April 2022 - Florida Water Resources Journal

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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

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1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Mish Clark

Mish Agency

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 National Water Reuse Action Plan: Join the Effort 8 Funds Available to Address Lead in Drinking Water 22 Florida Department of Environmental Protection Reuse Program: Management and Implementation 29 Venner to Represent WEF at Florida Water Resources Conference 42 WWEMA Member Market Survey Reflects Sales Increases 48 Contractors Roundup: What the Contractors Council Can Do for You—Jonathan Fernald 50 WateReuse Association Announces 2022 Awards 52 Annual Assessment of Florida’s Water Resources and Conservation Lands: 2021 Edition

Technical Articles 36 Cities Collaborating to Build Resilience and Leverage Funding—Sarah Deslauriers, Juan Oquendo, and Rebecca Harvey

Education and Training 10-19 Florida Water Resources Conference Attendee, Exhibitor, and Sponsor Information 27 AWWA ACE22 32 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration 33 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers 34 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship Fund 43 AWWA Free Trail Membership 55 FWPCOA Region IV Short School 56 TREEO Center Training 57 FWPCOA Training Calendar

Columns 20 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 28 FWEA Focus—Ronald R. Cavalieri 30 Let’s Talk Safety: Job Hazard Analysis: Identify and Reduce Hazards 40 C Factor—Patrick “Murf” Murphy 44 FWEA Chapter Corner: FWEA Leadership Workshop 2022: True Leaders in the Making—Melody Gonzalez 46 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Emilie Moore 54 Reader Profile—Keisha McKinnie


59 Classifieds 62 Display Advertiser Index

Volume 73

Water conservation and reuse are an integral part of water resources and ecosystem management in Florida. (photo: Google Images)

April 2022

Number 4

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


National Water Reuse Action Plan: Join the Effort The National Water Reuse Action Plan (WRAP), spearheaded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is helping to build the technical, financial, and institutional capacity for communities of all sizes in the United States to consider and pursue reuse practices, enhance their resilience, and strengthen local water infrastructure. The program’s collective success is directly tied to contributions and collaborations from members of the water community. More than 100 federal, state, tribal, local, and water-sector partners have stepped forward to identify needs, develop actions, and implement their plans to drive

progress on water reuse, and others are invited to join in the effort.

The Need for Reuse The changing climate is challenging many communities to meet their long-term water needs. Reuse of treated wastewater and stormwater for agricultural, nonpotable, and even potable uses provides an alternative source of water that can be more reliable than traditional raw water sources. The capacity to incorporate water reuse into a community’s water portfolio can provide resilience against climate-induced impacts.

Ultimately, the WRAP collaborative strives to ensure that water reuse is accessible, straightforward to implement, and sensitive to climate and environmental justice considerations. Over time, the collective efforts of the organizations and entities participating in WRAP actions can grow the body of reuse knowledge and best practices for the benefit of all.

Current Actions The WRAP collaborators recently completed 165 implementation milestones that help to advance water reuse around the U.S. They also delivered critical documents to advance reuse and lay the groundwork for further advances in the coming years. Released in March 2022 and April 2021, these documents highlight some of the key accomplishments of the program. To mark the program’s progress, EPA, with the WateReuse Association and other watersector partners, hosted the “Resilience Through Collaboration: First Year Highlights and Future Directions of the National Water Reuse Action Plan” webinar. The event featured a lively discussion with leaders from across the water sector about the future of water reuse and its importance as a tool to address the impacts of climate change and meet local water demands.

Getting Involved There are many ways to get involved in WRAP: Stay in the Loop Join the WRAP listserv for periodic updates by emailing waterreuse@epa.gov. Learn About Actions Find details on the actions, including their outputs, in the WRAP online platform. For those entities interested in WRAP actions being implemented in their geographic area, EPA has designated water reuse contact persons for every EPA region. Continued on page 6

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Continued from page 4 Support an Active Action Reach out to action leader(s) about possible roles through the contact information provided in the WRAP online

platform. The WRAP platform contains the most up-to-date information on WRAP actions (i.e., proposed, active) and action descriptions. The platform undergoes regular updates on each action’s progress, communicates ongoing activity, and creates accountability for action progress. Provide Input on Proposed Actions To address identified needs and knowledge gaps related to water reuse, proposed actions are introduced in each WRAP quarterly update. The public is

encouraged to provide feedback on proposed actions by emailing waterreuse@epa.gov. Propose a New Action Ideas for new actions can be shared at any time. For information about how to propose an action, visit the life cycle of a WRAP action webpage. For any other questions or expressions of interest about getting involved with WRAP, please reach out to waterreuse@epa.gov. S

Benefits of the WRAP Collaborative • F osters connections among a diverse, growing network of experts, policymakers, and practitioners. • Taps into knowledge across the United States and internationally. • Aligns efforts and leverages resources to accelerate progress. • Addresses challenges and fills knowledge gaps. • Highlights success and facilitates broad information sharing. • Supports integrated approaches to water management and challenges in the water sector.

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Funds Available to Address Lead in Drinking Water The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced $20 million in available grant funding to assist communities and schools with removing sources of lead in drinking water in the United States. This grant funding, and additional funding through the bipartisan Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act passed last year, will help make rapid progress on the goal of addressing lead and removing lead pipes across the U.S. “A pillar of our work at EPA is ensuring that every person in every community has safe drinking water,” said Radhika Fox, assistant administrator for water. “This grant funding will help reduce exposure to lead in drinking water and should be used to support underserved communities that are most at risk for exposure.” Under the Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation (WIIN) Act, EPA is announcing the availability of $10 million for projects to conduct lead service line replacements or implement corrosion control improvements and $10 million for projects that remove sources of lead in drinking water (e.g., fixtures, fountains, outlets, and plumbing materials) in schools or childcare facilities.

This EPA funding is in alignment with the goals of the Biden Administration’s Justice40 Initiative, which seeks to deliver at least 40 percent of the benefits of certain federal investments to underserved communities. The agency encourages applications that: S Support equity by prioritizing underserved communities.

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S F und reduction projects at drinking water systems with at least one lead action level exceedance within the last three years. S Target schools with at least 50 percent of the children receiving free and reduced lunch in Head Start facilities, and/or in areas with additional environmental health burdens (e.g., areas with older buildings likely to have lead-based paint). Lead poses serious health risks to both children and adults, but children are especially vulnerable, as their bodies and brains are still developing. Low-income and other historically underserved communities typically experience high levels of lead in their drinking water because they are disproportionately served by lead services lines. In addition to this announcement of funding availability, EPA is working with states, tribes, and territories to award over $50 million in Fiscal Year 2021 funding through EPA’s two other drinking water grant programs established by WIIN: the Voluntary Lead Testing in Schools and Child Care grant program, and the Small, Underserved, and Disadvantaged Communities (SUDC) Grant. S

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Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Harmful Algal Blooms? Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per the website, Protecting Florida Together, Education Center – Blue-Green Algae, bluegreen algae are microorganisms also known as a. Chrysophyta. b. cyanobacteria. c. nitrosomas. d. red tide. 2. Per the website, Protecting Florida Together, Education Center – Blue-Green Algae, environmental factors that contribute to bluegreen algae blooms are sunny days, warm water temperatures, still water conditions, and a plentiful supply of a. air. b. biochemical oxygen demand. c. nutrients. d. suspended solids. 3. Per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) in Water Bodies, what can blue-green algae HABs produce that can harm people, animals, aquatic ecosystems, the economy, drinking water supplies, property values, and recreational activities? a. Excess dissolved oxygen b. Hydrilla c. Red tide d. Toxins 4. Per the EPA Fact Sheet, “Cyanotoxins Drinking Water Advisories,” EPA has published advisories for which two cyanotoxins? a. Anatoxin and microcystin b. Cylindrospermopsin and Chrysophyta c. Cylindrospermopsin and microcystin d. Saxitoxin and microcystin 5. Per the EPA Fact Sheet, “Cyanotoxins Drinking Water Advisories,” the health advisories for the cyanotoxins levels in drinking water less than or equal to adverse human health impacts are unlikely to occur over what period of time? a. Three days b. Five days c. Seven days d. 10 days 6. T he EPA guide, “Recommendations for Public Water Systems to Manage Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water,” provides a stepwise approach

that water systems could use to inform their decisions on whether and how to monitor and/ or treat for cyanotoxins and when and how to communicate with stakeholders. What does step one involve? a. Activities for preparing for and observing potential blooms. b. Conducting a system-specific evaluation for vulnerability to blooms. c. Monitoring activities to determine whether cyanotoxins are present. d. Recommended communication and treatment activities if cyanotoxins are found. 7. Per the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Fact Sheet, “Harmful Algal Blooms,” the species of algae that causes most red tides in Florida is a. Alexandrium monilatum. b. Dolichospermum. c. Gymnodinium breve. d. Karenia brevis. 8. Per the FDEP website, Education Center – Red Tide, red tides tend to originate 10 to 40 miles offshore; however, the algae that causes red tides cannot live in a. brackish water. b. estuaries. c. freshwater systems. d. warm waters. 9. Per the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) Fact Sheet, “Pseudonitzschia spp,” Pseudo-nitzschia is a singlecelled, naturally occurring organism that can produce a neurotoxin that can kill or sicken marine mammals and seabirds, as well as affect humans due to shellfish poisoning. Pseudo-nitzschia belongs to a group of microscopic algae called a. blue-green algae. b. brown algae. c. diatoms. d. micro-algae. 10. Per the Protecting Florida Together website, through what means is relevant water quality information statewide, including blue-green algae, red tide, and nutrient monitoring data, delivered on the website? a. Accountability and Transparency Office b. Blue-green algae and red tide task forces c. Executive order d. Water quality dashboard

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Answers on page 62

References used for this quiz: • P rotecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Blue-Green Algae: https:// protectingfloridatogether.gov/education-center/ blue-green-algae • Protecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Red Tide: https://protectingfloridatogether.gov/educationcenter/red-tide • P rotecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Harmful Algal Blooms: https://protectingfloridatogether.gov/educationcenter/harmful-algal-blooms-habs • F lorida Department of Environmental Protection Fact Sheet, “Harmful Algal Blooms”: https:// floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/HarmfulAlgal%20Blooms-Fact-Sheet.pdf



• F lorida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fact Sheet, “Pseudo-nitzschia spp”: https://myfwc.com/media/12495/pseudonitzschia.pdf




• U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website, Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) in Water Bodies: https://www.epa. gov/cyanohabs



• U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Fact Sheet, “Cyanotoxins Drinking Water Advisories”: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2016-11/ documents/cyanotoxins_-_drinking_water_ advisories.pdf • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Recommendations for Public Water Systems to Manage Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water 2015”: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2018-11/ documents/cyanotoxin-management-drinkingwater.pdf

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com



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Florida Department of Environmental Protection Reuse Program: Management and Implementation Reuse is an integral part of water resources management, wastewater management, and ecosystem management in Florida. It reduces demands on valuable surface water and groundwater used for drinking water sources, eliminates discharges that may pollute valuable surface waters, recharges groundwater, and postpones costly investment for development of new water sources and supplies.

State Objectives The Florida Legislature has established “the encouragement and promotion of reuse of reclaimed water and water conservation” as one of the formal state objectives in Section 403.064(1), Florida Statutes (F.S.), and Section 373.250, F.S. It’s interesting to note that the objectives are included in the statute dealing with environmental and wastewater control and the statute dealing with water resources and water supply. Florida’s reuse program was implemented in response to the state’s reuse objectives.

