a medium system in the central district from FDEP. “As much as I’d like to say five of us did all this, the award is a reflection on the city as a whole,” Land says. “Five of us can’t take credit for it as much as we’d like to.” The award is a recognition of support from the city and for a job that most people don’t think of, even in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic. “If there isn’t water, we don’t have a hospital,” Land observes. When he came to Clermont in 1999, Land was a dual-licensed operator; he taught the other workers. Everyone had to do everything, from running plants to maintaining the distribution system. Now, team members are more specialized. With retirement only a few years away for him and Laney, Land is also looking toward the next generation of operators. His present team is diverse. Pagan has a business degree, Laney maintained electronics in the Air Force, and Pearson is in college, studying biology and business. “We all just taught each other what we knew, and it’s been working out pretty well,” Land says. His people may not make the money they could in the private sector, but there is stability. “They feel accomplished,” Land says. “They look forward to coming to work.”

Clermont already uses recycled water for irrigation, and for many years its building code has required purple pipe in new subdivisions so that homeowners can use recycled water. That raises an obvious question: How long before the city takes the next step to potable reuse? “It’s not whether it’s going to happen but when,” says Duane Land, water and wastewater operations manager. “I doubt if I’ll see it in my lifetime. My grandkids may see it.” It’s something he has thought about quite a bit. Clermont doesn’t have the source water quality challenges other communities face. The current treatment process requires very little overhead because water from the Floridian aquifer requires only chlorination, but new contaminants flowing into the aquifer may dictate changes. Land sees the detection and measurement of the spectrum of contaminants turning up in raw water sources as a key challenge for the Clermont plant. “If I have to start removing things from the water, what’s that price going to be?” he asks. “What’s the equipment going to be?” He believes recycling water ultimately may prove less costly than treating heavily contaminated groundwater subject to strict government regulations. And then there is the question of quality; recycling and reusing water may end up being safer than pumping it out of the ground. Reprinted with permission from TPO™ / January 2021 / © 2021, COLE Publishing Inc., P.O. Box 220, Three Lakes, Wis. 54562 / 800-257-7222 / tpomag.com. S

The team at the East Water Treatment Plant includes (from left) Jesse DelValle, dual-licensed operator/ asset management; Jodi Pearson, class C operator; Joshua Brennan, dual-licensed operator; Duane Land, water and wastewater operations manager.

18 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Duane Land, water and wastewater operations manager; Jay Buttram and Al Pagan, class C operators; and Rick Laney, chief water operator.

L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Driving Home the Seriousness of Company Vehicle Safety


ike so many occupational safety issues, many car accidents are preventable. If you play a role in your company’s commitment to safety, you can take simple steps to reinforce company vehicle safety. It’s about much more than the bottom line— you just might save a life. When your employees are operating a company fleet vehicle or driving on official business, it can open the door to potential safety incidents and legal liability. Like any other skill, safe driving is something you must practice and hone as the roads become more crowded and distractions can come from anywhere. If you want to protect your company, your vehicles, and—most importantly—your employees, you should routinely communicate your company vehicle safety procedures. Also, take every opportunity to share relevant data and lessons learned so they can understand and avoid repeating others’ mistakes.

The Company Vehicle Safety Training Your Employees Need Before you begin working with your employees on safe driving practices, you first need to gather empirical data on the kind of driving conditions they face on a regular basis. Through interviews, surveys, and safety incident reports

and near misses, you can decide if you need to focus on some or all the following: S Distracted driving S Operating a vehicle in difficult weather conditions S Driving long distances for business S Product transport and delivery S The differences between rural and city driving S Traveling through areas where crime is a concern S The size of the vehicle being operated Each of these subjects requires specific training, clearly defined rules, and regulations. Meet with your driving employees regularly to give them a refresher and update them on new developments.

Day One Information for New Employees Your vehicle safety team should compile a standard checklist that will be applied uniformly to all new employees. Here are some helpful additions to that list: S What training must be provided before someone can drive a company car? S Does an employee need to acquire a new type of license, depending on the type of vehicle? S How does the employee driving a company vehicle impact the company’s policy on

substance use? As times and laws change, you must update your policy to weigh in on the use of substances that may now be legal. As the employer, you must also do your due diligence: S Complete a driving background check of any employee who might be driving on company business. S Secure photocopies of each new worker’s driver’s license and insurance (verifying that both are current). It’s wise to make a calendar reminder in each employee’s file when their driver’s license is set to expire so you can follow up and ensure they have renewed it on time. As part of their initial onboarding: S P rovide employees with a copy of the company vehicle policy as part of the employee handbook. S Ensure potential consequences for breaking the policies are understood. S Have all employees sign and date a form confirming they read and will abide by the policy.

What’s At Stake When it Comes to Company Vehicle Safety

Inform your employees that a single moment

The 2020 Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the 2020 Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

20 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

of carelessness or inattentiveness behind the wheel can mean the difference between a normal day and an irreversible tragedy. This isn’t just about keeping a job or protecting the company’s reputation—this is about safety. Like all safety-related matters on the job, a mistake can lead to serious injury or even death. Meetings for Employees Who Drive for Work You should meet with your employees regularly to address driving safety. For larger companies, that may mean at least once a quarter. A smaller company may need to meet at lessregular intervals. Map out what subjects you plan to address and communicate that plan in advance. It reinforces to your workforce that you put thought into each session, and they should, too. It’s a good idea to deliver safety trainings in advance of upcoming weather challenges. At the beginning of each year, go over distracted driving. This is a subject that cannot be reinforced enough. The Danger of Mobile Devices We all have them, but employees should understand that they must not be used when operating a vehicle. S I mplement a zero tolerance policy for using a mobile device while operating a company car. S R einforce that zero tolerance means zero tolerance. There are no exceptions. S E ncourage employees to adopt this practice in their personal lives.

S S ee if people in other affected vehicles (if any) need medical attention. S Notify the police so they can file an official report. S Report it to the office immediately so you can inform the insurance company. S Undergo a drug test within 24 hours. S Communicate with all other employees the nature of the accident and any lessons learned. Company Cars or Personal Vehicles If your organization has the resources, it’s recommended that employees use company cars and trucks when conducting business. There are several reasons this will increase your safety standards: S Employees driving a company vehicle, especially one with a sign or logo, tend to drive more conscientiously as they are obviously representing your organization while on the road. S You can ensure that your fleet of vehicles is being properly maintained and serviced. You have no such assurances with an employee’s personal vehicle. You can install monitors on company vehicles to help bring awareness to

risk factors (e.g., braking hard or speeding) that the driver may exhibit. If there is a reason your employees need to use their personal vehicle, your company policies should still clearly communicate what the rules are for this.

Vehicle Safety Checklist Using a company vehicle means that your employees have a responsibility to ensure not only their own safety, but also that of any passengers and fellow drivers. Because the vehicle likely has been driven by other people, it’s a good idea for them to take a few minutes before driving away to check that the vehicle and its equipment are in safe and proper working order. There are many pitfalls that could plague you, as an employer, when it comes to company vehicle safety, but with the proper policies in place, you can set your employees up for success. S

Dispelling Employee Fears About Blame Ensure employees understand that the point of all vehicle safety rules is to keep them and others safe, not to catch and punish someone breaking the rules. Accidents will happen, and when they do, your employees should know the steps they should take. These accidents are also incredibly useful resources. Some accidents may result from unforeseen actions, and now that you have that knowledge, you can impart it to the rest of the workforce, so they can take steps to avoid such an accident in the future. If an accident, however, is determined to be the employee’s fault—and especially if the employee was clearly disregarding one or more company driving rules—your official policy should identify the consequences. They must be enforced equally. When Accidents Happen If an accident happens, you should instruct employees to: S S eek immediate medical attention if they are injured.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Abstract Submittal Abstracts will be accepted in WORD ONLY via email to:

Call for Papers

Abstracts must be submitted by: Wednesday, June 30, 2021 To participate in an FSAWWA conference, the first step is submitting an abstract to be considered for a presentation at the conference. There is no guarantee that the paper you submit will be chosen, but if your paper is well thought-out and pertinent to the subject matter of the conference, then your chances of being selected go up. FSAWWA wishes to invite authors and experts in the field to submit abstracts on a variety of sustainability topics, including:

Potential Session Categories 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Potable Reuse Alternative Water Supply Options Utility Finances in Challenging Times Strategies to Communicate Your Message in the Changed World Increasing Optimization of Utility Systems (Pipes, SCADA, Sewer Systems) Asset Management PFAS, PFOS, Lead and Copper, and Other Regulatory Strategies What’s New with Covid-19? And How Does it Affect our Workplace? The New Workplace Normal – Zoom, Remote, Home and Office Challenges for Utilities Water Conservation



Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

22 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., Technical Program Chair at h2o_man@bellsouth.net Please attach a cover page to the abstract which includes the following information: a) Suggested Session Category b) Paper Title c) Names of Authors d) Name of Presenter(s) e) Main contact including name, title, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and email

“Best Paper” Competition Each year awards are presented to the best papers during the Fall Conference Business Luncheon.

Questions? Call 239-250-2423

A L Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Exhibit Schedule Monday, November 29 Set-up: 7:00am - 3:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Exhibit Registration

Tuesday, November 30

Accepting Exhibitor Registrations on or after June 1, 2021

Hall Open: 8:00 - 11:30am | 1:30 - 6:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Wednesday, December 1 Hall Open: 8:00am - 12:00pm Tear Down: 1:00 - 6:00pm

Standard Booth @ $800 Includes:

• 8-foot X 10-foot booth space • One (1) six-foot draped table • Backdrop • Side drapery • Two (2) chairs

Sponsorship Levels

Exhibit booth spaces can include heavy equipment, workshops, portable equipment and showrooms. Flammable materials are prohibited. No modifications will be made to the backdrops or sidewalls without approval from the Exhibits Chair.

Online Registration is strongly recommended to help adhere to social distancing guidelines. Online Exhibitor registration at:

Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2021hotel


15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Platinum | $850

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Gold | $600

10% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Silver | $400



Premier | $1500


Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

For additional info on sponsorship levels and benefits, visit:


Please Note: All promotional activity other than product demonstrations must be approved by FSAWWA prior to the conference.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA. Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Scholarships valued up to $5,000 will be awarded in both undergraduate and graduate categories by the Florida Section American Water Works Association.


• Must be a student enrolled (not online) in a Florida university and living in Florida Must be a full-time student or part-time student enrolled and completing a • minimum of 6 credits Must be a student within 60 credits of graduation with a bachelor’s degree. • Note: Seniors who are pursuing a graduate degree may apply and use the scholarship for their graduate studies, but must provide proof of acceptance to their graduate degree program

Maintain good standing in academic status with a GPA of 3.0 or higher based • on a 4.0 system be pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field with a plan to remain • inMust Florida to pursue their career Or enrolled in one of the CIP educational codes (for a list visit fsawwa.org/2021Likins) • and have indicated an interest in pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field

Added Value:

All applicants receive 1-year free student American Water Works Association • (AWWA) membership.

Key benefits of Student Membership:

• Jump-Start Your Career • Gain Experience • Stay Informed


$5,000 SCHOLARSHIP Apply by June 30, 2021 For application, please visit:

fsawwa.org/2021likins 24 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

YOUR AWWA 2020 IMPACT One AWWA Operator Scholarship $37,442 Awarded 17 AWWA Sections 2 Scholarships to International Students  76% to water operators 

23% to wastewater operators  Age range from 23-55 years old

 Academic Scholarships $170,000 awarded 25 scholarships 866 scholarship applications  Age range from 22-55 years old Established the Dr. Philip C. Singer Scholarship

Community Engineering Corps 20 Water Projects in U.S. Communities 7 AWWA Section Volunteer Groups

2021 Goals One AWWA Operator Scholarships: $100,000 Funding 100 Water & Wastewater Operators Continuing Education Youth Education Programs: $15,000 Provide funding for 10 programs for youth to earn about water! Student & Young Professional Leader Training: $25,000 Funding the Future of Water Community Engineering Corps: $25,000 Providing engineering expertise for safe water projects in our communities


Your Gift Impacts our water industry 

Continuing Education


Water Research

Youth Education

Building Leaders


Make your gift today!

Students & Young Professionals YP Leader Training Day YP Professional Headshots $10,750 to six youth education programs 6 YP Summit Registrations + $100 gift cards to

Water Tower Competition winners Chrystal Pointer, OAOS recipient, Vancouver, WA

Pooja Chari, YP Summit

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


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AWWA and our members celebrate Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage AWWA and our members celebrate Month and recognize their achievements. Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage The contributions of Asian-Americans and Month and recognize their achievements. Pacific Islanders extend to the public health The contributions of Asian-Americans and of all Americans. Pacific Islanders extend to the public health of allus Americans. Join as we reflect upon those that help us accomplish our vision better Join us as we reflect uponevery thoseday: thatahelp world through better water.every day: a better us accomplish our vision world through better water.

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Dedicated to the World’s Most Important Resource® Dedicated to the World’s Most Important Resource®


2020 FSAWWA AWARDS Outstanding and Most Improved Water Treatment Plant Awards Class A, Class B, Class C Deadline: June 30, 2021

Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Operator Award Deadline: June 30, 2021

AWWA Operator’s Meritorious Service Award Deadline: June 30, 2021

For more information please go to our website www.fsawwa.org/WTPawards or contact Paul Kavanagh at (813) 264-3835 or kavanaghp@hillsboroughcounty.org

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Wringing Every Last Drop Out of the Old Before Ringing in the New Seacoast Utility Authority replaces aging headquarters with $21 million campus Joel Engelhardt When you turn on your faucet, you expect water to come gushing out. When you flush your toilet, you expect the water to go swirling away. In Palm Beach Gardens, Lake Park, North Palm Beach, and Juno Beach, that has meant relying on the Seacoast Utility Authority, housed for decades in its low-slung, aging headquarters next to the water plant on Hood Road. Seacoast remains, but after 40 years its headquarters is gone. In April, the utility, which was started in 1955 by Lake Park and Palm Beach Gardens founder John D. MacArthur, completed its move into a stylish series of blue buildings accented by brown stone that nearly doubles its space, protects against hurricanes, and modernizes meeting rooms, warehouse space,

and laboratories (see photo at the top of the page). The $21.5 million project, marked by the late August 2020 demolition of the old headquarters, is paid for—without any new debt—by the utility’s 50,800 customers through their monthly bills. The new buildings, covering more than 50,000 square feet, are the legacy of Rim Bishop, Seacoast’s director since the four cities and the county banded together in 1988 to buy the system for $65 million from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. But that’s just a small part of the 69-yearold director’s legacy, said Bob Weisman, the retired county administrator who has served as the county’s representative on the Seacoast board since 1988. “It’s an understatement to say the new office is his legacy. The way Seacoast has run over the last 30 years is his legacy,” Weisman said. Architect Rick Gonzalez, whose West Palm Beach firm REG Architects designed the

The 1980 administrative building at Seacoast Utility Authority torn down in 2020 to make way for the $21.5 million hurricane hardened replacement. (photo: courtesy of Rim Bishop)

28 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

new building in what he called a contemporary, modern style “with a little bit of rustic thrown in,” described the old building as basically an 80-footlong double wide. That’s not quite how Bishop sees the 1980 building Seacoast inherited when it bought the system. “Rather than a double wide, I’d call it manufactured housing,” said Bishop, who notes that the building was marred in recent years by leaky roofs and windows, and a corroded steel skeleton. “We got 40 years out of a building that was temporary.” The old 14,000-square-foot administration building remained standing, while the three new buildings rose behind it. “We laid it out like a campus,” Gonzalez said, referring to a design that seems prescient in the COVID-19 era, with outdoor courtyards between buildings where workers can take breaks or eat meals. “Who would have thought that COVID would have hit us.”

