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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

20 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration 21 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview 34 CEU Challenge 57 FWPCOA Training Calendar 61 TREEO Center Training

News and Features 4 Expectations for Infrastructure Investment Plummet Globally as COVID-19 Outbreak Shakes Confidence 15 Preparing for Software Implementation Success: Bay County’s Top Five Tips 16 Almost 40 Years After His Death, Humble Scientist Still Impacting Water Treatment 22 City of Stuart Public Works Department Implements Safety Incentive Program— Janine C. Wilde 40 Set Relevant and Realistic Goals With Employees to Improve Your Organization’s Success 42 Applications Open for 2020 “Utility of the Future Today” Recognition Program 44 AMWA Announces 2020 Management Recognition Awards 45 EPA Suspending Enforcement of Environmental Regulations Because of Coronavirus 48 WEF HQ Newsletter: Experts Share Advice on Continuity of Operations During Coronavirus Pandemic 58 Orientation and Onboarding: A Good Start for New Employees 60 WEF HQ Newsletter: Flush Wisely—Will Fowler 63 News Beat

Columns FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kowalski Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak C Factor—Kenneth Enlow Let’s Talk Safety: Achieve the Height of Safety When Climbing Elevated Water Tanks 46 FWRJ Reader Profile—Kevin G. Shropshire 56 FWEA Focus—Michael W. Sweeney 12 14 36 38

Departments 64 Classifieds 66 Display Advertiser Index

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Technical Articles 6 Minimize Your Footprint and Maintenance Headaches With Self-Cleaning Trench-Type Wet Well Design—Tarlton W. “Trooper” Smith II 24 Utilizing Nondestructive Testing for Large Ductile Iron Force Main and Air Release Valve Evaluation—Weston Haggen, Emily Staubus Williamson, Mark Burgess, Jeremy Waugh, Dan Glaser, and Joel Kelsey 50 Demystifying Intelligent Water: Realizing the Value of Change With Advanced Asset Management—Celine Hyer and Eric Bindler

Education and Training 18 FSAWWA Water Professionals Thank You 19 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers

Volume 71

ON THE COVER: One of eight secondary clarifiers at the South Cross Bayou Advanced Water Reclamation Facility. First built in 1962 as a 5-mgd trickling filter plant in central Pinellas County, it has evolved into a worldclass 33-mgd water resource recovery facility. (photo: Steve Soltau)

May 2020

Number 5

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Expectations for Infrastructure Investment Plummet Globally as COVID-19 Outbreak Shakes Confidence According to a new survey, a lack of infrastructure investment is driving pessimism around a post-virus economic recovery Despite the fact that social infrastructure and water projects—for both clean water and wastewater operations—are identified as top priorities for private and public sector entities from around the world, a new CG/LA Infrastructure survey shows that global industry leaders are not hopeful about an increase in infrastructure spending following the worldwide spread of the coronavirus. The new survey found that only 27 percent of respondents believe that infrastructure investment would increase or increase significantly, which is a drop from 71 percent when they were asked in a previous survey. Prior to the crisis, only 10 percent thought that infrastructure investment would decrease (7 percent), or decrease significantly (3 percent), but now, a majority (52 percent) believe that infrastructure investment will decline (34 percent) or decline significantly (18 percent). “The data show that the outbreak of COVID-19 cases worldwide has essentially put a halt to infrastructure investment globally,” said Norman Anderson, chair and chief executive officer of CG/LA Infrastructure. “It’s clear that more has to be done, whether it’s building more hospitals or schools, or other key projects delivering high-quality benefits, such as clean water and irrigation systems, particularly in developing countries. Given that infrastructure can be a driver of the global economic recovery, these results are obviously deeply troubling.” A critical theme emerging from the survey is that 82 percent of respondents view infrastructure as having a weak or average brand. Only 18 percent identified infrastructure as a strong brand, while the vast ma-


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

jority saw it as problematic or characterized by incompetence and chronic corruption, especially in developing countries. Overall, given the lack of public trust in the infrastructure brand, there is an urgent need to address emerging markets for infrastructure. Other findings include 28 percent of respondents who selected social infrastructure (i.e., new hospitals and schools) as their top priority, with 55 percent listing it as one of their top three priorities. Clean water was highlighted as the top priority by 14 percent, and was included as a high priority by 48 percent of respondents. Transit and highways (12 percent) and wastewater (11 percent) were other top areas cited as in need of investment. “As fears around the extent of a global recession increase, it’s important that the United States government and multilateral institutions understand the depth of this problem,” said Anderson. “Given this acute crisis, now is the time for leadership, development of an investment model that will allow local economies to recover, and real attention paid to the benefits that infrastructure brings to people—not just jobs, but health and a sense of confidence in the future.” The survey was conducted from March 19-30, with more than 13,000 global respondents in engineering and construction, finance, public sector, and technology fields. In a separate recent survey, 94 percent of U.S. infrastructure executives agreed that an infrastructure stimulus was critical for the country to emerge quickly from the current crisis, and they also believe that the U.S. should increase private infrastructure investment. S


Minimize Your Footprint and Maintenance Headaches With Self-Cleaning Trench-Type Wet Well Design Tarlton W. “Trooper” Smith II Tarlton W. “Trooper” Smith II, P.E., ENV SP, is principal/vice president at Freese and Nichols Inc. for the southeastern United States.

Trench-Type Wet Wells

Figure 1. Illustrative View of Kirkland Pump Station

Figure 2. ANSI/HI 9.8 Pump Intake Design (1998)


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

History Trench-type wet wells were invented by D.H. Caldwell in 1964. Subsequently, 27 wet wells of this configuration were constructed for Seattle Metro (present-day King County Department of Environmental Services) based on the prototypical Kirkland Pump Station (Figure 1). The Seattle Metro and Kirkland pump stations were observed to be more efficient compared to other station designs of the era, especially in regard to storage requirements and dewatering processes. The original designs were further improved by Dr. Robert Sanks, Ph.D., in the early 1990s, when he discovered that flow during pump down was much too slow (0.9 ft per second [ft/s] on average) for complete cleaning. As a result, the cleaning process only removed the majority of the recently deposited sludge layer and left a hardened 2in. sludge layer. Dr. Sanks began to test the effect of fluid velocity on the rate of grit movement with river sand to find the minimum velocity for effective sludge removal. He discovered that a minimum velocity of 5 ft/s was required to move sand at a practical rate. In addition, a 1:3.3 scale model of the Kirkland Pump Station demonstrated that, at its current flow rate, only a fraction of the sand was ejected at pump down equilibrium. Sanks, Jones, and Sweeney added a curved ramp from the inlet pipe invert to the trench floor, adjusted the last pump to a lower floor clearance at a quarter of its diameter, and inserted a baffle between the last pump and the wall. A Continued on page 8

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Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Continued from page 6 resulting high velocity produced a hydraulic jump that homogenized the sludge, which increased cleaning efficiency to 45 to 100 times the efficiency of the Kirkland model (Figure 1); however, even with the improvements, trench-type wet wells did not gain popularity until they were included in the second edition of Pumping Station Design and the ANSI/HI 9.8 Standard, Pump Intake Design, in 1998 (Figure 2). Since that time, a third edition of Pumping Station Design was released in 2008 and a new ANSI/HI 9.8 Standard was released in 2018.

Figure 3. Self-Cleaning Phases of a Trench-Type Wet Well

Application Trench-type wet wells have been found to be suitable for various design parameters, as shown in the case studies that follow. Wet pit and dry pit/wet pit with vertical turbine solids handling (VTSH), and submersible and/or nonclog centrifugal pumps are compatible with trench-type wet wells. They can also be applied to potable water, activated sludge, and raw wastewater operations. Potential problems could arise due to minimal storage capacity, increased depth, and clogging issues without the use of pumps; however, these wells are exceptional in creating a superb hydraulic environment for pump intakes, minimizing footprint size and floor area (reducing sludge accumulation), and reducing maintenance costs. Self-Cleaning Operation The self-cleaning cycle occurs at pump down (Figure 3). The cleaning system employs an upstream isolation gate (in most designs), which reduces influent flow. An ogee ramp, which causes water to cascade and create enough sweeping across the wet well bottom to keep any material suspended, provides a hydraulic jump that assists in moving massed sludge and scum to the pump farthest from the influent side. As the water level decreases, the far pump runs at full speed, increasing the scouring velocity and forcefully ejecting the solids.

Case Studies

Figure 4. Footprint of a Horizontal Nonclog Pump Centrifugal Pump Station (Wet Pit/Dry Pit)

Pump Station Type



Capital Cost, Three Pumping Units

Opinion of Probable Construction Cost

Horizontal Nonclog Centrifugal Pump Station (Wet Pit/Dry Pit)




$10.9 Million

Vertical Nonclog Centrifugal Pump Station (Wet Pit/Dry Pit)




$11.4 Million

VTSH Pump Station (Wet Pit)




$9.5 Million

VTSH Trench Type Wet Well




$8.5 Million

Figure 5. Pump Station Design Options


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Trinity River Authority Plant Design and construction of a selfcleaning, trench-type wet well at the Central Regional Wastewater System Treatment Plant of the Trinity River Authority (TRA) reduced its initial investment, reduced environmental impact, and, through its self-cleaning features, achieved significant operational efficiencies and long-term savings in maintenance costs. The TRA anticipated increased return activated sludge (RAS) flows at the plant, and a feasibility report recommended a horizontal, nonclog centrifugal pump station (wet pit/dry pit) for the site (Figure 4). Analysis of the proposed site in the preliminary design phase indicated a variety of conflicts between the recommended pump station and surrounding structures, pipelines, and utilities. The design team studied alternatives and determined that the horizontal configurations required resolution of the significant conflicts.

Opinions of probable construction costs were as high as $11.4 million. A wet pit configuration yielded probable construction costs of $9.5 million, but the design team saw an opportunity to reduce costs further, and after research, recommended a trench-type wet well design, which was bid and awarded for construction for $8.5 million (Figure 5). Complexity of the Project The complexity of this project was in fitting a 50-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) RAS pump station into a site shared by the following: S 84-in. primary clarifier effluent pipe S 60-in. final clarifier effluent pipe S Caustic soda storage facility S 2- to 12-in. utility pipes, including nonpotable water, drain pipes, etc. S Electrical duct banks S 12-ft-wide concrete roadway The team performed a site analysis and examined three pump station arrangements to determine their overall footprints. The wet pit yielded a smaller footprint and lower probable construction costs (Figure 6). The design team then investigated a trench-type well design, which required only an 18-ft internal width for the structure. While VTSH pumps are used primarily for raw wastewater applications, the team researched its use of a RAS application and found that the trench-type wet well would be a suitable environment for the pumps (Figure 7). Developing the Specifications The team used two modeling programs, UnifCrit 2.2 and Trench 2.0 (both available from Montana State University), to calculate the parameters used in developing specifications. The team designed the ogee ramp and flow splitter to lower frictional losses and conserve energy, maximizing the hydraulic jump for more mixing of settled solids in the incoming RAS flows. The flow splitter extends from the wet well entrance to beyond the second of three pumps to minimize flow vortices developed during the cleaning cycle. This design provided high velocity to the influent RAS, thereby conserving energy and creating a powerful hydraulic jump. Specifications called for 316 stainless steel for the flow splitter. The design team also created a hydrocone and vane for the third pump in the trench to eliminate surface vortices usually carried to the last pump (Figure 8). Continued on page 10

Figure 6. Footprint of a Vertical Turbine Solids Handling Pump Station (Wet Pit)

Figure 7. Footprint of a Vertical Turbine Solids Handling Trench-Type Wet Well (Wet Pit)

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Continued from page 9 Two antirotational baffle plates—one attached to the wall and the other attached to the pump—resist circulation of RAS behind the last pump.

Exceeding Client Needs The original opinion of probable construction costs, as recommended by the previous feasibility study, was $11.4 million for the vertical nonclog centrifugal pump station; however, with the application of the trench-type wet well, this construction cost

Figure 8. Hydrocone and Rear Vane Design in Pump Station 13B

was decreased to $8.5 million, with a savings of $2.9 million. This saved the client more than the consultant’s fee, which totaled $1.6 million. Future Value to the Engineering Profession This project has introduced many wastewater plant designers to a concept that can reduce construction costs for constricted sites and will continue to yield savings through its self-cleaning features. The design helped TRA avoid costly relocation of pipelines and structures, including concomitant permitting requirements and materials-disposal activities. Many plants across Florida face similar challenges. Presentations by the design team have familiarized other members of the profession with the concepts introduced here, and there are other such pump stations in design now, including a pump station at a nearby plant owned by the City of Dallas. The savings to TRA exceeded the engineering fee for this project, exemplifying the value of good engineering design. Dallas Water Utilities Central Wastewater Treatment Plant Trench-type wet wells were also utilized in the expansion of an existing 335-mgd wastewater treatment plant to a 425-mgd system in Dallas (Figure 9). The project involved the construction on an influent pump station, with the sewage coming from an upstream coarse screen. The pump station included six pumps (two at 1000 horsepower [HP] and four at 800 HP), with 42-in. diameter columns and 62-ft shafts, with a total of up to 20 to 80 mgd per pump. The preliminary design of a trench-type dry pump pit was considered, but the footprint savings of the trench-type VTSH pump station (Figure 10) proved to be far superior. City of Midlothian Water Treatment Plant Trench-type wet wells are also very effective in potable water treatment applications. To illustrate, the City of Midlothian utilized the trench-type wet well in the construction of a new water treatment plant (Figure 11). With a firm capacity of 9 mgd with three pumps, and an ultimate capacity for 18 mgd with five pumps, the city was able to expand its water system with minimum costs and footprint.

Figure 9. Layout for a Trench-Type Wet Well Dry Pit/Wet Pit Pump Station


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Fort Worth Lake Arlington Lift Station Although yet to be constructed, a lift station for raw sewage will be utilizing a trench-type wet well in the expansion of Lake Arlington’s collection system, which is in Fort

Worth, Texas. Portions of the existing wastewater collection system serving the Village Creek Wastewater Basin are at capacity, with some areas experiencing wet weather overflows. Increased conveyance capacity is necessary to handle projected growth within the basin, which also includes the wholesale customer cities of Burleson and Crowley, also in Texas. With the installation of a trench-type wet well and the use of variable frequency drives (VFDs), there is a reduction in the size of the site and maintenance costs, and an overall increase in efficiency is in the range of required flows. The lift station will have the ability to add peak-shaving storage and a parallel structure to increase capacity from 44 to 80 mgd in the future. Construction commenced in November 2019 and is scheduled to be completed by March 2022.

warranty, witness performance testing, firstyear contracted maintenance vibration monitoring, and a pump seminar to inform their clients of the design considerations. While this new design was a risk for the client, the biggest driver tipping the riskversus-benefit scale was the significant capital cost savings (up to $16 million for Dallas Water Utilities).

References Jones, G. M.; Sanks, R.L.; Tchobanogluous, G.; Bosserman, B. E., Eds. Pumping Station Design. 3rd ed.; Elsevier: Oxford, 2008. S

Optimal Conditions for Application Trench-type wet wells are optimal for projects with limited space, solids or grit problems, or maintenance issues. Before considering this design, it’s recommended to perform a cost-benefit analysis and a life cycle analysis, as well as reference and site visits to ease client and engineer concerns. In the TRA and Dallas Water Utilities plants, the clients were unfamiliar with the equipment and uneasy about the lack of comparable size installations in their areas. The project engineers provided an extended

Figure 10. Layout for a Trench-Type Wet Well Vertical Turbine Solids Handling Pump Wet Pit Pump Station

Figure 11. Section Views of Midlothian Water Treatment Plant Trench-Type Wet Well Pump Station

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020



FSAWWA Water Utility Council: Legislative Update Kim Kowalski. Chair, FSAWWA

he Florida Section (section) of the American Water Works Association Water Utility Council (WUC) membership ranges from small water utilities serving a few hundred customers to those serving over a million customers who, combined, provide drinking water to over nine million Florida residents. While WUC membership is separate from that of AWWA utility membership, it’s available to all utilities and associated companies with interest in legislative and regulatory issues.


What the Water Utility Council Does The WUC actively assists the section in meeting the challenges facing the water supply industry and provides a platform for water utilities to network and discuss common issues. A key element of the section's strategic plan is to increase its involvement, credibility, and effectiveness with legislators and regulatory agencies. To meet this element, the WUC continues to expand its advocacy efforts at both the state and federal levels by developing effective alliances with other organizations. Through these alliances, the WUC

develops legislative and regulatory policies to clearly define positions on specific issues related to drinking water utilities. The WUC’s continued success is a direct result of its members’ participation. Before each legislative session, the WUC holds a Tallahassee Fly-In to reinforce our presence as the water (utility) experts. The past session’s Fly-In was held last year on November 5-6. A WUC dinner meeting kicked off the event in the Old Capitol Senate Chambers! Members discussed current and anticipated legislation and other areas of concern, and were provided talking points and other information for their legislative visits. Our guest speaker was Chris Pettit, director of the Office of Agricultural Water Policy (and a former WUC member). On November 6, over 40 WUC members swarmed the Capitol building to meet various House and Senate members. Discussion topics included continued support (and a thank you) for alternative water supply (AWS) funding and State Revolving Funds (SRF), as well as additional water infrastructure funding. To increase accessibility, the WUC used a Senate room for meetings and we had one-on-one discussions in the members’ offices. A Drop Saver’s display was set up in the room to promote our water conservation education efforts. The WUC members also toured the current Senate chambers and attended several committee meetings. The Fly-In wrapped up with a “meet and greet” held at the Governor’s Club on Wednesday evening, which many legislators and their staff attended.