Reuse Program The Florida Department of Environmental

Protection (FDEP) reuse program is charged with encouraging and promoting reuse in Florida, and also with protecting public health and environmental quality. The FDEP reuse coordinator, who has primary responsibility for implementation of the reuse program, is located in the domestic wastewater program in the division of water resource management. Rules are established and maintained to ensure that reuse projects are designed and operated such that public health and environmental quality will be protected. Reuse rule requirements are established in Chapter 62610, Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.). The program provides oversight of FDEP permitting activities to ensure that rules are applied consistently statewide. The FDEP district offices review permits to make sure they are consistent with reuse requirements established by FDEP rules, as well as with the applicable consumptive use permits (CUPs) issued by the water management districts (WMDs). The permits issued must also be consistent with the antidegradation policy. The FDEP also reviews reuse feasibility studies for wastewater treatment facilities. The key components of Florida’s reuse program are:

Reuse Feasibility Reuse Feasibility Studies Reuse feasibility studies are conducted in order to evaluate the capability of a domestic wastewater treatment plant to implement reuse. Rule 62-610.820, F.A.C., lists the rules and laws that require preparation of reuse feasibility studies as follows: (a) S ection 403.064, F.S., for domestic wastewater facilities located within, serving a population within, or discharging within designated water resource caution areas (WRCAs). (b) Th e Indian River Lagoon system and Basin Act, contained in Chapter 90-262, F.S. (c) Th e antidegradation policy in Rules 62-4.242 and 62-302.300, F.A.C., for new or expanded surface water discharges. (d) B y rules of the applicable WMD. The rule also provides the conditions for when reuse feasibility studies are not required. The FDEP, with assistance from the WMDs and the Public Service Commission (PSC), published the guidance document, “Guidelines for Preparation of Reuse Feasibility Studies for Applicants Having Responsibility for Wastewater Management.” These guidelines are used by applicants for domestic wastewater permits. They can also be used by applicants for CUPs when the applicant also has responsibility for wastewater management. The CUP applicants that are also responsible for wastewater management are required to submit reuse feasibility studies to the appropriate WMD for review. Domestic wastewater treatment permits issued to holders of a CUP must be consistent with the reuse requirements contained in the CUP, which must be consistent with FDEP rules, and the permitted facility must be located in, serve a population in, or discharge within a WRCA. The PSC has entered into memoranda of understanding (MOU) with the WMDs and FDEP. Under the MOU, PSC will assist the WMDs and FDEP in review of reuse feasibility studies submitted by utilities subject to PSC regulation. Water Resource Caution Areas The WRCAs are areas that have critical water supply problems or are projected to have such problems within the next 20 years. Reuse of reclaimed water from domestic wastewater

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treatment facilities is required within these WRCAs, unless such reuse is not economically, environmentally, or technically feasible. The WMDs have identified and designated WRCAs as required by Chapter 62-40, F.A.C. This also requires WMDs to designate WRCAs within the WMD water management plans. Domestic wastewater facilities located within, discharging within, or serving a population within designated WRCAs are required to prepare reuse feasibility studies before receiving a permit. Specifics about WRCAs from the WMDs are: S The Northwest Florida WMD designated the extreme southern portion of Okaloosa, Walton, and Santa Rosa counties and the Telogia Creek Basin in Gadsden County. S The Suwannee River WMD determined that it does not have any WRCAs. S The St. Johns River WMD designated the entire district as a WRCA. S The Southwest Florida WMD designated four areas (Northern Tampa Bay, Eastern Tampa Bay, Highlands Ridge, and Southern). S The South Florida WMD designated approximately 90 percent of the district.


These areas are important since Chapter 6240, F.A.C., requires reuse within these designated WRCAs.


Reuse Statutory Authority Chapter 403, F.S. This chapter provides the primary statutory authority for FDEP and its environmental control activities. Authorization is provided for implementation of the state’s wastewater management program, for implementation of the state’s drinking water program, and for other FDEP programs. This statute authorizes the issuance of permits for domestic wastewater facilities. Time frames for permit application review and issuance, or denial of permits, are established. This statute mandates that FDEP issue permits if the applicant demonstrates that the proposed facilities will meet applicable statutory and rule requirements, and will not violate water quality criteria.





Section 403.064, F.S. This contains the key statutory language dealing specifically with reuse. This section accomplishes the following. S Establishes the promotion and encouragement of reuse and water conservation as formal state objectives. S States that reuse is considered to be “in the public interest.” S Concludes that reuse systems designed and operated according to FDEP rules shall be


considered environmentally acceptable and not a threat to public health and safety. R equires applicants for domestic wastewater permits for facilities located in WRCAs to prepare a reuse feasibility study. E ncourages local governments to implement reuse projects. A llows local governments to allocate costs of reuse systems in a reasonable manner. M andates that the PSC allows utilities implementing reuse to recover the full cost of reuse facilities. R equires that CUPs be consistent with local reuse programs. M andates that FDEP ensures that permits under review are consistent with the reuse requirements of the appropriate CUP of the WMD, given that the facility is located within, serves, or discharges to a WRCA and the utility has responsibility for water supply and domestic wastewater. M andates that local governments implementing reuse systems require developers to comply with the reuse program. R equires the preparation of reuse feasibility studies for domestic wastewater treatment plants located in WRCAs. P laces limitations on deep well injection and other forms of effluent disposal. P rovides statutory authority for inside uses of reclaimed water.

Section 403.135, F.S. This section addresses civil liability issues for persons who use reclaimed water. A person practicing spray irrigation using reclaimed water is not liable for civil damages resulting from the irrigation. Acts of negligence and misconduct are not included in the limitation on liability.

The owners and operators of wastewater treatment facilities providing reclaimed water for reuse are not excused from civil liability, as long as the irrigation system complied with the appropriate rules and permits. Chapter 120, F.S. This chapter establishes rulemaking procedures for state agencies; provisions for administrative challenges are also established. Chapter 373, F.S. This chapter establishes the five WMDs, with a focus on regulation of water quantity. It provides several authorizations to FDEP and the WMDs, including the authority for the WMDs to issue CUPs for water use. Section 373.250, F.S. This section establishes the promotion of reuse of reclaimed water and water conservation as state objectives. It authorizes FDEP and WMDs to adopt rules to permit the use of water from other sources in emergency situations when reclaimed water becomes unavailable. It also precludes the WMDs from adopting rules that would give preference to users who do not use reclaimed water over users who use reclaimed water. Chapter 367, F.S. This chapter provides authorization for the PSC and its activities. The PSC has the responsibility for regulation of rates charged by investor-owned utilities located in specific counties in Florida. The PSC also has the ability to designate service areas to be served by an investor-owned utility. Continued on page 24

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


Continued from page 23

Reuse Coordinating Group Several state agencies are involved in reuse. In order to effectively coordinate the state’s reuse program, FDEP, PSC, and the five WMDs formed the Reuse Coordinating Group (formerly known as the Reuse Coordinating Committee) in 1992. Today, the Department of Health (DOH) and the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) are also members. The group coordinates reuse-related activities and promotes communication among the member agencies. The FDEP coordinates the reuse program, administers the domestic wastewater permitting program, and has the primary responsibility for administering water quality programs. The FDEP reuse coordinator chairs the group. The WMDs are responsible for designating WRCAs, issuing CUPs, and other water quantity issues. The WMDs may impose reuse requirements in CUPs for facilities in WRCAs. The PSC regulates rates for investor-owned utilities located in 37 Florida counties. These utilities are able to distribute the costs of reuse facilities among water, wastewater, and reclaimed water customers. The DOH serves as a technical advisor for public health issues, and DACS is involved in agricultural reuse projects. Reuse Coordinating Group Participating Agencies The agencies and organizations involved are: S Department of Environmental Protection S District offices of the Department of Environmental Protection S Department of Health S Department of Transportation

S D epartment of Agriculture and Consumer Affairs S S t. Johns River Water Management District S S outh Florida Water Management District S N orthwest Florida Water Management District S S uwannee River Water Management District S S outhwest Florida Water Management District

Funding for Domestic Wastewater Projects The FDEP helps fund domestic wastewater projects through the Clean Water State Revolving Fund Loan, the State Small Community Wastewater Construction Grants, and the State Bond Loan Program. The Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) is administered by FDEP through the State Revolving Fund Program. It makes low-interest loans available for construction, rehabilitation, and replacement of facilities needed to collect, treat, dispose of, or reuse municipal wastewater. It’s a revolving fund because loan repayments are used to make additional loans. The CWSRF program has surpassed $4 billion in total loans. The State Small Community Wastewater Construction Grants Program is administered by FDEP through the State Revolving Fund Program. This grant program assists small communities and wastewater authorities in planning, designing, and constructing wastewater management facilities. An eligible small community must be a municipality, county, or authority, with a total population of 10,000 or less, and have a per capita income (PCI) less than the state of Florida average PCI of $26,503. The State Bond Loan Program is jointly

administered by FDEP and the division of bond finance of the State Board of Administration. Cities, counties, districts, authorities, and other local agencies are eligible for receipt of this loan. This fund can be used for the construction of domestic wastewater facilities.

Reuse Programs of Other Agencies Public Service Commission The PSC has concentrated its efforts to promote water conservation and reuse of reclaimed water by developing formal lines of communication and coordination with FDEP and the WMDs. The PSC also establishes conservation-oriented rate structures, when appropriate, and allows recovery of conservation program expenses in rates. It has been actively involved in the development of a statewide water conservation plan with FDEP and the WMDs, and has entered into MOU with FDEP and WMDs addressing water conservation and reuse issues. Reuse rates, as well as other rates for investorowned utilities, are regulated by PSC. While PSC reviews investments in lines and treatment plants in order to determine the amount a “used and useful” plant (the plant necessary to serve the current customers, plus an allowance for growth) is to be recovered in rates, the Florida Statutes require 100 percent of reclamation plant costs to be recovered. The statutes also provide for reuse costs to be recovered from a utility’s potable water, wastewater, or reclaimed water customers, or any combination thereof, as the commission deems appropriate. High-quality reclaimed water used to irrigate a golf course conserves higherquality drinking water in the aquifer. Sharing reuse costs among the potable water, wastewater, and reclaimed water customers is justified on the basis that all customers, including potable water customers, benefit from the preservation of the aquifer. Pursuant to the MOU between PSC and FDEP, the PSC will provide feasibility analyses of the financial impacts of reuse projects on both the customers and the wastewater utilities. The MOU also provides that PSC and FDEP, when appropriate, will jointly conduct meetings with customers to inform them of the need for reuse projects and the potential impact the projects will have on service rates. Department of Health The DOH is represented on the state’s Reuse Coordinating Group. The state virologist at the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (the predecessor agency of DOH) played a critical role in the development of the state’s high-level disinfection requirements for protecting public health. Reclaimed water

24 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

regulated by Part III of the F.A.C. must meet the high-level disinfection requirements, producing an essentially pathogen-free product that meets many of the primary and secondary drinking water standards (even though it’s not intended for drinking water purposes). To further protect public health, FDEP district offices must provide the appropriate county health departments with a copy of the notice of intent to issue a permit, along with the draft permit, for all new or expanded reuse systems. In addition, the revisions to Chapter 62-610, F.A.C., require applicants for certain groundwater recharge and indirect potable reuse permits to notify county health departments during the planning stages of their projects. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services The DACS has limited involvement in the state’s reuse program. The DACS is represented on the state’s Reuse Coordinating Group. By serving on the group, DACS brings the reuse issues and concerns of agricultural farmers before the group and is able to keep the farmers and FDEP up to date on reuse issues. Department of Economic Opportunity The Department of Economic Opportunity (DEO), formerly known as the Department of Community Affairs, has coordinated efforts with FDEP to make the state’s building codes consistent with the Florida Statutes and the F.A.C. regarding indoor uses of reclaimed water.

Water Management District Reuse Programs Northwest Florida Water Management District The Northwest Florida Water Management District (NFWMD) has an integrated approach to encourage and promote reuse of reclaimed water that involves planning, regulation, and cooperative project efforts. The district’s water supply assessments and regional water supply plans address the potential for using reclaimed water as an alternative water supply. Rule Chapter 40A-2, F.A.C., promotes utilizing the lowest-quality water source that is suitable for the purpose, and in many instances, reclaimed water fulfills this requirement. Reuse Requirements Inside Water Resource Caution Areas Nonpotable water use permittees located in a WRCA are required to use reclaimed water unless it’s determined not to be economically, environmentally, or technically feasible. Chapter 40A-2, F.A.C., states that public-supply water use permittees in a WRCA that operate domestic wastewater treatment plants shall provide an analysis of the economic, environmental, and

technical feasibility of providing reclaimed water for reuse within five years of providing reuse of available reclaimed water supplies. Reuse Requirements Outside Water Resource Caution Areas While reuse efforts are concentrated within WRCAs, the district considers the use of reclaimed water outside of these areas an important resource management strategy. Chapter 40A-2, F.A.C., states that all nonpotable water use permittees must submit a reuse feasibility information form. Funding Assistance The district’s ad valorem revenue is limited by a state constitutional and statutory mil rate cap. To support the development of reclaimed water, the district works with state and local governments, local and regional utilities, and other partners in project development to seek funding opportunities that may include local cost-share, state legislative appropriations, state trust fund programs and grants, and/or federal resources. St. Johns River Water Management District Reuse The St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) governing board policy is to implement reuse to the maximum extent feasible and provide greater availability of reclaimed water districtwide to conserve available water resources, in accordance with the state of Florida’s objective to encourage and promote water conservation and reuse. All SJRWMD programs must therefore pertain to reuse, including all pertinent regulatory requirements, planning, coordination efforts, and funding programs, and are applied districtwide. Reuse Requirements Inside Water Resource Caution Areas Subsection 62-40.401(5), F.A.C., requires

the WMDs to designate WRCAs as regions where reuse would be required if economically, environmentally, and technically feasible. Prior to the implementation of Subsection 62-40.401(5), F.A.C., SJRWMD policy and practice already required reuse throughout the district, where available and feasible; therefore, the SJRWMD governing board designated the entire district as a water conservation area to meet the requirements of the subsection. The water conservation area designation was changed to a WRCA to conform with statewide nomenclature, but still covers the entire district. Chapter 40C-2, FAC, requires reuse of reclaimed water where feasible for all consumptive use permittees. In addition to requiring reuse where feasible, the CUP program of SJRWMD also provides incentives for implementing reuse by including it as a favorable factor when determining permit durations and exempting reclaimed water from restricted outdoor irrigation hours. Where reuse is not currently feasible, most SJRWMD permits include a condition that requires the permittee to implement reuse when it becomes feasible. The lowest-acceptable-quality water source, including reclaimed water, which is addressed in paragraph 40C-2.301(4)(f), F.A.C., must be utilized for each consumptive use. To use a higher-quality water source, an applicant must demonstrate that the use of all lowerquality water sources will not be economically, environmentally, or technically feasible. If the applicant demonstrates that the use of a lower-quality water source would result in environmental impacts that outweigh water savings, a higher-quality source may be utilized. Reuse Requirements Outside Water Resource Caution Areas The SJRWMD has designated the whole district as a WRCA. Continued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


Continued from page 25 Funding Assistance The SJRWMD has several cost-sharing programs for projects that create sustainable water resources, provide flood protection, and enhance conservation efforts. Funding may be available for local governments, agricultural interests, and other entities. South Florida Water Management District The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is a regional governmental agency that oversees the water resources in the southern half of the state, covering 16 counties from Orlando to the Florida Keys. The SFWMD has developed an approach to encourage and promote reuse of reclaimed water that involves planning, regulation, cooperative funding, and other coordination and cooperative efforts. The reuse program has been aggressive and successful in the utilization of reclaimed water.