Another view of the 1980 administrative building at Seacoast Utility Authority. (photo: courtesy of Rim Bishop)

A walkway between buildings on the new Hood Road campus.

The new water treatment laboratory, with an autoclave in the center at the rear.

Three-Building Campus The front building, with its gleaming white hallways and administrative and engineering offices, is where customers can go to pay their bills. Blue and white baffles hanging over the reception desk, combined with X-shaped lighting fixtures, give a playful, modern impression. A slick glass-walled board room, where the public can attend the board’s monthly meetings, awaits behind the reception desk, replacing a converted training room in the back of the operations center on the old campus. Across a courtyard, the operations building houses a training room with six 70-inch flat screen TVs and the water treatment laboratory. A third high-ceilinged garage-like building will be home to fleet maintenance and a parts warehouse. Weisman pointed out that the headquarters project, constructed by Hedrick Brothers Construction of West Palm Beach, came years after Seacoast invested in its water treatment plant next door, putting a priority on operations, even though the office needs were great. “The meeting rooms were inadequate, public access was inadequate, and security was hard.”

Responding to Complaints Even with the new water plant, completed in 2014, Bishop faces complaints about water quality, but he moves proactively to respond. When a customer started a conversation in March on the website Nextdoor.com by blaming Seacoast for calcium buildup that clogged his plumbing valves, Bishop defused the issue by sending a water quality expert to reach out. “Seacoast is now going to run lab tests on the water supply and report back to me,” the homeowner wrote on Nextdoor. “Seacoast has always been very responsive to any issues regarding the utility in the past.” By the end of the postings, which drew

Lights and baffles overhang the reception area.

Company logo behind the reception desk.

more than 70 comments, the homeowner had grown into an ally, suggesting to his Nextdoor followers—at the request of Seacoast—that if they ever replace a stuck valve, they should save it for Seacoast’s inspection. Typically, Bishop says, water blockages are caused by cheap household pipes that degrade and clog, or problems with water heaters that shoot bits of plastic or aluminum into the system. But valve replacement is not uncommon. “If you don’t turn the valves below your sink every year or so, don’t be surprised 10 or 15 years later if they stick,” he said. “A stuck valve can be a real problem, because if you twist too hard, the valve can break off, releasing an unrelenting torrent.” As for taste, another subject prompted by the valve complaint on Nextdoor, Bishop points out that in a recent southeast Florida contest hosted by an industry trade group, a panel picked Seacoast’s water as “best tasting.”

Retiring Debt Early Saves $41 Million Bishop is also proud of rates that have not undergone a major increase for a dozen years, and a $60 million budget that will allow the authority to retire its debt from the $75 million water plant bond issue by 2024, which is 15 years ahead of schedule. That will save customers $41 million, he said. Among the ways that’s been achieved: the authority has fewer employees now (128) than it did in November 1986 (144), when Bishop began working there. That’s even as the customer base grew by 40 percent. And once that debt is put to bed, it will mean more money flowing to projects to maintain the system that covers 65 square miles, Bishop said. Among work ongoing now is replacement of water and sewer pipes along Northlake Continued on page 30

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Continued from page 29 Boulevard between Alternate A1A and U.S. 1 and water main replacement in the Cabana Colony neighborhood north of the Gardens Mall. On the sewage side, one of Bishop’s first moves as director was to consolidate three treatment plants into one west of town on land where Mirasol, a country club community, ultimately would be built. While utilities typically pump treated wastewater thousands of feet below the surface, Seacoast sends most of its treated wastewater to irrigate nearby golf courses and maintain proper water levels in nearby lakes, a system

that helped it win a recent Florida Water Environment Association “Reuse System of the Year Award.” Water and sewer came first, Bishop said. He recalled snapping a picture of the old administration building before Hurricane Jeanne hit in 2004, fearing the building would be gone when he returned. But erecting a hurricane-hardened replacement had to wait. “We went after the actual water and sewer production and treatment first, and that’s the heart of our operation,” he said. “Then it was time to go after the old steel buildings.”

Who Controls Seacoast? The Seacoast Utility Authority is governed by a five-member board made up of city managers from the four cities and a representative of the county. Voting power is based on water use: Palm Beach Gardens

60 percent

Palm Beach County

20 percent

North Palm Beach

12 percent

Lake Park

6 percent

Juno Beach

2 percent

(source: Seacoast Utility Authority)

This article originally appeared on OnGardens.org, and is reprinted with permission. All photos by Joel Engelhardt unless otherwise noted.

The fleet management garage and warehouse at the new headquarters.

This view from the new headquarters shows the water treatment plant and the new 190-foot-tall elevated water tank, visible for miles since it replaced a shorter tank in 2014.

30 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Joel Engelhardt is an award-winning newspaper reporter and editor based in Palm Beach Gardens. He spent more than 40 years in the newspaper business, including 28 years at The Palm Beach Post. As a reporter, he covered countywide growth, the 2000 election, and the birth of Cityplace in West Palm Beach. He also wrote a series of stories exposing mismanagement at the city of West Palm Beach wastewater treatment plant. As an editor, he oversaw probes into the opioid scourge, private prisons, policeinvolved shootings, and more. For seven years, he worked on the paper’s editorial board. He left The Post in December 2020. He can be reached at joelongardens@gmail.com. S

Rim Bishop, longtime director of the Seacoast Utility Authority, stands in the board room of the authority’s new headquarters on Hood Road.

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Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Master Planning: How One Utility Focused Planning Efforts to Improve the Return on Investment of Its Existing System Nicholas Claudio, Brian Head, and Chris Martin


ount Pleasant Waterworks (MPW) provides water and sewer services for more than 90,000 customers in Mount Pleasant, S.C. The population has steadily increased since 1980 and MPW has kept up with the rising population by proactively managing expansion and improvements to its treatment works and improving operational efficiencies.

Utility Overview The MPW operates and maintains four reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment plants and two wastewater treatment plants. The Rifle Range Road Wastewater Treatment Plant is currently undergoing an expansion and rehabilitation project that will increase the capacity from 6 mil gal a day (mgd) to 9.2 mgd, at a cost of approximately $71 million. The treatment plants, and over 200 remote locations, including lift stations, booster stations, and deep well pump stations, are monitored by MPW using the VTScada system. This supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system is configured as a single application to allow the operations, maintenance, and technical services teams to monitor the system from any location where the SCADA network is available, and on secured mobile devices.

Master Plan Project To ensure that the SCADA system continues to meet its evolving needs, MPW undertook a master plan to identify projects to upgrade and improve the existing SCADA system. When MPW engaged EMA to perform its master planning effort, it was confident in the recent improvements it had made with its system’s components, including the programmable logic controllers (PLCs), communication system, and human machine interface (HMI) software. It chose to go through the typical planning phases; however, it wanted to focus on improving how it uses the data collected, identifying additional data sources to enhance operations and other improvements. In order to achieve that focus, MPW opted to take an approach slightly different from a conventional master plan, as discussed further.

Mount Pleasant Waterworks Versus Conventional Master Planning The SCADA master planning effort consisted of several phases (Figure 1). They were similar to the conventional approach, with the addition of the cybersecurity analysis. Phase 1: Current State Assessment In a conventional SCADA master plan,

Nicholas Claudio, P.E., PMP, is senior engineer with EMA Inc. in Winter Garden. Brian Head is technical services manager and Chris Martin is SCADA/electrical supervisor with Mount Pleasant Waterworks in Mount Pleasant, S.C.

the project team gathers information on the major components of the SCADA system and the processes it monitors and controls. The components include PLCs, servers, workstations, communications equipment, process control narratives, and operational objectives. In MPW’s SCADA master plan, EMA used the same approach, but the process was much faster. The infrastructure was generally in good shape, and few components required an upgrade or replacement. Phase 2: Cybersecurity Analysis This phase is not always included in a SCADA master plan. The MPW information technology (IT) staff had related projects already started and wanted to align those projects and any other cyber-related SCADA projects to the master plan. A workshop was conducted by EMA with the IT and SCADA teams to review current projects and discuss enhancements to those projects and other recommendations.

Figure 1. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Master Plan Phases

32 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 3. Solar-Powered Remote Terminal Unit Ready for Deployment

Figure 2. Portable Generator

The recommendations consisted of cybersecurity controls drawn from a number of sources, including the following: S National Institute of Technology (NIST) SP800-82, Guide to Industrial Control Sysytems S NIST SP800-53, Security and Privacy Controls for Information Systems and Organizations S International Society of Automation/ International Electrotechnical Commission (ISA/IEC) 62443, Cybersecurity Framework Phase 3: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System Requirements In this phase, the project team met with the SCADA system stakeholders in a series of workshops to discuss what they liked and disliked about the current SCADA system and what new features or improvements they would like to see made. At the end of the workshops, the project team documented the requirements in a prioritized list. In the MPW project, EMA engaged stakeholders from all parts of the organization, including: S Operations S Maintenance S Field operations S Technical services (IT) S Water quality S Engineering S Senior leadership One of the initial goals expressed by stakeholders was combining data from the operational and business information systems. Some examples of these systems include

SCADA, asset management, laboratory, meter reading, and weather data. The MPW plans to provide users access to these data sources to perform ad hoc reports and analyze data previously not available. It also realized that a good data warehouse (or data lake) is the foundation for business analytics and artificial intelligence (AI). The stakeholders at MPW also expressed the need for operational improvements above and beyond those that come from upgrading process control equipment. One such requirement was the desire to monitor portable generators (Figure 2). During an emergency, it’s essential to deploy these generators where they are needed the most. Knowing each portable generator’s location and status will allow MPW to manage its use effectively when needed. This requirement and other requested improvements were documented by EMA for use later in the project. Phase 4: Gap and Alternative Analysis While the process used in this phase is the same for each project, the requirements are different. In this phase, the project team identified gaps between the current and future state of the SCADA system, and then grouped the requirements. The project team considered these groups of needs as potential projects. The project team then looked at alternatives to close the gap and choose the most viable option. Phase 5: Implementation Planning The project team developed a highlevel scope of work and budget for each potential project and discussed them with

the stakeholders. Next, the team prioritized the projects over three years, distributing the capital expenditures as evenly as possible. In a conventional project, the budgeting window typically extends over five years. Phase 6: Develop the Master Plan In the final phase, the project team summarized all the work performed in the previous stages in the SCADA master plan. The outcome of a typical SCADA master plan is a roadmap to replace or upgrade the existing PLCs, replace or upgrade the HMI software, replace or enhance the communications network, make improvements to cybersecurity, and make changes to the HMI graphics. These outcomes are valuable improvements to the operation and maintenance of the system. The MPW project included some of the conventional outcomes and also identified projects that can only come from forwardlooking requirements. The atypical projects included: Development of a data management plan. The project aims to create a plan for MPW to manage the operational and business information systems data. Specific data points will be identified by MPW and the aggregate data (hourly, daily, weekly averages, and high and low points) will be incorporated into the data warehouse. Implementation of an operational data management system. The operational data management system (ODMS) allows MPW personnel to run Continued on page 34

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Continued from page 32 scheduled and ad hoc reports and create dashboards, with key performance indicators (KPIs) and trends, using operational and business data from a single application. The ODMS is the foundation for adding additional business analytics (BA) and AI tools. Development of an internet of things checklist. The SCADA team received multiple requests from MPW management to add internet of things (IoT) devices to the SCADA network. The biggest issue for leadership is not knowing if a device is compatible with the SCADA software and communications system. The goal is to develop an IoT checklist for managers to give to potential suppliers to provide devices that meet the requirements. Development of programmable logic controller-based flow calculations. Flowmeter data are valuable for inflow and infiltration studies and pump maintenance; however, the costs of adding flow meters to every lift station are substantial, so this project aims to compute the inflow data based on liquid levels and cut the cost of gathering the data.

Design of a solar-powered remote terminal unit. There are areas of the conveyance system that are advantageous to monitor, but power is not available. This project developed a design for a solar-powered remote terminal unit (RTU) panel (Figure 3) that MPW can deploy throughout the service area. Provide portable generator monitoring. This project will allow MPW to monitor fuel levels, run status reports, and determine the location of a portable generator. One of the unique requirements is to build a panel that is resistant to the generator’s vibration. Development of peer-to-peer pump station control techniques. This project aims to pump water in a more energy-efficient way and prevent force main breaks in aging infrastructure. Development of cybersecurity policies. The cybersecurity policies lay the groundwork for future MPW projects where cybersecurity is a concern.

34 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Conclusion When a utility performs a SCADA master plan at the end of the SCADA system’s useful life, the planning effort focuses on replacing existing equipment and software. If the utility undertakes a master planning effort midcycle, the project can advance the SCADA system’s use and the plan to replace components as they become deprecated. The utility can also spread the capital expenditures over more years because costs are identified further in advance. When MPW focused on SCADA needs outside of upgrades and replacements, it was able to identify projects to improve the SCADA system and the overall operations of the utility. There are projects to enhance operational effectiveness, like portable generator monitoring. The MPW recognized projects to get more value from existing systems, like developing a data management plan and implementing an ODMS; then, there were cost-cutting projects, like utilizing level-based flow monitoring. These projects help MPW stay ahead of aging infrastructure and population growth. S

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units (CEUs) through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Operations and Utility Management. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators ( DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Know the Unknown: Evaluating Water Main Inspection Technologies Weston Haggen and Emily Staubus Williamson (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW/WW 02015386)

1. W hich of the pipe screening and assessment technologies is effective on all five pipe materials listed and useful on pipes of less than 3-in. nominal diameter?

a. b. c. d.

losed-circuit television (CCTV) C Pulsed eddy current PICA RECON+ Fluid Conservation - Permalog

2. The presence of ___________ is indicative of anaerobic conditions that would support bacterial corrosion.

a. b. c. d.

c hloride oxygen sulfide electrolysis

3. _ ___________ mains are most susceptible to wall thickness deterioration, circumferential cracking, and longitudinal cracking.

a. b. c. d.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Asbestos cement F errous C oncrete

4. W hich of the following is not listed as a factor considered when evaluating consequence of failure?

a. b. c. d.

ipe material P Proximity to water bodies Pipe diameter Redundancy

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

5. ____________ assesses the loss of contact between the steel cylinder or wire and the mortar coating on external pipe surfaces.

a. Continuity c. Cell-to-cell

b. R adar d. Transient wave

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021



Undervaluing Water Fred Bloetscher, P.E., Ph.D. Chair, FSAWWA


have done a number of rate studies and I find that the cable and cell phone bills are almost always higher than the water and sewer bills. Yet, any time there is a proposed rate increase, local elected officials and the public complain. It’s not like water and sewer services don’t have an excellent record for delivery. Think about the number of times your cable television has gone out, your cell phone service is interrupted, and your internet doesn’t work. And let’s not even talk about power! Many of these interruptions are not for a second or two. How many water utilities have a track record like that? None. So, we provide great service to the house or business, with basically no interruptions unless there is a main break or you fail to pay your bill, so why all the pushback on needed water and sewer rate increases? Here are some questions to fathom: S Is it the perceived benevolence of local utilities, most of which are public entities? S Is it a perception that water should be free so it’s not important to pay the bill? S Is it the lack of marketing of an essential product by water utilities? I’ve heard all these arguments, but I’m thinking the last one may be the most important. Most people know they need to pay their bill, and I don’t really know many people in the United States who think water should be free. Certainly pricing keeps people from wasting a resource that clearly has limits.

