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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

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Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Lisa Prieto (FWEA) Prieto Environmental LLC Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

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Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features


4 Study Reveals Americans’ Perceptions of Water 20 Water Use in the U.S. and Miami-Dade County Continues To Decline—Patrick J.

12 Contractors Roundup: Safety in Construction—Lauren C. Atwell 14 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 16 C Factor—Mike Darrow 22 FWRJ Reader Profile—Juan R. Oquendo 34 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Michael F.


33 Hawley to Represent WEF at FWRC 36 WEF HQ Newsletter: The Future of Phosphorus—Patrick Dube 38 FSAWWA Operators and Maintenance Council Scholarship Recipients Announced— Andrew L. Greenbaum 46 News Beat 60 Awards Announced at Membrane Conference


40 FWRJ Committee Profile: FSAWWA Florida 2040 Initiative Committee— Marjorie Craig

42 FWEA Focus—Kristiana S. Dragash

Departments 61 Service Directories 64 Classifieds 67 Display Advertiser Index

Technical Articles 6 Lake City Treatment Wetland: Water Quality Performance and Operation— Scott Knight and Chris Keller

24 Potable Reuse Pilots and Demonstrations: A Review of Flow, Treatment, and Costs—Luke A. Mulford, Emilie Moore, Dave MacNevin, Jennifer Ribotti (née Roque)

48 Wet Weather Reuse Management Needs Wetlands—Rafael Vázquez-Burney

Education and Training 11 15 18 27 31 38 44 45 47 51 55

FSAWWA Fall Conference FWPCOA Training Calendar FSAWWA ACE19 Luncheon FSAWWA Member Appreciation TREEO Center Training FSAWWA Grant/Scholarship CEU Challenge FSAWWA Water Equation FSAWWA Water Landmark Award FWPCOA Online Training Institute FSAWWA/FWEA Young Professionals Event at FWRC 57 FWPCOA Region IV Short School 60 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship

Volume 70

ON THE COVER: The reuse, conservation, and bioenergy project, “Harvest Power Orlando Biogas,” that Florida Aquastore & Utility Construction Inc. built for Harvest Power in Orlando. (photo: Florida Aquastore & Utility Construction Inc.)

April 2019

Number 4

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Study Reveals Americans’ Perceptions of Water The American Public Media (APM) water initiative, The Water Main, has announced findings in a study focused on Americans’ perceptions of water, a topic for which there is little existing research. Conducted in collaboration with APM Research Lab and Wilder Research, the qualitative study offers water communicators a starting point on best ways to engage the public. The research included questions about where Americans see water as connected to their lives, and its importance to society. “The Water Main works to build public will for clean water, which is a topic we believe Americans can unite behind,” said Amy Skoczlas Cole, managing director of the organization. “Until now, we didn’t have much insight into what people think and care about when it comes to water. With the information from this research, we—and anyone else working to communicate about water—can now make this topic more relevant and tangible to their lives. This is an audience-first approach to make sure the work we do reaches people and increases their understanding of, and connection to, water.” Key preliminary findings from this research include: S People connect to water in a variety of ways. The majority of respondents stated necessity and dependence as the first things they think of when it comes to water in their lives. S Respondents reported that the relationship between water and food is almost as strong as the relationship between water and hygiene in their lives. S Respondents expressed a strong relationship between water and the envi-


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

ronment. Just over half (54 percent) of respondents said the most recent media coverage of water they had heard or read was related to an environmental issue. Respondents are, in turn, talking about what they hear in the media. Their most recent conversations about water were often similar to the most recent water-related media coverage respondents had encountered. S Respondents also understood water as relating to topics beyond the environment. The economy, electricity, and human rights also ranked high as societal topics that are strongly related to water. This research starts to point toward at least three categories of core interests and value sets through which Americans can relate to water: S Outdoor Recreation Enthusiasts. Connecting to water through their favorite body of water, science, and heritage. S Day-to-Day Users. Connecting to water through food, drinking water, their careers, and cost of living. S Social Impact Citizens. Connecting to water through environmental issues, societal well-being, and spirituality.

“For me, this study really emphasizes the breadth of ways people derive value from water—from food to hygiene to personal connections,” said Kassira Absar, research associate at APM Research Lab. “It highlights that water connections go beyond environmental concerns.” “The interview questions really prompted respondents to think about the relationship between water and aspects of their lives and society that they may know exist, but don’t often think about,” said Anna Granias, lead study researcher at Wilder Research. “It struck me that more than three out of four respondents have a personal connection to a specific body of water. While the connections to water that the respondents mentioned were often based on proximity, many respondents also reflected on the time spent and memories made with friends and family around these bodies of water. Certainly, this is a positive starting place from which to engage the public in the protection of our water resources.” The complete research report is available at thewatermain.org. The Water Main will use this research to inform its work and share these findings with the hope of sparking conversation about how to make water more visible, relevant, and meaningful to a wider audience. American Public Media is the largest station-based public radio organization in the United States, combining multiregional station operations, national content creation, and distribution in one organization. Its station operations include 49 public radio stations and 42 translators in the Upper Midwest and California. S


Lake City Treatment Wetland: Water Quality Performance and Operation Scott Knight and Chris Keller n much of central and north-central Florida, the landscape is dominated by permeable sands and discontinuous clay layers that overlay the limestone/dolomite Floridan aquifer. The karst hydrogeology of the region makes it home to a large number of artesian springs where water from the aquifer discharges at the land surface, creating clear streams that support unique wildlife and plant species and that are highly prized for the recreational opportunities they provide to the public. Activities that occur on the land surface, such as fertilizer application and the land disposal of


treated municipal and industrial wastewaters via spray irrigation and rapid infiltration, have been shown to contribute nitrogen loads to the groundwater (Elder et al., 1985; Katz and Griffin, 2007) and can result in undesirable changes to the spring’s ecosystems (Florida Springs Task Force, 2000). Withdrawals of groundwater for water supply purposes and long-term rainfall deficits may further exacerbate the condition by reducing flows. The concept of using groundwater recharge wetlands has been gaining acceptance as a cost-effective tool to remove excess nitrogen and other

Figure 1. Lake City Wetland Layout (source: Google Earth Imagery)


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Scott Knight, Ph.D., P.E., is vice president and a water resources engineer, and Chris Keller, P.E., is president and a senior environmental engineer with Wetland Solutions Inc. in Gainesville.

water quality constituents and to direct polished reclaimed water back into the aquifer. The Ichetucknee Springshed Water Quality Improvement Project (ISWQIP) is a first-of-itskind conversion of an existing wastewater spray irrigation site to a groundwater recharge wetland. Treated effluent from the City St. Margaret’s water reclamation facility (WRF) meets current effluent quality limitations; however, the WRF was identified as a potential source of nutrient loading to the Santa Fe River. The ISWQIP was implemented under the Santa Fe River Basin Management Action Plan (BMAP) to reduce regional total nitrogen (TN) loads and provide beneficial recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Ichetucknee Springs system. Specific project objectives included: S Converting the City of Lake City’s wastewater effluent disposal system into constructed treatment wetlands, reducing the system’s TN loading to the Ichetucknee Springshed by up to an estimated 84 percent and nitrate load by more than 89 percent. S Improving water quality by reducing overall TN loading to the Ichetucknee River by up to an estimated 20 percent. S Providing over 1 mil gal (MG) of beneficial recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer each day. This project was constructed in the city in 2015-2016. The wetland began operations in late 2016 and early 2017, with normal operations beginning in 2017. As part of the operation of this system, water quality samples have been collected at 12 locations monthly and used in conjunction with detailed water-level data to develop water and nutrient balances. These data are being used to develop an improved understanding of the water quality performance and treatment dynamics of this system. Water quality sampling between February Continued on page 8

Continued from page 6 2017 and January 2018 has shown decreases in TN from an average of 12.2 mg/L in the inflow to less than 2.3 mg/L at the most hydrologically downstream stations, which is an 81 percent reduction. Furthermore, nitrate concentrations during this period have been reduced from an average of 1.8 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L at the most hydrologically downstream stations, a 99 percent reduction. This article summarizes the design, operation, and performance of the project during the first full year of operation, with recommendations for future similar projects.

The Complexities of Florida Water Florida water resources are characterized by complex relationships between surface water and groundwater. These relationships are particularly important with regard to ensuring renewable water supplies for future use. Of particular importance is the net impact that water users cause through their withdrawals, consumptive use, and recharge. One technique to increase the available water supply is by recharging high-quality water that is not consumed as part of its use. Enhancing recharge has been a major goal of Florida’s water management districts, but the geology underlying the state is far from homogeneous and is instead defined by areas of confinement, with low recharge potential or areas lacking confinement with high recharge potential. In areas with low recharge potential, fewer options exist to replenish the aquifer and much of the nonconsumed water runs off to tide. In areas with suitable geology, however, “leftover” water can be recharged to the aquifer and can be available for other purposes.

Wastewater treatment plants represent one source of centralized and “leftover” water that can be recharged to the aquifer. This recharge has historically occurred through rapid infiltration basins (RIBs) or slow-rate land application (sprayfields); however, these historic recharge methods, although often effective, do not necessarily represent the optimum method of accomplishing the two-part goal of maximizing recharge and improving water quality. Over the past 15 years treatment wetlands have been adapted to provide exceptional levels of water quality treatment, while recharging the aquifer in areas with suitable geology. This process improves on the water quality performance of both RIBs and sprayfields and also provides higher recharge capacity than typically occurs on sprayfields. With design beginning in 2014 and construction beginning in 2015, the city committed to improving water quality and recharge by partnering with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD), and Columbia County to convert a portion of the city’s sprayfields into a groundwater recharge wetland. This project took the largest of the sprayfields (~180 acres) and converted it into approximately 120 acres of wetlands. This project is now having direct positive impacts on the Ichetucknee Springshed and Floridan aquifer by reducing nitrogen loading to groundwater, while increasing recharge. During the first full year of operation, the city sampled water quality in the treatment wetland to facilitate management decision making and to document performance; sampling began in February 2017 and is continuing. The results of this sampling and the annual performance from February 2017 through January 2018 are dis-

cussed, with additional detail about the design and operational challenges.

Design The city sprayfield was initially put into use in the 1980s to dispose of treated wastewater effluent through spray irrigation on pastures; over time, this system was converted from pasture to planted pine. With increasing awareness of nutrient loading to groundwater and a desire to increase spring flows, Florida began providing funds to create projects to further the goals of springs restoration. The city project was selected for evaluation based on a conceptual groundwater recharge wetland design that had been proposed by Wetland Solutions in 2006. This concept recommended full conversion of all of the sprayfields to infiltrating wetlands to provide additional water quality treatment. With the ISWQIP, the decision was made to convert just the largest of the sprayfields to an infiltrating wetland. Based on site topography that included almost 30 ft of elevation difference, the site was divided into nine separate cells to balance cut and fill (Figure 1). The cells were configured to allow for three inlet structures to provide all inflows to the wetland, with one at the north end and two at the southwestern end. Based on site geotechnical work, two primary recharge areas were identified. These two recharge areas were placed in different cells (Cell 3 and 4) based on elevation differences. At the site, topography was generally high near the northern and southern ends, with lower areas in the center and at an existing lake on the central eastern portion of the property where one of the two recharge features is located. The nine cells were designed to take advantage of topography to allow for cell-to-cell flow by gravity, with no pumping beyond the inflow. Because the site is designed to dispose of all water onsite, no surface discharge (with the exception of an emergency overflow) was part of the design. All cell-to-cell structures are sharp-crested weirs between 2 and 5 ft in length, with one or two outlet structures per cell (except the terminal cell, Cell 4). These structures are used to maintain desired water levels and can be raised to capture more water during significant rainfall periods or lowered to reduce water levels for maintenance. Because Cell 4 is the terminal cell with no surface outflow, levels are dictated by the combination of inflows, rainfall, evapotranspiration (ET), and infiltration.

Wetland Hydrology

Figure 2. Water Levels and Rainfall


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Hydrologic conditions during the study period were far from normal. Total rainfall for the site was 70.6 in. (February 2017-January 2018)

and included two single-day rainfall events with totals of 6.7 and 8.8 in. The second of these occurred during Hurricane Irma, which passed over the site in September 2017. To further challenge operations, June 2017 saw nearly 17 in. of rainfall at the site, significantly raising wetland water levels. During 2017, the estimated direct rainfall contribution to the wetland was about 270 MG. Wastewater flows are directed to the city’s lined reservoir from the wastewater treatment facility before being delivered to the wetlands or sprayfields through an outlet pump station. Flows to the wetland were made 169 days during the year and delivered about 365 MG of effluent. The hydroperiod (portion of time the cells held standing water) was 365 days, or 100 percent for most of the cells with short dry-outs (two to 14 days) in Cells 1, 3, 4, and 5. Water levels varied for the individual cells, but generally increased during the wet summer before recovering in the fall to the design water depth (~1 ft). Water levels were initially maintained at about 0.5 ft to encourage plant growth and spreading after the initial planting; this level was then raised as rainfall increased in May and June. The time series of water levels and rainfall is shown in Figure 2.

Water Quality Performance During the first year of operation, the wetland was sampled monthly beginning in February 2017 and continuing through January 2018. Samples were collected at each of the structures between cells and also within the most-downstream cell (Cell 4). The inflow was also sampled when flows were being delivered to the wetland. When inflows were not occurring during wetland sampling events (June and December), water quality data from the city’s WRF effluent sampling were used to indicate water quality for that monthly period. Sampled parameters included temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonium (NH4), nitrate-nitrite (NOx), total phosphorus (TP), and orthophosphorus. The TKN, NH4, and NOx data were then used to calculate TN and organic nitrogen. During the sampled period, major changes occurred in the inflow water quality. Upsets upstream in the wastewater treatment plant initially caused high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus to enter the reservoir, and then the wetland. Inflow concentrations of TN during the sampling varied between 6.2 and 22.0 mg/L, and for TP varied between 0.7 and 4.2 mg/L. The time series of TN and nitrogen species inflow concentrations are shown in Figure 3 and TP and orthophosphorus are shown in Figure 4. Inflow concentrations largely returned to more typical values beginning around July 2017.