The rules in Chapter 40E-2, F.A.C., provide the foundation for the district’s regulatory reuse policies. All water use permit applicants within the SFWMD are required to address the use of reclaimed water as part of obtaining a permit for water use. For water users, this involves evaluating the use of reclaimed water as a water source; for public water suppliers, which directly or indirectly control a wastewater treatment facility, this involves implementing a feasible reuse program. The SFWMD issues water use permits with durations of up to 20 years. One factor considered in determining the duration of a permit is the development of alternative water sources, including the use of reclaimed water. Reuse Requirements Inside Water Resource Caution Areas Critical WRCAs include all or part of 12 of the SFWMD’s 16 counties. Pursuant to Chapter 40E-23, F.A.C., reclaimed water is required to be used in these areas unless it’s demonstrated by

Statement of Support for Water Reuse WHEREAS, water reuse is defined as the beneficial use of reclaimed water (treated wastewater) for landscape and golf course irrigation; agricultural irrigation; industrial uses; toilet flushing; fire protection; decorative water features; groundwater recharge; indirect potable reuse; wetlands creation, restoration, and enhancement; and other uses allowed by Florida’s reuse rules; and WHEREAS, Florida Statutes establish the encouragement and promotion of water reuse as state objectives; and WHEREAS, Florida’s Water Resource Implementation Rule advocates and directs that reuse of reclaimed water be established as an integral part of water and wastewater management programs in Florida; and WHEREAS, water reuse provides an environmentally sound means for managing wastewater, while conserving water and replenishing valuable water supplies; and WHEREAS, Florida law and regulations are fully protective of public health and environmental quality; and WHEREAS, the capacity of water reuse systems in Florida exceeds one billion gallons per day; and WHEREAS, Florida’s extensive experience with water reuse has demonstrated the viability and acceptability of water reuse practice; and WHEREAS, EPA encourages water reuse as a means for managing wastewater under the provisions of the Clean Water Act; and WHEREAS, Florida Statutes require the Florida Public Service Commission to allow recovery of all prudent reuse costs in customer rates, which may be allocated among the utilities’ water, wastewater, or reuse customers, or any combination thereof; and WHEREAS, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the water management districts have formally agreed to assist the Florida Public Service Commission in rate cases in the proper evaluation of reuse issues and the resulting costs, and promote customer acceptance of reuse through expert testimony at formal hearings, and at informal customer meetings; and WHEREAS, Congress established pollution prevention as a national objective in the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, and EPA includes increased efficiency in the use of water as part of a new environmental ethic; and WHEREAS, the U,S Environmental Protection Agency, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and the state’s water management districts have participated in the funding of water reuse systems in Florida and all participating agencies have encouraged and promoted the safe implementation of water reuse in Florida. NOW, THEREFORE, the participating agencies resolve to continue to encourage and promote water reuse, to work together to overcome institutional and regulatory disincentives and funding constraints, to ensure protection of public health and environmental quality, and to promote public acceptance of water reuse in Florida.

26 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the water use permit applicant that reuse is not environmentally, economically, or technically feasible. Reuse Requirements Outside Water Resource Caution Areas In those areas of the district that are not designated a WRCA, reclaimed water must be used in place of higher-quality water sources when reclaimed water is readily available, unless it’s demonstrated by the water use permit applicant that reuse is not feasible. Funding Assistance The district’s planning and regulatory efforts are complemented by an alternative water supply funding program that provides funding to local governments, public or private utilities, and other users for projects that develop alternative water supplies or promote water conservation. Southwest Florida Water Management District Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) encourages and promotes water conservation and reuse of reclaimed water, as defined by FDEP, as state objectives that are considered to be in the public interest. It has developed an effective reuse program that includes reuse goals, regulatory policies, and three funding assistance programs. The goals are set forth in the district’s water management plan (WMP) and regional water supply plan (RWSP). Reuse Requirements Inside Water Resource Caution Areas The SWFWMD has declared four WRCAs. The rules in Chapter 40D-2, F.A.C., provide the foundation for the district’s regulatory reuse policies. Domestic wastewater treatment facilities located in, serving a population within, or discharging to, WRCAs must investigate the feasibility of water reuse. If it’s determined feasible, then reclaimed water must be used. If reclaimed water becomes available, water use permittees must accept it, provided that the quantity and quality are acceptable for intended use, and use is technically, environmentally, and economically feasible. Water use permittees who generate reclaimed water must submit an annual report to the district summarizing the quantity of wastewater generated, the quantity of reclaimed water reused, a list of reclaimed water customers, and a map depicting the reuse service area. Water users who receive reclaimed water must also submit an annual report that gives an account of their use of reclaimed water. Reuse Requirements Outside Water Resource Caution Areas In areas outside of WRCAs, Chapter 40D2, F.A.C., requires applicants to use the lowest-

quality water available, including reclaimed water, for the proposed use, if it’s technically, environmentally, and economically feasible. Funding Assistance The SWFWMD cooperative funding initiative program provides financial assistance to local governments and utilities for water resource-related projects, including reclaimed water projects. Typically 50 percent of the cost of design and construction, pumping, storage, transmission, distribution, related appurtenances, and development of reuse master plans is funded. The district has developed a comprehensive reclaimed water webpage to assist suppliers and users in maximizing available reclaimed water resources. Suwannee River Water Management District Reuse Program The Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) is committed to developing alternative water supply programs with both public and private partners. The project development focus will balance the needs of communities and natural systems. Alternative water supply funding is directed to partnerships that foster collaborative efforts in addressing resource issues.

Cost-share funding is made available to communities and other water users that have identified needs and have provided appropriate assurances that the project will be implemented where fiscally practicable. Reuse Requirements Inside Water Resource Caution Areas For projects located either wholly or in part within WRCAs, the district shall presume that the use of alternative water supplies is feasible and must be implemented consistent with the district’s “Water Use Permitting Guide.” Applicants shall coordinate with the district to identify alternative water supplies. Reuse Requirements Outside Water Resource Caution Areas The applicant shall provide a feasibility assessment for alternative water supplies. The use of an alternative water supply is considered environmentally feasible if the source is permitted or permittable under Chapter 373 or Chapter 403, F.S. The use of an alternative water supply is considered technically feasible if an uncommitted, adequate supply of alternative water is available at the site of the proposed use to meet all or part of the applicant’s water needs

Funding Assistance The district provides cooperative funding programs and grant opportunities for projects that focus on ensuring adequate and sustainable water supply, improving and maintaining good water quality, restoring and protecting natural systems, and providing flood protection.

Statement of Support for Water Reuse The statement of support, developed by all of the participating agencies, is a clear statement of their support for water reuse and their commitment to working together to encourage and promote water reuse in Florida (see sidebar).

Water Reuse for Florida: Strategies for Effective Use of Reclaimed Water This report is a useful and important document. The centerpiece of the report is a series of strategies designed to encourage efficient and effective use of reclaimed water in Florida. It can also serve as a reference to the evolution of Florida’s water reuse program and a roadmap for water reuse in the 21st century. S

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Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022



Supply Chain Issues Affecting Water and Wastewater Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE President, FWEA

continued shortages of workers—not just in the U.S., but worldwide. The global economy remains out of sync with the disruption brought about by COVID-19 as we try to realign the supply chain.

Increased Demand and Rising Costs


upply chain issues are in the news a lot lately. The United States has been blessed for so long that it is hard to understand the state of our economy and the supply chain issues that we are currently facing. America, the land of plenty, is what we’re used to hearing. We have seen the empty shelves in the supermarkets and retail stores and experienced delays in ordering materials and equipment. And not just supply chain issues, but also inflation and rising costs that we have not seen for over a generation. How did this happen?

COVID-19 Got it Started One thing is for certain: COVID-19 helped to bring about the current supply chain issues. In 2020, COVID-19 had a significant impact on the global supply chain. Many companies reduced worker levels to help minimize the spread of the virus. Government shutdowns and ongoing virus-mitigation measures led to

Demand has also grown significantly over the past two years, compounding the problem, with reduced worker levels and the resulting increased costs. While consumer demand can increase in a matter of months, it takes more time to increase production, with the need for hiring new employees to meet that demand. Among the products in tight supply facing utilities is building materials. High material costs and a lack of supply are lengthening lead times of construction projects and pushing contractors to use alternate materials. Overall construction input prices are up 22.3 percent from a year ago, with nonresidential construction prices up 23.2 percent, according to the Association of Builders and Contractors.

Shortages are Making it Difficult to Catch Up Ports, warehouses, and trucking companies are processing more goods than

Producer Price Index (source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)

28 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

ever before, while dealing with a series of shortages, including workers, equipment, and space. A national labor shortage has left warehouse companies scrambling for employees and key U.S. ports are working with limited personnel. According to Business Insider, “the turnaround time for a container in the ports (Los Angeles and Long Beach) nearly doubled in 2021 as compared to averages seen in 2017 through 2019. Turnaround time jumped from 3.6 days to 6.4 days—nearly five days longer than several ports in Asia, which operate 24/7.” Adding to the delays at U.S. ports is a shortage of truck drivers, which has led to further backups. The Port of Los Angeles is one of the world’s busiest seaports, is a leading gateway for international trade in North America, and has ranked as the number one container port in the U.S. each year since 2000. In 2021, the port handled a total of 10.7 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), the busiest calendar year on record.

Impact on Utilities The global supply chain disruption is causing extremely long lead times and higherthan-normal costs for public and private utilities. The latest American Water Works Association (AWWA) survey finds that 40 percent of water utilities are struggling to hire staff, 72 percent are experiencing supply chain challenges, and 72 percent reported difficulty obtaining pipes or other infrastructure components. Utilities also reported supply chain issues with vehicles (48 percent of respondents), electronic equipment (46 percent), and chemicals (45 percent). Some utilities are struggling to obtain computer chips for their vehicles, and many are seeking innovative approaches to alleviate the supply chain issues and rising costs. To address the supply chain issues some utilities are using asset management software to help prioritize and schedule daily operational maintenance activities. While there are several actions a utility company can take to protect its supply chain from disruption, an effective approach is to improve its ability to predict demand.

New Solutions Needed Supply chain disruptions will continue to pose challenges to the water industry. To maintain high levels of service, it is critical that water utility companies adopt new solutions and resources for long-term planning and investment.

• S upply Chain Dive. Shortages 2022: Five Products Expected to be in Tight Supply This Year. Jan. 31, 2022. • Water World, Staff Shortages: Supply Chains are Water Sector’s Latest Challenges. Nov. 24, 2021.

• W ater and Wastes Digest. How Water Utilities Can Be More Resilient During Supply Chain Disruptions. Feb. 8, 2022. • The Port of Los Angeles: https://www. portoflosangeles.org/.


References • B usiness Insider. Moody’s Warns of “Dark Clouds Ahead” for the Global Supply Chain as 77% of the World’s Largest Ports Face Backlogs. Oct. 14, 2021. • Business Insider. Why the Supply Chain is in Crisis, Spurring an “Everything Shortage.” Oct. 21, 2021.

Aerial photo of Port of Los Angeles – Pier 400.

Venner to Represent WEF at Florida Water Resources Conference Water Environment Federation ®

the water quality people


Ifetayo Venner, P.E., president-elect of the 2021-22 board of trustees for the Water Environment Federation (WEF), will be the organizarion’s representative at the Florida Water Resources Conference, to be held April 24-27 in Daytona Beach. Venner is a professional engineer and Envision Sustainability professional with Arcadis, a global design and consultancy firm for natural and built assets. She is the North America wastewater and water sustainability leader. She has been an active member of WEF since joining after college, participating in committees and task forces related to water resource recovery facility design, sustainability, and WEF governance. She is a member of the Florida Water Environment Association and the Water Environment Association of Texas. Venner is a licensed professional engineer in Florida and Texas. She has a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from McGill University, a master’s degree in environmental engineering and science from Stanford University, and an MBA, with a concentration in management and sustainability, from the University of South Florida. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


L ET ’S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Job Hazard Analysis: Identify and Reduce Hazards


job hazard analysis (JHA) is a safety evaluation process. Many companies, both large and small, have successfully used a JHA to identify potential dangers of specific tasks in order to reduce the risk of injury to workers. It takes a little time to do a proper JHA, but it’s time well spent. Be sure to involve employees in the process—they perform the work and often can easily identify the risks and know the best ways to work more safely.