Cheap Doesn’t Mean No Value People are used to cheap water, but operation costs are going up and the deferred maintenance obligations of utilities continues to climb. The transfer of water and sewer funds from the balance to the general fund after the 2008 fiscal crisis hurt us a lot, and many jurisdictions continue that bad fiscal practice. I’m also concerned that the COVID-19 pandemic will lead us to a similar general-fund

crisis as state sales tax revenues that are shared with local government general funds fall far short of projections. Few general funds ever pay back the utility funds. I did a study several years ago that suggested that the net plant asset value of a typical utility should be about 45 percent of the replacement value using a number of assumptions on pipe, pump, and plant life, and costs (note that adjustments to these don’t change the number significantly). The really concerning part was that less than 25 percent of the utilities surveyed met this goal. A huge number were less than half that amount, which means a major backlog in pipe rehabilitation or replacement, and that means that very large deferred maintenance/ replacement costs are looming, increasing risk to service providers—and customers. Much of historical capital programs could be traced to limitations placed on the utilities by elected officials under stress from the public. Complaining to local elected officials often keeps rates artificially low, which means maintenance and replacement programs get deferred. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Government Accountability Office (GAO), and other entities regularly report that we have been keeping rates low and deferring capital and maintenance for years to the tune of hundreds of billions of dollars. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 2021 report card gives drinking water and sanitary sewer infrastructure a grade of C- and D-, respectively. Ouch!

Tooting Out Own Horn So what’s the solution? I suggest that, as an industry, we have failed in marketing our product—water. Treatment plants and pump stations are out of the way, and pipes are buried; no one sees them and people assume these facilities will work, but they rarely ask how they work or how long they will work. They don’t understand the complexity or the regulatory stringency of operating a utility. They don’t understand that the number one priority is public health, and protecting the public health costs money. We have not made people understand this because we do not market our product. I have taught elected-official classes where the officials tell me public dollars should not be spent on marketing, but they never say why

36 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

when pressed. Rarely is marketing included in a budget, but if water and sewer is a business, isn’t marketing an important strategy to maintain that business? We have many means to leverage our product: S We can use Drinking Water Week, Public Works Week, and our many conferences and contests to highlight what we do. S We need to make Roy Likins scholarship presentations in person at high schools and colleges. S Contact the press—they really do like to have a little good news in the newspapers, online, and on television. We need to make those pipe groundbreakings a bigger deal, and cut ribbons at pump stations. I know, you’re thinking he’s lost his mind with all this silly claptrap, but the press and elected officials love an event where they can be seen. Touting the value of water is a marketing task and we don’t do it very well. To compare, we have a host of celebrities making big bucks marketing cellphones, which are not required to survive. We have a lot of glitzy cool advertisements for cable service options, but we don’t need cable to live. The power companies send out glossy stuffers in their bills (that no one reads), but they do end up in the papers regularly. While power really does help us survive, we could do without it (although it would be unpleasant), as our forebears did. No one, however, has ever survived without water. Maybe it’s just too obvious. Maybe because it is so obvious, people are less conscious of it. That needs to change and we need elected officials to participate in the change. As a private-sector marketing manager would say: You have lost your market share! We need to get it back. S









Renee Moticker

City of Hollywood Utilities Public Works Department (retired) Work title and years of service. I worked in the industry for 30 years. My last employment position before retirement was as a water treatment plant operator. What did your job entail? I held many positions within the City of Hollywood Utilities Public Works Department. During my career with the city, I managed to hold positions in departments that were once considered male-only. I became the first female meter reader until the city sourced out the

Renee (as Award Committee chair) poses with the late Walt Smyser, FWPCOA webmaster.

Renee and her father, Nick, displaying her Honorary Life Member Award.

department, and then I was transferred to the water treatment plant as a utility maintenance helper (I was the first female in that position). I took the test for utility service worker for wastewater collection and was chosen for that employment opportunity, which was never held by a female employee, and later became a wastewater treatment plant mechanic. Toward the end of my career with the city, I became a water treatment plant operator. The wastewater treatment plant also needed an operator, but the position became frozen, so I was offered the opportunity at the water treatment plant as an operator, which I accepted and where I worked until I retired in 2016. What education and training have you had? I accomplished many certifications through FWPCOA, both voluntary and mandatory. I currently hold water distribution system operator level I (mandatory certification), wastewater collection A (voluntary certification), stormwater management C (voluntary certification), and water treatment plant operator C. I have a bachelor’s degree from Florida Atlantic University in public management and a bachelor’s degree from Florida Atlantic University in geology (an environmental-based degree). I also received a certificate of environmental studies from Florida Atlantic University. I am proud of every certification and degree I have because it not only enhanced the opportunities to excel in my career, but establishes traits for an employer to see the ambition and determination toward a goal that anyone may wish to accomplish. What did you like best about your job? My different employment opportunities enabled me to learn about the industry and to mentor and train any new employee who worked alongside me. I enjoyed every aspect of my various employments, especially being the first female to be represented.

Renee and Nick helping out during registration for an FWPCOA state short school.

38 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

It was satisfying to see individuals who trusted me and weren’t afraid to allow me the opportunity to advance and learn a new skill or task. I made sure I would be the best I could be, so as not to disappoint the people who entrusted me with their bold decision to allow me to advance. What professional organizations do you belong to? I currently belong to FWPCOA. In college, because of my major, I belonged to FWEA for a short period of time. How did the organizations help your career? The FWPCOA helped by allowing me to attend the short schools and courses to excel in the utility industry throughout my career. I also became involved in the organization while I was in college. While I was working in wastewater, the late Ron Salerno approached me at a meeting and asked me if I could take notes; being in college, I said yes and promptly became the Region 7 secretary for the year. I remember asking him what FWPCOA was (that’s ancient history now). I have been in this association for over 15 years and am currently the director of Region 7, an on-the-road instructor, state and regional instructor, proctor, and Awards Committee chair for the state organization. In 2019, I was selected to become an honorary life member—very prestigious and much appreciated. This organization has allowed me to mentor and teach students from different municipalities who have attended the state and regional schools. I have had the opportunity to attend conferences to see what’s new in the industry and network with people and companies to always try to introduce a better way to do things. I plan on being involved for a long time because I enjoy the people and enjoy learning new ideas and techniques. What do you like best about the industry? The industry is always changing, and keeping

Renee and Nick pose with staff on one of their many cruises.

Renee and Nick enjoying a meal at a favorite restaurant.

Renee presents an award to Randy Brown with City of Pompano Beach Utilities during a Region 7 awards banquet.

Nick barbecuing, one of his favorite pastimes.

Renee conducting an FWPCOA Region 7 membership meeting at the City of Hollywood Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant.

up with the new ideas, regulations, and techniques can be a challenge. I find that the people involved in this industry are always helpful and mindful of how important these changes are and are willing to share ideas so everyone can take part and stay up to date. The people are very down to earth and care what happens environmentally. Solutions are always being challenged and some have actually made a difference, depending on the application to the problem. What do you do when you’re not working? I retired in 2016, but my involvement within FWPCOA just blossomed and I am busier than ever. That’s fine because I truly enjoy it. I enjoy teaching on any certification level. I enjoy teaching the people in my classes (whether state or regional) and have made many acquaintances over the years that I am still in touch with and I’m happy to assist with any situation they might have. I enjoy the people within FWPCOA. We are like family and are constantly trying to improve the ability for someone to advance in their utility career. I love to cruise with my dad, Nick, but right now that’s on hold because of COVID-19. I love to travel. When I retired, my dad and I went to Italy by cruise ship (one way) and flew back. I was able to see many family members on

both my mom's and dad’s side of the family, plus see some of the most memorable sites Italy has to offer. During the pandemic, casual cooking became a pastime. Since my dad was in quarantine I began to expand my cooking abilities with different recipes. I cooked with recipes from the Food Network channel, cookbooks, and the internet. I shared some of these meals with elderly neighbors and friends. I got quite good and would post my meals on my Facebook page. My cooking has slowed down because of FWPCOA state and regional responsibilities, but I do make a mean homemade chicken noodle soup. Family keeps me on my toes. My daughters, Tiffany and Minda, who many regional members are familiar with, are married and I have two wonderful sons-in-law: Mike and Dan. My grandsons, Izaiah and Antonio (Tiffany’s boys), are my heart and have accompanied me to different FWPCOA events throughout the years. The members have known them since they were very young. Now, Izaiah is 17 years old and Antonio is 11 years old—and growing fast. My newest venture (along with association responsibilities) is a pet sitting business, which involves dog walking and various other duties when it comes to taking care of all kinds of pets for my customers. This was an accidental business venture because my pet caretaker moved out of

Nick with great-grandsons Izaiah (far left) and Antonio.

Renee teaching a class at a regional short school.

Renee getting some rest and relaxation on the beach—finally!

state and asked if I wanted her business. I knew many of her clients, so after much decision making, I took over. Did I tell you I am supposed to be retired? Thank you for this opportunity to be profiled. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Test Yourself What Do You Know About Cybersecurity for Water and Wastewater? Management Guidance,” developing a formal, written cybersecurity policy that addresses the specific operational needs of a process control system (PCS) and enterprise systems falls under what category of recommended cybersecurity practices?

Donna Kaluzniak

1. P er the Water Information Sharing and Analysis Center (WaterISAC) 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals for Water and Wastewater Utilities – Best Practices to Reduce Exploitable Weaknesses and Attacks (15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals), since you cannot protect what you do not know you have, the foundation of a cybersecurity risk management strategy is to

a. b. c. d.

analyze past incidents. begin enforcing user controls. perform an asset inventory. tackle insider threats.

2. P er the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, granting an employee access to controls with only the absolute minimum permissions necessary to perform a required task is described as a. b. c. d.

multifactor authentication. password hygiene. principle of least privilege. role-based access control.

3. P er the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, what constitutes a potential insider threat with regards to cybersecurity?

a. b. c. d.

a. b. c. d.

Employees using personal devices for work. Industrial internet of things (IIoT) Power security Supply chain issues

5. P er the American Water Works Association (AWWA) “Water Sector Cybersecurity Risk

a. b. c. d.

usiness continuity and disaster recovery B Data security Governance and risk management Operations security

6. Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, what must be done in order to identify and prioritize security gaps and vulnerabilities?

a. b. c. d.

ncrypt communications. E Implement threat detection and monitoring. Perform an asset inventory. Perform a risk assessment.

7. Per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Incident Action Checklist – Cybersecurity,” one of the first things a utility should do in response to a cyber incident, if possible, is to

Every person. Disgruntled or malicious people only. Information technology (IT) experts only. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) technology in use at the facility.

4. P er the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, while it’s vital that all smart/ connected devices are included in the organizational risk management strategy, what is of greatest concern for water utilities?

a. d isconnect compromised computers from the network. b. reboot any affected computers immediately. c. respond to any instructions received on the compromised computers. d. turn off the affected computers and unplug them. 8. Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, it’s important to minimize control system exposure. The most commonly identified weakness for an industrial control system (ICS) is a lack of appropriate boundary protection controls. From what exposure do most ICS compromises emanate?

a. b. c. d.

Bluetooth Flash drives IT/business network SCADA upgrades

9. Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, technologies to isolate network segments from one another are also used to protect an ICS. A technology that uses a software program or hardware device to filter inbound and outbound traffic between different

40 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

parts of a network, or between a network and the internet, is a

a. demilitarized zone (DMZ). b. firewall. c. unidirectional gateway. d. virtual local area network (VLAN).

10. Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, to protect company assets from unauthorized access, physical and cyber access should be disabled as soon as it’s no longer required. Terminated and voluntarily separated employees, vendors, contractors, and consultants should have access revoked as soon as possible. Likewise, employees transferring into new roles will likely need to have unnecessary access removed. This process is called

a. multifactor authentication. b. offboarding, c. principle of least privilege. d. role-based access control. Answers on page 70

References used for this quiz: • Water Information Sharing and Analysis Center (WaterISAC) 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals for Water and Wastewater Utilities – Best Practices to Reduce Exploitable Weaknesses and Attacks: https://www.waterisac.org/fundamentals • American Water Works Association (AWWA) “Water Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Guidance”: https://www. awwa.org/Portals/0/AWWA/ETS/Resources/ AWWACybersecurityGuidance2019. pdf?ver=2019-09-09-111949-960 • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Incident Action Checklist – Cybersecurity”: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/ files/2017-11/documents/171013incidentactionchecklist-cybersecurity_form_508c. pdf

Send Us Your Questions

Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

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Georgia 9, Florida 0: Georgia Shuts Out Florida in the Latest Supreme Court Water War Battle

Kyle Robisch


fter nearly a decade of litigation, the U.S. Supreme Court finally decided Florida v. Georgia, Florida’s effort to get the Court to equitably apportion (i.e., cap Georgia’s consumptive use of) the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin. In a unanimous decision penned by the Supreme Court’s newest justice, the Court delivered another blow to Florida, dismissing Florida’s challenge. While Georgia might have won this battle, the tristate wars (which include Alabama) are far from over.

