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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office: P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

News and Features


4 New Report Identifies Opportunities for Successful Codigestion at Water Resource Recovery Facilities 6 Coronavirus: Keeping Water and Wastewater Workers Safe 32 In Memoriam 36 News Beat 38 WWEMA Member Market Survey Reflects Industry Growth 50 Beer Waste Helps Montana Town Save Money on Water Treatment 54 FDEP Announces Plant Operations Excellence Awards

10 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 20 FWEA Focus—Michael W. Sweeney 22 Let’s Talk Safety: Be Kind to Your Body and Stretch Before Working 30 Contractors Roundup: Critical Success Factors for Complex Construction Projects—Erik Anderson 34 FWRJ Reader Profile—Shea Dunifon 35 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 48 FWEA Chapter Corner: Lunch and Learn Program Gives Attendees Hands-On Knowledge—Christine Miranda 52 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kowalski

Technical Articles


14 Under Pressure: Developing a Residential Reuse System—Teri Pinson and Teri L. Shoemaker 40 Water Balance and Hydraulic Analysis: Maximizing the Beneficial Use of Reclaimed Water Through Seasonal Changes and Growth—Kirsten Burns and David Ammerman

57 Classifieds 61 New Products 62 Display Advertiser Index

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Education and Training 9 Florida Water Resources Conference Cancellation 12 CEU Challenge 24 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers 25 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship Fund 26 AWWA Water Equation 27 AWWA Membership 28 FSAWWA Florida Water Landmark Award 29 FSAWWA 2020 Fall Conference 36 AWWA ACE20 47 FWPCOA Region 4 Short School 53 TREEO Center Training 55 FWPCOA Online Training

Volume 71

ON THE COVER: The wastewater treatment plant clarifier at the Loxahatchee River Environmental Control District in Jupiter. The clean water from the plant is stored in retention lakes to be reused as a valuable supply of irrigation water in area golf courses, parks, and residential communities. (photo: Albrey Arrington)

April 2020

Number 4

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


New Report Identifies Opportunities for Successful Codigestion at Water Resource Recovery Facilities Diverting food waste feedstocks, like fats, oils, and grease; food scraps; and food processing residuals, to anaerobic digestion at water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) can provide significant benefits to WRRF finances, as well as to the environment and a community’s well-being. There are a number of hurdles, however, that WRRFs face that leave this potential sustainability strategy largely untapped. Fewer than one in 10 WRRFs use anaerobic digestion to process wastewater solids, and only one in 10 of these are codigesting high-strength organic wastes. In hopes of stimulating and informing further evaluation and adoption of codigestion, a new report, “Food Waste Codigestion at Water Resource Recovery Facilities: Business Case Analysis,” provides insights about the strategies WRRFs have used to address the range of risks and impediments they face in adopting codigestion. The report also outlines a diagnostic framework that individual WRRFs can use to analyze opportunities and potential business strategies for codigestion at their own facilities. “A successful business strategy for codigestion will create value for the WRRF, while managing potential risks,” explains Carol Adaire Jones, an economist and visiting scholar with the Environmental Law Institute and lead author for the report. “A successful business strategy needs to be tailored to the utility’s policy and market environments, as well as to its long-term mission and strategic goals, organizational culture, and resources,” she added. “There is no simple menu of businesscase options, or a set of economic rules of

thumb, for revenues or costs. That’s why we wanted to provide a framework that each utility could use to inform the development of a business strategy for codigestion over the long term.” Codigestion is a core element of the wastewater sector’s Utility of the Future (UOTF) initiative, which envisions the sector shifting to a circular economy business model, whereby wastewater treatment plants disposing of waste are transformed into WRRFs managing critical resources. By codigesting food waste with wastewater biosolids, WRRFs are able to substantially expand the recovery of valuable renewable energy, as well as soil amendment and nutrient products from digestion residuals. To accomplish this transformation, the UOTF initiative identifies an “innovation ecosystem” in which wastewater utilities are at the core of an ecosystem of innovative technology developers and suppliers, the finance community, energy utilities, public and private elements of the solid waste sector, and state and municipal governments. The UOTF innovation ecosystem framework provided the analytical framework for the report. “Through the combined efforts of all ecosystem members, utilities can take and manage risks as they increasingly manage valuable resources to the benefit of customers, the community, and the environment,” noted Jones. The report presents six major case studies and 25 thumbnail sketches, which represent the full range of WRRF characteristics, policy, and market environments, and strategic choices in food waste feedstocks, energy uses, biosolids

uses, contracting, and financing options. Included in the case studies are WRRFs that decided against adopting codigestion, or suspended or cut back programs in place. The report also summarizes lessons learned, both from a public policy perspective and a utility perspective, and identifies solutions to the financial impediments and risks of codigestion identified in the research. The report highlights that the right context is important for a successful codigestion program, including: S A codigestion champion in the utility or municipal government. S Enough site space for vehicles to deliver feedstocks and for other equipment needs. S A business mindset to resource recovery. S Visionary utility board or municipal decision makers who will support projects beyond the core wastewater mission that make economic sense to ratepayers. S Location with access to a sufficient supply of feedstock at a good price. In addition, successful strategies typically evolve over time, adding additional projects that build on past successes and reflect learning from the challenges encountered. Best practices identified for creating a successful business strategy include: S Demonstrating that the project will not compromise plant compliance with its environmental permits and the WRRF’s responsibilities for public health and environmental quality, which are central to its mission. S Using a life cycle perspective, taking into account revenues and costs from the time of initial investments through replacement investments. S Leveraging available policy, market, and community drivers in sync with a WRRF’s mission. S Incorporating strategies to address financial risks, including diversification, long-term contracts, built-in redundancies, and publicprivate partnerships. The full report is available to download at https://www.eli.org/research-report/foodwaste-co-digestion-water-resource-recovery-fac ilities-business-case-analysis. S


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Coronavirus: Keeping Water and Wastewater Workers Safe As the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread worldwide, water industry groups have begun releasing information and advice for water and wastewater professionals.

Industry Information Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently released guidance for wastewater workers, reporting that coronaviruses are vulnerable to the same disinfection techniques currently used in the healthcare sector. “Current disinfection conditions in wastewater treatment facilities is expected to be sufficient,” OSHA released in a statement. “This includes conditions for practices such as oxidation with hypochlorite (i.e., chlorine bleach) and peracetic acid, as well as inactivation through the use of ultraviolet irradiation.” As noted by OSHA, there isn’t evidence to suggest that wastewater treatment plant operators and sewer workers need to enact additional protections specific to COVID-19, but “wastewater treatment plant operations should ensure that workers follow routine practices to prevent exposure to wastewater, including using the engineering and administrative controls, safe work practices, and

personal protective equipment (PPE) normally required for work tasks when handling untreated wastewater.” Water Environment Federation The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has released the “Water Professional’s Guide to COVID-19,” which states that while OSHA’s recommendations are useful in a general way, further research may be necessary for some disinfectants. As the guide states, “More research may be warranted for disinfectants, such as peracetic acid and combined chlorine (chloramines), where specific coronavirus data are lacking or evidence suggests higher bacterial susceptibility to disinfection compared to viruses. Although coronaviruses have not been tested, peracetic acid has been found to have some efficacy against some nonenveloped viruses (e.g., norovirus) that are known to be more resistant than enveloped viruses.” According to WEF, in the absence of proper disinfection, previous research into the persistence of coronavirus surrogates and SARS in wastewater show that the viruses can survive in wastewater for hours or even days. American Water Works Association In the event of a severe pandemic, absenteeism would increase from illness, the fear of infection, local or national stay-at-home orders,

and the need to care for ill family members. This absenteeism could affect drinking water and wastewater system operators and their ability to operate and maintain their systems adequately, thereby increasing the risks to public health. Absenteeism would also affect workers from other essential and interdependent sectors, such as the transportation, power, and chemical sectors, having an adverse impact on services, such as delivery of chemicals and other essential materials and supplies. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) has the following resources to help water utilities be prepared: S Business Continuity Planning for Water Utilities: Guidance Document (Water Research Foundation, AWWA, U.S. EPA) S “Water System Preparedness and Best Practices for Pandemic Influenza,” Philip Van Atta, Journal AWWA S G440-17, Emergency Preparedness Practices S Manual M19, Emergency Planning for Water and Wastewater Utilities

Control and Prevention Measures for protecting workers from exposure to, and infection with, COVID-19 depend on the type of work being performed and exposure risk, including potential for interaction with infectious people and contamination of the work environment. For all workers, regardless of specific exposure risks, it’s always a good practice to: S Frequently wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. When soap and running water are unavailable, use an alcohol-based hand rub with at least 60 percent alcohol. Always wash hands that are visibly soiled. S Avoid touching eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands. S Avoid close contact with people who are sick. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has also developed interim guidance for businesses and employers to plan for and respond to COVID-19. This guidance is intended to help prevent workplace exposures to acute respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19. The guidance also adContinued on page 8


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Continued from page 6 dresses considerations that may help employers prepare for more widespread, community outbreaks of COVID-19 in the event that this kind of transmission begins to occur. Interim Guidance for Workers and Employers of Workers Unlikely to Have Occupational Exposures to COVID-19 For most people in the United States, including most types of workers, the risk of infection with COVID-19 is currently low. There is some additional risk to those workers involved in healthcare, laboratory, airlines, border protection, solid waste and wastewater management operations, or international travel to areas with ongoing, person-to-person transmission of COVID-19. Employers and workers in operations where there is no specific exposure hazard should remain aware of the evolving outbreak situation. Changes in outbreak conditions may warrant additional precautions in some workplaces not currently highlighted in this guidance. Infection prevention recommendations follow the hierarchy of controls, including using engineering and administrative controls and safe work practices to protect workers from exposure to COVID-19. Depending on work tasks and potential exposures, appropriate PPE for protecting workers from the virus may include gloves, masks, goggles or face shields, and/or respirators. Interim Guidance for Workers and Employers of Workers With Potential Occupational Exposures to COVID-19 Employers should assess the hazards to which their workers may be exposed; evaluate the risk of exposure; and select, implement, and ensure that workers use controls to prevent exposure. Control measures may include a combination of engineering and administrative controls, safe work practices, and PPE.

Identify and Isolate Suspected Cases In all workplaces where exposure to the COVID-19 may occur, prompt identification and isolation of potentially infectious individuals is a critical first step in protecting workers, visitors, and others at the worksite. S Immediately isolate people suspected of having COVID-19. For example, move potentially infectious people to an isolation room location away from workers, customers, and other visitors, and close the doors. S Take steps to limit spread of the person’s


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

infectious respiratory secretions, including providing them a facemask and asking them to wear it, if they can tolerate doing so. (Note: A surgical mask on a patient or other sick person should not be confused with PPE for a worker; the mask acts to contain potentially infectious respiratory secretions at the source, i.e., the person’s nose and mouth). S If possible, isolate people suspected of having COVID-19 separately from those with confirmed cases of the virus to prevent further transmission, including in screening, triage, or healthcare facilities. S Restrict the number of personnel entering isolation areas, including the room of a patient with suspected/confirmed COVID19. S Protect workers in close contact with the sick person by using additional engineering and administrative control, safe work practices, and PPE. The CDC defines "close contact" as being about six feet from an infected person or within the room or care area of an infected patient for a prolonged period while not wearing recommended PPE. Close contact also includes instances where there is direct contact with infectious secretions while not wearing recommended PPE. Close contact generally does not include brief interactions, such as walking past a person.

Environmental Decontamination At this time, there is no evidence that the COVID-19 is spread through environmental exposures, such as coming into contact with contaminated surfaces. Because the transmissibility of COVID19 from contaminated environmental surfaces and objects is not fully understood, however, employers should carefully evaluate whether or not work areas occupied by people suspected to have the virus may have been contaminated and whether or not they need to be decontaminated in response. Outside of healthcare facilities, there is typically no need to perform special cleaning or decontamination of work environments when a person suspected of having the virus has been present, unless those environments are visibly contaminated with blood or other body fluids. In limited cases where further cleaning and decontamination may be necessary, consult CDC guidance for cleaning and disinfecting environments, including those contaminated with other coronaviruses. Workers who conduct cleaning tasks, including those in the water and wastewater in-

dustries, must be protected from exposure to blood, certain body fluids, wastewater, and other potentially infectious materials covered by OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) and from hazardous chemicals used in these tasks. In these cases, the PPE (29 CFR 1910 Subpart I) and Hazard Communication (29 CFR 1910.1200) standards may also apply. Do not use compressed air or water sprays to clean potentially contaminated surfaces, as these techniques may aerosolize infectious material.

Worker Training Train all workers with reasonably anticipated occupational exposure to COVID-19 about the sources of exposure to the virus, the hazards associated with that exposure, and appropriate workplace protocols in place to prevent or reduce the likelihood of exposure. Training should include information about how to isolate individuals with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 or other infectious diseases, and how to report possible cases. Training should be offered during scheduled work times and at no cost to the employee. Workers required to use PPE must be trained. This training includes when to use PPE; what PPE is necessary; how to properly put on, use, and take off PPE; how to properly dispose of or disinfect, inspect for damage, and maintain PPE; and the limitations of PPE. Applicable standards include the PPE (29 CFR 1910.132), Eye and Face Protection (29 CFR 1910.133), Hand Protection (29 CFR 1910.138), and Respiratory Protection (29 CFR 1910.134) standards. The OSHA website offers a variety of training videos on respiratory protection. When the potential exists for exposure to human blood, certain body fluids, wastewater, or other potentially infectious materials, workers must receive training required by the Bloodborne Pathogens (BBP) standard (29 CFR 1910.1030), including information about how to recognize tasks that may involve exposure. Further information on OSHA's BBP training regulations and policies is available for employers and workers on the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention Safety and Health Topics page. The OSHA Training and Reference Materials Library contains training and reference materials developed by the OSHA directorate of training and education, as well as links to other related sites. The materials listed for bloodborne pathogens, PPE, respiratory protection, and SARS can provide additional material for employers to use in preparing training for their workers. S

NOTICE OF CANCELLAATTION Due to concerns for health and safety, the action ta aken by President Trump and Florida Governor D DeSantLs to curtail intimate gatherings, travel re estrictions and factors beyond our control that will se everely impact the quality, and attendance, we re egret to inform you that the 2020 Florida Water Resources Conference, scheduled to be held April R 26-29 at the Palm Beach County Convention Center in n West Palm Beach has been canceled. We are sorry for any inconvenience this may ca ause. All attendee registrations will be refunded im mmediately. Exhibitor and sponsor payments will be applied to owards FWRC 2021 to be held March 28-31 at the Gaylord Palms Resort, Kissimmee, Florida. Don’t G fo orget to cancel hotel and all travel reservations you m may have. Any questions please email Admin@ fw wrcorg. Thank you for your tremendous support and dedication to Florida’s Clean Water Environment.