Figure 3. Nitrogen Inflow Concentrations

Water quality generally improves at downstream structures as water moves through the wetland cells receiving treatment. For the purposes of estimating outflow concentrations (given no outflow structure), water quality samples at each of the structures entering Cell 4 (Cell 3, Cell 6, and Cell 9), and internal Cell 4 samples were averaged to provide an “outflow” quality estimate. The reason for this averaging is that samples collected in Cell 4 are collected in the large openwater area and have been impacted by wind during some sampling events. The TN outflow concentrations ranged from 0.92 to 4.3 mg/L during the year, with higher concentrations occurring during periods with higher inflow concentrations. The TP outflow concentrations varied between 0.12 and 1.53 mg/L during the year. Removal rates for TN ranged from 78 to 86 percent during the year, with relatively little variation. Removal rates for TP varied from 37 to 94 percent during the year, with the highest removal rates during summer. Inflow and outflow concentrations for TN and TP are shown in Figure 5. The total mass of nitrogen removed in the wetland was estimated by using monthly inflow concentrations and flows to calculate the total mass of nitrogen entering the system. The outflow concentrations were estimated by using estimated infiltration rates by cell to calculate the mass of nitrogen infiltrated in each cell. Rainfall was incorporated with an assumed TN concentration of 0.88 mg/L based on data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP, 2018). Estimated TN loading from the combination of effluent and rainfall during the study period was approximately 41,600 lbs of nitrogen, with removal in the wetland of 30,600 lbs during the 12month period.

Lessons Learned This project, like most, was not immune from challenges. These included constructionrelated and weather-related challenges, and the operational learning curve associated with a new system. Each of these challenges was overcome and the system has functioned as intended, although more oversight was required than was initially intended during the first year. Challenges associated with construction included the timing of construction and the associated wetland planting. The nine cells were not completed at the same time, and to avoid the growth of undesirable vegetation, wetland planting followed the completion and initial filling of each wetland cell. The earliest cells completed were finished in early August, with planting commencing approximately one week later, but the specifications required all planting to cease after September 1 to provide time for plant establishment before the onset of cold weather. Because of the cell completion schedule, the necessity of the site for disposal, and a shortstaffed planting crew, the decision was made to continue planting until late November before being stopped due to freeze concerns. This late planting, combined with documented plant shortages and wildlife herbivory, led to openwater areas that, when exposed to sunlight and warmer temperatures, allowed extensive colonization by algae. This algae in turn fueled a large midge emergence that led to complaints from neighbors. As emergent plant coverage expanded in early 2017, and populations of natural predators caught up, the midge problem was naturally resolved. Continued on page 10 Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Continued from page 9 The second problem the project encountered was above-normal precipitation during the summer that contributed to both increased levels and increased wastewater flows from infiltration and inflow in the sewer system. This additional water, in association with infiltration occurring to varying degrees across the site, led to operational challenges to balance storage at the site. During this period, cells were operated progressively deeper to gain storage. As rainfall decreased in the fall, storage was recovered with careful operation of the wetland and sprayfields. These conditions were particularly challenging given the necessity of the site for disposal and because of deviations from the original concept of recharge occurring primarily in Cells 3 and 4. Based on infiltration esti-

mates, approximately half of the infiltration occurs outside of these “recharge” cells. Other project challenges were overcome by consistent communication, and when necessary, operational modifications. Planting issues were largely resolved through maintaining shallow levels to encourage plant expansion in the spring, combined with localized supplemental planting. Precipitation was managed by adjusting water levels and communicating about the operations to set weirs and inflows to accommodate the rainfall and inflows. Furthermore, the data collected as part of the first year of operations for water levels and water quality provide insight about the system performance that can be used to better manage the system in future years under variable conditions. Finally, this groundwater recharge wetland can be used to guide design and operation of similar future systems, while also

providing improved understanding of expected water quality improvement.

Conclusions The city’s recharge wetland is the first of its kind—a full-scale conversion of a spray irrigation site to groundwater recharge wetlands. This project provides substantial additional nutrient removal within the Ichetucknee Springshed. During the first full year of operation, the system removed an estimated 30,600 lbs of nitrogen from the 365 MG of effluent and 270 MG of rainfall that were treated in the wetland. This treatment occurred despite operational challenges, including new wetland vegetation planting and establishment, above-average rainfall, and the operational learning curve. This technology offers an excellent method to improve treatment, while maintaining or shrinking the existing system footprint and without major operational requirements.

Acknowledgments This project relied on a large number of partners, including FDEP, SRWMD, City of Lake City, and Columbia County. The project design and construction oversight was completed through the collaboration of AMEC Foster Wheeler and WSI, with construction completed by Barco-Duval. This project and the water quality monitoring could not have been completed without the continued cooperation of the City of Lake City. Special thanks go to Hugh “Sonny” Van-Skyhawk, Cody Pridgeon, Bill Fish, David Durrance, and all the other team members who have been involved in this project.

References Figure 4. Phosphorus Inflow Concentrations

Figure 5. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Inflow and Outflow Concentrations


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

• Elder, J. F., Hunn, J. D., and Calhoun, C. W., 1985. Wastewater Application by Spray Irrigation on a Field Southeast of Tallahassee, Florida: Effects on Groundwater Quality and Quantity, 1980-82. United States Geological Service, Water Resources Investigations Report 85-4006. • Florida Springs Task Force. 2000. Florida’s Springs: Strategies for Protection and Restoration. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. • Katz, B. G. and Griffin, D. W., 2007. Using Chemical and Microbiological Indicators to Track the Impacts from the Land Application of Treated Municipal Wastewater and Other Sources on Groundwater Quality in a Karstic Springs Basin. Environmental Geology. 55:801821, DOI 10.1007/s00254-007-1033-y. • National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NRSP-3), 2018. NADP Program Office, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 465 Henry Mall, Madison, Wis. 53706. S


Safety in Construction Lauren C. Atwell

afety on a construction project has always been a debatable subject. Most owners would probably leave it to the contractor. The reasoning behind this approach is an operational issue in which many owners do not feel comfortable becoming involved. This should not be the case. The owner should set the direction for any upcoming project. Past experience of highly successful construction projects has clearly demonstrated that early and active involvement of the owner has a major impact on the safety and quality performance of all contractors on the job. Rules and regulations are ineffective unless they are understood and enforced. Some of the best rules are simple and to the point. For example, the Golden Rule, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” is short and simple, but provides direction for millions. The 1926 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) book on construction regulations contains about 575 pages, not counting other applicable regulations and standards. Because some people must be regulated and because the regulations require enforcement, some will conclude that safety regulations prevent accidents. A major problem with regulations is that


they can become too specific; thus, what was intended to be a minimum requirement eventually becomes a maximum standard. All too often, contractors spend extensive amounts of energy trying to interpret the standard and then try to figure out a way of not having to comply with it. One may conclude that contractors do not care; however, the reverse is true. All too often, the contractor recognizes what must be done, but understands that the bottom-line cost is the single most important factor in selection of the contractor who will be awarded the job.

The Role of the Owner The importance of the owner’s role begins at the start of the project, as plans are formulated; this is when the owner has the most influence over the construction process. It’s of critical importance for the owner to: S Develop a process that provides structured methodology S Ensure that the process is comprehensive and consistent The owner should take responsibility to establish the safety model for the project, setting the safety philosophy and goals. A sound safety philosophy establishes an injury-free vision for the project. The owner should focus on what is desired from the construction project, not on how contractors perceive their responsibilities. The owner must set the standard so that the project team sees safety as an imperative that

cannot be sacrificed. It’s important that all involved in the process understand safety is not a separate issue; it cannot be handled in a vacuum or by many components, but must be incorporated into the process and included in daily work habits. All accidents are a human error, and whether intended or unintended, they are a deviation from an acceptable practice. It’s a fact that accidents can be reduced by instituting appropriate controls.

Setting Goals Safety goals are the guidelines that the owner provides to the construction management team as targets that must be attained. The owner should require goals such as these: S Zero fatalities S Zero disabling injuries S Zero lost work day injuries S Zero fires and other property loss S Zero environmental accidents S 100 percent fall protection on the job An owner should reasonably expect attainment of these goals. They should be achievable, because it’s a simple fact that workers do not want to be injured, contractors don’t want their team members to be injured, and the causes of 90 percent of all acute/traumatic injuries are known. These facts support the belief that the goals are achievable. A “zero” injury rate is the only acceptable and supportable goal; any other established goal leaves the subtle message that accidents will occur and that injuries are acceptable. The incentives for increased involvement are lower cost, quality work, reduced risk of bad publicity, and minimal disruptions of the owner’s employees and facilities. The success of the program will depend on good communication between the owner and the contractor. These communications should include the owner’s safety expectations, understanding of the contractor’s safety program, and effective dialogue at all levels throughout the life of the project. Owners can be successful in their efforts to improve job safety on construction projects and contractors should positively support the owners’ programs. Lauren C. Atwell is chief operating officer with Petticoat-Schmitt Civil Contractors Inc. in Jacksonville. S


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Emergency Planning and Response? Donna Kaluzniak

1. Suppliers of water who own or operate a community water system are required to develop a written emergency preparedness/response plan per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-555, Permitting, Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Public Water Systems, if they serve a. 350 or more persons or 150 or more service connections. b. 10,000 or more persons or 4,000 or more service connections. c. 25,000 or more persons. d. 100,000 or more persons. 2. Per FAC 62-555, the emergency response plan shall include disaster-specific preparedness and response for each of the following disasters: vandalism or sabotage; a drought; a hurricane; a structure fire; and if applicable, a flood, a forest or brush fire, and a(n) a. earthquake. b. hazardous material release. c. lightning strike. d. personnel illness/shortage. 3. To meet the requirements of FAC 62-555, each disaster-specific preparedness and response plan must incorporate the results of what type of assessment? a. Disaster probability assessment b. Response capability assessment c. Risk of failure assessment d. Vulnerability assessment 4. Florida has a formalized system for utilities helping utilities to address mutual aid during emergency situations. This is known as FlaWARN or a. Florida WARNing System for tropical storms. b. Florida’s Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network. c. Florida Water/Wastewater Rescue Network. d. Florida Water and Regulatory Notification System.


5. Per its website, FlaWARN consists of a secure web-based data bank of available resources. To expedite a request for help, FlaWARN recommends having what signed document submitted before an emergency? a. Expense Reimbursement Contract (ERC) b. Mutual Aid Agreement (MAA) c. Release of Liability Statement (RLS) d. Response Guarantee Document (RGD)

9. The Florida Rural Water Association’s website includes emergency response best practices. The site also provides an emergency response plan guide and template for water systems that have been approved by the a. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. b. Florida Department of Health. c. local emergency planning committee. d. state emergency response commission,

6. Per its emergency response website, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) lists significant storm events, like tropical storms and hurricanes, that allows all Florida water and wastewater utilities to report their operational status following significant storm events. The operational status, along with the reported needs of a utility, are used to not only assess storm damage, but to efficiently mobilize resources and distribute aid through FlaWARN. This website is called a. FloodWatch b. HurricaneReporting c. StormTracker d. TropicalStormStatus

10. How does a utility get access to FDEP’s StormTracker website to report its status? a. Members of FlaWARN are automatically provided with access. b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency staff must assign utilities a passcode. c. Utilities must contact their FDEP local district office to obtain a username and password. d. Utilities must contact the state watch office to obtain an access code.

7. Per FAC 62-555, when developing their emergency response plans, water suppliers must coordinate with their Florida Department of Law Enforcement Regional Security Task Force and the a. fire department. b. homeland security agency. c. local emergency planning committee. d. state emergency response commission. 8. Per FDEP’s emergency response website, wastewater incidents or spills that occur due to a storm event must be reported to a centralized phone bank managed by the Department of Community Affairs' Division of Emergency Management, which is operated 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Used to report any emergency situations, it’s called a. FDEP Emergency Operations Center. b. FlaWARN. c. local emergency planning committee. d. state watch office.

April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Answers on page 67 References used for this quiz: • FDEP’s Emergency Response website: https://floridadep.gov/water/water-complianceassurance/content/emergency-response • Florida Rural Water Association – Emergency Response Information website: https://www.frwa.net/emergency-responseinformation.html • FAC 62-555 - Permitting, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Public Water Systems • FlaWARN website: http://www.flawarn.org

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com.

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! April 1-5 ........Wastewater Collection C........................Osteen..............$225/255 8-10 ........Backflow Repair......................................Osteen..............$275/305 22-25 ........Backflow Tester* ....................................St. Petersburg ....$375/405 26 ........Test Retakes ............................................Osteen..............$80 26 ........Backflow Tester Recerts***....................Osteen..............$85/115

May 6-10 ........Water Distribution Level 2 ....................Osteen..............$225/255 6-10 ........Reclaimed Water Distribution B ..........Osteen..............$225/255 31 ........Backflow Tester Recerts***....................Osteen..............$85/115

June 3-6 ........Water Distribution Level 3 ....................Osteen..............$225/255 17-20 ........Backflow Tester ......................................Osteen..............$375/405 24-27 ........Backflow Tester* ....................................St. Petersburg ....$375/405 28 ........Backflow Tester Recerts***....................Osteen..............$85/115

July 8-12 ........Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....Osteen..............$350/380 15-17 ........Backflow Repair......................................St. Petersburg ....$275/305 15-19 ........Wastewater Collection B ......................Osteen..............$225/255 26 ........Backflow Tester Recerts***....................Osteen..............$85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.


America’s Water Infrastructure Act of 2018 Mike Darrow President, FWPCOA

ecently I had the good fortune to attend the Florida Rural Water Association’s annual “Focus on Change” seminar. This program brings together state and county regulators to talk to operators and utility folks about the upcoming changes to regulatory issues in water and wastewater operations and compliance. At this year’s event, one presentation from a Florida Department of Environmental Protection water administrator really stood out. It was about the new America’s Water Infrastructure Act of 2018. I had to do some research into this and I found out that there’s not a lot of information out there yet. The bipartisan bill, approved by Congress and signed by President Trump in October 2018, provides more than $6 billion in funding for water infrastructure projects across the United States, including post-Hurricane Harvey wetland restoration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Drinking Water State Revolving Fund, and hydropower projects. According to President Trump, “This bill authorizes needed funding and tools to enhance our coastal ports; reduce flood risks; restore ecosystems; upkeep our inland waterways, which are in deep, deep trouble, but they won't be for very long; upgrade our dams, hydropower, and irrigation systems; and improve drinking water treatment, storage, and delivery.” This new legislation will help the water industry in many ways, including reviewing aging infrastructure for upgrades or improvements. The new act addresses a wide variety of issues, including: S Flood control S Water resource development S Hydropower development S Ecosystem restoration S Small system technical assistance S Financing of infrastructure improvements S Water supply assessments and communication


dams, reservoirs, levees, shipping lanes, and ports support and promote economic growth, and are vital for our safety and security. This new legislation looks to shore up these areas, which are necessary for our continued prosperity. With the new law, the Army Corps of Engineers will see changes in the way it operates. The Corps is tasked with addressing flood control, water resource development, ecosystem restoration, and hydropower, and it will construct, expedite, and implement over a hundred new water resource projects across the country. These projects will improve the economy, reduce flooding, and enhance water supplies for many areas, particularly in the drought-ridden western U.S. The Corps is also tasked with more flood control projects, and building or rebuilding new dams and levees. It will work with local communities in the central U.S. to mitigate flooding and snowmelt events, and in the eastern part of the country it will address storm and hurricane flooding relief projects or infrastructure rebuilding. Let’s hope the Corps is up for this huge endeavor.