Florida alleged two injuries, generally, from Georgia’s “overconsumption”: the collapse of northwest Florida’s oyster fisheries, and harm to Floridian river wildlife and plant life. Siding with the Special Master’s recommendation,1 Justice Barrett rejected both arguments, finding that Florida failed to carry the “heavy burden” necessary to compel the Court to “control the conduct of a coequal sovereign.” Starting with the oyster fisheries, Justice Barrett noted that “Florida’s own documents and witnesses” laid much of the blame—through overharvesting and failure to reshell—at Florida’s own feet. She also observed that Florida failed to prove Georgia’s water consumption caused the conditions (rock snail predation and increased salinity) purportedly depressing the oyster population. Turning to the alleged wildlife and plant life impacts, the Court found “a complete lack of evidence” that Georgia’s claimed overconsumption

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42 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

meaningfully injured species. Here, the Court questioned whether species were harmed at all. For instance, the Court homed in on Florida’s assertion that the fat threeridge mussel population suffered from Georgia’s “overuse.” The Court pointed to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service evidence that mussel numbers were stable, at worst, and perhaps even inching upwards. Although Georgia won this round, expect more action going forward. For one, Florida might come back to the Court if circumstances change. Potentially presaging as much, the Court closed its opinion by reminding Georgia of its “obligation to make reasonable use of basin waters in order to help conserve that increasingly scarce resource.” That wouldn’t be unusual; Kansas and Colorado, for instance, have duked it out in the nation’s highest court more than a half dozen times over water allocation and apportionment issues. Florida or Alabama (and interested private and public parties) could also change tack, suing different parties—like the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps), which plays a key role in administering ACF and Alabama-CoosaTallapoosa (ACT) basin water allocation—or trying different legal claims like those arising under the Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act, or Administrative Procedure Act. Indeed, there are several ongoing suits in federal district courts along some of these lines. And because Georgia and the Corps just put the finishing touches on a water storage contract for Lake Lanier (which sits near the head of the ACF Basin), fresh challenges might flow from that agreement. Florida, Georgia, and Alabama might also explore entering into an interstate water compact. Those three states negotiated preliminary interstate compacts for the ACF and ACT basins in the late 1990s, but let the compacts expire in the early 2000s when state leaders couldn’t agree on binding water allocation formulas. While is isn’t clear what comes next, this much is certain—the tristate water wars are far from over. One way or another, expect more litigation and, at least in the short term, more uncertainty. 1

or more on how Florida and Georgia got here, F see “Round and Round Florida (and Georgia) Go: An Update on the Florida-Georgia Water Wars” in the November 2020 issue of Florida Water Resources Journal. S


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Testing Finds SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater University of Nevada partners with cities, county for wastewater environmental surveillance during pandemic In Reno, Nev., a sampling of Truckee Meadows wastewater for the SARS-CoV-2 virus found a very clear upward spike approximately seven days before a spike appeared in the community in the form of people testing positive for COVID-19, according to a study conducted by the University of Nevada, Reno, and community partners. “The latest data show very low to nondetect viral levels in wastewater, suggesting a consistent reduction in COVID-19 prevalence in our community,” said Krishna Pagilla, an environmental engineering professor at the university and leader of the study. Sampling and testing were conducted at three water reclamation facilities and 12 sewer sites in the region beginning in April 2020. “The data we collected from the many sites show that the monitoring reflects what’s happening in the community,” Pagilla said. “It clearly reflects the extent of the disease as it was determined by human testing.” He said that by doing this type of wastewater monitoring, tracking the virus can be done without interrupting people’s lives, and it includes asymptomatic people who may not go in for testing. Coupled with human testing, this gives health officials another tool in the development of management actions to deal with the pandemic in the region “It’s predictive for seven days ahead, telling us the trend in new positive cases we’ll see in the community in that time frame,” Pagilla said. “It’s predictive because people don’t get tested until they have symptoms, but our marker concentrations are in real time—as soon as the virus is discharged into the wastewater.” The data indicate whether COVID-19 is increasing or decreasing in the community. “Using the monitoring samples, we

can’t separate out just the vaccine effect, but overall, if the pandemic is decreasing and the number of cases is going down, we’re able to clearly see that through wastewaterbased monitoring,” Pagilla said. “So, by doing more frequent monitoring we can really see whether the pandemic is going away or if a resurgence is happening. ” Pagilla is also the chair of the department of civil and environmental engineering and director of the Nevada Water Innovation Institute based at the university, which includes regional agency partners. In this ongoing study, the group began monitoring the wastewater at the Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Facility in April 2020 to determine the level of COVID-19 in the community. In addition, from August through December, the group collected samples from 12 community locations. It expanded the sampling and survey to collection systems of the region to identify hot spots in the community. “Looking for prevalence of the virus in the wastewater system, the environmental surveillance of wastewater was funded by the cities of Sparks and Reno, and Washoe County, using CARES (Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security) Act funding,” said John Martini, Sparks assistant city manager. “It was a regional effort to get the data, and the results are remarkable. We could see the amount of genetic material in wastewater rise as we hit the spike last October and November, and into January of this year; it tracked very well with testing results on people in our communities.” Another project goal was to determine what happens to the virus as it passes through the treatment plant. “The majority of wastewater in the community comes through the water reclamation facility, so testing the wastewater is a good leading indicator of

44 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

what’s happening in the area,” said Michael Drinkwater, the facility’s manager. “We looked at the entire treatment process, which included the influent and effluent. The virus was clearly detected when coming into the plant, but not detected in the outgoing product, so we can say definitively that the virus does not survive in the wastewater plant and the water going back to the Truckee River is free of the virus.” About 20 people from the university worked on the monitoring. They sampled each of the 12 sites, all in one day, on a weekly basis. Pagilla said it takes many resources to conduct the sewer monitoring. “We had students and faculty working weekends, Thanksgiving, and Christmas to collect samples,” Pagilla said. “It was a complicated collection procedure, using a long telescopic handle to capture a sample. The team took multiple samples and measurements onsite before bringing them back to the laboratory for analysis. The samples were transported on ice within two hours of collection to the university’s biomolecular engineering lab.” The university crew had tremendous support from the agencies throughout the process. “City and county staff helped with safety and traffic control at the collection sites,” Pagilla said. “There was also a two-member crew at the sites that built a safe area around the sewer access hole and helped with proper protocols for safety.” The university team included the coauthors on the study: Lin Li, a postdoctoral scholar in Pagilla’s research group; Laura Haak; and Niloufar Gharoon, a doctoral candidate under Pagilla. “Since the pandemic began, we have developed in-house capability at the university to do this study,” Pagilla said. “And not just for COVID; we’re now able to apply

our knowledge, experience, and resources to other substances in wastewater to do further research related to wastewater and community health.” This field of study is known as wastewater-based epidemiology and is being looked into by many cities around the world to determine COVID-19 prevalence in the absence of extensive clinical testing of humans. The purpose of this future work is to develop predictive tools that can complement clinical testing and other human testing data in assessing the prevalence of COVID-19 in a community. “Environmental observations of wastewater is not new; it’s been around for a while,” Martini said. “But what is new is that we now have the ability to do it at our university. Having this tool will help the community for the next pandemic, to understand it and to find more efficient and better ways to manage in the future.” Monitoring of sewage or other environmental media (air, soil, and water) has been an important method to determine community prevalence of disease-causing pathogens by measuring certain molecular markers of their deoxyribonucleic acid/ ribonucleic acid (DNA/RNA) and is known as environmental surveillance. “While the reclamation facility has been treating wastewater for the community since 1966, being part of a proactive effort to improve our understanding of public health is new to us,” Drinkwater said. “We are very happy to be able to contribute to this effort in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic.” While continuing on a limited scale, the sampling duration could last throughout the current pandemic and is likely to continue for at least another year. Sample sites at each plant will include raw sewage and the finished effluent. The project work was supported by faculty, staff, and students from multiple research groups of the university. Staff from the City of Reno, City of Sparks, Washoe County, and local contractors provided additional field sampling support and personal safety protective measures. Technical support was provided by Washoe County Health District and Truckee Meadows Regional Planning Agency. S

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Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021



Thank YOU for the Opportunity Clear Indications That FWEA is in Good Hands

James J. Wallace, P.E. President, FWEA


s I write this column, my last as president of the Florida Water Environment Association, I have so much to unpack from the past 12 months. At first glance, it is impossible to ignore the challenge that the COVID-19 pandemic brought about, both personally and professionally. By any measure, this time has been the most unique and challenging of my career. Through these personal and professional trials, however, this time has also proven to be among the most instructive, influential, and informative of my 26 years in this profession. For that, I want to thank every one of you for the opportunity to serve FWEA this past year, and I would like to focus this last column on the positives. The exceptional membership and leadership of FWEA has proven once again to be second to none. Thank you! There are so many examples this past year, of FWEA members and leaders going above and beyond, that it would fill the pages of this magazine. In an effort to most efficiently use the space in this column, I will endeavor to present to you some of the most impactful efforts that I witnessed this past year, which make me so proud to have led this exceptional association.

Humble Beginnings In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, the key consideration involved determining how FWEA would be able to serve our membership through professional development, networking, and philanthropy, while maintaining safe social distancing. With the help of three key volunteers (Tonya Sonier, Manasi Parekh, and Alexander Kraemer), FWEA was able to develop the “Software Platforms for FWEA Meetings, Presentations, and Conferences” that supported our transition to online programming. It was through their hard work, not only in the development of the platforms, but also in the deployment of the platforms, that we were able to ultimately provide so many valuable offerings this past year.

High Praise for FWEA Connect FWEA’s chapters and committees were able to provide a plethora of exceptional content throughout this past year, in a variety of single and multi-event formats. These events yielded a lot of very positive feedback from an industry starved for connection. The high-water mark for FWEA occurred recently on March 29-30 with FWEA Connect. For the second straight year, the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC), Florida’s annual conference that brings together FWEA, FWPCOA, and FSAWWA members, was canceled. To temporarily fill that void this year, FWEA hosted a two-day series of 32 presentations that represented utility management, wastewater treatment, collection systems, biosolids, reclamation and reuse, and facility operations and maintenance. The response to FWEA Connect was overwhelmingly positive. The sponsors and exhibitors provided immediate and positive feedback for their experience and exposure. The attendees similarly provided positive feedback, many exclaiming the online event to be among the smoothest they had attended, with excellent technical content balanced with manageable windows of time. In the end, a total of more than 30 FWEA volunteers worked through more than three months of planning meetings to bring together this seamless production. To these engaged and dedicated volunteers, please know how appreciative I am for your service to FWEA. I know we will celebrate this accomplishment and reminisce about this time next year when we are all together again in Daytona Beach for FWRC.

46 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

One final note from this past year to prove that FWEA is in good hands involves Ron Cavalieri, its president-elect. The president-elect of FWEA is responsible for the annual Leadership Development Workshop (LDW) that is held every winter to facilitate a myriad of important activities among the leadership of FWEA (including the board of directors, as well as chapter and committee chairs and vice chairs). Ron’s job this year was made harder by COVID-19 and the continuation of social distancing. Not only was Ron able to pull this event off virtually, he was able to add a variety of new offerings that added tremendous value to the event. What truly makes Ron special is that he did not rest on his president-elect duties; along with LDW, he decided to add one more extremely important responsibility to his plate this past year. The pandemic derailed significant progress that was made to update FWEA’s strategic plan, which had progressed throughout late 2019 and into early 2020. Ron took on the responsibility this past year to bring the strategic planning process to conclusion, leading a large and talented group of FWEA volunteers through the final stages to update our vision, mission, and strategic goals (around membership, public outreach, public policy, and workforce development). Great job, Ron! I know you’ll lead FWEA to new heights through the remainder of 2021 and well into 2022.

Thank You And it is on this note that I again echo my appreciation and gratitude for the opportunity that you have provided me this past year to lead FWEA. It has been an exceptional experience that I would recommend to anyone who is interested in developing new, beneficial, and lifelong leadership skills. Please raise your hand and lend us your leadership talents. Trust me when I tell you that you will cherish the experience, grow in ways you could never imagine, and ultimately wonder why it took you so long to volunteer to lead within FWEA. S

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Know the Unknown: Evaluating Water Main Inspection Technologies Weston Haggen and Emily Staubus Williamson


ationwide, utility owners are challenged to manage their infrastructure as it begins to approach the end of its useful life—or even exceeds its expected useful life. How can utilities maximize the life and use of their existing infrastructure, while planning replacements before a costly failure? Managing a multitude of underground infrastructure is no easy task. Inspection of underground pipelines can save owners capital funds by prioritizing specific pipelines, based on actual condition and regardless of age, to maximize the useful life of infrastructure that’s still in good condition. Inspections and condition assessments can introduce additional challenges, such as not violating any Florida Department of Environmental Protection rules and maintaining minimal interruption to customers. Water mains are commonly constructed using various materials, most commonly polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), cast iron, ductile iron, asbestos cement, concrete, and steel. Each pipe material experiences different methods of failure due to the properties specific to each material of construction. For example, ferrous materials are susceptible to failure due to external and internal corrosion, whereas plastic materials are more susceptible to failure due to deflection or improper installation.

Determining locations to test water mains is not as straightforward as wastewater force mains. Since the force main failures generally occur at the high points due to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas wall deterioration, it allows for inspections to be conducted in isolated areas to track material thickness. Conversely, cast iron water main failures, for example, are more likely to be associated with circular and longitudinal cracking, which often cannot be identified early and tracked over time, like force main inspections. Cracking often occurs suddenly; early leaks may be an identifier of cracking, but may not always provide enough warning before failure. While a large variety of inspection technologies are available for pipe inspection, not all are right for every type of pipe used for potable water distribution. By conducting a detailed evaluation of available assessment technologies, a utility may identify the technologies best suited to assess water mains. The selected technology may then be used to collect uniform testing data to allow the utility to quantitatively determine when a water main will require replacement. This article presents an evaluation of the issues described and details the completion of the initial evaluations for the most popular and available inspection technologies.

Pipe R&R Program

Figure 1. Pipe Repair and Replacement Program

48 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Weston Haggen, P.E., is a project manager and Emily Staubus Williamson, EI, is a project engineer with Reiss Engineering, a CHA Company, in Tampa.

The initial evaluation identified available technologies that were feasible for water main inspections. From the evaluation, the mostpractical inspection technologies were made for each pipe material type. For each technology, a methodology was developed to assist in the selection of the testing location based on testing requirements (i.e., pipe diameter, insertion requirements, etc.) and results identified (i.e., leaks, wall thickness, defect, etc.), as well as providing preliminary inspection costs for each technology.

Background A local Florida municipality was interested in evaluating the available inspection technologies that could be most useful when applied to the potable water and reclaimed water mains in its distribution systems. The intention of conducting evaluations is to determine the most-appropriate technology for the municipality and utilize that technology consistently throughout the distribution systems to allow for the collection of uniform data. The uniform testing data will allow for the municipality to determine if potable and reclaimed water mains need to be replaced based on a quantitative analysis method. The testing results will also allow the municipality to track the condition of potable and reclaimed water mains over time and determine if the testing results indicate that the main does not require near-term replacement. Each type of pipe material generally experiences different causes of failure, and therefore, will generally require different assessment technologies that will be further detailed. Generally, ferrous mains, including cast iron and ductile iron pipe, are most susceptible to wall thickness deterioration, circumferential cracking, and longitudinal cracking. Concrete mains can experience corrosion, concrete spalling, and issues with the reinforcing rebar/wires. Plastic mains, including PVC and HDPE, are not susceptible to corrosion, but instead are most susceptible to cracking or leaking.

The following evaluation considers pipe materials and failure modes as a critical deciding factor for where to apply each inspection technology.