FWRC Board of Trustees

April 26-2 29, 2020 „ Pa alm Beach County Convention Center Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020



Keep Your Cool When the Temperature Rises Kenneth Enlow President, FWPCOA

reetings everyone. My column this month is opening with some sad news. Smyser, Walt an honorary life member of FWPCOA, has passed away. Walt was an instructor for the association and faithfully served as its webmaster. He was instrumental in bringing the organization into the 21st Walt Smyser century with his efforts in developing our website. Walt was the deputy public works director for Holly Hill Waste Water Management. He held a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering from Purdue University. He was a veteran of the United States Navy, serving from 1980 to 1991. Walt will truly be missed by us all, and may he rest in peace.


Working Safely in the Heat In this C Factor I would like to take some time to talk about safety; more specifically, about heat-related illnesses. As we approach spring and summer, many of us who work outdoors, and, to a lesser extent, those that do not, are exposed to heat associated with the weather. There are several types of heat-related illnesses. What are heat-related illnesses? The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has identified that workers who are exposed to extreme heat or work in hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational illnesses and injuries. Heat stress can


result in heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, or heat rashes. Heat can also increase the risk of injuries and accidents for workers as it may result in sweaty palms, fogged-up safety glasses, and dizziness. Burns may also occur as a result of accidental contact with hot surfaces or steam. Workers at risk of heat stress include outdoor workers and workers in hot environments, such as firefighters, bakery workers, farmers, construction workers, miners, boiler room workers, factory workers, and others. Workers at greater risk of heat stress include those who are 65 years or older, are overweight, have heart disease or high blood pressure, or take medications that may be affected by extreme heat. Prevention of heat stress in workers is important. Employers should provide training to workers so they understand what heat stress is, how it affects their health and safety, and how it can be prevented. What are the different types of heat-related illnesses? Heat Stroke Heat stroke is the most serious heat-related illness. It occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature: the body’s temperature rises rapidly, the sweating mechanism fails, and the body is unable to cool down. When heat stroke occurs, the body temperature can rise to 106°F or higher within 10 to 15 minutes. Heat stroke can cause death or permanent disability if emergency treatment is not given. Symptoms Symptoms of heat stroke include: S Confusion, altered mental status, slurred speech S Loss of consciousness (coma) S Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating S Seizures S Very high body temperature S Fatal if treatment delayed First Aid Take the following steps to treat a worker with heat stroke: S Call 911 for emergency medical care. S Stay with the worker until emergency medical services arrive.

April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Move the worker to a shaded, cool area and remove outer clothing. S Cool the worker quickly with cold water or an ice bath, if possible; wet the skin, place cold wet cloths on the skin, or soak clothing with cool water. S Circulate the air around the worker to speed cooling. S Place cold wet cloths or ice on the head, neck, armpits, and groin. Heat Exhaustion Heat exhaustion is the body’s response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through excessive sweating. Workers most prone to heat exhaustion are those who are elderly, have high blood pressure, or working in a hot environment. Symptoms Symptoms of heat exhaustion include: S Headache S Nausea S Dizziness S Weakness S Irritability S Thirst S Heavy sweating S Elevated body temperature S Decreased urine output First Aid Treat a worker suffering from heat exhaustion with the following: S Take worker to a clinic or emergency room for medical evaluation and treatment. S If medical care is unavailable, call 911. S Someone should stay with worker until help arrives. S Remove worker from hot area and give liquids to drink. S Remove unnecessary clothing, including shoes and socks. S Cool the worker with cold compresses or wash the worker’s head, face, and neck with cold water. S Encourage frequent sips of cool water. Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a medical condition associated with heat stress and prolonged physical exertion, resulting in the rapid

breakdown, rupture, and death of muscle. When muscle tissue dies, electrolytes and large proteins are released into the bloodstream that can cause irregular heart rhythms and seizures, and damage the kidneys. Symptoms Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis include: S Muscle cramps/pain S Abnormally dark (tea- or cola-colored) urine S Weakness S Exercise intolerance S Asymptomatic First Aid Workers with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis should: S Stop all activity. S Increase oral hydration (water preferred). S Seek immediate care at the nearest medical facility. S Ask to be checked for rhabdomyolysis (i.e., blood sample analyzed for creatine kinase). Heat Syncope Heat syncope is a fainting (syncope) episode or dizziness that usually occurs with prolonged standing or sudden rising from a sitting or lying position. Factors that may contribute to heat syncope include dehydration and lack of acclimatization. Symptoms Symptoms of heat syncope include: S Fainting (short duration) S Dizziness S Light-headedness First Aid Workers with heat syncope should:

S Sit or lie down in a cool place. S Slowly drink water, clear juice, or a sports drink.

S Keep rash area dry. S Apply powder to increase comfort. S Ointments and creams should not be used.

Heat Cramps Heat cramps usually affect workers who sweat a lot during strenuous activity. This sweating depletes the body’s salt and moisture levels. Low salt levels in muscles causes painful cramps. Heat cramps may also be a symptom of heat exhaustion.

As the temperature begins to rise, keep in mind that these conditions can be serious and may be fatal. Pay attention to these symptoms and take action if you or a fellow worker is showing signs of any of these heat-related illnesses. Here are a few more tips: S Get acclimated to the heat by exposing yourself gradually. S Get the more-exertive tasks completed in the morning when temperatures are cooler, if possible. S Don’t forget to use sunscreen. Florida has a high rate of skin cancer related to sun exposure.

Symptoms Symptoms of heat cramps include: S Muscle cramps, pain, or spasms in the abdomen, arms, or legs First Aid Workers with heat cramps should: S Drink water and have a snack and/or carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement liquid (e.g., sports drinks) every 15 to 20 minutes. S Avoid salt tablets. S Get medical help if the worker has heart problems, is on a low-sodium diet, or if cramps do not subside within one hour.

That’s it for this C Factor. Take care of yourselves and keep cool. Stay active and make a difference! S

Heat Rash Heat rash is a skin irritation caused by excessive sweating during hot, humid weather. Symptoms Symptoms of heat rash include: S A red cluster of pimples or small blisters that usually appear on the neck, upper chest, groin, under the breasts, and in elbow creases. First Aid Workers experiencing heat rash should: S When possible, move to a cooler, less-humid work environment.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Conservation and Reuse. Look above each set of questions to see if it's for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Under Pressure: Developing a Residential Reuse System Teri Pinson and Teri L. Shoemaker

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1WW02015364)

1. The northwest (NW) reuse system model indicated that the highest velocity for 2016 and 2018 flow was _____ ft per second (fps). a. 2.59 b. 5 c. 5.53 d. 6.17 2. Reviewing hourly 2018 reclaimed water demand data, the peak-hour overall system flow was ___ times the average daily flow. a. 7.2 b. 8.3 c. 9.1 d. 13.6 3. Reuse demand projections in 2014 assumed an average daily flow demand for golf courses to be ______ mil gal (MG). a. 0.5 b. .75 c. 1 d. 1.25 4. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) guidance recommends system storage capacity equal to ___ the portion of average daily flow for which no alternate reuse or discharge system is available. a. half b. 100 percent of c. twice d. three times 5. The authors note that reuse protects waterways by a. reducing surface water withdrawal for irrigation. b. reducing oxygen demand. c. increasing dissolved oxygen levels. d. reducing nutrient loading.

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

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Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020



Under Pressure: Developing a Residential Reuse System Teri Pinson and Teri L. Shoemaker he St. Johns County (county) integrated water resources plan (IWRP) recommends water conservation and reuse as the most cost-effective and beneficial way to manage a sustainable water supply in the rapidly growing county. In response to this objective, St. Johns County Utility Department (SJCUD) recommends utilization of reuse for irrigation purposes in new developments to offset irrigation demands from the potable water system. The recommendations have been largely well-received, and the 2040 projections indicate a potential offset to the potable water supply of approximately 5 mil gal per day (mgd). In anticipation of this new growth, SJCUD constructed a new regional 3-mgd 100 percent beneficial reuse advanced wastewater treatment facility with APRICOT backup discharge located in a high-development area. The Florida APRICOT Act of 1994 was enacted as a result of Project APRICOT (A Prototype Realistic Innovative Community of Today. Project), developed in the late 1980s, which made it possible for the city of Alta-


monte Springs to fund and integrate reuse into its water resource management landscape. Historically, SJCUD’s treated wastewater effluent was reused by interruptible discharges to golf course irrigation ponds; however, the reuse system in the northwest (NW) area of SJCUD now needed to accommodate pressurized residential reuse customers as well. Therefore, SJCUD began a capital program to upgrade the existing facilities and encumbered over $12 million for reuse capital improvement project construction. This article presents the planning, construction, and commissioning components of the NW pressurized residential reuse system throughout the various implementation phases of the project.

Background St. Johns County is a high-growth area, with many new developments in the NW SJCUD service area. Installing reuse infrastructure in new neighborhoods is much more

Teri Pinson, P.E., is an engineer (capital improvements) and Teri L. Shoemaker, P.E., is an engineer (development) with St. Johns County Utility Department in St. Augustine.

feasible than retrofitting established areas, and SJCUD needed to take advantage of this opportunity and align the residential reuse program with developer timing. This made for an aggressive timeline to have all aspects operational in 2017. The following is a timeline of SJCUD’s reuse implementation in the NW service area: S 1998: Reuse used for golf course irrigation from SR 16 wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) S 2006: Committed to residential reuse in NW S 2011: Completed reuse master plan S 2012: Completed NW water reclamation facility (WRF) final design S 2015: Finalized integrated water resources plan S 2015: Implemented pressurized reuse capital improvement plan (CIP) S 2016: Hired reuse coordinator S 2017: Commenced residential reuse program Current Population Projections Due to its 28 percent population growth since 2010, the United States Census Bureau ranked the county as the third and 14th fastest-growing county in Florida and the United States, respectively. Figure 1 shows population projections completed in 2017. As identified in the graph, the NW sector is experiencing the most growth within the county.

Figure 1. 2017 Population Projections for St. Johns County


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Service Area and Existing System Description The NW reuse system service area is presented in Figure 2. Prior to any improvements, the SR 16 WWTP was serving the entire service area with both sewer treatment and reuse. Wastewater from the NW portion of the service area was collected in an above grade 0.5 mil gal (MG) wet well and pumped through a

master pump station to the SR 16 WWTP. The reuse effluent was pumped from this facility through an inline booster pump station in the middle of the service area and discharged to the golf course pond on the northern side of the service area. When construction of the new NW WRF was completed, wastewater flow from the northern portion of the service area was redirected from the master pump station to the new facility. Reuse effluent was interconnected through a new 20-in. reuse pipeline to the existing SR 16 reuse system, providing a combined reuse service area. At this time, all reuse was delivered to the golf course and one pressurized customer on the downstream side of the inline booster pump station. The SR 16 WWTP wetland discharge has operational issues, so the limited wet weather discharge use is minimized. The backup discharge for the NW WWTP allows for 30 percent of the annual average daily flow to be discharged per year. Figure 2 also shows the development and capital improvement projects that are projected to build out the reuse system through 2040. An “existing” status was noted, if online as of December 2018. Although the Silverleaf area was the original driver in 2006, economic conditions delayed that development. Meanwhile, SJCUD moved forward with the longterm reuse plan. When conditions improved, other developments were poised and SJCUD was in a position to serve reuse with a new colocated WRF and other improvements.

Planning In 2014, SJCUD implemented the CIP to pressurize the NW reuse system. The CIP was refined by detailing wastewater and reuse flow projections from the latest available development plans and calculating the water balance projections. Ultimately, a hydraulic model was created to validate the design of the required improvements. 2014 Reuse Supply And Demand Projections The population projections were updated by SJCUD in 2013 through 2040, which were documented in internal technical bulletins. The wastewater flow projections were developed using the average daily flow (ADF) of 280 gal per day (gpd) per equivalent residential unit (ERU). The reuse demand projections were developed using the ADF of 300 gpd/ERU. This ADF is higher than the 250 gpd/ERU used in the 2030 reclaimed water system master plan (RWMP) prepared by

Figure 2. The Northwest Reuse System Service Area

CH2M HILL in January 2011 and was updated to be more aligned with industry standards. The reuse ADF for the commercial/office customers was assumed to be 0.5 in. of irrigation over 10 percent of the commercial/office lot coverage, consistent with the RWMP. The reuse ADF for the golf courses was assumed to be 0.5 mgd for each course. Approximately 22 percent of the developable property (as defined in an internal bulletin) was assumed to be built in 2040. This percentage was selected to best match the population projections. It was assumed that the monthly irrigation demand varies throughout the year based

on rainfall and evapotranspiration rates. The factors presented in the RWMP were used for planning. Each factor was used to calculate the peak-month irrigation demand rate in the water balance and in combination with the daily demand rates for calculating the peakday demand rate for the residential and commercial reuse customers. It was assumed that the golf courses will receive the same ADF throughout the year and that they will be considered an interruptible user, consistent with the existing service. These projections used the RWMP daily Continued on page 16

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


it’s under the existing conditions with no peak-month factor. It was assumed that half of the residential units would be irrigating at a time. The hours between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. are restricted irrigation hours for both residential and commercial users.