Florida State Capitol.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Current Legislative Session After laying the groundwork in November, the WUC ramped up our Legislative Committee activities as the 2020 Legislative session that began this year on January 14. As anticipated, many bills were introduced that had potential impacts to our members. The WUC held weekly Friday calls to review the previous week’s legislative activities, as well as strategize and discuss actions needed to address many bills (at one point, the WUC was tracking over 55 of them!). Let’s talk about what passed both the House and the Senate and will be presented to Gov. Ron DeSantis for signature: S First and foremost is the omnibus water quality bill, Senate Bill (SB) 712: Environmental Resource Management, which creates the Clean Waterways Act. While this bill mainly contains requirements that impact our counterparts on the wastewater side, it contains the following provisions relating to water utilities: • For the water management districts (WMDs) to submit consolidated annual reports to the Office of Economic and Demographic Research. • For the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), in coordination with the WMDs, to conduct a study on the bottled water industry. • Most significantly requires FDEP to initiate rule revisions for potable reuse based on the recommendations of the Potable Reuse Commission (PRC).

Old Senate Chambers of the Florida State Capitol.

Current Senate Chambers.

S House Bill (HB) 101: Public Construction, revises retainage amounts a public entity can withhold from each progress payment from 10 to 5 percent. S SB 178: Pubic Financing of Construction Projects, prohibits state-financed constructors from commencing construction of certain structures in coastal areas after a specified date without first taking certain steps regarding a sea level impact projection study. S HB 279: Local Government Public Construction Works, revises local government bid processes, as well as project cost analysis and reporting, and requires auditor general reviews. S HB 441: Public Procurement of Services, revises the maximum dollar amount for continuing contracts for construction projects from $2 million to $4 million. It also revises the term "continuing contract" to increase certain maximum dollar amounts for several professional disciplines from $200,000 to $500,000. S SB 538: Emergency Reporting, requires the state’s division of emergency management to create a list of reportable incidents and certain events. The bill also requires a political subdivision to report incidents on the list to the state watch office. Importantly, current water and wastewater utilities’ reporting requirements did not change in this bill. S HB 1091: Environmental Accountability, which mostly impacts wastewater utilities, increases most state environmental fines and revises penalty structures. The bill also encourages counties and municipalities to establish a sanitary sewer lateral inspection program by a specified date. The following bills did not make it through this year, but may appear again in 2021: S SB 1720: Florida Safe Drinking Water Act, which required FDEP to adopt and implement rules for statewide maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for per- and

FSAWWA Water Utility Council and staff in the Old Senate Chambers.

polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), Chromium-6, and 1,4-Dioxane. The FDEP was also required to set MCLs for “any other pollutants for which two or more states have set limits for or issued guidance on.” S SB 168: Drinking Water in Public Schools, focused on lead prevention in public schools’ drinking water with several provisions, including filter installation, primarily required for school boards and districts to implement. S HB 715: Reclaimed Water, which contained many of the final recommendations from PRC and also banned surface water discharges for many utilities across the state. Mandatory local government graywater implementation incentives were also included. S HB 147: Water Resources, required FDEP “to conduct a comprehensive and quantitative needs-based overview of this state’s water resources” including water and wastewater utility infrastructure needs. While these four bills (and their companions) did not pass, the Legislature passed a record $93.2 billion 2021 budget. The budget contains $40 million for AWS projects around the state and $25 million for water quality improvements. In addition, over $76 million was dispersed for local government water projects; however, at the time of this writing, Gov. DeSantis has not received the budget to begin his review. Potentially, some items could be vetoed. In addition, the current coronavirus crisis may require future budget modifications.

Water Utility Council Actions With AWWA Beyond Tallahassee activities, the WUC also tracks the federal government and Congress for important water-related regulatory and legislative issues. The AWWA D.C. office is critical to the water sector’s interests being

advocated on Capitol Hill and at related agencies, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The association’s efforts were especially important during EPA’s recent lead and copper revisions comment period. The WUC also provided comments to EPA to support AWWA’s comprehensive letter and add some Florida-specific topics. The association also hosts an annual Water Matters Fly-In, where delegates from its sections around the U.S. brief congressional members on important water issues, such as SRF dollars. Unfortunately, the 2020 Fly-In was cancelled due to the coronavirus; however, the WUC will still be engaged with D.C.-related actions, especially the EPA’s new efforts to develop MCLs for PFAS.

Water Utility Council Leadership The current WUC leadership is: S Chair - Kevin Carter, Broward County S Vice-Chair - Monica Autrey, Destin Water Users S Secretary/Treasurer - Tara Lamoureux, City of Casselberry S Past Chair and Legislative Chair - Lisa WilsonDavis, Boca Raton S Regulatory Chair - Kevin Moran, Hillsborough County

The WUC’s work would not be possible without the great support of the section and the excellent leadership of Peggy Guingona, its executive director. The WUC also thanks and recognizes the great work of our Tallahassee team: Joanna Bonfanti and Greg Munson of Gunster, and Mark Thomasson with Littlejohn, Mann & Associates. Please contact Kevin Carter, the WUC chair, at kcarter@broward.org if you have questions or comments. As always, thank you to all our volunteers; the section would not be where it is today without all of your hard work. Everyone stay safe and healthy! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Wellhead and Source Water Protection? power or to store substances used for treatment of potable water are allowed in a wellhead protection area.

Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62521, Wellhead Protection, a wellhead protection area is a radial setback distance around a potable water well to provide the most stringent protection measures of a groundwater source for the potable water well and includes the surface and subsurface area surrounding the well. What is the radial setback distance required? a. 50 feet b. 100 feet c. 200 feet d. 500 feet 2. Per FAC 62-521, new domestic wastewater treatment facilities constructed within a wellhead protection area shall be provided with Class I reliability and a. an approved risk management plan. b. an industrial pretreatment plan. c. Class AA biosolids treatment. d. flow equalization. 3. Per FAC 62-521, what type of reuse and landapplication projects are allowed in wellhead protection areas? a. All reuse and land-application projects are allowed in wellhead protection areas. b. No reuse or land-application projects are allowed in wellhead protection areas. c. Only new projects permitted under Part III of Chapter 62-610, FAC (slow-rate land application systems, public access areas, residential irrigation, and edible crops). d. Only new projects permitted under Part II (slow-rate land-application systems and restricted public access) and Part III of Chapter 62-610 FAC. 4. Per FAC 62-521, what type of new above ground and underground storage tanks are allowed to be constructed within a wellhead protection area? a. All storage tanks are allowed except for those containing hazardous wastes. b. All above ground storage tanks are allowed in wellhead protection areas. c. No underground storage tanks are allowed in a wellhead protection area. d. Storage tanks used to provide emergency


5. Per the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) wellhead protection website, which wells must have wellhead protection areas established? a. All wells in the state of Florida. b. All wells serving public water systems. c. All wells serving community and nontransient, noncommunity water systems. d. Wells serving community water systems only. 6. Per FAC 62-521, replacement of an existing underground storage tank system regulated under Chapter 62-761, F.A.C., within the same excavation, or addition of a new underground storage tank with other such tanks, is allowed provided that the replacement or new underground storage tank system is installed with a. alarms for leakage. b. a connection to existing supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. c. fiberglass construction. d. secondary containment. 7. Per FDEP’s wellhead protection website, the wellhead protection program is the foundation for SWAPP, which is the a. source water application planning program. b. source water assessment and protection program. c. surface water analysis and protection program. d. surface water assessment and protection program. 8. Per FDEP’s SWAPP website, four key steps are taken to assess public water systems: delineate the source protection area, inventory known or potential sources of contamination, determine the susceptibility of the water to the contaminants, and a. advise affected treatment facilities of potential problems. b. analyze samples from all potentially affected wells. c. notify the public about the threats identified in the contaminant source inventory.

May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

d. prepare reports of affected wells to utility managers. 9. Per FDEP’s SWAPP website, a multiple-barrier approach is used to protect drinking water; these barriers are risk prevention, risk management, risk monitoring and compliance, and individual action. As part of the risk management barrier, the first line of defense to reduce or eliminate contaminants in source water is the a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. b. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. c. individual. d. public water system. 10. Per FDEP’s SWAPP website, the best way to protect drinking water is to a. build additional and more-sophisticated treatment facilities. b. continuously monitor source water to detect contaminants. c. pass laws to prohibit water contamination. d. prevent contaminants from entering the source water. Answers on page 66 References used for this quiz: • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-521, Wellhead Protection • FAC 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application • FDEP’s Wellhead Protection website: https://floridadep.gov/water/source-drinkingwater/content/wellhead-protection • FDEP’s Source Water Assessment and Protection Program (SWAPP) website: https://fldep.dep.state.fl.us/swapp/

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

Preparing for Software Implementation Success: Bay County’s Top Five Tips Frank Coatney One of our local government peers was recently looking to make the move to mobile technology, and he reached out to get my thoughts and guidance. Our team at Bay County Utility Services implemented a new asset management system in August 2019, and that change—like most changes—was met with some understandable hesitancy.

In the Beginning Adjusting to a new way of doing things can be scary, and employees from this other community wanted to learn from our experience: S How did we get our crews on board with a new system and procedures? S How did we reduce friction in the adoption phase? S What went well? S What would we do differently? I knew exactly how they felt. Before the implementation of our new software, we wondered how it would be accepted here, too. Then again, we didn't have much to lose. In terms of paperwork and our day-to-day operations, things here were frankly awful. In the field and forgot your forms? It’s time to double back to the office and grab them. Is your task incomplete? It’s probably on a work order lost under a truck seat or floor mat. Luckily, I can look back on that period of time and laugh. I think of it as the “Stone Age” of our utility. Since implementing the new work and asset management technology, we’ve caught up to the high-tech era and then some. The smart use of apps, ArcGIS maps, and mobile devices has allowed us to accomplish so many things that just were not possible before—even though we now see how important they are to getting our jobs done right.

Software Execution Today, we can track the condition of the 21,000 water and sewer assets most important

to us: from mains, meters, and manholes to pumps, valves, and hydrants. We can zero in on maintenance costs with the same precision and speed it takes to send a text. We track our labor, equipment, and materials better than ever before. When you account for these efficiencies across our department—and across the calendar year—the savings in time, money, and everyday crew stress add up. We now know where we've been, where we want to be, and how to get there. Bay County's partnership with its software company has us well on our way to setting a shining standard we can be proud of. We've gone from collecting crumpled up forms to iPads and smartphones filled with comprehensive, real-time data, and that data will help us to develop benchmarks where we can look back at the year and review what we’ve done.

Tips to Share There's every reason to believe your municipality can benefit from our experience, especially when it comes to negotiating a smooth implementation that guarantees success. Here are some of Bay County's top tips and key takeaways I'd like to share: 1. Positivity, not penalty. Your crews need to know that they won't be punished if they can't perform well at first with their devices in the field. Instead, celebrate small wins, encourage them to stick with it, and prepare for just how good things are going to turn out. Once they realize you're not playing Big Brother (maybe the reliable older brother is more like it) they'll be eager to get involved. 2. Think like an architect. It’s all about laying a strong foundation. Cut corners and you’re left with a compromised, sinking structure. Know that you don’t have to go at it alone. Stepping up as a partner, our software provider gave us three trainings that separated out our wastewater, water treatment, and distribution technicians. In smaller groups, our employees completed

trial run-throughs on laptops, tablets, and cell phones. This personalized experience made all of us more comfortable with the change. 3. Access equals success. Make sure to have more of the right technology tools on hand than you think you’ll need. In Bay County, we ordered 20 iPads, thinking we'd have limited employee participation. Then to our surprise, everyone wanted to use them. There is a novelty aspect to this—everyone wants a new toy! It helps people adapt to the new way. Be ready for that positive response. 4. Personalize what you can. Simplify the onboarding process for your teams by clearing out the clutter. The software company worked one-on-one with our crews to personalize their system dashboards, task views, and more. Not only did this help crews adopt the new workflows faster, it also made them feel heard and that their ideas and experiences were valued. 5. You deserve a learning curve. While we expect to spend a few years getting fully acclimated, our team knows and expects that the change will streamline their work and yield better results. You have to crawl, walk, and then run, but if you plan for success and remain positive, you’ll be amazed at how quickly it all happens.

The Bottom Line Adopting new operations management technology has been an eye-opening experience for our workers, and open eyes allow us to see new opportunities to optimize, prioritize, and capitalize. Meanwhile, we're learning something new every day. Our crews remain pumped and excited. We're convinced Bay County and its residents are better off for it. I encourage your municipality to take the leap; you’ll be better off, too. Frank Coatney is asset and critical project manager for Bay County Utility Services in Panama City.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Almost 40 Years After His Death, Humble Scientist Still Impacting Water Treatment “He believed in AWWA and its mission his whole life,” she said. “The association stood for the same things he believed in: preservation of water and keeping our natural resources pure.”

Background Before Alvin Percy (A.P.) Black died in 1980 at age 84, he told his family that his crowning achievement would be dying with all of his teeth. “He just knew fluoride was so important for teeth,” said Betsy Black Latiff about her grandfather, who, among countless contributions to water research, advocated for adding fluoride to the water supply in the United States. “He wanted to continue doing research about fluoride’s impact on bones. He thought it would also strengthen bones if it helped teeth that much.”

Alvin Percy Black

A.P. Black Award The A.P. Black Award, one of the most prestigious research awards of the American Water Works Association (AWWA), is named in his honor. This award was

established in 1967 to recognize outstanding research contributions to water science and water supply rendered over an appreciable period of time. Black was the recipient of the first award.

Black in the laboratory.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Dr. Black was born in Blossom, Texas, on Aug. 30, 1895. He earned a bachelor of science degree at Southwestern University, completed graduate studies at Iowa State College and Harvard University, and received his Ph.D. in water chemistry from the University of Iowa. During World War I, he served in the Chemical Warfare Service; following that, he joined the faculty of the University of Florida in 1920 as assistant professor of chemistry. During his tenure there, Black wrote or coauthored hundreds of technical papers and earned national and international recognition in the field of water chemistry. Starting in 1935, he served as a consultant to numerous municipalities throughout the country. Black joined AWWA in 1929 and served as both national director and president in 1949. He also served as a member of the National Advisory Dental Research Council of the U.S. Public Health Service, and was appointed by the surgeon general of the United States as one of the original members of the Advisory Committee on Coagulant Aids in water treatment. Black also served as a national consultant to the Office of Saline Water of the Department of the Interior. But to his family, he was a humble, patient man, who loved teaching and researching. During the Great Depression, Black would hunt waterfowl in Paynes Prairie, returning to school with dozens of birds. He’d discreetly leave the game outside his office door for hungry students to take home, said Black’s grandson, Rusty Black. “I remember going to a conference with him, and people were attacking him about fluoride and telling him that he was poisoning people,” Betsy Black Latiff said. “This was during the McCarthy Era, and putting chemicals in your water was a pretty radical move for that time. But he knew the science and he believed in his research.”

Today, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers water fluoridation one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the 20th century. Betsy Black Latiff ’s brother, Rusty Black, remembers joining his grandfather one afternoon to collect Okefenokee Swamp water for coagulant and treatment testing. Usually, they brought glass jars, but this time they had something new: collapsible fivegallon jugs. They left a few bottles on shore and rowed out to collect samples. When they returned, the extra jugs were gone. The next week, he said, they learned that moonshiners had been arrested with their fancy new jars. “He thought that was pretty funny,” Rusty Black said. In addition to his career as a professor, Black worked as a chemist consultant for several different agencies. At one point, the U.S. Army hired Black to study the use of iodine for water purification. He would tie a pair of pantyhose full of iodine tablets to his grandson Rusty Black’s leg and have him swim around a motel swimming pool. Then he’d collect samples to gauge its efficiency. “My feet were orange after doing that,” Rusty Black said with a laugh. “I’d have duck feet.” Dr. Black was one of the original founders, in 1947, along with William B. Crow and Frederic A. Eidsness, of Black, Crow, and Eidsness, which became part of CH2M HILL in 1977.

She remembers a trip Charles Black took to the Soviet Union on behalf of the Nixon Administration to share ideas about water treatment. Her father wasn’t welcomed with open arms; instead he was met with blank, rehearsed answers. “They even found a bug in their room, listening to everything they said,” she recalled. Both A.P. and Charles Black dedicated their lives to supplying people with clean, reliable water service.

“I’m quite proud of them because they gave their hearts to something that would benefit all people,” Betsy Black Latiff said. “They were dedicated to what they believed in.” Reprinted with permission from American Water Works Association. Copyright© 2020. All rights reserved. (photos courtesy of the Black family) S

In His Father’s Footsteps Dr. Black shared his interest in water supply and treatment with his son, Charles Black. A civil engineer, with a Florida water supply facility named after him, Charles Black served as AWWA’s president in Charles Black 1971 and spent almost six decades in the water industry before his death in 1997. His daughter, Betsy Black Latiff, said he was concerned about keeping groundwater and natural springs clean, and he had an interest in desalination technology. He was an influential civil engineer in his own right, earning countless awards and recognition for his contributions to the field of water treatment. “He stood up for the things he believed in, especially water conservation,” Betsy Black Latiff said. “You can’t live without water. He just believed it could become very limited if we didn’t use it wisely.”

Black Industries building

A.P. Black (right)

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Water Professionals: We Appreciate Your Service AWWA wants to thank water professionals around the world JSVXLIMVLEVH[SVOWEGVMƤGI and dedication in providing safe and clean water during the Coronavirus pandemic.

Thank you for all that you do, now and always.

Call for Papers

Abstracts must be submitted by: Wednesday, July 15, 2020 To participate in an FSAWWA conference, the first step is submitting an abstract to be considered for a presentation at the conference. There is no guarantee that the paper you submit will be chosen, but if your paper is well thought-out and pertinent to the subject matter of the conference, then your chances of being selected go up. FSAWWA wishes to invite authors and experts in the field to submit abstracts on a variety of sustainability topics, including:

Abstract Submittal Abstracts will be accepted in WORD ONLY via email to: Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., Technical Program Chair at h2o_man@bellsouth.net Please attach a cover page to the abstract which includes the following information: a) Suggested Session Category

Potential Session Categories

b) Paper Title

01 Potable Reuse 02 Improving our Piping Systems 03 Innovations in Water Treatment

c) Names of Authors

04 05 06 07

Role of Membranes for the Future Tools for Assessing our Assets Total Water Solutions Financing the Future

08 Water Systems Resilience 09 Water Conservation

d) Name of Presenter(s) e) Main contact including name, title, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and email

“Best Paper� Competition Each year awards are presented to the best papers during the Fall Conference Business Luncheon.