How to Conduct a Job Hazard Analysis Here are some things to consider when doing an analysis: S Start by talking to your employees. Tell them what you are doing and why. Explain that you are studying the safety of the work tasks they perform and not their work performance. S Review your company’s accident/injury/ illness/near-miss history to determine which jobs pose the highest risk. S Identify the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards that

apply to your jobs, and incorporate the OSHA requirements into the JHA. S Evaluate jobs where you have identified violations of OSHA standards and/or violations of company safety procedures. List the jobs having the greatest potential to cause serious injuries or illness, even if there is no history of such problems. S Make a note of the jobs in which a simple mistake could lead to severe injury. S Evaluate jobs that are new or have been changed and those jobs that are so complex they require written instructions. Watch each worker perform his or her job in a routine manner. List each step of each task in the order in which it takes place. Begin each step with a verb; for example: “Turn on the saw.” Do not make the steps too broad or too detailed While you are making a record of the job, you may want to photograph or videotape each step for further analysis. Review the steps with all the workers who do the same job to make sure nothing is been left out. Identify the hazards of each step and ask: S What can go wrong? S What are the consequences if something does go wrong?

S H ow could an accident happen? S Are there other contributing factors? The weather, seasonal workload, or new construction are examples. S How likely is it that an accident will occur?

Review the List of Hazards With Employees Your employees can provide a tremendous amount of information. Take the time to talk to them—and be sure to listen. Asking for their honest input will engage them in the process and lead to a higher level of safety awareness and compliance. You will likely hear several practical ways they believe the job hazards and job processes affecting them can be eliminated or at least reduced.

Eliminate or Reduce the Safety Hazards You’ve evaluated the findings in your analysis and concluded there’s a safer way to do the job. Now your work begins. In your JHA you’ll need to: S Make any changes to the equipment, tools, or engineering controls to eliminate a

Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

30 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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hazard. Such changes might include adding machine guards, improving lighting, or having better ventilation. S Change the work processes. S Change the administrative controls or make changes in how the task is done if engineering controls aren’t possible. Perhaps you could rotate jobs, change the steps in the process, or provide additional training. S When engineering and administrative controls aren’t possible or don’t adequately protect the workers, make additions and changes in the required personal protective equipment as needed.

Implement Your Changes To complete the JHA, you’ll need to correct all unsafe conditions and processes. The resulting changes may require additional training for your employees. Make sure they understand the changes and the reasons behind those changes. Periodically review the JHA; you may find hazards you missed before. Update and review the document when the task or process changes or when injuries or a close call occur when performing the recommended task. You’ll find your JHA to be a valuable tool. Not only will it help to reduce worker injuries, but it’s a document you can use for training purposes. It can also serve as a reference tool in the event of an accident investigation.

Resources For additional information read the OSHA booklet on job hazard analysis: www.osha.gov/ Publications/osha3071.pdf, or see American Water Works Association (AWWA) Manual M3, Safety Management for Utilities. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

Exhibitor Registration Starts June 1!

Attendee Registration Starts August 1!

Aging Well - Protecting Our Infrastructure

November 27 to December 1, 2022 Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress


Abstract Submittal Aging Well- Protecting Our Infrastructure

Abstracts will be accepted in WORD ONLY via email to:

Call for Papers

Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., Technical Program Chair at h2o_man@bellsouth.net

Abstracts must be submitted by: Thursday, June 30, 2022 To participate in an FSAWWA conference, the first step is submitting an abstract to be considered for a presentation at the conference. There is no guarantee that the paper you submit will be chosen, but if your paper is well thought-out and pertinent to the subject matter of the conference, then your chances of being selected go up. FSAWWA wishes to invite authors and experts in the field to submit abstracts on a variety of sustainability topics, including:

Potential Session Categories 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

Cybersecurity Asset Management and GIS Sanitary Sewer Systems Potable Reuse PFAS/PFOS Emerging Water Quality Issues (UCMR 5 Testing, LCRR, etc.) Alternative Water Solutions – No-Surface - Discharge Rule, I Need More Water!

Please attach a cover page to the abstract which includes the following information: a) Suggested Session Category b) Paper Title c) Names of Authors d) Name of Presenter(s) e) Main contact including name, title, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and email

“Best Paper” Competition Each year awards are presented to the best papers during the Fall Conference Business Luncheon.

08 Solutions for Water Treatment Challenges 09 Hydraulic Modeling – Solutions to Increase Knowledge and Address Challenges 10 Funding the Utility System 11 Workforce Planning – Is It Us?

Questions? Call 239-250-2423

12 Water Conservation

Aging Well - Protecting Our Infrastructure Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 27 to December 1, 2022.

Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA.

Scholarships valued up to $7,000 will be awarded in both undergraduate and graduate categories by the Florida Section American Water Works Association.


• Must be a student enrolled (not online) in a Florida university and living in Florida Must be a full-time student or part-time student enrolled and completing a • minimum of 6 credits during the current semester. Student must remain registered for 6 credits and pass them successfully.

Must be a student within 60 credits of graduation with a bachelor’s degree. • Note: Seniors who are pursuing a graduate degree may apply and use the

scholarship for their graduate studies, but must provide proof of acceptance to their graduate degree program

Maintain good standing in academic status with a GPA of 3.0 or higher based • on a 4.0 system Must intend on pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field with a plan to • remain in Florida to pursue their career (outlined by the applicant in the application) Or enrolled in one of the CIP educational codes (for a list visit fsawwa.org/2022Likins) • and have indicated an interest in pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field

Added Value:

All applicants receive 1-year free student American Water Works Association • (AWWA) membership.

Key benefits of Student Membership:

• Jump-Start Your Career • Gain Experience • Stay Informed



Apply by June 30, 2022 For application, please visit:

fsawwa.org/2022likins 34 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal


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Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022



Cities Collaborating to Build Resilience and Leverage Funding Sarah Deslauriers, Juan Oquendo, and Rebecca Harvey


s communities across the United States experience increasingly variable impacts of climate change, members of the Coastal Resilience Partnership (CRP) of Southeast Palm Beach County (shown in Figure 1) came together to proactively plan and prepare their communities for such impacts. The state of Florida has always been on the front lines when it comes to weatherrelated risks, regularly practicing response and recovery tactics due to extreme events. In addition to the impacts the state is already experiencing, regulatory programs and organizations across the state are expecting communities to plan for the added threat of climate change, including (but not limited to):

Florida’s Peril of Flood Act Signed in 2015, this act requires that comprehensive plans include sea level rise as one of the causes of flood risk addressed in the section on “redevelopment principles, strategies, and engineering solutions.” Florida Resilient Coastlines Program Through the FRCP, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) is working to ensure collaboration among coastal communities faced with the impacts of climate change. The Florida Resilient Coastlines Program (FRCP) coordinated resources to prepare Florida’s coastal communities and habitats for the effects of climate change through technical assistance and financial support. The program is specifically focused on rising

Figure 1. Members of Florida’s Coastal Resilience Partnership of Southeast Palm Beach County

36 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Sarah Deslauriers is vice president–climate change and resilience lead with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Walnut Creek, Calif. Juan Oquendo is vice president–Florida business development manager with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Miami. Rebecca Harvey is sustainability coordinator–city manager’s office with City of Boynton Beach, Fla.

sea levels, increasingly complex flooding, erosion, and habitat shifts. Resilient Florida Program The Resilient Florida Program (RFP), signed into law in 2021, requires a coordinated approach to Florida’s coastal and inland resilience, building upon the FRCP. The program enhances efforts to protect inland waterways, coastlines, and shores, which serve as natural defenses against sea level rise. The legislation will facilitate the largest investment in Florida’s history to prepare communities for the impacts of climate change, including sea level rise, intensified storms, and flooding. Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact The Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact (SFRCCC or compact) is a collaboration among Broward, MiamiDade, Monroe, and Palm Beach counties that began in 2010 and is focused on coordinating mitigation and adaptation activities across county lines. The compact represents a new form of regional climate governance that allows local governments to set the agenda for adaptation, while providing state and federal agencies access to technical assistance and support. Each of these programs highlights the significant benefits of taking a regional approach to climate change planning. In fact, the FDEP distributed funds to FRCP, which then awarded the CRP its first grant with the purpose of supporting the development of a framework to assess climate vulnerability and prioritize adaptation strategies as a Continued on page 38





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Continued from page 36 region. The CRP has subsequently been awarded two more grants (another one from FRCP and one from the RFP) in support of the next phases of work. The CRP utilized the grant to achieve Phase I of the adaptation planning process, develop a governance structure, and provide a framework for performing a regional climate change vulnerability assessment (CCVA). Critical elements for this initial phase included: S I dentifying a preliminary list of key asset categories (people, property, water infrastructure, transportation infrastructure, natural assets, critical facilities, and economy). S I dentifying a preliminary list of climate change impacts affecting the asset categories (e.g., sea level rise, storm surge, precipitation, lightning, temperature, extreme winds, and wildfires). S P erforming a data inventory and gap analysis to understand the depth and breadth of data available in each community for assessing the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of assets. S D eveloping the CCVA methodology to be performed in the next phase.

Phase I Planning Actions The CRP members began meeting formally in 2018 to proactively plan for implementing adaptive measures to: S W ithstand today’s extreme weather events. S B e responsive to legislation calling for jurisdictions to plan for impacts of climate change. S I mplement measures to prepare for future effects of sea level rise and further climate change. Before moving forward with any projects, the CRP agreed to develop guiding principles to use when approaching this CCVA and related projects. The seven guiding principles they agreed on are: Partnership and Collaboration Climate change and its impacts do not stop at municipal borders, and the adaptation of one community can be strengthened or weakened by actions in another. The CRP will work to coordinate climate-adaptation

efforts across neighboring jurisdictions, consider public investments and initiatives, and examine opportunities for public-private partnerships.

adaptation action areas will allow for green or planned open space, protect and possibly expand habitats, and reduce or mitigate sources of pollution.

Infrastructure and Built Environment Strategies to protect the built environment should incorporate the best available climate science and projections from sources such as the SFRCCC. Climate projections and adaptation strategies will be based on a time horizon relevant to the lifespan and criticality of the asset(s) in question. The CRP recognizes that adaptation should balance engineering solutions, including nature-based strategies with long-term planning strategies, and also including managed retreat. The CRP will identify and use adaptation action areas1 to prioritize public investments and limit new development in areas most vulnerable to climate impacts.

Social Equity Among other priorities, adaptation and resilience strategies should strive to protect human life, public and private property, and cultural resources from climate change impacts. Development and evaluation of such strategies should consider economic and social vulnerabilities and opportunities to avoid climate impacts that may disproportionately affect disadvantaged communities and populations.

Economy Adapting to climate change is essential to the region’s economy. Impacted sectors should be identified to mitigate economic losses and transition the labor force to growth sectors. Where economic development is appropriate, it should be accomplished in a manner that protects, maintains, and enhances coastal resources, the built environment, historic sites, and tourism. It should also respect local land development regulations and evolving private property rights jurisprudence. Natural Environment Policy development should consider climate change impacts based on the best available science and aim for the highest possible level of protection of natural resources, biodiversity, natural systems (ecosystems/habitats), and environmental quality. Strategies identified within the


hile adaptation action areas are an W optional designation within a local government’s comprehensive plan for areas that experience coastal flooding (and are vulnerable to the related impacts of rising sea levels), they are important to consider since they are used to prioritize funding for infrastructure needs and adaptation planning.

38 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Emergency Response Emergency response plans and communication strategies should help municipalities prepare for and respond to major disruptions resulting from climate change impacts. The goal is maintaining and quickly recovering critical operations to reduce adverse effects on people, property, and the environment. Communication Stakeholder outreach and messaging about the CRP’s work should be directed to all populations via social and traditional media. Outreach materials should include a basic introduction to the issues, description of potential responses, and discussion of potential impacts of a changing environment on services. Messaging should be sciencebased, nonpartisan, and transparent, with the aim of allowing stakeholders to make informed decisions. After the CRP confirmed the guiding principles, it was decided to move forward with developing a formal governance structure and pursue the critical elements of the planning phase (as listed previously).

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First Steps in Regional Planning: Collecting Background Information


The first step of any regional project is to understand what individual CRP members have already completed toward assessing their own vulnerability and resilience to climate change. This enables the team to build an understanding of what has been either completed or initiated to date, including what data have been collected. This task was initiated by distributing a “Report and Data Request” to the CRP steering committee members. The project team reviewed the




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existing plans and reports provided by each community and developed a matrix summarizing each item by community, title of the document/data, and the main goals of the report/plan/data collection. This information was then used to inform the data inventory for the CCVA.

Defining Critical Asset Categories and Climate Impacts While the team assessed what has already been done across the CRP membership, the partnership met to confirm the preliminary lists of asset categories (critical facilities/ services, economy, natural assets, people, property, transportation, and water) and climate change impacts (temperature, sea level rise, storm surge, precipitation, extreme winds, lightning, and wildfires) to be considered for inclusion in a CCVA. Defining these aspects allows the project team to run a proper data gap analysis and to understand what data are missing and needed in order to proceed with a CCVA.