Continued from page 15 irrigation demand rates, which were developed based on the mandatory watering restrictions for potable water established by the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). The golf course demand was assumed to be consistent throughout the day, as

Table 1. Implemented Projects From the Capital Improvement Plan

Project Title/Description Turnbull GST and Booster Pump Station (BPS) NW Water Reclamation Facility – 3mgd AADF Advanced Wastewater Treatment with Backup APRICOT Discharge to Surface Water IGP* and CR2209 Pipelines

Storage Capacity

Design Capacity

Completion Date

1.5 MG

580 gpm at 207 ft TDH 2 (1 Duty/1 Standby)

Oct 2015

2 MG

866 gpm at 200 ft TDH 3 (3 Duty/1 Future)

Feb 2016



1 MG

Northwest Reuse and Flushing Pump Station Slammer and Squire Golf Course Pressure-Sustaining Valve Master Reclaimed Water System Supervisory Controls King and Bear Gold Course PressureSustaining Valve

Bannon Lakes GST and BPS*

0.5 MG

14,900 LF 16-in. and 202014/2016 in. Reuse Main 350 gpm at 220 ft TDH March 2017 (1 Duty/1 Standby) 320 gpm at 185 ft TDH 2 March 2017 (1 Duty/1 Standby)


20-90 psi

March 2017


(Described below)

Aug 2017


20-90 psi

March 2019

2 MG

Jockey Pumps 1,200 gpm at 160 ft TDH 2 (1 Duty/1 Standby) Booster Pumps 2,000 gpm at 137 ft TDH 2 (1 Duty/Standby)

July 2019

Table 2. Monthly Irrigation Factors

Month January February March April May June July August September October November December


Percent of ADF Irrigation RWMP 2017 2018 42 48 52 57 59 59 113 50 84 184 75 98 206 111 124 121 148 75 99 143 127 89 125 107 73 108 117 89 114 160 82 123 126 42 97 72

April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water Balance The planning wastewater flow and reuse demand rates were used to develop an annual water balance. The water balances were prepared assuming no discharge to the SR 16 WWTP wetland. The projected annual reuse demand exceeds the projected annual wastewater influent flow in 2020 by 0.155 mgd, requiring use of an augmentation system or reduction of golf course reuse demand. The SJCUD used Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) guidance, which recommended that storage capacity be the volume equal to three times that portion of the ADF for which no alternative reuse or disposal system is permitted, although it's not required since both WWTPs have a backup discharge. The resulting recommended minimum storage volume was 7.1 MG. Water balances were also calculated using the daily peak-demand factors and peakmonth factors for the months of May and November, selected as a representative month from the Eastern Standard Time (EST) and Daylight Saving Time (DST) irrigation demand periods, respectively. The 2020 reuse system requires a minimum 1.9 MG of storage to handle the daily supply/demand fluctuation. The combined required and recommended storage requirement from the annual and daily water balances is 9 MG. Reuse Model A hydraulic model of the NW reuse system was created using Innovyze InfoWater Suite 9.0 software to review reuse pumping and demand scenarios for 2016 and 2018 and help identify the best location and capacities for the proposed storage and pumping facilities. The pressure-sustaining valves at the golf courses and ground storage tanks (GSTs) were also modeled as flow control valves to limit the flow to golf courses and direct the flow to reuse storage for future use. The pressure boundary conditions in the system ranged between 20 and 90 pounds per sq in. (psi), with a minimum of 40 psi reuse distribution pressure delivered to customers. Reuse main velocities were reviewed for maximum allowable velocity. The highest observed velocity in the 2016 and 2018 scenarios was 6.17 ft per second (fps). The reuse main velocity will be exceeded in 2020, at which time the 8-in. reuse main along SR 16 would require an upgrade.

Construction Implementation of the CIP immediately followed, with upgrades to effluent treatment,

storage, and pumping systems at two existing WWTPS, and three satellite storage and pump station sites totaling 7 MG, with pressure-sustaining valves, four mi of reuse transmission pipe, and a comprehensive supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The CIP presented in Table 1 was recommended for completion to meet the 2016 and 2018 projections. The pressurized system was commissioned in 2017 with the connections of the first noninterruptible residential reuse customers. Master Reclaimed Water System Supervisory Controls The master reclaimed water system (MRWS) can be monitored at three locations: SR16 WWTP, NW WRF, and the county master human machine interface. The goal of the MRWS was to develop an integration system that would manage and deliver all of the reuse water being treated in the NW on a daily basis. Each of the facilities with storage would have three modes of operation: fill, booster, or standby. The mode of operation is based on storage tank levels and pressure in the system. In addition, each site is given a ranking or priority to be used if two sites are attempting to be in a mode of operation that will be contradictory to the overall goal of delivering reuse to customers or golf course ponds. The pressure-sustaining valve sites each have two modes of operation: valve open or valve closed. As long as the pond high-level float switch is not energized, the valve will be available to be called open. The county has received cost-share funding from SJRWMD for three projects that have expanded the SJCUD reuse system infrastructure in the NW (these projects are highlighted in Table 1). In addition to conservation, reuse protects waterways by decreasing nutrient loading through the reduction of surface water discharge. These measurable benefits of conservation and water quality made these projects eligible to receive the alternative water supply program cost-share funding. The following projects are recommended for the 2020 capital improvements: S Upgrade 8-in.-diameter pipe between SR 16 WWTP and CR 2209. This project is being closely coordinated with the planning and construction of new developments in this corridor, as they trigger state roadway improvements and utility relocation. S 2-MG storage tank and pump station in Silverleaf development of regional impact. This project is development-driven and will be timed accordingly with the construction of the development.

Commissioning Internal Collaboration The expedited implementation of residential reuse required regular in-house coordination meetings among the planning, development, capital, operations, compliance, billing, customer service, and information technology divisions of SJCUD. In addition, a reuse coordinator was hired to schedule and facilitate cross connection inspections for new

homeowners. As part of these meetings, the following standard operating procedures and standards were created to ensure consistency with implementation: S Flushing Reclaimed Water Main Infrastructure S Residential Reuse Development WalkThrough Inspection and Checklist S Residential Site Inspection and Survey S Common-Area Inspection Continued on page 18

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1,000 Gals




Sa t

Fr i

Su n M on Tu es W ed Th ur s

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Commercial/Common Area

Figure 3. 2018 Residential and Commercial Reuse Flow per Day of Week

Figure 4. 2018 Combined Residential and Commercial Reuse Flow per Hour of Day

2019 Planning Update Table 3. Residential Reuse Average Day Flow

Source SJCUD Planning ADF 2017 Flow Data 2018 Flow Data 2017-2018 Flow Data

ADF (gpd) 300 415 328 282

Continued from page 17 S Repair and Spill Unpermitted Discharge S Cross Connection Response S New Reuse Customer Connection/Transfer/Disconnect (Billing System) S Reuse Signage Details Three developers were starting to build homes prior to the reuse system being fully pressurized and ready to serve, and SJCUD coordinated temporary potable jumpers to be used until conversion to reuse; however, the time frame was minimal. When the system was ready, the reuse coordinator scheduled cross connection inspections for the conversion to reuse. As a standard protocol, each reuse meter had to be locked until the inspection was completed, so SJCUD assigned as many inspectors as needed during this conversion to minimize inconvenience to customers. Another challenge during implementation was determining the new operational responsibilities for the reuse system among the existing departments. During this internal collaboration, each division had assigned roles and staff to integrate the new program.


Table 4. Peak-Demand Factors

Type Commercial Residential Overall



9.6 7.2 N/A

13.6 9.1 8.3

Public Outreach With 650 residential accounts connected in less than three years in the NW area, public education was imperative to success. The SJCUD created a brochure, move-in packet, website, and mapping application to welcome customers to the program and describe reuse and its use. With this information, customers should understand the critical need to use nonpotable water on lawns and feel safe using this valuable resource. The website includes information, such as: S Overview and video S How to connect S Landscaping (salt-tolerant plants) S Watering schedule (recommended) S Schedule an inspection S Service map S Printable brochure with frequently asked questions The SJCUD worked with developers from the planning phase to ensure a smooth transition and that homeowners were educated as soon as possible.

April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued evaluation of flow projections was necessary to manage the adjustments to the operation strategy, as the larger proportion of the demand shifts from golf course (lower peak, interruptible service) to residential and commercial (higher peak, noninterruptible service), and to schedule the implementation of the remaining improvements. Having over two years of reuse meter data and significant growth of the new system, SJCUD was able to review the usage rates to verify the initial assumptions for sizing the pressurized system. The SJCUD’s billing software, Microsoft Dynamics GP Cogsdale CSM Module and Sensus advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), was used to analyze the actual usage rates of reuse customers. The actual demand factors were compared to the planning demand factors, and the flow projections were updated as a result of this analysis. Seasonal Variations To compare the monthly irrigation rates to the rates used for planning from the RWMP, SJCUD analyzed the residential, commercial, and common-area flow rates for 2017 and 2018 and compared each month’s average to the annual average flow for each year. The results of this analysis are presented in Table 2. The maximum month rate for these two years was 160 percent compared to 206 percent in the RWMP, and the minimum month rate was 50 percent compared to 42 percent in the RWMP. Additionally, the irrigation did not show as significant of a decline during the winter months as compared to the RWMP. Finally, the totals for each year were compared to the total rainfall for each year and month,

and no correlation was found between the two trends. Demand Patterns The RWMP assumed irrigation patterns similar to those required by SJRWMD for potable water users. The patterns were used to determine the peak-demand factors for the reuse system. The SJCUD analyzed the residential and commercial- and common-area flow categories to determine if the customer usage had a notable pattern. Figure 3 presents the flow data for 2018 distributed by day of the week. The reuse water is being used fairly consistently through the week. Figure 4 presents the flow data for 2018 distributed by hour of the day. The most significant use is between the hours of 1 a.m. and 8 a.m. Residential Average Day Demand The reuse flow from the residential meters with 12 full months of data for each year was used to determine the annual average day flow for each year per residential unit. In 2017, there were 178 meters with 12 months of data and an average day flow of 415 gpd; in 2018, there were 334 meters with 12 months of data and an ADF of 328 gpd. Influencing factors on these rates could be new customers watering their lawns, annual rainfall, and model homes. The rainfall was higher in 2017 than 2018 and did not show a decrease in ADF due to increased rainfall. To consider the impacts of watering on a new lawn, only the accounts that had been in service for the full 24-month period were reviewed. The ADF for these 178 meters in 2017 and 2018 was 282 gpd. The SJCUD will continue to use the planning ADF of 300 gpd/ERU. Table 3 presents the ADF for each year.

parison, it was noted that common-area irrigation was not accounted for in initial 2014 planning projections in either ADF per residential unit or by commercial flow. It was found that between 17 and 59 percent of the total annual flow per development was used for common-areas. A new user category has been added to the projections to account for this use. Because the flow rate depends on the open areas and amenities offered by each development, a high and low reuse growth curve has been provided in the new projections. The high growth curve assumes a percentage of common-area irrigation per proposed development consistent with these percentages; the low reuse growth curve assumes no additional flow for the common area as a boundary condition. The SJCUD will continue to monitor the rate at which common areas are irrigated and make necessary planning adjustments. Use of Stormwater Pond for Irrigation Some developments have proposed utilizing the stormwater system for irrigation, in addition to the SJCUD reuse supply. There have been two proposed methods: use stormwater irrigation for common areas, and receive SJCUD reuse through a master meter that would discharge to a stormwater pond and be distributed to residences through a private irrigation system. The reuse flow de-

mands for the developments utilizing these alternate delivery methods have been adjusted in the 2019 projections. Updated Flow Projections Figure 5 presents the comparison between the revised 2014 and 2019 flow projections utilizing the updated 2017 population projections for the sewer flow projections and the adjustments noted previosuly for the reuse demand projections.

Conclusion Even though the residential reuse system was in the long-term plan to colocate with impending NW area developments, the timeline was unpredictable until developers began construction. The SJCUD succeeded in meeting the expedited timeline for completing the capital infrastructure projects and providing pressurized reuse service to the new developments with minimal reliance on potable water jumpers. The SJCUD overcame the challenges associated with adding 650 accounts in less than three years and meeting the goals of potable water offset and nutrient reduction to surface water by utilizing 94 percent of the 1,112 MG of wastewater effluent in 2017 and 2018. Looking forward, SJCUD will continue to grow the residential reuse system and manage a sustainable water supply. S

Peak-Demand Factor The peak-hour demand factors (PDF) were analyzed by reviewing the hourly AMI data for 2018. The commercial- and commonarea meters showed a peak-hour flow of 13.6 times their ADF, and the residential meters had a peak-hour flow of 9.1 times their ADF. Since the daily flow variations shows a fairly consistent spread throughout the week for each user type, SJCUD also reviewed an overall peak-hour flow for all noninterruptible users. This provided a peak-hour flow for the system of 8.3 times the ADF. The overall PDF will be used for planning purposes. Table 4 summarizes these factors. Common-Area Irrigation Demand When analyzing the metered flow data for the planning versus metered flow factor com-

Figure 5. Historical, 2014, and 2019 Reuse Supply and Demand Projections

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020



A Brief Year in Review Michael W. Sweeney, Ph.D. President, FWEA

ince this is my second-to-last column as president, I’d like to take the opportunity to briefly look back and salute our chapter and committee leaders, board of directors, and members for what we have accomplished together this year! There are four examples I would like to summarize.


Leadership Development Workshop On February 23 and 24, thirty-five board members, and current and incoming chapter and committee chairs, participated in an annual dayand-a-half leadership development workshop. It was skillfully organized by Jamey Wallace, FWEA president-elect, and Karen Wallace (no relation), the association’s executive manager, with other leaders contributing to this effort. The strategic plan update was presented among the various informative reports, and highlights included the Utility Council report and discussion by Paul Steinbrecher, who presented pertinent issues and provided an indepth legislative session update. Presentations covered topics such as making social media more effective, panel discussions focused on chapter and committee leadership topics, and many more activities were conducted. The allimportant 2020-2021 business plans were reviewed by our directors at large (DALs), which eventually become part of next year’s budget. Lastly, the attendees had a sneak preview, arranged by FWEA’s Public Communication and

Outreach Committee, of the film, “Brave Blue World.” This feature-length documentary presents ways being pursued around the world to create a sustainable water future. A trailer can be found in the following link: https://www.wef.org/ resources/for-the-public/brave-blue-world/. The FWEA is seeking venue partners to conduct more screenings that are impactful to public audiences as described in the link, so stayed tuned!

Strategic Plan This topic was featured in last month’s column. To summarize, the updating process was comprehensive in nature and included developing and analyzing a comprehensive membership survey that garnered an impressive 17 percent response of 1446 members, producing a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis, and integrated these into a one-day workshop agenda. Four strategic areas and several objectives were confirmed, with more work to follow on action plans and metrics. The key is to move FWEA forward in a planned way, but not bite off more than we can chew.

Certification Initiative Over the course of the year several meetings took place with FWPCOA leadership to gain a better understanding of the direction of their volunteer certification program and find ways to further partner and promote the skills and proficiency of our maintenance professionals. The FWPCOA level III maintenance certification training manual and other pertinent information were presented. Level III is the entry-level program of particular interest to us as the topics covered are equipment maintenance in water, wastewater, lift stations, and collection systems.

Among his many duties, Brad Hayes, the Operations Council representative, currently serves as our liaison with FWPCOA and offers a connection to provide continuous input and feedback at the FWPCOA committee level.

Our Productive Chapters and Committees Our nine chapters and 19 committees will have collectively produced over 35 workshops, seminars, and other events this year, which have also included a focus of adding additional guidance and checklists to support the planning and execution of successful events and seminars.

Welcoming WEF National Conferences Florida is being considered by the Water Environment Federation (WEF) for four national conferences, due to the good work of FWEA and our ability to organize and lend support. The next two years could be “one for the books” for FWEA! The conferences are: WEF Innovations in Process Engineering June 8-11, 2021 Miami WEFMAX June 1-3, 2022 Location TBD WEF/AWWA Utility Management Conference Feb. 21-24, 2022 Orlando Collection Systems Specialty Conference Date and Florida Location TBD

Summary Evidence of the vibrancy of FWEA is hopefully quite apparent to you from these few highlights. There are many others representing additional effort “under the hood” by leaders and members working in teams to make things happen and adding value to our members at large. This has been a great year building on the accomplishments of the past year—and the 78 years prior. No doubt next year will again be successful for the association and I have the utmost confidence in that declaration. S Attendees at the leadership development workshop.