Questions? Call 239-250-2423

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Exhibit Registration Accepting Exhibitor Registrations on or after June 1, 2020 www.fsawwa.org/2020exhibits

Standard Booth @ $800 Includes:

• 8-foot X 10-foot booth space • One (1) six-foot draped table • Backdrop • Side drapery • Two (2) chairs

• Company sign • Wastebasket • Two (2) exhibit staff registrations • Additional exhibit staff $50/each

Exhibit booth spaces can include heavy equipment, workshops, portable equipment and showrooms. Flammable materials are prohibited. No modifications will be made to the backdrops or sidewalls without approval from the Exhibits Chair.

Exhibit Schedule Monday, November 30 Set-up: 7:00am - 3:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Tuesday, December 1 Hall Open: 8:00 - 11:30am | 1:30 - 6:00pm Meet and Greet: 4:00 - 6:00pm

Wednesday, December 2 Hall Open: 8:00am - 12:00pm Tear Down: 1:00 - 6:00pm

No Refunds after September 1st

Online Registration is preferred or return form with payment to: Stacey Smith Wall, Register With EaseSM 3037 Golfview Drive, Vero Beach, FL 32960 Phone: (863) 325-0077 | Fax: (863) 325-0051

Sponsorship Levels Premier | $1500

Online Exhibitor registration at:

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth


Platinum | $850

No reservations accepted by phone.

Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2020hotel Host hotel is Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate.

15% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Gold | $600

10% discount on 8’x10’ booth

Silver | $400 For additional info on sponsorship levels and benefits, visit:


November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Please Note: All promotional activity other than product demonstrations must be approved by FSAWWA prior to the conference.


The Roy Likins Scholarship Fund

The FSAWWA Fall Conference brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, and students. Register and learn from the industry’s best through technical session, workshops, and exhibits. Network with water industry professionals. Over 160 exhibitors will give you first-hand information on the latest developments to help your utility take actions to implement Florida’s future.

Exhibitor Registration: Starts June 1, 2020 www.fsawwa.org/2020exhibits

Attendee Registration: Starts August 3, 2020 fsawwa.org/2020fallconference

For more information: fsawwa.org/2020fallconference Hotel Accommodations: fsawwa.org/2020hotel Host hotel is Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate.

Technical Sessions

• Potable Reuse • Improving our Piping Systems • Innovations in Water Treatment • Role of Membranes for the Future • Tools for Assessing our Assets • Financing the Future • Water Systems Resilience • Water Conservation Conference Highlights

• BBQ Challenge & Incoming Chair’s Reception

CHEER for Meter Madness!

Prep for HYDRANT Hysteria!

Let loose at the RODEO!

Join the Tapping FUN!

• Operator Events: Meter Madness Backhoe Rodeo Hydrant Hysteria Tapping Competition

• Young Professionals Events: Luncheon Water Bowl Fresh Ideas Poster Session

• Water for People’s Fundraising Events: Duck Race Exhibitor’s Raffle Fundraiser

Events Poker Tournament Monday, November 29, 2020 Starts at 9:00 pm

November 29 to December 3, 2020 Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate

Golf Tournament Thursday, December 3, 2020 8:00 am Shotgun start

City of Stuart Public Works Department Implements Safety Incentive Program Janine C. Wilde A safety incentive program had long been a goal of the City of Stuart public works department. The city, which is on the Treasure Coast and has a population of nearly 16,500, queried other municipalities of similar size about their safety programs. We prepared our findings and presenting them to the citywide safety committee. On Oct. 1, 2015, we implemented our very own safety incentive program.

Program Objective The objective of our program is to increase safety awareness among employees, encourage and promote the use of safe work practices, and reduce the number of avoidable accidents, incidents, and injuries. We kicked off the program by beginning a search for a unique slogan. We conducted a contest, with a gift card award of $250, which generated much participation, as well as a great deal of interest as to what the program was going to do for the safety of our valued employees. The winner of the gift card was named, and the start of the program began with the announcement of our slogan, Safety Is Priceless (S.I.P). We wanted to award our employees for being safe, and what better way than in the form of a gift card, allowing the employees to request a card of their choice. There’s an enormous

value when employees have a say in their award; they consider it a real treat!

Program Structure The structure of the program is as follows: S All full-time employees are eligible, with the exception of department heads. S Eligible employees must have no “avoidable” incidents or accidents, as well as work a minimum of 80 percent of their scheduled work hours. S Each incident and accident is reviewed quarterly by five committee members consisting of staff from the public works department. S There are four qualifying quarters each fiscal year. S Each qualifying full-time position was categorized by risk, which was determined by reviewing the workers compensation class code rankings, job descriptions, and primary work functions of the positions, with rewards as follows: • High risk - $100 gift card quarterly • Medium risk - $50 gift card quarterly • Low risk - $25 gift card quarterly S At the end of each incentive year, an employee who qualifies for all four quarters receives a day off with pay and a certificate presented at our annual awards celebration. The certificate is presented to each qualifying employee by the city manager.

Program Results We are currently in our fifth year of S.I.P., and although the number of incidents has had its ups and downs, we have seen a tremendous decrease in costs associated with these incidents. Not only have the property damage costs decreased, but our employee injury costs have also decreased, along with the number of “lost time” injuries. We are proud to announce that we have a success rate ranging from 85 to 94 percent quarterly! Here are some facts about the financial impacts of our program. Prior to implementation, we had our share of injuries, with just one of them resulting in excess of $526,000, and another incident resulting in a cost of $131,000. Since the start of S.I.P., our costs associated with injuries and incidents combined has come in as high as $64,000 to as low as $42,000. This is a noticeable decline in costs to the city, but most importantly, we have been able to improve safety awareness within the department and how our hard-working employee’s approach each task on the job. With the success of the program, we continue to receive comments from our employees: S “I thank the city for putting this program in place. Not only does it make me think twice, I love the extra spending money.” S “Thanks for keeping the safety program in place. No one likes to see anyone get hurt around here. I for one love it! Makes me stop and think!” S “I appreciate the effort the city puts in to keeping us safe.” We are fortunate to have the overwhelming support of not only our department heads, but that of the city manager, human resources director, and our commissioners. We will continue the program as long as our budget allows. We feel strongly that employees are worth every bit of the effort and the small costs associated with the incentives they receive. We want everyone to know that even a city of our size can make a difference as it relates to safety in the workplace!

Fourth annual Safety is Priceless award ceremony.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Janine C. Wilde is S.I.P. coordinator with City of Stuart. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020



Utilizing Nondestructive Testing for Large Ductile Iron Force Main and Air Release Valve Evaluation Weston Haggen, Emily Staubus Williamson, Mark Burgess, Jeremy Waugh, Dan Glaser, and Joel Kelsey hat could you be doing to stay one step ahead of your existing infrastructure as it approaches the end of its useful life? Pinellas County (county) has taken a proactive approach to evaluate its force mains and air release valves (ARVs) following the failure of a large force main. The suspected cause of failure was corrosion from buildup of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), resulting in the formation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and leading to corrosion and the eventual breakdown of the pipe’s structural characteristics. The county operates a manifolded wastewater force main system of many different sizes (ranging from 4 to 42 in. in di-


ameter) and materials in two separate service areas. The north wastewater service area transmits flow to the William E. Dunn Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) as shown (Figure 1) and the south wastewater service area transmits flow to the South Cross Bayou Advanced WRF (Figure 2). Reiss Engineering, along with the county, conducted an evaluation of multiple force mains and their associated ARVs in the north wastewater service area of the county utilizing various technologies. To evaluate the condition of the force mains and ARVs, the existing record information was compared to new field survey

Figure 1. North Wastewater Service Area


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Weston Haggen, P.E., is project manager; Emily Staubus Williamson, E.I., is project engineer; and Mark Burgess, P.E., BCEE, is a principal with Reiss Engineering Inc. in Tampa. Jeremy Waugh, P.E., ENV SP; Dan Glaser, P.E., ENV SP; and Joel Kelsey, P.E., are section managers with Pinellas County Utilities in Clearwater.

data, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and subsurface utility engineering data to prepare an updated profile to determine high points and other locations that could be subject to

Figure 2. South Wastewater Service Area

Figure 3. Pipe Corrosion

corrosion within the force mains. The current exterior condition and wall thickness of the force mains and ARVs were determined using ultrasonic thickness testing (UTT). At each UTT location, wall thickness was tested at targeted locations on the cross section of the pipe, with approximate angles of 0, 45, 90 (top of pipe), 135, and 180 degrees. The evaluations found that the existing ARVs are located at surveyed high points of the force main, but are undersized compared to current industry standards. Visual observations indicated various force main deficiencies, including corrosion on the exterior of the force main, ARV pipe saddles, ARV piping, isolation valves, ARV bodies, and interior of the concrete ARV vault. Wall thickness measurements were completed at numerous locations on one of the force mains assessed with three locations determined to be at a critical level based on the tested wall thickness. Recommendations were ultimately made by categorizing the wall thickness at the tested locations and identifying an action category (repair, replace, or retest), which corresponded with the remaining wall thickness. The county plans to continue using this method of pipeline assessment for all of its force mains and to continue testing vulnerable locations identified in initial assessments to determine if their condition further deteriorates.

Figure 4. Ground-Penetrating Radar Equipment

This article details the high-point determination, testing methods, testing results, and recommendations made after assessment, with the goal to prevent further failures from occurring.

Assessment Following Force Main Failure On Oct. 4, 2016, a 30-in. ductile iron (DI) force main located adjacent to a county pump station experienced a failure that caused a spill (Figure 3). The failure was believed to have been caused by a failed ARV that trapped H 2 S within the DI force main, causing internal pipe corrosion. The spill was quickly contained and temporary high-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping was used to bypass the failed section to allow for replacement of the force main. Due to the failure, the county wanted to evaluate additional portions of the transmission main for similar potential issues caused by H 2 S. This assessment utilized GPR and test holes to determine the horizontal and vertical profiles of the force main to identify high points. SmartBall, an inspection tool from Pure Technologies, was used to identify the presence of any gas pockets or leaks, which indicates locations that are vulnerable to corrosion, and UTT to identify the extent of any corrosion of the pipe wall.

Initial Force Main and Profile Determination Force main assessments included a condensed vertical profile of the force main that was created initially using record and geographic information sustem (GIS) information provided by the county. A utility designation was completed along the force main to determine the alignment. The GPR was based on the initial condensed profile and was used to determine the depth of cover over the force main (Figure 4). A topographic survey was completed to collect the latitude, longitude, and force main depth. The high points of the force main were confirmed using GPR, air lancing (a thin tube with compressed air), and test holes. One of the primary factors for corrosion is the production and accumulation of H 2 S, which is known to collect and become entrapped at high points in piping networks. The ARVs are typically placed at the highest points in a piping network to release the air at these locations; however, other incremental high points within the system can collect air and become susceptible to corrosion. The GPR works by sending pulses of energy into the earth and reading the strength and the time it takes for a signal to be reflected back to the transmitter. Reflections Continued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Figure 5. Force Main Profile

Continued from page 25 are produced whenever pulses encounter material with different electrical conduction properties; the strength of the reflection helps to identify the material below the surface. Metals reflect completely and do not allow any amount of signal to pass through, thus helping to identify the force main location. The time it takes to send the pulse and receive back a full reflection can also be used to approximate the depth at which the force main is located. The GPR was performed at approximately 500-ft intervals along the project route to determine the force main profile. Additionally, the top-of-pipe elevation of the force main upstream and downstream at each ARV location was obtained. After the maintenance of traffic or lane closures was coordinated as required, air lancing was completed at approximately 1,000-ft intervals along the force main. If the air lancing location was within the road, the asphalt testhole procedure was used. The surveyed field data were used to supplement the GPR data collected to better identify high points (or high segments of pipe) that could be subject to higher risk of internal corrosion, and to identify locations where minimal earth cover and surface improvements indicate that the pipe was easily excavated and exposed for inspection and UTT (Figure 5).

Gas Pocket and Leak Detection

Figure 6. Gas Pocket Determination


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The inspection tool used is a free-swimming gas pocket and leak detection device, which is inserted into a force main using a check valve or tap and is retrieved downstream of the insertion point, typically where the force main discharges to a gravity system or treatment facility (Figure 6). When traveling in a force main, the tool uses acoustic technology to detect anomalous acoustic activities associated with leaks or pockets of trapped gas in pressurized mains and requires a velocity of 1 to 4 ft per second (ft/s). The investigation was utilized following the failure of the Penn Avenue to Dunn WRF force main, which resulted in a spill to quickly identify the existence of other potentially damaging gas pockets or leaks that may cause conditions that lead to corrosion and eventual breakdown of the pipe’s structural characteristics. The tool was inserted at two locations via check valve at Pump Station 326 and Pump Station 300 on consecutive days and was retrieved at the Dunn WRF’s headworks structure on both days. Continued on page 28



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Figure 7. Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

Continued from page 26 No leaks were detected during inspection. Eleven total gas pockets were detected and ranged in lengths of 15 to 100 ft. One gas pocket was located in the 24-in. force main, six gas pockets were located in the 42-in. force main, and other gas pockets were located in the 30-in. HDPE temporary force main bypass. By locating the gas pockets, the pipe wall thickness could be tested using UTT to determine if the gas pockets have caused pipe wall corrosion.

Ultrasonic Thickness Testing The UTT is a nondestructive form of materials testing most commonly used to measure thickness and identify corrosion in various metals. The ultrasonic technology measures and displays the thickness of the metallic portion of the pipe, as well as its coating, using a “single backwall echo.� An average/minimum mode setting on the ultrasonic equipment saves the average or minimum of several successive thickness measurements, and an overall pipe thickness is calculated based on these results. To determine the extent of the corrosion, field investigations using nondestructive ultrasonic testing were performed at various locations along the project corridor (Figure 7). Initially, the overall condition of the pipe was visually inspected near the ARVs to determine the exterior condition of the force main and to identify the feasibility for UTT along the force main corridor.


Figure 8. Ultrasonic Thickness Testing Results

At each test location, ultrasonic readings are conducted at the top of the pipe and along an array of angles located on a cross section of the pipe, with approximate angles of 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 degrees, respectively (the top of the pipe being 90 degrees). An average thickness is obtained from the three measurements per position, and the lowest average thickness was used to measure the percent remaining based on DI pipe thickness class. In order to accurately calculate the quantity (or percentage) of pipe wall remaining at the test location, the original thickness of the pipe must be known. Since the original installed DI pipe classes (and thickness) are unknown, a DI pipe thickness of Class 54 (ANSI/AWWA Standard C151/A21.51) was assumed based on UTT results and prior studies. Remaining thickness was also compared to ANSI/AWWA Standard C150/A21.50, with standard thickness for pressure classes. This defined the minimum thickness required to meet a specific pressure class. The results of all assessments are shown in Figure 8 and detailed further. Penn Avenue to Dunn Water Reclamation Facility Force Main For the Penn Avenue to Dunn WRF force main assessment, approximently 14,500 lin ft (LF), which is shown in light blue in Figure 8, of field ultrasonic testing locations were selected based on the location of gas pockets, as well as based upon visual inspection of ARVs on the force main to evaluate the exte-

May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

rior condition of the force main. High-point locations were also identified and influenced the final selection of the UTT. The northernmost 42-in.-diameter portion of the force main was not evaluated due to concern that it was not in adequate condition to perform the testing without causing undue stress, which could cause a failure. The county ultimately elected to replace the entire force main with a smaller pipe, since the main was oversized, which was confirmed by the velocity of the inspection tool. After eliminating the 42-in. main from the UTT assessment, 13 locations were selected as follows: S Two locations on the 20-in. force main, both in ARV manholes. S Seven locations on the 24-in. force main, with four in ARV manholes and three requiring excavation. S Four locations on the 30-in. force main, all requiring excavation. 30-In. Keystone Road to Klosterman Road Force Main For the Keystone Road to Klosterman Road force main assessment (shown in green in Figure 8), approximently 30,525 LF of field ultrasonic testing locations were based on ARV locations and high points along the 30in. force main. Fifty-three UTT locations were selected based on analyses of the vertical profile as follows: S Fourteen ARV vaults were tested. Two ARVs locations were not tested: one could not be located, and the other one was on a

polyvinyl chloride (PVC) main adjacent to the 30-in. main. S Thirty locations, upstream and downstream of the ARV locations, were tested. Exact locations were selected based on a field investigation at each ARV and based on field obstructions. One UTT location was not tested due to soft sand, and excavations were unsuccessful at this location. S Nine additional locations were selected based on ARV ultrasonic testing readings and the survey profile results. The results confirmed that ARVs are located at all significant high points, and no additional high points were identified based on the GPR and air lacing spacing. Therefore, the nine additional UTT locations were strategically placed around four ARVs, with concerning wall thickness remaining.

24- and 30-In. East Lake Road Force Main For the East Lake Road force main assessment, approximently 16,000 LF of field ultrasonic testing locations were selected based on ARV locations and high points along the 24- and 30-in. force main on East Lake Road (shown in pink in Figure 8). Nineteen UTT locations were selected based on analyses of the vertical profile as follows: S Five ARV vaults were tested. This includes one ARV that was previously tested as part of the Keystone Road force main assessment. S Eight locations upstream and downstream of the ARV locations. S Seven additional locations are proposed to be tested based on record drawings and field survey results.