Proposed Methodology Selecting assessment technologies for a utility assessment is just one part of a larger program. Generally, a municipality’s overall repair and replacement (R&R) program considers multiple components, including budgeting, risk evaluation, prioritization, screening, assessments, and replacement, as shown in Figure 1. The R&R program initially begins with establishing a budget for the overall program. Establishing a budget is critical to the program so that a municipality can plan for multiple years of R&R, in addition to planning for condition assessments. Determining locations to evaluate and inspect water mains is not completely straightforward. In wastewater force mains, failures historically occur at high points due to the accumulation of H2S gas, which results in wall deterioration as the gas reacts with the oxygen to form sulfuric acid. This allows for wastewater force main inspections to be conducted in isolated areas to track material thickness. Conversely, cast iron water main failures, for example, are more likely to be associated with circular and longitudinal cracking, which often occur suddenly and cannot be identified early and tracked over time, like force main inspections. Early leaks may be an identifier of cracking, but may not always provide enough warning before failure. Generally, an infrastructure evaluation should first consider desktop analysis, followed by initial screening and actual condition assessment. An initial desktop risk assessment analysis should be completed to identify which pipes are most susceptible to R&R. The desktop analysis should generally consider two main factors: likelihood of failure and consequence of failure. Likelihood of failure is the probability an asset will fail based on several factors, including past history of failure, pipe material, installation date, and pipe flow/velocity. Consequence of failure considers the impacts that would be experienced if a failure were to occur. Factors that are considered for consequence of failure include, but are not limited to, pipe diameter, proximity to water bodies, aerial/ subaqueous crossings, redundancy, service to critical customers, etc. This initial desktop analysis would identify pipes that are most critical or likely to fail and theoretically should be considered a high priority for further investigation. Initial screening would utilize technologies that can be used to perform initial assessments. These screening technologies would generally identify areas of concern, such as generalized

Figure 2. Sample Surge Model Results Table 1. Soil Corrosion Factors Summary and Testing ASTM Test Resistivity Resistivity is measured in situ (undisturbed) and in the lab. Resistivity levels G187 are directly indicative of a soils corrosivity value. In situ and lab measurements are compared due to the possibility of various factors that may skew results, including groundwater table/moisture and temperature. pH The pH is an indication of the concentration of hydrogen cells that classifies D4972 the soil as acidic, alkaline, or neutral. Soil pH values less than 5 are considered highly corrosive; soil pH values between 5 and 8 may generally be considered stable, but may be highly corrosive based on other field conditions, such as water presence. Chloride Chloride concentration is utilized to determine corrosivity of soil with D4327 Concentration respect to metal. Generally, when chloride concentration increases, corrosivity increases. Increased chloride concentrations are generally found in areas that have increased salinity, where there is seawater intrusion. Sulfate Sulfate concentration is indicative of accelerated corrosion conditions for D4327 Concentration ferrous piping. Similar to chloride, the increase in sulfate concentration results in increase in corrosivity. Sulfide Sulfide presence is indicative of anaerobic conditions that would support EPA Presence bacterial corrosion. 9030B Moisture Moisture content is indicative of increased groundwater levels and supports D2216 Content corrosion rates. Factor


wall loss, defects, leaks, surge concerns, or air/gas pockets. Based on the screening technology results, more-detailed testing could be completed at the area of concern based on the issue identified using a condition assessment technology that morespecifically evaluates the known area of concern. Following the condition assessment, R&R activities can be completed based on the actual conditions. As the R&R program continues, the data collected from the screening, assessments, and other operation/maintenance activities should be used to update the initially completed desktop risk assessment to remain current. This allows the desktop analysis to be reused as the R&R program

cycles so that other pipe screenings, assessments, and replacements can be identified and completed as the program continues.

Pipe Screening Technologies Surge Modeling Surge events can cause potential damage in any part of a pressurized piping system due to water hammer/transient events caused by sudden changes in flow and velocity. These events cause an overpressurization (surge) or underpressurization (vacuum) condition that can be significantly Continued on page 50

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Continued from page 49 damaging to pressurized pipe systems. Examples of sudden changes include pump start-up, pump shutdown, power outages, and valve closures. Surge evaluations can be completed using specialized hydraulic modeling software, such as Infowater Infosurge. This software uses the municipality’s information to evaluate different scenarios, which may result in surge conditions and potentially identify solutions (such as specialty valves) that may mitigate the surge event and associated consequences. A sample of surge model output results is shown in Figure 2, which considers the closure of a valve in a transmission main. The different modeling outputs shown consider different pressure-reducing valves in operation. Leak Detection Leaking pipes can cause a number of issues for utilities, such as pipe failure or washouts. Additionally, leaking pipes can be responsible for revenue loss. Generally, leak detection technologies may be utilized as a screening tool for the municipality to identify areas where leaks are occurring by using acoustic technology to detect, locate, and identify the leaks in its system. The areas identified may be excavated and exposed to allow for the leak to be further evaluated. Once evaluated, the leak may be repaired or replaced entirely.

Examples of potential specific leak detection options include Mueller Echologics Echoshore, Mueller Echologics LeakfinderST, or Sensus Permalog+ Acoustic Monitoring. Additionally, smart metering options, such as automated meter reading (AMR) and advanced meter intelligence (AMI), which are methods traditionally designed to remotely collect meter data for the purpose of collecting data for billing, offer some leak detection abilities. Corrosion Assessment Soils can create corrosive environments for below-grade infrastructure due to a variety of localized factors, including soil chemistry, conductivity, humidity/moisture, and other surrounding conditions. Corrosive soils can cause exterior corrosion on metallic and concrete pipes, which may ultimately result in failure due to deterioration of the pipe wall’s structural characteristic; therefore, it’s a critical factor to monitor where metallic and concrete infrastructure are located. Corrosive soils evaluations are not directly specific in identifying actual locations of pipe in bad condition, but are indicative of locations where additional evaluation for potential pipe corrosion and future monitoring should be conducted. Soil corrosion assessments can be completed to

Figure 3. Cell-to-Cell Results

Figure 3. Cell-to-Cell Results

Figure 4. Echologics ePulse

Figure 3. Echologics ePulse 50 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

evaluate the soil corrosivity potential, in addition to actual evaluation of specific pipe. Soil Corrosion Testing Soil corrosion testing may be utilized to evaluate the strength of the various factors that may influence the corrosivity of soil. A summary of factors that contribute to soil corrosivity, and should be evaluated, is described in Table 1. Soil corrosion testing can be completed at intervals along a pipeline corridor of concern to identify specific zones/areas where soil conditions are likely to cause corrosion. Where corrosive soils are found, various options may be considered to prevent exterior pipe corrosion, such as cathodic protection using sacrificial anode, or adding polyethylene wrap to pipe to protect against direct soil-to-metal contact. Cell-to-Cell Testing for Active Corrosion Areas The cell-to-cell test method assesses the likelihood of active corrosion on mortar-coated pipe (American Water Works Association [AWWA] C300, C301, C302, and C303) due to the loss of contact between the steel cylinder or wire, and the mortar coating on the external pipe surfaces. This screening method measures soil-tosoil potentials at ground level above the pipeline and identifies locations where corrosion is likely occurring. The results can then be used to prioritize and inspect locations where the data indicate that corrosion activity is occurring. The cell-to-cell survey records soil-to-soil voltages every 5 ft directly over the pipeline. The operator enters the voltage gradient field associated with an actively corroding area of the pipeline and the measured cell-to-cell voltages will begin to increase and feature a positive polarity. When the operator reaches a corroding location, the cell-tocell voltage will peak, return to zero, and then go negative. The point of inflection where the voltage is zero between the positive peak and negative peak is where the defect is located. The cell-to-cell testing method, shown in Figure 3, does not require the pipeline to be taken out of service and can be completed in a short period of time, potentially during other methods of inspection, which would allow for comparison. The cell-to-cell method identifies significant corrosion points that can be exposed to be further evaluated. Echologics ePulse Echologics ePulse is a noninvasive condition assessment technology that can search for and identify leaks, defects, and generalized wall loss in pressurized mains from 2 in. diameter and larger. The technology allows the infrastructure to remain in service and can be quickly deployed and completed in a short period of time for minimal disruption to the surrounding area. Continued on page 52

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Figure 4. p-CAT Results

Figure 5. RECON+ Equipment

Figure 5. p-CAT Results

Continued from page 50 The ePulse can be deployed on cast iron, ductile iron, asbestos cement, and prestressed concrete pipe materials using acoustic sensors to introduce sound to a water main. As outlined in Figure 4, the sound wave reflects off the pipe, and the sensors capture the information (pipe wall condition, defects, thickness, and leaks). Sound can be introduced using a fire hydrant, operating nut of a valve, direct access via tap, or air release valve. The results of the assessment are provided in a percent change from the nominal thickness per segment (approximately 250 to 500 ft). This can then be used to narrow down and identify specific suspect pipe segments that should be further evaluated with a higher resolution technology to more-precisely identify locations of wall loss or defects. To increase the accuracy of the test, it’s recommended to complete the test in as small-aspossible segments. Hydromax p-CAT The Hydromax p-CAT is a noninvasive, nondestructive method for performing pipe condition assessment while the system is in

Figure 6. RECON+ Equipment

operation. The p-CAT screening tool can quickly test long lengths (multiple mi) of pipe to identify small localized “hot spots” out of thousands of ft of pipe. The p-CAT can be applied to all metallic, concrete, and asbestos cement pipes that are 6 in. in diameter or larger. The p-CAT requires 2-in. access points at three locations on the subject pipeline for inspection at the beginning, end, and approximate center. Sensors are attached at the beginning and end of the pipeline. At the center, a controlled transient wave is induced (5 to 8 pounds per sq in. [psi]), and the transient wave reflects when it encounters any changes in the pipeline structure and is collected at the beginning and end sensors. The test lasts approximately one minute, which may vary based on actual field conditions, and is typically repeated a minimum of two additional times to confirm the consistency of results. The test can locate internal cement lining loss (spalling), wall loss measurements (<0.2-millimeter [mm] wall accuracy), material changes, cement matrix loss (asbestos cement pipes), internal blockages, gas pockets, and unknown connections, as demonstrated in Figure 5. Additional requirements for the p-CAT

Figure 8. Ultrasonic Thickness Testing Equipment

Figure 7. SmartBall Figure 7. SmartBall Equipment Equipment

52 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

include isolation of the main from other branching pipes. While the main can stay in service, for the transient wave to function correctly for results, all pipes that branch off the subject main must be isolated. Isolation can be performed via a valve closure on the branching main. PICA RECON+ The PICA RECON+ is an inline screening tool that can travel freely with follow-through pipelines to detect leaks and air pockets, screen for bulk wall thickness changes in metallic pipes up to 8 in. in diameter, locate deposits and debris, and measure pressure differential. The RECON+ tool can be inserted into a pipeline through a minimum 4-in. entry point (i.e., tap or pigging port) without service interruption. The RECON+ device is shown in Figure 6. The RECON+ device is 2.2 in. in diameter, can withstand up to 725 psi, the ranges in temperature from 0 to 140°F. The device has a built-in magnetometer, accelerometer, gyroscope, acoustic sensor, pressure sensor, and temperature sensor. The device has a long battery life and is capable of screening pipes up to 12 mi long. To decrease risk, the device is neutrally buoyant, which prevents the device from getting caught on the bottom of the pipe. The device is retrieved using a specialized netting tool after it collects the assessment data. SmartBall Leak and Gas Detection The SmartBall® by Pure Technology leak detection platform is a free-swimming, nontethered foam ball that can accurately identify and locate leaks, gas pockets, and defects in pipelines over 4 in. in diameter. This technology is used in metallic, pressurized pipelines, including force mains and reclaimed water pipelines. A typical configuration is shown in Figure 7. This tool is comprised of a 2-in.-diameter aluminum ball that includes an acoustic sensor at the center. The tool is manually inserted into the system through a minimum 4-in.-diameter tap using a claw and is extracted at a second point in the system with a net. During an inspection, the tool is inserted into a pipeline and travels with the

Current Results Eddy CurrentEddy Equipment Current Figure 10. Pulsed Eddy Figure 10. Pulsed Eddy Current Results Figure Figure9.9. Pulsed Pulsed Equipment

product flow for up to 17 hours, while collecting information about leaks, gas pockets, and defects. It requires only two access points: one for insertion and one for extraction. The tool is tracked throughout the inspection at predetermined fixed locations on the pipeline using sensors attached to the pipe. The tool can complete long surveys in a single deployment without disruption to regular pipeline service. The SmartBall needs at least one frame per second (fps) for simple runs, but a velocity of two fps is preferred for morecomplex pipe configurations. Higher velocities can potentially reduce data accuracy.

Condition Assessment Technologies Following the initial screening of subject pipelines to identify areas of pipe that may have defects or reduced wall thickness, condition assessment technologies can be utilized to further identify the magnitude of the defect and/or wall deterioration. The evaluation of condition assessment technologies for pressurized mains was divided into four main categories: external thickness inspection, external defect inspection, internal dewatered inspection, and internal pressurized inspection. External Thickness Inspection Ultrasonic Thickness Testing Ultrasonic thickness testing (UTT) equipment (Figure 8) measures wall thickness and corrosion in metallic pipes by measuring the transit time of sound waves through the pipe wall. The UTT can be used in all pipe sizes and it provides the necessary information to determine wall thickness. The measured thickness is then compared to the original wall thickness to determine the percentage of material remaining. The test piece does not have to be cut or exposed to damaging chemicals during the test, and the pipeline can remain in service during testing. Testing is typically performed at fixed angles on the top half of the pipe. The portability of

the testing equipment allows for a relatively quick onsite inspection, and results are instantaneous. The instrument used is handheld and relatively inexpensive. When the test is properly set up, results are repeatable and reliable. The UTT is typically completed at system high points, as determined through review of record drawings or field confirmation using subsurface utility engineering. The UTT uses high-frequency sound energy to make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more. A typical UTT inspection system consists of several functional units, such as the pulser/receiver, transducer, and display devices, as shown in Figure 8. A pulser/receiver is an electronic device that can produce high-voltage electrical pulses. Driven by the pulser, the transducer generates high-frequency ultrasonic energy. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. The reflected wave signal is transformed into an electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. Signal travel time can be directly related to the distance that the signal traveled. From the signal, information about the reflector location, size, and orientation can be gained. Pulsed Eddy Current Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is used to detect corrosion and general wall loss in ferrous materials. This technology can be performed without direct contact with the surface of the material, and therefore, does not require surface preparation. This technology can be useful where the pipe surface is rough or inaccessible. Similar to the UTT, the equipment (shown in Figure 9) is portable, and the pipeline can remain in service while the test is performed. The PEC works using the principle of electromagnetic induction. A magnetic field is

created by an electrical current in the coil of a probe. When the probe is first placed on or near the pipe, the field penetrates through all the layers and stabilizes in the component thickness. The electrical current in the transmission coil is then switched off, causing a sudden drop in the magnetic field. This sudden change in the magnetic field strength generates eddy currents, which diffuse inward and decrease in strength as they propagate. The decrease in eddy current is monitored by a set of receiver coils in the probe and used to determine the wall thickness: the thicker the wall of the pipe, the longer it takes for the eddy currents to decay to zero. Figure 10 shows the typical PEC setup and the typical results output of the technology. Results are measured relative to a single known point, which is determined using another inspection method, such as UTT. The PEC equipment determines the percent thickness relative to the known point. Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing The phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) measures the wall thickness of ferrous pipes and detects any defects or discontinuities, such as cracks. This type of testing is commonly used on small pipes starting at 2 to 36 in. in diameter. The PAUT is more expensive than UTT, and the typical configuration is shown in Figure 11. The PAUT is typically used to determine the integrity of steel pipe welds. This testing consists of computer-based agitation to elements in a probe; the timing of the agitation can be varied to obtain a clearer picture of the internal characteristic of the pipeline. The PAUT uses multi-element probes, each of which can pulse individually, and the beam can be steered electronically through the test piece. As the beam is swept through the inspection subject, the data gathered from the numerous beams are compiled, which results in a visual image, presenting a “slice” through the object. The speed with which these Continued on page 54

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Figure 12. Radiography Equipment Figure 12. Radiography Equipment

Figure 11. Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing Figure 12. Radiography Equipment Figure 11. Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing Equipment

Continued from page 53

Equipment results are gathered, interpreted, and presented is

far faster than the more-traditional UTT inspection methods and radiography. Radiography Radiography testing (RT) utilizes radiation to detect damage or thickness changes in ferrous and nonferrous pipelines. This technology can reveal both internal and external defects and can be performed in pipes up to 36 in. in diameter. The process can be relatively more time-consuming and expensive than other technologies discussed herein. The RT is typically used on pipes with a solid-free internal fluid. This testing method is based on the same principle as medical radiography. The pipe material is exposed to X-ray or gamma-ray radiation, with either film or reusable phosphorus plates used to capture the image on the other side. The film or plate is placed on the remote side of the pipe and radiation is then transmitted through from one side of the material to the remote side where the radiographic plate is located, as shown in Figure 12.