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Be Kind to Your Body: Stretch Before Working Making sure your team members are physically ready for work reduces injury risk and promotes a health, safety, and team culture tility work can be a physically demanding job. It frequently requires some workers to spend considerable time in awkward positions and postures. Just as athletes need to warm up before the start of a workout or competition, so do utility personnel. This includes office staff, as well as field workers! Through stretching you can prepare your muscles to handle the workload and possibly prevent the more frequent forms of work injury: sprains and strains. Just as you benefit from stretching and warm-up exercises in your day-to-day life,


companies and their team members both benefit from a work readiness program consisting of stretching and warm-up exercises, which helps prevent musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). These disorders are common and costly— to the tune of roughly $50 billion a year for companies, causing unnecessary pain and suffering for your employees.

Prevention is the Key It’s very clear that prevention is the answer.

Proactive prevention is always better than reactive treatment—everybody wins in the prevention scenario and nobody wins with painful surgery, medication, lost work days, a ruined safety culture, and a fortune spent on preventable injuries. Before the start of a shift, or before heading out to the field, have your workers take a few moments to stretch. A few simple movements help increase circulation and reduce fatigue— plus, everyone might even become more relaxed! A stretch break any time during the day will also help workers feel better and work better.

Why Stretch? A flexible body is crucial for physical activity. Stretching increases flexibility, minimizes the chances of pulling or tearing muscles, and improves performance. A flexible muscle can react and contract faster, and with more force. Flexibility also increases agility and balance.

The Physiology of Stretching Stretching is a vital part of a healthy fitness regimen. Before-shift stretching and warm-up exercises reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries by reducing fatigue, improving muscular balance and posture, and improving muscle coordination. Stretching Reduces Fatigue S Stretching increases blood supply and nutrients to joint structures and soft tissues. S Stretching increases soft tissue temperature and allows for greater elasticity of tissues.

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April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Stretching increases joint synovial fluid (lubricant for bones and articular cartilage) that allows greater range of motion and reduces joint degeneration. S Stretching increases a joint’s ability to move through a greater range of motion, with less energy required to do so. S Stretching decreases tightness and resistance in tendons and muscles. Stretching Improves Muscular Balance and Posture S Soft tissue structures often adapted poorly to effects of gravity and bad postural habits. S Stretching realigns soft tissue structures, thus reducing effort to achieve and maintain good posture in the activities of daily living. Stretching Improves Muscle Coordination S Stretching enhances nerve impulse velocity (the time it takes an impulse to travel to the brain and back to the muscle). S Stretching helps opposing muscle groups work in a more coordinated fashion.

back of your neck. With the other arm, reach behind your head and place your hand on top of the bent elbow. Gently pull down and back on the elbow. Repeat with other arm. S Trunk stretch. Stand with your feet a little more than shoulder-width apart. Reach your left arm overhead and bend to the right at the waist. Repeat on the opposite side. S Torso twist. Stand at arm’s length from the wall, with the wall at your side. Reach one arm out and place your hand on the wall. Reach the other arm around the body, stretching the hand to the wall. Repeat on opposite side. If you have pain or discomfort, it probably means you did too much. Back off a little, and if pain persists, check with your doctor or healthcare professional.

Stretching Benefits: Beyond the Body Incorporating a stretching program into your workers’ everyday routine will be beneficial for their health and well-being—and for your company’s bottom line. There may also be a psychological benefit in a stretching program. Company managers and workers stretching together as a common activity can increase bonding and improve morale. This semisocial activity in the workplace can also create caring and support that’s felt by employees, both from each other and from management. For more information on stretching, see the Mayo Clinic websites on stretching: www.mayoclinic.com/health/stretching/WL000 30 and www.mayoclinic.com/health/stretching/ SM00043. S

Getting Started Here are a few tips to help get the most out of stretching and exercise: S Start out easy. If you haven’t been regularly exercising, don’t try to do too much in the beginning. S Stretch regularly. Make it a routine at the beginning of every work shift. S The warm-up should not be painful, but you should definitely feel the stretching and the working of all the muscles and joints. S Hold each stretch for 10 seconds. Do not bounce. Breathe normally during the stretch. Easy Stretching Exercises S Neck rotation. Turn your head to the side, stretching your chin toward your shoulder. Turn head back to center and repeat to the other side. Increase the range of the stretch by dropping the opposite shoulder. See if you can lower your head further. S Shoulder stretch. Stand with feet shoulderwidth apart. Raise one arm overhead and stretch as far as you can without bending the torso. Repeat with opposite arm. S Forearm stretch. Extend your right arm straight out in front of you, palm downward. With the left hand, grasp the fingers of the right hand and pull back gently, stretching the wrist and forearm. Repeat with the left arm. S Tricep stretch. Raise one arm straight up, so your upper arm is near your ear. Bend your arm at the elbow and let your hand fall to the Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020



To participate in an FSAWWA conference, the first step is submitting an abstract to be considered for a presentation at the conference. There is no guarantee that the paper you submit will be chosen, but if your paper is well thought-out and pertinent to the subject matter of the conference, then your chances of being selected go up. FSAWWA wishes to invite authors and experts in the field to submit abstracts on a variety of sustainability topics, including:

Potential Session Categories

Abstract Submittal

01 Potable Reuse

Abstracts will be accepted in WORD ONLY via email to: Frederick Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E., Technical Program Chair at h2o_man@bellsouth.net Please attach a cover page to the abstract which includes the following information: a) Suggested Session Category b) Paper Title c) Names of Authors d) Name of Presenter(s) e) Main contact including name, title, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and email

02 Improving our Piping Systems 03 Innovations in Water Treatment 04 Role of Membranes for the Future 05 Tools for Assessing our Assets 06 Total Water Solutions 07 Financing the Future 08 Water Systems Resilience 09 Water Conservation

“Best Paper” Competition Each year awards are presented to the best papers during the Fall Conference Business Luncheon.

Questions? Call 239-250-2423 Thank you for your interest in the FSAWWA. November 29 to December 3, 2020


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Scholarships valued up to $5,000 will be awarded in both undergraduate and graduate categories by the Florida Section American Water Works Association.


• Must be a student enrolled (not online) in a Florida university and living in Florida Must be a full-time student or part-time student enrolled and completing a • minimum of 6 credits Must be a student within 60 credits of graduation with a bachelor’s degree. • Note: Seniors who are pursuing a graduate degree may apply and use the scholarship for their graduate studies, but must provide proof of acceptance to their graduate degree program Maintain good standing in academic status with a GPA of 3.0 or higher based • on a 4.0 system be pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field with a plan to remain • inMust Florida to pursue their career Or enrolled in one of the CIP educational codes (for a list visit fsawwa.org/2020Likins) • and have indicated an interest in pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field

Added Value: All applicants receive 1-year free student American Water Works Association • (AWWA) membership. Key benefits of Student Membership:

• Jump-Start Your Career • Gain Experience • Stay Informed


$5,000 SCHOLARSHIP Apply by May 31, 2020 For application, please visit:


Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


Apply now for your One AWWA Operator Scholarship to fund courses, books, trainings and conference attendance! https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/oneawwaapplication


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

We Make Water Policy A Priority Together We Protect Public Health Through AWWA mem mbers’ collective knowledge, our Government Affairs office informs decision makers on legislative and regulattory issues. We support effective measures that protec ct public health by advocating for sensible laws, regulations, programs and policies.

Join AWWA today and a let’s work together g on the critical issues facing our industry.


Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


Florida Water “Landmark” Award Purpose of the Award: To recognize and preserve a Florida Water Landmark at least 50 years old that has had a direct and significant relationship with water supply, treatment, distribution, or technological development. The Florida Section AWWA will also submit a nomination of the Florida Water Landmark awardee to AWWA as an American Water Landmark. The Award: A sturdy bronze plaque to be appropriately mounted on the water landmark. Eligibility for Award: The Florida Water Landmark must be a tangible, physical property that has or has had a direct and significant relationship with water's supply, treatment, distribution, or technological development. It should be of a permanent and nonexpendable nature, such as a building, dam, reservoir, tower, etc., and not machinery or a natural water resource. A water landmark must be at least 50 years old and be recognized within its own community or region as a popular, valued, or historically significant property. (Evidence of this recognition must be provided.) Nomination Process: Fill out the entry form: www.fsawwa.org/waterlandmark Send completed form by email to: Rick Johnson at rjohnson@pmaconsultants.com Terri Holcomb at THolcomb@regionalwater.org Peggy Guingona at peggy@fsawwa.org


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Critical Success Factors for Complex Construction Projects Communication Traits

Erik Anderson f you were to ask all stakeholders who are a part of a complex construction project what the most critical factor for success is, you’d likely get a myriad of answers. The answers will likely depend on what part of the project they represent. The facility owner/operator might say “zero down time” or “no cost overruns,” whereas the contractor might say “no accidents” or “under budget.” The design firm would potentially say “minimal requests for information (RFIs)” or “no design-related change orders.” But most of these are symptoms of the most critical success factor: effective communication. Like a bad cliché “communication” is a word that gets thrown around, is overused, and unfortunately, underpracticed. Most projects begin with the same rhetoric about open lines of communication, but inevitably, we are all guilty of falling back into the same patterns and practices we’ve become accustomed to.


Effective communication must be, open, honest, and timely. Although this can often be more easily achieved with an alternative delivery method, it can also be achieved in the hard-bid setting. To better explain why this is critical, I will break down what “open, honest, and timely” mean. Open Open communication builds trust, and trust builds efficiency. In the book by Stephen M.R. Covey, The Speed of Trust, he outlines how often the lack of trust slows down the work flow and ultimately costs money. In the case of our projects, we have to have trust that each stakeholder holds the best interest of the project as priority number one. Honest Although we are focused on honesty, which builds trust (as outlined previously), this part of communication points to being honest about expectations. When all stakeholders are honest about their expectations, then they have the opportunity to either accept the information or to provide a course correction. This includes the contractor being honest about schedule implications, the engi-

neer of record (EOR) being honest about expectation of performance, and the end user being honest about usability expectations. One prime example of this is plant start-up. The more—and more detailed—information that’s available about plant limitations for a plant start-up and provided early in the project, the more easily these limitations can be accommodated by the contractor. This leads us into “timely.” Timely As John Dalton, the father of modern atomic theory, once said, “It’s the right idea, but not the right time.” Timing is everything. If the contractor waits until start-up to provide a great value engineering (VE) idea for buried piping, it does not do anyone any good. If one stakeholder has an expectation of another, it’s important to provide that information as early in the project as possible so there is time to react and course-correct. Defining expectations goes beyond the plans and specifications. It should be made clear that the expectations that are referenced are those that take a project from simply being “completed” to being “successful.”

Common Goals Clearly each stakeholder has a different role in the project; however, each has the same goal, which is project success. Project success must be clearly defined by all stakeholders so that they can ultimately always being working with the best interest of the project in mind. By operating with open, honest, and timely communication, we can assure that all stakeholders have the same vision of success. Erik Anderson is a project executive at Wharton Smith Inc. in Sanford. S


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


– In Memoriam–

Walter Smyser 1960 ? 2020

Walter “Walt” Smyser, 59, of South Daytona Beach, passed away on Feb. 10, 2020. He was an engineer with Holly Hill Waste Water Management, serving as assistant director of utilities. Smyser was born April 14, 1960, in Paterson, N. J., to Daniel and Judith (Stark) Smyser. He was a graduate of Purdue University. He honorably served 12 years in the U.S. Navy, where he gained his training to become an engineer in the water industry.


He joined the Florida Water Pollution and Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) in November 1992, and served the organization in various capacities, including as an instructor and trainer, course developer, graphic artist, and website developer. Smyser was chair of the Publicity Committee, Website Committee, and Operators Helping Operators Committee, and was a FWPCOA delegate to FlaWARN. He created the association’s website and became its webmaster in January 2001. He also served as YouTube publicist for the association starting in June 2012. Smyser served as FWPCOA Region 7 officer, secretary, treasurer, and newsletter editor, was its director substitute from March to August 2003, and served on the state board of directors representing Broward, Dade, and Monroe counties.

April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

For his work on the website, Smyser received an FWPCOA proclamation in 2002 and a special award in 2005. Other honors included the Spotlight awards in 2001 and 2002, Pat Flanagan Award in 2012, and Utility Maintenance Award in 2016. In October 2018, he became an honorary life member of the association. Smyser loved to cook and create various meals for his family and friends to share. He also loved to bike ride and develop computer programs. He is survived by his loving wife, Pamela; sister, Saralia; brother-in-law, Gary; niece, Danielle; and nephew, Jeremy; as well as his loving pets. Contributions may be made in his memory to the American Heart Association. S



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Shea Dunifon Pinellas County Utilities, St. Petersburg Work title and years of service. I have been the education coordinator for Pinellas County Utilities for three years. What does your job entail? I educate the public, and primarily students in grades K-12, about where their wastewater goes (I use STEM [science, technology, engineering, and mathematics] to teach them how it’s treated), and the types of careers available in the wastewater field. To accomplish this, I spend a third of my time giving tours of the South Cross Bayou Advanced Water Reclamation Facility and a third teaching handson laboratories in classrooms throughout Pinellas County. The final third I spend working on special projects and/or completing administrative tasks. Since I interact with hundreds of students every month, I hear a lot of the same misconceptions of our industry over and over again: many students (and even adults) believe their raw wastewater goes straight to the ocean in one giant pipe! My job is to try to find creative and easy-to-understand ways to address such misconceptions. For instance, I collaborated with an engineer to design a portable, interactive model of a sewer that uses food coloring to show how wastewater travels from buildings through pipes to an automated pump station (and not straight to the ocean!).

of Agriculture. After a one-month study abroad at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in India, I returned to work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space and Life Sciences Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center, where I became interested in soils and soil fertility. I left NASA to pursue a masters degree at Virginia Tech, studying with some of the most talented (and totally down-to-earth) experts in turfgrass, soil fertility, and chemistry. It’s definitely been an interesting journey!

the Florida Water Festival, edit the FWEA website, coordinate and moderate workshops for the Florida Water Resources Conference, write articles for the Florida Water Resources Journal, and judge entries for the FWEA video contest. As the incoming chair of the FWEA Public Communications and Outreach Committee, I am focused on building a team that will work to address some of the misconceptions about what public communications means, who does it, and why it’s so important in our industry.

What do you like best about your job? One, I get to “geek out” when I’m explaining the sciences behind the wastewater treatment processes—I am and always will be a chemist and heart! Two, I like the challenge of interacting with middle and high school students. While most students think that wastewater treatment processes are gross, getting them to agree that it’s cool to learn how much STEM is around them makes it all worth it. Three, I have an excuse to make poop jokes and decorate my office with poo emoji paraphernalia without anyone asking, “What’s your age again?”