Small System Technical Assistance The new law amends part of the Safe Water Drinking Act (SWDA), which was first passed in 1974, for small systems with populations under one thousand. The law looks to rural America to improve compliance and increase water supply for these smaller areas. A new partnership between the federal government and the states for funding is being created to help with water issues. The federal government will loan funding to the states for the systems that are currently in violation. The law addresses serious Tier 1 violations (a fairly large number) in this small-system category (mainly in Texas, California, New York, and North Carolina) to improve drinking water treatment storage and distribution in small-town America. In the past, many of these systems have been unable to make necessary improvements due to a lack of funding.

The Army Corps of Engineers: Its New Role Water infrastructure is vital to every community in America. Our drinking water systems,


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water Supply Assessments and Communications This area affects most of us working in

water operations and compliance for our utilities. The legislation addresses: S Lead testing and fixture replacement S Consumer Confidence Report changes S Innovative water grant program S Asset management S Risk and resiliency assessments S Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) continuation Lead Testing for Schools The SDWA was expanded to include public schools and their drinking fountains. This update looks to test these fountains and other fixtures for replacements or replumbing if lead contamination is found. The act is also looking to expand the testing to childcare facilities in the future; however, at this writing, I don’t have a timeline. The new program is promoting the “3Ts” system to reduce lead in schools and childcare facilities. The 3Ts tool kit includes: S Training - Public awareness and education training on lead for parents and children and the risk and possible mitigation of lead contamination. S Testing - Develop a sample plan for schools and daycare centers to test water used for drinking and cooking. S Taking Action - After the results are received, taking action for corrective measure to prevent lead contamination. Many schools are already ahead of this and are deeply involved in the process. My Hillsborough County school district has tested every fixture in its school system and is in the process of taking action where it’s needed. The district has done a great job of commutation and replacement. As an operator, I would suggest that you contact your local school district to see how you can get involved. Some schools have licensed water operators, but many do not; these are the ones that need our expertise to help them properly collect samples and maintain their distribution system for water quality. Remember, if there is a lead problem in the schools, the public may be contacting you for answers, so it’s best to get ahead of the situation! More information about this is available at https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinkingwater/3ts-reducing-lead-drinking-water-toolkit. Consumer Confidence Reports For systems serving populations of 10,000 or more, the annual Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) with become a biannual report to the

public (that’s twice a year). Now the report will require more, expanded, and easier-to-read information to be communicated to citizens about their water supply. As of right now, it looks like Oct. 23, 2020, will be the target date for the new biannual reporting. I don’t have the full requirements of the language on this as of yet, as it’s still in development at EPA. There will also be a change in electronic delivery requirements with this new act. Innovative Water Grant Program This new grant is for innovative water technologies that address drinking water supply, water quality, treatment, or security of public water systems served by wells or other source waters. The only limitation I see is the dollars allocated ($10 million) for this program, which I don’t feel will be nearly enough. Asset Management The act will increase asset management programs in water systems across America. The law includes training for operators and utility personnel for guidance and implementation of asset management plans to all water systems within five years of its signing; by Oct. 23, 2023, have your asset plans in place. Risk and Resiliency Assessments Like the previous requirements for vulnerability assessments and emergency response plans in the SWDA, the new law looks to update and further the planning process by including risk and resiliency to every water system serving a population of 3,300 or more. The identification of every risk to every water asset in the system by category includes: S Risk to the system by malevolent acts or natural hazards. S Resiliency of the pipes and conveyances, barriers, source water, water collection and intakes, treatment and storage of water, distribution facilities, and electronic and computer systems used by the water system. S Monitoring practices of the system.

S Financial infrastructure of the system. S Storage and handling of chemicals. S Operations and maintenance of the system. This will have a large impact on most systems across the country. The goal of this planning is to ensure safe and reliable drinking water to all parts of the U.S. The schedule to implement all of this is very tight. Water systems must be self-certified as follows: S Water systems serving a population of 100,000 and up by March 31, 2020 S Water systems serving a population of 50,000 to 100,000 by Dec. 31, 2020 S Water systems serving a population of 3,300 to 50,000 by June 6, 2021 A revised emergency response plan (ERP) will have to be completed based on the new risk assessments for six months after completion, including record maintenance for all water systems serving a population of 3,300 or more. Also, a schedule of capital improvement plans are to be developed based on risk and resiliency funding. There is some technical assistance in the grant proposed under this act that would address all the areas I’ve stated, but at this point, I haven’t seen a funding level allocated. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule This act looks to continue the process of the UMCR and expands requirements for UCMR monitoring of all water systems serving a population of 3,300 or more; before, only systems with

a population of 10,000 and up were impacted. There will be some funding available for this monitoring and sampling, although I don’t believe it’s enough. Small systems will be impacted financially and operationally, so get the funding you’ll need in your budget planning now.

Where We Go From Here Overall, the act looks to improve water system infrastructure across the country, increase compliance, create jobs, and protect our precious water resources and public health. Improved communication and working with the public and your community is the common theme for the act. Public awareness and the flow of information to your customers are critical for the future success for your system. Happy sampling! Check out the resources I used for this article and the signed bill at https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/senate-bill/3021/t ext.

Operators Showcase at Florida Water Resources Conference April is the month for the Florida Water Resource Conference. This year it will be held April 14-17 in Tampa at the conference center, and the technical program will have many sessions of interest to operators. With the guidance of Tom King and Scott Anaheim, this year’s Operators Showcase, an openforum-style discussion on operator issues, will continue its popular run and be held at the conference on Sunday, April 14, from 2 to 4 p.m. in Room 21. This year’s topics include: S First responder status S Succession planning for retiring operators and utility staff S Getting younger people in the utilities industry S Trainee programs S State licensing Feel free to bring other discussion topics and I’ll see you at the conference! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Water Use in the U.S. and Miami-Dade County Continues To Decline Patrick J. Martin In its online article, “Water Use Across the United States Declines to Levels Not Seen Since 1970,” the United States Geological Survey indicates that water use across the U.S. reached its lowest recorded level in 45 years, with thermoelectric power decreasing 18 percent and public water supply withdrawals decreasing 7 percent from 2010; irrigation withdrawals, however, increased by 2 percent. These three categories represent 90 percent of total withdrawals in the country. Like other areas in the U.S., Miami-Dade County is also experiencing declining consumption in water use.

Factors in Miami-Dade County Water Use Decline Per capita consumption in Miami-Dade County has decreased approximately 23 percent, from 180.97 gallons per capita per day (gpcpd) in 1994 to 140.24 gpcpd in 2017.

There are several factors that contributed to this decline. Water Use Efficiency Plan In 2007, the South Florida Water Management District approved the county’s current water use permit, which required the development of a goal-based 20-year water use efficiency plan to conserve 19.6 million gallons per day of water by 2026. The plan is comprised of rebate programs encouraging the installation of high-efficiency fixtures, including toilets, faucets, and showerheads in all county residential, commercial, and hotel/motel lodging properties constructed prior to 1996. This program has proven effective due to the older housing stock existing in the county that contains water use fixtures manufactured before the Energy Policy Act of 1992 mandated minimum-flow volumes as part of its conservation efforts. The plan also contains a landscape irrigation rebate program that incentivizes water use efficiency with in-ground irrigation systems,

both residential and commercial, throughout the county. In addition to rebates, the plan provides free single-family and multifamily high-efficiency showerhead exchanges and water conservation kits to reach as many residents as possible, regardless of income level or residence type. The conservation kits include a high-efficiency showerhead, kitchen swivel faucet aerator, 1-gallon-per-minute bathroom aerator, and leak detection dye tablets. Legislation In addition to the plan, a number of legislative measures have been developed to assist the county in reaching its water-saving goals. These include the adoption of a water use efficiency standard manual, which provides specific code changes regarding high-efficiency flow-rate requirements for bathroom and kitchen fixtures. It provides guidance and recommendations with the intent of achieving maximum water savings in new residential and commercial developments in both incorporated and unincorporated areas of the county. The county also adopted a permanent yearround landscape ordinance limiting irrigation to two days per week. Increased Water Rates While the implementation of a goal-based water conservation plan and legislation contribute to reduced water use, increasing water rates are also a factor. Between 2002 and 2017, the county implemented 5 percent annual increases to its water rates. In 2016, the first water conservation tier was changed from 03,740 gallons to 0-2,992 gallons. This equated to a 20 percent reduction in the first tier, prompting more consumers to fall into the more-expensive second tier. The second-tier water charge is $3.35/1,000 gallons versus $0.37/1,000 gallons in the first tier. Change in Housing Stock Another factor in decreasing water use is the change in the county’s housing stock. Miami-Dade housing stock was traditionally single-family homes, which use more water on a per capita basis than multifamily homes. A February 2018 study by the Water Research Foundation found that water use in the multifamily sector is generally lower than per-unit use in the single-family sector. Development


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

density is statistically important, with more units per acre lowering the per-unit usage rate. Miami-Dade County has experienced an increase in higher-density, multifamily residential construction. Between 2000 and 2017, single-family home construction increased 9 percent, while multifamily residential construction increased 23 percent over the same period. Current county housing stock consists of 54 percent single-family homes and 40 percent multifamily residential dwellings. The national average of cities with multifamily residential building is 25 percent, placing the county well above the average for this housing sector.

Education and Outreach Another component to the county’s water use efficiency plan is education and outreach. The county recognizes that educating residents is essential to creating a culture of conservation and reducing water use. Outreach education is taught at workshops, community events, and in-school presentations throughout the county. Informing youth on the importance of water conservation is an effective way to change behavior from an early age, therefore the county created an annual water-conservation-themed poster contest to reach elementary-age school children, in kindergarten to fifth grade. This contest has proven very popular, with over 4,500 poster entries received in 2018. Winners from the county contest are also entered into a statewide contest sponsored by Florida Section American Water Works Association, with students from the county receiving top prizes in each of the last three years. In 2018, the board of county commissioners adopted a resolution recognizing the link between conserving water and preventing the advancement of salt water intrusion into the county’s primary drinking water source, the Biscayne Aquifer. The resolution required the creation of education materials highlighting this link so residents can understand issues affecting the county and its water resources. In addition to the mandate requiring a reduction in water use as outlined in its water use permit, conserving water plays a crucial role for the county, ensuring a resilient and sustainable water supply for future generations. Patrick J. Martin, LEED® Green Associate, ENV SP, is water use efficiency manager—resilience program, at Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019



Juan R. Oquendo Carollo Engineers Inc., Miami Work title and years of service. I’ve been vice president with Carollo Engineers for 16 years. What does your job entail? I’m a senior project manager and Miami office manager. As the Miami office manager, my main duty is to ensure that all work done in the office is consistent with Carollo Engineers standards, and I’m responsible for implementing business strategies to grow the company’s market share in the area. As a senior project manager, I’m responsible for the delivery of water and wastewater projects in south Florida and other locations, like the Tampa Bay area. I’m also responsible for the technical design and delivery of biosolids projects in Florida.

What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor’s degree in science of civil engineering from the University of Puerto Rico. I am the author of "Saving Money and Eliminating Odors While Dewatering Sludge? No Way." I have also authored the following papers and presentations (with others as indicated): S “Setting the Course for Miami-Dade’s Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant Anaerobic Digesters Rehabilitation.” Proceedings of the Florida Water Resources Conference, Orlando, Fla., April 2014. S Proceedings of the South Florida Water and Wastewater Expo, 2011. S Barksdale, J.; Petrik, B.; and Oquendo, J. “Evaluation of Energy Recovery Options for Converting Aerobic Digesters to Anaerobic Digestion.” Florida Water Resources Journal, June 2011. What do you like best about your job? I love the opportunity to help municipalities and other clients solve their most challenging problems. I also enjoy working for a company with a sole focus in water. By focusing on just water, Carollo Engineers creates a culture that fosters the best of the best in the water industry. This helps me provide cutting-edge solutions to my clients. What professional organizations do you belong to? I’m a member of Water Environment Federation and American Water Works Association and their respective member

With wife, Elsie Nunez-Aviles, at an engineers gala.


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Skiing in the Rockies!

associations. I’m fortunate to be the chair of the FWEA South Florida Chapter and a director of the Resilient Utility Coalition board of directors. How have the organizations helped your career? The success of my professional career is due in part to the help that FWEA has provided me. I became very active with FWEA over 10 years ago while I was still living in the Tampa Bay area. Thanks to the support of the local and state leaders, I rose to the role of chair of the West Coast Chapter and served for two years. The association helped me connect with professionals across the state and the nation. I was also one of the first members who participated in the FWEA mentoring program and my mentor was the one and only Greg Chomic. His passion for the professional organization was very contagious. Today, I’m happy to have accomplished several goals, such as organizing the first Water Festival in 2014 in the Tampa Bay area and founding the FWEA South Florida Chapter. For many years, I was the mentor for the University of South Florida FWEA Student Design Team, and subsequently, the Florida International University FWEA Student Design Team. I met great students who are now part of the professional community and continue to support other young professionals.

Enjoying a nice afternoon on the coast of Greece with the family.

Miami Corporate Run.

Conquering the Costa Rica rapids.

And off course, no family history is complete without a trip to Disney!