Assessment Results Penn to Dunn Water Reclamation Facility Force Main The force main assessment of the Penn Avenue to Dunn WRF force main used the tool technology to determine locations of trapped gas in combination with UTT to find the extent of corrosion at vulnerable locations, including high points and ARVs. The GPR and test holes showed that there are existing ARVs at all major high points on the force main. As previously discussed, UTT was not used on this force main due to concerns regarding the current integrity and possibilities of failure. Both ARVs on the 42-in. force main had excessive exterior corrosion within the manhole. All Continued on page 30

Table 1. Summary of Ultrasonic Thickness Testing: Penn Avenue to Dunn Water Reclamation Facility Force Main

20-in. Nominal Pressure 24- in. Nominal Thickness (in.) Class (psi) Thickness (in.) 0-50 51-100 101-150 151-250 >250

Figure 9. Wall Thickness Results

0.00-0.23 0.24-0.26 0.27-0.28 0.29-0.33 0.34-0.38

0.00-0.24 0.25-0.27 0.28-0.31 0.32-0.37 0.38-0.43

30- in. Nominal Thickness (in.) 0.00-0.27 0.27-0.30 0.31-0.34 0.35-0.42 0.43-0.49

% Wall Thickness Number of Remaining UTT 0-49% 0 50-55% 0 56-62% 0 63-76% 1 77-100% 12

Figure 10. Keystone Road Results

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Continued from page 29 UTT locations on the 20-, 24-, and 30-in. portion of the force main had remaining wall thicknesses above 70 percent, with a range of 0.379 to 0.590 in., indicating that they are in good condition (Figure 9). Table 1 indicates that 12 of the tested locations have a pressure rating of above 250 pounds per sq in. (psi). 30-In. Keystone Road to Klosterman Road Force Main The force main assessment provided the opportunity to evaluate locations vulnerable to corrosion. The original plan was amended as necessary through the duration of testing due to unfound ARVs and those located on mains adjacent to the subject 30-in. force main. The assessment found that all ARVs on the force main were 2-in. inlet ARVs, which

do not meet the current industry standards for the minimum size for a 30-in. ARV. The ARVs were located at all significant high points of the transmission main, and no additional high points were identified, based on the GPR and air lance spacing. The results of the UTT, shown on the map in Figure 10, show that three of the UTT locations are in critical condition, as the pipe section loss results in a pipe with a calculated (interpolated) pressure class of approximately 50 psi or less (0.153- to 0.239-in. remaining thickness) detailed in Figures 11 and 12. Five of the UTT locations are in a calculated pressure class between 101 and 150 psi (0.313- to 0.327-in. remaining thickness). Twenty-nine of the UTT locations are in a calculated pressure class between 151 and 250 psi, and the remaining UTT locations are in a pressure

24- and 30-In. East Lake Road Force Main The third force main assessment, currently underway on the 24- and 30-in. force mains on East Lake Road (Figure 13), connects upstream to the previously assessed section of the 30-in. force main. The force main has five ARVs, with the northernmost ARV tested with the previous project. The same previously used methodology for force main profile determination and high-point elevation identification was utilized for the assessment. This profile determination was hindered by the presence of an Continued on page 32


class greater than 250 psi, as summarized in Table 2. The pressure class was determined from the remaining wall thickness compared to ANSI/AWWA Standard C150/A21.50.

Figure 11. East Klosterman Road Results Figure 12. Disston Avenue Results

Table 2. Summary of Ultrasonic Thickness Testing: Keystone Road to Klosterman Road Force Main

Nominal Thickness (in.) 0.00 - 0.27 0.28 - 0.30 0.31 - 0.34 0.35 - 0.42 0.43 - 0.49

Pressure Class (psi) 0-50 51-100 101-150 151-250 >250

% Wall Thickness Remaining 0-49% 50-55% 56-62% 63-76% 77-100%

Number of UTT 3 0 5 29 16

Figure 13. East Lake Road Results


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 30 unusually high groundwater table for the time of year (January/February 2019), which experienced record amounts of rain for these two months. The corridor where the force main is located is within swampy areas. Survey crews experienced difficulty locating the force main depth due to the groundwater levels, affecting GPR readings. Additionally, survey crews experienced trouble during test-hole excavation to visually confirm force main depth due to the groundwater levels. During the excavation activities, a small submersible pump was placed inside the excavated hole to pump out excess water. The submersible pump would only allow for the

excavated pit to remain dry for less than a minute before soil would begin to cave in, and the water levels would rise faster than the sump pump was able to pump it out. Eight locations have been tested to date using the UTT procedure, including all five ARV locations and three additional locations selected using preliminary survey data of the force main elevation and record drawings provided by the county. Six of the eight locations had a good remaining wall thickness and a pressure rating of above 300 psi, and one of the locations had a pressure rating of 250 to 300 psi (Table 3). One location (specifically at an ARV) had low readings, with a remaining wall thickness of less than 50 percent

and a pressure rating of less than 100 psi. This location will have additional testing performed upstream and downstream of the ARV to determine the extent of any corrosion beyond the initially tested location. If the extent of corrosion is large, replacement of the section of pipe will be recommended.

Recommendations Made Following Assessments

After the assessments, the following recommendations were made based on the information obtained, indicating that some sections of the force main piping do not have adequate pipe wall thickness. 1. Existing ARVs within the county’s force main network Table 3. Summary of Ultrasonic Thickness Testing: East Lake Road Force Main should be assessed based on their working condition, and repaired or replaced to enNominal Thickness Pressure Class % Wall Thickness Number of sure proper function and re(in.) (psi) Remaining UTT lease of entrapped air. 0.00 - 0.27 0-50 0-49% 1 2. The 42-in. portion of the Penn 0.28 - 0.30 51-100 50-55% 0 Avenue to Dunn WRF force main, which was untested with 0.31 - 0.34 101-150 56-62% 0 UTT, was recommended for 0.35 - 0.42 151-250 63-76% 0 replacement based on its con0.43 - 0.49 >250 77-100% 7 dition following completion of the initial study and was ultimately replaced. 3. The UTT locations, which were limited by high groundwater, should be de  watered and inspected during the dry season. 4. The force main sections with critical UTT results along East Klosterman Road and South Disston Avenue (Figures 14 and 15) should be evaluated for immediate repair or replacement, with approximately 40 LF for each pipe section. Figure 14. Klosterman Rd Results 5. The remaining UTT locations should be monitored Figure 15. Disston Avenue Results based on the information in Table 4 to confirm that the locations tested in this projTable 4. Summary of Action for Three Assessed Force Mains ect are not degrading. The county sanitary model Nominal Thickness Pressure Class % Wall Thickness Number of should be reviewed to deter(in.) (psi) Remaining UTT mine the working and surge pressures that are likely to 0.00 - 0.27 0-50 0-49% 1 occur at the locations evalu0.28 - 0.30 51-100 50-55% 0 ated during this study, and 0.31 - 0.34 101-150 56-62% 0 the results compared to the 0.35 - 0.42 151-250 63-76% 0 equivalent pressure ratings 0.43 - 0.49 >250 77-100% 7 set forth herein.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

6. Additionally, ARVs should be assessed based on the size of the force main and upsized, where appropriate, to preempt excessive air entrapment, which is the primary source of internal corrosion within DI piping. Over the past few years, numerous municipalities, including the county, have changed their standards regarding the sizing of ARVs, and it’s generally no longer typical to use only a 2-in. ARV. The ARVs are now sized based on the diameter of the force main, since the potential air pocket that can form within the crown of the piping is typically larger on these large-diameter force mains.

Replacement of Pipe at Locations With Reduced Wall Thickness Remaining As previously discussed, it was originally recommended that the 42-in. force main flowing to Dunn WRF was in poor condition and vulnerable to failure. The county has recently completed a project that sliplined the original 42-in. force main to rehabilitate and replace the main using the original pipe. Following the assessment of the 30-in. force main, the county immediately moved to initiate the design to replace two sections with increased wall deterioration (at East Klosterman Road and South Disston Avenue as previously recommended), in addition to redesigning five other locations to upsize the saddle and ARV, and in addition to relocating the ARV to be above ground. The county’s updated standard, shown in Figure 16, requires the tee/saddle of the mounted ARV to be half the nominal size of the force main it's located on (i.e., a 30-in. force main would require at least a 16-in. saddle for an ARV). This upsized tee, as compared to previous standards, will allow for air to be captured (as much as possible) in the ARV infrastructure and exit, rather than potentially moving past it. The county’s updated standard also requires that additional valving be incorporated, with a valve being located on the saddle of the force main, prior to the offset elbow and at the base of the inlet. The county’s general maintenance division additionally wanted to relocate all ARVs above ground, where possible, to allow for ease of access for maintenance activities. Due to the location of the force main within the roadway, above ground ARVs are offset using 4-in. piping. Some adjustment changes were made to the county standard due to the shallow elevation of the force main at high points.

Figure 16. New Standard Air Release Valve Detail

Construction of these replacements took place in 2019. Careful planning and coordination with the county will be necessary for the work, as the large saddles require tapping by a specialty contractor. Wet tapping may be utilized to prevent any interruptions to service, in addition to any necessary bypassing for the construction to replace the deteriorated pipe sections.

Conclusions and Recommendations

tions where pressure rating was reduced to less than 50 psi. The county plans on continuing the use of this method of pipeline assessment for all of its force mains to address—and continue to test—vulnerable locations identified in initial assessments to determine if deterioration continues. This method may allow the county to plan rehabilitations in a timely manner and always remain ahead of the curve in knowing the condition of its infrastructure. S

The process used to assess the force mains, inclusive of force main profile determination, high-point identification, gas pocket identification, and UTT testing for pipe wall corrosion quantification, has been successful through multiple different force main assessments in identifying vulnerable areas of the force main. The county was able to determine the condition of multiple force mains and immediately address critical locaFlorida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Operations and Utility Management. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 334203119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Utilizing Nondestructive Testing for Large Ductile Iron Force Main and Air Release Valve Evaluation

Minimize Your Footprint and Maintenance Headaches With SelfCleaning Trench-Type Wet Well Design

Weston Haggen, Emily Staubus Williamson, Mark Burgess, Jeremy Waugh, Dan Glaser, and Matthew Woodham

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW02015365)

Trooper Smith

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW02015366)

1. One of the primary factors for internal pipeline corrosion is the accumulation of ________ gas in pipeline high points. a. hydrogen sulfide b. oxygen c. nitrogen d. carbon dioxide 2. The study identified as critical those pipeline sections where ultrasonic wall thickness testing indicated a pressure rating of less than _____ pounds per sq in. (psi). a. 25 b. 50 c. 100 d. 150 3. Following an assessment, the county revised its air release construction standard requiring the force main saddle connection to be a. 2 in. b. 4 in. c. stainless steel. d. half the diameter of the force main. 4. In order to properly function, the acoustic SmartBall requires a velocity of ____ ft per second (ft/s). a. 1 to 4 b. 4 to 6 c. 6 to 8 d. 8 to 10 5. Which of the following investigative techniques was not used on the northernmost section of the 42-in. Penn Avenue to Dunn Water Reclamation Facility to avoid stressing the pipe? a. SmartBall b. Test holes c. Ultrasonic thickness testing d. Ground-penetrating radar


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. In the 1990s, researchers determined that a minimum velocity of ____ ft per second (ft/s) is required to move sand at a practical rate. a. 1 b. 2 c. 2.5 d. 5 2. In a typical design a(n) ____________ provides a hydraulic jump that assists in moving debris to the pump farthest from the influent side. a. Parshall flume b. vortex c. ogee ramp d. siphon 3. For which of the following challenges is the use of a trench-type wet well not specifically identified as optimal? a. Heavy grit b. Limited space c. High discharge pressure required d. High solids 4. Which of the following measures was not applied in the Trinity Water Authority project to eliminate surface vortices that might be carried to the last pump? a. Variable frequency drives b. Baffles c. Hydrocone d. Vane 5. Which of the following is identified as a potential shortcoming of trench-type wells? a. Minimal storage capacity b. Pump size limitation c. Odor d. Maintenance access


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Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020



Preparing for a Pandemic Kenneth Enlow President, FWPCOA

reetings, everyone. I hope that you all are doing fine in light of the coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic. Our industry is the epitome of what resilience is. We are without a doubt “essential,” and I personally thank all of our members and colleagues for their dedication and effort to maintain our systems and be there to ensure the health and welfare of the citizens of Florida.



We, as an industry, are very familiar with preparing for disasters. We have developed emergency action plans over the years for many disasters, such as hurricanes, fires, floods, chemical spills or releases, sewer overflows, bomb threats, terrorist attacks, etc. If you recall, most of these were updated or added to our emergency action plans (EAPs) after going through a disaster, or from others going through a disaster. That being said, if you don’t already have pandemics covered in your EAP, you soon will. In this C Factor I am going to talk briefly about some of the challenges we have faced at my facility. Many of these are common to the ones you have been dealing with as well.

May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Emergency Action Planning for Pandemics Many questions came up as our company started dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic: S How many operators/staff members do you currently have? S What are the minimum staffing requirements per the Florida Administrative Code? S How are you going to staff each shift? S What is considered “nonessential” work that can be done from home? S How do you manage virus exposure to staff at work? S Are you going to shelter in place at your facilities? S Do you have sufficient food and water, and for how long?

S Do you have sufficient basic hygiene and cleaning supplies? S How do you protect your employees at work from outside contact, such as vendors, chemical delivery drivers, mail delivery, etc.? S How do you protect your employees who work with the public, like meter readers, distribution and collection workers, and other customer service people who are in contact with the public? S Can you maintain chemical inventories, and are there chemical delivery delays associated with possible reductions in the workforce due to the pandemic? S Are you able to get the necessary maintenance equipment and supplies, and do you need to redefine your critical spare parts inventory? S How and what do you communicate to the public about their bill payments, the safety of their water supply, or the protection of wastewater infrastructure from flushing disposal wipes and other products into our collection systems? This list is probably the tip of the iceberg. There is so much more to evaluate as we deal with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our industry. I expect that soon we will be working on our EAPs using our “lessons learned” from the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, and because we are resilient, we will be much better prepared the next time.

Training Options The coronavirus has also created a huge impact on FWPCOA training efforts. The Spring State Short School that was to be held March 16-20 was canceled due to COVID-19. The FWPCOA is committed to providing training to our members. We have already signed a contract with the Indian River State College for the Fall State Short School, which has been scheduled for August 10-14. The association also has many other training options through our Online Training Institute. You can access the online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org. and do the following: S Select the Online Institute button at the upper righthand area of the home page to open the login page. S Scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the list of the many training programs offered. S Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work!S S Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Achieve the Height of Safety When Climbing Elevated Water Tanks he dangers of climbing elevated water storage structures should never be underestimated. Utility staff often must climb structures higher than 12 feet when climbing towers to check paint, look for rust or bullet damage, and inspect hatches, locks, and beacon lights. Without protection, a worker can fall several stories. Even if a worker is roped in, a fall in a safety harness can cause a loss of circulation or whiplash. Injury or sudden illness could also incapacitate an employee while he or she is working on a tower, requiring an emergency evacuation.


Safety Training A qualified high-angle safety trainer can teach utility staff proper climbing techniques and how to use safety climbing ropes and harnesses, as well as how to correctly handle a

fall. Some water structures have fall-arrest rails on their ladders, so a climber merely attaches a rail-riding “slider” device into a D-ring on the harness that’s worn for protection. On older structures, however, climbers manually snaphook lanyards onto the ladder’s side rails—not its rungs—and maintain three points of contact (both hands and one alternating foot) while moving. The transition from ladder onto an overhead catwalk, or from a ladder through a hatch (and vice versa), are the most dangerous parts of any climb. Climbers should always attach a fall-arrest lanyard onto good, thick steel before making a transition, or while working topside around an open hatch or near the edge. The physical exertion involved in utilitytower climbing should not be underestimated. For the average person in reasonably good condition, it can be a full-body workout—

especially if carrying an extra load, such as electrician’s tools attached to 15 or more pounds of harness and other personal protective equipment (PPE).

Climbing Procedures Standard operating procedures for climbing any elevated structure should include these safety guidelines: S Only personnel who have a legitimate need to climb and have completed basic climbing instruction with practical exercises are allowed to climb any water structure more than 12 feet high. S Climbers must inspect and then don proper fall-arrest equipment, including a full-body harness, double lanyards with one-hand operation, and an ascender/descender (slider) device if the structure is equipped with a fall-arrest rail in good working condition. S Hard hats must be worn on the ground, while climbing, at altitude, and while descending. S Climbers must never ascend a structure while onsite alone; climbers should always use the buddy system. At a minimum, one employee with a cellphone or radio must be stationed on the ground, with the climber in visual and/or shouting range. S If possible, climbers should also employ a buddy system of two or more trained personnel at altitude. Additionally, the Rope and Rescue School, which was created in 1998 to provide organizations and individuals with technical and up-to-date expertise in rope and rescue techniques (and whose motto is Knowledge = Safety), provides these tips to tower climbers: S Don’t be cocky or a showoff, or have a competitive attitude when working at heights.

The 2019 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY19. The code is good for the 2019 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S If you are tired, take a rest. Fatigued muscles don’t respond as quickly. S Do not work above people and do not let people work above you. S Warm up. You’ll feel stronger and lighter, protect yourself from injuries, and improve your aerobic threshold and general endurance. S Empty your pockets of possible objects that can hurt you or turn into projectiles. S Start hydrated and stay hydrated. S Stay 100 percent tied in while climbing, working in position, maneuvering around the tower, and descending.