What do you like best about the industry? As someone who was raised to respect nature and spent almost every day of her childhood outdoors, I like knowing that what I do is for the good of the planet, as well as human health. And while there are days where I am utterly frustrated and sometimes disappointed working with the public (students can be challenging!), I believe fighting for the health of the environment is my life mission.

What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to FWEA, WEF, FSAWWA, and the WateReuse Association. How have the organizations helped your career? Being active and volunteering with professional organizations has afforded me opportunities to learn skills outside of my immediate career. For instance, volunteering with FWEA, I’ve had opportunities to plan events like

What education and training have you had? I am a transplant to this industry. I originally intended to pursue a career in the agricultural sciences as I am an avid gardener and a “plant geek.” I studied environmental science as an undergraduate at Florida International University, while interning at the United States Department


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Finding durian in Singapore.

What do you do when you’re not working? When I’m not working, I’m either at a botanical garden or nature preserve photographing flowers, curdled up on the couch with a book (and a cat in the lap), or planning my next international adventure with friends. I like to plan my trips around visiting gardens and/or trying new foods, like eating whale blubber in Iceland, leaving the Singapore Garden Festival to try the “smells like hell, tastes like heaven” durian (it’s outlawed in the city because of the smell, so you have to travel to find it), or attempting to sample the 500 plus beers of Belgium. S

Teaching titration, a process of chemical analysis, to future scientists.

Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Quality Assurance? Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62160, Quality Assurance, the field and laboratory quality assurance, methodological, and reporting requirements in this rule apply to all activities that involve the measurement, use, or submission of environmental data or reports to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). To which entities does the rule apply? a. All entities that participate in the process of generating environmental data. b. Only commercial laboratories. c. Only state laboratories. d. Only laboratories certified by the Florida Department of Health (FDOH). 2. Per FAC 62-160, the overall system of technical activities that measures the performance of a process against defined standards to verify that they meet data quality objectives is called a. b. c. d.

quality assurance. quality control. standard procedures. task management.

3. Per FAC 62-160, all laboratories generating environmental data for submission to FDEP must be certified by the FDOH Environmental Laboratory Certification Program (ELCP), with exceptions. Which of the following tests do not require the ELCP if conducted by a licensed treatment plant operator or under the direct supervision of an operator? a. Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand b. pH c. Total coliform d. Total organic nitrogen 4. Per FAC 62-160, laboratory records shall be retained for how long after they are generated? a. One year c. 10 years

b. Five years d. 20 years

5. Per FDEP’s Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) FA-1000, Regulatory Scope and Administrative Procedures for Use of FDEP SOPs, who is required to use the SOPs? a. All parties producing data for use by FDEP. b. FDEP field and laboratory employees only. c. FDEP employees and any laboratories under contract to FDEP. d. FDEP field and laboratory employees and all commercial laboratories.

a. b. c. d.

6. Per FDEP’s training presentation, Introduction to FDEP SOPs for Sampling and Field Testing (SOP Introduction), how should an error on a laboratory record be corrected to comply with FDEP SOP FD 1000 documentation? a. Attach a “correction sheet” to the original document with the proper information. b. Draw a line through the error so it is still legible, and initial the marked error and its correction. c. Erase or white-out the error and write the correction over it. d. Rewrite the entire document and throw away the copy with the error. 7. Per FDEP SOP FT 1100, Field Measurement of Hydrogen Ion Activity (pH), when performing an initial calibration using at least two standard buffer solutions, use a pH 7 buffer first. After initial calibration, immediately perform an ICV, which stands for a. b. c. d.

using primary standards (made from known concentrations using laboratory techniques). Annual verification with primary standards must be performed thereafter. The instrument readings must be within

initial certification of variance. initial calibration verification. intermediate calibration vector. intermediate certification of variance.

8. Per FDEP SOP FT 2010, when using diethyl-p-phenylene diamine (DPD) chlorine meters to obtain residual chlorine levels, initial calibration verification is performed

2 percent of standard values. 5 percent of standard values. 10 percent of standard values 15 percent of standard values

9. Per FDEP SOP FT 2010, DPD color comparators (for drinking water only) must be checked with primary standards how often? a. b. c. d.

Quarterly Every six months Annually Every two years

10. Per FDEP SOP FS 2400, Wastewater Sampling, there are two types of samples: grab samples and composite samples. A grab sample is an individual sample collected over a period of time, usually all in one motion, generally not exceeding what time period (for aqueous samples)? a. Five minutes c. 30 minutes

b. 15 minutes d. 60 minutes

Answers on page 62 References used for this quiz: • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-160, Quality Assurance. • FDEP Standard Operating Procedures (DEP SOPs): https://floridadep.gov/dear/qualityassurance/content/dep-sops. • FDEP Training Presentation, Introduction to DEP SOPs for Sampling and Field Testing (2019): https://floridadep.gov/dear/qualityassurance/content/training-presentations.

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


News Beat The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) recently took several actions to advance four projects that are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) to restore Florida's Everglades. The actions taken by SFWMD include: S Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) Reservoir Project. The SFWMD issued a “request for bids” for the construction of an inflow/outflow canal that will bring water from Lake Okeechobee into the stormwater treatment area (STA) and reservoir. The 240,000 acre-foot reservoir will help dramatically reduce damaging discharges from Lake Okeechobee to the coastal estuaries during the wet season and help send additional clean water south to the Everglades. The associated stormwater treatment area component of the project will clean the water stored in the reservoir to meet state water quality standards S Lake Okeechobee Watershed Restoration Project (LOWRP). A letter was sent by SFWMD to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, its federal partner in Everglades restoration, supporting the project’s authorization. The LOWRP is a planning effort being conducted by the Corps and SFWMD to identify opportunities to improve the quantity, timing, and distribution of flows into the 730square-mile lake. The project area, where


placement of potential features is being considered, covers a large portion of the Lake Okeechobee Watershed north of the lake. S Western Everglades Restoration Project (WERP). The SFWMD sent a letter to the Corps encouraging continued development and offering assistance to move the project forward. The SFWMD recommends additional research to support planning efforts, in addition to finding solutions for lands needed for the project. This restoration project will restore and reconnect the western Everglades ecosystem. S Loxahatchee River Watershed Restoration Project. The SFWMD sent a letter to the Corps supporting the project’s authorization. The project aims to restore and sustain the overall quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of fresh water to the federally designated "national wild and scenic" Northwest Fork of the Loxahatchee River for current and future generations. This project also seeks to restore, sustain, and reconnect the wetlands and watersheds that form the historic headwaters for the river. These four efforts are important to making progress on the CERP and garner significant public attention. The SFWMD is committed to continuing to work with local stakeholders as parts of these projects continue to develop and advance.

April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

k A water quality measure was recently approved by the Florida Senate, with supporters calling it a major step toward easing runoff from farms and development that have fed algae blooms plaguing the state. Environmental groups warn that the legislation (SB 712) does not go far enough and have criticized lawmakers for allowing farms to self-monitor their runoff into waterways—although farms would now have to be inspected every two years. The Sierra Club, Florida Springs Council, and Florida Waterkeepers have outlined problems with the legislation, concluding that it will not achieve water quality goals in most state waterways already damaged. The bill still has to clear the House, which is expected in the session’s closing days. The legislation changes how the state regulates everything from septic tanks to city wastewater systems and stormwater management. It also would be more difficult for companies to get permits for bottling spring water, while a state study of the practice and its effect is also ordered by the legislation, which grew out of recommendations by the Blue-Green Algae Task Force appointed by Gov. Ron DeSantis last year. S


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Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


WWEMA Member Market Survey Reflects Industry Growth The Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (WWEMA) has released the results of its 2019 WWEMA Member Market Indicators Survey. The survey tracks the business activity and anticipated activity of manufacturers and their representatives within the water and wastewater market for two annual periods, in the following eight business areas: S Design Work S Quotations S Bookings/Orders S Domestic Sales S International Sales S Company Employment S Materials Costs S Industry Market Growth

Increased Sales The results of the survey generally showed increasing domestic sales for the initial period of September 2018 to August 2019, with approximately 54 percent of responding companies reporting positive growth over that period


from the prior year, with only a few companies reporting negative growth. The reported growth remains consistently strong, with over 20 percent of companies reporting sales in the 7.5 to 10 percent range. International sales were not as strong, with nearly 60 percent of companies reporting flat sales and another 17 percent reporting negative growth.

Future Challenges Looking ahead to the subsequent annual reporting period, companies generally continue to express optimism, as approximately 90 percent anticipate positive domestic sales growth. Other positive indicators of note include a continued uptick in bookings/orders and design work. Not surprisingly, company employment grew during the initial period and is expected to continue to

April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

do so as companies expand hiring to meet production associated with the strong sales figures. The general optimism conveyed in this year’s survey data is slightly tempered from last year’s robust growth predictions, but strong nonetheless. Companies anticipate challenges associated with staffing, as many expect continued expansion; this will likely be made more difficult by an already small pool of qualified applicants. Additionally, companies expect to see material costs continue to increase. The full detailed report by each segment, with analysis for current and future evaluation time frames, is available exclusively for WWEMA members. Since 1908, WWEMA has informed, educated, and provided leadership on the issues that shape the future of the water and wastewater industry. The association’s member companies supply the most sophisticated leading-edge products and technologies, offering solutions to every water-related environmental problem and need facing today’s society. For more information, visit www.wwema.org. S



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Water Balance and Hydraulic Analysis: Maximizing the Beneficial Use of Reclaimed Water Through Seasonal Changes and Growth Kirsten Burns and David Ammerman he City of Orlando (city) is experiencing significant growth and expansion of its existing reclaimed water system. In the face of rapid change, the city wanted to proactively consider water management strategies for reclaimed water supplies and the demand for urban irrigation, along with hydraulic improvements to its growing system through 2045. The Eastern Regional Reclaimed Water Distribution System (ERRWDS) is comprised of 185 mi of reclaimed water pipe, with an av-


erage daily flow of approximately 14 mil gal per day (mgd), peak-hour demand of approximately 32 mgd during the dry season, and maximum day demand of approximately 19 mgd. This complex system is supplied by the city’s Conserv I and Iron Bridge Regional Water Reclamation Facilities (WRFs), as well as the Orange County Utilities (OCU) Eastern Water Reclamation Facility (EWRF). The OCU and the city have an agreement that reserves an average annual daily capacity of 4 mgd in the ERRWDS for OCU. The sys-

Kirsten Burns is an engineer and David Ammerman is senior project manager with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Orlando.

tem is also equipped with an inline booster pump station (IBPS), owned and operated by the city, which assists in transferring water from the north, where most of the reclaimed water supply is generated, to the south, where most of the reclaimed water is demanded. The

Figure 2. Future Infrastructure Improvements

Figure 1. Eastern Regional Reclaimed Water Distribution System


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal



system serves directly connected customers, such as residential and commercial irrigation, pressure-dependent customers that include an interconnection to OCU, and time-restricted service to onsite storage ponds for irrigation of golf courses. During the dry season, when demand for reclaimed water is high, the hydraulic restrictions of the system become more apparent, as customers are not provided reclaimed water at adequate pressure for irrigation. Concerns for supply and management are also raised during the dry season, when the generation, storage, and delivery of reclaimed water to customers can be difficult to balance. The purpose of this project was to determine necessary hydraulic, storage, and management improvements for the system to effectively meet seasonally high demands and provide a minimum pressure of 50 pounds per sq in. (psi) to all connections in the system throughout a 24-hour model simulation.


"  #


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#  % 



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Figure 3. Projected Reclaimed Water Supplies and Demands for the Eastern Regional Reclaimed Water Distribution System (2020 through 2045)

Hydraulic Improvements The city’s hydraulic model was calibrated and updated to include future growth scenarios that were used to identify and locate beneficial improvements for the system throughout the planning period. Model calibration was based on collected field pressure data, WRF supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data, and master meter monthly flow readings, which Carollo analyzed to determine a high-demand week with the most data available for calibration. The selected week was May 7 through May 13, 2018. Field pressure and SCADA data were averaged on an hourly basis across the calibration period to provide a standard for a typical seasonal high-demand day. The same diurnal pattern and seasonal peaking factor used for calibration was used in the future scenarios. Future growth demands were estimated based on several major planned developments, traffic analysis zone growth, and the conversion of current potable fed jumper systems to reclaimed water. Most of the anticipated growth is in the corridor surrounding Narcoosee Road in the southern portion of the ERRWDS. The system is shown in Figure 1. Estimated ERRWDS supplies and demands were projected through 2045 and improvements were considered at five-year planning intervals to provide the appropriate storage and hydraulic capacity to serve the rapidly growing system during the dry season. Because the city is experiencing growth and expansion, efforts have been made to com-

Figure 4. Eastern Regional Reclaimed Water Distribution System Diurnal Supply and Demand Patterns

bine needed hydraulic improvements with currently planned construction and development projects. Based on the hydraulic analysis, several key near-term improvements were recommended, some of which are already in the planning stages. The primary recommendation was the upsizing of the city-owned 16-in. reclaimed water main along Narcoosee Road to 30 in. This section of 16-in. reclaimed water main acts as a hydraulic bottleneck to the primary transmission main that supplies the system from the north with water from Iron Bridge

and OCU’s Eastern WRF. This upsizing project will be completed in conjunction with the Narcoosee Road widening project planned for completion in 2020. The next major improvement recommended from this analysis is a remote storage and repump facility (RSRPF) to be constructed and operated by the city along Narcoossee Road. It’s anticipated that the RSRPF will be needed by 2025. Further recommendations were made to upsize other bottleneck sections of reclaimed water main in the system and to verify the feaContinued on page 42

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


Continued from page 41 sibility of filling and utilizing future diurnal storage facilities located at the Conserv I and Iron Bridge WRFs. The recommended improvements are shown in Figure 2. All necessary hydraulic improvements were planned to be completed by 2040; however, the hydraulic model did not consider if adequate supply would truly be available for irrigation in the future.