What do you like best about the industry? The water industry, in my opinion, is one that is sometimes overlooked by many, yet it’s one of the most critical and important industries in the world. We, the water professionals, work very hard to ensure that we have a healthy society. Without water,

there would be no life. I’m proud to be one of many professionals who dedicate their lives to promote and protect our water resources.

family. I have two daughters: one is 18 and the other is 4 years old. As you can imagine, I am very busy with them. We enjoy traveling and participating in activities together. S

What do you do when you’re not working? The one thing that I love the most when I’m not working is spending time with my

Data Flow

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019



Potable Reuse Pilots and Demonstrations: A Review of Flow, Treatment, and Costs Luke A. Mulford, Emilie Moore, Dave MacNevin, Jennifer Ribotti (née Roque) Significance of Demonstration Plant Capacity The Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department is evaluating construction of an advanced water treatment demonstration facility; however, Florida’s regulations do not provide a straightforward minimum flow capacity for a facility to be classified as a full-scale demonstration. In fact, neither California nor Texas regulations provide specific guidance on the minimum capacity for a full-scale demonstration. This article looks at over 30 potable reuse tests, observing each system’s flow, treatment processes, and cost. Florida has been a hot spot for testing of potable reuse, with more than a dozen Florida utilities (Table 1) having conducted pilots or demonstrations. While many of these projects focused on indirect potable reuse (IPR), utilities are increasingly viewing direct potable reuse (DPR) as a potentially viable alternative water supply. Florida utilities actively evaluating DPR include Hillsborough County, City of Daytona Beach,

City of Altamonte Springs, and Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA). Previous pilot studies focusing on IPR applications may have limited applicability for the more stringent requirements of DPR, since DPR facilities do not have the margin for process upsets that a large environmental buffer provides to IPR facilities. Therefore, a priority for DPR testing programs is to accumulate an extensive body of monitoring data that can be used as a basis of discussion with regulators for setting performance and treatment redundancy requirements for a future full-scale system. The following factors should be considered when selecting the capacity of a demonstration plant: S Produce water of equivalent quality to fullscale facilities S Support development of full-scale design criteria and operational set points S Support testing of multiple technologies to enable a price-competitive selection of full-scale equipment and consumables S Provide access for tours by regulators, stake-

Figure 1. Capacities of Several Potable Reuse Pilot and Demonstration System in the United States


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Luke A. Mulford, Ph.D., P.E., is water quality manager with Hillsborough County in Tampa. Emilie Moore, P.E., PMP, ENV SP, is senior project manager/Tampa area regional manager, and Dave MacNevin, Ph.D., P.E., is principal water reuse technologist with Tetra Tech in Tampa. Jennifer Ribotti (née Roque), P.E., is a project engineer at Tetra Tech in Orlando.

holders, and the public S Available site footprint

Demonstration Plant Capacities Survey of Potable Reuse Test Programs While the terms “pilot test” and “demonstration test” are commonly confused, full-scale equivalency appears to be the primary factor distinguishing demonstration programs from pilot programs. In general, potable reuse pilots tend to have smaller capacities, incur lower costs, and run for shorter durations, whereas potable reuse demonstrations tend to have larger capacities, incur higher costs, and run for longer durations. Pilot plants are more appropriate for lower-cost validation of alternative, innovative treatment trains, or narrowing down treatment alternatives for a follow-up demonstration. Demonstration plants are more appropriate for refinement of validated treated trains, operational training/response, space and visual impact for public tours, observing operation and maintenance costs, testing instrumentation and control, and providing flows in support of downstream testing (e.g., recharge wells, wetlands). Absent regulatory guidance on capacity, the next best approach is to review the precedent from actual potable reuse test systems. Figure 1 shows the capacity of 28 potable reuse test systems (13 “demonstrations” and 15 “pilots”) across the United States from the past 30 years on a logarithmic scale in mil gal per day (mgd). Table 1 summarizes the details of several recent notable test programs for potable reuse and Table 2 provides a graphical summary of the treatment Continued from page 26

Continued from page 24 trains tested by location at pilot or demonstration scale. A review of potable reuse test system capacities suggests that 0.1 mgd is a capacity where other utilities have decided to use the term “demonstration.” Neither Florida or California,

nor Texas, have regulations mandating a required capacity for a “full-scale” demonstration plant. One way to look for the difference in capacity for demonstration plants and pilot plants is to review the size of current and historical potable reuse test systems. While this is not an exhaustive list of every single potable reuse test system in the U.S.,

it’s a large enough sample to be representative of industry views on demonstration capacities. More details about each of these test systems are provided in Table 1, including state, operational dates, treatment trains tested, and program costs. Continued on page 28

Table 1. Notable Potable Reuse Pilot and Demonstration Programs in the United States by Year Started


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 26 Plants Using Reverse Osmosis/Nanofiltration Membrane Treatment Most potable reuse demonstration plant capacities are greater than or equal to about 0.1

mgd, or ~70 gal per min (gpm). The largest potable reuse demonstration facility (8 mgd) is run by the Santa Clara Valley Water District and is known as the Silicon Valley Advanced Water Purification Center (SVAWPC), which uses the advanced treated water for nonpotable pur-

poses. The flow of 0.1 mgd is a significant threshold value for demonstration of reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF)-based treatment trains, since 70 gpm is the approximate flow produced by a full-scale (8-in.-diameter eleContinued on page 30

Table 1. Notable Potable Reuse Pilot and Demonstration Programs in the United States by Year Started (continued)


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 28 ment) two-stage RO/NF membrane system. Both Miami-Dade County and City of El Paso had pilot systems with multiple parallel 4-in.diameter RO/NF skids; however, both systems had large deep bed denitrifying filters at the front of the train, which led to the system capacities being above 0.1 mgd. Nevertheless, among all 26 of the potable reuse tests conducted using RO/NF membranes, the majority of systems (19, or 73 percent) used 4-in.-diameter membranes; three (12 percent) used 2.5-in.-diameter membranes; and four (15 percent) used 8-in.-diameter membranes. Use of smaller-diameter RO/NF membranes is usually preferred to reduce program costs, reduce

system footprint, and simplify operations. Since the water quality performance of 4-in.-diameter membranes is well established, as comparable to 8-in. membranesix, many utilities choose to use 4-in. membranes and invest the cost savings into enhanced water quality sampling, online instrumentation/monitoring, and other program priorities. Plants Using Carbon-Based Treatment “Large” (≥0.1 mgd) demonstration systems are not limited to those with RO/NF membrane treatment. Hampton Roads Sanitation District’s (HRSD) SWIFT (Sustainable Water Initiative for Tomorrow) demonstration system (1 mgd) is a nonmembrane treatment train, with alum

coagulation, ozone, biologically active filtration (BAF), granular activated carbon (GAC), ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, stabilization, and a test recharge well. The HRSD selected nonmembrane treatment for its demonstration plant after piloting parallel membrane and carbonbased treatment trains. The City of West Palm Beach’s demonstration program (0.14 mgd/100 gpm) included high-rate ferric coagulation, deep bed denitrifying filters, and chlorination before discharge to two parallel constructed wetland cells. Below 0.1 mgd, the use of the word “demonstration” may be less linked to fullscale equivalence of equipment, but rather, more representative of a desire to distinguish Continued on page 32

Table 1. Notable Potable Reuse Pilot and Demonstration Programs in the United States by Year Started (continued)


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Continued from page 30 “direct” potable reuse pilot systems (i.e., City of Altamonte Springs [20 gpm], Gwinnett County DPR [6 gpm], Hillsborough County batch system, and Clean Water Services batch system) from the multitude of IPR pilot studies that have been performed. (Note, both Altamonte Springs and Gwinnett County are non-RObased test systems based on ozone and biologically active carbon, which can achieve full-scale equivalency at these lower flows.)

Figure 2. Cost (in millions) Versus Capacity (mgd) of Several Potable Reuse Pilot/Demonstration Program

Plants Using Multiple Equipment Capacities and Multiple Phases Several potable reuse test systems used a mixture of equipment sizes (typically large units, followed by smaller units), instead of a single size for all equipment in the treatment train. Denver Water’s direct potable water reuse demonstration (1990-1991) consisted of a 1mgd lime clarification, recarbonation, and filtration train, coupled with a smaller 57-gpm (0.082-mgd) UV, GAC, RO, air stripping, ozone, and chloramination train. Padre Dam Municipal Water District’s demonstration facility consisted of a 0.1-mgd (70-gpm) free chlorine, membrane filtration, and RO train, followed by a 10-gpm UV advanced oxidation process (AOP). Other test schemes included multiple and similar parallel treatment units (e.g., Miami-Dade, City of Daytona Beach, City of Hollywood, City of Sunrise, City of Tampa), or phased testing of various treatment trains (City of El Paso, City of Plantation, Gwinnett County).

Pilot/Demonstration Program Costs

More than a dozen Florida utilities have evaluated potable reuse through operating short-term, offline, demonstration/pilot facilities. The most recent such facility is the City of Daytona Beach’s 200,000 gal-per-day demonstration test system (pictured), which is the largest such demonstration facility in the state and utilizes full-scale equipment. (photo: Dave MacNevin)


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Program costs were available for several potable reuse test programs, as detailed in Table 1. Program costs (in 2018 dollarsx) are plotted against pilot/demonstration capacity in Figure 2. Both cost and capacity ranged over several orders of magnitude; therefore, it was necessary to plot the data on a log-log scale for better visibility. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to identify the significance of plant capacity and test duration on potable reuse test program cost. Simple linear regression yielded a high coefficient of determination (R2), but was rejected since it tended to overestimate costs for smaller capacity systems. A power model (Figure 2) provided a better estimate of cost over the range of pilot/demonstration capacities. The exponent of the power model (0.678), is consistent with other water treatment models, where the exponent for cost with respect to flow commonly ranges between 0.65-0.75. While actual program costs varied significantly at any given

capacity, this model can still provide helpful perspective for preliminary planning of demonstration plant capacities. Assuming a demonstration facility capacity somewhere in the range of 0.1 to 1 mgd, associated demonstration program costs may be expected to range from approximately $2 million to $27 million; however, at any given capacity, the actual program costs can be expected to vary as much as threefoldxi depending on program specifics.

tion system.


Hawley to Represent WEF at FWRC

References i

http://dockets.sandiego.gov/sirepub/cache/ 2/ly5prp0jqxicc2lunqnycwu5/2216370827 20170 63206241.PDF. ii http://www.mwdh2o.com/FAF%20PDFs/6_ RW_USGVMWD%20Final%20Report.pdf (Page 17). iii http://www.padredam.org/DocumentCenter/View/707. iv https://www.gwinnettcounty.com/static/upload/bac/52/20150804/ap_2015.08.04.Work.S ession.Agenda.Package.pdf. v http://www.hrsd.com/pdf/Commission%20 Minutes/2015/08-25-15_Final_Commission_Minutes.pdf (Page 155 of 229). vi http://files.altamonte.org/PW/AFIRST/Presentation/2015-06-19A-FIRST%20FSA%20 Final.pdf (Page 35). vii Water Desalination Report. 2017. “University Seeks DPR Demo Plant.” Vol. 53. Num. 31. viii http://www.mwdh2o.com/PDF_About_Your _Water/Regional_Recyled_Water_Supply_Pro gram.pdf . ix Mulford, L. A., et al., 1999. "NF performance at full and pilot scale." Journal American Water Works Association ,91.6 (1999): 64. https://www.awwa.org/publications/journalawwa/abstract/articleid/14063.aspx. x Using a value of 10807 for the Engineering News Record Construction Cost Index (ENR CCI) projected via linear regression to June 2018. xi Near 0.1 mgd, program costs varied about threefold, ranging from a lower-cost system (Miami-Dade, $2.1 million) to a higher-cost system (Padre Dam Municipal Water District, $5.7 million). The Miami-Dade system had a larger denitrification filter, followed by several smaller-capacity pilot systems. Near 1 mgd, program costs also varied about threefold, ranging from a lower-cost system (City of San Diego, $8.1 million) to a higher-cost system (Hampton Roads Sanitation District, $27 million). The HRSD system was designed with a more-expensive, permanent building designed for showcasing the project to the public, whereas the San Diego system utilized a lower-cost shed covering the demonstra-

Joan B. Hawley, P.E., will represent the Water Environment Federation (WEF) at the Florida Water Resources Conference, to be held April 14-17, in Tampa. She is a member of the 2018-2019 WEF board of trustees. Hawley is president of Superior Engineering LLC, in Milwaukee. She founded the company in 2002 to provide solutions to preserve the environment, with specific focus on operations and maintenance (O&M) at water resource recovery facilities and collection systems. She has more than 30 years of experience in the water industry in municipal, consulting, and construction, including utility assessment and asset management programs, collection system rehabilitation, resource optimization, and sustainable O&M and capital programs. Hawley has been a WEF member since 1986. She started as a member of the Water Environment Association of Texas and is now a Central States Water Environment Association (CSWEA) member. She became a member of the WEF Collection Systems Committee (CSC) in 1990, serving on its steering committee in 2003, as vice chair in 2005, and chair from 2008 to 2010. She served on the Committee Leadership Council as vice chair from 2009 to 2012 and chair from 2012 to 2015. She was part of the team that restructured the WEF committees for the first time in more than 30 years and has served on many of the association’s task forces. Hawley is the recipient of the WEF and Central States Golden Manhole Award and the 2011 WEF Collection Systems Award. She is also a proud member of the CSWEA Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers. She is a registered professional engineer in Wisconsin, Washington, and Michigan, and has a professional operator class I collections license, grade IV Wisconsin operator license, and professional operators license/ABC in collection systems class 1. She received a bachelor of science degree in civil engineering in 1982 from Marquette University and a master of science in civil engineering in S 1990 from the University of Texas at Arlington.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019



April is Water Conservation Month • Central Florida Water Initiative Conservation Update • Miami-Dade’s Declining Per Capita Through Planning • Implementation of Water Conservation Strategies

Michael F. Bailey, P.E. Chair, FSAWWA

ave you ever noticed that Florida’s population seems to increase after every cold winter up north?! Of course, with the increased population comes increased demand for drinking water; however, Florida’s beautiful natural systems need water, too. Ultimately, utilities implement water conservation strategies, but they may also need to look to alternative water sources to meet the demands. Well, your Florida Section is assisting on both fronts!


Education and Training First, the Water Use Efficiency Division (WUED) of the Technical and Education Council is working hard to promote water conservation and to educate Florida utilities on best management practices that have proven to

help reduce demand and save our precious resource. Led by Deirdre Irwin, chair, and Dave Bracciano, vice chair, the division has produced several activities and programs: S Coordination and presentation of a successful water conservation symposium at the FSAWWA Fall Conference, presenting a number of topics, including: • Tampa Bay Water’s Offset Expansion Program

These presentations can be great “how to” examples for creating or improving a conservation program and allow members to network with their fellow conservation professionals. Other division activities include: S Met with Florida’s commissioner of agriculture to discuss water conservation issues and garnered support from the five water management districts for Water Conservation Month. S Promote and judge FSAWWA’s annual Water Conservation Awards for Excellence at the fall conference. These awards recognize innovative and outstanding achievements in water efficiency throughout Florida. The 2018 winners are shown in this column. S Provide water conservation training that is available to the regions (see map). I definitely encourage region chairs to contact Deirdre at DIrwin@sjrwmd.com to set up training in their regions.