13. Pit Gauge Equipment Figure Figure 13. Pit Gauge Equipment

The radiographic plate detects the radiation and measures the various quantities of radiation received over the entire surface of the plate. This plate is then processed, and the different degrees of radiation received by the film are imaged and represented in different degrees of black and white. The amount of energy absorbed by the object depends on its thickness and density. Energy not absorbed by the object causes exposure of the radiographic film to appear dark, and areas of the film exposed to less energy remain lighter; therefore, areas of the object where the thickness has been changed by discontinuities, such as cracks, will appear as dark outlines. Inclusions of low density, such as slag, will appear as dark areas on the film, while inclusions of high density, such as tungsten, will appear as light areas. Results require interpretation by experienced, qualified inspectors. Pit Gauge Pit gauge technology measures the depth of pitting along the pipe wall of all sizes of pipes to determine the degree of corrosion. Typically, pit gauge is used on pits already identified from alternative inspection technologies. Any damage or deviation from normal measurements indicates a corrosion issue. This technology is limited to use in cast iron pipe material and is relatively inexpensive. A typical pit gauge consists of a simple lever and a pointer, as shown in Figure 13. This method could bring variable results as it’s dependent on the inspector’s skills; therefore, results may vary. Electromagnetic Remote-Field Testing Bracelet Probe The electromagnetic remote-field testing (RFT) bracelet probe is an external pipe inspection probe that may be used on pipes 6 in. in diameter and larger. The bracelet probe utilizes throughtransmission (TT) electromagnetics to generate a magnetic field. The probe can detect internal and external wall loss in bare or coated ferromagnetic pipes, including steel, cast iron, and ductile iron.

54 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The probe identifies internal defects, corrosion, and changes in wall thickness. The probe is placed on the exterior of the pipe and can cover a 9-in. axial section. When scanning, the probe moves at a speed of 1 to 2 ft per minute, gathering data that are connected to and stored in a laptop computer. The probe identifies locations of defects in a percent variation from the average. Ultrasonic thickness testing can be used to confirm the results from the bracelet probe. An example of the results of the RFT bracelet probe is shown in Figure 14. External Defect Inspection Electromagnetic Testing Electromagnetic testing is utilized to determine the extent of deterioration of concrete pipes or steel pipes. Pipe sections are dewatered and equipment is set up to generate an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field is used to determine the pipe quality, defects, cracking, and other damages in the pipe. This type of testing is performed only in large-diameter concrete pipes to evaluate known deterioration of concrete. As stated, the testing requires dewatering, and therefore, a disruption of service. Additionally, the testing requires a trained technician to enter into the pipe through an access opening to deploy the technology, as required. An example of the deployed electromagnetic testing device is shown in Figure 15. Alternating Current Field Measurement Alternating current field measurement (ACFM) testing is an electromagnetic technique developed to detect surface cracks, and record the location and characteristics of the crack, by working through paint and other pipe coatings, as shown in Figure 16. The ACFM inspection can be used in metallic pipes of all sizes. An ACFM probe introduces an electric current locally into the part and measures the Continued on page 56

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Figure 14. Electromagnetic Remote-Field Testing Bracelet Results

Continued from page 54 associated electromagnetic fields close to the surface. The presence of a discontinuity disturbs the associated fields and the information is graphically presented to the system operator. The ends of a defect are easily identified to provide information on defect location and length. The depth of the flaw (through the pipe wall) plays an important role in determining structural integrity and the same is calculated using mathematical computations, thus allowing an immediate evaluation of the implication of the indication. Liquid Penetrant Inspection Liquid penetrant inspection (LPI), also known as dye penetrant inspection, is widely used to locate surface breaking defects in pipes. The penetrant can be applied to both metallic and plastic pipes; however, test material must be relatively nonporous and the testing surface must be free of all contaminants, including dirt, oil, grease, paint, rust, etc. The dye reveals cracks and other imperfections on a pipe surface, as shown in Figure 17. The dye is applied to the surface of the pipe for a certain predetermined time, after which the excess

16. Alternate Current Field Field Figure Figure 16. Alternate Current Measurement Testing Measurement Testing

Figure 15. Electromagnetic Testing Figure 15. Electromagnetic Testing

penetrant is removed from the surface. The dye penetrates into the pipe surface at discontinuities by capillary action. Penetrants typically used include visible or fluorescent dye penetrant. The inspection for the presence of visible dye indications is made under white light, and inspection of the presence of indications by fluorescent dye penetrant is made under ultraviolet (or black) light under darkened conditions. Evaluations are based on code requirements. Magnetic Particle Testing Magnetic particle testing (MPT) is commonly used to test materials that can be easily magnetized, such as ferrous metals. This technology detects any defects that are open to and just below the surface, including cracks, seams, and laps in ferromagnetic pipelines. The most-commonly used method for magnetic particle is the yoke technique. A typical yoke technique is portable and can operate in alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) modes. The yoke has an electric coil in the unit, creating a longitudinal magnetic field that transfers through the legs to the examined area. In this technology, the test

17. Liquid Penetrant Testing Figure Figure 17. Liquid Penetrant Testing

56 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

material is first magnetized, and any object that is magnetized will be surrounded by an invisible magnetic field. When the ferromagnetic material is defectfree, it will transfer lines of magnetic flux through the material without interruption. When a discontinuity is present, the magnetic flux leaks out of the material, typically if the discontinuity is perpendicular to its flow. As the flux leaks out, the magnetic field will collect ferromagnetic particles, making the size and shape of the discontinuity easily visible. If the defect is parallel to the lines of the magnetic flux, there will be no leakage; therefore, no indication will be observed. A typical configuration is shown in Figure 18. Dewatered Inspection Closed-Circuit Television Closed-circuit television (CCTV) technology is widely used to identify internal corrosion, leaks, and other internal issues, including cracks and fractures in plastic and ferrous pipelines 6 in. and larger in diameter, as shown in Figure 19. The CCTV inspection should be done in gravity wastewater and reclaimed water pipelines during low-flow conditions. Force mains must be dewatered prior to inspection. A CCTV inspection typically consists of a remotely operated camera mounted on a selfpropelled robotic crawler connected to a video monitor at the surface. The CCTV camera is typically inserted through a manhole or access point and, once in the pipe, must be assembled to keep the lens as close as possible to the center of the pipe. The vehicle is tethered to a fiber optic cable that is operated remotely. Inspections produce a video record that can be used for future reference; the CCTV, however, is limited to the specific length of the tethered camera from the point of insertion.

18. Magnetic Particle Testing Figure Figure 18. Magnetic Particle Testing

Figure Closed-Circuit Figure 19.19. Closed-Circuit TelevisionTelevision Inspection Inspection

Laser Profiling Laser profiling technology provides accurate empirical data on ovality, capacity, and other conditions of pipelines using a projected laser light, as shown in Figure 20. This technology allows the detection of wall thickness, if the original internal diameter is known, and defects in plastic and ferrous pipes. The laser profiler can operate in pipe sizes 8 in. and larger in diameter under pressure or in dewatered reclaimed and wastewater pipelines. The profiler projects a ring of laser light on the internal pipe surface, which is in the field of view of the camera, while it’s moving through the pipe. Lasers are used in the atmosphere, above the waterline. These can be either 2D or 3D, depending on the level of detail required. A typical 2D laser profile provides an indication of the pipe ovality above the waterline, as well as general defects in the pipe wall. Fine defects, such as cracks, may not be apparent. The value of laser profiling is that it provides clear evidence of pipe ovality, where the human eye is easily fooled using CCTV alone. A software extracts the profile from the camera video and trends it over the length of the pipe to build a geometric profile.

electromagnetic tool used to detect leaks, variances in wall thickness, and defects in ductile iron pipes. This electromagnetic inspection procedure provides a nondestructive method of evaluating the baseline condition of the pipe wall to gather data for each pipe and identify anomalies produced by areas of wall loss and property changes. The PipeDiver is used inside active large-diameter pipes ranging from 16 to 48 in. It’s used in pressurized water, wastewater, and reclaimed water pipelines, and the cost can be high. The sensors collect information about the condition of the pipe walls in the system as it travels through active pipes. Petals allow the PipeDiver to navigate through butterfly valves and different pipe configurations. The CCTV data are available during testing and are collected and analyzed after the test to locate irregularities. A PipeDiver is shown in Figure 21.

Internal Pressurized Inspection PipeDiver Electromagnetic Inspection The PipeDiver® is a free-swimming,

Acoustic/Closed-Circuit Televison This system comprises an acoustic/CCTV and leak detection system for pressurized mains. The acoustic/CCTV is a tethered system used in pipelines of ferrous and plastic materials, including materials such as ductile iron, PVC, and HDPE. This technology allows for the detection of leaks, gas pockets, and defects in pipes greater than 6 in. The system can visually and acoustically detect

Figure 21. PipeDiver Equipment

Figure 21. PipeDiver Equipment

Figure 20. Laser Profile Inspection Figure 20. Laser Profile Inspection air pockets in pipe, maps, and pipelines during inspections and can navigate bends totaling up to 270°F, as well as small pressure fittings, air valves, and gate valves. The most-common acoustic/ CCTV technologies include LDS-1000 by JD7 and Sahara by Pure Technologies. The typical setup of the LDS-1000 equipment includes a tethered camera, and launching of the setup is shown in Figure 22. The equipment can be inserted through fire hydrants or small pressure fittings or valves (greater than 2 in.) and are used for inspection in water and reclaimed water pipelines with inspection lengths between 2,000 and 3,200 lin ft. The acoustic/CCTV system consists of a sensor head and a hydrophone, which is an electrical instrument used to detect or monitor sound underwater. The sensor head is inserted into a pipe through any access point greater than 2 in. in diameter. As the sensor is conveyed through the pipeline by product flow, acoustic signals are picked up at the surface by the hydrophone. The signal is then fed through a cable and to the processing equipment. The system operator can hear signals from the system directly and view the signal on a computer with spectrogram software. The system locates leaks by identifying Continued on page 58

Figure 22. LDS-1000 Equipment

Figure 22. LDS-1000 Equipment

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Continued from page 57 acoustic signals; the size of leaks can be estimated based on the acoustic signal recorded by the device. Typically, the system requires a minimum of one fps of flow for simple pipe runs and up to two fps for multiple bends and fittings. Higher velocities can potentially reduce data accuracy.

Figure 23.23.SeeSnake Equipment Figure SeeSnake Equipment

SeeSnake/HydraSnake The SeeSnake/HydraSnake™ by PICA measures changes in wall thickness measured every tenth of an in. along the entire pipe segment to be tested. This technology also detects corrosion defects in 4- to 78-in.-diameter ferrous pipe sizes under pressure or in dewatered reclaimed and wastewater pipelines (see Figure 23). The cost associated with this technology is high. As the tool travels through the pipe, it records the wall thickness and stores the information onboard. Data are sent to a computer in real time during deployment. The SeeSnake does not require contact with the pipe wall and can measure through scale, wax, and nonmagnetic liners. The

tool has a small diameter and is flexible, which allows it to travel through tees and short radius elbows. The tool does not have external movable parts, so no parts can break off or get caught at tees and branches. The tool can be pumped through the pipeline with the flow or with compressed air.

Proposed Plan per Material No single technology can be used for all pipe assessments due to the various requirements or specific data results provided. In some cases, it will be necessary to combine multiple platforms and technologies, along with engineering analysis, to understand the actual condition of the pipelines. Table 2 summarizes and compares each of the assessment technology characteristics as described and Table 3 further details the proposed inspection plan per pipe material type. The pipe inspection is split into two main categories as previously described: initial screening and condition assessment. The initial Continued on page 60

Internal Pressurized Inspection

















PICA External EM RFT Bracelet Probe Electromagnetic Testing (Concrete) Alternating Current Measurement Liquid Penetrant



Magnetic Particle





Laser Profiling Magnetic Flux Leakage SmartBall

SoundPrint AFO p-CAT Echologics – ePulse Echologics – Leakfinder Fluid Conservation Permalog PICA RECON+


















































PipeDiver Electromagnetic CCTV/Acoustic Sahara and LDS-1000 SeeSnake/ HydraSnake



































≥ 4"









≥ 16"









* X




















All All ≥2"


Other X X































58 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Full Pipe Length

Pit Gage

Specific Point





Gas Pockets


Wall Thickness


All All 2-36



Results Identified



Pressure No Pressure









Ultrasonic Testing Pulsed Eddy Current Phased Array








Testing Location


Internal Dewatered Inspection

External Defects Inspection

External Thickness Inspection

Inspection Type

Table 2. Summary of Pipe Screening and Assessment Technologies









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Continued from page 58 screening generally is less invasive, with the goal to narrow and more-specifically identify areas of concern. Condition assessment technologies may require excavation to the actual location on the pipe, or entry into the pipe, to further assess potential wall loss, defects, etc. Initial Screening Tools Hydromax p-CAT, Echologics ePulse, and RECON+ may be used for the preliminary screening of cast iron, ductile iron, and concrete mains. The p-CAT can quickly identify 30-ft segments of concern in a pipe using small sensors and sound sources, which are all minimally invasive. The p-CAT may be used for mains 6 in. and larger and ePulse may be used on mains smaller than 6 in. Leak detection screening is recommended for PVC and HDPE pipes, since condition assessments are not as useful and PVC and HDPE are more likely to suffer failure due to a sudden cracking, as compared to wall deterioration. While the p-CAT or ePulse technologies can be used on PVC or HDPE mains, it’s more cost-effective to evaluate them only with leak detection technology, since wall loss cannot be identified in plastic mains with these technologies. Surge analysis may be implemented for the entire water and reclaimed water distribution system, regardless of pipe material, to identify any areas in the distribution system that may

be vulnerable to water hammer or vacuum in the event of a pump shutdown or valve closure. Surge analysis can be completed without any field work. Soil evaluations via a volt meter/cell-tocell corrosion test are preferred for areas where ferrous mains are present. Corrosive soils can significantly increase the risk and chance of pipe failure where there is no protection against corrosive soils. Soil evaluations are additionally preferred where the pipe infrastructure is within close proximity to water and may be subject to being submersed in the water table, and therefore, increase the risk of exterior corrosion. Most-Feasible Assessment Tools The UTT, PEC, and bracelet probe are preferred for ductile iron and cast iron pipes because they are very versatile nondestructive testing (NDT) methods, can precisely size defects at a relatively small number of points (less human error), have immediate availability of test results, are relatively low cost, and have inherent lack of hazards for those working around the inspection site. The UTT and PEC are recommended for external inspection of both water and reclaimed water ductile and cast iron pipelines. These technologies are not recommended for plastic pipe (PVC and HDPE) since plastic pipe failures are not associated with corrosion. If leaks are determined for PVC and HDPE during initial screening, the leaks should be exposed and corrected.