Emergency Procedures

S New height requirement. Fall protection is required on ladders taller than (or that extend beyond) 24 feet. S Repair/replacement specification. As of Nov. 18, 2018, a personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system must be used to replace any damaged or nonfunctioning section, cage, or well previously installed on a fixed ladder. S New equipment specification. As of Nov. 19, 2018, cages are no longer considered compliant fall protection for newly installed ladders. To meet OSHA standards, a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system is required. S General industry notice and deadline. As of

Nov. 19, 2036, cages will no longer be accepted (and cannot be installed) as a form of fall protection, and all fixed ladders taller than (or that extend beyond) 24 feet high must use a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system. All general industry workplaces, including warehouses, utilities, retail, and manufacturing, will have some time to transition. If you already have a cage attached to a fixed ladder, OSHA will accept its use for the next 16 years. For more information about tank climbing safety go to the OSHA website on fall protection at www.osha.gov/SLTC/fallprotection. S

When an emergency arises, the groundsafety staffer or fellow climber is responsible for phoning 911. The emergency caller must: S Specify the address of the emergency. S Describe the nature of the problem. S Identify the urgent need for high-angle rescue and emergency medical services (EMS). If a climber gets into trouble and is incapacitated, the second person must not leave the structure until the stricken climber is down. The ground-safety staffer or fellow climber should provide rescue personnel with an approximate duration of time since the climber fell to help assess the medical effects of restricted blood circulation in the victim’s limbs from hanging in a full-body harness. If a climber slips and falls, and the fallarrest system is engaged, his or her body harness (and lanyard, too, if used) has been “shock loaded.” After the climber returns to the ground, the harness can no longer be worn and must be taken out of service, as specified by the PPE manufacturer.

Phaseout of Fixed Ladder Cages Under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) WalkingWorking Surfaces and Fall Protection Standard, requirements around fixed ladders are being redefined and cages are being phased out as acceptable fall protection for the general industry. Fixed ladders provide stability when ascending to an elevated work surface because they are fastened to a building or a secure surface. In the past, OSHA has required cages for ladders taller than 20 feet, but as of January 2017, fall protection is required on ladders taller than (or that extend beyond) 24 feet. Several of the important changes are as follows: Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Set Relevant and Realistic Goals With Employees to Improve Your Organization’s Success Supervisors often lack understanding of employee performance The primary goal of every business is success, which should be engraved in the minds of everyone in the company—from the executives down to every department manager and staff person. When this goal is shared, everyone does their best in order to achieve it. Without goals, the business will lose its sense of purpose and direction, and will also lose its focus on what it should be doing. One of the most commonly applied strategies in business to focus its employees is goal-setting, which is the development of an action plan designed to motivate and guide employees toward a unified purpose. In a nutshell, this means that it’s the act of setting goals for the employees that keeps the business from failing. When you look at it from a positive perspective, it’s basically just a part of their responsibilities that will ultimately lead to the company’s success. Through effective goal-setting, each employee is given the specific tasks that they need to achieve their goals, along with the corresponding timelines to be able to complete them. Since the goals are part of their everyday responsibilities, they should be set specifically for them, and when they’re achieved, it will cause a ripple effect in the entire company. With every process and procedure in the company interrelated, the failure of one is the failure of all. That’s why it’s important to give employees goals so that they can remain focused, determined, and improve their performance—and that of their coworkers.

Effective Employee Performance Performance is when an employee is


achieving a goal in a highly effective and efficient manner and when that goal is closely aligned with achieving the overall goals of an organization. A common problem for supervisors is having no clear, strong sense of whether their employees are performing at a high level. Employees can be very busy in their roles, but that doesn’t mean that they’re high-performing, especially if their roles are not directly contributing toward achieving the company’s overall goals. The first step toward solving this problem is to establish clear performance goals. Some people have a strong negative reaction toward setting goals because they fear them as “the law” that must be maintained and never broken. Some people fear they will never be able to achieve their goals, while others have disdain for them because they seem to take the heart and creativity out of their work.

Advantages of Using Performance Goals in the Workplace Despite the negative views that many have about goals, they hold certain strong advantages in the workplace. They can: 1. Provide clear direction to supervisors and employees. 2. Form a common frame of reference around which they can effectively communicate. 3. Clearly indicate success, and can cultivate a strong sense of fulfillment for those working toward achieving the goals. 4. Help clarify the specific expectations of the supervisor and employee.

May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Gaps in Employee Performance Goals can be useful for specifying expectations and for setting measurements of employee progress to fill four types of gaps: Performance Gaps These gaps are identified during the employee performance management process. Ideally, performance gaps are addressed by performance improvement plans developed by the organization. These plans are sometimes a last-ditch effort at helping a person to improve performance. Ideally, the performance problem is addressed through ongoing feedback and adjustments during regular one-on-one meetings. In these plans, goals are established to improve performance, and may include, for example, increased effort on the part of the employee, support from supervisors, and certain training and resources to assist in employee development. Dedicated employees can greatly appreciate having specific performance goals for them to achieve in order to keep their jobs, verify their competence to their supervisors, and accomplish overall professional development and growth. Growth Gaps These gaps are identified during career planning. Employees perceive certain areas of knowledge and skills that they would like to accomplish in order to qualify for certain future roles and positions. Employees often appreciate having clear-cut goals that mark what they need to do to advance in their careers.

Opportunity Gaps These gaps are identified when a sudden opportunity arises for the employee. If the person is highly interested in taking advantage of the opportunity, then he or she will appreciate knowing exactly what goals must be achieved. Growth gaps and opportunity gaps are very similar. Training Gaps These gaps are identified when hiring a new employee, during performance management planning, or career planning. The gaps are usually in areas of knowledge, skills, or abilities (competencies). Training plans can be designed with clear-cut training goals to give direction to the employee or trainer. Whatever the type of goal, it’s critical that the employees have strong ownership and commitment to achieving it.

Performance Goals Should Be SMARTER You can help ensure that goals are agreeable to supervisors and employees by ensuring that they are highly involved in identifying the goals. When setting goals with others, strive to

describe them as the acronym SMARTER. A goal, for instance, for a worker in finance would be as follows: S Specific - A goal to generate three types of financial statements, including cash flow, budget-versus-actual, and income statement. S Measurable - Be able to assess if the three types of statements were generated or not. S Achievable - The goal would be irrelevant if the person had no access to the financial information from which to generate the statements. S Relevant - The goal would not be useful if the organization has no plans to ever make decisions based on the financial statements. S Timely - The statements should be generated by a certain deadline, for example, in time for the board to review and approve the statements. S Extending capabilities - Ideally, the goal involves employees learning more than they already know about generating statements. S Rewarding - Ideally, the activities of generating the financial statements would be fulfilling for the person to accomplish. If goals seem insurmountable to the employee, then break them down into smaller goals, or subgoals or objectives.

Importance of Goal-Setting Failure to provide your employees with achievable goals can lead to losing focus on the right things to do in order to achieve the overall goals of the organization. Your employees may start prioritizing other tasks instead of those that will help the company achieve success. The right goals will help workers focus on and prioritize the specific tasks that are more relevant and important to the company goals. Those set for the employees will help keep them motivated, especially if there are rewards and incentives that come along with achieving them. Furthermore, setting goals for your employees will allow you to use the expertise of your employees to the fullest potential. The skills and knowledge that your employees have can be used for the benefit of the company and will greatly help its success. In addition to that, the goals will also harness and improve the capabilities of your employees, which can be used for their further development and the success of the company in the future. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Applications Open for 2020 “Utility of the Future Today” Recognition Program The Utility of the Future Today Recognition Program honors forward-thinking, innovative water utilities that are providing resilient valueadded service to communities, particularly in community engagement, watershed stewardship, and recovery of resources, such as water, energy, and nutrients. The application deadline is Friday, May 29. The program’s concept is being promoted as the water systems in the United States transform operations through innovation and technology. It’s a model for utilities of all sizes to achieve more-efficient operations, enhanced productivity, and long-term sustainability. Since the Utility of the Future concept was introduced in 2013, many utilities have successfully implemented new and creative programs to address local wastewater technical and community challenges. Now in its fifth year, the program seeks to reach deeply into the water sector to form and motivate groups of like-minded water utilities engaged in advancing resource efficiency and recovery, de-


veloping proactive relationships with stakeholders, and establishing resilient, sustainable, and livable communities. The recognition program, through the aggregation and sharing of utility advancements and experiences, enables participants across a broad continuum of capacities and capabilities to learn from each other and continually grow and sustain their efforts to be, and advance the concept of, the utility of the future. The program is a joint initiative led by the Water Environment Federation (WEF), National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA), Water Research Foundation (WRF) and WateReuse Association, with input from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Since 2016, 118 utilities have received recognition.

The program’s activity areas focus on the key building blocks of this industry transformation: S Recovery and new uses of a full range of resources. S Engagement as a leader in the full water cycle and broader social, economic, and environmental sustainability of the community. S Transformation of the internal utility culture in support of these innovations. S Engagement in the community and formation of partnerships necessary for success when operating outside of the traditional span of control of the utility.



Public and private water sector utilities of all sizes that can demonstrate achievement of the application requirements are encouraged to apply.

Honorees will be notified during the summer and recognized at the utility leaders event that will be held at WEFTEC 2020—WEF’s 93rd annual technical exhibition and conference— this October in New Orleans. Utilities receiving the recognition will also be recognized in Water Environment & Technology, the Federation’s flagship publication, and will receive a certificate and Utility of the Future flag for their organizations to proudly hang and fly. Applicants are not required to attend WEFTEC to receive recognition.

How to Apply To apply for the recognition, download the 2020 Utility of the Future Today application form. Completed forms can be submitted via the Water Environment Federation’s Open Water platform. There is no cost to apply. For more information visit www.wef.org/utility-of-the-future/ or UtilityRecognition@wef.org. S


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


AMWA Announces 2020 Management Recognition Awards The Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA) utility recognition program honors extraordinary management and stellar workforce performance through a progressive series of awards: S Gold Award for Exceptional Utility Performance S Platinum Award for Utility Excellence S Sustainable Water Utility Management Award In addition to the utility-based performance awards, AMWA recognizes individual achievement through its President’s Award and Donald R. Boyd Award. Any number of AMWA member utilities may win the gold, platinum, or sustainability award each year. Distinguished panels of peer judges evaluate the award applicants.

2020 Awards In January, all eligible AMWA members were invited to apply for recognition in the association’s 2020 utility management awards program. Winners will be recognized at AMWA’s 2020 Executive Management Conference, to be held October 11-14 in Denver. The deadline for submitting all award applications is June 1.

Award Categories Gold Award for Exceptional Utility Performance The AMWA Gold Award for Exceptional Utility Performance recognizes large public drinking water systems that exhibit high levels of performance in the following areas: S Product quality S Customer satisfaction S Employee and leadership development S Operational optimization S Financial viability S Community sustainability S Enterprise resiliency S Infrastructure strategy and performance S Stakeholder understanding and support S Water resource sustainability These are the ten “Attributes of Effectively Managed Utilities” that were identified in 2007 by a blue-ribbon panel of water and wastewater utility executives commissioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), AMWA, and other water sector associations. The document was updated in 2016. Gold Award winners also show achievement in the areas of leadership, strategic business planning, knowledge management, measurement, and continual improvement management.

All AMWA member utilities that have never won a Gold Award are eligible to apply. Platinum Award for Utility Excellence Like the Gold Award for Exceptional Utility Performance, the criteria for the Platinum Award for Utility Excellence are also based on the ten “Attributes of Effective Utility Management” and the “Keys to Management Success.” Applicants are expected to show progress in implementing the attributes and keys, as well as a distinctive level of management expertise and expanded utility achievement. Three years after winning a Gold Award, member utilities are eligible to apply for the Platinum Award for Utility Excellence. Past winners of AMWA’s Platinum Award for Sustained Competitiveness Achievement are also eligible to apply. Sustainable Water Utility Management Award The AMWA Sustainable Water Utility Management Award, introduced in 2014, recognizes member utilities that have made a commitment to sustainable management. While there are many opportunities available to water utilities to be managed more sustainably, there is no perfect path to get there. Each water system has its own water resource needs, infrastructure issues, financial position, political issues, energy costs, and other challenges. This award views sustainability through a triple-bottom-line lens. This means winners will have achieved a balance of innovative and successful efforts in areas of economic, social, and environmental endeavors, such as responsible management of resources, protection of public


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

health, meeting responsibilities to the community, and providing cost-effective services to ratepayers. President’s Award The AMWA President's Award is presented to individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the improvement of water supply management. Eligibility for this award is limited to individuals currently or formerly representing AMWA member agencies, and it recognizes their efforts and dedication in the field of drinking water supply. Individuals nominated for this award must hold, or have held, a major position with a water supply agency, while actively participating as a member of AMWA. The recipient of this award is determined by the Nominations Committee, and the award is presented at the fall Executive Management Conference. Nominations are solicited in the summer by a bulletin from AMWA’s national office. Donald R. Boyd Award The Donald R. Boyd Award acknowledges extraordinary personal service in the drinking water field. General criteria may include valuable service that advances public understanding and

awareness, water quality research, or more general contributions deserving of recognition. This award confers recognition to individuals who have made important contributions to the water industry, including as water system employees (regardless of AMWA membership), government officials, or private consultants. The award commemorates Donald R. Boyd, one of AMWA’s founding members and its first president. The Nominations Committee determines the recipient of the award, which is presented at the fall Executive Management Conference. Nominations are solicited in the summer by a bulletin from AMWA’s national office.

About the Association An organization of the largest publicly owned drinking water systems in the United States, AMWA's membership provides more than 156 million people–from Alaska to Puerto Rico–with safe drinking water. It’s the nation's only policy-making organization solely for metropolitan drinking water suppliers. The association was formed in 1981 by a group of general managers of

metropolitan water systems who wanted to ensure that the issues of large publicly owned water suppliers would be represented in Washington, D.C. Member representatives to AMWA are the general managers and chief operating officers of these large water systems. The association represents the interests of these water systems by working with Congress and federal agencies to ensure that federal laws and regulations protect public health and are cost-effective. In the realm of utility management, AMWA provides programs, publications, and services to help water suppliers be more effective, efficient, and successful. Governed by a 22-member board of directors, AMWA represents all regions of the United States. Committees on utility management, regulation, legislation, sustainability, and security provide the expertise to achieve water suppliers' goals, including sustainable operations, regulations based on sound science, and cost-effective laws that support the safety and security of drinking water. A full-time professional staff is located in Washington, D.C. For questions on award eligibility or to request an application form, contact Carolyn Peterson at 202-331-2820 or peterson@amwa.net. S

EPA Suspending Enforcement of Environmental Regulations Because of Coronavirus The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced it would suspend enforcement of environmental regulations because of the coronavirus pandemic. The EPA made the decision following an influx of requests from businesses for a relaxation of regulations as they face layoffs, personnel restrictions, and other problems related to the coronavirus outbreak. The agency’s order states that it will not issue fines for violations of certain air, water, and hazardous-waste-reporting requirements, effectively allowing businesses to regulate themselves amidst the crisis. The changes are retroactive to March 13 and are “only so that facilities can concentrate on ensuring that their pollution-control equipment remains safe and operational.” The policy is temporary and EPA has set no end date. “In general, EPA doesn’t expect to seek penalties for violations of routine compliance monitoring, integrity testing, sampling, laboratory analysis, training, reporting. or certification obligations in situations where EPA agrees that COVID-19 was the cause of the noncompliance and the entity provides supporting doc-

umentation to EPA upon request,” the order states, urging companies to “act responsibly” if they cannot currently comply with rules that regulate the amount of pollution they emit into the air and put into the water. The move received criticism from Cynthia Giles, who headed EPA’s Office of Enforcement during the Obama administration. “This EPA statement is essentially a nationwide waiver of environmental rules for the indefinite future. It tells companies across the country that they will not face enforcement even if they emit unlawful air and water pollution in violation of environmental laws, so long

as they claim that those failures are in some way ’caused’ by the virus pandemic. And it allows them an out on monitoring, so we may never know how bad the violating pollution was,” Giles wrote in a statement. “Incredibly, the EPA statement does not even reserve EPA’s right to act in the event of an imminent threat to public health,” Giles added, saying the order allows companies to pollute without oversight. “Instead, EPA says it will defer to states, and ‘work with the facility’ to minimize or prevent the threat. The EPA should never relinquish its right and its obligation to act immediately and decisively when there is threat to public health, no matter what the reason is. I am not aware of any instance when EPA ever relinquished this fundamental authority as it does in this memo.” Andrea Woods, an EPA spokeswoman, pushed back against the criticism. “It is not a nationwide waiver of environmental rules,” said Woods. “For situations outside of routine monitoring and reporting, the agency has reserved its authorities and will take the pandemic into account on a case-bycase basis.” S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020



Kevin G. Shropshire

What does your job entail? My job involves the following: S Coordination of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP)-mandated municipal industrial pretreatment program S Fats, oils, and grease (FOG) program S Private lift station program S Environmental permitting, inspections, and reporting S Creating and coordinating wastewaterrelated public education materials S Safety training of wastewater coworkers S Coordination of other environmental control, wastewater, and (now) legislative issues S Representing Rockledge among the environmental regulatory community

City of Rockledge Work title and years of service. I’ve been the pretreatment coordinator for the City of Rockledge for three years. Prior to that I was with the City of Orlando from 2011 to 2017, the City of West Palm Beach in 2011, and the City of Oldsmar from 2004 to 2010, for a total of 16 years of experience overall in industrial pretreatment and stormwater.

What education and training have you had? S Bachelor of science degree, University of Central Florida S University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS): Florida Master Naturalist Program - Fresh Water Systems (2019), Habitat Evaluation (2018), and Coastal Systems (2016) S Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA): • Wastewater Collections C

Enjoying a “hayride” at Orlando Wetlands Festival with wife Debra and sons Devin and Julian.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


• Stormwater Operations/Management A, B, and C certifications • Industrial Pretreatment B and C certifications Florida Industrial Pretreatment Association (FIPA): Level A Industrial Pretreatment Southwest Florida Water Management District: Wetlands Assessment Training Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Incident Command Structure: Level 300, 400, 100, and 700 FDEP Sediment and Erosion Control Inspector License

What do you like best about your job? I can go home at the end of the day feeling as though I’m realistically doing my part to improve the environmental world around me, for my children’s sake. The City of Rockledge has been supportive of my ideas, revisions, and efforts to improve our pretreatment program within the city and its wastewater-related environment. What professional organizations do you belong to? S FWPCOA (2004-present) • Region III: director (2017-present), chair (2015), vice chair (2013, 2014), treasurer-elect (2016), webmaster (2016, 2017)

A family bike ride around our neighborhood.