System Supply and Demand In order to determine if there will be adequate supply (and how to manage it), an analysis of the current and projected supplies, demands, and diurnal storage was completed. Diurnal storage, also referred to as operational storage, is the volume of storage required to equalize the anticipated differences in reclaimed water supplies and

the demands for irrigation over a 24-hour period. These equalization volumes are greatest where the demand for water is the same as the available supply of water. Because of this, the analysis of the diurnal storage required focused on projected peakseason demands for water that typically occur every year in May. Figure 3 illustrates the projected reclaimed water supplies and demands for the ERRWDS, from the 2020 through 2045 planning horizon. Reclaimed water supplies include, in order of their priority of use: S Conserv I WRF - The Conserv I supply is placed at the base of the supplies in Figure 3, indicating that water from this source should be used to the greatest extent possible. This priority is given to Conserv I supplies for two reasons. First, the supply at Conserv I is generated locally and requires the least amount of pumping

to get to the largest ERRWDS customers. Second, it’s recognized that the capacity to manage excess reclaimed water at Conserv I is limited. Any water above what is required for ERRWDS can be sent to one of two effluent disposal sites, depending on their available capacity: the local rapid infiltration basin (RIB) system or the easterly wetlands. The logistics required to accomplish the transfer of Conserv I water to the wetlands have yet to be established, but maximizing the Conserv I water used by the ERRWDS customers will minimize the need to discharge excess reclaimed water to the wetlands. S EWRF - Flows from EWRF are assumed to be a constant 4 mgd throughout the planning period. This flow is based on the existing agreement between the city and OCU. Continued on page 44

Table 1.Storage as a Function of Beneficial Reuse

Percent of Daily Flow Committed to Beneficial Reuse 0% 20% 30% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Required Storage (Percent of Daily Supply) 0% 0% 0% 3% 10% 21% 34%

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Figure 5. Available Eastern Regional Reclaimed Water Distribution System Diurnal Storage after 2025


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Figure 6. Expected Seasonal Available Eastern Regional Reclaimed Water Distribution System Water Supplies and Demands in 2045


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Continued from page 42 S Iron Bridge WRF - As shown in Figure 3, reclaimed water from Iron Bridge will be required to make up the difference between ERRWDS demands and local supplies. This was always part of the operating concept of the ERRWDS; however, the transfer requirements have been reduced by recent decisions to keep Conserv I in operation and expand its capacity to 10 mgd. This decision is beneficial from a hydraulic standpoint because it retains the reclaimed water supply closer to the center of reclaimed water demands. S The Conserv I Supplemental Groundwater Well - Permitted at an annual average use of 0.88 mgd and maximum month use of 9.21 mgd, this water supply is placed on the top of the supply stack in Figure 3, indicating that it will be the last supply accessed in the event that the reclaimed water supplies from Conserv I, EWRF, and Iron Bridge are not able to meet demands. As shown in Figure 3, the average annual demands for reclaimed water are always less than the total available supply of water; however, operational storage is designed based on peak-season demands, not the annual average. Figure 3 also shows an estimate of the maximum day demand for irrigation water from 2035 through 2045, which was the basis for sizing operational storage. Again, the maximum day demands do not exceed the total available supply, but they represent a significantly greater fraction of the total water sup-

plies available to meet the ERRWDS demands. The relative shape of the diurnal supply curve and diurnal demand for that supply are the primary factors driving storage volume: the greater the gaps between the demands for water at any given hour and the supply in that hour, the greater the volumes required to equalize these differences. Figure 4 illustrates the diurnal flow patterns for Iron Bridge and Conserv I, which represent the majority of the reclaimed water supplies available for reuse. These patterns are based on historical SCADA data for the ERRWDS system. Both influent WRF supply curves are similar, showing the least amount of flow in the early morning hours between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m., and the highest flows between 8 a.m. and midnight. The demand for reclaimed water is almost the opposite of hourly supplies, with high demands starting in the early evening and peaking between 2 a.m. and 5 a.m., generally corresponding to the hours of lowest supplies.

Water Balance The fraction of the diurnal water supply committed to beneficial use is also an important consideration when sizing operational storage. Using the reclaimed water supply and demand curves shown in Figure 4, an Excelbased water balance model was developed to evaluate the volume of equalization storage required as a function of the percent of total daily supplies committed to beneficial reuse.

Table 1 summarizes these calculations indicating that no storage would be required if the demand for reclaimed water was less than or equal to approximately 30 percent of the daily supply. The equalization volumes increase from zero to a volume of approximately 34 percent of the total supply when demands equal 100 percent of the available supply. A volume of 40 percent storage at a commitment of 100 percent of the available supplies was used for the purposes of setting diurnal storage for the ERRWDS at this stage of planning. This volume can be adjusted over the course of the next 20 years as operational experience is gained. Although it’s not specifically a concern for equalization, the location of operational storage does impact diurnal transfer and peak pumping requirements. For the purposes of considering total equalization volumes required in 2045, consideration is given to the total volume of operational storage currently available, and where this storage is located. Figure 5 shows the ERRWDS from Iron Bridge in the north to the southernmost extent of the service area at the county line. Storage tanks are included according to known potential locations. The storage tanks at Iron Bridge and Conserv I are existing. The 3 mil gal (MG) of remote storage and repumping on Narcoossee Road, which were recommended based on the hydraulic model analysis, has been included in this evaluation, as it’s scheduled to be online by 2025. It’s noted that the diurnal storage provided by OCU is not included in the

Table 2. Projected Eastern Regional Reclaimed Water Distribution System Maximum Month Water Supplies and Demands (mgd)


Conserv I

2025 2035 2045

6.27 6.71 7.04

Conserv I Well 3.10 3.10 3.10

EWRF 4.00 4.00 4.00

Iron Bridge 20.99 22.98 25.05

Total RW Supplies 34.36 36.79 39.19

ERRWDS Demands 28.66 34.42 38.20

Percent Demand 83% 94% 97%

Table 3. Total and Additional Diurnal Storage Required for Eastern Regional Reclaimed Water Distribution System



Total RW Supplies/Demands (mgd)

Minimum Required Storage (MG)

Iron Bridge GST (MG)

Remote GST (MG)

2025 2035 2045

34.36 36.79 39.19

14 15 16

4 4 4

3 3 3

April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Additional Storage Required (MG) 7 8 9

analysis of future ERRWDS storage needs. This omission was intentional and provides an additional level of conservatism in calculating future storage needs for the city.

Diurnal Storage Volumes Required Seasonal variations in reclaimed water supply and demand are crucial to determining storage requirements. The hot and dry months of the spring tend to require significantly more water for irrigation, whereas, during the wet summer months, irrigation decreases and the need for disposal of excess treated effluent wastewater increases. Figure 6 illustrates the seasonal variations in water supplies from all sources (including the Conserv I well) and the expected demands for water in 2045. This figure clearly shows that the demand for irrigation is essentially equal to the total water available in May. Monthly variations in reclaimed water supplies are based on historical variations observed at these facilities. For the purposes of this analysis it was assumed that water coming from EWRF is a constant 4 mgd throughout the year, equal to the average annual county demands on the ERRWDS per the existing reuse agreement. The capacity of the Conserv I well was also included as a potential source of water in the months of April, May, and June. The availability of groundwater was assumed to be approximately 3 mgd, one third of the maximum month permitted flow of 9.21 mgd. Table 2 provides the projected water supplies and demands for the month of May for 2025, 2035, and 2045. From Table 2, the fraction of available water required to meet maximum month demands ranges from 83 to 97 percent. For the purposes of the water balance analysis, it was assumed that the maximum month demand was equal to the available water supply, requiring an operational storage volume of 40 percent of the available supplies. Table 3 provides the total diurnal storage volumes required, assuming 100 percent use of the available supply in 2025, 2035, and 2045. From Table 3, total operational storage required in 2045 will be 16 MG. This volume is reduced by the existing 4 MG of storage located at Iron Bridge and the planned 3 MG of remote storage on Narcoossee Road to be online by 2025. The 2.5 MG of storage at Conserv I is not included as available for operational storage in 2045. This volume was not included primarily because its geometry is not compatible with that of a traditional

Figure 7. 2045 Diurnal Water Balance for Iron Bridge

Figure 8. Proposed Timing of Increased Storage at Conserv I

ground storage tank (GST). It’s noted that the existing Conserv I tank is still a valuable asset and will likely find a use in the planned expansion of this facility.

Operations of Existing and Planned Diurnal Storage Facilities in 2045 Before considering the optimal location(s) for future diurnal storage facilities, an assessment of the operations of the Iron

Bridge and RSRPF was in order. The RSRPF was specifically sized and located to address ERRWDS demands from 2025 through 2045 based on current demands and anticipated growth in the service area. As such, this facility has been integrated into the ERRWDS current planning efforts and has been included in this analysis at a potential location. The 4-MG tank at Iron Bridge was part of the original ERRWDS planning efforts done at a time when it was assumed that Continued on page 46

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


Continued from page 45 Conserv I would be taken offline and all wastewater flows would be sent to Iron Bridge. Plans for Conserv I have changed and the city now anticipates an expansion to this plant instead of a shutdown. Regardless of this change of plans, projected flows to Conserv I will remain significantly less than the demand for reclaimed water through 2045, as implied by Figures 3 and 6; therefore, reclaimed water from Iron Bridge will be required to make up the deficit between supply at Conserv I and demand for reclaimed water by ERRWDS customers. From a hydraulic standpoint, it’s desirable to send water from Iron Bridge to the ERRWDS service area at a constant rate. This strategy minimizes the need for additional pumping and transmission capacity at Iron Bridge and the existing inline booster pump station. Figure 7 provides the results of the diurnal water balance model for Iron Bridge given a 2045 maximum day flow of approximately 25 mgd and an available reclaimed water equalization volume of 4 MG. The objective of this analysis was to determine if the diurnal supply of reclaimed water (shown by the blue line) can be completely equalized to an average output of 25 mgd (shown by the green line) using the existing 4-MG storage tank. As shown in Figure 7, the volume in diurnal storage (red bars) varies from 0 MG at approximately 8 a.m. to a maximum of approximately 3.4 MG at midnight. Based on these results, the pumping, storage, and transmission capacities at Iron Bridge and at the inline booster are sufficient to supply a steady flow of reclaimed water to the ERRWDS service area.

Locating Additional Storage for 2045 Demands As described in the previous section, the existing pumping, storage, and transmission capacities, from Iron Bridge through the inline booster into the ERRWDS service area, were adequately sized to provide a constant flow of approximately 25 mgd. Given this condition, there was no need or benefit to increasing diurnal storage capacity at Iron Bridge. The two remaining locations for consideration of diurnal storage capacity were Conserv I and the location of the future RSRPF (to be constructed and operational by 2025). Additional storage capacity could be added to the RSRPF site; however, there were several potential disadvantages to this location—primarily, additional property


would need to be acquired. There would also be a need for increased repump capacity at the RSRPF site and the associated increased electrical service requirements at the remote location. In the near term, added storage at a remote location would also require additional pumping from Conserv I in offpeak hours to fill the tanks. In contrast, the Conserv I site has adequate space available, assuming that the city and the Greater Orlando Aviation Authority (GOAA), which owns the surrounding property, can come to an agreement. Locating diurnal storage here would allow for inclusion of additional pumping capacity, following, or along with, the WRF expansion project. It was assumed that additional electrical service would also be provided during or following the WRF expansion project, which would require less effort compared to expanding electrical service at a remote location; therefore, it’s recommended that the 9 MG of diurnal storage needed by 2045 be constructed at Conserv I.

Timing of Expanding Eastern Regional Reclaimed Water Distribution System Diurnal Storage Capacity Based on the hydraulic modeling efforts, it was determined that the city will have significant latitude in setting discharge pressures at Conserv I, Iron Bridge, IBPS, and the future RSRPF. Because these pumping stations are all hydraulically connected to one another, the operational settings at one location affect the flows at all the other locations. This relationship also extends to when and how much diurnal storage is required. Figure 8 provides the minimum diurnal storage volumes required for 2025, 2035, and 2045. This figure also indicates the existing and expected storage capacities available for these years. The following assumptions were made for the indicated years: 2025 S The remote storage/repumping facility will be operational by 2025. S The existing 2.5-MG Conserv I storage basin will still be in operation and available for diurnal equalization S A new 4.5-MG storage tank will have been constructed at Conserv I and will be in operation by 2025. This schedule is slightly in advance of when it would be required.

April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

2035 S The existing 2.5-MG Conserv I storage basin will no longer serve as operational storage. S A second 4.5-MG GST will be constructed at the Conserv I facility. As shown in Figure 8, this second GST will be operational slightly in advance of when it’s needed, but will provide sufficient capacity to equalize supplies and demands through 2045. The recommendation to build the second Conserv I tank by 2035 is predicated on the 2030 completion of the recommended transmission system improvements in the vicinity of Conserv I. These improvements will be necessary to convey additional water from Iron Bridge into storage located at Conserv I. The hydraulic model was used to verify the ability to fill tanks during off-peak hours at both Conserv I and the RSRPF. Iron Bridge would be required (along with IBPS) to fill tanks at Conserv I to the required degree, in addition to reclaimed water generation at the Conserv I WRF. The transfer of an additional 2 mgd of flow from the Iron Bridge service area to Conserv I was recommended to increase the future supply at Conserv I when expansion of the reclaimed storage occurs. Both Conserv I and Iron Bridge may be used to fill the RSRPF during off-peak demand hours.

Planning for the Future The city has faced seasonal challenges of supplying irrigation at adequate pressures to all its customers. In anticipation of significant growth and expansion to a hydraulically limited system, the city decided to plan through 2045 for necessary hydraulic improvements to the infrastructure and water management strategies of the ERRWDS. Not only will these improvements serve ERRWDS during the peak irrigation season, but the storage facilities may be used during the wet season as auxiliary effluent storage to slow down the influx to disposal locations. Management of the proposed future facilities will require a delicate, yet adaptable, operational approach to address the needs of the system seasonally, but the city is planning to be equipped to meet a high level of service for its customers, no matter the season. S

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FWEA CHAPTER CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Megan Nelson at megan.nelson@ocfl.net.

Lunch and Learn Program Gives Attendees Hands-On Knowledge Christine Miranda n January 16 the Treasure Coast Chapter of FWEA hosted it’s second Lunch and Learn at the City of Stuart. Over fifty members from local utilities, consultants, contractors, and vendors attended this successful event for the chapter. The meeting format provides a great opportunity for the local utilities in St. Lucie, Martin, and Palm Beach counties to network and visit each other’s facilities and discuss the current issues affecting the Treasure Coast. The Lunch and Learn programs are fully sponsored events, with no cost to the registrants. This session was focused on dealing with, and the treatment of, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which are a large group of environmentally persistent manufactured chemicals used in industrial applications and consumer products. The primary sources of PFC compounds in drinking water are from nonstick surfaces, fabric protectors, and, in the case of City of Stuart, firefighting foam. These chemicals are very slow to degrade in the environment, and


based on several studies, have shown that increased exposure to high concentrations of PFCs may cause abnormal endocrine activity, and reproductive and developmental problems.

At the City of Stuart Water Treatment Plant.

City of Stuart Water Treatment Plant employees discuss the anion exchange pretreatment system.


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

While the attendees enjoyed lunch, David Peters, public works director for City of Stuart, gave a presentation on the subject, including the issues that the city encountered and how it addressed and provided a solution to the problem. After lunch was completed, attendees then visited the City of Stuart Water Treatment Plant and were provided a tour of the newly constructed anion exchange pretreatment system at the treatment facility, which was constructed for the main purpose of removing PFC compounds from the raw water supply. A huge thanks to Kimley-Horn and Associates Inc. and Holtz Consulting Engineers Inc. for sponsoring the lunch, and most importantly, thank you to the City of Stuart for providing the meeting space at its public works complex, the tram service to and from the public works complex to the water treatment plant, and the dedication of the time and all of the assistance provided by the city staff. Christine Miranda, P.E., is a principal engineer with Holtz Consulting Engineers Inc. in Jupiter and is chair of the FWEA Treasure Coast Chapter. S

Attendees learn about perfluorinated compounds.