Other Water Sources Second, your section’s Utility Council is working to develop alternative water supplies by partnering with FWEA and FWPCOA to form the Florida Potable Reuse Commission (PRC). The PRC is a consensus-based body of stakeholders representing multiple interests focused on developing technical guidance and a regulatory framework to implement potable reuse as a water supply alternative. The goal of PRC is to meet Florida’s growing potable water demands, while protecting public health and the environment through the expansion of potable reuse in Florida. This effort will be another “tool” from the utility tool box to meet water supply needs due to growth and resource limitations. The PRC convened top engineers, utility directors, state government officials, public health officials, environmentalists, and privatesector agriculture and industry representatives


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

2018 Water Conservation Awards for Excellence winners.

from across the state to develop a framework for the implementation of potable reuse. The commission has held monthly meetings, open to the public, since February 2018 and has conducted two public workshops. The PRC is now completing a detailed report containing recommendations for technologies and techniques to ensure that potable reuse projects protect public health and the environment. The group is also translating these technical recommendations into proposed state policies. Consensus has been achieved for a majority of the recommendations that will be contained in the framework. Currently, PRC is working to finalize policy recommendations on two main issues: 1) addressing emerging constituents (pharmaceutical and personal care products) in potable reuse projects to ensure public safety, and 2) protecting public reclaimed water utility investments in potable reuse projects. Subcommittees have been formed to address these issues and bring recommendations forward to the commission. Other efforts by stakeholders are also currently underway: S Begin the Legislative Dialogue. Briefing Senate and House committees on the PRC’s work and the cutting-edge reuse pilot and demonstration projects already being implemented in Florida. S Public Education and Outreach. Working with stakeholder groups across the state to educate Floridians about the benefits and safety of potable reuse. S Setting the Table for Policy Enactments by the January 2020 Session. Obtaining buy-in from the new governor’s administration, legislators, news media, and an even broader array of stakeholders, with the expectation of proposed legislation for the 2020 session.

Conservation Proclamation Every year, the section and the state’s water management districts ask local governments, water utilities, and other organizations to adopt a resolution or proclamation declaring “April as Water Conservation Month,” and then report this back to FSAWWA. It’s important that your organization add a Water Conservation Month proclamation to the statewide list. Each year, FSAWWA works with the state governor and cabinet to proclaim "April as Water Conservation Month.” By adopting Water Conservation Month and adding your proclamation to the statewide list, you’re letting Florida's elected officials know just how important water efficiency and water conservation

practices are to local governments, water utilities, and other organizations in Florida. The section wants to have utilities and other groups throughout the state adopt this proclamation to get your efforts in water conservation recognized. To get a copy of the proclamation, or to add yours to the statewide list of entities proclaiming Water Conservation Month this year, please email Jenny Arguello at jenny@fsawwa.org. The due date for the proclamations is April 15, 2019. So as you can see, your section is taking a leadership role in helping our industry ensure sufficient water for future generations, while protecting the natural systems and conserving Florida’s very precious resource. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


The Future of Phosphorus A gathering of leaders for biological phosphorus removal and recovery Patrick Dube n January, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) convened the James Barnard Research Forum on Emerging Themes in Biological Phosphorus Removal and Recovery. This three-day forum paid tribute to Dr. James Barnard by celebrating his significant contributions to wastewater processing, specifically focusing on biological phosphorus removal. Three themes emerged from the forum. First, participants set out to discuss the science behind phosphorus removal and recovery to find out how much is known and not known about the process. Second, the forum turned an eye toward future markets and drivers, focusing on the value proposition of phosphorus recovery, including products (phosphorus, biosolids, valuable metals),


services (eutrophication prevention, meeting discharge limits), and global drivers (food products, energy to mine mineral phosphorus). Third, the forum provided an opportunity to look at a broad overview of the environmental effects of phosphorus recovery.

About James Barnard and the Forum As the developer of the Bardenpho, Modified Ludzack–Ettinger, and Phoredox processes for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, Barnard was instrumental in bringing these innovative technologies to water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) around the globe. The forum, held in Austin, Texas, featured leaders in biological phosphorus removal for invited presentations and facilitated discussions. With short presentations and panel discussions, the forum encouraged freeflowing dialogue to examine the past, present,

and future of biological phosphorus removal topics and set the agenda for years to come.

Phosphorus 101 Phosphorus is an essential mineral for growth; however, phosphorus runoff and deposition in waterbodies can cause aquatic dead zones that choke off oxygen to plants and wildlife. This leads to a unique conundrum where there can be no life without phosphorus, yet too much has disastrous effects. Furthermore, global supplies are dwindling, and the world is facing a potential crisis if renewable sources are not developed. A balance must be struck between efficiently using phosphorus, while simultaneously developing recovery techniques. Recovering biological phosphorus via WRRFs can help fill this gap, but continued research is necessary to make it more efficient, reliable, and accessible to utilities of all sizes.

Bacterial Populations and Modeling

Forum attendees pose for a group photo.


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Current knowledge and existing gaps emerged as the first theme at the forum. Presentations dove into the microbial ecology of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), starting with understanding two of the most important polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in wastewater treatment: tetrasphaera and accumulibacter. These two organisms are studied widely, but there remains a knowledge gap about them as researchers continue to try to better utilize them by fully unlocking their mechanisms. The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS), a program started at Aalborg University in Denmark, aims to learn more about these and other organisms by mapping the microbial diversity present in wastewater treatment systems worldwide. Getting people talking the same language by learning more about what options are present

at WRRFs can help determine the most efficient and effective microorganisms. Likewise, models frequently are used to help optimize WRRFs, plan for upgrades, and design new facilities, but the limitations of these models came to the forefront of the modeling discussions as presentations addressed different approaches to unlocking the process dynamics of a WRRF. Each WRRF is a unique system with specific parameters and influent; as such, there exists no one-sizefits-all approach to modeling or treatment. Two approaches highlighted during the forum tackled how to overcome modeling challenges: one suggested modeling individual units within a system, while the other seeks to develop a predictive system relying on process metabolics. Both models are viable options and the presentations set up a further discussion on how to use information gleaned from a model and put it into practice. The discussions highlighted one universal truth: the key to all good models is more data to better understand process dynamics. As more is known about the intricacies of these systems, the models will be more accurate.

Value Propositions Forum participants also examined the value proposition of phosphorus recovery. One of the current pain points in widespread phosphorus recovery is that turning these value propositions into reality requires overcoming current technology bottlenecks and improving industry business models. The key to success is broadening the current value potential of biological phosphorus from only recovered products to the entire ecosphere. When discussing the barriers for real-world application, several ideas were put forth. These included implementing real-time population sensing, developing cheaper and simpler instruments that can be used by utilities of any size, and incorporating phosphorus recovery in all industries, such as food reduction and waste recycling. Additionally, work must be done to develop regulations and incentives that help promote resource recovery, while continuing to educate the public and increase awareness about the potential value. Overall, the tone of the session was optimistic, and attendees agreed that the research and ideas currently being developed were building a much-needed knowledge base that will soon be translated to implementation at WRRFs.

Attendees listen to a forum presenter.

Addressing Environmental Effects The forum also provided an opportunity to look broadly at the environmental effects of phosphorus recovery. Representatives from utilities and government entities who have successfully addressed phosphorus concerns in their regions provided insight on replicating their successes. All panelists agreed that clearly defining regional problems are the first step in beginning to address them; science alone can’t fix all problems. The buyin of local communities and positive public perception often drive success as much as sound science. Without seeing a direct effect (perhaps the project isn’t entirely local or the effects aren’t readily visual), achieving buy-in can be difficult. One example noted the experience of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Chesapeake Bay program. When first started, this program, which aims to clean up the formerly polluted bay, required getting signatures on more than 400 best management practice documents from around the entire region. These 400 individual agreements combined to increase the health of the bay, but individually, they only had a small effect and local communities had to be convinced to help the overall region. Forum speakers recommended changing the effort to translate national or regional challenges into the effects it has on a specific locality. By making it a personal issue, citizens are more likely to connect. Also, involving key, trusted members of a community can further help promote public acceptance. Overall, a clear message tackling a well-defined problem

that community members can engage with is the best way to quickly and efficiently get projects completed locally.

More to Come All participants reconvened at the end of the forum to summarize and discuss the best ways to approach phosphorus removal and recovery—now and in the future. Throughout the next few months, the forum’s steering committee members plan to summarize the event thoroughly and release outcome reports. They aim to capture the entirety of the forum, the current state of the phosphorus removal and recovery science, what recovery needs to look like in the next 50 years, and what research needs to be tackled to meet these needs. In the meantime, the forum’s complete 42-page technical program can be accessed online at www.wef.org/forum. This article solely reflects the personal opinions of the author, not necessarily WEF and its members. It is provided for educational purposes only, and is not intended to substitute for the retainer and advice of an appropriate professional. No warranties or endorsement of any kind are granted or implied.

Patrick Dube is a technical program manager in the Water Science & Engineering Center at the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.). He manages the Residuals and Biosolids Committee and the Air Quality and Odor Control Committee. He can be contacted at PDube@wef.org. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


FSAWWA Operators and Maintenance Council Scholarship Recipients Announced Andrew L. Greenbaum The Florida Section American Water Works Association Operators and Maintenance Council congratulates Steven Beharry and Jaqueline Torres on receiving the 2018 scholarships and takes this opportunity to recognize their hard work and academic achievement. The council's mission is to increase member services to water plant operators, distribution system operators, and water supply maintenance staff through increased opportunities for association leadership, participation,


local networking, and expanded awards and recognition programs. Jaqueline has received her class A drinking water license and works for Orlando County Utilities. Steven has obtained his class B drinking water license and works at Pinellas County Utilities. Jacqueline and Steven have a bright future ahead and limitless potential in their selected professions. Hopefully, their scholarships will be the foundation for future success. Congratulations to them both. Andrew L. Greenbaum is north operations manager with Tampa Bay Water in Clearwater and is chair of the FSAWWA Operators and Maintenance Council.

April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Jacqueline Torres

Steven Beharry

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

Florida 2040 Initiative Committee Affiliation: FSAWWA Current chair: Marjorie Craig, utilities department director, City of Delray Beach Year group was formed: 2007 Scope of work: The initiative began around 2007 as “Florida 2030: A Vision for Sustainable Water Infrastructure” (FL2030) when FSAWWA recognized the importance of working on water issues with a common vision, mission, and voice, and began partnering with other agencies, industries, and officials in response to waterrelated legislation and potential funding. This became a reality by meeting with other stakeholders and gathering input, researching key issues, developing strategies, creating a common message, and providing the information needed to meet the challenges faced by many utilities. The Florida Legislature established the Century Commission for a Sustainable Florida in 2005, based on findings that Florida’s population is projected to double within the next 100 years, which will have related impacts and resource needs for the state. The commission’s first annual report was completed in 2007, which was required to have

[top] FL2030 vision for state water supply report, handbook of white papers, and Florida Water Resources Conference 2007 presentation book. [bottom] Chuck Carden (left), chair of FL2030, at the Florida Water Forum held at the Peabody Hotel.


recommendations for addressing growth management and included dedicated sources of funding for sewer facilities, water supply and quality, and other needs. Recognizing that it was important for professional organizations to plan properly for the anticipated level of growth, the theme of the 2007 Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) was “Florida’s Water Future.” The FSAWWA formed a committee to develop white papers and short summaries that could be used for legislators and those helping to frame the resource and funding needs for Florida’s future. Members of the committee included representatives from utilities, consultants, regulatory agencies, and academia who worked together to develop the papers, which were compiled in 2008 and updated in 2009 as “Florida’s Water Survival Handbook for the Future.” Ana Gonzalez, FSAWWA chair, along with Chuck Carden, FL2030 chair, and his team, held the inaugural “Florida 2030 Water Summit” in November 2009. Facilitated by Wendy Nero, panelists from across the state included representatives from regulatory agencies, the Florida Legislature, utilities, agriculture, environmental groups, and other organizations who discussed and voted on water supply issues and potential options to meet future needs. The following year, FSAWWA partnered with Associated Industries of Florida (AIF), a voluntary association of diversified businesses, and the Florida Water Forum was born. In June of 2013, the legislature abolished the commission, and the FL2030 group began holding an annual water summit at the FSAWWA Fall Conference. In 2017, the committee was rebranded as Florida 2040 (FL2040) and we took a step back to re-

April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

evaluate the critical issues facing Florida’s water future, and how the initiative could provide the best value for our members. Recent accomplishments: To develop something meaningful for our members, I worked with an ad-hoc FL2040 steering committee made up of a variety of people who had been involved in the original effort, along with current and past FSAWWA leadership. My sincere thanks go to those who spent hours with me on the phone and in person, including Ana Gonzales, Kim Kunihiro, Lisa Wilson-Davis, Jason Parrillo, Jackie Torbert, Grace Johns, Jeff Nash, and others committed to the initiative’s continued success. A recommendation on a vision, mission, and path forward was developed and brought forward to the FSAWWA board of governors for additional input and finalization. Although the initiative is not a part of the FSAWWA Utility Council, there is ongoing coordination with the council as a means of staying in touch with current topics and as a resource available to all section councils. The new vision is for the initiative’s members to be the subject matter experts on key industry topics, which are currently identified as: S Water resources S Workforce development S Resiliency These key topics are meant to stay in place for two years as a focus for the initiative, but we are flexible enough that if a hot topic were to arise, it could be added or substituted. Based on the new mission, we developed a list of action items that included a workshop for the 2018 FWRC and 2018 AIF Water Forum, and a collaborative workshop with the Contractors Council for the 2018 FSAWWA Fall Conference, which included breakout sessions with panelists. Current projects: Look for the Florida 2040 logo during this year’s FWRC! Instead of a dedicated workshop at the conference, we have worked with presenters on topics across the technical sessions and workshops that tie into the Florida 2040 key industry topics. Also, the annual FWRC Women of Water Forum will focus on workforce issues, one of the key topics for the Florida 2040 initiative. We will also focus on developing content

for our FSAWWA website and other avenues to provide information, as well as working with the Utility Council on a program for the 2019 AIF Water Forum and the 2019 FSAWWA Fall Conference. Future work: As we grow the initiative, we would like to explore additional opportunities to partner with other FSAWWA councils and organizations and identify and develop other ways to assist the membership. Also, we would like to develop a library of information on the key topics, post it and/or add links to relevant sites, look for social media opportunities, solicit regional presentations, and work with and assist all councils on relevant topics, information, and materials.

The panel for the session, “Florida 2040 Initiative: Defining and Ensuring Resiliency, or What Resiliency Mean to Your Utility?,” at the 2018 Florida Water Resources Conference includes (left to right) Jeff Greenwell, Hillsborough County; Colin Groff, City of Boynton Beach; David Kinnear, Kinnear Process Solutions; Brian Wheeler, Toho Water Authority; Kevin Carter, Broward County; and Rep. Kristin Jacobs, Resiliency Florida. Mike Condran, Electro Scan, and Marjorie Craig moderate the session.