Volt Meter/ Cell to Cell Corrosion Test Echologics ePulse Echologics Leakfinder Surge Modeling, Pressure Recorder

Assessment Tools

p-CAT Soundprint AFO PICA RM RFT Bracelet Ultrasonic Testing (UTT) Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC)








Leaks, Wall Thickness




Leaks Surge and Cyclic Loading Conditions



Wall Thickness, Defects







Leaks, Defects Wall Thickness, Defects




Wall Thickness


Wall Thickness


60 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal




Initial Screen Tools



Corrosion Location, Gas Pocket, Leak Detection, Defects


Pipe Material HDPE RCP



Table 3. Proposed Plan per Material

Other Available Assessment Tools Condition assessment technologies associated with the identification of external defects were not taken into further consideration, as these technologies provide very limited information on the condition of the pipelines, and performing them is relatively expensive since the pipeline would have to be excavated and exposed. Additionally, leaks, wall thickness, and gas pockets cannot be determined through these types of inspections, and these criteria are relevant to understanding the overall condition of the pipe. Technologies that require dewatering of pipelines, including electromagnetic testing, CCTV, laser profiling, and magnetic flux leakage, were initially evaluated, but due to the effort involved in the dewatering of pipelines to perform the testing and the desire to maintain service to customers, they were not taken into further consideration. Other external thickness inspection technologies, including radiography, phased array, and pit gauge, were not taken into further consideration for the proposed plan for various reasons. Radiography can present a potential health hazard, requiring licensed technical personnel due to radiation associated with the tests, multiple images, and access to all sides of the pipe. It also requires a dark area to develop the film, making it very time-consuming. Phased array inspection is typically used to assess the integrity of steel welds, primarily in the oil and gas industries, and is generally not applicable, except for specific applications. The pit gauge inspection method is not preferable, as it generally requires already knowing the location of the defect and could not be expected to actually find it, as compared to other technologies. Internal pressurized assessments, including acoustic/CCTV (LDS1000 and Sahara), PipeDiver, and SeeSnake, are not proposed for the initial stages of evaluating pipes. These technologies, while detailed and can provide significant information, are expensive and should be reserved for large critical lines. The internal pressurized CCTV inspection alone cannot identify the thickness of the pipe, and due to being tethered to a line, is limited to how much pipe may be inspected at once. Additionally, pipe bends can increase friction in the tethered line, which may also significantly limit how much pipe is inspected.

Summary An R&R plan may help a municipality establish a plan to evaluate, screen, assess, and repair or replace its existing infrastructure.

A summary of an R&R plan, including risk assessment, prioritization, screening, and assessment, is shown in Figure 24. This decision flow chart generally includes the R&R program previously described, including the initial desktop risk evaluation factors (past failures, material, diameter, location), initial system wide assessments (water loss, surge evaluation), screening, and recommended technologies from Table 3. This prioritization-through-assessment decision tree details the initial evaluation to assessment. Following each actual assessment, specific remediation and replacement activities may be planned that are considered necessary for each specific situation. Completing a desktop analysis will identify critical pipelines, which may be candidates for screening, condition assessment, and/ or replacement. As shown in Figure 24, the desktop analysis considers known history of the pipe, material, size, and criticality. The desktop analysis will act as a basis for planning the R&R program and should be updated over time, as more information becomes known and/or as pipes are replaced. In addition to the desktop analysis, other systemwide evaluations may be completed to further refine the desktop analysis, including soil corrosivity evaluation, water corrosivity evaluation, surge evaluation, and water loss evaluation. Pipe screening should be completed on all mains identified as priority mains, which will assist in evaluating a large number of pipes and provide generalized areas of concern that may require further testing. Utilizing pipe screening methods initially can help reduce the cost of higher-priced condition assessment options by narrowing down the areas to assess. Pipe screening technologies may vary based on material, as detailed in Table 3. The ductile iron, cast iron, and concrete pipe material screenings generally focus on identifying general areas of concern (i.e., wall loss or defects), which will allow for pipes to be prioritized for further specific condition assessments. The PVC and HDPE material screenings generally focus on identifying leaks, since plastic pipes are not susceptible to the corrosion experienced by ferrous pipe materials. Pipe condition assessments should be completed on pipes identified as an area of concern based on initial pipe screening. The condition assessment technologies to utilize vary based on pipe material (detailed in Table 3 and Figure 24). A municipality should also consider and evaluate any factors in a pipeline’s initial desktop analysis, which may warrant skipping pipe screening and/or assessment (and the associated costs) to replace the pipe. Certain factors, such as an exceedingly high age or specific type of material, may warrant

considerations to skip assessment and move straight to replacement. Actual pipe R&R may be determined and planned based on the pipe condition assessment results. The nature of each pipe R&R can vary based on the actual field conditions and ultimately determine what type of work is necessary to eliminate poor pipe condition. The results of the assessments can be used to establish the actual length of pipe that should be considered for replacement. The nature of each specific replacement identified will then be used to determine the next steps (detailed design, construction, etc.). As the R&R program continues, the data collected from the screening, assessments,

and other knowledge gained should be used to update the initially completed desktop risk assessment to remain current. This allows the desktop analysis to be reused as the R&R program cycles so that other pipe screenings, assessments, and replacements can be identified and completed as the program continues. The technology evaluation should be re-evaluated in five years, as technology improvements and advancements continually occur in the utilities industry. A re-evaluation of available technologies in that time may identify a technology that can better meet the goals that the municipality has identified, which may not have been available at the time of this current S assessment.

Figure 24. Prioritization-Through-Assessment Decision Flow Chart

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Technically Speaking: 11 Tips For Communicating With Nontechnical Audiences You may have heard it takes two to tango but the same is true when it comes to communications Shea Dunifon While possessing technical knowledge when working within the water/wastewater industries is important for building trust and a positive reputation with colleagues and/or clients, communicating with nontechnical audiences, like the general public, is equally as important. With the public becoming increasingly aware of the challenges facing our industry, such as aging infrastructure leading to sewage releases and stories on the evening news about “flushable wipes” clogging sewers, effective communication skills with nontechnical audiences is in demand. Communicating with different audiences, especially nontechnical ones, is a skill and an art. The good news is that it’s a skill that can be learned and crafted to meet the needs of audiences ranging from school-age children to senior citizens (and everyone in between). I want to share some of my favorite tips for communicating with nontechnical audiences based on my own experiences guiding public tours of the South Cross Bayou Advanced Water Reclamation Facility in St. Petersburg.

Before you get started trying these tips, understand that true communication begins with self-awareness and a bit of putting yourself in the other person’s shoes; hence, it takes two to tango!

Communication Tips Here are my top 11 tips that I’ve learned over the years speaking on various subjects (including my favorite, chemistry) to nontechnical audiences. Tip 1: Assess the room. Wherever you are about to speak, whether inside or outside, take a few moments to look around. Look for distractions (even breathtaking waterfront views count), check the thermostat, make sure the lighting is adequate where you will be standing, and get a microphone ready if it’s a large room and/or you have a low or soft voice. Tip 2: Assess your audience. Take a minute to think about who you are presenting to. Attendees may not be happy to see you if they think you are going to give them bad news (like a road closure or a water shutoff). Ask yourself if the attendees are stakeholders, clients, concerned citizens, school-age children, a special interest group, etc., and if you can, try to

Megan Ross, Pinellas County Utilities director, speaks to a group from Leadership Pinellas.

62 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

put yourself in their shoes by asking why are they there. Tip 3: Encourage questions. Not everyone likes to be put on the spot and sometimes getting questions can be nerveracking, but just remember that questions are a healthy sign that your attendees are listening and are engaged! Tip 4: Be authentic—be you. No one wants to listen to a script and no one wants to hear you say what they believe is what you think they want to hear. If you can insert some humor and humility into the conversation, you might find people are more trusting and willing to listen to you. Tip 5: Focus on impact. Try explaining how much money a project will save or how many people will be affected in a positive way. Your attendees care about how this is affecting them. They might be wondering if this will inconvenience their lives, cost them money or time, or if this is something they might want to learn more about (i.e., an opportunity to volunteer or a cause to advocate for).

Pinellas County Utilities employee Dobbie Moore (at center), uses his truck and tools to describe his work with pump stations to a group of school children.

Tip 6: Avoid technical jargon and acronyms whenever possible. If you must use technical jargon and/or acronyms, be sure to define them and/or spell them out. Do not assume a nontechnical audience knows the terms; it's actually safer to just assume they don’t, and to your audience you’ll come across as you being thoughtful and thorough. Tip 7: Use visuals. Not everyone learns the same way; while some people are more auditory, others may be more visual or tactile learners. It’s also a lot easier to explain new concepts when you have photos, charts, diagrams, or a conceptual drawing. Keep in mind, the visuals should be easy to interpret; they should be a standalone piece with a key/legend, arrows showing flow, a layout of structures, etc., that someone can read at a later time and still understand. Tip 8: Reassess the audience during your presentation. In the age of technology, it’s impossible not to be distracted by phones, side conversations, or an environment that is too cold or too hot, so take a moment to pause and look around the room. Are your attendees asleep (and drooling!) or texting, or are they giving you their undivided attention? You may want to change your tone, tell a joke, give the audience a break, or open the room for questions if they aren’t paying attention. Tip 9: Slow down. Nothing is more frustrating to an audience than trying to digest a large amount of new information more quickly than they can scribble down notes. Adopt a slower and steadier pace,

An example of a visual used to explain a technical concept. This interactive display shows homeowners how damaged lateral pipes lead to inflow/ infiltration.

again focusing on the impact of the presentation, not the details. Tip 10: Use storytelling and metaphors. Use these as techniques to convey technical information in easy-to-digest terms. If you can draw similarities to an audience’s life, it feels more personal and attendees feel more vested. Tip 11: Show compassion. If you’re dealing with someone who is agitated or frustrated, bear in mind that it’s not personal and try to be empathetic. Most people just want to be heard. And while trolls do exist, use your best judgment when someone is deliberately offensive, or be provactive in deciding when to walk away or discontinue the conversation.

Practice Makes Perfect While there are many tips for communicating with nontechnical audiences and there is no “one size fits all,” the key to mastering

communications is to practice, practice, practice! Grab a friend, a significant other, your grandmother, or even the kids. Start with people you feel comfortable with and try explaining your profession or even a project to them. Don’t be afraid to make mistakes (I know I’ve made several dozen over the years giving tours). Most importantly, if you’re not sure where to start, begin by putting yourself in the minds of the audience members. Is what you’re saying something the attendees would know? If you’re not sure, go back and read Tip 2. Whether you’re a professor, an engineer, a treatment facility manager, or an operator (or none or all of these), your work helps serve the community. Hopefully these 11 tips will help and encourage you to communicate with your audiences more effectively and more often. Shea Dunifon is the education coordinator at Pinellas County Utilities South Cross Bayou Advanced Water Reclamation Facility in St. Petersburg and is chair of the FWEA Public Communications and Outreach Committee. S

NEWS BEAT Steven McDonald has joined Raftelis as its chief economist to lead new valuation and economic impact analysis services. He was formerly with CSG Economics at GAI Consultants. “We’ve been getting calls seeking our help in valuing a utility or a potential development, and we know there will be more need for this specialty in the future,” said Peiffer Brandt, Raftelis chief executive officer and president. “We’ve partnered with Steven for many years through our Florida office, so it’s great to tap his expertise within our firm now.” McDonald has more than 30 years of experience working with local government, utility, and private business clients throughout the U.S. He is currently the president of the

Florida North State Chapter of the National Association of Certified Valuators and Analysts, and is an adjunct instructor of economic concepts and managerial economics with Webster University at its Orlando campus.


A sweeping water quality measure sought by Gov. Ron DeSantis was recently approved by the Florida Senate, with supporters calling it a major step toward easing runoff from farms and developments that have fed algae blooms plaguing the state. Environmental groups, however, warn that the legislation (SB 712) doesn’t go far enough and have criticized lawmakers for allowing farms to self-monitor their runoff into waterways—although farms would now have to be inspected every two years.

The Sierra Club, Florida Springs Council, and Florida Waterkeepers have outlined problems with the legislation, concluding that it will not achieve water quality goals in most state waterways that are already damaged. In a 12-page letter, the organizations have called it the “policy equivalent of slapping a Band-Aid on a gunshot wound. It may not hurt, but it won’t really help.” The bill still has to clear the House. The legislation changes how the state regulates everything from septic tanks to city wastewater systems and stormwater management. It also would be more difficult for companies to get permits for bottling spring water, while a state study of the practice and its effect is also ordered by the legislation. The legislation grew out of recommendations by the Blue-Green Continued on page 66

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


AMWA Announces 2021 Management Recognition Awards Honoring Water Utility Achievements and Individual Contributions For more than two decades the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA), headquartered in Washington, D.C., has provided drinking water utility recognition programs that honor extraordinary management and stellar workforce performance.

progressive series of awards that any number of AMWA member utilities may win: S Gold Award for Exceptional Utility Performance S Platinum Award for Utility Excellence S Sustainable Water Utility Management Award

2021 Awards

Individual Recognition The AMWA also honors individual accomplishments in the drinking water field through its President’s Award and Donald R. Boyd Award. Recipients of these awards are determined by the association’s Nominations Committee. Nominations are solicited in the summer by a bulletin from AMWA’s national office.

The AMWA invites all eligible utilities to apply for one of three utility management award programs for 2021. Individual awards are also presented. All eligible utilities should submit applications by the June 18 deadline. Distinguished panels of peer judges evaluate award applicants, and the awards will be presented at the AMWA Executive Management Conference, to be held October 3-6 in Denver. In addition, award winners receive local, national, water industry, and public utility media attention. Utility Recognition The association’s utility recognition program honors extraordinary management and stellar workforce performance through a

Award Categories Gold Award for Exceptional Utility Performance The AMWA Gold Award for Exceptional Utility Performance recognizes large public drinking water systems that exhibit high levels of performance in the following areas: S Product quality


C ustomer satisfaction E mployee and leadership development O perational optimization F inancial viability C ommunity sustainability E nterprise resiliency I nfrastructure strategy and performance S takeholder understanding and support W ater resource sustainability

These are the “Attributes of Effective Utility Management” that were identified in 2007 by a blue-ribbon panel of water and wastewater utility executives commissioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), AMWA, and other water-related associations. The document was updated in 2016. Gold Award winners also show achievement in the areas of leadership, strategic business planning, knowledge management, measurement, and continual improvement management. All AMWA member utilities that have never won a Gold Award are eligible to apply. Platinum Award for Utility Excellence Like the Gold Award for Exceptional Utility Performance, the criteria for the Platinum Award for Utility Excellence are also based on the “Attributes of Effective Utility Management” and the “Keys to Management Success.” Applicants are expected to show progress in implementing the attributes and keys, as well as a distinctive level of management expertise and expanded utility achievement. Three years after winning a Gold Award, member utilities are eligible to apply for the Platinum Award for Utility Excellence. Past winners of AMWA’s Platinum Award for Sustained Competitiveness Achievement are also eligible to apply. Sustainable Water Utility Management Award The AMWA Sustainable Water Utility Management Award, introduced in 2014, recognizes member utilities that have made a commitment to sustainable management. While there are many opportunities available to water Continued on page 66

64 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal



for the latest updates on classes May

3-7......... Water Distribution Level II................... Deltona.................. $325 6..... Reclaimed Water C 1-day........................ Deltona.................. $125/155 6..... Reclaimed Water B 1-day........................ Deltona.................. $125/155 10-13 ..... Backflow Tester*....................................... St. Petersburg........ $375/405 24-27..... Wastewater Collection A......................... Deltona.................. $325 24-27 ..... Water Distribution Level 1........................ Deltona.................. $325


7-11..... Water Distribution Level III...................... Deltona.................. $325 14-16..... Backflow Repair*...................................... Deltona.................. $275/305 28-30..... Backflow Repair*...................................... St. Petersburg........ $275/305


5-8..... Backflow Tester*....................................... St. Petersburg........ $375/405 12-16..... Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector.... Deltona.................. $350/380 19-23..... Wastewater Collection B......................... Deltona.................. $325 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Continued from page 64 utilities to be managed more sustainably, there is no perfect path to get there. Each water system has its own water resource needs, infrastructure issues, financial position, political issues, energy costs, and other challenges. This award views sustainability through a triple-bottom-line lens. This means winners will have achieved a balance of innovative and successful efforts in areas of economic, social, and environmental endeavors, such as responsible management of resources, protection of public health, meeting responsibilities to the community, and providing cost-effective services to ratepayers.