Performing a Data Gap Analysis As part of the request for existing plans, reports, and data, the project team also requested that CRP members provide geographic information system (GIS) data layers related to the selected asset categories, as well as identify additional priority information, such as known areas of king tide flooding, tourism, and economic development. The team collected GIS data from CRP member communities with the following steps: S H eld introductory meeting with communities S I dentified specific community contacts for data collection S D elivered data request S P rovided county map with areas for direct markup by members S C ommunities identified areas of concern on the map S P roject team facilitated interactive data collection with ArcGIS online or via file transfer S F inal follow-up with community contacts to collect remaining data The next step was to perform a data gap analysis, identifying data required for completing a CCVA that is missing from the inventory. This information informs recommendations relating to the approach

Figure 2. General Framework for Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment

for collecting any additional data needed to successfully complete the CCVA (Phase II) for the CRP’s consideration. To better understand the data gap analysis, it’s important to note that the team encountered two issues affecting data collection and inventory. First, for security reasons, the water utilities in the larger cities are reluctant to share locational data of critical water infrastructure. Second, some of the smaller towns that participated in Phase I (e.g., Briny Breezes and South Palm Beach), do not have GIS data for the community assets in question. It’s uncertain whether they will commit the resources to convert their information to GIS until they understand exactly what the CCVA will entail (Phase II). For these reasons, the data gap analysis does not consist of a single “synthesized spatial dataset”; rather, the deliverable is composed of the following: S An inventory of all GIS data collected to date. S Maps showing examples of the types of (nonprotected) data collected. S A map of “areas of concern” identified through anecdotal information provided by participants. S A summary of missing data and additional needs for performing the CCVA.

Developing the CCVA Framework for Phase II

development of a general framework for the CRP to follow in performing the CCVA in Phase II. The framework consists of seven steps (across three phases) adapted from various federal and state agency approaches (two of which have been completed in Phase I). By following the requirements of the federal and state approaches, the funding eligibility of recommended projects increases. The seven steps and three phases are shown in Figure 2. While the CRP consists of eleven jurisdictions, all of which participated in the initial planning process (Phase I), eight jurisdictions ultimately signed an interlocal agreement to complete the joint CCVA (Phase II), and they are now in Phase III of the process, updating the completed CCVA to become compliant with the Resilient Florida Program.

Summary This article summarizes the evolution of the CRP and its governance structure, as well as the process it undertook to develop the framework and guiding principles necessary for performing a regional CCVA. It also provides the background of regulatory programs and initiatives driving collaborative approaches to address climate change impacts and the next steps the CRP is taking that leverage and address these programs. S

A final element of Phase I was the

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022



Reuse: Plastics Shaming? Patrick “Murf ” Murphy

President, FWPCOA


as anyone seen the television commercial that says “Only 9 percent of plastic waste is recycled worldwide”? If you Google that, the report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states that about 50 percent went to landfills; 22 percent was disposed of in uncontrolled dumpsites, burned in pits, or leaked into the environment; and 19 percent was incinerated. It also reports that new technologies related to decreasing the environmental footprint of plastics was only 1.2 percent of all innovation concerning the product. All that did was make me wonder if anyone pushed out an edict that gave everyone five months to come up with a plan to eliminate other disposals for plastics and go to 100 percent recycling in 10 years?

I hear you say, “Let it go, Murf.” I realize it’s not oranges to oranges, but according to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) One Water Florida website, the state uses 48 percent of total domestic wastewater, making it the nation’s leader in water reuse. That’s doggone good, but it seems like only those of us in the water industry hear that news. On that same site, it points out that “more than 830 million gallons of treated water per day are disposed (my italics) into Florida’s surface water bodies or deep disposal wells. Through advanced treatment and continued conservation efforts, this unused source could supply Florida with most of its projected water needs.” Shame on us for not being more careful about how we word things. Disposed— really? Maybe that’s too critical, but having an advanced wastewater treatment facility discharging into a surface water (a stormwater conveyance canal that leads to two creeks and a river to Tampa Bay) and seeing those creeks run dry from pastureland irrigation and natural water cycle steps does not mean we “disposed” of the water. I know it’s very easy for all of us to

downplay our roles, and sometimes we think that some humor might help. I’ve probably been one of the main offenders in not carefully wording explanations or descriptions of what we are trying to do in our jobs. For example, I’m sure that the person(s) that came up with the phrase “toilet to tap” thought they had hit on a winner, but it was an easy target for haters. I have jokingly said that I’m a “turd herder,” which is not the image I should be putting in our customers’ minds. We all must change our conversations to elevate the status of our profession, starting from our distribution system operators in the field, customer relations personnel directing calls, treatment plant operators, managers, etc. It’s easy to see why so many utilities are also hiring or creating positions for innovation management. Whether we’re engineers, operators, or vendors, we can ensure that we provide clean, safe, and reliable water to our Florida customers. The technologies are out there to reuse water and relieve pressure on our water resources and ecosystems.

FWPCOA 2022 Spring State Short School As I write this article, the FWPCOA 2022 Spring State Short School, being held March 14-18, 2022, at the Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, is just one and a half weeks away, which also means that you won’t be seeing this article until April. If I make it back alive from the WateReuse Symposium in San Antonio, you will have seen me running around at the state school, looking to meet as many of you as possible and listening for your experiences during the FWPCOA Spring State Short School!

Florida Water Resources Conference

Dr. Carlyn J. Higgins (center) doing preliminary training on Harn’s ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis units at Plant City’s indirect potable reuse/direct potable reuse pilot study.

40 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The Florida Water Resource Conference (FWRC), to be held April 24-27, 2022, in Daytona Beach at the Ocean Center and Hilton, is just weeks away. This is my Disney World/Epcot Center, minus the rides. It provides the most amazing offerings of technical programs, exhibits, awards luncheons, meetings, contests, competitions, networking, and other events. There is something for everyone in the water and wastewater industry to enjoy, and you get

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Dr. Higgins (at back with arm raised) doing preliminary training in the Xylem trailer housing advanced oxidation process units at Plant City’s indirect potable reuse/direct potable reuse pilot study.

continuing education units (CEUs) and professional development hours (PDHs) doing some of it! Operators Showcase The FWPCOA Operators Showcase will be on Sunday, April 24, from 2 to 4 p.m., held in the Ocean Center, Room 102A. This will be the fifth Operator Showcase (it would have been the seventh if not for COVID) and it is surely going to be an excellent event. Attending the showcase will be Dr. Carlyn J. Higgins, who is currently an assistant engineer with Hazen and Sawyer; prior to that she completed her doctorate degree at the University of Central Florida specializing in the removal of contaminants of emerging concern from nanofiltration membrane treatment processes. She will be presenting on the planning, staging, and equipment for the City of Plant City’s indirect potable reclaimed water pilot project, including ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet disinfection, and operator certification. Mr. Mike Darrow, past president and Legislative Committee chair of FWPCOA and superintendent of utilities operations at Plant City, will present an overview of pending regulation changes. The short presentation will review new and proposed rules affecting water and wastewater utility compliance from FDEP and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, rules and topics for wastewater collection, lead and copper issues, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and

per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), biosolids, reuse, and more!

As a side note: Earth Day is the Friday right before the conference on April 22, 2022.

Awards Several FWPCOA awards will be presented at the FWRC awards luncheon and annual meeting, which will be on Monday, April 25, from 12 noon to 1:30 p.m., in the Ocean Center, Ballroom BC. This is a great opportunity to acknowledge outstanding individuals in our association. The awards are: S David B. Lee Award – Based on the operator’s plant operations and activities within the state association. S Pat Flanagan Award – Given by the state association to an associate member based on assistance to operators and contribution to the operators association. S Richard P. Vogh Award – Given to the region judged most progressive during the year.

Online Training Institute

Please stay until the awards are presented and give these recipients a huge round of applause for their service to our industry and our association. Do not fail to attend this joint conference, sponsored by FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA; it’s a great networking and technical-session event. Additionally, if you are attending, consider volunteering to help with registration; there are two-hour slots available and one could have your name on it. This would be a great help to FWRC’s success.

A special thank you to everyone using the Online Training Institute; it’s great to see so many taking the CEU classes so early in the license renewal cycle, not to mention obtaining the voluntary licensing. If you haven’t taken advantage of the training yet, you can access the online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. This is a great way to get those needed CEUs for your license renewal. For more information, contact the institute program manager at OnlineTraining@fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at training@fwpcoa. org. I want to thank all the hard-working people in our industry. Thank you for doing all you do every single day! Let’s keep that water clean! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


WWEMA Member Market Survey Reflects Sales Increases

The Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (WWEMA) has released the results of its 2021 WWEMA Member Market Indicators Survey. The survey tracks the business activity or anticipated activity of manufacturers and their representatives within the water and wastewater market for two annual periods in the following eight business areas: S Design Work S Quotations


ookings/Orders B Domestic Sales International Sales Company Employment Materials Costs Industry Market Growth

Strong Growth The results of the survey show that the outlook

for the water and wastewater industry remains strong, with generally positive across-the-board expectations. Despite the challenging economic conditions posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the survey confirmed widespread positive domestic sales growth, with approximately 85 percent of respondents indicating growth for the period of September 2020 through August 2021. The data also showed solid sales growth, with one-third of respondents indicating growth of 5 percent.

Future Challenges The domestic sales outlook for the next oneyear analysis period (September 2021 to August 2022) is overall equally positive. Not surprisingly, with supply chain and labor challenges, all companies in the survey reported material cost increases, with over half reporting costs rising 10 percent. Only 11 percent of companies reported a decline in their booking/orders for the September 2020 to August 2021 period, with approximately three-quarters of respondents reporting growth in the 5 to 10 percent range. It’s important to note that the survey data were collected at the end of the third quarter in 2021, before the discovery of the Omnicron variant and before the expansive new Buy America requirements, which became law last year when the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act of 2021 was passed.

Report Available The full detailed report for each market indicator, which has specific growth rates for the current and future evaluation timeframes, as well as differences between data reported by manufacturers and their representatives and a comparison with the prior year’s survey, is available exclusively for WWEMA members. Since 1908, WWEMA has informed, educated, and provided leadership on the issues that shape the future of the water and wastewater industry. The association’s member companies supply the most-sophisticated, leading-edge products and technologies, offering solutions to every water-related environmental problem and need facing today’s society. For more information, visit www.wwema. org. S

42 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


FWEA CH A P TE R CO R N E R Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water EnvironmentvAssociation hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Melody Gonzalez at gonzalezm@bv.com.

Melody Gonzalez

FWEA Leadership Workshop 2022: True Leaders in the Making


Ifetayo Venner, current WEF president-elect, introduces herself to the crowd.

Group photo of the FWEA committee and chapter leaders.

44 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Melody Gonzalez

n a gorgeous weekend in February on beautiful Daytona Beach, the FWEA leaders from every corner of the state of Florida got together for a twoday workshop. This meeting is held every year around the same time, with the goal of learning about the organization, sharing information, training the new incoming chairs, and finding solutions to common challenges. Due to the pandemic, however, an inperson meeting in 2021 was simply not possible. Many of these leaders haven’t seen each other for more than two years; therefore, the friendly atmosphere was almost palpable. The workshop started with a review of the previous year’s status of the organization, which can be summarized in one word: Strong! Throughout the pandemic, chapter and committee members alike faced the multiple challenges of uncertainty and social distancing. In a constant struggle to keep our organization’s mission alive, every chapter and committee quickly adapted to its local situation and adjusted its activities to be able to serve our members and community in the best possible way. This year the organization was able to enjoy the presence of Ifetayo Venner, the president-elect of our parent organization, the Water Environment Federation (WEF). Ifetayo shared with our local leaders national strategies and also gave a very detailed overview of the organizational chart and the several layers of committees, groups, and subgroups under WEF’s umbrella. On day two, our leaders focused on working on the strategy plans for the upcoming year. With our mission and vision in mind, each chapter and committee made a commitment to create a route map that will guide our activities during the next year.

This is a vital part of the process where the current chair needs to work together with the upcoming officers to ensure that the plan is feasible and that the next board will have realistic goals to work toward throughout the year. By the end of the workshop, there was a clear understanding of the future of the organization, and the happy faces reflected the hard work that everyone had put in. This two-day exchange turned this group of colleagues into the leaders that will bring the organization to the next level. The future is bright, and the sky is the limit!

The leaders working on strategic plans.

Melody Gonzalez, E.I., is a civil engineer with Black & Veatch in Miami. She serves as FWEA Member Relationship Committee chair and secretary/contact for the South Florida Chapter FWEA. S

Chapter leaders working together exchanging successes and challenges.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022



Oh Where, Oh Where Has My Water Gone? Emilie Moore, P.E., PMP, ENV SP Chair, FSAWWA


pril is here and Water Conservation Month is upon us. It’s a good time to consider what we can do at home and at work to efficiently use water.