Group members: The ad-hoc steering committee that helped develop the new vision was listed previously. Committee members who have provided ongoing support and input, and have expressed interest in further involvement include: S Mike Condran, ElectroScan S Robert Beltran, Hydro Solutions S Dennis Davis, Wright-Pierce S Jason Parrillo, Hillsborough County S Greg Tayler, Wright-Pierce S Terri Holcomb, Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority S Tyler Tedcastle, Carter|Verplanck If I left anyone off of the list, or if you would like to be added to the committee, please contact me at craigm@mydelraybeach.com. We love new committee members! S

The 2018 AIF Florida Water Forum, “Water Utilities Challenges and Creating a Resilient, Sustainable Future,” with presentations on workforce, climate change, and more, includes panelists (left to right) David Childs, Hopping Green & Sams; Kevin Carter, Broward County; Monica Autrey, Emerald Coast; Lisa Wilson-Davis, City of Boca Raton; and moderator Rep. Holly Rasche.

The 2018 FSAWWA Fall Conference collaborative workshop with the Contractors Council and the FSAWWA Florida 2040 Initiative Committee, “Innovative Opportunities and Funding for Water Resources and Utility Resiliency Challenges” includes (in left photo) panelists (left to right) Richard Whiting, Seven Seas Water; Frederic Brassard, Alma Global Infrastructure; Jay Hoecker, Southwest Florida Water Management District; Shanin Speas-Frost, Florida Department of Environmental Protection; and Doug Yoder, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department. Sylvia Robinson, U.S. Department of Agriculture (at the podium in right photo), speaks at the session. Moderators are Mark Kelly, from Garney, and Marjorie Craig. Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019



Committee and Chapter Events add Value to FWEA Kristiana S. Dragash, P.E. President, FWEA can hardly believe that it’s already time for the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) and my term as president is nearly coming to an end. Looking back on 2018, knowing how incredibly busy everyone is these days, it’s astounding how much value and information we have pushed to the membership this year. In addition to the dozens of chapter events, our committees held five outstanding seminars this year. I was thrilled to be able to attend two of the five and could not have been more impressed with the quality of the presentations and the work done by the committees and chapters regarding the local arrangements. It’s the best feeling to walk into an event and ask if any help is needed, when in reality you already know that the answer will be “no” because the capable volunteers are running the show like the pros they are! I wish I had been able to attend the other seminars that were held,


but hey, that’s okay because the 2019-2020 year is jam-packed with seminars from the Utility Management Committee; Water Resources, Reuse, and Resiliency Committee (WR3); Biosolids Committee; Wastewater Process Committee; and Collections Systems Committee. These events will keep you up to date on the most current industry topics and projects to enhance your professional development. You might even see something from the Safety Committee and our newest groups, the Contractors Committee and the Manufacturers and Representatives Committee (MARC)! This will be another huge year for the association and I have the utmost confidence in our future leadership. To say that working with the board of directors this year serving the membership has been a pleasure is an understatement. The opportunity to serve in this role and work alongside the great minds at the helm of this organization has been an incredible honor. I am so grateful to have this strong network of progressive, inventive, and supportive professionals to call my friends. I’d like to end this article with a few shoutouts to the folks that I saw running around and making it all happen at the seminars I recently attended:

Lynn Spivey (standing at far left), FWEA director at large and director of utilities at City of Plant City, leads a panel discussion at the recent seminar presented by the Water Resources, Reuse, and Resiliency Committee.


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Nita Naik, Ryan Messer, George Dick, Lindsey Short, Tony Pevec, Lynn Spivey, and Jody Barksdale, you are all super stars, as are the rest of the committees that assisted in planning all of the details that you brought to life. S Bartt Booze and Joan Fernandez, I didn’t make it to either of your seminars, but your lights shine bright over emails and I look forward to attending an event you are involved with in the future. I know it will be a success. All of their efforts and contributions to the association and the profession are recognized and appreciated; we are so grateful to have you all as leaders in FWEA. For every person I mentioned here, there are at least two more that I would love to talk about. I could write a whole issue of this magazine about the incredible members and volunteer leaders in this association. My thanks to each one of you for all that you do—I can’t wait to see what you’ll accomplish next! I hope that everyone will stop by FWEA booths 600 and 602 in the exhibit hall at FWRC to say hello so that I can thank you for your membership and contributions in person. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Conservation and Reuse. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You

MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

Rafael Vazquez-Burney (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. The purpose of constructed flow-through surface flow wetlands is to a. reduce nutrient loads. b. store excess stormwater. c. recharge groundwater. d. reduce discharge flow volume to surface water. 2. Florida’s Wetland Application Rule is Chapter _______, Florida Administrative Code. a. 62-555 b. 62-602 c. 62-610 d. 62-611 3. Recently, ________ loads to springs and springsheds have affected their water quality and ecology. a. phosphate b. nitrate c. carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) d. total suspended solids (TSS) 4. Florida regulations promote reclaimed water application to hydraulically altered wetlands in which of the following ways? a. Paying for delivery of reclaimed water on a per-1,000-gal basis b. Authorizing gal-for-gal consumptive use allocations c. Allowing higher hydraulic and nutrient loading d. Relaxing certain reclaimed water quality standards 5. It is projected that the Crews Lake project will remove a. over 7 mg/l of applied total nitrogen. b. 120 lbs per day of applied total nitrogen. c. over 90 percent of applied total phosphorus. d. over 90 percent of applied CBOD.


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Wet Weather Management Needs Wetlands


____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Lake City Treatment Wetland: Water Quality Performance and Operation Scott Knight and Chris Keller (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. Which of the following is not listed as an objective of the Ichetucknee Springshed Water Quality Improvement Program? a. Reduce total nitrogen loading to the springshed b. Reduce overall total nitrogen loading to the river c. Improve groundwater quality d. Increase beneficial recharge to the Floridan aquifer 2. ____________ is defined as the portion of time that the wetland cells hold standing water. a. Wetland cycle b. Hydroperiod c. Inundation period d. Submergence 3. When constructing the cells, large open-water areas were extensively colonized by problematic a. cattails. b. duckweed. c. hydrilla. d. algae. 4. Wetland removal rates for total phosphorus were as high as ___ for the test year. a. 2.5 mg/l b. 4.5 mg/l c. 86 percent d. 94 percent 5. Before its conversion to a constructed wetland, the 180-acre site was a a. rapid infiltration basin. b. slow-rate land application system. c. sod farm. d. wastewater treatment facility.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


News Beat Johnny Edwards, P.E., has joined Neel-Schaffer Inc. to serve as a senior project engineer to assist in the firm’s solid waste engineering practice. Edwards has more than 20 years of experience in solid waste engineering design and Edwards management. He worked for Seminole County for 11 years, where he rose to be manager of the solid waste

management division, and most recently served for two years as engineer manager for the utility engineering division of the environmental services department. Prior to joining the county, Edwards gained solid waste facility design and permitting experience with another local consulting firm. He began his engineering career working for three years as a solid waste facility permitting and compliance officer with Florida Department of Environmental Protection. His responsibilities will include daily over-

sight of the solid waste management operations and staff, negotiations with municipalities and haulers, setting annual budgets, and managing the capital improvement program. Edwards will be based in the Maitland office and provide services for clients across central Florida. “Johnny has outstanding career experience in solid waste facility engineering design and permitting, as well as landfill operations,” said Ron Beladi, P.E., a Neel-Schaffer vice president who leads the firm’s solid waste engineering efforts. “He is a great addition to the team of senior engineers and will be dedicated to our solid waste engineering practice.” Edwards is a licensed professional engineer in Florida. He holds a master of engineering degree and a bachelor of science in environmental engineering, both from the University of Florida.


Gov. Ron DeSantis signed Executive Order 19-12 (Achieving More Now For Florida’s Environment), implementing major reforms to ensure the protection of Florida’s environment and water quality. “Our water and natural resources are the foundation of our economy and our way of life in Florida,” said Gov. DeSantis. “The protection of water resources is one of the most pressing issues facing our state. That’s why I’m taking immediate action to combat the threats that have devastated our local economies and threatened the health of our communities.” The order calls for: S $2.5 billion over the next four years for Everglades restoration and protection of water resources (a $1 billion increase in spending over the previous four years and the highest level of funding for restoration in Florida’s history). S The establishment of a Blue-Green Algae Task Force, charged with focusing on expediting progress toward reducing the adverse impacts of blue-green algae blooms now and over the next five years. S Instruction to the South Florida Water Management District to immediately start the next phase of the Everglades Agricultural Area Storage Reservoir Project design and ensure that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers approves the project according to schedule. S The creation of the Office of Environmental Accountability and Transparency, which is charged with organizing and directing integrated scientific research and analysis to ensure that all agency actions are aligned with key environmental priorities. S The appointment of a chief science officer to coordinate and prioritize scientific data, research, monitoring, and analysis needs to ensure alignment with current and emerging environmental concerns most pressing to Floridians. S


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019



Wet Weather Reuse Management Needs Wetlands Rafael Vázquez-Burney ater reuse systems in Florida are challenged to balance wet weather supply with dry weather demand of reclaimed water. It’s typical for reuse systems to beneficially reuse only half of their annual production of reclaimed water for irrigation. Wet weather flows are disposed of in either injection wells, to never be seen again, or in surface waters, causing nutrient loads and water quality impairments. While other approaches, such as sprayfields and rapid infiltration basins, are available to reuse wet weather flows, these contribute nutrient loads to groundwater and springsheds and are often located near the coast, missing opportunities of groundwater supply augmentation. Wetlands are one of the most important natural resources in Florida. They provide a wide range of ecological and environmental functions. These functions include biological, physical, and chemical processes that take place among water, soil, vegetation, and microbial communities to improve water quality. Capitalizing on these natural biogeochemical processes can result in high-quality treatment of reclaimed water with little energy, which translates into economic benefits for municipalities and environmental benefits to their citizens. Wetlands in Florida have rainfall-driven natural hydroperiods, with high water levels in the rainy season and low levels in the dry season. This natural seasonality works perfectly in unison with excess wet weather flows that occur in the rainy season when there is little irrigation demand, and higher reclaimed water demand in the dry season when irrigation is highest. Florida’s water resources across the state are riddled with total maximum daily loads (TMDL), noncompliant minimum flows and levels (MFL), water use caution areas (WUCA), and other regulatory pressures that affect the importance of proper management of wet weather reclaimed water flows. Treatment wetlands are an ideal approach to turning this liability into a benefit and in compliance with the regulations. Two distinct approaches in wetlands technology are used in Florida: application of re-



claimed water to natural wetlands and constructed wetlands, each depending on locationspecific drivers. Application of treated wastewater effluent to natural wetlands has been used in Florida since the 1970s. Chapter 62-611, Florida Administrative Code (FAC), Wetlands Application Rule, provides state regulations for the discharge of treated wastewater to natural wetlands. This rule specifically promotes the use of hydrologically altered wetlands by allowing higher hydraulic and nutrient loads to these systems to encourage the restoration of natural wetlands. This approach has been implemented throughout Florida successfully with operating systems, such as Poinciana’s Boot Wetlands (1984) and JEA’s Blacksford Swamp (1999). More recently, Pasco County Utilities is implementing this approach for an herbaceous, hydrologically altered wetlands within Crews Lake. This project involves the use of 3.9 mil gal per day (mgd) of excess reclaimed water from the Pasco County reuse system to restore 225 acres of natural wetlands that have suffered for decades from surface water diversions and consumptive uses from wellfield drawdown. The Crews Lake project involves seasonal application of reclaimed water to support the rehydration of the hydrologically altered system and restore native and desirable wetlands communities with minimal construction improvements. Constructed wetlands are also an alternative for management of wet weather flows. Constructed wetlands can be flow-through surface flow wetlands or groundwater recharge wetlands; the flow-through surface flow wetlands typically discharge to a receiving waterbody. The purpose of these systems is to reduce nutrient loads to the receiving waterbody, typically driven by TMDL regulations. Long-term examples of flow-through surface flow wetlands include the Orlando Easterly Wetlands and City of Lakeland Wetlands, both operational since 1987. Groundwater recharge wetlands do not have a wetland outflow, and therefore, contribute to aquifer augmentation. These are located where the confining unit between the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems is dis-

April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Rafael Vázquez-Burney, P.E., is a principal technologist with Jacobs in Tampa.

continuous, and where groundwater use has resulted in excessive drawdown and caused adverse effects to lakes and wetlands. Many Florida utilities are challenged to manage wet weather reclaimed water flows while dealing with regulatory pressures, such as TMDLs, MFLs, and WUCAs. This article explores options and examples that may help utilities to beneficially reuse wet weather reclaimed water flows and turn a discarded resource into a solution with multiple ecological benefits.

Natural Wetlands for Beneficial Water Reuse The University of Florida Center for Wetlands, founded in 1973 by H.T. Odum, was created with the goal to assess the use of wetlands to recycle wastewater. Over the next thirty years, Florida became recognized as the pioneer and leader in the field of wetlands creation and management for engineering purposes. The studies of water reuse using wetlands led to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) introducing a set of rules for water reuse using wetlands. Today, it has been fully accepted as a low-energy alternative to advanced wastewater treatment and traditional effluent management approaches. The rule provides state regulations for the discharge of treated wastewater to natural wetlands and establishes: S The quality and quantity of wastewater that may be discharged to wetlands. S The quality of water discharged from wetlands to contiguous surface waters. It also provides water quality, vegetation, and wildlife standards (providing protection of other wetlands functions and values), and establishes permitting procedures and monitoring requirements for wastewater discharges to wetlands. In addition, the rule classifies wetContinued on page 50

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Continued from page 48 lands based on the level of treatment provided by the wastewater, background hydrology of the wetlands (hydrologically altered or hydrologically unaltered), and the type of vegetation (herbaceous or woody). The rule specifically promotes the use of hydrologically altered wetlands by allowing higher hydraulic and nutrient loads to these systems to encourage the restoration of natural wetlands. The use of natural wetlands to receive reclaimed water has been successfully implemented throughout Florida, with systems in operation since the early 1980s. Figure 1 presents the wetlands in Florida that have been permitted to receive and reuse reclaimed water.