Donald R. Boyd Award The Donald R. Boyd Award acknowledges extraordinary personal service in the drinking water field. General criteria include valuable service that advances public understanding and awareness, water quality research, or more general contributions deserving of recognition. This award confers recognition to individuals who have made important contributions to the water industry, including as water system employees (regardless of AMWA membership), government officials, or private consultants. The award commemorates Donald R. Boyd, one of AMWA’s founding members and its first president.

President’s Award The AMWA President’s Award is presented to individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the improvement of water supply management. Eligibility for this award is limited to individuals currently or formerly representing AMWA member agencies, and it recognizes their efforts and dedication in the field of drinking water supply. Individuals nominated for this award must hold, or have held, a major position with a water supply agency, while actively participating as a member of AMWA.

About the Association An organization of the largest publicly owned drinking water systems in the United States, AMWA’s membership provides more than 156 million people—from Alaska to Puerto Rico—with safe drinking water. It’s the nation’s only policy-making organization solely for metropolitan drinking water suppliers. The association was formed in 1981 by a group of general managers of metropolitan water systems who wanted to

ensure that the issues of large publicly owned water suppliers would be represented in Washington. Member representatives to AMWA are the general managers and chief operating officers of these large water systems. The association represents the interests of these water systems by working with Congress and federal agencies to ensure that federal laws and regulations protect public health and are cost-effective. In the realm of utility management, AMWA provides programs, publications, and services to help water suppliers be more effective, efficient, and successful. Governed by a 22-member board of directors, AMWA represents all regions of the U.S. Committees on utility management, regulations, legislation, sustainability, and security provide the expertise to achieve the goals of water suppliers, including sustainable operations, regulations based on sound science, and cost-effective laws that support the safety and security of drinking water.

Contact Information For questions on award eligibility or to request an application form, contact Antoinette S Barber at 202-331-2820.

NEWS BEAT Continued from page 63 Algae Task Force appointed by DeSantis last year. DeSantis has pledged to spend $2.5 billion over four years to tackle Florida’s water problems, and lawmakers are expected to meet his demand for a $625 million, secondyear installment in the state budget now being finalized by the Legislature. The legislation approved by the Senate gives the governor more authority for appointing the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) secretary. It also shifts to FDEP (from the state’s health department regulation) oversight of the 2.7 million septic tanks throughout Florida. Tens of thousands of these tanks are old, breaking down, and leaking, causing nutrients to flow into waterways and springs, and adding to the algae woes. While conservation activists are unhappy with the legislation’s rules for agriculture, the industry would face a new regulation: Farmers would be required to keep fertilizer records and submit to inspections every two years by state agriculture department officials to ensure that they’re complying with best management practices.


Environmental groups have filed suit in federal court to undo a recent decision by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that handed Florida officials primary regulatory authority over the state’s wetlands. The groups contend that the decision could further destroy the state’s dwindling inventory of marshes, swamps, and other sensitive ecosystems that now account for a fifth of the country’s remaining wetlands. In their lawsuit filed in U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C., the groups assert that EPA’s decision would allow developers in Florida to get projects fast-tracked by avoiding the federal scrutiny that developments in other states get under a host of federal environmental laws. “The EPA is lowering the bar to allow a state, for the first time, to run the federal wetlands program without meeting federal standards,” said Tania Galloni, Earthjustice managing attorney for Florida. “Developers have called this the ‘holy grail’ because it would make it easier, faster, and cheaper for them to get permits for big projects with less oversight and accountability for environmental impacts.”

66 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida had about 20 million acres of wetlands when it was granted statehood in 1845. By 1996, the state had lost nearly half of that because of dredging, draining, and filling. The state’s population growth has spawned a boom in development, which has prompted much of that destruction. Among the state’s most prized environmental jewels is the Florida Everglades, which is currently the focus of a massive restoration project costing billions of dollars to undo decades of damage, including the draining of huge swaths of its marshes. Wetlands serve a key role in the ecosystem, including helping to maintain water quality and absorb flood waters. Florida’s request to gain sole permitting authority was launched under the administration of Gov. Rick Scott, now a U.S. senator, who said that EPA’s action does away with “duplicative rules on the state and federal levels” that, he said, “were a waste of taxpayer dollars, and created confusion for everyone involved.” Gov. Ron DeSantis took on that mantle and formally petitioned the federal government to transfer that authority. Florida became the third state to gain broader permitting authority Continued on page 68

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include:

Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Foreman, Crew Leader, Equipment Operator, Service Worker, Treatment Plant Operator. Apply at www.titusville.com

UTILITY SYSTEM ENGINEER SANFORD, FL. As a Utility Systems Engineer, you will be under administrative direction, the purpose of the position is to conduct professional engineering work to plan, coordinate and implement Utilities engineering services, manage the Utility Inspector division to ensure all utility inspections conform to and meet City, State and Federal codes and standards. In this classification you will perform at senior professional level, and are accountable for managing Utility projects in compliance with all applicable City/State/ federal codes and regulations, and according to all acceptable engineering practices. Work includes assisting the Public Works/ Utilities Director with rate studies, public relations functions, and special projects. Works with considerable independence, however confers with the Public Works/Utilities Director in unusual matters. MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering or closely related field; supplemented by five (5) years responsible technical experience in engineering, to include two (2) years project management experience in water and wastewater; and two (2) years’ experience with AutoCAD 2000 or higher and (GIS) ESRI ArcMap 9.X or higher or closely related experience. Must possess and maintain a valid Florida Driver’s License. Employee shall obtain the National Incident Management System ICS-100 Introduction to the Incident Command System and IS-700 National Incident Management System, An Introduction within six (6) months of employment. TO APPLY AND REVIEW THE FULL JOB DESCRIPTION: Visit our website at www.governmentjobs.com/careers/sanford BENEFITS Medical Insurance, Dental Insurance, Vision Insurance, Health Reimbursement Account, FRS Retirement Plan, Paid Time Off, Bereavement Leave, Paid Military Leave, Employee Assistance Program, Short Term Disability Insurance, Paid Employee Life Insurance (1 x annual salary), Paid Holidays, Paid Jury Duty, Protective Safety Equipment, Fitness Center, Wellness Center for members of City’s Health Insurance program, Wellness Incentive Program, Bi-Weekly Pay Checks, Direct Deposit, Employee Recognition Events, Free Flu Shot, Free Parking, Bi-Lingual Pay, Safety Incentive program and Supplemental Benefits.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2021


Laboratory Manager $68,809 - $96,822/yr. Utilities Electrician $56,038 - $78,851/yr. Utilities Compliance Coordinator $51,346 - $72,250/yr. Utilities Treatment Plant Operator or Trainee $48,408 - $68,114 or $43,907 - $61,782/yr. Utilities Mechanical Specialist $43,907 - $61,782/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.

City of Boynton Beach - Senior Engineer - Utilities

The City of Boynton Beach is seeking a Senior Engineer for our Utilities Department to perform engineering work for the development and review of public and utility infrastructure. The position is also responsible for managing design, bidding and construction services contracts with consulting engineers and contractors. Come







Water Treatment Operations Supervisor $23.05 - $38.27 Depending on Qualifications Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license required. The City of Melbourne is currently accepting applications for the position of Water Treatment Plant Operations Supervisor. To learn more and apply, please visit www.melbourneflorida.org


WATER AND WASTEWATER OPERATIONS FULL-TIME is seeking highly qualified candidates for: Job Title: Systems Analyst – SCADA Systems Closing Date/Time: Continuous Salary: $63,722.26 - $101,699.94 Annually Job Type: Full-time Location: Water and Wastewater Operations Division, 2555 W. Copans Road, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 Department: Public Works To view and apply for this position, please visit: www.broward.org/careers


Dual C Operators

https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/boyntonbeachfljobs/ 3033547/senior-engineer-utilities?pagetype=jobOpportunitiesJobs

IB AT UR SERVICE UR WATER QUALITY COMPANY, LLC is looking for dual C operators as a subcontractor in the Davenport, Plant City, Wimauma, Gibsonton and Ruskin areas. If you are interested please email me at isaac@ibaturserviceutility.com and call or text City of Flagler Beach Position Available me at (727) 643-8293. The City of Flagler Beach is currently accepting applications for a Wastewater Operator or Trainee. Please visit our website at www.cityofflaglerbeach.com for position details and how to apply. Position open until filled. EOE


The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

NEWS BEAT Continued from page 66 of wetlands under the federal Clean Water Act; Michigan and New Jersey had been granted similar authority decades ago. The lawsuit asserts that granting Florida greater authority over wetlands could “threaten to open the floodgates” for other states to seek similar authority. Environmentalists had hoped to delay the decision to allow the Biden administration to weigh in. Environmental groups have vowed legal challenges, arguing that the application was rushed and failed to take into account a host of issues, including the state’s ability to adequately perform the environmental

68 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

analysis that the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers and other federal agencies had conducted. Florida’s secretary of environmental protection, Noah Valenstein, had previously said the state would respect “the underpinnings and protections of law and the Clean Water Act” and would use his department’s local expertise to drive development decisions. “We are passionate about our resources in the state of Florida. Whenever we can have our team of scientists and permitters issue the permits that allow us to be in the driver’s seat, that’s what we want to do,” Valenstein said when EPA granted the state’s request for broader wetlands oversight. S


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 40

January 2016

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index American Ductile ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 AWWA Celebrates Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month �������������������������� 26 AWWA Virtual ACE21 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 69 Blue Planet ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 71 CEU Challenge ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 35 Data Flow ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 34 Ferguson ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 47 Florida Aquastore ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 FSAWWA 2020 FSAWWA Awards �������������������������������������������������������������������� 27 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Call for Papers �������������������������������������������� 22 FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference Exhibit Registration ������������������������������������� 23 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship Fund ��������������������������������������������������������� 24 FWPCOA Training ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 65 Gerber Pumps ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 9 Heyward ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 59 Hydro International ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 J&S Valve ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 Lakeside Construction ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Reiss Engineering ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51 Smith & Loveless ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 UF TREEO Center ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 Vaughn Nugent �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31 Vogelsang ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55 Water Treatment & Controls Technology �������������������������������������������������������� 27 Xylem ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43,72

70 May 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. C) perform an asset industry.

Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, Section 1. Perform Asset Inventories, “Since you cannot protect and secure what you do not know you have, identifying assets is the foundation of a cybersecurity risk management strategy and essential for prioritizing cyber defense.”

2. C) principle of least privilege.

Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, Section 4. Enforce User Access Controls, “By applying the principle of least privilege to a user account, only the absolute minimum permissions necessary to perform a required task are assigned. In other words, administrative or other privileged accounts are reserved for special use and are not to be logged in perpetually. Most malware operates with permissions of the logged-in user. By granting access and permissions based on roles and least privilege, malware has limited access to the resources it can compromise.”

3. A) Every person.

Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, Section 12. Tackle Insider Threats, “An insider threat is a people problem, not a technology problem; without people, there would be no problem. The bottom line is that every person represents a potential insider threat; however, not all insider threats are malicious. Many insider threats occur due to simple negligence, lacking intent or motive. A tired or distracted employee can make an honest mistake, or an employee who is unaware of a particular risk may not perceive how their actions could perpetuate a threat.”

4. B ) Industrial internet of things (IIoT)

Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, Section 14. Address All Smart Devices (IoT, IIoT, mobile, etc.), “While all connected devices need to be addressed, what is known as the industrial internet of things is of great concern to utilities. While IIoT brings convenience and efficiency to water/wastewater management; it is the antithesis of air-gapped industrial deployments. Organizations simply cannot afford to deploy IIoT now and secure later, if at all. The cybersecurity risks and challenges brought about by IIoT cannot be ignored and must be addressed in the initial planning phases.”

5. C) Governance and risk management

Per the American Water Works Association (AWWA) “Water Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Guidance,” under the section, Recommended Cybersecurity Practices and Improvement Projects, “Each practice category identified has numerous associated recommended controls and potential improvement projects. Some additional details on potential improvement projects are provided below: 1. Governance and Risk Management a. Develop a formal, written cybersecurity policy that addresses the specific operational needs of PCS and enterprise systems. b. Establish an enterprise risk management strategy that associates cybersecurity investments with enterprise business plans. c. Perform a vulnerability assessment (e.g., cybersecurity evaluation tool [CSET] or physical assessment)

on a regular basis. d. To aid in developing contingency plans, maintain current network asset inventory, baseline, “gold disk.” e. Develop and enforce hardware and software standards in order to limit number of system components. f. Develop standard specifications language that defines cybersecurity standards for inclusion in all procurement packages for PCS and enterprise systems.

6. D) Perform a risk assessment.

Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, Section 2. Assess Risks, “Risk assessments are instrumental in identifying security gaps and vulnerabilities. They are vital to prioritizing the application of controls and countermeasures to protect the organization. Once an asset inventory has been completed or updated, thorough and regular risk assessments must be conducted to identify and prioritize (or reprioritize) risk to key assets.”

7. A ) disconnect compromised computers from the network.

Per the EPA “Incident Action Checklist – Cybersecurity” under Actions to Respond to a Cyber Incident-Utility, “If possible, disconnect compromised computers from the network to isolate breached components and prevent further damage, such as the spreading of malware. Do not turn off or reboot systems; this preserves evidence and allows for an assessment to be performed.”

8. C) IT/business network

Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, Section 3. Minimize Control System Exposure, “As most compromises to ICS networks emanate from the IT/business network, it is vital to eliminate any unnecessary communication channels discovered between devices on the control system network and equipment on other networks. Any connections that remain need to be carefully evaluated, managed, and strengthened to reduce network vulnerabilities.”

9. B) firewall.

Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, Section 3. Minimize Control System Exposure, “A firewall is a software program or hardware device that filters inbound and outbound traffic between different parts of a network, or between a network and the internet.”

10. B) offboarding.

Per the WaterISAC 15 Cybersecurity Fundamentals, Section 4. Enforce User Access Controls, “Offboarding - To protect company assets from unauthorized access, physical and cyber access should be disabled as soon as it is no longer required. Terminated and voluntarily separated employees, vendors, contractors, and consultants should have access revoked as soon as possible. Likewise, employees transferring into new roles will likely need to have unnecessary access removed. A rigorous offboarding procedure should be established with human resources and contract managers, as well as information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) staff. The offboarding procedure should include an audit process to identify disabled and deleted accounts and to confirm appropriate access deprovisioning due to role transfers. The procedure should also incorporate a method to identify any shared accounts, like system administrator, development environment, application, and vendor accounts.”