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Beer Waste Helps Montana Town Save Money on Water Treatment Rachel Cramer

Crating finished beer.

As America's craft beer industry continues to boom, the waste it generates can pose challenges for sewer systems. But if it's used in the right place, and in the right amount, it's potentially beneficial and can actually save wastewater treatment plants money. In Bozeman, Mont., the water reclamation facility treats more than 6 million gallons of water every day from sinks, showers, and toilets—really anything that goes down a drain. That includes liquid waste from more than 10 breweries in this city of nearly 50,000. Because it's rich in yeast, hops, and sugar, brewery waste can throw off the microbes that wastewater treatment plants rely on to remove nitrogen and phosphorus. The two nutrients can cause algae blooms in rivers and kill off fish. "If we can use the brewery waste correctly and put it in the right spot, it's very beneficial to the treatment process," says Coralynn Revis, an engineering consultant.

Revis led a pilot project in Bozeman last summer to try to do just that. The city worked with a local brewery to feed its beer waste to the treatment plant's bacteria at just the right time in just the right dosage. "This is super simplified, but if the bacteria are eating their french fries, they need a little ketchup with it. So, to get the nitrate out, you dose a little carbon, and the bugs are happier," Revis explained. She and her team got the idea from a small town about 300 miles to the north near the United States border with Canada.

Partnering With a Brewery On a recent Friday night, the taproom at Triple Dog Brewing in Havre, Mont., with a population of 10,000, is packed. Three years ago, Drue Newfield, the town's wastewater plant manager, approached brewery owner Michael Garrity with the idea of using leftover barley from making beer to feed his treatment plant’s microbes. "With my knowledge of brewing and fermentation,” said Garrity, “I thought

A finished beer. The wastewater treatment facility in Havre, Mont., collects the spent barley from a local brewery to feed its bacteria.


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

that we should definitely be doing this. It sounds amazing.'" If it worked, the little town could potentially avoid having to spend $1 million upgrading its wastewater plant to meet new, more stringent clean water standards. Across town, Newfield walks over to something that looks like a well. "This is where we apply the barley," he says. For the last three years, Newfield or one of his employees has been dumping one bucket of spent barley from Triple Dog Brewing into the water rushing below every morning. "The bacteria love it, is what I've found, and they just disappear by the end of the process," Newfield says. The team did a lot of troubleshooting the first two years, but Newfield says they eventually figured out how much spent barley to add and what conditions the bacteria needed to be happy. Without the free spent barley, the wastewater treatment facility would have had to buy and use a chemical called alum to do the same thing. "We know the alum that we saved already comes to about $16,000 a year. If the barley wouldn't have done what it was supposed to, that's where an upgrade around the corner would have been, and then, if we have to do an upgrade, there's where you run into the millions of dollars," Newfield says. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency noticed Havre's innovative approach and gave it an honorable mention at the end of last year.

"I didn't go into this for an award; I went into it because you do the best job you can," Newfield says.

Moving Beyond Montana Newfield and Garrity say they think their partnership is a model that could be replicated elsewhere. Several other towns in Montana are interested in trying it, and Newfield says he even got a call from a plant manager in Boston.

But it may not work everywhere. While the water reclamation facility in Bozeman found that the chemistry worked, it may not be viable somewhere else, and the logistics of transporting the liquid brewery waste beyond the state are too expensive for now. If regulations get more strict, the plant may consider this approach in the future. This article is reprinted with permission from Rachel Cramer and Yellowstone Public Radio. S

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Michael Garrity, owner and brewer of Triple Dog Brewing in Havre, Mont., holds a handful of barley that he'll use to brew more beer.

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Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020



FSAWWA Manufacturers/ Associates Council: What We Do Kim Kowalski. Chair, FSAWWA

s I stated in an earlier column, I got my start within the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) serving as a member of the Manufacturers/Associates Council (MAC). When I am attending different meetings and am asked where I volunteer, I state that I am a MAC member. I generally receive a look of confusion, as most people have never heard of us. With this column, I hope to educate and inform FSAWWA members and others as to what the MAC is and what we are about, and hopefully, we can gain some new members as well!


What MAC Does The MAC provides responsible representation of manufacturers and associates in FSAWWA and develops programs and activities to encourage membership and participation within the organization. Our yearly events include the FSAWWA Fall Conference and the Florida Section luncheon each year in June at the AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE). We also offer a “traveling” training program and select the Water Distribution Award recipients in the state based on division categories. The biggest responsibility of the MAC is the Fall Conference, which is held at the end of the year. The planning starts in February and doesn’t end until after the conference golf tournament. There are many dedicated volunteers who work tirelessly to make sure that the conference is bigger and better each year.


The following is a list of the volunteers who chair the various committees for the conference, and there are many others who work with them to ensure a quality event. S Kevin Stine – Conference Cochair S Bryan Fletcher – Sponsorship Chair S Todd Metcalfe – Exhibits Chair S Josh Anderson – Events Chair S Mike George – Water Distribution Awards Chair S Fred Bloetscher – Technical Program Chair S Peggy Guingona and Jenny Arguello – Marketing Cochairs S Michael Alexakis and Richard Anderson – BBQ Cochairs S Chase Freeman – Golf Chair S Terry Gullet – Poker Tournament Chair S Tom Hogeland – Utility System Symposium Chair

MAC Training Let’s talk training! The MAC has created the New Technology and Training Showcase (NTTS), which allows MAC members to contribute their expertise by holding training seminars for utility operators and consultants throughout the 12 regions of the state. There are a variety of topics, such as: S Principles of Metering Technology S Water Loss Management S Water Conservation Through Seamless HighDensity Polyethylene (HDPE) Technology These programs are each a one-day, eighthour course, for which attendees can receive continuing education units (CEUs) or professional development hours (PDHs). They are scheduled each month per the region number designation: Region 1 is held in January, Region 2 in February, Region 3 in March, and so on throughout the year. So please be on the lookout in your region for these training opportunities.

April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

MAC Awards Lastly, there are the water distribution system awards, which are presented to utilities whose outstanding performance during the preceding year deserves special recognition by the section. These awards have been given out since 1997 and are very prestigious for the utilities. The award criteria are based upon the following: S Water Quality S Operational Records S Maintenance S Professionalism S Safety S Emergency Preparedness S Cross Connection Control Program These awards are presented to a utility during each recipient’s board or commission meeting, which helps to recognize the local utility and reflects on the commitment and dedication of the utilities in our state.

MAC Personnel I don’t want to forget to recognize Mike George, MAC chair, and Mark McDowell, MAC secretary, for all of their hard work in keeping us in line and on task. I hope to see some new faces at our upcoming meetings! As always, thank you to all the volunteers; the section would not be where it is today without your endless help. S

Mike George

Mark McDowell

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Introduction to Electrical Maintenance Jun. 16-18, 2020 | Gainesville, FL | CEUs: 2.0 0

EX XA AM PREP COURSES ES Wastewater Class A Certification Review May 18-22, 2020 | Gainesville, FL

Backflow Prevention Assembly Repair and Maintenance Training & C Certification May 6-8, 2020 | Davie, FL Jun. 3-5, 2020 | Orlando, FL Jun. 15-17 7, 2020 | Gainesville, FL

Wastewater Class B Certification Review

Backflow Prevention Recertification

Oct. 26-30, 2020 | Gainesville, FL

Apr. 18-19, 2020 | Tampa, FL Apr. 20-21, 2020 | Destin, FL Apr. 24-25, 2020 | Jacksonvillle, FL May 2-3, 2020 | Bradenton, FL May 28-29, 2020 | Gainesville, FL June 1-2, 2020 | Orlando, FL June 4-5, 2020 | Davie, FL June 5-6, 2020 | Venice, FL June 18-19, 2020 | Pensacola, FL June 19-20, 2020 | Jacksonvillle, FL June 27-28, 2020 | Tampa, FL

Wastewater Class C Certification Review Jun. 22-26, 2020 | Gainesville, FL

Water Class A Certification Review May 11-15, 2020 | Gainesville, FL

Water Class B Certification Review Apr. 13-17, 2020 | Gainesville, FL

Water Class C Certification Review July 27-31, 2020 | Gainesville, FL



FDEP Announces Plant Operations Excellence Awards Each year, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) presents awards to drinking water and domestic wastewater facilities from around the state that demonstrate excellence in operation, maintenance,

innovative treatment, waste reduction and pollution prevention, recycling, or other special achievements. These awards recognize facilities that demonstrate a special commitment to excellence in management through dedicated professionalism. The FDEP Division of Water Resource Management congratulates the winners of the 2019 Plant Operations Excellence Awards. The awards were presented to recipients at six regional ceremonies throughout the state during the Florida Rural Water Association's annual “Focus on Change” seminars held in January and February of this year.

Award Criteria Awards are presented to one facility in each of the department’s six district offices for each of the following types of drinking water facilities: S Small community water systems serving less than 3,300 persons S Medium community water systems serving 3,300 to 50,000 persons Continued on page 56


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! Please go to the FWPCOA website www.fwpcoa.org for the latest updates on classes. April 6-10 ......Wastewater Collection ..........................Osteen................$225/255 13-15 ......Backflow Repair ....................................Osteen................$275/305 20-23 ......Backflow Tester* ....................................St. Petersburg ......$375/405 20-24 ......Water Distribution 2 ..............................Osteen................$225/255 20-24 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution B ..........Osteen................$225/255

May 1 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen................$85/115 18-22...... Water Distribution 3 ..............................Osteen................$225/255 18-22 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ..........Osteen................$225/255 29 ......Backflow Tester recerts*** ....................Osteen................$85/115

June 8-12

......Wastewater Collection B .................................................. Osteen

Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


Continued from page 54 S Large community water systems serving more than 50,000 persons S Noncommunity water systems (includes both transient and nontransient) For domestic wastewater facilities, the award categories within each FDEP district are: S Type I domestic wastewater facility (permitted capacity of 500,000 gallons per day or greater) S Type II domestic wastewater facility (permitted capacity of 100,000 up to but not including 500,000 gallons per day) S Type III domestic wastewater facility (permitted capacity of over 2,000 up to but not including 100,000 gallons per day)

2019 Award Winners The award winners for 2019 are: 2019 Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Award Winners

2019 Drinking Water Treatment Plant Award Winners

2020 Plant Operations Excellence Awards The FDEP Division of Water Resource Management is now accepting applications for the 2020 Plant Operations Excellence Awards for both public drinking water supply facilities and domestic wastewater facilities. Facilities that demonstrate excellence are encouraged to complete and submit a self-nominating form. Applications may be obtained by contacting the water and domestic wastewater programs at the FDEP districts, delegated domestic wastewater local programs, and Florida Department of Health (FDOH) approved county health department (ACHD) offices. The 2020 applications will be made available through the FDEP website (www.floridadep.gov) soon. S


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions:

Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Available Positions Include: Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available Pretreatment Assistant, Network Analyst SCADA, Industrial Electrician, Lab Assistant, Crew Leader, Foreman, Maintenance Mechanic, Equipment Operator, Plant Operator Trainee. Apply at www.titusville.com

WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Water Treatment Operations Supervisor $20.94 - $34.76 Depending on Qualifications Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license required. The City of Melbourne is currently accepting applications for the position of Water Treatment Plant Operations Supervisor. To learn more and apply, please visit www.melbourneflorida.org

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Advent Christian Village Water Wastewater Lead Operator Valid FL C water and wastewater treatment dual certification required. Must have minimum 3 years’ experience in water treatment plant management, including installation, repairs, and regulatory compliance, budgets, and staff supervision. FL DL required. For more information and application go to www.acvillage.net Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


Join South Florida’s Best in Class Water Utility!

Multiple Positions Available

The third-largest water utility in the State of Florida, Palm Beach County maintains a state-of-the-art system that is focused on providing high-quality water, wastewater and reclaimed water services to the 600,000 residents we serve.

Construction Engineering Inspection Manager, Water Production Plant Operator C, Equipment Operators, Utilities Mechanics, and more. Please visit our website at https://www.cityofnewportrichey.org/jobs for complete job descriptions and to apply.

POSITIONS AVAILABLE Utility Plant Mechanic $41,473 - $65,992 Instrumentation Technician $54,115 - $86,112 Industrial Electrician $49,522 - $78,798 Professional Engineer $79,468 - $126,453 Project Manager (Engineering) $88,470 - $155,188 Utility Line Maintenance Supervisor (3 positions) $54,115 - $94,937 Utility Plant Operator Apprentice $33,706 - $53,636 Utility Plant Operator I $46,681 - $74,268 Utility Plant Operator II $49,522 - $78,798 Chief Operator $60,896 - $96,907 Utility Customer Service Superintendent (Call Center) $64,613 - $102,806 Enjoy great benefits, including: Health, Dental, Vision, Life Insurance, Short-Term and Long-Term Disability, Flexible Spending Accounts, EAP, Florida Retirement System (FRS), On-Site CEU programs and more! Apply online at PBCGOV.com/jobs

City of Orange City - Lift Station Mechanic Starting pay $15.56 - $24.40, depending on qualifications All interested candidates must apply at www.ourorangecity.com.


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The Coral Springs Improvement District – A GREAT place to further your career and enhance your life! CSID offers… Salary levels are at the top of the industry Health Insurance that is unmatched when compared to like sized Districts Promotions from within for qualified employees Continuing education courses to develop your skills and further your growth Retirement plans where an employee can earn 18% of their salary by contributing toward their future The Coral Springs Improvement District is seeking qualified employees in the following field: Wastewater Plant Operator: Applicants must have a valid Class C Wastewater Treatment license or greater. Operates sewage treatment, sludge processing, and disposal equipment in wastewater (sewage) treatment plant to control flow and processing of sewage. This employee is responsible for keeping within permit discharge limits and routinely monitors the flow of waste water and chemical levels. Employee in this class receives general supervision and reports to the Lead Operator. Salary range: $47,000. - $68,000. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field. Benefits: Excellent benefits which include health, life, disability, dental, vison and a retirement plan which includes a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match up to 6%. EOE. All positions require a valid Florida Drivers license, high school diploma or GED equivalent and must pass a pre-employment drug screen test Salaries for the above position based on level of licensing and years of experience. Submit resume to jzilmer@csidfl.org or fax resume to 954-7536328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Village of Wellington Water Treatment Plant Operator positions

Capacity Fee & EDU Coordinator: Determine the amount of water and/or wastewater capacity fees and other service availability charges to be collected on construction permits associated with commercial and residential multi-family projects. Assist Code Enforcement with preparation of cases. $20.01-$27.37/hr. Apply online at http://bit.ly/2P4Cp1M.