Drivers and Applications for Using Natural Wetlands for Wet Weather Management Hydrologically altered natural wetlands have become a common sight throughout the state due to ditching, construction of canals, and other drainage works that have resulted in the substantial encroachment of upland species and significant reduction in water levels. Furthermore, groundwater use for public supply and agriculture in areas where confinement of the Floridan aquifer system is limited has also

resulted in the degradation and hydraulic alteration of wetlands in the areas of drawdown. The presence of these degraded wetlands within or near local wastewater utilities can provide an opportunity to manage wet weather flows by applying reclaimed water to these wetlands during times of surplus. These wetlands can provide low-cost and robust treatment of reclaimed water, while supporting the restoration of the ecology. For utilities that operate surface water discharges to manage wet weather reclaimed water surplus, it’s likely that TMDLs and nutrient limitations in the receiving waterbody will limit the amount and quality of reclaimed water that can be discharged. These limitations can lead to expensive upgrades to wastewater facilities. Using natural wetlands can eliminate the regulatory burden associated with the surface water discharge and the need to upgrade wastewater facilities by using natural wetlands treatment processes to produce an outflow that is near background levels for nutrients, while also enhancing wetland ecology. Utilities that do not operate surface water discharges can also benefit from the use of wetlands to receive reclaimed water. Many Florida utilities can manage reclaimed water by applying it to rapid infiltration basins and sprayfields, which provide limited water quality

improvements for nutrients; however, locations that can accommodate land application systems are often in areas with transmissive sandy soils and where the clayey layer that confines the Florida aquifer system is limited or nonexistent to allow for aquifer recharge via infiltration. It’s typical for these areas to be located within nutrient-limited springsheds, which are subject to TMDL regulations. This has led to significant regulatory burden associated with the nutrient loads to these springsheds, forcing the implementation of expensive wastewater facility upgrades to reduce nutrient concentrations. The use of natural wetlands to receive reclaimed water can be a viable low-cost alternative to reduce the nutrient loads to springsheds, while providing hydrologic benefits to local wetlands. Groundwater use throughout Florida has caused impacts to local wetlands within the areas of drawdown in locations where the Floridan aquifer system confining unit is limited or nonexistent. These wetlands can become ideal candidates for the application of reclaimed water for the restoration of these systems, while potentially providing some natural recharge of the underlying aquifer through wetland infiltration. Examples of application of reclaimed water to hydrologically altered natural wetlands to support their restoration are now being implemented. The Crews Lake Natural Systems Restoration (Pasco County) and the Bennet Swamp Rehydration Project (City of Daytona Beach) are presented as case studies.

Recent Case Studies for the Use of Natural Wetlands for Wet Weather Management

Figure 1. Map of Permitted Wastewater Natural Wetlands in Florida


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Crews Lake Natural Systems Restoration Project: Pasco County Pasco County has permitted and is planning a project to apply reclaimed water to an herbaceous, hydrologically altered natural wetland within Crews Lake. While all the wetlands permitted in the state of Florida to date have been forested wetlands, the rule allows for the use of herbaceous wetlands if they are hydrologically altered. This project is the first herbaceous wetland permitted to receive wastewater under the Wetlands Application Rule in Florida. During wet weather conditions, reclaimed water flows in Pasco County can exceed customer demand to the extent that the existing rapid infiltration basin becomes limited in capacity to adequately manage surplus reclaimed water. Furthermore, the existing rapid infiltraContinued on page 52

Figure 2. Existing Features at Crews Lake

Figure 3. Site Plan of the Proposed Crews Lake Natural Systems Restoration Project


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 50 tion basins are located within the Weeki Wachee Springshed, which is one of the recent Florida springsheds subject to TMDL regulation for nitrogen (N). The county intends to improve its wet weather management and reduce its nutrient loads to the Weeki Wachee Springshed by using surplus reclaimed water to enhance the wetlands within Crews Lake. Hydrologic conditions within the lake and its watershed have been impacted by many factors in the past, including construction of berms, stormwater management/drainage systems, wellfield drawdown, watershed segmentation, and surface water diversions, resulting in excessively low water levels. A series of earthen berms were constructed in the 1940s to support a cattle operation within the lake bed. The hydrologically altered condition of the north basin is attributed to the lack of flow from its tributaries and nearby wellfield drawdowns. In addition, a sinkhole located north of the berm controls the duration and extent of inundation in the north basin because the channel flowing to the sinkhole is significantly lower in elevation than the proposed restoration area within the north basin. Portions of the north basin have been invaded by pine trees, evidence of a long-term reduction in water levels and a reduced wetland hydroperiod. Use of reclaimed water will help restore hydrologically altered wetlands, hydroperiods of the north basin, and impacted biological communities. To allow for proper hydration and restoration, some work to the lake bed needs to take place to avoid all the water applied being lost to the existing sinkhole. The wetlands restoration area layout consists of an application area constructed using existing onsite berms and adding newly constructed berms. The application area will be created by constructing a berm enclosing a total of 135 acres within Crews Lake. Within the application area, a 4-acre mitigation wetland marsh will be created to offset the wetlands impact related to the construction of the berms. The application area also includes an additional 90 acres of wetlands downstream of the berm, extending southwest from the existing berm to the Pasco County property line, where the water quality compliance point is located. The total footprint of the wetlands application area is 225 acres. Water will be applied through a distribution system and will be conveyed via a pipeline from an existing reclaimed water transmission line. The applied water will accumulate in the Continued on page 54

Table 1. Chapter 62-611, Florida Administrative Code, Versus Crews Lake Design Loading Rates

Continued from page 52 system, evaporate or transpire, infiltrate, or flow to the south basin. Under typical operating conditions, water depths will increase to an elevation governed by control structures during the wet season and decline below ground elevation during the dry season. Figure 3 shows the overall site plan of the proposed Crews Lake Natural Systems Restoration Project. Based on average reclaimed water concentrations of N at 8.3 mg/L and phosphorus (P) at 1.48 mg/L, and the proposed application area, it was determined that the design annual average daily flow (AADF) the system could receive and meet the rule’s aerial nutrient loading requirements is 3.9 mil gal per day (mgd) AADF. This results in a weekly hydraulic loading rate of 4.47 in./wk. The resulting design nutrient loads are 8.9 grams (g) total phosphorus (TP)/m2/yr and 48 g total nitrogen (TN)/m2/yr (Table 1). Water quality performance forecasting of the wetland system was modeled. Table 2 shows TN and TP water quality performance fore-

Table 2. Estimated Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Mass Removal for Wetland System

casts. It’s anticipated that outflow from the Crews Lake wetland treatment system would reach TN and TP concentrations of approximately 1.1 mg/L and 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These are below the rule-required 3 mg/L TN and 0.2 mg/L TP outflow concentration. The project will use up to 3.9 mgd of wet weather reclaimed water from the Pasco County reuse system to restore the 225 acres of natural wetlands that have experienced decades of depressed water levels. In addition, due to the inherit capability of wetlands to improve water quality, this system is estimated to remove 65,000 lbs-N/yr and 16,000 lbs-P/yr from the TMDL-limited Weeki Wachee Springshed. This novel wetland project has turned important operational challenges in reclaimed water system management into a system with regionally significant environmental benefits. Bennet Swamp Rehydration Project: City of Daytona Beach Wetland hydroperiod restoration, nutrient load reduction to the Halifax River, and

Figure 4. Water Levels With Application of Reclaimed Water to Bennet Swamp


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

groundwater recharge were recognized by Saint Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) and FDEP, which provided significant funding to implement this project. The City of Daytona Beach is constructing the Bennett Swamp Rehydration Project to comply with conditions of its consumptive use permit (CUP) to support the rehydration of this hydrologically altered wetland and increase groundwater recharge. The city identified Bennett Swamp as a system that could benefit from the application of reclaimed water. The application area identified for the swamp is approximately 2,200 acres. The swamp in this area is a bay- and cypressforested wetland system. Numerous studies have documented that the system has been hydrologically stressed for several decades. The rehydration project provides a potential environmental benefit to restore the swamp by supplementing natural rainfall with highly treated reclaimed wastewater. This project has been permitted by FDEP under the standard permit criteria of the Wetlands Application Rule. Restoring wetland hydroperiods will significantly benefit wetland ecology and improve wildlife habitat and ecological productivity. Another significant environmental benefit will be the reduction of nutrients discharged to the Halifax River; currently, the city has a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit to discharge up to 20 mgd. This project will also reduce between 36,000 to 72,000 lbs per year of TN and 12,000 and 24,000 lbs per year of TP to the river. The region will also realize a third significant environmental benefit because this project is projected to recharge groundwater at a rate equivalent to the daily consumption of 125,000 domestic users. To determining the appropriate design rate of reclaimed water application, the effect of inContinued on page 56

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Continued from page 54 filtration needed to be assessed. A water balance approach was used to calculate the infiltration rate of this area by considering rainfall, evapotranspiration (ET), and the change in water level. It is estimated that infiltration is approximately 0.5 in. per day, which is considered the rate of groundwater recharge that can be achieved with this project. Due to TMDL load allocations from Bennett Swamp, any increase in wetland outflow could be considered a new load and not allowed. Due to this constraint, an evaluation was needed to calculate seasonal application rates of reclaimed water that the swamp can assimilate into the wetland subsoils without affecting wetland outflows. The water balance approach was used by applying water only during times when the stage is below the levels that cause wetland outflows. To do this, it has been assessed that when water levels get to approximately the 90th percentile level, application of reclaimed water would cease. For this evaluation, the application rate was assumed to be 1 in. per week, but only if water levels are below the 90th percentile level. The results from this evaluation yielded monthly average flow of 0 to 6 mgd, depending on rainfall and water levels; the average flow was estimated to be 4.3 mgd. Annual average flows are expected to range between 3 and 5 mgd, where drier years would result in more reclaimed water able to be assimilated in the wetland. The results from the application of reclaimed water are presented in Figure 4. This evaluation reveals that the reclaimed water application would improve depth and duration to control terrestrial plant invasion, increase median value to arrest hydric soil oxi-

dation, and maintain deep-water habitat, while allowing natural periodic dry-down and constraining maximum levels to prevent increased wetland outflows. This project is an excellent example of beneficial reuse of excess reclaimed water. The multiple ecological benefits of the project provided the opportunity for the city to access multiple funding sources and garner wide regional support.

Constructed Wetlands for Beneficial Water Reuse Constructed wetlands have been implemented in Florida since the 1980s, with the Orlando Easterly Wetlands and the Lakeland Wetlands in operation since 1987. Both were constructed to reduce nutrients and provide a means for managing excess reclaimed water. Reclaimed water wetlands implemented in Florida are either flow-through surface flow wetlands or groundwater recharge wetlands. Flow-through surface flow wetlands are constructed marshes that promote sheet flow through dense wetland vegetation and provide nutrient reduction via microbial activity present on plant surfaces and wetland detritus. Typically, these discharge to a receiving waterbody. The purpose of these systems is to reduce nutrients to the receiving waterbody, typically driven by TMDLs. Groundwater recharge wetlands do not have a wetland outflow, rely on infiltration for continuous loading, serve to polish the water quality of the applied flows, and recharge the local aquifer with clean water. Water quality improvements occur, much like in flow-through surface flow wetlands, via microbial activity present on the plant surfaces and the wetland

Figure 5. 4G Ranch Wetlands Water Quality Performance Forecasting

detritus; however, these also include a treatment horizon in the wetland subsoils that is rich in carbon and is anaerobic. This horizon is ideal for the reduction of nitrate-nitrogen, a common parameter of concern in Florida, as the water passed through it. The first groundwater recharge wetland constructed in Florida is the Wakodahatchee Wetlands in Palm Beach County, operational since 1996. The largest groundwater recharge wetland in the world was constructed in 2017 in Pasco County. This system is a 176-acre wetland, which receives 5 mgd of reclaimed water to recharge the Upper Floridan aquifer within the area of drawdown caused by nearby regional wellfields.

Drivers and Applications for Using Constructed Wetlands for Wet Weather Management Many utilities in Florida rely on surface water discharges to manage wet weather flows. These discharges contribute to nutrient loads to the receiving waterbodies, and it’s typical for them to become a regulatory concern with numeric nutrient criteria as they are subject to TMDL regulations. Over the past decades, regulatory pressure has led to expensive wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) upgrades to employ advanced treatment for nutrients; however, even effluents from advanced WWTFs contain N and P levels that still contribute to nutrient loads to the receiving waterbodies. Treatment wetlands can achieve lower levels of nutrient concentrations than WWTFs, often reaching natural background levels of N and P. Constructed wetlands can be used to polish treated wastewaters before the water is discharged to the receiving waterbody, thus reducing nutrient loads. Furthermore, these wetlands can be sized to receive and treat secondary effluents with little or partial nutrient control from the WWTF, avoiding expensive upgrades to them to implement nutrient reduction. Due to the long retention times and ability to operate at varying water levels, constructed wetlands become a robust option for managing wet weather reclaimed water flows. Short-term increases of flow from the WWTF associated with wet weather conditions (when reclaimed water flows are larger and user demands are lower) can be dampened by constructed wetlands without sacrificing treatment capacity. In fact, wetlands in Florida are adapted to have higher water levels in the wet summer months and lower levels in the dry winter months. Annual reclaimed water flow patterns work in uniContinued on page 58


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Continued from page 56 son with Florida wetlands by mimicking natural rainfall patterns. Not only surface waters are subject to nutrient limitations in Florida. Recently, a great deal of consideration has been given to springs and springsheds. Nitrate loads to springsheds are affecting spring water quality and ecology, which has led to limitations in the ability of utilities to reuse reclaimed water through land application within these sensitive springsheds. This is leading utilities to consider groundwater recharge wetlands to replace rapid infiltration basins and sprayfields to provide a greater level of nutrient load removal to the springshed. Wetlands, particularly infiltration wetlands, provide a great deal of nitrate reduction as water passes through the organic-rich and anaerobic wetland subsoils that are ideal for

denitrification. These systems can help manage the costs of expensive upgrades to WWTFs by providing passive nutrient removal.