Water Conservation at Home Water conservation opportunities at home can include identifying and repairing leaks, and reducing water use. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), household leaks can waste almost 900 billion gallons of water annually in the United States, which is equal to the annual household water use of nearly 11 million homes. Additionally, approximately 5 to 10 percent of U.S. homes have leaks of 90 gallons a day or more. Take a Look Inside For indoor water use reduction, in addition

to water use best practices, using WaterSense® products can help consumers more efficiently use potable water. WaterSense is a voluntary partnership program sponsored by EPA; it’s a label for water-efficient products and a resource for helping consumers save water. Residential Outdoor Water Use Residential outdoor water use in the U.S. accounts for almost 8 billion gallons of water daily, mainly for landscape irrigation (EPA). For Floridians who irrigate their lawns, this irrigation water volume is approximately 50 percent of the total water use (St. Johns River Water Management District). For plants, such as St. Augustine grass, the recommended irrigation rate is one-half to three-quarters inch of water per application (Publication #ENH5, University of Florida IFAS, 2021) and water application frequency is based on the season. In-ground irrigation systems affect lawnwatering behaviors of residential homeowners and the rise in the prevalence of in-ground sprinkler systems has led to increased irrigation application rates. Lawn irrigation rates, therefore, may approach one inch of water per application, equating to 0.62 gallons of water per application per square foot of lawn. Homes with in-ground irrigation systems were six times more likely to water their landscapes at least once per week

Landscape with native Florida plants. (photo: Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Fla.)

46 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

during the warm season when residential outdoor water use is at its peak. Homes with no grass in the landscape were 71 percent less likely to water on a weekly basis (Morera, Maria C.; Monaghan, Paul F.; Dukes, Micheal D.; “Determinants of Landscape Irrigation Water Use in Florida-Friendly Yards.” Dec. 11, 2019). Opportunities for Landscape Water Conservation In support of conserving water, the Florida Legislature enacted the Florida-friendly landscaping statute, F.S. 373.185, in 2001, which limits the ability of homeowners associations (HOAs) to prohibit homeowners from adopting landscaping practices that conserve water or are otherwise environmentally sustainable. Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ (FFL) is the state’s extension program that promotes sustainable alternatives to conventional landscaping, and provides guidance on low-impact, environmentally friendly, science-based landscape practices that use less water and reduce pollutant loading to Florida waters. The FFL is a partnership of the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Extension and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). The most-recent program addition to FFL is the Florida-Friendly Communities (FFC) Program (added in 2019), which collaborates with local governments, builders and developers, HOAs, and community/property managers to integrate FFL landscaping and promote FFL’s nine principals: S Right plant, right place S Water efficiently S Fertilize appropriately S Mulch S Attract wildlife S Manage yard pests responsibly S Recycle yard waste S Reduce stormwater runoff S Protect the waterfront An example of efforts to reduce outdoor water use is seen in the Alachua County Comprehensive Plan: 2019-2040 (adopted in 2019). One of the 15 elements in the plan is the potable water and sanitary sewer element. Objective 8.1 of this element is “to promote the increased conservation and reuse of water” and Policy 8.1.3 states: “Development plans shall be reviewed for inclusion of native vegetation and other low-water-demand landscape material in order to reduce outdoor water consumption.”

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Additionally, Policy 8.1.8 states: “The county shall discourage the use of permanent landscape irrigation in new construction and in existing development through regulatory and/or voluntary measures. Strategies may include encouraging or requiring permeable hardscapes, limiting the amount of irrigated areas, and the use of organic matter to improve soil conditions.” Support for planting Florida native plants in the landscape can be found in the conservation element of the City of Coral Springs Comprehensive Plan (Adopted Oct. 6, 2021). Objective 1.4.0 states: “At least 50 percent of all new plants planted during development throughout the city shall continue to be native species.” In addition, Objective 1.5.0, Policy 1.5.3 states: “The city shall promote the planting of native plant species that have been proven to be reliable during hurricanes.” Conserving Water by Reducing Water System Leaks The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 2021 Infrastructure Report Card reports that about 6 billion gallons of treated water are lost daily in the U.S. due to leaking pipes, and that there is a water main break every two minutes. Technologies to identify water system leaks and reduce water loss are advancing each year and include such technologies as satellite imagery, fiber optics, acoustical monitoring with fixed networks, personal in-home leak detection, leak detection pigs, and mass balancing. The California Energy Commission’s report, “Demonstrating Innovative Water Leakage Reduction Strategies” (California Energy Commission, CEC-500-2021-036, June 2021), studied water leak detection technologies, such as correlating continuous acoustical monitoring (CCAM), satellite imagery leak detection (SILD), flow-sensitive pressure reducing valves (FSPRVs), and district-metered areas (DMAs). As we know, water treatment and pumping are energy-intensive, and therefore, reducing water loss correlates directly with reducing energy loss. The report identified an energy savings of up to 419,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) based on finding up to 170 million gallons of leaks with the CCAM and SILD technologies. These advanced technologies are very promising in achieving more-rapid identification of water system leaks, allowing utilities to reduce system water loss and reduce energy costs at a faster rate.

S O range County Utilities Water Division “Water Watch Enforcement Program in a Pandemic” S Pasco County/FGUA - “The Water Awareness Poster Contest” Orange County’s Water Watch Program enforces mandatory watering restrictions in unincorporated Orange County. The goal of the Pasco County/FGUA Water Awareness Poster Contest is to educate elementary school students about the importance of the limited supply of fresh water and the role of a water utility in their community. Congratulations to these water conservation award winners! Thank you for doing what you do to conserve Florida’s water. Your doctor may tell you to drink at least half of your body weight in ounces of water, so go grab a glass of the water that you just conserved! S

Home Water

Conservation Tips • T urn off the tap to save 8 gallons per day while brushing your teeth and 10 gallons per shave. • Running the faucet for five minutes while washing dishes can use 10 gallons and use enough energy to power a 60-watt light bulb for 18 hours. • Outdoor water use accounts for at least 30 percent of total household water use, on average, and can be as high as 60 percent in arid areas. • If the average-sized U.S. lawn is watered for 20 minutes every day for seven days, it’s the same water volume as a shower running constantly for four days or showering 800 times. (source: U.S. EPA)

FSAWWA Water Conservation Awards for Excellence The FSAWWA recognizes utilities’ achievements in water use efficiency and conservation. At the 2021 FSAWWA Fall Conference, two utilities received Water Conservation Awards for Excellence:

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022



What the Contractors Council Can Do for You


Jonathan Fernald

y all accounts, 2022 is looking to be a busy and exciting time for the water/ wastewater industry. We have seen booms, busts, a pandemic, droughts, and hurricanes, but one thing remains constant: the taps still flow and the toilets still flush. This industry is filled with dynamic and dedicated professionals who plan, design, monitor, build, and operate this vital (and often overlooked) infrastructure. It’s a critical system, with all members pulling their respective weight and providing value to our fellow citizens, including owners, engineers, operators, suppliers, and contractors.

Here to Serve The Florida Section AWWA (FSAWWA) Contractors Council looks to be of service to our amazing industry and do our part to improve our state. Our mission statement can be summarized simply: we look to be a resource to the industry. To this end, this article outlines how we have served thus far. As you read, I ask you consider your needs and please reach out to the council. Remember—no idea is a bad idea.

Members and Activities The council is made up of active FSAWWA members. Each member is a licensed Florida

general contractor who obtains at least 30 percent work volume through the competitive bid process as a contractor or self-performs at least 40 percent of field craft worker hours with our own forces in the water/wastewater work that we build. We are active in this industry, and we value hard work. The current council consists of the following company members (in alphabetical order): S Archer Western S Garney S Kiewit S PCL S Petticoat-Schmitt S Vogel S Wharton Smith Since the council’s inception in 2008 we have provided feedback that evolved to serve in six key areas, which include: S Florida Water Resources Journal articles S Florida Water Resources Conference workshops S FSAWWA Fall Conference workshops S Regional FSAWWA workshops S Regional FSAWWA training events S FSAWWA Fall Conference BBQ Florida Water Resources Journal Articles Do you have a topic that needs a contractor’s point of view? Articles in the Journal are a great way to stay current on industry trends and events. The council targets an article every

FSAWWA Contractors Council Chemical Pump Training

48 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

two months and we are open to input from the industry on topics that need to be addressed. For example, in the past we have covered items such as: S How to maximize value with bid forms S Sales tax recovery and process S Contractor prequalification S The construction labor market S Startup lessons learned Conference Workshops Are you looking for an interactive workshop to discuss the challenges we face as an industry and need input from a range of stakeholder experts? I recommend you attend the council workshops at both the Florida Water Resources Conference and the FSAWWA Fall Conference. These workshops are similar in goal to the articles; however, they go much further in depth and discussion. The council has covered a range of topics and we are always looking for input from our owners, suppliers, operators, and engineers. In the past we have covered topics such as: S Understanding different project delivery methods S The bid day process and how to get a better deal as an owner S Job order contracting and continuing services S Mitigating project risks At the 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference, the council will be hosting a

Recent FSAWWA Contractors Council Conference Workshop



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facilitated workshop discussion on what considerations should be evaluated when looking at different project delivery methods. Our panel of experts includes an owner, engineer, and contractor so that we can work through how each party addresses delivery risks and attendees can understand the best practices for administering a project based on which delivery method is utilized (hard bid, progressive design-build, construction management at risk [CMAR], or design-build). As a teaser—did you know that contractors invest approximately $3,500 per $1 million of project value pursuing work? Incorporating an efficient prequal, proposal, or bid process into your project delivery method will help reduce the overall price of a project. I invite all reading this to join us for this exciting and informative workshop! Regional Workshops and Training Events Are you looking for a “lunch and learn” session, training, or specific workshop within your region? Tapping the council to organize and facilitate a workshop in you region is a great way to address your specific issues. In the past

we have teamed with local FSAWWA regions or other organizations to combine efforts and gain synergy on industry needs. Examples of previous events and planned further events include: S Teaming with the Operators and Maintenance Council to host training on chemical pumps S Collaborating with FSAWWA Region III on a start-up risks workshop S Regional workshops on how to create a safety program S Regional workshops on project delivery methods and how to maximize value FSAWWA Fall Conference BBQ A highlight of opening night at the yearly FSAWWA Fall Conference, the council recently took over organizing and running the conference barbecue. I think I can speak for all who have attended that this is truly a unique and fun event for our industry. With the growth in the state, we expect that this year’s barbecue will top all the previous ones, so we invite all to join us in November to celebrate. If you are interested in participating as

a team or want to sign up as a sponsor for the event, please reach out to me at jefernald@pcl. com for more information.

A Resource for the Industry In summary I hope that this article has outlined ways that the Contractors Council has been of service to the industry in the past, and more importantly, how we can continue to provide value in 2022—and beyond! The council hopes to be a resource to the industry. Should you have questions regarding anything I’ve mentioned or feel you could benefit from a builder’s perspective, please feel free to engage the council members for our expertise and advice. The FSAWWA Contractors Council is looking forward to a successful 2022, so stay tuned for upcoming workshops and articles! Jonathan Fernald, ENV SP, is manager of preconstruction services with PCL Construction Inc. in Tampa and chair of the Contractors Council. S


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Jody Cline Regional Distribution Sales Manager JOCL@kamstrup.com 850-557-0145 Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


WateReuse Association Announces 2022 Awards The WateReuse Association announced its annual Awards for Excellence and President’s Awards at the 37th Annual WateReuse Symposium, which took place March 6-9 in San Antonio. The awards recognize the people, projects, and partnerships that demonstrate exceptional leadership toward building more resilient communities through water reuse. Award recipients use water recycling in novel ways to solve water management challenges, advance policies that facilitate greater adoption of water recycling, and inspire others through their innovation and leadership.

Awards The award winners, for both individuals and organizations, are: Advocacy Achievement S James Herberg, general manager, Orange County (Calif.) Sanitation District S Louis C. Herrin, III, P.E., senior engineer, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division S National Blue Ribbon Commission for Onsite Nonpotable Water Systems This award recognizes significant achievements in advancing policy, legislation, or regulations that facilitate greater adoption, implementation, or acceptance of recycled water. Community Water Champion S City of Lakeland (Fla.) Se7en Wetlands S North Texas Municipal Water District

This award recognizes community leaders wdo demonstrate a commitment to water resiliency through the innovative use of recycled water for commercial operations, watershed restoration projects, irrigation, or other projects. Outreach and Education S Colorado Springs Utilities, Colorado School of Mines, and Carollo Engineers (Colo.) S Syphon Reservoir Improvement Project Public Outreach Campaign, Foothill Ranch, Calif. This award recognizes significant success in advancing public acceptance of recycled water, including short-term campaigns, educational programs, and events. Transformational Innovation S Eastern Municipal Water District, Perris, Calif. S New York City Department of Environmental Protection S Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Las Virgenes Municipal Water District, Carollo Engineers, National Water Research Institute, Metropolitan Water District, Bureau of Reclamation, and IOSight (Calif.) This award recognizes technological advances, research breakthroughs, and innovative practices that advance the adoption, implementation, or public acceptance of recycled water.