• State level: Industrial Pretreatment Committee chair (2017-present); Legislative and Rules Committee chair (2019-present) • Region IV: 2004-2010 S FIPA (2004-present) S Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program: Management Council S Florida Water Environment Association How have the organizations helped your career? There is a vast wealth of professional knowledge that I’ve only begun to scratch the surface of, through trainings, meetings, and conferences within FWPCOA. I was initially “drafted” into FWPCOA back in 2004 by Mrs. Janet Dibiasio and Mr. Raymond Bordner, then immediately encouraged (pushed) up the ranks on the committees. I have remained involved in most levels of the organization ever since. Online and book learning cannot begin to compare to the knowledge gained by the personal attention and experiences shared by so many of my colleagues in this organization. Everyone I meet and share time with at events and meetings continues to open my eyes further in our fields; not just my pretreatment field, but the stormwater, wastewater, and potable and reclaimed water fields, as well as legislative ramifications, training, safety, etc. The FWPCOA is a 5,000-member family that cares.

Receiving the Water Professionals Month Proclamation for Region III from Commissioner Rita Pritchett.

What do you like best about the industry? I am and have always been an “environmental” person. My career allows me to earn a living doing what I enjoy. Through my inspections of industries across Florida I’ve observed so many technologies and industries most people are not privy to. What do you do when you’re not working? I have a beautiful wife who spoils me, and two wonderful sons I love spending time with. Most sentences in our house begin with, “Daddy, can we. . .” It’s a wonderful feeling. I have been my sons’ soccer coach for several years. Our family is tight; we do everything together, including hiking, biking, soccer, going to the beach, fruit picking at nearby farms, house-fixing projects, scratch-cooking. We are a busy, happy family. I enjoy nature photography. I’m also involved with several environmental volunteer groups within our community. S Annual planting of my office Christmas tree at the Rockledge Wastewater Treatment Plant with my little helpers.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Experts Share Advice on Continuity of Operations During Coronavirus Pandemic Even during the coronavirus pandemic, water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) cannot cease operations—even for a moment. It remains critical, then, for WRRF managers to develop action plans to ensure continuity of operations despite potential staffing shortages and supply chain disruptions. For utility managers, effectively responding to the coronavirus requires additional attention to employee safety and welfare, workplace hygiene, and public communications. Water sector experts discussed these vital considerations for WRRFs during the recent Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.) webcast, “Pandemic Continuity of Operations (COOP) Essential Personnel.”

Provide Flexibility and Reassurance Where Possible Essential personnel, which includes many WRRF operators, must remain onsite despite social-distancing requirements, according to John Bennett, deputy executive manager for

the Trinity River Authority (TRA; Arlington, Texas). These workers are there to continue providing clean water and maintain regulatory compliance. For these employees, work shift exceptions and schedule modifications often are done on a case-bycase basis. The WRRFs must remain in operation at all times, despite staffing shortages related to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. In the WEF webcast, utility managers discussed issues related to ensuring continuity of operations at water facilities. “Trying to ‘navigate the waters,’ so to speak, to find options that are most equitable and work best for the specific duties of the employees that are out there, has been quite a challenge,” Bennett said. The TRA manages both large and small WRRFs, ranging from a 3-million-gallon-perday (mgd) facility with seven employees to a 162-mgd facility with over 200 employees. While the majority of TRA’s support staff is working remotely, a large fraction of operators are on the job.

(Image courtesy of Pixabay)


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

In recent weeks, TRA has begun staggering operator shifts in such a way that only the minimum number of employees is operating equipment at any time. Dusti Lowndes, director of emergency management for DC Water (Washington, D.C.) described a similar approach, in addition to limiting all fieldwork and construction activities to only the most essential, emergency-related projects. Charlotte (N.C.) Water is also using workforce staggering, and the utility is updating and restocking its emergency operator supply kits in case operators need to stay at their WRRF stations for extended periods of time, according to Joseph Lockler, operations chief. Recognizing that shift modifications may lead to irregular work hours with financial repercussions, Charlotte Water is also ensuring that its operations staff is compensated fairly. “There were operators who may not have necessarily gotten in 40 hours per week,” Lockler said. “We have made a commitment as a department that we are going to ensure, no

(Image courtesy of Preston Keres/U.S. Department of Agriculture)

matter what, that our employees are paid for a minimum of 40 hours. Right now, they are our most critical asset, and we know that. We have to keep them healthy and in the plant.” On the other hand, employees who must work overtime to keep services operating during the coronavirus pandemic must also be compensated accordingly, advised Teresa Jakubowski, a partner at the law firm Barnes & Thornburg (Washington, D.C.). “It’s very important to accurately track overtime during this period. Some employees may be working longer shifts to cover for those who have to be absent due to illness or exposure,” Jakubowski said. “Also, to the extent employees are working outside of their regular positions, you will need to ensure that your determinations of exempt or nonexempt status remain accurate.”

Maintain a Clean Workplace Although Jakubowski emphasized that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has specified no additional requirements to stem the spread of coronavirus, she also reminded employers about their general requirement to address known hazards in the workplace. “In the case of coronavirus, that entails observing U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance, as well as directives from state and local health departments,” she said. Speakers from TRA, DC Water, and Charlotte Water described new, rigorous cleaning and disinfection regimens of all their facilities, occurring at all common WRRF areas as often as before each shift. Many WRRF operators are essential personnel who cannot work remotely. Utilities can keep employees safe and motivated by communicating frequently with

their staff, minimizing infection risks, and being flexible with their scheduling, webcast speakers advised. At DC Water, all contractors who must be onsite at its facilities must now fill out a detailed form that helps the utility’s dedicated emergency response team identify potential infection risk factors, Lowndes said. Official procedures at TRA have always specified that operators are not to bring their personal protective equipment home after their shifts. Bennett admitted that that rule was not always enforced, but operators now must change into street clothes onsite at the end of their shifts to limit disease transmission risks. It has also instituted a maximum limit of two people at a time traveling in any TRA vehicle. Charlotte Water currently has five major construction projects ongoing, meaning construction crews and contractors still must move in and out of utility facilities, Lockler said. “We put notice out to all our contractors that work is going to continue, but that contractors, inspectors, and vendors should have no in-person contact whatsoever with operations and maintenance staff.”

Communicate Both Internally and Externally As the effects of the coronavirus pandemic become more evident, Steve Frank, executive vice president of emergency communications firm SDF Communications (Laguna Niguel, Calif.) urged utility managers toward transparency about their challenges and preparedness. “Your job of continuing to provide service to your community isn’t done until you’ve considered the communication part of it,” Frank said. “You have two audiences to consider: your

external audience, your customers; and your internal audience, your employees.” The leadership at TRA is first making sure that employees have authoritative information about how the coronavirus spreads and what they can do to mitigate it. They also are being sure to consult employees about potential schedule changes or workflow modifications. “We’re constantly making sure credible information is getting on bulletin boards and posted on doors, and that the supervisors are talking to their crews about what’s going on and the best way to proceed,” Bennett said. “Make sure your staff members know that they do have a voice, and though not all suggestions can be implemented, that they’re at least being considered.” Lowndes also described how employees are being kept in the loop about DC Water’s operating plans as they change. “We are open and operating as normally as possible, with some provisions made to our operations and our mission. We’re telling people that we’re not closing; we’re just adjusting how we’re meeting our customers’ needs and communicating with each other.” Frank recommended that utilities that don’t already have a media spokesperson to designate and train one as soon as possible. He noted that concerns about water quality due to the coronavirus pandemic are bound to arise. When performing public outreach activities, Frank advised that water professionals should stress that evidence suggests risks to water supplies related to coronavirus are low and the utility’s disinfection protocols are effective. “Think about this as an opportunity to show your community that you’ve given this some serious thought. Even if you don’t think you have a message, you do, and it’s this: We’ve prepared,” Frank said. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020



Demystifying Intelligent Water: Realizing the Value of Change With Advanced Asset Management Celine Hyer and Eric Bindler ike their counterparts in other parts of the country, Florida’s water and wastewater utilities face an array of pressures and pain points, including deteriorating infrastructure assets, an aging workforce, the need for in-demand skillsets, and changing social and cultural dynamics. Further challenges—diverging demands in cities and rural areas, depleting aquifers, emerging contaminants, escalating extreme weather disruptions, and expanding affordability gaps—continue to mount. With the odds seemingly stacked against utilities, it’s no wonder that the people leading them are looking to modernize their game plans. Achieving today’s goals, while preparing for tomorrow’s challenges, means reimagining how utilities manage their assets—pipes, people, and everything in between. Technology for monitoring, managing, and predicting asset health and performance is giving rise to a new paradigm of digitally enabled asset management. Data-informed


decisions around operations, maintenance, and capital investment across multiple time horizons empowers utility leaders to optimize scarce financial and staff resources, service levels, and value for customers. Adoption of advanced asset management remains limited to a relatively small group of innovative, technology-savvy utilities. More widespread acceptance could help narrow the funding gap of utilities in the United States by as much as $62.4 billion over the next decade by eliminating $27.5 billion from capital expenditure (CAPEX) burden and $34.9 billion in unnecessary operating expenditures (OPEX) 1 . In Florida, adoption of advanced asset management tools and frameworks could save water and wastewater utilities as much as $1.5 billion in CAPEX and $1.8 billion in OPEX between 2019 and 2030, equaling $3.3 billion in cumulative total expenditure (TOTEX) savings over the next decade.

Figure 1. Water and wastewater capital needs versus historical investment.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Celine Hyer, P.E., is water conveyance lead with Arcadis in Tampa. Eric Bindler is research director (digital water) with Bluefield Research in Orlando.

What’s Driving the Demand for Change? The shift toward advanced asset management practices in the water and wastewater utility sector is being driven by four key trends. Investment Gap First, the investment gap is growing. Total public and private capital investment in U.S. water and wastewater infrastructure reached an estimated $36.6 billion in 2018, less than a third of the nearly $119 billion in annual investment the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) projected would be necessary by 2018 (Figure 1). The $82.3 bil-

Figure 2. Water and wastewater monthly bills for the largest cities in the United States by population served (2012-2019).

lion investment gap is the highest it’s ever been after two decades of steady growth, increasing nearly sevenfold since 2000, when the gap was $11.9 billion1. Though ASCE has given Florida’s water, wastewater, and stormwater infrastructure higher grades than the national average, the organization has stressed that more investment is needed to keep up with the state’s rapid population growth, renew its aging infrastructure, and protect its sensitive ecological environments, which are critical for public health and Florida’s tourism economy.

Figure 3. Traditional versus advanced asset management.

Affordability Issues Second, affordability issues continue to challenge utilities and their customers. Average U.S. monthly water and sewer rates increased 31 percent in real terms since 2012, more than double the growth in median household income between 2012 and 20181,2 (Figure 2). Despite rate increases, utility revenues are still falling short, with only 21 percent of U.S. utilities able to fully cover the cost of providing services 3 . If these trends continue, 36 percent of households will not be able to afford water within the next five years4. Institutional Knowledge Third, institutional knowledge is leaving the industry. An estimated 10.6 percent of water sector workers will retire or transfer each year between 2016 and 2026, with some utilities expecting as much as half of their staff to retire in the next five to 10 years5. This will drain utilities of the institutional knowledge that veteran system operators have built up over decades, not to mention that the competition to attract and retain the next generation of leaders is heating up. Regulations Fourth, regulations are slow to evolve. While utilities in countries like the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada must adhere to robust asset management planning and reporting requirements, the U.S. regulatory climate is much different; some states are enacting rules around asset management, with ties to funding and/or operating permits, but the process is slow and may only address one utility service (water or sewer). For example, Florida’s Senate Bill 712 (also known as the Clean Waterways Act), which recently passed both chambers of the Florida Legislature, will require wastewater utilities to develop five-year pipe assessment, repair, and replacement action plans, and proactively survey pipe integrity throughout their collection systems in order to reduce pipe leakage,

Figure 4. Projected employment growth in the United States water sector (2016-2026).

sewer overflows, and inflow/infiltration. This is Florida’s third attempt to pass legislation regarding asset management rules for sewer collection systems. While these individual policies help raise asset management awareness, a comprehensive regulatory framework, like the one found in the U.K., is nowhere on the horizon in Florida, or the U.S. more broadly. Rather, utilities can look beyond the regulations to focus on the lessons learned from three decades of asset management maturity in the U.K.: S Include more than just physical assets. S Leverage data and technology. S Take a TOTEX perspective.

Advanced Asset Management Surpasses Traditional Limits Traditional asset management’s greatest limitations are that they don’t consider all of the assets that a utility manages, nor do they leverage the power of advanced technology, such as artificial intelligence and predictive analytics, to do so. Embracing a new “Intelligent Water” framework, which combines advanced digital technologies with skilled

workforces and innovative workplace cultures, can help push utilities into new forward-looking territory, where advanced asset management becomes business as usual, all while addressing critical affordability, workforce, and regulatory challenges (Figure 3). The first limitation of traditional asset management approaches is that they are focused strictly on physical infrastructure— they don’t look past the pipes, plants, and equipment, which hampers a utility’s abilities to leverage its entire cache of strengths and leaves unexplored the opportunities to maximize resources or create cost savings. Advanced asset management, meanwhile, takes a total asset focus, recognizing the substantial value that utility workers create for their organizations, customers, and communities. The advanced asset management paradigm prioritizes investments, not just in treatment and conveyance infrastructure, but also in people, skills, and safety, and leverages the experience and institutional knowledge of veteran utility operators for long-term asset management planning. This expanded view leads to a better understanding of how to Continued on page 52

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Continued from page 51 apply strengths to prioritized risks—before infrastructure fails, instead of after. The second limitation of traditional asset management frameworks is that they fail to capture and share data effectively and rely too heavily on historical data and industry standards, rather than real-time information on asset health and performance. Disparate datasets on utility assets are housed across multiple platforms and databases, like geographic information systems (GIS), computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), and hydraulic models, and many organizations struggle to break down these data silos. Meanwhile, the differ-

ing standards that different utility departments—finance, engineering, planning, or operations—apply to asset identification, valuation, and life cycle planning make collaboration difficult. Reflecting these diverging, siloed approaches to asset valuation, most U.S. utilities have not yet incorporated systematic measurements of risk into their asset management planning workflows, with many relying solely on asset age when prioritizing capital replacements. Advanced asset management approaches instead emphasize openness and integration, bringing together data from multiple sources and silos in order to optimize asset operations, maintenance, and investment decisions. In addition, advanced asset management re-

Figure 5. Water sector operations and capital costs (1956-2016).

Figure 6. Billion-dollar weather disasters and cumulative costs in the United States (1980-2019).


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

lies on real-time data on asset health and operations—from remote meters, sensors, and other Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices— rather than static snapshots of historical data alone, and leverages advanced analytics to immediately detect deviations in asset condition, predict future asset failures, analyze what-if scenarios, and prescribe optimal maintenance or replacement interventions. As more and more vendors come to the market with new solutions for collecting, analyzing, and learning from real-time water and wastewater asset data, utilities are under increasing pressure to have clear frameworks in place for the management, integration, and use of disparate asset data streams. Leveraging these new solutions also requires harnessing new skillsets to complement the financial, engineering, and operation and maintenance resources central to traditional asset management. Anticipated demand for software developers and information security analysts in the water sector will grow more than 25 percent from 2016 to 2026, more than double the growth rate of more conventional roles, such as pump operators and environmental engineers6 (Figure 4). Water utilities will face significant competition from other industries for these in-demand digital skillsets, increasing pressure to create workplace cultures conducive to digital growth and innovation. The third and final limitation of traditional assessment management paradigms is that they prioritize upfront CAPEX considerations without accounting for the OPEX costs associated with operating and maintaining an asset over its full life cycle. This creates an untenable scenario where maintenance is predominantly reactive (i.e., in response to asset faults or failures) or preventive (i.e., on a static, time-based schedule, determined by historical data or standard industry assumptions about the mean time between failures for a specific asset type). This traditional approach is failing for four main reasons. First, U.S. water and wastewater infrastructure is deteriorating faster than utilities can rehabilitate or replace it, with the estimated average age of U.S. water pipes reaching 45 years. A relevant example of this in Florida is the sewer force mains that are failing faster than the City of Ft. Lauderdale can design and construct replacements, leading to over 126 mil gal of sewage spilled. Second, water sector maintenance costs reached an all-time high of $50.2 billion above capital in 20177 (Figure 5), with utilities increasingly forced to operate in a more-reactive mode, exacerbating affordability challenges.