Recent Case Studies for the Use of Constructed Wetlands for Wet Weather Management 4G Ranch Wetlands: Pasco County The Pasco County master reuse system is the sole method of wastewater effluent management for the county. This strategy has allowed the utility to avoid expensive upgrades of its treatment facilities to advanced wastewater treatment standards, while sustaining economic growth through implementation of an innovative reuse system. The reuse system receives advanced secondary treated effluent from six water reclamation facilities and serves 12,000

Figure 6. 4G Ranch Wetlands Cells 1-4

Figure 7. Ocala Wetland Water Quality Performance Forecasting


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

reclaimed water customers. Over 23 mgd is reused through irrigation, rapid infiltration basins, and industrial reuse. As the county grew, without proportionally increasing the number of irrigation customers, additional reuse capacity was needed. In 2010, the feasibility of using wetlands to manage reclaimed water was investigated by the county and the Southwest Florida Water Management District. In 2013, a detailed public-private partnership was created to use privately owned land for the project. In 2014, hydrogeologic investigations, including aquifer performance and infiltration testing, were conducted for planning, design, and permitting. In 2015, a design that includes 15 wetland cells, with a total area of 176 acres, was completed. An average capacity of up to 5 mgd is expected. Benefits include recharge to the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers, wetland rehydration, and ecologically valuable wetland habitat creation. The county’s reclaimed water has moderate levels of nitrate. This system is expected to fully denitrify and achieve total N levels near background before it reaches the groundwater (Figure 5). This now-constructed project (Figure 6) includes an ecologically diverse system with areas of shallow, transitional, and deep water that will be operated seasonally to achieve healthy wetland hydroperiods within the cells, as well as maximize driving head for infiltration. This system provides the reuse capacity needed to manage wet weather flows and excess reclaimed water by providing regional and site benefits to water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Since operation began in 2017, the system has received approximately 3 mgd, and water quality results indicate that complete nitrate reduction is being achieved by measuring water quality in the surficial aquifer within 4G Ranch. The Ocala Groundwater Recharge Park: City of Ocala The City of Ocala is constructing a largescale infiltration wetland system by using reclaimed water and stormwater to recharge the aquifer, protect water quality, and recover and enhance flows to Silver Springs. The Silver Springs system is subject to restrictive TMDL regulations for nitrate and has a recovery strategy to help meet its established MFLs. This project supports both nitrate load reductions and recharge to help augment flows in the springshed. In addition to the environmental benefits that drive this project, the city is creating a pub-

lic park, with exhibits related to wetland ecology, hydrogeology, and their connectivity to Florida springs. Hydrogeologic investigation onsite consists of soil borings across the site and the construction of pumping and monitoring wells to produce the site-specific data needed to calibrate a groundwater model that was used to evaluate the site’s capacity to recharge the aquifer and evaluate the fate of the applied water to recover flows in the Silver Springs system. These efforts included innovative applications of a calibrated groundwater model, combined with a wetlands treatment model to quantify recharge, while ensuring the protection of water quality. It was determined that this system will have a capacity of up to 5 mgd and will reduce nitrate levels to background concentrations. Based on wetland treatment performance calculations at rates assessed from other groundwater recharge wetlands in the state, it’s estimated that this system will remove approximately 28,800 lbs per year of TN (Figure 7), while providing 5 mgd of recharge to the Floridan aquifer system. A wetland system of 36 acres divided into three cells to receive 5 mgd of reclaimed and stormwater has been designed and is currently under construction. The design includes organically shaped cells graded in place without the need for import or export of material to construct berms. The design maximizes wetland habitat diversity by creating different ecotones across the cells that range from deep open water to shallow wetlands, islands, and rookery areas. The design also includes an innovative distribution header that controls flows to each cell independently, depending on water levels within the wetland cells. This will allow for seasonal operation of water levels to maximize recharge and wetland ecological value by mimicking wetland hydroperiods that are driven by seasonal rainfall patterns. The benefits to the Silver Springs system quantified for this project led it to be topranked for funding from SJRWMD and secured Springs funding from FDEP in 2018. The City of Ocala Wetland Groundwater Recharge Park will provide far greater benefits to the region than the current practices of disposing of excess reclaimed water through sprayfields by providing far more groundwater recharge and nutrient reduction to the impaired Silver Spring system.

ing wet weather excess reclaimed water often contribute to nutrient loads and do not return water from the hydrologic systems from where they came, causing hydrologic alterations in aquifers and surface waters. Wetlands can provide an approach that maximizes the benefits that can be realized from excess reclaimed water, transforming these flows into a valuable asset. Both natural wetlands and constructed wetlands can create multifunctional and multi-

beneficial projects that can open the door for funding sources and create regionally important improvements to water resource availability and aquatic ecology, while avoiding expensive upgrades to WWTFs and creating nutrient removal systems that require little to no power. Ancillary benefits, such as public uses, green spaces, and park amenities, make this technology an even greater asset to ratepayers. S

Summary Current conventional methods for managFlorida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Awards Announced at Membrane Conference The 2019 Membrane Technology Conference and Exposition, cosponsored by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and American Water Works Association (AWWA), was held in New Orleans at the end of February. During the concluding ceremony on February 28, the following awards were presented: Best Paper Award S “Overcoming Compliance Challenges for Reverse Osmosis Pathogen Removal Using Conductivity Profiles” James Vickers, P.E., Separation Processes Inc.

sults, Model Validation, and Design Implications” Quantum Wei, Massachusetts Institute of Technology S “Studying the Mass Transfer of 1,4-Dioxane in a Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membrane Process” Carlyn Higgins, M.S., E.I., University of Central Florida

Best Poster Award S “City of Post Falls, Idaho: Membrane Tertiary Treatment Pilot Study for Low Phosphorus and Reuse” Ruel Conn, P.E., J-U-B Engineers Inc. Student Best Paper Awards S “Batch Reverse Osmosis: Experimental Re-


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Student Best Poster Award S “Urea Recovery from Fresh Urine by Forward Osmosis and Membrane Distillation" Hannah Ray, Arizona State University Formed in 1972 and headquartered in Stuart, AMTA is a nonprofit, scientific, and educational association dedicated to solving water supply and quality issues through the widespread application of membrane technology. The association's mission is to promote, advocate, and advance the understanding and application of membrane technology to create safe, affordable, and reliable water supplies, and to treat municipal, industrial, agricultural, and wastewaters for beneficial use. Established in 1981, AWWA is the largest nonprofit, scientific, and educational association dedicated to managing and treating water, the world's most important resource. The organization provides solutions to improve public health, protect the environment, strengthen the economy, and enhance quality of life. S


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April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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City of Gulf Breeze Water Distribution Foreman $17.67-20.50 DOQ Full time, permanent, full benefits including city issued take home vehicle and cell phone Visit https://cityofgulfbreeze.us/water-distribution-foreman/ to apply or email vgura@gulfbreezefl.gov for further inquiry.

City of Tarpon Springs Water Treatment Operator B ($36,219 - $58,349/ yr.) Water Division Coordinator ($16.03 - $25.82 D.O.Q.) https://www.ctsfl.us/jobs

Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. As one of the largest departments in Orange County Government, we provide water and wastewater services to a population of over 500,000 citizens and 72 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work.


Apply online at: http://www.ocfl.net/careers FOR APPLICATION/INFORMATION GO TO: www.codb.us/jobs Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


Polk County - Capacity Engineer, PE $33/hr-$49/hr Monday-Friday,8:00-5:00(40 hrs)-1011 Jim Keene Blvd. Winter Haven, FL Professional engineering work responsible for managing Utilities capacity, compliance and permitting projects. This includes management responsibilities.Apply at https://www.polk-county.net/equity-and-human-resources/career-opportunities

Wastewater Division Manager Manatee County Government is now hiring a Wastewater Division Manager Minimum Qualifications: Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering, Environmental Science or related field with a minimum of five years' work experience in the Wastewater or Utilities Minimum of three years supervisory experience. Class "A" Wastewater License or ability to obtain within one year of employment. Valid driver's license with valid Florida driver's license within 30 days of hire. Equivalent combinations of education and experience may be considered.. Work with us & enjoy an excellent benefits package, generous paid time off, pension & more! To apply, visit: www.mymanatee.org/jobs

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

The Coral Springs Improvement District – A GREAT place to further your career and enhance your life! CSID offers… Salary levels are at the top of the industry Health Insurance that is unmatched when compared to like sized Districts Promotions from within for qualified employees Continuing education courses to develop your skills and further your growth Retirement plans where an employee can earn 18% of their salary by contributing toward their future The Coral Springs Improvement District is seeking qualified employees in the following fields Chief Wastewater Plant Operator: Applicants must have a valid Class A Wastewater Treatment license and a minimum of five (5) years supervisory experience in the wastewater treatment facility. The Chief Wastewater Operator oversees and directs the operation of the District’s wastewater treatment plant. Employees in this category possess comprehensive understanding of wastewater treatment plant operations, and are responsible for ensuring compliance with state and federal regulatory standards. Responsible for enforcement of all applicable District policies, rules and regulations, budget preparations, capital improvements planning, staffing and training of personnel, including performance appraisals, and personnel selection as well as ensuring all safety procedures and policies are followed. Salary range $73,292. - $91,083. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field. Water Plant Lead Operator: Applicants must have a valid Class A Water Treatment license and a minimum of 3 years supervisory experience. The Lead Water Operator operates the Districts water plant, assists in ensuring plant compliance with all state and federal regulatory criteria and all safety policies and procedures. This position reports directly to the WTP Chief Operator. Provides instruction and leadership to subordinate operators and trainees as assigned. This position requires experience in nano filtration/reverse osmosis. This is a highly responsible, technical, and supervisory position requiring 24 hour availability. Exercise of initiative and independent judgment is required in providing guidance and supervision for continuous operation. Salary range: $63,000 - $76,959. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field. Benefits: Excellent benefits which include health, life, disability, dental, vison and a retirement plan which includes a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match up to 6%. EOE. All positions require a valid Florida Drivers license, high school diploma or GED equivalent and must pass a pre-employment drug screen test Salaries for the above position based on level of licensing and years of experience. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at www.csidfl.org/resources/employment.html and fax resume to 954-7536328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.


April 2019 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 14 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January..........Wastewater Treatment February ........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..............Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May ................Operations and Utilities Management June ..............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ..........Disinfection; Water Quality September......Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October..........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ......Water Treatment December ......Distribution and Collection

Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

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1. a) 350 or more persons or 150 or more service connections. Per FAC 62-555.350(15), Operation and Maintenance of Public Water Supply Systems, “Suppliers of water who own or operate a community water system serving, or designed to serve, 350 or more persons or 150 or more service connections shall develop a written emergency preparedness/response plan in accordance with Emergency Planning for Water Utilities, AWWA Manual M19, as adopted in Rule 62-555.335, FAC, by no later than Dec. 31, 2004, and shall update and implement the plan as necessary thereafter.”

2. b) hazardous material release. Per FAC 62-555.350(15)(c), “A disaster-specific preparedness/response plan as described in Chapter 5 of AWWA Manual M19 for each of the following disasters: vandalism or sabotage; a drought; a hurricane; a structure fire; and if applicable, a flood, a forest or brush fire, and a hazardous material release.”

3. d) Vulnerability assessment Per FAC 62-555.350(15)(c), “Each disaster-specific preparedness/response plan shall incorporate the results of a vulnerability assessment; shall include actions and procedures, and identify equipment, that can obviate or lessen the impact of such a disaster; and shall include plans and procedures that can be implemented, and identify equipment that can be utilized, in the event of such a disaster.”

4. b) Florida’s Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network. Per the FlaWARN website, “What is FlaWARN? Florida's Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN), is the formalized system of "utilities helping utilities" to address mutual aid during emergency situations. These incidents may be manmade or natural disaster. The project's infrastructure consists of a secure web-based data bank of available resources and a practical mutual aid agreement designed to reduce bureaucratic red tape in times of emergency. The goal of FlaWARN is to provide immediate assistance, as quickly as possible, to impacted utilities by whatever means necessary until such time that a permanent solution to the devastation may be implemented.”

5. b) Mutual Aid Agreement (MAA) Per the FlaWARN website, “The FlaWARN steering committee has clarified that the MAA is not designed to address or settle any and all situations and legalities that may arise. The MAA provides other members with a quick, advance good-faith indication from a responsible party that the utility understands and agrees to the underlying concepts and provisions (including reimbursement) for mutual aid. Having a signed MAA already on file prior to an emergency can greatly facilitate planning and prioritizing by agencies responding to requests for help in time of need.”

6. c) StormTracker American Ductile ........................18 Blue Planet..................................68 CEU Challenge ............................44 Data Flow Systems ....................23 FJ Nugent - E One ......................53 FJ Nugent - Vaughn ....................13 Florida Aquastore ......................21 FSAWWA Operators Scholarship38 FSAWWA ACE19 Luncheon ........18 FSAWWA Fall Conference ..........11 FSAWWA/FWEA YP Event............55 FSAWWA Landmark Award ........47 FSAWWA Likins Scholarship ......60 FSAWWA Member Appreciation 27 FSAWWA Water Equation............45 FWPCOA Online Training ............51 FWPCOA Region IV School..........57 FWPCOA Training ........................15 Gerber Pumps - DiscFlo ............46 Gerber Pumps - LG Sonic ..........59 Grundfos ....................................25 Heyward ......................................35 Homa Pump ................................43

Hudson Pump..............................49 Hydro International ......................5 InfoSense ....................................66 Lakeside Construction..................7 PCL ..............................................29 Reiss Engineering ......................19 R&M ............................................39 Seda ............................................34 Sta-Con ........................................2 Treeo............................................31 Xylem ..........................................69

FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES CONFERENCE ACF Standby................................21 Baxter & Woodman ......................7 e-ris ............................................17 Global Pump................................24 Liberty Pump ..............................14 Raven Lining Systems ..................4 US Submergent ............................9

Per FDEP’s emergency response website, “The department has developed a website called StormTracker that allows all Florida water and wastewater utilities to report their operational status following significant storm events. The operational status, along with the reported needs of a utility, are used to not only assess storm damage but to efficiently mobilize resources and distribute aid through FlaWARN. Wastewater incidents or spills that occur as a result of a storm event are still reported to the state watch office at 1-800-320-0519. For more information on FlaWARN or StormTracker visit www.flawarn.org.”

7. c) local emergency planning committee. Per FAC 62-555.350(15), “Said suppliers of water shall coordinate with their local emergency planning committee and their Florida Department of Law Enforcement Regional Security Task Force when developing their emergency plans.”

8. d) state watch office. Per FDEP’s emergency response website, “Wastewater incidents or spills that occur as a result of a storm event are still reported to the state watch office at 1-800-320-0519. The state watch office is a centralized phone bank managed by the Department of Community Affairs' Division of Emergency Management and operated 24 hours a day and seven days a week. It is used to report any emergency situations, including, for example, oil and hazardous spills, fires, airline, or rail incidents.”

9. a) Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Per the Florida Rural Water Association’s emergency response plan guide and template, “Preparing an emergency response plan is an essential part of managing a drinking water system, and is required by Chapter 62-555 FAC for systems serving 350 or more people. The Florida Rural Water Association has made this template and guide available to assist public water systems in the development of emergency response plans. The template and guide are made possible through a grant and have been reviewed and approved by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).”

10. c) Utilities must contact their FDEP local district office to obtain a username and password. Per FDEP’s emergency response website, “An owner or operator of a utility must contact the local district office in order to obtain the web address for the StormTracker system, as well as a username and password for logging into the system.”

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2019


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Florida Water Resources Journal - April 2019  

Conservation and Reuse

Florida Water Resources Journal - April 2019  

Conservation and Reuse

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