This award recognizes the accomplishments of utilities and local government entities that ensure a safe, reliable, and locally controlled water supply through the development of water recycling treatment facilities, infrastructure, and/or other water reuse projects. Excellence in Action S Irvine Ranch Water District and the University of California, Irvine S Scottsdale (Ariz.) Water Reclaimed Water Distribution System

50 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Up and Comer S Shea Dunifon, Pinellas County Utilities, St. Petersburg, Fla. This award recognizes a professional with less than 10 years of experience in the recycled water industry for leadership in the industry and commitment to pursuing water recycling as a career path. President’s Awards S Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) S Senator Alex Padilla (D-Calif.) S Senator Chris Van Hollen (D-Md.) S Senator Catherine Cortez Masto (D-Nev.) S David Ross, former assistant administrator for water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency This award recognizes individuals who have significantly contributed to the advancement of water reuse through exceptional service and leadership. This award is given at the discretion of the WateReuse Association president. Service Awards S Brian Biesemeyer, Scottsdale (Ariz.) Water S Paul Cook, Irvine Ranch (Calif.) Water District S Paul Jones, Eastern Municipal Water District, Perris, Calif. S Gilbert Trejo, El Paso (Texas) Water This award recognizes individuals for their service on the association’s board of directors. Their leadership and vision have helped drive the national adoption of water reuse policies and programs.

Champion for Reuse The WateReuse Association is the only trade association in the United States solely dedicated to advancing laws, policy, funding, and public acceptance of recycled water. Its membership includes utilities that recycle water, businesses that support the development of recycled water projects, and consumers of recycled water. For more information go to www. watereuse.org. S


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Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


Annual Assessment of Florida’s Water Resources and Conservation Lands: 2021 Edition The Office of Economic and Demographic Research (EDR) has completed its fifth annual assessment of Florida’s water resources and conservation lands pursuant to section 403.928, Florida Statutes. The report presents topics in isolation that, at least in part, overlap. Land conservation, water supply, water quality, and water infrastructure are all interrelated, and investments in one of these areas will almost certainly benefit another. Lands can be acquired for conservation by public or private entities and can be obtained in fee or less than fee simple ownership. Once acquired, the lands are typically managed to maintain their conservation purposes. As such, expenditures on conservation lands can be categorized into acquisition expenditures and management expenditures. In Fiscal Year (FY) 2019-20, the state of Florida expended $77.5 million on conservation land acquisition and $220.5 million on conservation land management. Regarding the impact on ad valorem taxation, roughly 1.8 percent of the statewide county tax base and 1.6 percent of the statewide school tax base have been removed from the tax roll as a result of the total acquisitions to date. This translates into, on net, $294.8 million in county taxes and $224.6 million in school taxes that were shifted to other property owners or lost due to lands being held in conservation in 2020.

Background Approximately 30 percent of the land in Florida is currently designated for conservation

purposes, with eight counties already over 50 percent. If all lands identified in plans set forth by state agencies and water management districts (WMDs) are acquired, this share will jump to over 41 percent; if federal, local, and private plans were accounted for, this share would be even greater. Summing the projected total acquisition costs for the additional conservation lands identified in the plans developed by the state and WMDs produces a preliminary cost estimate of just over $27 billion. The analysis suggests that roughly 86 percent of this cost would be the state’s responsibility. At the current rate of annual state conservation land acquisition expenditures, it would take about 370 years to generate the state’s share; in other words, it will take nearly four years for the state to generate its share for just one percent of the total additional conservation lands identified in the plans.

Land Acquisition Any future conservation lands that are acquired will entail additional costs for management, as well as the acquisition cost. Currently, a dedicated revenue source for managing the state’s lands does not exist. Assuming the current level of expenditures per acre, the additional cost to the state to manage its potential land acquisitions is projected annually to be $104.9 million. With just under one-third of the land in Florida already acquired for conservation purposes, significant policy questions arise:

52 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S H ow much conservation land is needed and for what purpose? S Where should it be located? S Should the current pace of the state’s conservation land acquisition efforts be accelerated? S At what point does the volume of conservation land acreage alter the pattern of economic growth as expanding metropolitan areas are forced upward instead of outward? S Is this change acceptable to policy makers? S Should there be a greater focus on selling nonessential conservation lands as surplus? S Is primarily owning conservation land in fee simple the most efficient strategy for Florida? S Would encouraging less than fee simple ownership help to alleviate economic and fiscal concerns associated with government ownership of conservation land? S Are adequate funds available for managing current and future acquisitions? One of EDR’s objectives for this ongoing report is to assist policy makers in developing the answers to these questions.

Supply and Demand The EDR is currently modeling water supply and demand with two approaches: one based on WMD projections (the principal model used in this edition) and the other using an independent water demand forecast (EDR’s pilot model). The principal model projects water demand to increase by over 15 percent between 2020 and 2040, reaching 7,407.8 million gallons a day by 2040. The EDR’s pilot model suggests a lower forecast, primarily because it takes greater account of the historic pace of conservation. The two largest drivers of water demand are and will continue to be population growth and agriculture. According to regional water supply plans and water supply assessments, the water needs of the state can be met through the 2040 planning horizon, with a combination of traditional and alternative water sources; however, this assumes that appropriate management, continuing conservation efforts, and necessary investments are made. These investments are related to alternative water supply projects identified in regional water supply plans. Because no district can meet its

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future demand solely with existing source capacity, these extra efforts (and the funding for them) are critical, beginning now and continuing through 2040. Using water demand projections from the principal model shows that the total costs (excluding operations and maintenance) associated with ensuring that future water supplies are available to meet the increasing water demands are between $0.57 and $1.13 billion for the 2020 to 2040 planning horizon. Using EDR’s pilot model suggests that the average total cost would be similar, but would fall within a tighter range. These estimates are based on an analysis of projects identified by WMDs through the water supply planning process and may change significantly in the future as the methodologies, both of EDR and the WMDs, are refined. The future demand not met with existing supply assumes average weather conditions and that the demand that has been met in the past will continue to be met in the future. In this edition, EDR has begun to explore the risks inherent in some of these assumptions.

Spending on Programs and Projects The cost estimates described only capture the cost of developing alternative water supplies. In addition, the estimated cost to complete projects benefitting the natural systems must be taken into account. These are projects needed to meet the minimum flows and minimum water levels for natural systems that are currently in recovery and prevention status, as well as additional projects expected to primarily benefit the natural systems. This cost is estimated to be $665.1 million. Overall, the state’s share of the expenditures necessary to ensure that sufficient water is available to meet the growing water demand, as well as the needs of the natural systems, varies based on location and project type, but is expected to be about 10.4 percent. Based on the costs identified to date, this amounts to a state investment of $157.3 million by 2040; however, additional research is planned that is likely to increase this estimate. Preliminary estimates of the expenditures necessary to comply with key federal and state laws, and regulations governing water quality protection and restoration, suggest required state expenditures of approximately $270.5 million for the development of total maximum daily loads, $3.2 billion for the implementation of basin management action plans, and $8.4 billion for completion of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). Future editions will expand the water quality analysis to include expenditure forecasts for other activities required by, or implemented pursuant to, federal or state law, including alternative plans for impaired

waters, water quality monitoring, and Everglades restoration initiatives outside of the CERP. The expected state expenditures for total maximum daily load development, basin management action plan implementation, and CERP implementation will exceed currently dedicated revenues and result in funding shortfalls. The degree to which the assumed time frames and cost shares underlying these expenditure forecasts are legally required is still being assessed. In FY 2019-20, Florida expended approximately $172.8 million on water supply projects and an additional $933.9 million on water quality and other water resource-related programs. In recent years, expenditures for water resources have increased significantly, leading to questions about financial sustainability. Based on historical trends, EDR’s forecasts indicate that the recent levels of increases in expenditures cannot be sustained into the future using only the implied revenue shares historically allocated to water quality. In this regard, a gap exists in every future year, growing to $840.69 million by the end of the ten-year forecast period. This gap does not include any specific adjustments for new or expanding initiatives. Potential options to close the projected gap include the use of statutorily uncommitted documentary stamp taxes, additional general revenue funds, or bonding. As a result, substantial policy questions arise: S What is the total amount of funding that should be committed to these initiatives? S What are the appropriate levels of funding and shares among public and private stakeholders? S To what extent should land acquisition programs be required to identify quantifiable water resource benefits? One of EDR’s objectives for this ongoing report is to assist policy makers in developing the answers to these questions. There is, however, yet another cost to be considered. Expenditures necessary to replace,

maintain, and expand Florida’s aging water infrastructure over the next decades will reach tens of billions of dollars. The most-recent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater 20-year capitalneeds estimates for Florida total nearly $45 billion, after adjusting for inflation. While only $20.9 billion of that total is attributable to wastewater and stormwater infrastructure, EDR’s initial attempts to estimate that subset of needs totals $40.3 billion, nearly doubling the cost identified by EPA. The EDR is preparing to survey drinking water and wastewater utilities to produce an independent cost estimate that includes all expenditures, not just the capital investment portion. A key policy question arises: once they have been identified, what is the state’s role in addressing these infrastructure costs?

Next Steps Subsequent editions of this report will continue to satisfy the requirements of section 403.928, Florida Statutes, and address those subjects that require further research. First, EDR is continuing to refine its integrated water supply and demand model and preparing to submit its pilot model for publication and peer-review before full deployment. Second, EDR will work with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the WMDs to incorporate additional expenditures that are necessary to comply with laws governing water quality. Finally, EDR’s estimates of necessary water infrastructure expenditures will continue to be developed, which includes incorporating the results of the forthcoming EDR surveys and assessing the higher stormwater expenditure needs in coastal areas. The 2022 edition of this report will be available in spring of this year. For more information, go to www.edr.state.fl.us. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


FWRJ READER PROFILE Other days, I am developing strategies and programs for the ongoing maintenance and enhancement of infrastructure assets. What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor of science degree in civil engineering from Tennessee State University and a master of engineering degree from University of Florida.

Keisha McKinnie

The Walt Disney Company, Orlando Work title and years of service. I have been a senior civil engineer with the company for about three months. What does your job entail? Sometimes, I’m acting as a “first responder” when issues arise; another day, I could be working on project-oriented tasks using modeling or my previous engineering experience to act as a subject-matter expert.

What do you like best about your job? I like that every day is a new day and that I get to apply my civil engineering knowledge to new challenges that may arise to provide an optimal guest experience. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to FWEA, Water Environment Federation (WEF), and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). How have the organizations helped your career? Being around like-minded professionals has helped me tremendously. I love that I get to attend technical sessions that center

Christmas 2021: Nathan, Keisha, and husband Cyrus.

54 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

around the purpose of my job and provide me with a different perspective on the importance of civil and environmental engineering issues. The addition of the asset management incorporation has been huge in the past several years and I like that I get to hear about innovative practices as they apply to the oldest engineering profession. What do you like best about the industry? I serve as “background” support to keep the world operational. I love that we help to supply drinking water and treat wastewater, all without the public mostly knowing exactly what we do. I like to think that we’re more like a ninja industry. What do you do when you’re not working? Is this a trick question? LOL! Most times, when I’m not working, I am being a mom to my 8-year old son and chauffeuring him everywhere. His activity and social calendars are always full. When I am not doing that, I like going to the beach and the movies, traveling (when possible) and sleeping; the S typical things.

FWPCOA REGION IV IS PLEASED TO ANNOUNCE OUR JUNE 2022 SHORT SCHOOL WILL BE OFFERING CERTIFICATION AND CEU COURSES COURSE Utilities Maintenance Level 3 SUPERVISION and Stormwater A Water Distribution Level 1 Wastewater Collection A Water Distribution Level 3 Water Distribution Level 2 Reclaimed Water B Reclaimed Water C Utility Maintenance level 2 Stormwater C Stormwater B *Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators Wastewater Collection C Wastewater Collection B

COURSE NO DS/DW/WW02014057 DW/DS/WW02004042

CEU’S 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU

DATES June 6 – 10, 2022 June 6 – 10, 2022

DW/DS02004043 DW/DS02004040 DW/DS/WW02014123 DW/DS/WW02014124 DS/DW/WW 02014170 DW/DS/WW 02014026 DW/DS/WW02014025 WW02004001

3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU 2.8 CEU

June 6 – 10, 2022 June 6 – 10, 2022 June 6 – 10, 2022 June 6 – 10, 2022 June 13 – 17, 2022 June 13 – 17, 2022 June 13 – 17, 2022 June 13 – 16, 2022

WW02014034 WW02004041

3.0 CEU 3.0 CEU

June 13 – 17, 2022 June 13 – 17, 2022

*CEU’s only All courses will be given at: Pinellas Technical College, St. Petersburg Campus 901 34th Street St. Petersburg, FL 33711 Water Distribution 1,2,3, Water Treatment Plant Operators /Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators Utilities Maintenance 2, 3, Wastewater Collection A/B/C, Stormwater A/B/C Full Courses $325/$355/$80 Members/Nonmembers/Exam Only (if applicable) Abbreviated Courses $125/155 Members/Nonmembers Monday-Thursday 7:00 A.M. – 4:00 P.M Exam 6/10/2022 - Friday 8:00 A.M. – 11:00 A.M. at Pinellas Technical College. St. Petersburg Campus Exam 6/17/2022 - Friday 8:00 A.M. – 11:00 A.M. at Pinellas Technical College. St. Petersburg Campus

CREDIT CARD payment available. Click Here For Credit Card Authorization Form For questions please contact Ray Bordner 727-798-3969 / h2oboy2@juno.com Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022




Wastewater Collection System Cleaning and Maintenance


Basic Water and Wastewater Pump Maintenance


Water Distribution System Pipes and Valves

9-13 MAY

Water Class C Certification Review

17-18 MAY

Gainesville, FL | $265 CEUs 0.8 WW DS

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SCADA Systems Gainesville, FL & Virtual | $575 CEUs 1.2 DS DW WW

23-27 MAY

Wastewater Class C Exam Review


Introduction to Lift Station Maintenance

Davie, FL | $730

Davie, FL | $325 CEUs 0.8 DS WW

Visit www.treeo.ufl.edu for a full schedule of courses including: Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Assembly Repair and Maintenance Training & Certification Backflow Prevention Recertification


Want a course brought to your location? Contact us today to find out how!