Third, investments in physical infrastructure renewal and replacement often take a replace-in-kind approach to sizing and capacity needs, while population, wet weather intensity, and water usage trends continue to shift, with indoor water consumption falling and U.S. population growth slowing. Finally, environmental shocks and stressors (e.g., droughts, wildfires, extreme weather events) strain utilities’ assets and budgets, and prevent their workforces from focusing on programmatic asset replacement and renewal. The 2010s saw an average of 12 billiondollar disasters each year, up from only three such events per year in the 1980s8. Utilities in Florida are particularly vulnerable to these environmental shocks, with Florida absorbing $232.6 billion in damages from billiondollar disasters between 1980 and 2019—roughly 13 percent of the national total of $1.8 trillion (Figure 6). Advanced asset management, by contrast, takes a more expansive view of asset costs, optimizing TOTEX over the life cycle of an asset, rather than upfront CAPEX alone. Introduced by U.K. water industry regulator Ofwat in 2013, TOTEX equates to the sum of CAPEX and OPEX, which encourages utilities to make more-holistic asset management and investment decisions that maximize value over an infrastructure asset’s full operating life. For large-scale assets, such as water and wastewater treatment facilities, for example, OPEX costs (such as operation and maintenance labor, supplies, and energy) can account for 75 to 85 percent of total life cycle costs9. Optimizing these day-to-day operating costs creates significant long-term savings. The TOTEX optimization requires a shift in maintenance philosophy from reactive or preventive maintenance modes to predictive or prescriptive approaches that prioritize realtime asset condition (Figure 7). Conditionbased or reliability-centered maintenance approaches generate OPEX savings (as both labor and asset performance are optimized) and CAPEX savings (as asset life is prolonged and replacement expenditures are deferred), driving down overall TOTEX. Though uptake of advanced, digitally enabled asset management tools and frameworks is still limited among U.S. utilities, the results from early adopters are promising. For example, digital asset investment planning and risk analysis tools have allowed utilities to reduce annual CAPEX by as much as 20 percent. Using a median estimate of 11.3 percent in CAPEX avoidance, these platforms could help utilities to save a cumulative total Continued on page 54

Figure 7. Journey from descriptive to prescriptive analysis.

Figure 8. Advanced asset management capital expenditure savings forecast (2019-2030).

Figure 9. Advanced asset management operating expenditure savings forecast (2019-2030). Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Continued from page 53 of $27.5 billion in CAPEX between 2019 and 2030 (Figure 8). Meanwhile, early adopters of advanced asset management practices have seen OPEX savings of as much as 30 percent of annual maintenance and chemical and labor costs, and as much as 50 percent of annual energy and contract service costs. Using these figures, advanced asset management could save U.S. utilities a cumulative total of $34.9 billion from 2019 to 20301 (Figure 9). Altogether, advanced asset management practices stand to help U.S. water and wastewater utilities save as much as $62.4 billion in TOTEX costs between 2019 and 2030, with annual savings increasing from $1.3 billion in 2019 to $9.8 billion by 2030—6 percent of total projected utility expenditures nationwide by the end of the decade. In particular, adoption of advanced asset management tools and frameworks could save Florida’s water and wastewater utilities as much as $1.5 billion in CAPEX and $1.8 billion in OPEX between 2019 and 2030, equating to $3.3 billion in cumulative TOTEX savings over the next decade.1

Improving the Journey In order to meet the challenges of the coming decades, utility leaders will need to move away from siloed, traditional asset management philosophies to more-holistic understandings of, and transparent communication regarding, their assets, data, workflows, and priorities (Figure 10). These guidelines can support effective change, but it takes action to realize value. Investing in new ways of working and advanced

technology is essential to creating a sustainable water future. Together, they can empower the workforce to overcome affordability and resilience challenges, seize optimization opportunities, and foster thriving communities. Change doesn’t need to be instant or revolutionary to be worthwhile. Evolving in increments can help organizations fine-tune their strategies using lessons learned along the way. For utilities looking to begin their journeys, here are the critical first steps to take and tools that can help. Know who you are and where you’re at. Create or update your strategic plan. When implementing an advanced asset management program, a key measure of success is whether it helps the utility achieve its strategic goals and objectives. Alignment between the program and the plan provides a line of sight for employees to understand how the higher-level strategy fits into the day-to-day activities required to execute it. A strategic plan should identify internal and external strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to the organization. Key examples of internal and external factors include rate constraints, workforce skillsets, regulatory requirements, data availability, customer expectations, and resistance to change. Conduct a formal assessment on asset management maturity. The Water Environment Research Foundation (now the Water Research Foundation [WRF]), developed an asset management knowledge base focused on utility members’ needs called SIMPLE, which stands for Sustainable Infrastructure Management Program Learning Environment. The members of WRF can access the frame-

Figure 10. Do’s and don’ts for advanced asset management.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

work and decision-support tools, such as the WRF Strategic Asset Management (SAM) gap analysis tool, developed specifically for the water sector. The analysis assesses practice levels for seven core quality elements of asset management: processes and practices, information systems, data and knowledge, commercial tactics (service delivery), people issues, organizational issues, and asset management planning. Another useful benchmarking tool is based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 55000 series of asset management standards. This series describes the elements of a management system for asset management, including leadership, planning, support, operation, performance evaluation, and improvement. The Institute of Asset Management provides a self-assessment tool based on these standards. Understand your workforce and the roles people play. Foster a culture of innovation. One of the disciplines of the utility innovation framework is maximizing workforce engagement, which allows utilities to create an agile environment that encourages new ideas and adopts new concepts. In turn, these new ideas can accelerate the growth and support of advanced asset management programs. Creating and maintaining a culture of innovation can be a challenge. More than 100 utilities have used an innovation environment self-assessment survey to benchmark their innovation environments. When combined with fact-based validation, it provides a clear understanding of where to begin. Employ change management best practices. It’s estimated that 70 percent of change programs fail, mostly due to employee resistance 10, so it’s crucial to put people at the center of the change to ensure that the solution is utilized in the long term. Change management is not simply a task to be completed near the end of the project or program; it must be consistently addressed throughout the entire process to ensure acceptance and adoption. Many successful change management models can be applied, including the ADKAR model by Prosci, which defines five tangible outcomes that people need to achieve for lasting change: awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, and reinforcement. Key elements of change management for an asset management program include creating and communicating an overall mission and vision, defining roles and responsibilities, documenting a communications plan, providing training, and measuring progress on a routine basis.

Weave resiliency into asset management, and vice versa. Recognize synergies in planning processes. Resiliency and asset management planning require identifying the assets most critical to the water system, or those that have the highest consequence of failure; doing this once (thoroughly) can be used for both. Asset management best practices evaluate asset performance against all potential failure modes, including mortality (from natural causes), capacity, efficiency, and level of service to determine risk and drive the CAPEX or OPEX needs. Resiliency planning, meanwhile, requires an evaluation of assets against external threats from malevolent actions and natural causes, which can also be viewed as performance failure modes for an asset. Evaluating all the performance failures together and identifying the most likely to occur first provides a comprehensive look at the timing of potential CAPEX and OPEX needs, and a potential for savings. A perspective that combines resiliency and advanced asset management frameworks is especially critical for Florida’s water and wastewater utilities, given their heightened exposure to climate-related threats, such as extreme weather, hurricanes, flooding, and sea level rise.

Sources For more information on the key components of the advanced asset management paradigm, and case studies and best practices from utilities across the U.S. and U.K., visit h t t p s : / / w w w. a r c a d i s . c o m / e n / u n i t e d states/our-perspectives/2020/advanced-assetmanagement/.

5. 6.

7. 8.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Kane, Joseph, and Tomer, Adie. “Renewing the Water Workforce.” Brookings Institution, June 2018. https://www.brookings.edu/research/water-workforce/. U.S. Congressional Budget Office. Smith, A. B. “2018’s Billion Dollar Disasters in Context,” Feb. 7, 2019. https://www.climate. gov/news-features/blogs/beyond-data/2018s-billiondollar-disasters-context.



“Achieving a 26 Percent Reduction in O&M Costs Through Reliability-Centered Maintenance.” Pinnacle Art, Oct. 31, 2017. https://pinnacleart.com/optimizing-coststhrough-rcm-based- om/. Ewenstein, Boris; Smith, Wesley; and Sologar, Ashvin. “Changing Change Management.” McKinsey & Company, July 2015. https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/leadership/ changingchange-management. S

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References 1.




Bluefield Research. https://www.bluefieldresearch.com/. “Income Data Tables.” U.S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/topics/incomepoverty/ income/data/tables.All.html. “2018 State of the Water Industry Report.” American Water Works Association, 2018. https:// www.awwa.org/Portals/0/AWWA/ Development/Managers/2018_SOTWI_R eport_Final_v3. pdf. Mack, Elizabeth A., and Wrase, Sarah. “A Burgeoning Crisis? A Nationwide Assessment of the Geography of Water Affordability in the United States.” PLoS ONE, Jan. 11, 2017. https:// journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1 371/journal.pone.0169488.

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We Will Meet Again Michael W. Sweeney, Ph.D. President, FWEA hile writing this column, the COVID-19 virus pandemic had not reached its peak anywhere—and anxiety and uncertainty are prevalent everywhere! Many questions have been directed at our national leaders and experts and it’s clear that they and we have not thought things completely through in preparing for this scenario. Pandemic planning has been done in the past, but not until you’ve been through one comes the revelation that the devil is in the details. A lack of understanding of how dependent we are on each other to keep things running abounds with people who are unfamiliar with what we and our water and



wastewater systems do. Our role, as operators and collection system professionals, is making society function properly. We, yet again, are on the frontlines—and still—those workers are not officially designated as first responders, but they truly are in every respect. Engineers, contractors, and vendors are also pressing forward as much as they can. And, virtually, many of us office types are working from home—Zooming, WebExing, and Teaming—in a kind of alternate reality, yet supporting the necessary efforts. Will we ever meet again? So far I’ve known three healthy relatives and a friend who are confirmed cases. One is now deceased, one is still recovering, and one has had mild symptoms. I also “celebrated” my first grandchild’s birth earlier this week, as well as my birthday. Yet, the band plays on. All this confusion and turmoil demonstrates the uncertainty of this virus and the sudden twists and turns that life can bring. However, there is another essential side

May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

that should be mentioned. These times allow greater attention and reflection on how grateful we are (or should be) for the people we have come to depend on. Family, friends, and neighbors are tops, but FWEA is by no means an exception. I can truly say that, of the many successful teams I have worked with in my career, this ol’ 79-year association also feels a bit like family, and it has been a harbor from the storm during these trying circumstances and myriad conference calls. Since the necessary cancellation of this year’s Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC), FWEA has been finding new ways to adapt to being a virtual organization. We will owe our resiliency to the fine and noble characteristics embodied by our leadership. I am certain that your organizations have adjusted as well, but remember that FWEA leadership is made up of volunteers, putting in loads of extra time, in addition to our important regular jobs, to keep our association on track by providing information and value to our members. Demonstrative of this commitment, we will still hold our annual meeting “virtually” (which in the past was part of a luncheon for more than 400 members and guests held at FWRC), recognize our award winners, approve a budget, and pass the presidential gavel. We intend to sponsor our student design contest and find a way to proceed with the Operations Challenge. There is so much more going on under the hood because it's so vital that we end a busy and successful year by appropriately recognizing our members for their achievements and then proceed with augmented plans next year to steer toward normalcy. So, FWEA is ending on a high note, albeit a new one. And with that I would like to close with my sincere thanks and utmost appreciation to our board members for their dedication and support as I close out my term as your president. This year will be more than a memory of COVID-19 itself; for me, it’s all about recognizing and remembering the perseverance of our leaders and members in the face of unprecedented adversity. I haven’t doubted once that FWEA will not only survive, it will prevail! Remember this quote from Ralph Waldo Emerson: “When it is dark enough, you can see the stars.” S


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You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Orientation and Onboarding: A Good Start for New Employees Finding the best candidates for positions in your organization is only part of building an effective team. The process of orientation and onboarding for new employees can be one of the most critical factors in ensuring that recently hired talent will be productive and contented workers. Planning orientation and onboarding for new employees should be as carefully done as planning a systematic approach to training, or any other function in the company. For example, there should be overall goals that you want to accomplish with orientation and onboarding, and there should be carefully chosen activities and materials used to achieve these goals.

Orientation Versus Onboarding The difference between onboarding and orientation is that orientation is the process of introducing a new employee into the organization, while onboarding is the process of integrating a new employee to the job. What is Orientation? Orientation programs are focused on introducing the company to the newly recruited employees. It provides various details of the company regarding policies, procedures, culture, working environment, health and safety measures, etc. This program helps to provide a clear understanding of the nature of the organization. Usually, the human resources department is responsible for conducting the orientation programs for new employees. The orientation program has four main objectives:

S To familiarize the company to the newly joined employees. S To establish a favorable attitude about the company in the mind of the new employees. S To obtain effective output from the new employees in the shortest possible time. S To highlight the company’s working conditions and benefits that will hopefully help to retain the employees. What is Onboarding? Onboarding is a strategic process of bringing a new employee into the organization and providing information, training, mentoring, and coaching about the new job. This process begins once the new employee starts work and continues throughout the first six months and up to one year of employment. The onboarding process helps to build a good relationship between the new employee and the supervisor or manager, and also between the new employee and work colleagues. The main objectives of the onboarding process are: S To facilitate the new employee’s ability to contribute in the new role. S To increase the new employee’s comfort level in the new role. S To enhance productivity. S To encourage employee commitment and engagement. S To reinforces the employee’s decision to stay with the company. Orientation and Onboarding are Complementary Orientation and onboarding work from the

perspective that the organization must do all it can to fully equip the employee for maximum performance for the organization—and for maximum fulfillment of the employee. Ideally, the employee first experiences a several-day orientation program, which includes, not only the orientation to the facilities and personnel, but also various self-assessments for the employee to get clear on what he or she wants from employment with the organization. The employee might be placed in a peer group of other new employees who can share advice and feedback about the company and other roles in the organization. The onboarding helps new employees understand their duties and roles by giving them a clear picture of their job description and daily tasks, so that things become clear enough for them to achieve their job targets. Onboarding also helps to reduce the stress of new recruits by giving them defined expectations. This all helps them perform effectively and efficiently, and ultimately, boosts the company’s performance and bottom line.

Basic Checklist for New Employees The employee orientation and onboarding period can be demanding and sometimes overwhelming. Consider the experience from the employee’s perspective, and then make an effort to make it fun, interesting, painless, and as simple as possible. If you do, you will make your new team member feel valued, wanted, interested, and excited. By engendering these positive emotions from the start, you make the new employee want to do great work and add value to your organization. While the approach to orientation and onboarding is usually quite unique to the nature and needs of an organization, here's a checklist that can be used to orient an employee to an organization. The following activities should be conducted by the employee's supervisor. The checklist is relevant to the activities that should occur after the employee has received and accepted a job offer. Send a Welcome Letter Verify the exact starting date and also provide a copy of the employee policies and procedures manual. Note that you'll dedicate time for the employee to review the manual later. Do not specify the terms of salary and compensation; that should have been included in the job offer.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Provide a Job Description and Any Suggested Performance Goals All employees deserve explanation of what is expected from them. A job description, which explains duties and responsibilities, often is not enough. Therefore, suggest some additional areas of focus, ideally in the context of performance goals for the employee to address, especially during the first year of employment. Make it clear that you will discuss these with the employee soon. When the Employee Begins Employment, Schedule a Meeting the First Day Explain how they will be trained, introduce them to staff, give them keys, get them to sign any needed benefits and tax forms, explain the time-recording system (if applicable), and provide them copies of important documents, such as an organizational chart, last year's final report, strategic plan, this year's budget, and the employee's policies and procedure manual, if they did not get one already. Show Them the Facilities Show them the layout of offices, bathrooms, storage areas, kitchen and lounges, copying systems, computer configuration and procedures, telephone usage, warehouse and loading docks (if applicable), and any special billing procedures for use of office systems. Review any policies and/or procedures about use of the facilities. Schedule Any Needed Computer Training Many companies have their own individualized computer systems. Include training about your specific hardware and software applications. Be sure the employees learn any security procedures for computer information, including careful use of passwords, location of manuals and other useful documentation, location and use of computer networks and other peripherals, and where to go to get questions answered. Assign a Staff Member as Their "Buddy" A buddy is someone who partners with a new

employee during his/her first two to three months of employment, continuing well into the onboarding phase. While primarily responsible for offering advice and guidance regarding the day-today operations of the organization, a work buddy may offer encouragement and knowledge resources to help introduce the new employee to the company culture. Key characteristics of a buddy include: S Communicator. A buddy should encourage open communication. The buddy should provide relevant information to the new employee and encourage a process of continued, self-directed learning. S Role Model. The buddy should be a model employee and exemplify the company’s values. S Motivater. The buddy should have a positive outlook on his/her work and use that perspective to help build self-confidence and loyalty in the new employee. The buddy should lead by example. S Strong Performer. The buddy can help guide the new employee in many situations based on his/her experience and knowledge obtained in the work environment. This is an extremely important aspect of employee onboarding. Identify another employee, other than you (the supervisor), that the employee might quickly establish rapport with, to pose any questions that the employee is not comfortable posing to the supervisor. The buddy can invite the new employee to various social functions undertaken by other employees, and from the beginning, make them feel welcomed and a part of the team. Take Them to Lunch on the First Day Use this opportunity to be with them in other than a work setting. Don't just talk about work; ask them about their family, interests, hobbies, etc., and share some information about yourself. Meet With Them at the End of the Day Take a few minutes at the end of the workday

to ask if they have any questions or any needs they'd like to talk about. Remind them that you and their buddy are there if they need any information. Meet Again With the New Employee During the First Few Days Review the job description again. Remind them to review the employee manual and sign a form indicating they have reviewed the manual and will comply with its contents. Review any specific performance goals for the position. In the same meeting, explain the performance review procedure and provide them a copy of the performance review document. Have One-On-One Meetings on a Weekly Basis for the First Six Weeks One of the biggest mistakes of new supervisors is to meet with direct reports only when there are problems. That sends the following message: "I'm only here if you have a problem, and you better not have any problems." Instead, meet to discuss the new employee's transition into the organization, get status on work activities, hear any pending issues or needs, and establish a working relationship with the new employee.