The Water Treatment Plant at Wellington is searching for Water Operators: a Water Operator Level C, a Water Operator Level A, and an Apprentice. Job postings and application available on our website: https://wellingtonfl.munisselfservice.com/employmentopportunities/default.aspx Apply online. For further information, call Human Resources at (561) 753-2585. Wellington is located in Palm Beach County, Florida.

The City of Fort Lauderdale Public Works Department is hiring dynamic and goal-driven employees to join our team. ·


Environmental Inspector $23.31 - $36.15 Hourly · HVAC Technician $23.31 - $36.15 Hourly · Utilities Service Representative-Locators $21.01 - $32.56 Hourly · Public Works Maintenance Supervisor $59,767.76 - $92,645.28 Annually · Industrial Electrician $23.31 - $36.15 Hourly Project Manager II- Water and Wastewater Infrastructure $73,633.04 - $114,136.46 Annually · Project Manager II- Transportation Infrastructure $73,633.04 - $114,136.46 Annually

Visit the City website at www.fortlauderdale.gov/jobs to apply today. For more information, send an email to Cynthia Lamar at CLamar@fortlauderdale.gov.

City of St. Petersburg Plant Maintenance Mechanic Plant Maintenance Mechanic (IRC50046) skilled journeyman level work in the inspection, repair and maintenance of electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, treatment and pumping systems and related instrumentation at the Cosme Water Treatment Plant in Northwest Hillsborough County. Requirements: High school diploma/GED equivalency; State of FL “B” CDL or State of FL “B” CDL permit with air brakes; completed a recognized apprenticeship program (such as Florida Department of Education Apprenticeship or Office of Workforce Education Apprenticeship) in the industrial maintenance field or may substitute considerable progressive journeyman level electrical and/or mechanical experience for technical course work in the public utility or plant maintenance field. Closes: Open Until Filled; $22.56 - $30.34 hourly; See details at www.stpete.org/jobs EEO-AA-Employer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets’ Pref www.stpete.org/jobs

Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. We provide water and wastewater services to a population of over 500,000 citizens and 75 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are seeking highly qualified individuals to fill positions as Section Manager in the Customer Service Division and Senior Engineer in the Engineering Division. The Customer Service division is composed of eight different teams (Billing, Call Center, Cash, Customer Information Systems, Credit & Collections, Development, Dispatch & Meter Services) that work collaboratively to achieve stated goals and objectives. This position will be tasked with leading several of these teams. The Senior Engineer in the Engineering Division will serve in the Water Reclamation group. This position will perform advanced professional engineering work and provide supervision for one or more engineering functions of a specialized nature. Work is performed with considerable independence under the general supervision of a Chief Engineer. Section Manager, Customer Service Annual Salary $73,445 Min, $92,102 Mid, $110,760 Max Senior Engineer, Utilities Engineering Annual Salary $79,310 Min, $97,261 Mid, $115,190 Max Starting salary of external candidates is customarily below the midpoint based on qualifications. Apply online at: http://www.ocfl.net/careers Positions are open until filled Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


Assistant Director Environmental Services (Utilities) $31.79 - $49.29 Hourly/ $66,123.20 - $102,523.20 Annually Minimum Education and Experience • Bachelor’s degree in Administration or a technical degree. • Seven (7) years of utility operations experience. • Or equivalent training, education, and/or experience. • Florida Class “B” Certification in Wastewater Operation. •Florida Class “B” Certification or greater in Water Operations. • Valid Florida Drivers’ license. See website for more details and to apply: https://www.clermontfl.gov/residents/employment-opportunities.stml

Wastewater Treatment Operator Rock Star Wastewater Treatment Operator needed to join our awesome team at one of the fastest growing areas in Central Florida. Must hold at least a Class “C” license and a valid driver’s license. Starting Pay Range: $35,000 - $37,000yr – 10% more if you have a dual license or a Class A or B. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Melissa Tuck. EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

Electrician and Water/Wastewater Operators

Multiple Positions Available! Pasco County Utilities Operations and Maintenance Department is seeking driven, engaged, customer service-oriented individuals to be part of an exciting opportunity working with our rapidly growing water, wastewater, and reclaimed water utility services. Position titles include but are not limited to: Water Operators Wastewater Operators Water Distribution Technicians Water Quality Technicians Utility Workers Special Equipment Operators Plant Mechanics Electricians Pump Station Mechanics SCADA Programmers GIS Analysts Supervisors …And More! Employees of Pasco County Utilities will receive a full benefits package including: Florida Retirement System (FRS) retirement plan PTO (Paid Time Off) Paid holidays Group insurance Tuition reimbursement Deferred compensation Medical leave pool Annual medical leave buy-back Mid-management/Professional grade, and management personnel may receive 40 hours of admin leave per calendar year See ALL positions currently available at: pascocountyfl.net


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Veolia North America is hiring an electrician and water/wastewater operators in the City of Winter Springs, FL. Minimum requirements: Must have FL water or wastewater license for operator openings. Must have electrical & controls skills and experience for the electrician opening. Salary is commensurate with experience and/or license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Please complete an online application at https://veolianorthamerica.jobs.net/en-US/search or email your resume to Paige.Robichau@veolia.com!

Utilities Commission City of New Smyrna Beach, FL - Director, Water Resources The Director of Water Resources is responsible for providing leadership over and establishing the strategic direction of the Water Resources Department, including but not limited to: operational policies and practices, budget, operational performance, identifying opportunities for improvement and resolving discrepancies to maximize the strategic use of the Commission’s water assets. The Director is responsible for the planning, directing, and coordinating of all water production, wastewater reclamation, water production wells and booster pumping stations, lift station maintenance, and plant and field operations activities through designated staff, consultants, contractors, other U.C. departments, governmental agencies, and the general public. The Director also provides input into long-term operational and engineering solutions for Commission water assets. Salary range: $103,946 - $135,130. Starting salary is dependent upon qualifications. Compensation package includes benefits, such as health insurance, vacation time, and retirement. Send resume to jobs@ucnsb.org. Mail resumes to Human Resources, PO Box 100 New Smyrna Beach, FL. 32170, or submit online at www.ucnsb.org/careers. EOE/DFWP

City of Lauderhill Utilities Superintendent - Wastewater Under general direction of the Utilities Director, the purpose of the position is to plan and direct the operation of City utilities including budgeting, safety, operations, maintenance, personnel and other functions. Employees in this position manage complex operations utilizing highly skilled, technical employees. Position is responsible to insure the health and safety of the public by operating facilities in accordance with all applicable rules and regulations. Associate’s degree in engineering, building construction or closely related field; supplemented by minimum five (5) years progressively responsible previous experience and/or training that includes supervision and municipal utilities maintenance, or an equivalent combination of education, training and experience. Special Requirements ~Florida CDL Class B ~Water Distribution Technician A Certification and/or Wastewater Collection Technician A Certification All applications must be submitted online at www.lauderhill-fl.gov! www.lauderhill-fl.gov

News Products The AVT EZ Valve™ from Advanced Valve Technologies offers the best choice for emergency repairs and the smartest solution for planned and emergency pipeline maintenance on 3-in.- to 12-in.-diameter lines. This inline insertion valve can be installed on horizontal or vertical lines. The valve installs on an active line, so there is no need to turn off the water flow, which means that fixing a line is fast, with fewer disruptions to businesses and residents, and less cost and risk for owners and operators. Ranked among the industry’s most innovative solutions, this light and compact valve is designed with a built-in isolation gate that allows the valve to be installed under pressure, a design feature that permits flow through the line while the repair is being made. It’s durable, reliable, and certified to industry standards. (www.avtfittings.com)


The cutters on grinders from JWC Environmental (JWCE) reduce solids by fracturing, tearing, and shearing material as it passes through the cutting chamber in the waste stream. The resulting discharged particle size is influenced by the cutter thickness, number of teeth, and tooth profile in conjunction with the root diameter overlap of the cutters, which ensure the shearing of the material. The cutter thickness influences one dimension of the discharged particle, the second dimension is influenced by the number of teeth, and the third dimension is influenced by the tooth profile (tooth height and shape). For example, a .310-in.- thick cutter will produce a narrower particle than a .438-in.-thick cutter. Additional features, such as serrations, influence the particle-size distribution. (www.jwce.com)


Water Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $50,606. - $77,489. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring a WTP Operator. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a water treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Senix ToughSonic ultrasonic level and distance sensors are used with some of the most sophisticated flood monitoring and water monitoring and forecasting systems to measure water levels from many type of sources. Data collected from the sensors are automatically sent to various systems where the real-time monitoring information can be integrated into an advanced hydrological model. System data and river stage hydrographs are often shared with the public, such as private landowners, to emergency management officials in order to make informed decisions before and during a flood event. Combined with its AirWire LoRa and the proprietary web-based monitoring software, Senix can provide a complete measurement and monitoring solution for a wide range of flood monitoring and a wide range of water monitoring solutions. The ultrasonic sensors are designed to easily integrate with other equipment, including cellular modems, solar panels, on-board clocks, and other equipment. The sensors are also chosen for their ruggedness, programmability, and reputation for excellent engineering support. The entire flood warning systems often depend on the ruggedness and reliability of the sensors, which are potted in watertight stainless-steel housings and operate in 0 to 100 percent humidity over a temperature range of -40 to +70°C. (www.senix.com)


The compact 0.6-meter skid-mounted belt filter press from Bright Technologies has a stainless steel frame and roller construction, radius wedge zone, and wing roller for sludge dewatering. Components include a sludge pump, polymer system, and wash-water booster pump. Options include a sludge flowmeter, air compressor, and discharge conveyors. The compact walk-around skid design can be utilized in as little as a 20-by-10ft floor area. The Boerger rotary lobe sludge pump has a maintain-in-place design offering ease of maintenance. Cake solids of up to 35 percent can be achieved. Rates of 25 to 50 gpm make it ideal for small applications or when a processor has outgrown dewatering containers. (www.brightbeltpress.com) S Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2020


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 35 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January ............Wastewater Treatment February ..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..................Conservation and Reuse May ..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August ..............Disinfection; Water Quality September........Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ............New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ........Water Treatment December ........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index AWWA ACE20 ................................................................................36 American Cast Iron Pipe ..............................................................32 Blue Planet....................................................................................63 CEU Challenge ..............................................................................12 Data Flow......................................................................................54 Engineneered Pumps ..................................................................17 Ferguson ......................................................................................43 FSAWWA ..................................................................................24-29 FWPCOA Region 4 Short School ..................................................47 FWPCOA Training..........................................................................55 FWRC ..............................................................................................9 Gerber Pumps ..............................................................................37 Grundfos ......................................................................................39 Hudson Pump ..............................................................................31 Huma Pump ..................................................................................49 Hydro International ........................................................................5 Infosense ......................................................................................56 J&S Valve ......................................................................................33 Lakeside ........................................................................................7 Orenco ..........................................................................................13 PC Construction............................................................................51 Stacon ............................................................................................2 UF Treeo ........................................................................................53 Violia Tech ....................................................................................21 Xylem ............................................................................................64


April 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. A) All entities that participate in the process of generating environmental data. Per FAC 160.110(2), Purpose, Scope, and Applicability, “Except as provided in subsection (3) of this rule, this chapter shall apply to all programs, projects, studies, or other activities that are required by the department and that involve the measurement, use, or submission of environmental data or reports to the department. This chapter shall apply to all entities that participate in the process of generating environmental data.”

2. B) quality control. Per FAC 160.120(26), Definitions, “Quality control is the overall system of technical activities that measures the attributes and performance of a process, product, or service against defined standards to verify that they meet the established data quality objectives.”

3. B) pH Per FAC 160.300(3), Laboratory Certification, “Laboratory certification by the FDOH ELCP is not required for the following test procedures identified in subsections 62-550.550(1) and (2), F.A.C., when conducted by an operator licensed under Chapter 62-602, F.A.C., or by persons under the direct supervision of a licensed operator, for the purposes of drinking water compliance: (a) Alkalinity; (b) Bromide; (c) Calcium; (d) Chlorite (only at entrances to distribution systems); (e) Specific conductance; (f) Disinfectant residual (includes residual chlorine); (g) Orthophosphate; (h) pH; (i) Silica; (j) Specific ultraviolet absorbance; (k) Temperature; (l) Total organic carbon; (m) Turbidity, or (n) Any analytes in addition to those listed in paragraphs 62160.300(3)(a) through 62160.300(3)(m), F.A.C., that are exempted from laboratory certification according to subsections 62-550.550(1) and 62-550.550(2), F.A.C., for the specific compliance applications described therein.”

4. B) Five years Per FAC 160.340(1)(c), Record Keeping and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Procedures, “Records shall be retained for a minimum of five years after the date of generation or completion of the records unless otherwise specified in a department contract, order, permit, or Title 62 rules.”

5. A) All parties producing data for use by FDEP. Per FDEP SOP FA 1200, Regulatory Use, “All parties producing data for use by FDEP are required to use applicable FDEP SOPs per the FDEP Quality Assurance Rule, 62-160.210, .240, .300 & .320, F.A.C.”

6. B) Draw a line through the error so it is still visible, and initial the marked error and its correction. Per FDEP’s training presentation, Introduction to FDEP SOPs for Sampling and Field Testing (SOP Introduction), “Slide 13, per SOP FD 1000, “Do not erase or obliterate errors on records. Make corrections with a line through the error so that it is still legible. Initial the marked error and its correction.”

7. B) initial calibration verification. Per FDEP SOP FT 1100, Calibration, “After initial calibration, immediately perform an initial calibration verification (ICV). Read a buffer in “read” or “run” mode as a sample. To be acceptable, a calibration verification must be within +/- 0.2 pH units of the stated buffer value. For example, if reading the pH 4 buffer, the result must be in the 3.8 to 4.2 range. Certain regulatory programs may have more stringent acceptance criteria.”

8. C) 10 percent of standard values Per FDEP’s SOP Introduction training presentation, slide 117, “Initial calibration verification with primary standards: • Primary standards are made from known concentrations using laboratory techniques • Verify meter before first time use (factory-calibrated meters) • Annual verification with primary standards thereafter • The instrument readings must be within 10 percent of the standard values.”

9. B) Every six months Per FDEP’s SOP Introduction training presentation, slide 122, “Check comparators every six months with primary standards. • Verify Comparator - Result must be within 10 percent of the standard values.”

10. B) 15 minutes Per FDEP SOP FS 2421, Grab Samples, “This is an individual sample collected over a period of time, usually all in one motion, generally not exceeding 15 minutes. The 15-minute time limit applies to aqueous samples only. No time limit applies to the collection of solid samples (e.g., residuals).”




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Profile for Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal - April 2020  

Conservation and Reuse

Florida Water Resources Journal - April 2020  

Conservation and Reuse

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