UF OPWD is proud to be a Host Site for select courses offered by the OSHA Training Institute Education Center (OTIEC) at Volunteer State Community College (VSCC).

56 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

• Confined Space • Fall Protection

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for the latest updates on classes April

4-7..... Wastewater Collection C................................................Deltona............... $325 11-14..... Backflow Tester...............................................................Deltona............... $375/405 15..... Backflow Tester recertification......................................Deltona............... $85/115 18-22..... Reclaimed Water Field Site Insp....................................Jacksonville........ $350/380 15-29..... Reclaimed Water Field Site Insp....................................Winter Garden..... $350/380


2-6..... Reclaimed Water Field Site Insp....................................Deltona............... $350/380 9..... Reclaimed Water Distribution C abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155 10-12..... Water Distribution Level II...............................................Deltona............... $325 19..... Backflow Tester recertification......................................Deltona............... $85/115 16-19..... Backflow Tester...............................................................St. Petersburg..... $375/405 19..... Backflow Tester recertification......................................St. Petersburg..... $85/115 20..... Reclaimed Water Distribution B abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155


3..... Reclaimed Water Distribution C abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155 6..... Reclaimed Water Distribution B abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155 6-10..... REGION 4 SHORT SCHOOL 13-17..... REGION 4 SHORT SCHOOL 13-15 ..... Backflow Repair..............................................................Deltona............... $275/305 15..... Backflow Tester recertification......................................Deltona............... $85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022



The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help!

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58 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions:

Water Treatment Plant Operator

Location: Florida City, FL Salary Range: $52,646 - $80,612 The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring a WTP Operator. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a water treatment plant according to local, state, and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery, and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Utility Asset Program Manager, Water Quality Coordinator, Electronics Technician, Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Water Quality Technician, Crew Leader, Equip Operator, Service Worker, Plant Operator, Laboratory Assistant. Apply at www.titusville.com

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator “C” Salary Range: $52,645.98 - $84,011.20

The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority’s WASTEWATER DIVISION IS GROWING, and we need (2) WWTP Operators with a Florida “C” license or higher. You will perform skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant. This requires technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance on plant equipment, machinery, and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Location: Big Coppitt Key and Duck Key, FL. Must complete on-line application at www.fkaa.com EEO, VPE, ADA

The City of Edgewater is accepting applications for the following positions. Water Plant Operator “C” or higher Wastewater Plant Operator “C” or higher $36,859 - $58,513 (“C” pay scale) Please see complete advertisement and apply online at http://www.cityofedgewater.org Open until filled

Job Openings

City of Winter Park is currently accepting job applications at https://bit.ly/3vzP9Dt Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022


NOW HIRING Treatment Plant Operators and Field Personnel

Brevard County Utilities is seeking Treatment Plant Operators and field personnel to work in various locations throughout Brevard County, Florida. These positions are for a County-owned public water and sewer Utility. For more information and to apply, go to the employment website of the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners at https://career8.successfactors.com/career?company=brevardcou Brevard County is an Equal Opportunity/Veterans Preference Employer

City of Edgewater Utilities Division Manager

Responsible for assisting with administration and management of the utilities division including water and wastewater treatment plants, water distribution, wastewater collection and reclaimed water. Associates degree required with a Water Plant Operator or Wastewater Plant Operator “A” required. Florida licensed P.E. will substitute for Operator License. Five years experience in the supervisory/lead required. $64,100 - $101,600 Please visit www.cityofedgewater.org for complete job description and to apply. Education documents must be submitted at time of application. EOE/DFWP/VP

Project Engineer Water and Wastewater Utilities - Tampa, FL Halff Associates, Inc. has an immediate opening for a Water and Wastewater Utilities Project Engineer in our Tampa, FL office. Qualifications: - Bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering - Licensed PE, preferably in Florida or can obtain within 6 months - 4+ years of experience designing Water/Wastewater utility projects including pipeline and facility planning and design - Pump station, water storage and large diameter pipeline design experience required - Water/Wastewater treatment plant experience desired - Ability to engage in plans production, coordinate project deliverables production, and support EI staff - Experience with AutoCAD, WaterCAD, SewerCAD preferred To apply: https://www.halff.com/join-our-team/ Halff Associates is an Equal Opportunity Employer, including disability and protected veteran status.

Project Manager Water and Wastewater Utilities - Tavares, FL Halff Associates, Inc. has an immediate opening for a Water and Wastewater Utilities Project Manager in our Tavares, FL office. Qualifications: - Bachelors or Masters degree in Civil or Environmental Engineering - 5+ years of experience to support Water/Wastewater Utility projects including pipeline and facility planning and design - Licensed PE, preferably in Florida or can obtain within 6 months - Water/Wastewater treatment plant experience require - Pump station, water storage and large diameter pipeline design experience desired - Ability to manage projects, clients, and support staff - Experience with AutoCAD, WaterCAD, SewerCAD preferred To apply: https://www.halff.com/join-our-team/ Halff Associates is an Equal Opportunity Employer, including disability and protected veteran status.

CADD Technician–Water Wastewater–Tavares, Florida Halff Associates, Inc. has an immediate opening for a Computer Aided Design Drafter (CADD) Technician in our Tavares, FL office to perform drafting, plans preparation and to work with design professionals on our Water/Wastewater team. Responsibilities: - Prepare drawings for utility projects, including utility lines, plants, pump stations and associated infrastructure utilizing CAD software - Actively participate in implementing and monitoring continuous improvement initiatives to improve project quality - Support multiple projects when needed and help ensure timely completion of assignments Requirements: - 3+ years of working experience in the Civil Engineering industry, water and wastewater utilities preferred but not required - Experience in AutoCAD - Drafting Certificate or Associates Drafting Degree a plus To apply: https://www.halff.com/join-our-team/ Halff Associates is an Equal Opportunity Employer, including disability and protected veteran status.

60 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Are you a Water Operator Super Nova?

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator II

Then come join our incredibly awesome team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $35,000 $37,000yr – 10% more if you have a dual license or a Class A or B. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Marc Correnti EEO/AA/V/H/ MF/DFWP.

Salary $22.32 - $28.49 Hourly

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CLASS This is skilled work in the operation of Wastewater Treatment Plant equipment and processes. This position requires shift work, including nights, weekends, and holidays, as the treatment processes are operated on a continuous basis. Work involves responsibility for the care and efficient operation of the wastewater treatment plant during an assigned shift. Work includes covering a working area which contains several operating units of the wastewater treatment system. Employees in this class normally work independently. Work is reviewed by a supervisor who checks records and charts and makes daily inspections through the plant to check the condition and upkeep of equipment. QUALIFICATIONS (EDUCATION, TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE) AND SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS A high school diploma from an accredited school or its equivalent, supplemented by Florida Department of Environmental Protection Agency approved courses in wastewater plant operation processes. 2,080 hours of wastewater plant operation experience. Must possess and maintain a state of Florida Class “C” Wastewater Plant Operator certification or higher.

Laboratory Manager $70,873 - $109,699/yr. Utilities Instrumentation Tech $60,606 - $85,278/yr. Utilities Treatment Plant Operator or Trainee $52,353 - $73,665 or $47,486 - $66,816/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.

Apply at https://www.lakelandgov.net/departments/humanresources/job-opportunities/

City of New Port Richey Multiple Positions Available Water Distribution Field Supervisor, Water Production Plant Operator, Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator, Utilities Administrator and others. Please visit our website for complete job description and to download an application. https://www.cityofnewportrichey.org/city-departments/humanresources/job-opportunities/

Distribution/Collection Techs Needed!

Must hold at least a Tech III license or certification and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $35,000 - $37,000yr – 10% more if you have a dual license or certification. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Marc Correnti EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2022



Test Yourself Answer Key From page 20 January 2016

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index AWWA Free Trial Membership ����������������������������������������������������������� 43 2022 Florida Water Resources Conference ���������������������������������10-19 American Water ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58 AWWA ACE22 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27 Blue Planet Environmental Systems ������������������������������������������������� 63 Carollo �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 Data Flow ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 FSAWWA Conference Call for Papers ����������������������������������������������� 33 FSAWWA Conference Exhibitor Registration ����������������������������������� 32 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship Fund �������������������������������������������� 34 FWPCOA Region IV Short School ����������������������������������������������������� 55 FWPCOA Training Calendar ��������������������������������������������������������������� 57 Gerber Pumps ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Heyward ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump and Equipment ����������������������������������������������������������� 51 Hydro International ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 InfoSense ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 61 Kamstrup ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 Lakeside Equipment Corporation �������������������������������������������������������� 7 Mission Communications ������������������������������������������������������������������� 58 PolyProcessing ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 UF TREEO Center Training ����������������������������������������������������������������� 56 Violia ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 Xylem ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64 YSI �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 35

62 April 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. B) cyanobacteria.

Per the Protecting Florida Together website, Education Center – BlueGreen Algae, “Blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria, occur frequently in Florida’s freshwater environments. Blue-green algae are microorganisms that function like plants in that they use light energy from the sun and nutrients acquired from the environment to help them grow.”

2. C) nutrients.

Per the Protecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Blue-Green Algae, “some environmental factors that contribute to blue-green algae blooms are sunny days, warm water temperatures, still water conditions, and a plentiful supply of nutrients. Reducing the supply of nutrients, nitrogen, and phosphorus in particular, can help decrease the intensity and duration of blue-green algal blooms.”

3. D) Toxins

Per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) in Water Bodies, “Blooms with the potential to harm human health or aquatic ecosystems are referred to as harmful algal blooms, or HABs. In freshwater systems, cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) are microorganisms that can produce HABs. Some cyanobacterial HABs, or cyanoHABs, can produce toxins. CyanoHABs and their toxins can harm people, animals, aquatic ecosystems, the economy, drinking water supplies, property values, and recreational activities, including swimming and commercial and recreational fishing.”

4. C ) Cylindrospermopsin and microcystin

Per EPA Fact Sheet, “Cyanotoxins Drinking Water Advisories”: “The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published national drinking water health advisories for the cyanotoxins microcystins and cylindrospermopsin.”

5. D) 10 days

Per EPA Fact Sheet, “Cyanotoxins Drinking Water Advisories”: “The health advisories provide the cyanotoxins levels in drinking water less than or equal to adverse human health impacts are unlikely to occur over a 10-day period of time. Health advisories are developed to help states and water systems assess local situations, and during emergency situations and spills. They are not a federally enforceable, regulatory limit.”

6. B ) Conducting a systemspecific evaluation for vulnerability to blooms.

Per the EPA “Recommendations for Public

Water Systems to Manage Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water,” in the executive summary, “The stepwise approach includes the following five steps: • Step one involves conducting a systemspecific evaluation for vulnerability to blooms; • Step two suggests activities for preparing and observing potential blooms; • Step three describes monitoring activities to determine whether cyanotoxins are present in the raw water, and recommended communication and treatment activities if cyanotoxins are found in the raw water; • Step four describes monitoring activities to determine whether cyanotoxins are present in finished water and recommended communication and treatment activities if cyanotoxins are found; and • Step five describes continued finished water monitoring (confirming the initial finished water sample in step four) and treatment and communication activities if cyanotoxins are found in the finished water above acceptable levels.”

7. D) Karenia brevis

Per FDEP Fact Sheet, “Harmful Algal Blooms,”: “In Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, the species that causes most red tides is Karenia brevis, often abbreviated as K. brevis.”

8. C) freshwater systems.

Per the Protecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Red Tide, “Blue-green algae blooms occur primarily in freshwater water systems, whereas red tides tend to originate 10 to 40 miles offshore. Although wind and currents can push red tides into nearshore waters, including bays and estuaries, the algae that cause red tides cannot survive in freshwater systems.”

9. C) diatoms.

Per FWC Fact Sheet, “Pseudo-nitzschia spp,”: “Pseudo-nitzschia is a singlecelled, naturally occurring organism belonging to a group of microscopic algae called diatoms. Diatoms can bloom when cells divide rapidly, resulting in high cell concentrations.”

10. D) Water quality dashboard

Per the Protecting Florida Together website, Education Center – Harmful Algal Blooms, “The Protecting Florida Together water quality dashboard delivers relevant water quality information statewide, including blue-green algae, red tide, and nutrient monitoring data. [This] map helps to ensure transparency and accountability with respect to our water quality data and its exchange with the public. Information for [this] map is provided by FDEP and FWC.”

Articles from April 2022 - Florida Water Resources Journal