The Onboarding Phase Though it varies from organization to organization, the amount of time spent on the various facets of onboarding can be broken down into these four phases: 1. First day to one week: To ensure compliance, familiarize the employee with their role. 2. One week to three months: Train the employee to perform the job. Familiarize them with their colleagues who are key to their duties and functions. Help them get a sense of the culture of the organization. 3. Three months to six months: Evaluate their performance and ensure that they have everything they need to perform their jobs Continued on page 60

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Flush Wisely Will Fowler As the world adapts to dealing with coronavirus— social distancing, working from home, self-quarantining if ill—the perceived hoarding and scarcity of toilet paper has emerged almost as a joke. But, if people start flushing unsuitable materials, the results will be anything but funny. As toilet paper runs short, many citizens may turn to alternatives, such as “flushable” wipes and sanitizing wipes. These poor substitutes can cause problems for sewers that could include backups into homes and malfunctioning treatment equipment. “If kitchen towels, baby wipes, or industrial papers are used as a replacement for toilet paper, our sewage systems could readily become blocked, with the resulting chaos and increased health risks,” said Richard Wilding, professor of supply chain strategy at Cranfield School of Management (Bedford, U.K.), in a release.

Three Ps Only! Educational materials from WEF lay out the best practices quite simply:

Flush Only What’s Flushable

“Only the three Ps belong in the toilet: pee, poop, and toilet paper. Period. Anything else— including wipes—is bad news for the pipes and pumps that carry water from your home to your community water resource recovery facility, where professionals are working around the clock to clean the used water.”

“Being self-quarantined at home can be tough,” said Walter E. Marlowe, executive director of the Water Environment Federation (WEF). “Being self-quarantined at home with a backed-up sewer is much, much worse. Do not flush things that should not be flushed.”

Even those products marked “flushable” are not. “There is no wastewater-recognized standard to ‘certify’ what is flushable other than toilet paper,” according to Brianne Nakamura, senior manager of Continued on page 62

Continued from page 59 optimally. Take their feedback to determine their engagement. 4. Six months to a year: The employee should have developed complete knowledge about their role, the company, the market, and the industry. They should have assimilated into the company and its culture. By extending your employee onboarding program past six months to a year or more, your new employees will: 1. Learn more completely. Learning their job duties in small bites over time enables better understanding, retention, and adoption of workplace learning. 2. Improve performance. Adding on-the-job learning over an extended time period reaps big benefits in terms of helping the employee


Rob Villee, former executive director of the Plainfield Area Regional Sewer Authority (Middlesex, N.J.) had similar advice. “Don’t flush baby wipes, 'flushable' wipes, or any other single-use plastics. Take this time to learn to be more conscious about the products you use and how they affect the sewer system,” he said. “And if you do use alternatives to toilet paper, just dispose of them in the garbage, where they belong.”

understand the job, understand how it relates to the organization, and achieve productivity faster. 3. Have higher retention rates. Transforming your organization into a continual learning institution keeps employees engaged and interested, which are key factors for improving new-hire retention. It can also help to prepare them for future advancement within the organization.

A Program for Lasting Success Employee orientation and onboarding is like a honeymoon period for the workplace. It’s when you lay the foundation for a strong, lasting employer-employee relationship. Failing to have a well-structured onboarding process can have severe negative consequences.

May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

When it comes to building your program, there are several elements to keep in mind. There is the practical side of the process, of course, such as making sure the relevant paperwork is in order and that your new employees have all the necessary equipment ready to go on their first day with the company. But it’s just as important to engage with your new hires from the moment they sign on with the organization, being clear about the job responsibilities and expectations, helping them in getting to know their future colleagues, and making them familiar with your company culture and values. With effective employee orientation and onboarding, you can help to ensure that new employees will be a well-functioning and creative part of your organization for years to come. S

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Continued from page 60 technical programs in the Water Science and Engineering Center at WEF. “When in doubt, don’t flush it. Use the trash can.”

Proper Precautions If a sewer does get clogged, wastewater agencies will respond because maintaining water and wastewater infrastructure is a vital service during times of emergency. The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District (MWRD) of Greater Chicago released a fact sheet on its coronavirus response that states: “MWRD continues to provide critically important water reclamation operations and stormwater management services around the clock to ensure that the region’s wastewater is cleaned

and that public health and the environment are protected. The essential work at MWRD will continue despite all of these obstacles.” One of those obstacles is a challenging staffing situation for water workers, according to Villee. Many water companies are already running on reduced staff because of the coronavirus pandemic, he said. “The last thing we want is an entire crew getting stuck in quarantine and unable to work,” Villee said. “We’ve started splitting staff into groups that work on alternating days.” Working from home isn’t an option for many water employees, according to Villee. “In our industry, a lot of physical, onsite work is still required. Some things we can monitor remotely, but a lot of the essential maintenance that we do requires a physical presence.” These manual and in-person functions includes unclogging lines jammed with things that should not be flushed.

Safe Sewers It’s also assuring to know that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has stated that “there is no evidence to date that COVID-19 virus has been transmitted via sewerage systems, with or without wastewater treatment” and the regular procedures and personal protective equipment (PPE) that wastewater operators use do protect against coronavirus. That’s good news. On the other hand, water employees often work in crews that require face-to-face contact with customers and coworkers. To help prevent person-to-person spread, services have been reduced somewhat. Villee said that the Plainfield Area Regional Sewer Authority has cut nonessential and preventive maintenance and billing activities to minimize the spread of the virus. They’ve also taken a second look at their PPE. “We’ve ordered new masks with filtration cartridges,” he said, “but due to supply chain interruptions, the cartridges haven’t arrived yet. Still, it’s only a precautionary step and the standard PPE should be enough.”

Toilet Teamwork As coronavirus continues to interrupt everyone’s daily life, it’s up to all of us to help each other out, Marlowe said. That includes better cooperation between utility workers and the public. “Our water and wastewater operators always protect public health and keep the systems running smoothly,” he said. “Let’s help them out by following their guidance when it comes to what goes down the toilet.” This article solely reflects the personal opinions of the author, not necessarily WEF and its members. It is provided for educational purposes only, and is not intended to substitute for the retainer and advice of an appropriate professional. No warranties or endorsement of any kind are granted or implied. S


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

News Beat Andrew Wheeler, administrator at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently sent a letter to governors in all 50 states, territories, and Washington, D.C., urging them to ensure that drinking water and wastewater employees are considered essential workers by state authorities when enacting restrictions, such as shelter-in-place orders, to curb the spread of COVID-19. “Ensuring that all Americans have clean and safe water is a high priority for the agency and I want to thank the water sector for its courageous efforts at a time when workforces are being challenged and stretched,” says Wheeler. “Having fully operational drinking water and wastewater services is critical to containing COVID-19 and protecting Americans from other public health risks. Our nation's water and wastewater employees are everyday heroes who are on the frontline of protecting human health and the environment every single day.”


Researchers at Cranfield University in Bedfordshire, England, are working on a new test to detect COVID-19 in the wastewater of communities infected with the virus. The wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach could provide an effective and rapid way to predict the potential spread of novel coronavirus pneumonia by picking up on biomarkers in feces and urine from disease carriers that enter the sewer system. Rapid testing kits using paper-based devices could be used onsite at wastewater treatment plants to trace sources and determine whether there are potential COVID-19 carriers in local areas. Dr. Zhugen Yang, a lecturer in sensor technology at Cranfield Water Science Institute, says that “in the case of asymptomatic infections in the community or when people are not sure whether they are infected or not, real-time community sewage detection through paper analytical devices could determine whether there are COVID-19 carriers in an area to enable rapid screening, quarantine, and prevention.”


The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has released a new “Water’s Worth It” toolkit to raise public awareness about the vital role of water utilities and workers in the coronavirus response. The high-impact materials highlight the critical need for water and wastewater services during this unprecedented time and recognize the dedicated professionals who are working

on the frontlines to provide clean water and sanitation for their communities. The toolkit is available at www.watersworthit.org/resources and features a series of graphics that are designed for social media and can also be used on the web and in emails. Every day, communities rely on the knowledge and expertise of water professionals to protect public health, the environment, and the economy. During the coronavirus pandemic, water professionals are providing essential services that are critical to a community’s ability to minimize the spread, flatten the curve, and support medical professionals’ efforts to provide care, conduct research, and develop treatments. “Along with many critical professionals, water workers provide the foundation for the global response to coronavirus, while maintaining the uninterrupted services we need for a functioning society,” said Jackie Jarrell, WEF president. “Their work is often largely unseen to the public, so we want to make sure they are recognized, along with other frontline workers.”


In partnership with the University of Florida Program for Resource Efficient Communities, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Coral Reef Conservation Program created the manual, “Low-Impact Development/Green Infrastructure (LID/GI)” that provides an overview of potential strategies to reduce and manage land-based sources of pollution at a local-project scale in southeast Florida. The manual includes information on local hydrology and geology and empowers users, including local governments, stormwater management districts, and engineering professionals, to make informed decisions about LID/GI projects in southeast Florida. A companion reference matrix helps users compare and evaluate specific characteristics of different stormwatercontrol options to identify appropriate options for specific sites. The matrix tool lists each LID/GI option relevant to the region and describes the benefits, site applicability, and implementation considerations. “Municipalities can use the reference matrix and manual to weigh costs and benefits of different low-impact development and green infrastructure projects,” said Jamie Monty, FDEP coral reef conservation program manager. “This user-friendly approach provides the relevant information that decision makers need to implement

effective small-scale projects with limited resources.” The FDEP coral reef conservation program has been working on specific engineering and management actions for watersheds in southeast Florida that have been identified as high management priorities. Pilot projects are underway throughout the Boynton inlet contributing area to demonstrate what can be achieved with minimal resources. These local LID/GI pilot projects often involve retrofitting existing developments. Popular retrofitting projects include rain gardens with Florida-friendly or native plants that slow water flow, and vegetated swales that collect and transport stormwater. In new developments, designing compact buildings can keep the land area free for green infrastructure and public spaces. Using LID/GI locally can improve the quality of water reaching downstream ecosystems. Low-impact development, green infrastructure, controlling pollutants at the source, careful site planning in new and redeveloping areas, and use of stormwater control measures have the potential to mitigate some of the most adverse effects of land-based sources of pollution on water quality. Good water quality is critical for the coral, mangrove, seagrass, and oyster habitats in southeast Florida. For more information, or a copy of the plan, go to www.floridadep.gov and search for “Low-Impact Development and Green Infrastructure: Pollution Reduction Guidance for Water Quality in Southeast Florida,” or visit http://bit.ly/2LIuKnV.


The City of Starke received a $7.8 million grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to update its 40-year-old wastewater treatment facility. The grant will improve service to over 2,300 residents and bolster local economic development efforts. The grant will be matched with a loan secured by the city for $8.8 million. The award comes as part of a larger package of grants across the United States totaling $635 million for 122 projects aimed at improving water and wastewater systems in 42 states. This is the single largest grant ever received by the city, The new advanced wastewater treatment plant will allow hundreds of residents to be removed from septic tanks in the coming years and significantly decrease the amount of influent currently released into nearby waterways. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include: Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions:

Water/Wastewater Foreman City of Homestead has an open position for a Water Foreman in Homestead, FL. Applicants must possess FWPCOA Class C Water Distribution license. Applicants must have a valid Florida Class B - CDL Tanker endorsement driver’s license with a clean record. To view complete job description & apply for the position please visit our website www.cityofhomestead.com

WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Village of Wellington Water Treatment Plant Operator positions The Water Treatment Plant at Wellington is searching for Water Operators: a Water Operator Level C, a Water Operator Level A, and an Apprentice. Job postings and application available on our website: https://wellingtonfl.munisselfservice.com/employment opportunities/default.aspx Apply online. For further information, call Human Resources at (561) 753-2585. Wellington is located in Palm Beach County, Florida.


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Utilities, Inc. Water & Wastewater Operator City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available Network Analyst SCADA, Laboratory Assistant, Industrial Electrician, Crew Leader, Foreman, Maintenance Mechanic, Plant Operator Trainee. Apply at www.titusville.com

Utilities, Inc. of Florida has an open position for a Water & Wastewater Operator in the Lakeland area. Applicants must possess FDEP Water and Wastewater licenses. Applicants must have a valid Florida driver’s license with a clean record. To view complete job description & apply for the position please visit our web site, www.myuiflorida.com. Under Contact us, click on Employment Opportunities.

Multiple Positions Available! Pasco County Utilities Operations and Maintenance Department is seeking driven, engaged, customer service-oriented individuals to be part of an exciting opportunity working with our rapidly growing water, wastewater, and reclaimed water utility services. Position titles include but are not limited to: Water Operators Wastewater Operators Water Distribution Technicians Water Quality Technicians Utility Workers Special Equipment Operators Plant Mechanics Electricians Pump Station Mechanics SCADA Programmers GIS Analysts Supervisors …And More! Employees of Pasco County Utilities will receive a full benefits package including: Florida Retirement System (FRS) retirement plan PTO (Paid Time Off) Paid holidays Group insurance Tuition reimbursement Deferred compensation Medical leave pool Annual medical leave buy-back Mid-management/Professional grade, and management personnel may receive 40 hours of admin leave per calendar year See ALL positions currently available at: pascocountyfl.net

Water Plant Operator A License Operator: $44,217 - $74,284 B License Operator: $42,313 - $71,085 C License Operator: $40,490 - $66,810 Trainee Operator: $36,346 - $59,971 The City of Melbourne is currently accepting applications for the positions of Water Treatment Plant Operator and Water Trainee Operator. To learn more and apply, please visit www.melbourneflorida.org


The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at

407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2020


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 14 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January ............Wastewater Treatment February ..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..................Conservation and Reuse May ..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August ..............Disinfection; Water Quality September........Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ............New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ........Water Treatment December ........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index Blue Planet Environmental Systems ..................................67 CEU Challenge ....................................................................34 Data Flow Systems ............................................................41 Engineered Pumps..............................................................55 Enviro-Care ..........................................................................2 Florida Aquastore ..............................................................37 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers..........................19 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration ..............20 FSAWWA Fall Conference Overview ..................................21 FSAWWA Water Professionals Thank You ..........................18 FWPCOA Training Calendar ................................................57 Grundfos..............................................................................27 Hudson Pump......................................................................43 Hydro International ..............................................................5 InfoSense ............................................................................62 J&S Valve ............................................................................35 Lakeside Equipment ............................................................7 Motor Protection Electronics..............................................31 Reiss Engineering ..............................................................23 UF TREEO Center ................................................................61 Xylem ..................................................................................68

1. D) 500 feet Per FAC 62-521.200(7) 1, Definitions for Wellhead Protection, “Wellhead protection area” means an area designated by the department consisting of a 500-foot radial setback distance around a potable water well where groundwater is provided the most stringent protection measures to protect the groundwater source for a potable water well and includes the surface and subsurface area surrounding the well.”

2. D) flow equalization. Per FAC 62-521.400(1)(a), Groundwater Protection Measures in Wellhead Protection Areas, “New domestic wastewater treatment facilities shall be provided with Class I reliability as described in Chapter 62-600, F.A.C., and flow equalization. New wastewater ponds, basins, and similar facilities shall be lined or sealed to prevent measurable seepage.”

3. C) Only new projects permitted under Part III of Chapter 62610, FAC (slow-rate landapplication systems, public access areas, residential irrigation, and edible crops). Per FAC 62-521.400(1)(b), Groundwater Protection Measures in Wellhead Protection Areas, “New reuse and landapplication projects shall be prohibited except for new projects permitted under Part III of Chapter 62-610, F.A.C.”

4. D) Storage tanks used to provide emergency power or to store substances used for treatment of potable water are allowed in a wellhead protection area. Per FAC 62-521.400(1)(n), Groundwater Protection Measures in Wellhead Protection Areas, “Storage tanks, which meet the auxiliary power provisions of subsection 62-555.320(6), F.A.C., for operation of a potable water well and storage tanks for substances used for the treatment of potable water are exempt from the provisions of this rule. Storage tanks regulated under Chapters 62-761 and 62-762, F.A.C., shall continue to meet the requirements of those chapters.”

5. C) All wells serving community and nontransient, noncommunity water systems. Per FDEP’s wellhead protection website, “The Wellhead Protection Rule establishes a 500-foot radius circular wellhead protection area around all wells that serve community and nontransient, noncommunity public water systems.”

6. D) secondary containment. Per FAC 62-521.400(1)(l), Groundwater


May 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Protection Measures in Wellhead Protection Areas, “Replacement of an existing underground storage tank system regulated under Chapter 62-761, F.A.C., within the same excavation, or addition of new underground storage tanks regulated under Chapter 62-761, F.A.C., at a facility with other such underground storage tanks is exempt from this provision, provided that the replacement or new underground storage tank system is installed with secondary containment as required in Chapter 62-761, F.A.C.”

7. B) source water assessment and protection program. Per FDEP’s wellhead protection website, “The wellhead protection program is the foundation for the source water assessment and protection program (SWAPP). The SWAPP extends the concept of source protection to surface water sources of drinking water.”

8. C) Notify the public about the threats identified in the contaminant source inventory. Per FDEP’s SWAPP website, “Four key steps are taken to assess public water systems. They are: 1) Delineate the drinking water source protection area. 2) Inventory known or potential sources of contamination. 3) Determine the susceptibility of the water supply to the contaminants. 4) Notify the public about the threats identified in the contaminant source inventory.”

9. D) public water system. Per FDEP’s SWAPP website, Risk Management Barrier: “The public water system is the first line of defense to reduce or eliminate contaminants in source water. The Safe Drinking Water Act, which regulates these systems, develops standards and guidance to help them reach the goal of providing safe and reliable drinking water. They must collect and treat water, hire trained and qualified operators, and have an emergency response plan in case of natural disaster or terrorist attack.”

10. D) prevent contaminants from entering the source water. Per FDEP’s SWAPP website, under Multiple Barrier Approach–Risk Prevention Barrier, “The best way to protect drinking water is to keep contaminants from entering source water. Multiple federal, state, and local laws, programs, and individual actions help communities identify the sources of drinking water and potential threats. This work enables communities to take appropriate steps to protect the watershed.”




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Florida Water Resources Journal - May 2020  

Operations and Utility Management

Florida Water Resources Journal - May 2020  

Operations and Utility Management

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